WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher level questions

  1. Effects of Higher and Lower Level Writing-To-Learn Assignments on Higher and Lower Level Examination Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; Ambrose, Michael A.; Pyun, Yea Seul

    2017-01-01

    Our study examined whether brief writing-to-learn assignments linked to lower and higher levels in Bloom's taxonomy affected performance differentially on examination performance in assessing these skill levels. Using a quasi-random design, 91 undergraduate students in an introductory psychology class completed eight lower level and eight higher…

  2. The Socratic Method and Levels of Questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Karilee

    1980-01-01

    Determines if instruction in the Socratic method would increase higher level questioning during peer teaching experiences in teacher education programs. Raters, using the higher order questioning strategy, evaluated 14 students. A significant increase in higher level questions being asked suggests the Socratic Method may be useful. (Author)

  3. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  4. Teaching at higher levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see http://www.aapt.org/programs/rupc.html). Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of £60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials

  5. asking questions for higher order thinking in visual literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous factors such as socio-economic back- ground of .... questions should comprise 40% low-order questions (Knowledge), 40% middle-order questions ... The data obtained from the class participants comprise details of a two-step tea-.

  6. On Productive Knowledge and Levels of Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Thomas

    A model is proposed for memory that stresses a distinction between episodic memory for encoded personal experience and semantic memory for abstractors and generalizations. Basically, the model holds that questions influence the nature of memory representations formed during instruction, and that memory representation controls the way in which…

  7. Biology, Ordinary and Higher Grades, Syllabuses and Specimen Question Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottish Certificate of Education Examination Board, Edinburgh.

    Included is the prescribed syllabus in biology for the Scottish Certificate of Education. In two separate sections, the syllabus topics and specimen questions for final examinations are explained. This syllabus is intended to present biology as knowledge about living organisms without making the conventional division between plants and animals.…

  8. The Top Questions of the Higher Education: Openness, Availability, Elitism

    OpenAIRE

    Solodovnikova, Olga; Tsoy, Galina

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the main features of the university education and their transformation after appearance of commercialisation in the university activities. The changes combined with the globalisation of the higher education and new ways of managing the system of higher education are pointed.

  9. Impression formation of tests: retrospective judgments of performance are higher when easier questions come first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Abigail; Greene, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    Four experiments are reported on the importance of retrospective judgments of performance (postdictions) on tests. Participants answered general knowledge questions and estimated how many questions they answered correctly. They gave higher postdictions when easy questions preceded difficult questions. This was true when time to answer each question was equalized and constrained, when participants were instructed not to write answers, and when questions were presented in a multiple-choice format. Results are consistent with the notion that first impressions predominate in overall perception of test difficulty.

  10. Answers to your questions on high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet contains answers to frequently asked questions about high-level nuclear wastes. Written for the layperson, the document contains basic information on the hazards of radiation, the Nuclear Waste Management Program, the proposed geologic repository, the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility, risk assessment, and public participation in the program

  11. The Deep-Level-Reasoning-Question Effect: The Role of Dialogue and Deep-Level-Reasoning Questions during Vicarious Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Scotty D.; Sullins, Jeremiah; Witherspoon, Amy; Gholson, Barry

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the impact of dialogue and deep-level-reasoning questions on vicarious learning in 2 studies with undergraduates. In Experiment 1, participants learned material by interacting with AutoTutor or by viewing 1 of 4 vicarious learning conditions: a noninteractive recorded version of the AutoTutor dialogues, a dialogue with a…

  12. In-Service Teacher Education: Asking Questions for Higher Order Thinking in Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Visvaganthie

    2013-01-01

    The kinds of questions teachers ask may thwart or promote learner high-order thinking; teachers themselves must have expertise in questioning skills to promote higher order cognition among learners. Drawing on experiential knowledge of assessment, and as an English-teaching professional development programme (PDP) facilitator, I demonstrate that…

  13. Questioning Chemistry: The Role of Level, Familiarity, Language and Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susan; Taylor, Neil; Cameron, Margaret; Syme-Smith, Lorraine; Fortuna, Colette

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on data collected via an audience response system, where a convenience sample of 300 adults aged 17-50 pressed a button to register their answers for twenty multiple choice questions. The responses were then discussed with the respondents at the time. The original dataset includes physics, biology and chemistry questions. The…

  14. In-service teacher education: asking questions for higher order thinking in visual literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visvaganthie Moodley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinds of questions teachers ask may thwart or promote learner high-order thinking; teachers themselves must have expertise in questioning skills to promote higher order cognition among learners. Drawing on experiential knowledge of assessment, and as an English-teaching professional development programme (PDP facilitator, I demonstrate that within the framework of a carefully structured subject-specific PDP, teachers can be taught how to enhance thinking skills in the English visual literacy (VL learning classroom. Guided by an earlier taxonomy of cognition, and using qualitative methodology, the paper analyses data obtained from: (i observation notes and examination equivalents of 40 teachers from various public schools in Gauteng who were engaged in the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE, English specialization programme; and (ii a case study of three teachers by means of semi-structured interviews, and a study of their lesson plans and worksheets.The paper examines, specifically, teachers' choice of texts and questions asked, for English second-language learners for the teaching of VL. It concludes by suggesting that if teachers themselves are first engaged in the cognitive processes they wish learners to acquire, they are better positioned to promote higher order among their learners.

  15. Modelling Question Difficulty in an A Level Physics Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Victoria; Grayson, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    "Item difficulty modelling" is a technique used for a number of purposes such as to support future item development, to explore validity in relation to the constructs that influence difficulty and to predict the difficulty of items. This research attempted to explore the factors influencing question difficulty in a general qualification…

  16. High Level Thinking and Questioning Strategies. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Higher-order thinking is an instructional strategy supported by research. Often referred to as critical thinking skills, it is more than simple recall of facts or information. It is a function of the interaction between cognitive strategies, meta-cognition, and nonstrategic knowledge when solving problems. Higher-order thinking is based on the…

  17. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Evaluate the Cognitive Levels of Master Class Textbook's Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaly, Ibtihal R.; Smadi, Oqlah M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the cognitive levels of the questions following the reading texts of Master Class textbook. A checklist based on Bloom's Taxonomy was the instrument used to categorize the cognitive levels of these questions. The researchers used proper statistics to rank the cognitive levels of the comprehension questions. The…

  18. QUESTION OF IMPROVEMENT OF BUDGET CONTROL AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Vatslavskyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to analyse the current practice of budgetary control to develop its areas of improvement at the local level. The subject of the research is theoretical and methodological principles of functioning of budgetary control at the local level. The methodological basis of the study comprises research approaches, general theoretical principles of scientific knowledge, system of methods and techniques. The paper clarifies the nature of budgetary control at the local level. The main bodies that implement budget control, namely the State Audit Office, the Accounting Chamber, the State Treasury, the State Fiscal Service, financial and management departments are singled out. It is found that the leading part among all of the special budgetary control bodies in the rational and efficient use of local financial resources is performed by the State Audit Office. Analysis of the State Audit Office in three regions of Ukraine for the period 2013-2015 has been carried out. We distinguish two main types of violations that the State Audit Service reveals during its work at the local level: 1 shortfall in the financial resources of public enterprises, institutions and organizations; 2 violations that lead to illegal, non-target costs and shortages. It is proved that the efficiency of budgetary control is low. The paper states basic problems of budget control at the local level, namely, low income funds and reimbursements from violations revealed by regulatory agencies; insufficient work with the public to explain the problems of budget control and eliminate violations in the public sector; lack of a consolidated legal act, which would have regulated all the major components of budgetary control; insufficient use of controlling and auditing methods aimed at determining the effectiveness of budget funds; low preventive function on the part of budget control bodies. We offer ways to improve budget control at the local level through: standardization system of

  19. Higher level WZW sectors from free fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckenhauer, J.

    1996-02-01

    We introduce a gauge group of internal symmetries of an ambient algebra as a new tool for investigating the superselection structure of WZW theories and the representation theory of the corresponding affine Lie algebras. The relevant ambient algebra arises from the description of these conformal field theories in terms of free fermions. As an illustration we analyze in detail the so(N) WZW theories at level two. In this case there is actually a homorphism from the representation ring of the gauge group to the WZW fusion ring, even though the level-two observable algebra is smaller than the gauge invariant subalgebra of the field algebra. (orig.)

  20. The future of very low level radioactive wastes in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled that nuclear plants produce various radioactive wastes, that the Cigeo project is the proposed solution to store these radioactive wastes, this article more particularly addresses the issue of very low level radioactive wastes which are now the main matter of concern for the IRSN as their quantity is expected to increase during the years to come (notably in relationship with nuclear reactor lifetime extension), and as present storage capacities will soon be saturated. The author first outlines that these wastes are not very dangerous but very cumbersome. Among these so-defined 'very low level' wastes, 30 to 50 per cent could be considered as harmless, but are now processed as dangerous wastes through costly processes. Various possibilities are then envisaged such as a diversification of storage options

  1. Decreased Circulating Levels of APRIL: Questioning Its Role in Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carvalho-Santos

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects over 382 million people worldwide. Type-1 Diabetes (T1D is classified as an autoimmune disease that results from pancreatic β-cell destruction and insulin deficiency. Type-2 Diabetes (T2D is characterized principally by insulin resistance in target tissues followed by decreased insulin production due to β-cell failure. It is challenging to identify immunological markers such as inflammatory molecules that are triggered in response to changes during the pathogenesis of diabetes. APRIL is an important member of the TNF family and has been linked to chronic inflammatory processes of various diseases since its discovery in 1998. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate APRIL serum levels in T1D and T2D. For this, we used the ELISA assay to measure serum APRIL levels of 33 T1D and 30 T2D patients, and non-diabetic subjects as control group. Our data showed a decrease in serum APRIL levels in T1D patients when compared with healthy individuals. The same pattern was observed in the group of T2D patients when compared with the control. The decrease of serum APRIL levels in diabetic patients suggests that this cytokine has a role in T1D and T2D. Diabetes is already considered as an inflammatory condition with different cytokines being implicated in its physiopathology. Our data suggest that APRIL can be considered as a potential modulating cytokine in the inflammatory process of diabetes.

  2. Provocative questions in parochial sex education classes: higher incidence in younger students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan; Breuner, Cora C; Lozano, Paula

    2008-10-01

    Recent data show US adolescents are engaging in sexual activity at earlier ages; however, little is known about young teens' sexual attitudes and behaviors. Examining teens' questions in sex education classes may provide insight into these attitudes and behaviors. Quasi cohort study Parochial middle school sex education classes 5(th) through 8(th) graders Students' anonymous written questions submitted at the outset of sex education classes between 2003 and 2005. Questions were classified into topic categories. Three additional variables were then coded for each question. Ethics/guidance questions included requests for advice or value judgments. Prohibited questions included the topics homosexuality, abortion, masturbation, and contraception. "Red flag" questions were those that suggested consideration of or engagement in sexual behavior. Among 473 questions submitted by 410 students, the most popular topics for 5(th)/6(th) graders were pregnancy and puberty, and for 7(th)/8(th) graders puberty and menstruation. 41 questions (8.6%) were prohibited. 29 questions (6.2%) asked about ethics/guidance. 18 questions (3.81%) were coded as red flag questions. A chi-square analysis showed that 5(th)/6(th) graders asked more questions in the ethics/guidance (8.3% versus 3.64%) and red flag question categories (5.53% versus 1.82%) (P < 0.05) than 7(th)/8(th) graders. Although provocative questions represent a minority of these middle students' queries, these requests suggest the urgency of providing appropriate guidance to young teens, given the risks of early sexual activity. The role of school education programs, physicians and parents in addressing questions of this sort should be considered.

  3. Questioning the Role of Internationalization in the Nationalization of Higher Education: The Impact of the EU TEMPUS Programme on Higher Education in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Massoud, Hiba K.

    2011-01-01

    Given the need for major reform of the higher education programmes in Syria, and answering the voices that question the role of European Union (EU) in assisting the development of the higher education sector, this study presents an analysis of the contribution of (TEMPUS) Programme in modernising higher education in Syria. The study compares the…

  4. Effects of Regulatory Self-Questioning on Secondary-Level Students' Problem-Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Michael L.; Miller, Greg

    2011-01-01

    A randomized posttest-only control group experimental design was used to determine the effects of regulatory self-questioning on secondary-level career and technical education students' electrical circuit theory test scores. Students who participated in the self-questioning group were asked to answer a list of regulatory questions as they solved…

  5. Classification of SBS Mathematics Questions between 2008-2013 years with Respect to PISA Competency Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Aydoğdu İskenderoğlu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of the education is students are ready to make the conditions of the age in which they live. From this perspective approach of mathematics education changed in our age looking for answers to the question as instead of "what we teach them?", "How they use our teaching which their life?". In other words, the main purpose of education is our students collected under the mathematical literacy. Then teach them which students' knowledge which use in everyday life, to make logical inferences, interpret and solve problems related to the various situations. The purpose of this study was implemented in our country between the years of 2008-2013 SBS questions examined and categorized according to the scale which PISA mathematics proficiency. In this study, data was collected using qualitative research techniques, document analysis methods of data collection. The results of the study, the questions examined in this study all levels of math exams in 2008-2013 SBS was not appropriate questions. Questions in general 2, 3 and 4 levels of which they are located, exams include just one question which is the highest level of 5 and there have not been any questions level 6. SBS administered by the Ministry of National Education thought-provoking the absence of the upper levels questions. For this reason, math questions of SBS should be every level and be prepared questions reconsideration measurement is recommended.Key Words: PISA, Mathematics competency levels, Mathematics competency scale, Mathematics problems of SBS

  6. Chaos Theory & Higher Education: Leadership, Planning, & Policy. Higher Education: Questions about the Purpose(s) of Colleges & Universities. Volume 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Marc, Ed.

    This anthology considers some ways that chaos theory might be not only a descriptive metaphor for the conditions of leadership, planning, and policy in higher education, but also a prescriptive metaphor that might be used to improve these functions and others. The essays are: (1) "Introduction: Metaphor, Chaos Theory, and This Book" (Marc…

  7. The Application of Question Levels in the Teaching of Year One Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Tajularipin; Noordin, Nooreen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the extent to which teachers use question levels in the teaching of investigation skills. Six question levels based on Bloom's Taxonomy (1956) were examined in this study which included knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation and affective as well (Ghazali Mustapha, 1998).…

  8. How Are Questions That Students Ask in High Level Mathematics Classes Linked to General Giftedness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Roza; Koichu, Boris; Berman, Avi; Dinur, Sariga

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a part of a larger study, in which we asked "How are learning and teaching of mathematics at high level linked to students' general giftedness?" We consider asking questions, especially student-generated questions, as indicators of quality of instructional interactions. In the part of the study presented in this…

  9. Coercion, Possibility, or Context? Questioning the Role of Private Foundations in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Kofi, Nana

    2010-01-01

    As an academic, I grapple with the role of private foundations in higher education; on the one hand, as a critical scholar-activist committed to radical social and economic change, and on the other hand, as a participant in foundation-funded academic projects. I recognize the contradictory position I occupy within an institution that has…

  10. Generating Ethnographic Research Questions: An Anthropological Contribution to the Study of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology,…

  11. Planning of questions for various level of reading of textbooks for early grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Haxhijaha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the entire history of education, questioning has been one of the usual techniques of teaching. Despite all the changes in the education theory and technology, this technique continues to be usual, because it is an efficient tool to increase learning. Questioning is an interactive relation, which enlivens the conversation, by giving continuity to the finding of final result. Questioning should be assessed as a technique, which gives high results, when it is managed successfully and with attention towards the teacher, playing meanwhile an important role during the learning of students. Through various planed activities, I tried to influence teachers in order to plan as many questions as possible, for the development of student’s critical thinking. Taking into account the development of further activities I focused in the results extracted from the data gained from the observation of teachers, target group, consultations with teachers, and took into consideration various literature which considered this issue. This research included five teachers that teach in classes 1-5, in the ELSS “Emin Duraku” in Prizren/Kosovo. Observation consisted of two periods. Results of the first period of observation showed that while preparing the teaching work, specifically planning of questions I noticed that a big number were direct questions with a low level of thinking. The research continued by maintaining the target group focused where important discussions were held about the importance of planning the questions of different levels that helped students to understand what they read and also contributed to the increasing of their interest for reading-understanding of various school texts. Then the second period of observation was conducted. Results showed that there were differences in the planning of questions by teachers, compared to the results of the first period of observation. Conclusions of this operational research showed that students can

  12. The Target of the Question: A Taxonomy of Textual Features for Cambridge University "O" Levels English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Shanti Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the typical textual features that are most frequently targeted in short-answer reading comprehension questions of the Cambridge University "O" Level English Paper 2. Test writers' awareness of how textual features impact on understanding of meanings in text decisions will determine to great extent their decisions…

  13. Process-oriented guided inquiry learning strategy enhances students' higher level thinking skills in a pharmaceutical sciences course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Robert; Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany

    2015-02-17

    To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting.

  14. PRE-SERVICE MATHEMATICS TEACHERS’ CONCEPTION OF HIGHER-ORDER THINKING LEVEL IN BLOOM'S TAXONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Damianus D Samo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore pre-service mathematics teachers' conception of higher-order thinking in Bloom's Taxonomy, to explore pre-service mathematics teachers' ability in categorizing six cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy as lower-order thinking and higher-order thinking, and pre-service mathematics teachers' ability in identifying some questionable items as lower-order and higher-order thinking. The higher-order thinking is the type of non-algorithm thinking which include ...

  15. Seeking a Higher Level of Arts Integration across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou-Zormpala, Marina

    2016-01-01

    To seek a higher level of arts integration across the education curriculum, I investigated designs of teaching through arts activities that would motivate educators to adopt the spirit of "aesthetic teaching." Two different designs were tested, with the second as a continuation of the first. Each ascribes a different educational role to…

  16. Radio frequency plasma nitriding of aluminium at higher power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gredelj, Sabina; Kumar, Sunil; Gerson, Andrea R.; Cavallaro, Giuseppe P.

    2006-01-01

    Nitriding of aluminium 2011 using a radio frequency plasma at higher power levels (500 and 700 W) and lower substrate temperature (500 deg. C) resulted in higher AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios than obtained at 100 W and 575 deg. C. AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios derived from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis (and corroborated by heavy ion elastic recoil time of flight spectrometry) for treatments preformed at 100 (575 deg. C), 500 (500 deg. C) and 700 W (500 deg. C) were 1.0, 1.5 and 3.3, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that plasma nitrided surfaces obtained at higher power levels exhibited much finer nodular morphology than obtained at 100 W

  17. Generation of priority research questions to inform conservation policy and management at a national level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A; Beazley, Karen F; Cooke, Steven J; Fleishman, Erica; Lane, Daniel E; Mascia, Michael B; Roth, Robin; Tabor, Gary; Bakker, Jiselle A; Bellefontaine, Teresa; Berteaux, Dominique; Cantin, Bernard; Chaulk, Keith G; Cunningham, Kathryn; Dobell, Rod; Fast, Eleanor; Ferrara, Nadia; Findlay, C Scott; Hallstrom, Lars K; Hammond, Thomas; Hermanutz, Luise; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Lindsay, Kathryn E; Marta, Tim J; Nguyen, Vivian M; Northey, Greg; Prior, Kent; Ramirez-Sanchez, Saudiel; Rice, Jake; Sleep, Darren J H; Szabo, Nora D; Trottier, Geneviève; Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Veilleux, Jean-Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Integrating knowledge from across the natural and social sciences is necessary to effectively address societal tradeoffs between human use of biological diversity and its preservation. Collaborative processes can change the ways decision makers think about scientific evidence, enhance levels of mutual trust and credibility, and advance the conservation policy discourse. Canada has responsibility for a large fraction of some major ecosystems, such as boreal forests, Arctic tundra, wetlands, and temperate and Arctic oceans. Stressors to biological diversity within these ecosystems arise from activities of the country's resource-based economy, as well as external drivers of environmental change. Effective management is complicated by incongruence between ecological and political boundaries and conflicting perspectives on social and economic goals. Many knowledge gaps about stressors and their management might be reduced through targeted, timely research. We identify 40 questions that, if addressed or answered, would advance research that has a high probability of supporting development of effective policies and management strategies for species, ecosystems, and ecological processes in Canada. A total of 396 candidate questions drawn from natural and social science disciplines were contributed by individuals with diverse organizational affiliations. These were collaboratively winnowed to 40 by our team of collaborators. The questions emphasize understanding ecosystems, the effects and mitigation of climate change, coordinating governance and management efforts across multiple jurisdictions, and examining relations between conservation policy and the social and economic well-being of Aboriginal peoples. The questions we identified provide potential links between evidence from the conservation sciences and formulation of policies for conservation and resource management. Our collaborative process of communication and engagement between scientists and decision makers for

  18. TO THE QUESTION OF MODELS OF ANALYSIS ASSESSING FINANCIAL CONDITION OF THE EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galushkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, author discusses model of analysis assessing the financial condition of the educational organization of higher education. Author analyzes the sequence (algorithm analysis of fi nancial and economic activity of the educational organization of higher education in the process of separating the analysis of questions of the analysis of the state educational institutions of higher education and non-state educational institutions of higher education. Author also deals with the determination of the average annual values of indicators of educational institution of higher education. In conclusion, the author makes a scientifi cally-based own conclusions and gives a number of suggestions.Goal / task. Aim of the article is to identify further ways of optimizing the financial condition of the educational organization of higher education.Methodology. Author started his research with the setting and the formulation of research objectives. The author defined the subject of the study, prepared by the empirical basis of the study.Results. According to the results of the study produced five research-based fi ndings presented in the article.Conclusions / signifi cance. 1. Analysis of the financial condition of the educational institutions of higher education can be defi ned as a complex and complex economic studies to identify patterns of the system factors in the financial well-being, the subject of analysis of educational, teaching, research and related activities.2. Integral assessment of the conditions of the financial analysis of the educational institution of higher education leads to the conclusion that it should include a number of stages.3. Analysis of the financial condition of the educational institution of higher education should be characterized as a specific type of analytical work. However, it is obvious that it can not be a simple kind of financial analysis of its object, and is a special form of research. The most significant

  19. The effect of different levels of constructive teaching practices on teacher question asking behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim

    The purposes of the study were: (1) to examine the effectiveness of the Iowa Chautauqua Professional Development Program (ICPDP) in moving elementary science teachers toward the use of more constructive teaching practices and (2) to investigate the effectiveness of different levels of teaching practices, especially in terms of a sample of teachers achieving "expert" state at the end of program compared with some attaining only with "competent" level. The variables considered were their perceptions of their own classroom practices, stated philosophy of teaching and learning, and their actual classroom practices and question asking behaviors observed via videotape recording. Structured questionnaires, focus group interviews, teacher reflections, and examination of lesson modules were used to collect data from thirty-three K-5 in-service teachers who were involved in a one-year ICPDP. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of data revealed that: (1) Teacher perceptions regarding their teaching and learning, and their actual teaching practices in classroom in terms of constructivist approaches were significantly changed after participation in the ICPDP. (2) Teacher perceptions of their classroom practices and stated philosophies of teaching and learning have a great affect on their actual practices that can be observed. (3) Teacher stated philosophies of teaching and learning significantly influence the quantity and quality of their use of questions in their classrooms. (4) The "expert" teachers accept students' alternative answers and deliberately ask high cognitive level questions that enable students to think critically and to guide them based on what the students are thinking. Alternatively, the "competent" teachers do not follow student responses and used questions which do not help students to understand their current level of understanding nor encourage students to reflect on their own thinking. (5) The role of "expert" teacher is more geared toward challenging

  20. Questions of qualification exam for non-destructive testing and materials science - the first level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, H.I.; Addarwish, J.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The book contains seven chapters: Questions of qualification for magnetic particles testing method - Questions of qualification for liquids penetrant testing method - Questions of qualification for the visual inspection testing method - Questions of qualification for the ultrasonic testing method - Questions of qualification for the eddy current testing method - Questions of rehabilitation for industrial radiographic testing method - Qualification questions about materials science and manufacturing defects of castings and welding and comparison between non-destructive testing methods.

  1. Non-Destructive Testing: Sample Questions for Conduct of Examinations at Levels 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports industrial applications of radiation technology which include non-destructive testing (NDT) under its various programmes such as individual country Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, Regional Projects and Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs). NDT technology is essentially needed for the improvement of the quality of industrial products, equipment and plants all over the world, especially in developing Member States. Trained and certified personnel is one of the essential requirements for applying this technology in industry. With this in view, the IAEA first played an important role in cooperation with the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for the development of a standard for training and certification of NDT personnel, namely ISO 9712, 'Non-Destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of Personnel'. Subsequently the syllabi and needed training materials were identified and developed for the creation of, in each of the Member States, a core group of personnel who are trained and qualified to establish the training and certification process in their respective countries. One of the important requirements for such a process is to have the examination questions for conducting the certification examinations. A need had been felt to compile the appropriate questions firstly for conducting these examinations at the national and regional levels and secondly to provide these to the certification bodies of the Member States so that they could initiate their own level 1 and 2 certification examinations. For this purpose, Experts' Task Force Meetings were convened first in Accra, Ghana and then in Vienna, Austria under the AFRA regional projects on NDT. The experts examined and discussed in detail the ISO 9712 (1999 and 2005 versions) requirements for general, specific and practical examinations for level 1 and 2 personnel. After that a set of questions has been established which are

  2. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Franck--Hertz experiment with higher excitation level measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of the higher levels of 6 3 P 2 and 6 1 P 1 of the mercury atom in the Franck--Hertz experiment has been introduced into the junior and senior laboratory course by using a homemade tetrode Franck--Hertz tube. The main structure of the tube is described. The optimum operating conditions are in the temperature range between 130 and 150 0 C and the collector currents are of the order of 10 -9 A. The additional observations of the famous Franck--Hertz experiment in the laboratory course will give the students more familiarity with the quantum behavior of atoms

  4. Higher-level gait disorders: an open frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, John G

    2013-09-15

    The term higher-level gait disorders (HLGD) defines a category of balance and gait disorders that are not explained by deficits in strength, tone, sensation, or coordination. HLGD are characterized by various combinations of disequilibrium and impaired locomotion. A plethora of new imaging techniques are beginning to determine the neural circuits that are the basis of these disorders. Although a variety of neurodegenerative and other pathologies can produce HLGD, the most common cause appears to be microvascular disease that causes white-matter lesions and thereby disrupts balance/locomotor circuits. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  5. A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bininda-Emonds Olaf RP

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The higher-level phylogeny of placental mammals has long been a phylogenetic Gordian knot, with disagreement about both the precise contents of, and relationships between, the extant orders. A recent MRP supertree that favoured 'outdated' hypotheses (notably, monophyly of both Artiodactyla and Lipotyphla has been heavily criticised for including low-quality and redundant data. We apply a stringent data selection protocol designed to minimise these problems to a much-expanded data set of morphological, molecular and combined source trees, to produce a supertree that includes every family of extant placental mammals. Results The supertree is well-resolved and supports both polyphyly of Lipotyphla and paraphyly of Artiodactyla with respect to Cetacea. The existence of four 'superorders' – Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires – is also supported. The topology is highly congruent with recent (molecular phylogenetic analyses of placental mammals, but is considerably more comprehensive, being the first phylogeny to include all 113 extant families without making a priori assumptions of suprafamilial monophyly. Subsidiary analyses reveal that the data selection protocol played a key role in the major changes relative to a previously published higher-level supertree of placentals. Conclusion The supertree should provide a useful framework for hypothesis testing in phylogenetic comparative biology, and supports the idea that biogeography has played a crucial role in the evolution of placental mammals. Our results demonstrate the importance of minimising poor and redundant data when constructing supertrees.

  6. Higher Level Visual Cortex Represents Retinotopic, Not Spatiotopic, Object Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The crux of vision is to identify objects and determine their locations in the environment. Although initial visual representations are necessarily retinotopic (eye centered), interaction with the real world requires spatiotopic (absolute) location information. We asked whether higher level human visual cortex—important for stable object recognition and action—contains information about retinotopic and/or spatiotopic object position. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging multivariate pattern analysis techniques, we found information about both object category and object location in each of the ventral, dorsal, and early visual regions tested, replicating previous reports. By manipulating fixation position and stimulus position, we then tested whether these location representations were retinotopic or spatiotopic. Crucially, all location information was purely retinotopic. This pattern persisted when location information was irrelevant to the task, and even when spatiotopic (not retinotopic) stimulus position was explicitly emphasized. We also conducted a “searchlight” analysis across our entire scanned volume to explore additional cortex but again found predominantly retinotopic representations. The lack of explicit spatiotopic representations suggests that spatiotopic object position may instead be computed indirectly and continually reconstructed with each eye movement. Thus, despite our subjective impression that visual information is spatiotopic, even in higher level visual cortex, object location continues to be represented in retinotopic coordinates. PMID:22190434

  7. ANALYSIS OF DIFFICULTY LEVEL OF PHYSICS NATIONAL EXAMINATION’S QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusrizal Yusrizal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine: (1 the difficulty level of items in physics National Exam of 2013 (2 physics materials that were difficult and very difficult. The subjects were all students of science major in third gradeat SMAN Banda Aceh in the academic year of 2013/2014. The samples were 10 randomly selected senior high schools. The data were obtained through analyzing the answers of physics National Examin 2013. The results showed that (1 the high school students in Banda Aceh experienced difficult and very difficult level questions to be answer in the 2013 exam, (2 thedifficult materials were: free fall, the potential energy and series of obstacles. The very difficult materials were: the rotational motion, motion and force on the pulley, effort, fluid, sound intensity, transformer, atomic theory, quantum theory, relativity, fusion and radio isotopes.

  8. Extension of TFTR operations to higher toroidal field levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    For the past year, TFTR has sometimes operated at extended toroidal field (TF) levels. The extension to 5.6 Tesla (79 kA) was crucial for TFTR's November 1994 10.7 MW DT fusion power record. The extension to 6.0 Tesla (85 kA) was commissioned on 9 September 1995. There are several reasons that one could expect the TF coils to survive the higher stresses that develop at higher fields. They were designed to operate at 5.2 Tesla with a vertical field of 0.5 Tesla, whereas the actual vertical field needed for the plasma does not exceed 0.35 Tesla. Their design specification explicitly required they survive some pulses at 6.0 Tesla. TF coil mechanical analysis computer models available during coil design were crude, leading to conservative design. And design analyses also had to consider worst-case misoperations that TFTR's real time Coil Protection Calculators (CPCs) now positively prevent from occurring

  9. Higher order corrections to energy levels of muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, G.A. Jr.; Steffen, R.M.

    1975-08-01

    In order to facilitate the analysis of muonic x-ray spectra, the results of numerical computations of all higher order quantum electrodynamical corrections to the energy levels of muonic atoms are presented in tabular and graphical form. These corrections include the vacuum polarization corrections caused by emission and reabsorption of virtual electron pairs to all orders, including ''double-bubble'' and ''cracked-egg'' diagrams. An estimate of the Delbruecke scattering-type correction is presented. The Lamb-shift (second- and fourth-order vertex) corrections have been calculated including the correction for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. The relativistic nuclear motion (or recoil) correction as well as the correction caused by the screening of the atomic electrons is presented in graphs. For the sake of completeness a graph of the nuclear polarization as computed on the basis of Chen's approach has been included. All calculations were made with a two-parameter Fermi distribution of the nuclear charge density. 7 figures, 23 references

  10. Toward raising the higher level of radiological nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The role and purpose of nursing in the radiological field are discussed with essentials of radiological nursing for raising its higher level and needed fundamental education. The discussion is from the thought that, at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), general medical staff including nurses are rather insufficient of radiological knowledge like the exposure, radiation effect and risk. In the medical radiological field, nurses are expected to play roles of arranging the circumstance for patient's ease like explanation about health effect/risk, appropriate nursing of them after radiological diagnosis, radiation protection of nurses themselves, and of environment. At such an emergency as the Accident, care for the acutely exposed victims, their decontamination and responding to patient's concern are necessary. At the later phase, also needed are nursing of victims undergoing health management done by authorities and of radiological workers concerned as well as the third item above. Therefore, fundamentals of radiological knowledge such as physics, exposure, health effects, protection, contamination, legal rules and risk communication are required in the education of nurses. Otherwise, this education can be conducted as a part of safety security and physical assessment. The Accident also gives us the importance of radiological risk communication with its victims. (T.T.)

  11. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    online study questions and on three to 77 exams given to students in sections that lacked such access. Data from over 1,800 students in sections with access to the online study questions show that those students scored a statistically significant average of 6.6% points higher on the exam questions analyzed than students in sections without access to the study questions. This difference was greater than the average amount necessary to raise students' exam grades by one grade (e.g., from a "B-" to a "B"). In addition, there was a higher correlation between number of questions answered and success on exam questions on material related to the study questions than between number of questions answered and success on exam questions on material unrelated to the study questions. The online study question system required substantial effort to set up, but required minimal effort to maintain and was effective in significantly raising average exam scores for even very large course sections.

  12. Modification of booming level for higher correlation with booming sensation; Booming level no koseidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, S; Hashimoto, T [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In our previous study, we proposed a objective measure, i.e., Booming Level for quantifying booming sensation caused by car interior noise. In this paper, Booming Level was modified with its weighting function and within the process of calculation 1/3 octave band level was modified for the best match with subjective result. These modifications were conducted through a subjective experiment rating booming sensation with sounds having much lower frequency contents below 63Hz. With this modified Booming Level, we have obtained higher correlation for rating booming sensation with sounds having prominent low frequency components. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  13. Identifying and Fostering Higher Levels of Geometric Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrbec, Maja; Cadež, Tatjana Hodnik

    2015-01-01

    Pierre M. Van Hiele created five levels of geometric thinking. We decided to identify the level of geometric thinking in the students in Slovenia, aged 9 to 11 years. The majority of students (60.7%) are at the transition between the zero (visual) level and the first (descriptive) level of geometric thinking. Nearly a third (31.7%) of students is…

  14. Retrospective questions or a diary method? A two-level multitrait-multimethod analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, J.J.; Kleiboer, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a comparison between retrospective questions and daily diaries inquiring about positive and negative support in spousal interactions. The design was a multitrait-multimethod matrix with trait factors of positive and negative support, and method factors of retrospective questions

  15. Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Strategy Enhances Students’ Higher Level Thinking Skills in a Pharmaceutical Sciences Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Design. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Assessment. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. Conclusion. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting. PMID:25741027

  16. The relationship between facilitators' questions and the level of reflection in postsimulation debriefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Dieckmann, Peter; Rystedt, Hans; Søreide, Eldar; Friberg, Febe

    2013-06-01

    Simulation-based education is a learner-active method that may enhance teamwork skills such as leadership and communication. The importance of postsimulation debriefing to promote reflection is well accepted, but many questions concerning whether and how faculty promote reflection remain largely unanswered in the research literature. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the depth of reflection expressed in questions by facilitators and responses from nursing students during postsimulation debriefings. Eighty-one nursing students and 4 facilitators participated. The data were collected in February and March 2008, the analysis being conducted on 24 video-recorded debriefings from simulated resuscitation teamwork involving nursing students only. Using Gibbs' reflective cycle, we graded the facilitators' questions and nursing students' responses into stages of reflection and then correlated these. Facilitators asked most evaluative and fewest emotional questions, whereas nursing students answered most evaluative and analytic responses and fewest emotional responses. The greatest difference between facilitators and nursing students was in the analytic stage. Only 23 (20%) of 117 questions asked by the facilitators were analytic, whereas 45 (35%) of 130 students' responses were rated as analytic. Nevertheless, the facilitators' descriptive questions also elicited student responses in other stages such as evaluative and analytic responses. We found that postsimulation debriefings provide students with the opportunity to reflect on their simulation experience. Still, if the debriefing is going to pave the way for student reflection, it is necessary to work further on structuring the debriefing to facilitate deeper reflection. Furthermore, it is important that facilitators consider what kind of questions they ask to promote reflection. We think future research on debriefing should focus on developing an analytical framework for grading reflective questions. Such

  17. 'Twisted' strings and higher level Kac-Moody representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Z.; Palla, L.

    1989-01-01

    Using an orbifold-like construction the twisted sector of a closed string moving on GxG (with G simply laced) is determined. A level-two G current operating there is constructed explicitly. The decomposition of the twisted sector into products between appropriate conformal and level-two G representations is given if 2 rank G-2 dim G/(2+g)<1. (orig.)

  18. Higher Education in the College Sector: Widening Access or Diversion? Questions and Challenges from the Scottish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Higher education in the college sector has become an increasingly important aspect of the tertiary education system in Scotland, particularly in widening access to higher education for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. In this respect there is a distinctively different tradition in Scotland when compared with England. Despite the success of…

  19. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

  20. Academic literacy of South African higher education level students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Specifically, measuring vocabulary size, i.e. how many words a student knows ... The focus of this module is on basic research skills, critical thinking, finding and ..... (x) Make meaning (e.g. of an academic text) beyond the level of the sentence. ..... 25. 30. Total 275 28.05. 2.72 .16. 9. 30. 2000- word. 2. 38. 28.50. 1.62 .26. 24.

  1. The relationship between facilitators' questions and the level of reflection in postsimulation debriefing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Dieckmann, Peter; Rystedt, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Simulation-based education is a learner-active method that may enhance teamwork skills such as leadership and communication. The importance of postsimulation debriefing to promote reflection is well accepted, but many questions concerning whether and how faculty promote reflection remain largely...

  2. Object Categorization in Finer Levels Relies More on Higher Spatial Frequencies and Takes Longer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Matin N; Kheradpisheh, Saeed R; Masquelier, Timothée; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The human visual system contains a hierarchical sequence of modules that take part in visual perception at different levels of abstraction, i.e., superordinate, basic, and subordinate levels. One important question is to identify the "entry" level at which the visual representation is commenced in the process of object recognition. For a long time, it was believed that the basic level had a temporal advantage over two others. This claim has been challenged recently. Here we used a series of psychophysics experiments, based on a rapid presentation paradigm, as well as two computational models, with bandpass filtered images of five object classes to study the processing order of the categorization levels. In these experiments, we investigated the type of visual information required for categorizing objects in each level by varying the spatial frequency bands of the input image. The results of our psychophysics experiments and computational models are consistent. They indicate that the different spatial frequency information had different effects on object categorization in each level. In the absence of high frequency information, subordinate and basic level categorization are performed less accurately, while the superordinate level is performed well. This means that low frequency information is sufficient for superordinate level, but not for the basic and subordinate levels. These finer levels rely more on high frequency information, which appears to take longer to be processed, leading to longer reaction times. Finally, to avoid the ceiling effect, we evaluated the robustness of the results by adding different amounts of noise to the input images and repeating the experiments. As expected, the categorization accuracy decreased and the reaction time increased significantly, but the trends were the same. This shows that our results are not due to a ceiling effect. The compatibility between our psychophysical and computational results suggests that the temporal

  3. Deception Detection: Accuracy Levels Among International Military Officers Using Content and Contextual Questioning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    deception than any one method on its own. This research project focuses on students at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA, to...international military officers were also limited on the type of contextual questioning methods and scenarios. These scenarios were not a very good ...research received participation from 52 students . Although the sample size was small, proportionally, 24% is a good response rate for lab research

  4. Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stacy Kathryn

    This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems

  5. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  6. Noosphere: Does the Internet Provide an Evolutionary Leap to a Higher Level of Collective Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Milivojević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The neologism noosphere signifies global human consciousness. According to T. de Chardin, it is the third stage in the development of the earth, after the geosphere and the biosphere. As well as the emergence of life has fundamentally changed the geosphere, the emergence of human consciousness has fundamentally changed the biosphere. De Chardin envisioned the “planetarization” of mankind, which is equivalent to the current globalization by information technology. From an anthropological point of view, internet is not a technology or media as others: it has the potential to revolutionize the current civilizational paradigm. With the advent of the internet the idea of the noosphere has been reactualized and related to the concept of collective intelligence. The article questions the hypothesis of an evolutionary leap in a greater collective intelligence or higher level of collective consciousness presenting pros and cons.

  7. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  8. The Economics of Developing Countries Component of GCE "A" Level Economics--A Review of Examination Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Keith

    1984-01-01

    A review of the summer examination papers in 'A' level economics set by the eight boards of England and Wales during the period 1979-1983 show that, with two notable exceptions, the boards have not devoted much space to questions relating to the economics of developing countries. (Author/RM)

  9. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Investigation of Chemistry Questions Asked in Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination for High School Level in the Context of Algorithmic and Conceptual Question Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül DERMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To conduct of the education programs, the most important resource is considered that textbooks but in national assesment tests, chemistry questions prepared according to chemistry curriculum they may be considered reflections of curriculum. The purpose of this study is to review the 140 chemistry questions “algoritmic or conceptual”, asked in “Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination”for 9,10,11 classes between 1998 and 2015 years. The study is a descriptive study. In data analysis, within the scope of the document analysis, qualitative research method was used. Crosstabs and Kappa statistic was used. The findings of this study revealed that the questions asked in “Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination”are 80% conceptual, 20% algorithmic in total. The distribution of question types according to the years indicates that most of questions are consisted of conceptual question types. By the findings are associated with the relevant literature and national chemistry curriculum, inferences and implications for conceptual chemistry teaching and learning have been made

  11. The effects of higher-order questioning strategies on nonscience majors' achievement in an introductory environmental science course and their attitudes toward the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Grace Teresa

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effect a higher-order questioning strategy (Bloom, 1956) had on undergraduate non-science majors' attitudes toward the environment and their achievement in an introductory environmental science course, EDS 1032, "Survey of Science 2: Life Science," which was offered during the Spring 2000 term. Students from both treatment and control groups (N = 63), which were determined using intact classes, participated in eight cooperative group activities based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E model (Bybee, 1993). The treatment group received a higher-order questioning method combined with the BSCS 5E model. The control group received a lower-order questioning method, combined with the BSCS 5E model. Two instruments were used to measure students' attitude and achievement changes. The Ecology Issue Attitude (EIA) survey (Schindler, 1995) and a comprehensive environmental science final exam. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (KLSI, 1985) was used to measure students' learning style type. After a 15-week treatment period, results were analyzed using MANCOVA. The overall MANCOVA model used to test the statistical difference between the collective influences of the independent variables on the three dependent variables simultaneously was found to be not significant at alpha = .05. This differs from findings of previous studies in which higher-order questioning techniques had a significant effect on student achievement (King 1989 & 1992; Blosser, 1991; Redfield and Rousseau, 1981; Gall 1970). At the risk of inflated Type I and Type II error rates, separate univariate analyses were performed. However, none of the research factors, when examined collectively or separately, made any significant contribution to explaining the variability in EIA attitude, EIA achievement, and comprehensive environmental science final examination scores. Nevertheless, anecdotal evidence from student's self

  12. On the questions of the nuclear level density and the E1 photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Dunford, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    New results were derived from average level spacings of neutron resonances for the spin dispersion parameter of the nuclear level density, which demonstrated the influence of shell effects, as well as the interplay of nucleon pairing correlations for nuclei in the mass range from 29 Si to 241 Pu. The volume and surface components of the nuclear level density parameter, as well as the shell-damping factor, were determined as, a v = 0.076 ± 0.009 MeV -1 , a s = 0.180 ± 0.047 MeV -1 , and y 0 = 0.047 ± 0.04 MeV±, respectively. The effective nucleon mass at the Fermi surface is derived as m*/m = 1.09 ± 0.13. New evidence is presented for a dipole-quadrupole interaction term in the primary E1 transitions of average resonance capture data. This evidence is obtained by testing a proposed generalized Landau Fermi liquid model for spherical and deformed nuclei, which includes the effect of the dipole-quadrupole interaction. The Landau-Migdal interaction constant and the effective nucleon mass, are determined as F 0 prime = 1.49 ± 0.08, and m*/m=1.04 ± 0.07, respectively

  13. The Question Of Balance Work - Family And Reconciliation Regime Work - Family At European Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Cimpeanu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the conditions of the continuous change of the work patterns and of the alert liferhythm, there is a real challenge to keep a favourable equilibrium between work and family life. Oneof the value orientations manifested on a major scale on the whole European continent, is the humanorientation able to give substance to the European social politics, oriented to permanent improvementof his life quality by the increasing of the life level, the improvement of the work conditions, the workflexibility support qt the European level, national and organizational by the elaboration etimplementation of the politics of the work conciliation with family, or of the family/friendly politics,in order to keep an optimal equilibrium between family life as well as in the professional one.According to the European Commission, the reconciliation politics represent key responses to thelong term economic and demographic challenges. A better family life reconciliation is supported bythe objectives of the European strategy for the economical growth and of the workforce occupation

  14. Chinese Medical Question Answer Matching Using End-to-End Character-Level Multi-Scale CNNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the problem of Chinese medical question answer matching, which is arguably more challenging than open-domain question answer matching in English due to the combination of its domain-restricted nature and the language-specific features of Chinese. We present an end-to-end character-level multi-scale convolutional neural framework in which character embeddings instead of word embeddings are used to avoid Chinese word segmentation in text preprocessing, and multi-scale convolutional neural networks (CNNs are then introduced to extract contextual information from either question or answer sentences over different scales. The proposed framework can be trained with minimal human supervision and does not require any handcrafted features, rule-based patterns, or external resources. To validate our framework, we create a new text corpus, named cMedQA, by harvesting questions and answers from an online Chinese health and wellness community. The experimental results on the cMedQA dataset show that our framework significantly outperforms several strong baselines, and achieves an improvement of top-1 accuracy by up to 19%.

  15. The Effects of Cultural Familiarity and Question Preview Type on the Listening Comprehension of L2 Learners at the Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen-Hong; Chen, Cai-Jun; Wu, Meng-Jie; Kuo, Ya-Chu; Tseng, Yun-Ting; Tsai, Shi-Yi; Shih, Hung-Chun

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of cultural familiarity and question-preview types on the listening comprehension of L2 learners. The results showed that the participants who received the full question-preview format scored higher than those receiving either the answer-option preview or question-stem preview, despite a statistically nonsignificant…

  16. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Impact of New Information since 2008 PA on Current Low-Level Solid Waste Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.; Smith, F.; Hamm, L.; Butcher, T.

    2014-10-06

    Solid low-level waste disposal operations are controlled in part by an E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) that was completed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in 2008 (WSRC 2008). Since this baseline analysis, new information pertinent to disposal operations has been identified as a natural outcome of ongoing PA maintenance activities and continuous improvement in model simulation techniques (Flach 2013). An Unreviewed Disposal Question (UDQ) Screening (Attachment 1) has been initiated regarding the continued ability of the ELLWF to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 performance objectives in light of new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQ Evaluation (UDQE). The present UDQE assesses the ability of Solid Waste (SW) to meet performance objectives by estimating the influence of new information items on a recent sum-of-fractions (SOF) snapshot for each currently active E-Area low-level waste disposal unit. A final SOF, as impacted by this new information, is projected based on the assumptions that the current disposal limits, Waste Information Tracking System (WITS) administrative controls, and waste stream composition remain unchanged through disposal unit operational closure (Year 2025). Revision 1 of this UDQE addresses the following new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQE report in 2013: New Kd values for iodine, radium and uranium; Elimination of cellulose degradation product (CDP) factors; Updated radionuclide data; Changes in transport behavior of mobile radionuclides; Potential delay in interim closure beyond 2025; and Component-in-grout (CIG) plume interaction correction. Consideration of new information relative to the 2008 PA baseline generally indicates greater confidence that PA performance objectives will be met than indicated by current SOF metrics. For SLIT9, the previous prohibition of non-crushable containers in revision 0

  17. Comparison the Effect of Teaching by Group Guided Discovery Learning, Questions & Answers and Lecturing Methods on the Level of Learning and Information Durability of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardanparvar H.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The requirements for revising the traditional education methods and utilization of new and active student-oriented learning methods have come into the scope of the educational systems long ago. Therefore, the new methods are being popular in different sciences including medical sciences. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of teaching through three methods (group guided discovery, questions and answers, and lecture methods on the learning level and information durability in the nursing students. Instrument & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 62 forth-semester nursing students of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, who were passing the infectious course for the first time at the first semester of the academic year 2015-16, were studied. The subjects were selected via census method and randomly divided into three groups including group guided discovery, questions and answers, and lecture groups. The test was conducted before, immediately after, and one month after the conduction of the training program using a researcher-made questionnaire. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, ANOVA with repeated observations, and LSD post-hoc test. Findings: The mean score of the test conducted immediately after the training program in the lecture group was significantly lesser than guided discovery and question and answer groups (p<0.001. In addition, the mean score of the test conducted one month after the training program in guided discovery group was significantly higher than both question and answer (p=0.004 and lecture (p=0.001 groups. Conclusion: Active educational methods lead to a higher level of the students’ participation in the educational issues and provided a background to enhance learning and for better information durability. 

  18. An empirical study on educational investment for all levels of higher education in China

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Juan; David MAYSTON

    2009-01-01

    With the expanding of higher education in China from 1999, more and more youngsters are able to invest in higher education, resulting a high unemployment rate for higher education graduates and more and more graduates employed in non-graduate position, while the analysis upon risk and return to each level of high education is absent due to the limitation of dataset. The paper employs college students sample survey to research the determinants of all levels of higher education beginning wages,...

  19. Predictors of Placement in Lower Level versus Higher Level High School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbald, Doug; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long been interested in determinants of access to honors level and college prep courses in high school. Factors influencing access to upper level mathematics courses are particularly important because of the hierarchical and sequential nature of this subject and because students who finish high school with only lower…

  20. The Fulfilment Level of Turkic Republics Higher Education Students' Academic and Social Expectations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirgül ENTERİEVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the fulfilment level of students who come from Turkic Republics to study in Turkey, regarding their academic and social expectations. The qualita-tive research technique and phenomenological design were used in the study. Data of this research was collected via a semistructured interview form consisting 11 openended questions and probes, which were developed by the researchers. A total of 39 undergraduate and postgraduate students from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan participated in the present study. This study indicated that, while expecting satisfactory accommodation the students also anticipated having quality education enabling them for better employment opportunities upon graduation. Some of the students thought that graduate studies in Turkey would be a bridge to Europe. However, it has been found out that students have several academical, social and educational support service problems. According to findings it can be recommended to improve internationalization in higher education, student-centered environment and current educational and training content, organization of orientation programs, submission of international student office and guidance and consultancy services and enhancing the education support services and dormitory facilities.

  1. Egyptian greenhouse cultivation at a higher level with Dutch Technology ; Annual Report 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Helm, van der F.P.M.; Blok, C.; Meijer, R.J.M.; Lahiani, Y.; Janmaat, A.; Zaki, M.; Hassan, H.

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘Egyptian greenhouse cultivation at a higher level with Dutch technology’ is co-funded under the Top Sector Programme Horticulture and Starting Materials. The project wants to realizes through the use of Dutch technology a higher level of sustainability of Egyptian protected cultivation,

  2. Association between sarcopenia and higher-level functional capacity in daily living in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Tsuda, Yuko; Kimura, Motoshi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Kono, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, and higher-level functional capacity in community-dwelling Japanese elderly people. Subjects were 1158 elderly, community-dwelling Japanese people aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance. Sarcopenia was characterized by low muscle mass, plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Subjects without low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and low physical performance were classified as "normal." Examination of higher-level functional capacity was performed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC). The TMIG-IC is a 13-item questionnaire completed by the subject; it contains five questions on self-maintenance and four questions each on intellectual activity and social role. Sarcopenia was identified in 11.3% and 10.7% of men and women, respectively. The percentage of disability for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was 39.0% in men with sarcopenia and 30.6% in women with sarcopenia. After adjustment for age, in men, sarcopenia was significantly associated with IADL disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. In women, sarcopenia was significantly associated with every subscale of the TMIG-IC disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. This study revealed that sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, had a significant association with disability in higher-level functional capacity in elderly Japanese subjects. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia may prevent higher-level functional disability among elderly people. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Variations of serum testosterone levels in prostate cancer patients under LH-releasing hormone therapy: an open question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    The hypothesis 'the lower the better when achieving castration levels of testosterone' is based on the data from second-line hormonal manipulation and its molecular basis, and on better oncological results reported for lower castration levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients, including those achieved with maximal androgen blockade. In this regard, the equivalence of surgical and different pharmacological castrations has been controversial. The modified amino acid structure that makes LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs more potent than LHRH, and the method of delivering the analogs impacts on bioavailibility and potentially causes differences in androgen levels and in its final oncological efficacy. In addition to this, there is a myriad of circumstances, such as those related to ethnic variations and co-morbidities, which uniquely impact on the pharmacological approach in a highly heterogeneous population of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Ineffective testosterone suppression through hormonal escape is currently poorly recognized and may result in increased PCa mortality. Until now, the optimal serum testosterone level in patients under castration, and the impact of its variations in patients under LHRH therapy, remain open questions and have been merged to a broad spectra of patients who are highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity relates to a number of mechanisms regarding response to treatment, which influences the biology of the relapsing tumor and the sensitivity to subsequent therapies in the individual patient. The rationale to achieve testosterone levels below 20-50 ng/dl warrant further investigation as these levels have recently rescued CRPC patients. In the last few years and months, important advancements in prostate cancer treatment have been achieved. Nevertheless, these advances are measured in a few months of additional survival and under high costs, not available to most of the world population, compared with the benefits

  4. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students' learning ability. Methods One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+). All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups) improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05). Conclusions This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials.

  5. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Skjødt Worm

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims : The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students’ learning ability. Methods : One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+. All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results : All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05. Conclusions : This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials.

  6. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students’ learning ability. Methods One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+). All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups) improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05). Conclusions This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials. PMID:24229729

  7. The Fulfilment Level of Turkic Republics Higher Education Students' Academic and Social Expectations in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mirgül ENTERİEVA; Ferudun SEZGİN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the fulfilment level of students who come from Turkic Republics to study in Turkey, regarding their academic and social expectations. The qualita-tive research technique and phenomenological design were used in the study. Data of this research was collected via a semistructured interview form consisting 11 openended questions and probes, which were developed by the researchers. A total of 39 undergraduate and postgraduate students from Azerbaijan, Kazakhs...

  8. Assessing the Need for Higher Levels of Care Among Problem Gambling Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, David M; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2017-12-01

    Most treatment for gambling disorder is provided on an outpatient basis. Only a small number of jurisdictions in North America provide higher levels of gambling treatment, such as residential or intensive outpatient (IOP) care, despite the potential need for these services. Further, there appear to be few guidelines for determining appropriate level of gambling treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the appropriateness of higher levels of problem gambling care among clients receiving outpatient treatment. Problem gamblers and their therapists independently completed questionnaires that assessed the need and desire for residential and IOP treatment. About 42% of problem gambling outpatients noted that they would be "probably" or "definitely" willing to attend residential treatment, and about half indicated they would be equally likely to attend IOP. Therapists recommended about a third of their clients as appropriate for higher levels of care. For both client and therapist assessments, there was a significant association between desire or recommendation for level of treatment and severity of gambling and co-occurring problems. Further, therapist recommendations for level of care were significantly associated with client willingness to attend higher levels of treatment. Our data reveal the potential need for higher levels of care for problem gambling, as evaluated by clients and their therapists. Policy implications for the funding of residential and IOP treatment are discussed.

  9. Higher Levels of Psychopathy Predict Poorer Motor Control: Implications for Understanding the Psychopathy Construct

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael D.; Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of ...

  10. Multi-domain, higher order level set scheme for 3D image segmentation on the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Zhang, Qin; Anton, François

    2010-01-01

    to evaluate level set surfaces that are $C^2$ continuous, but are slow due to high computational burden. In this paper, we provide a higher order GPU based solver for fast and efficient segmentation of large volumetric images. We also extend the higher order method to multi-domain segmentation. Our streaming...

  11. Perceived Effectiveness of Professional Development Programs of Teachers at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sufiana Khatoon; Nasim, Uzma; Tabassum, Farkhanda

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of professional development programs of teachers at higher educational level. The objectives of the study were: "to assess university level teachers'" opinion about effectiveness of professional development training with reference to quality teaching, to measure…

  12. The relationship between career mobility and occupational expertise. A retrospective study among higher-level Dutch professionals in three age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between two career-related variables and occupational expertise of higher-level employees from large working organisations in three different age groups. The factors in question are: total number of jobs that have been performed; and the average period

  13. Student's Perceived Level and Teachers' Teaching Strategies of Higher Order Thinking Skills: A Study on Higher Educational Institutions in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…

  14. Exploring the Deep-Level Reasoning Questions Effect during Vicarious Learning among Eighth to Eleventh Graders in the Domains of Computer Literacy and Newtonian Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Barry; Witherspoon, Amy; Morgan, Brent; Brittingham, Joshua K.; Coles, Robert; Graesser, Arthur C.; Sullins, Jeremiah; Craig, Scotty D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper tested the deep-level reasoning questions effect in the domains of computer literacy between eighth and tenth graders and Newtonian physics for ninth and eleventh graders. This effect claims that learning is facilitated when the materials are organized around questions that invite deep-reasoning. The literature indicates that vicarious…

  15. A gross anatomy flipped classroom effects performance, retention, and higher-level thinking in lower performing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Leslie J

    2018-01-22

    A flipped classroom is a growing pedagogy in higher education. Many research studies on the flipped classroom have focused on student outcomes, with the results being positive or inconclusive. A few studies have analyzed confounding variables, such as student's previous achievement, or the impact of a flipped classroom on long-term retention and knowledge transfer. In the present study, students in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program in a traditional style lecture of gross anatomy (n = 105) were compared to similar students in a flipped classroom (n = 112). Overall, students in the flipped anatomy classroom had an increase in semester average grades (P = 0.01) and performance on higher-level analytical questions (P flipped anatomy classroom performing at a higher level in kinesiology (P flipped anatomy class, outperformed their traditional anatomy class counterparts in anatomy semester grades (P flipped classroom may benefit lower performing student's knowledge acquisition and transfer to a greater degree than higher performing students. Future studies should explore the underlying reasons for improvement in lower performing students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Crichton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA. We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX (n = 1331 were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  17. Physical activity level in people with age related white matter changes correlates to better motor performance, lower comorbidity and higher cognitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Anna F; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Bronge, Lena; Olsson, Elisabeth; Amberla, Kaarina; Baezner, Hansjoerg; Crisby, Milita

    2017-07-12

    Physical activity plays a pivotal role in the development of disability and may modify the negative effect of vascular risk factors on progression of both cardio and cerebrovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity level in people with age-related white matter changes as identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to motor performance, cognition and perceived health. Data came from the first year follow up of one participating centers of the LADIS study. Fifty one subjects were first enrolled in the study. Complete first year follow up data was available for 41 subjects. Information on comorbidity, physical activity level, physical function, cognition, level of white matter changes and perceived health was collected. Physical activity level was classified with a yes or no question and with the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI). Only 36% of the subjects in this study were physically active according to the yes/no question. 27.5% of the subjects were active according to the FAI score which evaluates the everyday activities. Being active discriminated subjects with better physical function. Subjects active according to the FAI score had a higher cognitive level (p ≤ 0.01), lower comorbidity (p = 0.02) and performed better on all motor function tasks as assessed by walking speed (p ≤ 0.01) and the Short Physical Performance battery (SPPB) (p ≤ 0.01). Being physically active seems to be a long term protective factor. In our study, the majority of subjects with Age Related White Mattter Changes (ARWMC) with no or mild Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) disability did not attain recommended level of activity at first year follow up. Whether or not increasing physical activity may slow down cognitive decline and lessen development of disability in physically inactive subjects with manifest ARWC remains to be studied. not applicable.

  18. Storytelling in the digital world: achieving higher-level learning objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Melissa R

    2012-01-01

    Nursing students are not passive media consumers but instead live in a technology ecosystem where digital is the language they speak. To prepare the next generation of nurses, educators must incorporate multiple technologies to improve higher-order learning. The author discusses the evolution and use of storytelling as part of the digital world and how digital stories can be aligned with Bloom's Taxonomy so that students achieve higher-level learning objectives.

  19. Consequences of moral Kohlberg´s moral development levels in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Bordignon, Nelso Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. This article presents the results of a research work about the implications of Kohlberg´s moral development level in higher education. Objective. To identify the state of moral development among higher education teachers, departing from the orientation they give to their lives and to those of their students, and from what they think and say they do for their students´ moral education.With the results, an analysis is done in order to establish the impli...

  20. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  2. Obese with higher FNDC5/Irisin levels have a better metabolic profile, lower lipopolysaccharide levels and type 2 diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Ivan Luiz Padilha; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia Traina; Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Duft, Renata Garbellini; Oliveira, Alexandre Gabarra; Araujo, Tiago Gomes; Saad, Mario Jose Abdalla; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2017-12-01

    Thus, the aim of this study was to compare if higher or smaller fibronectin type 3 domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/irisin levels are associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers, caloric/macronutrient intake, physical fitness and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in obese middle-aged men, and also to correlate all variables analyzed with FNDC5/irisin. On the basis of a cluster study, middle-aged obese men (IMC: 31.01 ± 1.64 kg/m2) were divided into groups of higher and smaller levels of FNDC5/irisin. The levels of leptin, resistin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 and 10 (IL6, IL10), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, insulin resistance and sensibility, lipid profile, risk of T2DM development, body composition, rest energy expenditure, caloric/macronutrient intake and physical fitness were measured. The higher FNDC5/ irisin group presented improved insulin sensibility (homeostasis model assessment - sensibility (HOMA-S) (p = 0.01) and QUICKI index (p risk of T2DM development (p = 0.02), tendency to decrease serum resistin (p = 0.08) and significant lower LPS levels (p = 0.02). Inverse correlations between FNDC5/irisin and body weight (r -0.46, p = 0.04), neck circumference (r -0.51, p = 0.02), free fat mass (r -0.49, p = 0.02), triglycerides (r -0.43, p = 0.05) and risk of developing T2DM (r -0.61, p = 0.04) were observed. These results suggest that higher FNDC5/irisin levels in obese middle-aged men are related to a better metabolic profile and lower risk of T2DM development and serum LPS, a potential inducer of insulin resistance.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid cortisol levels are higher in patients with delirium versus controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Timothy O

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High plasma cortisol levels can cause acute cognitive and neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and have been linked with delirium. CSF cortisol levels more closely reflect brain exposure to cortisol, but there are no studies of CSF cortisol levels in delirium. In this pilot study we acquired CSF specimens at the onset of spinal anaesthesia in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, and compared CSF and plasma cortisol levels in delirium cases versus controls. Findings Delirium assessments were performed the evening before or on the morning of operation with a standard battery comprising cognitive tests, mental status assessments and the Confusion Assessment Method. CSF and plasma samples were obtained at the onset of the operation and cortisol levels measured. Twenty patients (15 female, 5 male aged 62 - 93 years were studied. Seven patients were diagnosed with delirium. The mean ages of cases (81.4 (SD 7.2 and controls (80.5 (SD 8.7 were not significantly different (p = 0.88. The median (interquartile range CSF cortisol levels were significantly higher in cases (63.9 (40.4-102.1 nmol/L than controls (31.4 (21.7-43.3 nmol/L; Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.029. The median (interquartile range of plasma cortisol was also significantly higher in cases (968.8 (886.2-1394.4 nmol/L, than controls (809.4 (544.0-986.4 nmol/L; Mann Whitney U, p = 0.036. Conclusions These findings support an association between higher CSF cortisol levels and delirium. This extends previous findings linking higher plasma cortisol and delirium, and suggests that more definitive studies of the relationship between cortisol levels and delirium are now required.

  4. Multisensory Stimulation to Improve Low- and Higher-Level Sensory Deficits after Stroke: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tinga, Angelica Maria; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; van der Smagt, Maarten Jeroen; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; van Ee, Raymond; Nijboer, Tanja Cornelia Wilhelmina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to integrate and assess evidence for the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation (i.e., stimulating at least two of the following sensory systems: visual, auditory, and somatosensory) as a possible rehabilitation method after stroke. Evidence was considered with a focus on low-level, perceptual (visual, auditory and somatosensory deficits), as well as higher-level, cognitive, sensory deficits. We referred to the electronic databases Scopus and PubMed to...

  5. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chun-Rong; Chen, Miao; Zhang, Jian-Heng; Lin, Zhi-Ya; Chen, Rong-Chang

    2016-01-01

    To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV) function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin. The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95) than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09), and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79), with each pmyostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each pmyostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  6. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students' learning ability....

  7. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  8. Wellbeing in the Welfare State: level not higher, distribution not more equitable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstract'Wellbeing' and 'welfare' are often bracketed together, in particular wellbeing and state-welfare. The level of wellbeing is believed to be higher in welfare states, and its distribution more equitable. This theory is tested in a comparative study of 40 nations 1980-1990. The size of

  9. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  10. Investigating Student Choices in Performing Higher-Level Comprehension Tasks Using TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Francesca; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes a first experiment in the use of TED talks and open tagging exercises to train higher-level comprehension skills, and of automatic logging of the student's actions to investigate the student choices while performing analytical tasks. The experiment took advantage of an interactive learning platform--LearnWeb--that…

  11. Implementing CLT at Higher Secondary Level in Bangladesh: A Review of Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Shidur

    2015-01-01

    CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) was substituted for GTM (Grammar Translation Method) at higher secondary level in Bangladesh in 2001. This replacement of ELT method was a significant change in the English curriculum. This study aimed to determine that the mismanagement of the change is a prime cause of not getting expected CLT outcomes at…

  12. Higher-level processes in the formation and application of associations during action understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heil, L.; Pelt, S. van; Kwisthout, J.H.P.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Bekkering, H.

    2014-01-01

    The associative account described in the target article provides a viable explanation for the origin of mirror neurons. We argue here that if mirror neurons develop purely by associative learning, then they cannot by themselves explain intentional action understanding. Higher-level processes seem to

  13. Concurrent immunomodulator therapy is associated with higher adalimumab trough levels during scheduled maintenance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Ashley; Dodd, Susanna; Fisher, Gareth; Skouras, Thomas; Subramanian, Sreedhar

    2017-02-01

    Combination therapy with infliximab and immunomodulators is superior to monotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and higher trough levels of infliximab. The role of concurrent immunomodulatory therapy on adalimumab trough levels has not been adequately investigated. We evaluated the impact of concomitant immunomodulation on adalimumab trough levels in patients on scheduled maintenance therapy. We conducted a prospective observational, cross-sectional study of all inflammatory bowel disease patients on maintenance therapy who had adalimumab trough levels measured between January 2013 and January 2016. Drug level and anti-drug antibody measurements were performed on sera using a solid phase assay. Pairwise comparison of means was used to compare trough levels in patients with and without concomitant immune modulator therapy. In total, 79 patients were included. Twenty-three patients (29.1%) were on weekly dosing whereas 56 (70.9%) were on alternate weeks. Median adalimumab trough levels were comparable in patients with and without clinical remission (6.8 μg/ml (IQR 5.6-8.1) versus 6.7 μg/ml (IQR 3.9-8.1), respectively. Patients with an elevated faecal calprotectin >250 μg/g had lower adalimumab trough levels (median 6.7, IQR 3.9-8) compared to patients with faecal calprotectin <250 μg/g (median 7.7, IQR 6.1-8.1) though this did not achieve statistical significance (p = .062). Median adalimumab trough levels among patients on concurrent immunomodulators was 7.2 μg/ml (IQR 5.7-8.1) compared to those not on concurrent immunomodulator, 6.1 μg/ml (IQR 2.7-7.7, p = .0297). Adalimumab trough levels were significantly higher in patients on concurrent immunomodulators during maintenance therapy. There was a trend towards a lower adalimumab trough level in patients with elevated calprotectin.

  14. Late Holocene higher sea level and its radiocarbon dates in Okierabu-jima, Ryukyus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koba, Motoharu; Omoto, Kunio; Takahashi, Tatsuo.

    1980-01-01

    Okierabu-jima of the Ryukyu Islands, which is a poly-terraced Pleistocene raised coral reef island, doesn't have a Holocene raised coral reef, but coastal erosional features showing higher sea levels in Holocene. The authors obtained some data indicating the period of one of the Holocene higher sea levels. All radiocarbon dates concerning Okierabu-jima's Holocene sea-level changes are plotted on the date-height coordinates. The paleo sea level between 5000 and 2000 y. B. P. lies above the broken line drawn from 6 m below to 2.18 m above the present sea level. The period of the highest sea level in Holocene seems to be about 3000 to 2000 y. B. P. in this island. Its height is presumably 2.4 m a. s. l. derived on an average from heights of stacks and coastal benches in the almost all coasts of the island (Koba, 1974). Beach rocks were already formed at the landward extremity of the reef flat corresponding to the almost present sea level about 1300 y. B. P. (author)

  15. BMI mediates the association between low educational level and higher blood pressure during pregnancy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwa, Seung Chik; Fujiwara, Takeo; Hata, Akira; Arata, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2013-04-25

    Research investigating the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy is limited and its underlying pathway is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediators of the association between educational level as an indicator of the SES and BP in early and mid-pregnancy among Japanese women. Nine hundred and twenty-three pregnant women in whom BP was measured before 16 weeks and at 20 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Maternal educational levels were categorized into three groups: high (university or higher), mid (junior college), and low (junior high school, high school, or vocational training school). The low educational group had higher systolic (low vs. high, difference = 2.39 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59 to 4.19) and diastolic BP levels (low vs. high, difference = 0.74 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.52 to 1.99) in early pregnancy. However, the same associations were not found after adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). BP reduction was observed in mid-pregnancy in all three educational groups and there was no association between educational level and pregnancy-induced hypertension. In Japanese women, the low educational group showed higher BP during pregnancy than the mid or high educational groups. Pre-pregnancy BMI mediates the association between educational level and BP.

  16. Transgenic tobacco plants having a higher level of methionine are more sensitive to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacham, Yael; Matityahu, Ifat; Amir, Rachel

    2017-07-01

    Methionine is an essential amino acid the low level of which limits the nutritional quality of plants. We formerly produced transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CYSTATHIONE γ-SYNTHASE (CGS) (FA plants), methionine's main regulatory enzyme. These plants accumulate significantly higher levels of methionine compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about the effect of higher methionine content on the metabolic profile of vegetative tissue and on the morphological and physiological phenotypes. FA plants exhibit slightly reduced growth, and metabolic profiling analysis shows that they have higher contents of stress-related metabolites. Despite this, FA plants were more sensitive to short- and long-term oxidative stresses. In addition, compared with WT plants and transgenic plants expressing an empty vector, the primary metabolic profile of FA was altered less during oxidative stress. Based on morphological and metabolic phenotypes, we strongly proposed that FA plants having higher levels of methionine suffer from stress under non-stress conditions. This might be one of the reasons for their lesser ability to cope with oxidative stress when it appeared. The observation that their metabolic profiling is much less responsive to stress compared with control plants indicates that the delta changes in metabolite contents between non-stress and stress conditions is important for enabling the plants to cope with stress conditions. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Factors identified with higher levels of career satisfaction of physicians in Andalusia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Nicolás Peña-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The satisfaction of physicians is a world-wide issue linked with the quality of health services; their satisfaction needs to be studied from a multi-dimensional perspective, considering lower- and higher-order needs. The objectives of this study were to: i measure the career satisfaction of physicians; ii identify differences in the dimensions of career satisfaction; and iii test factors that affect higher- and lower-order needs of satisfaction among physicians working in Andalusian hospitals (Spain. Forty-one percent of 299 eligible physicians participated in a study conducted in six selected hospitals. Physicians reported higher professional, inherent, and performance satisfaction than personal satisfaction. Foreign physicians reported higher levels of personal and performance satisfaction than local physicians, and those who received non-monetary incentives had higher professional and performance satisfaction. In conclusion, physicians in the selected Andalusian hospitals reported low levels of personal satisfaction. Non-monetary incentives were more relevant to influence their career satisfaction. Further investigations are recommended to study differences in the career satisfaction between foreign and local physicians.

  18. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI.

  19. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  20. Electron-positron annihilation into hadrons at the higher-loop levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesterenko, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-12-15

    The strong corrections to the R-ratio of electron-positron annihilation into hadrons are studied at the higher-loop levels. Specifically, the derivation of a general form of the commonly employed approximate expression for the R-ratio (which constitutes its truncated re-expansion at high energies) is delineated, the appearance of the pertinent π{sup 2}-terms is expounded, and their basic features are examined. It is demonstrated that the validity range of such approximation is strictly limited to √(s)/Λ > exp(π/2) ≅ 4.81 and that it converges rather slowly when the energy scale approaches this value. The spectral function required for the proper calculation of the R-ratio is explicitly derived and its properties at the higher-loop levels are studied. The developed method of calculation of the spectral function enables one to obtain the explicit expression for the latter at an arbitrary loop level. By making use of the derived spectral function the proper expression for the R-ratio is calculated up to the five-loop level and its properties are examined. It is shown that the loop convergence of the proper expression for the R-ratio is better than that of its commonly employed approximation. The impact of the omitted higher-order π{sup 2}-terms on the latter is also discussed. (orig.)

  1. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Rong Ju

    Full Text Available To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin.The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95 than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09, and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79, with each p<0.01. Significant differences were also found in plasma BNP levels among the three groups (p<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that myostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each p<0.05.Plasma myostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  2. Multisensory Stimulation to Improve Low- and Higher-Level Sensory Deficits after Stroke: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinga, Angelica Maria; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; van der Smagt, Maarten Jeroen; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; van Ee, Raymond; Nijboer, Tanja Cornelia Wilhelmina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to integrate and assess evidence for the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation (i.e., stimulating at least two of the following sensory systems: visual, auditory, and somatosensory) as a possible rehabilitation method after stroke. Evidence was considered with a focus on low-level, perceptual (visual, auditory and somatosensory deficits), as well as higher-level, cognitive, sensory deficits. We referred to the electronic databases Scopus and PubMed to search for articles that were published before May 2015. Studies were included which evaluated the effects of multisensory stimulation on patients with low- or higher-level sensory deficits caused by stroke. Twenty-one studies were included in this review and the quality of these studies was assessed (based on eight elements: randomization, inclusion of control patient group, blinding of participants, blinding of researchers, follow-up, group size, reporting effect sizes, and reporting time post-stroke). Twenty of the twenty-one included studies demonstrate beneficial effects on low- and/or higher-level sensory deficits after stroke. Notwithstanding these beneficial effects, the quality of the studies is insufficient for valid conclusion that multisensory stimulation can be successfully applied as an effective intervention. A valuable and necessary next step would be to set up well-designed randomized controlled trials to examine the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation as an intervention for low- and/or higher-level sensory deficits after stroke. Finally, we consider the potential mechanisms of multisensory stimulation for rehabilitation to guide this future research.

  3. Genes with stable DNA methylation levels show higher evolutionary conservation than genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijie; Lv, Wenhua; Luan, Meiwei; Zheng, Jiajia; Shi, Miao; Zhu, Hongjie; Li, Jin; Lv, Hongchao; Zhang, Mingming; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-11-24

    Different human genes often exhibit different degrees of stability in their DNA methylation levels between tissues, samples or cell types. This may be related to the evolution of human genome. Thus, we compared the evolutionary conservation between two types of genes: genes with stable DNA methylation levels (SM genes) and genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels (FM genes). For long-term evolutionary characteristics between species, we compared the percentage of the orthologous genes, evolutionary rate dn/ds and protein sequence identity. We found that the SM genes had greater percentages of the orthologous genes, lower dn/ds, and higher protein sequence identities in all the 21 species. These results indicated that the SM genes were more evolutionarily conserved than the FM genes. For short-term evolutionary characteristics among human populations, we compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) degree in HapMap populations and 1000 genomes project populations. We observed that the SM genes had lower SNP densities, and higher degrees of LD in all the 11 HapMap populations and 13 1000 genomes project populations. These results mean that the SM genes had more stable chromosome genetic structures, and were more conserved than the FM genes.

  4. Higher Serum Levels of Free ĸ plus λ Immunoglobulin Light Chains Ameliorate Survival of Hemodialysis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Caspari, Christina; Scholze, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Impaired immune function is common in patients with chronic renal failure. Now, we determined whether serum levels of free immunoglobulin light chains predict mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study...... of 160 hemodialysis patients with a median follow-up of 15 months (interquartile range, 3-44 months). Serum levels of free κ and λ immunoglobulin light chains were measured at the start of the study. The primary end point was mortality from any cause. Results: In survivors, median serum levels of free κ...... plus λ immunoglobulin light chains were significantly higher compared with nonsurvivors (p light chains above the median compared with patients with serum levels below the median of 210 mg...

  5. β-endorphins Plasma Level is Higher in Lean Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, M; Milewicz, T; Spałkowska, M; Krzyczkowska-Sendrakowska, M; Wasyl, B; Pełka, A; Krzysiek, J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation the β-endorphin plasma levels in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome as well as in women without this disorder. The associations between β-endorphins and other laboratory parameters were also investigated. 31 women lean, defined as women with normal range body mass index, 15 with polycystic ovary syndrome and 16 without this disorder were included to the study. In all the patients the level of β-endorphins was measured. Also the diagnostic laboratory profile including hormone assessment was made in all patients. There were significant differences in β-endorphin levels between the 2 groups. The β-endorphin level was higher in the polycystic ovary syndrome group compared to the healthy controls (15.5±4.37 pg/ml vs. 6.9±2.47 pg/ml, ppolycystic ovary syndrome group. Increase in β-endorphin level of 1 pg/ml was associated with an increase of cortisol at 8 am level of 1.134 µg/dl and decrease of sex hormone binding globuline of 0.948 nmol/l in polycystic ovary syndrome group. Our study showed that the levels of β-endorphins were significantly higher in lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome than in lean controls. Moreover, β-endorphins levels were found to be correlated with other hormonal parameters. In this respect, β-endorphins may play a role in polycystic ovary syndrome pathophysiology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Higher TSH Levels Within the Normal Range Are Associated With Unexplained Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orouji Jokar, Tahereh; Fourman, Lindsay T; Lee, Hang; Mentzinger, Katherine; Fazeli, Pouneh K

    2018-02-01

    Unexplained infertility (UI), defined as the inability to conceive after 12 months of unprotected intercourse with no diagnosed cause, affects 10% to 30% of infertile couples. An improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying UI could lead to less invasive and less costly treatment strategies. Abnormalities in thyroid function and hyperprolactinemia are well-known causes of infertility, but whether thyrotropin (TSH) and prolactin levels within the normal range are associated with UI is unknown. To compare TSH and prolactin levels in women with UI and women with a normal fertility evaluation except for an azoospermic or severely oligospermic male partner. Cross-sectional study including women evaluated at a large academic health system between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012 with normal TSH (levels within the normal range of the assay and ≤5 mIU/L) and normal prolactin levels (≤20 ng/mL) and either UI (n = 187) or no other cause of infertility other than an azoospermic or severely oligospermic partner (n = 52). TSH and prolactin. Women with UI had significantly higher TSH levels than controls [UI: TSH 1.95 mIU/L, interquartile range: (1.54, 2.61); severe male factor: TSH 1.66 mIU/L, interquartile range: (1.25, 2.17); P = 0.003]. This finding remained significant after we controlled for age, body mass index, and smoking status. Nearly twice as many women with UI (26.9%) had a TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L compared with controls (13.5%; P < 0.05). Prolactin levels did not differ between the groups. Women with UI have higher TSH levels compared with a control population. More studies are necessary to determine whether treatment of high-normal TSH levels decreases time to conception in couples with UI. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  7. Higher glucose levels associated with lower memory and reduced hippocampal microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerti, Lucia; Witte, A Veronica; Winkler, Angela; Grittner, Ulrike; Rujescu, Dan; Flöel, Agnes

    2013-11-12

    For this cross-sectional study, we aimed to elucidate whether higher glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose levels exert a negative impact on memory performance and hippocampal volume and microstructure in a cohort of healthy, older, nondiabetic individuals without dementia. In 141 individuals (72 women, mean age 63.1 years ± 6.9 SD), memory was tested using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Peripheral levels of fasting HbA1c, glucose, and insulin and 3-tesla MRI scans were acquired to assess hippocampal volume and microstructure, as indicated by gray matter barrier density. Linear regression and simple mediation models were calculated to examine associations among memory, glucose metabolism, and hippocampal parameters. Lower HbA1c and glucose levels were significantly associated with better scores in delayed recall, learning ability, and memory consolidation. In multiple regression models, HbA1c remained strongly associated with memory performance. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that beneficial effects of lower HbA1c on memory are in part mediated by hippocampal volume and microstructure. Our results indicate that even in the absence of manifest type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance, chronically higher blood glucose levels exert a negative influence on cognition, possibly mediated by structural changes in learning-relevant brain areas. Therefore, strategies aimed at lowering glucose levels even in the normal range may beneficially influence cognition in the older population, a hypothesis to be examined in future interventional trials.

  8. Higher-level fusion for military operations based on abductive inference: proof of principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleev, Aleksandar V.; Josephson, John

    2006-04-01

    The ability of contemporary military commanders to estimate and understand complicated situations already suffers from information overload, and the situation can only grow worse. We describe a prototype application that uses abductive inferencing to fuse information from multiple sensors to evaluate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses that are close to the levels of abstraction needed for decision making (approximately JDL levels 2 and 3). Abductive inference (abduction, inference to the best explanation) is a pattern of reasoning that occurs naturally in diverse settings such as medical diagnosis, criminal investigations, scientific theory formation, and military intelligence analysis. Because abduction is part of common-sense reasoning, implementations of it can produce reasoning traces that are very human understandable. Automated abductive inferencing can be deployed to augment human reasoning, taking advantage of computation to process large amounts of information, and to bypass limits to human attention and short-term memory. We illustrate the workings of the prototype system by describing an example of its use for small-unit military operations in an urban setting. Knowledge was encoded as it might be captured prior to engagement from a standard military decision making process (MDMP) and analysis of commander's priority intelligence requirements (PIR). The system is able to reasonably estimate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses based on information from multiple sensors. Its inference processes can be examined closely to verify correctness. Decision makers can override conclusions at any level and changes will propagate appropriately.

  9. Why do French civil-law countries have higher levels of financial efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2011-01-01

    The dominance of English common-law countries in prospects for financial development in the legal-origins debate has been debunked by recent findings. Using exchange rate regimes and economic/monetary integration oriented hypotheses, this paper proposes an “inflation uncertainty theory” in providing theoretical justification and empirical validity as to why French civil-law countries have higher levels of financial allocation efficiency. Inflation uncertainty, typical of floating exchange rat...

  10. Do higher levels of education and skills in an area benefit wider society?

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Formal schooling increases earnings and provides other individual benefits. However, societal benefits of education may exceed individual benefits. Research finds that increased average education levels in an area are correlated with higher earnings, even for locals with relatively little education. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates appear to have especially strong external effects, due to their role in stimulating innovation and economic growth. Several strat...

  11. Higher Levels of Albuminuria within the Normal Range Predict Incident Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Forman, John P.; Fisher, Naomi D.L.; Schopick, Emily L.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2008-01-01

    Higher levels of albumin excretion within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease in high-risk individuals. Whether incremental increases in urinary albumin excretion, even within the normal range, are associated with the development of hypertension in low-risk individuals is unknown. This study included 1065 postmenopausal women from the first Nurses’ Health Study and 1114 premenopausal women from the second Nurses’ Health Study who had an albumin/creatinine ratio

  12. Visual Acuity does not Moderate Effect Sizes of Higher-Level Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, James R.; Bennett, Ilana J.; Allen, Philip A.; Madden, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Declining visual capacities in older adults have been posited as a driving force behind adult age differences in higher-order cognitive functions (e.g., the “common cause” hypothesis of Lindenberger & Baltes, 1994). McGowan, Patterson and Jordan (2013) also found that a surprisingly large number of published cognitive aging studies failed to include adequate measures of visual acuity. However, a recent meta-analysis of three studies (LaFleur & Salthouse, 2014) failed to find evidence that visual acuity moderated or mediated age differences in higher-level cognitive processes. In order to provide a more extensive test of whether visual acuity moderates age differences in higher-level cognitive processes, we conducted a more extensive meta-analysis of topic. Methods Using results from 456 studies, we calculated effect sizes for the main effect of age across four cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, and perception/language) separately for five levels of visual acuity criteria (no criteria, undisclosed criteria, self-reported acuity, 20/80-20/31, and 20/30 or better). Results As expected, age had a significant effect on each cognitive domain. However, these age effects did not further differ as a function of visual acuity criteria. Conclusion The current meta-analytic, cross-sectional results suggest that visual acuity is not significantly related to age group differences in higher-level cognitive performance—thereby replicating LaFleur and Salthouse (2014). Further efforts are needed to determine whether other measures of visual functioning (e.g. contrast sensitivity, luminance) affect age differences in cognitive functioning. PMID:27070044

  13. Higher cortisol levels at diurnal trough predict greater attentional bias towards threat in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamata, Yuko; Izawa, Shuhei; Sato, Eisuke; Komi, Shotaro; Murayama, Norio; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Inoue, Yusuke; Tagaya, Hirokuni

    2013-11-01

    Attentional bias (AB), selective information processing towards threat, can exacerbate anxiety and depression. Despite growing interest, physiological determinants of AB are yet to be understood. We examined whether stress hormone cortisol and its diurnal variation pattern contribute to AB. Eighty-seven healthy young adults underwent assessments for AB, anxious personality traits, depressive symptoms, and attentional function. Salivary cortisol was collected at three time points daily (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and bedtime) for 2 consecutive days. We performed: (1) multiple regression analysis to examine the relationships between AB and the other measures and (2) analysis of variance (ANOVA) between groups with different cortisol variation patterns for the other measures. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher cortisol levels at bedtime (pattention and cortisol measurement at three time points daily. We showed that higher cortisol levels at bedtime and blunted cortisol variation are associated with greater AB. Individuals who have higher cortisol levels at diurnal trough might be at risk of clinical anxiety or depression but could also derive more benefits from the attentional-bias-modification program. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender in higher level education and professional training in water supply and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, M

    1997-01-01

    While more women are participating in training and decision-making in the local-level drinking water and sanitation sectors, this is not occurring at higher levels because of the gender imbalance that remains in higher-level sector education and professional training programs. This imbalance is characterized by gender-biased science curricula and by a lack of female role models. Even in developing countries where female enrollment outstrips that of men in higher education, women commonly prepare for careers in areas that are less valued than sanitary engineering. This imbalance ignores the fact that women can perform technical and managerial skills as competently as men. A similar male-dominated pattern emerges in professional training courses offered by development agencies, especially courses that focus on management issues. Low female school attendance begins when girls must forego primary school attendance to help their mothers in domestic chores, such as fetching water. Inadequate sanitation facilities for girls at schools also pose impediments. Efforts to improve this situation include 1) a promotional brochure developed by the Botswana Ministry of Education to raise awareness of the importance of men's and women's work as technicians and engineers in the water and sanitation sector among secondary school students; 2) creation of free schools and universities in Oman, where the numbers of women in previously male-dominated jobs are increasing; and 3) promotion of female education at the Asian Institute of Technology.

  15. Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives: Learning Business Informatics at Higher Educational Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suša Dalia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term digital natives refer to those born since the 1980s and have been growing up surrounded by technology. On the other hand, digital immigrants are born before 1980s and learned how to use technology later in life. Objectives: Goal of the paper is to explore attitudes of digital native students on the course of Business Informatics at higher educational institutions (HEIs, and to compare them with attitudes of digital immigrants. Methods/Approach: The survey was conducted in 2014 using the sample of first-year Business Informatics students from the Faculty of Economics and Business in Zagreb, Croatia. Results were compared with a research conducted in 1998. Results: In comparison to an earlier research, digital natives perceive their level of competency in the subject of Business Informatics before teaching practices much higher compared to digital immigrants. However, there is still an increase in digital native students’ level of competency in the subject before and after teaching practices. Conclusions: The research confirms a shift from digital immigrants to digital natives who show high level of interest for Business Informatics course topics and find its utility very high. However, constant improvement of delivering knowledge is needed in order to keep these high levels.

  16. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  17. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  18. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  19. Higher levels of circulating chemerin in both lean and obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademoglu, E; Berberoglu, Z; Carlioglu, A; Dellal, F; Gorar, S; Alphan, Z; Uysal, S; Karakurt, F

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare serum chemerin levels in nonobese and overweight/obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with lean controls. Seventy women with newly diagnosed or untreated PCOS and 38 age-matched nonobese healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Participants with PCOS were categorized as nonobese (Body Mass Index [BMI] PCOS group than in nonobese PCOS women but did not reach statistical significance. Nonobese healthy controls had significantly lower chemerin levels than two PCOS groups (Pwomen with PCOS than in other two groups. Also, these two parameters were higher in lean patients with PCOS than in healthy controls (PPCOS women but also in nonobese PCOS women. The physiological significance of elevated serum chemerin in PCOS remains unclear.

  20. Evaluation of higher order statistics parameters for multi channel sEMG using different force levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2011-01-01

    The electromyograpy (EMG) signal provides information about the performance of muscles and nerves. The shape of the muscle signal and motor unit action potential (MUAP) varies due to the movement of the position of the electrode or due to changes in contraction level. This research deals with evaluating the non-Gaussianity in Surface Electromyogram signal (sEMG) using higher order statistics (HOS) parameters. To achieve this, experiments were conducted for four different finger and wrist actions at different levels of Maximum Voluntary Contractions (MVCs). Our experimental analysis shows that at constant force and for non-fatiguing contractions, probability density functions (PDF) of sEMG signals were non-Gaussian. For lesser MVCs (below 30% of MVC) PDF measures tends to be Gaussian process. The above measures were verified by computing the Kurtosis values for different MVCs.

  1. Hijab and Depression: Does the Islamic Practice of Veiling Predict Higher Levels of Depressive Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R; Husain, Altaf; Zidan, Tarek

    2017-07-01

    Hijab or veiling is commonly practiced by Muslim women but remains controversial in the broader secular society. Some Western feminists argue that veiling is an oppressive behavior that negatively affects women by, for example, engendering depression. This article tests this hypothesis with a national sample of American Muslim women (N = 194). The results of the regression analysis did not support the hypothesis. Indeed, women who veiled more frequently reported lower, rather than higher, levels of depressive symptoms. In other words, wearing the hijab appears to be a protective factor in the area of depression. Given the prevalence of depression among women, the results have important implications for practice with Muslim women at both the micro and the macro levels. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  2. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar organic food industry is fueled by consumer perception that organic food is healthier (greater nutritional value and fewer toxic chemicals). Studies of the nutrient content in organic foods vary in results due to differences in the ground cover and maturity of the organic farming operation. Nutrient content also varies from farmer to farmer and year to year. However, reviews of multiple studies show that organic varieties do provide significantly greater levels of vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus than non-organic varieties of the same foods. While being higher in these nutrients, they are also significantly lower in nitrates and pesticide residues. In addition, with the exception of wheat, oats, and wine, organic foods typically provide greater levels of a number of important antioxidant phytochemicals (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and carotenoids). Although in vitro studies of organic fruits and vegetables consistently demonstrate that organic foods have greater antioxidant activity, are more potent suppressors of the mutagenic action of toxic compounds, and inhibit the proliferation of certain cancer cell lines, in vivo studies of antioxidant activity in humans have failed to demonstrate additional benefit. Clear health benefits from consuming organic dairy products have been demonstrated in regard to allergic dermatitis.

  3. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  4. Higher Dialysate Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Levels Are Associated with Peritoneal Membrane Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeoungjee; Johnson, David W.; Vesey, David A.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Pascoe, Elaine M.; Clarke, Margaret; Topley, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients develop progressive and cumulative peritoneal injury with longer time spent on PD. The present study aimed to a) describe the trend of peritoneal injury biomarkers, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), in incident PD patients, b) to explore the capacity of dialysate MMP-2 to predict peritoneal solute transport rate (PSTR) and peritonitis, and c) to evaluate the influence of neutral pH, low glucose degradation product (GDP) PD solution on these outcomes. ♦ Methods: The study included 178 participants from the balANZ trial who had at least 1 stored dialysate sample. Changes in PSTR and peritonitis were primary outcome measures, and the utility of MMP-2 in predicting these outcomes was analyzed using multilevel linear regression and multilevel Poisson regression, respectively. ♦ Results: Significant linear increases in dialysate MMP-2 and TIMP-1 concentrations were observed (p < 0.001), but neither was affected by the type of PD solutions received (MMP-2: p = 0.07; TIMP-1: p = 0.63). An increase in PSTR from baseline was associated with higher levels of MMP-2 (p = 0.02), and the use of standard solutions over longer PD duration (p = 0.001). The risk of peritonitis was independently predicted by higher dialysate MMP-2 levels (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per ng/mL 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005 – 1.02, p = 0.002) and use of standard solutions (Biocompatible solution: IRR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24 – 0.85, p = 0.01). ♦ Conclusion: Dialysate MMP-2 and TIMP-1 concentrations increased with longer PD duration. Higher MMP-2 levels were associated with faster PSTR and future peritonitis risk. Administration of biocompatible solutions exerted no significant effect on dialysate levels of MMP-2 or TIMP-1, but did counteract the increase in PSTR and the risk of peritonitis associated with the use of standard PD solutions. This is the first longitudinal study to examine

  5. The Neuromuscular Qualities of Higher- and Lower-Level Mixed-Martial-Arts Competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Beckman, Emma M; Kelly, Vincent G; Haff, G Gregory

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether the maximal strength, impulse, and power characteristics of competitive mixed-martial-arts (MMA) athletes differ according to competition level. Twenty-nine male semiprofessional and amateur MMA competitors were stratified into either higher-level (HL) or lower-level (LL) performers on the basis of competition grade and success. The 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) squat was used to assess lower-body dynamic strength, and a spectrum of impulse, power, force, and velocity variables were evaluated during an incremental-load jump squat. In addition, participants performed an isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) and 1RM bench press to determine whole-body isometric force and upper-body dynamic strength capabilities, respectively. All force and power variables were expressed relative to body mass (BM). The HL competitors produced significantly superior values across a multitude of measures. These included 1RM squat strength (1.84 ± 0.23 vs 1.56 ± 0.24 kg BM; P = .003), in addition to performance in the incremental-load jump squat that revealed greater peak power (P = .005-.002), force (P = .002-.004), and velocity (P = .002-.03) at each load. Higher measures of impulse (P = .01-.04) were noted in a number of conditions. Average power (P = .002-.02) and velocity (P = .01-.04) at all loads in addition to a series of rate-dependent measures were also superior in the HL group (P = .005-.02). The HL competitors' 1RM bench-press values approached significantly greater levels (P = .056) than the LL group's, but IMTP performance did not differ between groups. Maximal lower-body neuromuscular capabilities are key attributes distinguishing HL from LL MMA competitors. This information can be used to inform evidenced-based training and performance-monitoring practices.

  6. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  7. Lower serotonin level and higher rate of fibromyalgia syndrome with advancing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Melahat; Namlı Kalem, Muberra; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Yüce, Tuncay; Sahin Aker, Seda; Koç, Acar; Genc, Hakan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between changes in serotonin levels during pregnancy and fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) and the relationships between FS and the physical/psychological state, biochemical and hormonal parameters, which may be related to the musculoskeletal system. This study is a prospective case-control study conducted with 277 pregnant women at the obstetric unit of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, in the period between January and June 2015. FS was determined based on the presence or absence of the 2010 ACR diagnostic criteria and all the volunteers were asked to answer the questionnaires as Fibromyalgia Impact Criteria (FIQ), Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale (SS), Beck Depression Inventory and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Biochemical and hormonal markers (glucose, TSH, T4, Ca (calcium), P (phosphate), PTH (parathyroid hormone) and serotonin levels) relating to muscle and bone metabolism were measured. In the presence of fibromyalgia, the physical and psychological parameters are negatively affected (p serotonin levels may contribute to the development of fibromyalgia but this was not statistically significant. The Beck Depression Inventory scale statistically showed that increasing scores also increase the risk of fibromyalgia (p serotonin levels in women with FS are lower than the control group and that serotonin levels reduce as pregnancy progresses. Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with FS are higher than the control group. The presence of depression increases the likelihood of developing FS at a statistically significant level. Serotonin impairment also increases the chance of developing FS, but this correlation has not been shown to be statistically significant.

  8. Evaluation of environmental education at higher secondary level in the model schools of Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, F.; Ahmad, U.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) has emerged as a new dimension in the dimensional sphere. It is a process aimed at the developing world's population, which should be well aware and concerned about the total environment and its associated problems and which should have knowledge, attitudes, skills, motivation and commitment to work, individually and collectively, towards the solution of current problems and the prevention of new ones. Evaluation is a process that provides feedback for the improvement of any project. The present study has been designed to investigate the current performance of EE at higher secondary level. Data were collected from Biology teachers and F. Sc. students of Islamabad Model Colleges, through separate questionnaires. The information collected from teachers was regarding their qualifications and involvement, institutional provisions and their opinion about EE. Students were evaluated on the basis of EE. The results showed that Biology is the only subject that contains a considerable content of EE at higher secondary level. In these institutions, although there is no deficiency of competent teaching staff, A/V aids and other physical facilities , the teacher's involvement and utility of teaching aids is not up to the mark, Book/magazines relevant to EE are not available in most of the institutions. Although students have enough knowledge and awareness about environmental issues, there is a need to produce appropriate skills and attitudes for making them 'environment-friendly'. (author)

  9. Management competencies in higher education: Perceived job importance in relation to level of training required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L. Potgieter

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this article is to determine the relationship between a specific set of HOD managerial competencies identified as being important for the job and the level of training required in terms of these competencies. Motivation for the study: Research has provided evidence that HODs are often ill-prepared for their managerial role, which requires the development of specific management competencies to enable them to fulfil their roles effectively. Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental quantitative survey design approach was followed and correlational data analyses were performed. A cross-sectional sample of 41 HODs of 22 departments from various faculties of a higher education institution in Gauteng participated in this study. The Management Competency Inventory (MCI of Visser (2009 was applied as a measure. Main findings: The Pearson product-moment analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between the competencies indicated as being important for the job and the level of training required. Practical/Managerial implications: Training needs of HODs should be formally assessed and the depth of training required in terms of the identified management competencies should be considered in the design of training programmes. Contributions/Value-add: The information obtained in this study may potentially serve as a foundation for the development of an HOD training programme in the South African higher education environment.

  10. Stress Coping Levels and Mental States of Police Vocational School of Higher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Yildirim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: This study was planned and carried out with the objective of determining stress coping levels and mental state of students attending Police Vocational Schools of Higher Education, in addition to factors effecting these. MATERIAL and METHOD: This desciptive and cross-sectional study consisted of 300 male students enrolled in the 2005-2006 academic year, at Police Vocational School of Higher Education, located in central Erzincan, Turkey. In this study, instead of random sampling, 281 (93.7% students who were present at the school at the time of the study and accepted to partipate in it were included. Data for this study was collected using a desciptive form created by the researchers, Rosenbaum’s Learned Resourcefulness Scale (RLRS and The Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R. During the data analysis, frequency distributions, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA were used; and for analysis of independent groups, t-test was used. RESULTS: Among the students, it was determined that 54.8% were 1. grade, 90.7% had their parents living together, 43.5% had a father and 60.5% had a mother who graduated from elementary school, fathers of 23.5% of students were retired, 93.6% of them had mothers who were home makers. In addition, it was found out that 78.6% of students chose their profession willingly, the average family income of 71.5% of students were at medium levels, 82.9% always believed in themselves and 63.3% of students did not smoke. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that second grade students, those with mothers who are highly educated and those who trusted themselved all the time had significantly high stress coping levels; students who chose their own profession, believed in themselves and did not smoke had significantly low levels of mental symptom indications. CONCLUSION: In this study, the students were determined to posess averge levels of stress coping skills and they were found

  11. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  12. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Ferrer-Paris

    Full Text Available We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1 is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2 has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3 what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea and 1,193 genera (66.3%. The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp. from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae, and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae. We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids, but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.

  14. Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Paris, José R; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L; Donaldson, John

    2013-01-01

    We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.

  15. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  16. Fusion methodologies in crisis management higher level fusion and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book emphasizes a contemporary view on the role of higher level fusion in designing crisis management systems. It provides the formal foundations, architecture, and implementation strategies required for building dynamic current and future situational pictures. It goes on to discuss the state-of-the-art computational approaches to designing such processes and their inherent challenges. This book integrates recent advances in decision theory with those in fusion methodology to define an end-to-end framework for decision support in crisis management. The text discusses modern fusion and decision support methods for dealing with heterogeneous and often unreliable, low fidelity, contradictory, and redundant data and information, as well as rare, unknown, unconventional or even unimaginable critical situations. The book also examines the role of context in situation management, cognitive aspects of decision making and situation management, approaches to domain representation, visualization, as well as the rol...

  17. Level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of higher education institution servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Vidal Andreato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of Brazilian higher education institution servers. Method: 134 public servants (80 men and 54 women were evaluated to estimate body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist/hip ratio (WHR, aerobic fitness and blood pressure at rest. Results: most of the servers were classified as insufficiently active (62%. BMI results show a high prevalence of obesity (39% mild and 33% moderate. WC showed a prevalence of high (30% and very high risk (27%, and WHR showed a prevalence of high (28% or very high risk (12%. The ergometric test showed that 41% of the servers presented very poor (17% or poor (24% aerobic fitness and 23%, regular aerobic fitness. Considering blood pressure, 15% of the servers presented blood pressure considered as borderline and 30% considered as hypertension. No associations were found between physical condition (active or inactive with WC (χ2 = 3.4, p = 0.179, WHR (χ2 = 7.0, p = 0.073, aerobic fitness (χ2 = 4.3, p = 0.368 and blood pressure (χ2 = 2.9, p = 0.734. Although no association was observed between physical activity and BMI (χ2 = 7.6, p = 0.062, significance values (p < 0.07 suggested an association trend, with worse ratings for the sedentary group. Closing remarks: among higher education institution servers, there is high prevalence of physical inactivity, obesity and risk factors, and the majority of the sample had aerobic fitness below recommended levels.

  18. Coastal climate is associated with elevated solar irradiance and higher 25(OH)D level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrie, M P C; Wheeler, B W; White, M P; Sarran, C E; Osborne, N J

    2015-04-01

    There is evidence that populations living close to the coast have improved health and wellbeing. Coastal environments are linked to promotion of physical activity through provision of safe, opportune, aesthetic and accessible spaces for recreation. Exposure to coastal environments may also reduce stress and induce positive mood. We hypothesised that coastal climate may influence the vitamin D status of residents and thus partly explain benefits to health. Ecological and cross-sectional analyses were designed to elucidate the connection between coastal residence and vitamin D status. We divided residential data, from developed land use areas and the Lower Super Output Areas or Data Zones (Scotland) of the 1958 Birth Cohort participants, into the following coastal bands: 50 km. This relationship was modified by latitude with settlements at a lower latitude exhibiting a greater effect. Individuals living closer to the coast in England had higher vitamin D levels than those inland, particularly in autumn. Geographic location may influence biochemistry and health outcomes due to environmental factors. This can provide benefits in terms of vitamin D status but may also pose a risk due to higher skin cancer risk. We provide further evidence in support of the claim that coastal environments can provide opportunities for health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plant species richness sustains higher trophic levels of soil nematode communities after consecutive environmental perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarz, Simone; Ciobanu, Marcel; Wright, Alexandra J; Ebeling, Anne; Vogel, Anja; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-07-01

    The magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events are predicted to increase in the future due to ongoing climate change. In particular, floods and droughts resulting from climate change are thought to alter the ecosystem functions and stability. However, knowledge of the effects of these weather events on soil fauna is scarce, although they are key towards functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Plant species richness has been shown to affect the stability of ecosystem functions and food webs. Here, we used the occurrence of a natural flood in a biodiversity grassland experiment that was followed by a simulated summer drought experiment, to investigate the interactive effects of plant species richness, a natural flood, and a subsequent summer drought on nematode communities. Three and five months after the natural flooding, effects of flooding severity were still detectable in the belowground system. We found that flooding severity decreased soil nematode food-web structure (loss of K-strategists) and the abundance of plant feeding nematodes. However, high plant species richness maintained higher diversity and abundance of higher trophic levels compared to monocultures throughout the flood. The subsequent summer drought seemed to be of lower importance but reversed negative flooding effects in some cases. This probably occurred because the studied grassland system is well adapted to drought, or because drought conditions alleviated the negative impact of long-term soil waterlogging. Using soil nematodes as indicator taxa, this study suggests that high plant species richness can maintain soil food web complexity after consecutive environmental perturbations.

  20. A higher level language data acquisition system (III) - the user data acquisition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.; Gulbranson, R.L.; Huang, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear physics group at the University of Illinois has implemented a data acquisition system using modified versions of the Concurrent Pascal and Sequential Pascal languages. The user, a physicist, develops a data acquisition ''operating system'', written in these higher level languages, which is tailored to the planned experiment. The user must include only those system functions which are essential to the task, thus improving efficiency. The user program is constructed from simple modules, mainly consisting of Concurrent Pascal PROCESSes, MONITORs, and CLASSes together with appropriate data type definitions. Entire programs can be put together using ''cut and paste'' techniques. Planned enhancements include the automating of this process. Systems written for the Perkin-Elmer 3220 using this approach can easily exceed 2 kHz data rates for event by event handling; 20 kHz data rates have been achieved by the addition of buffers in the interrupt handling software. These rates have been achieved without the use of special-purpose hardware such as micro-programmed branch drivers. With the addition of such devices even higher data rates should be possible

  1. Asking a Great Question: A Librarian Teaches Questioning Skills to First-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    In a single one-hour session, first-year medical students were taught a framework for differentiating between lower-order questions that lead to knowledge of facts and higher-order questions that lead to integration of concepts and deeper learning, thereby preparing them for problem-based learning (PBL). Students generated lists of questions in response to an assertion prompt and categorized them according to Bloom's Taxonomy. These data were analyzed in addition to data from the course exam, which asked them to formulate a higher-level question in response to a prompt. Categorizing questions according to Bloom's Taxonomy was a more difficult task for students than was formulating higher-order questions. Students reported that the skills that they learned were used in subsequent PBL sessions to formulate higher-order learning objectives that integrated new and previously-learned concepts.

  2. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  3. Coping with Higher Sea Levels and Increased Coastal Flooding in New York City. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Bader, Daniel A.; Orton, Philip; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The 837 km New York City shoreline is lined by significant economic assets and dense population vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal flooding. After Hurricane Sandy in 2012, New York City developed a comprehensive plan to mitigate future climate risks, drawing upon the scientific expertise of the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), a special advisory group comprised of university and private-sector experts. This paper highlights current NPCC findings regarding sea level rise and coastal flooding, with some of the City's ongoing and planned responses. Twentieth century sea level rise in New York City (2.8 cm/decade) exceeded the global average (1.7 cm/decade), underscoring the enhanced regional risk to coastal hazards. NPCC (2015) projects future sea level rise at the Battery of 28 - 53 cm by the 2050s and 46 - 99 cm by the 2080s, relative to 2000 - 2004 (mid-range, 25th - 75th percentile). High-end SLR estimates (90th percentile) reach 76 cm by the 2050s, and 1.9 m by 2100. Combining these projections with updated FEMA flood return period curves, assuming static flood dynamics and storm behavior, flood heights for the 100-year storm (excluding waves) attain 3.9-4.5 m (mid-range), relative to the NAVD88 tidal datum, and 4.9 m (high end) by the 2080s, up from 3.4 m in the 2000s. Flood heights with a 1% annual chance of occurrence in the 2000s increase to 2.0 - 5.4% (mid-range) and 12.7% per year (high-end), by the 2080s. Guided by NPCC (2013, 2015) findings, New York City has embarked on a suite of initiatives to strengthen coastal defenses, employing various approaches tailored to specific neighborhood needs. NPCC continues its collaboration with the city to investigate vulnerability to extreme climate events, including heat waves, inland floods and coastal storms. Current research entails higher-resolution neighborhood-level coastal flood mapping, changes in storm characteristics, surge height interactions with sea level rise, and stronger engagement

  4. Does foreign direct investment cause higher levels of productivity or do higher levels of productivity attract foreign direct investment? A study in transforming brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Campos Pereira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2013v15n35p82   With this research, it was aimed to investigate the factors that determine the investment decision of foreign investors in the Brazilian industry. Evidence shows that foreign investors are attracted not only by more productive and best performing sectors, but depending on the adopted strategy, they may choose investment projects in sectors that have lower performance levels which offer the potential for growth and the and improvement of efficiency levels and capacity. Granger causality test indicated that not only foreign investment gives more productivity gains, but also this productivity induces more foreign investment inputs. Foreign investors are also attracted by those sectors, which use their assets in an inefficient way in order to generate profits. These sectors may be attractive to foreign investors that want to invest in a more aggressive growth policy in order to get advantages on the availability of inefficiently used assets. These sectors may be also attractive targets to investors who seek to compete directly in relatively less competitive sectors.

  5. Overgeneral autobiographical memory predicts higher prospective levels of depressive symptoms and intrusions in borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Kris; Pieters, Guido; Claes, Laurence; Berens, Ann; Raes, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM), the tendency to retrieve categories of events from autobiographical memory instead of single events, is found to be a reliable predictor for future mood disturbances and post-traumatic symptom severity. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report co-morbid episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, we investigated whether OGM would predict depression severity and (post-traumatic) stress symptoms in BPD patients. At admission (N = 54) and at six-month follow-up (N ≥ 31), BPD patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd edition (BDI-II), and the Impact of Event Scale. OGM at baseline predicted (a) higher levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up and (b) more intrusions related to a stressful event over and above baseline levels of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, and intrusions, respectively. No association was found between memory specificity and event-related avoidance at follow-up. Despite previous findings suggesting that OGM in BPD is less robust than in MDD and PTSD, our results suggest that memory specificity in BPD patients may have some relevance for the course of depressive and stress symptomatology in BPD.

  6. Science education through open and distance learning at Higher Education level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita NIGAM

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The changes faced by the society in the past few decades brought revolution in all areas. The job requirements have undergone change tremendously. The emergence of e-culture, e-education, e-governance, e-training, e-work sites and so on questioned the capacity of conventional face to face education in catering to all and relevance of existing job related skills to a great extent in the emerging global society. Today, every one has to update his/her educational and/or professional skills and competencies to cope up with the emerging work challenges. This is more so in the field of science and technology. At the same time, it is impossible to cater to educational and training opportunities to one and all those who aspire for it through the conventional set up. The distance and open learning (ODL seems to be one of the viable alternatives. Today, the success and viability of ODL is accepted globally. Coulter (1989, through a study demonstrated that ODL is a cost-effective medium in providing educational opportunities. Similarly Holmberg (1981 also mentioned ODL as a systematic teaching-learning medium by using variety of medium for imparting learning. The present study is an attempt to study the experiences of the open science learners of IGNOU on different aspect of the science higher education. Here a questionnaire was used to collect the data and responses from 81 students enrolled for B. Sc. from IGNOU were collected. The findings of the study reported that society has undergone drastic changes in the last few decades. The revolution led due to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have widely affected all aspects of society. The emerging jobs require entirely new skills and competencies i.e., employment in BPOs or switching over to e-governance, e-Banking and e- based sectors. Even e-learning has made numerous expectations from teachers and other personnel. The use of ICTs in almost every field needs adequately trained

  7. Why is mean sea level along the Indian coast higher in the Bay of Bengal than in the Arabian Sea?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    Levelling observations conducted during the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India (1858-1909) and subsequent observations showed that mean sea level along the coast of India is higher in the Bay of Bengal than in the Arabian Sea, the difference...

  8. Higher levels of albuminuria within the normal range predict incident hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, John P; Fisher, Naomi D L; Schopick, Emily L; Curhan, Gary C

    2008-10-01

    Higher levels of albumin excretion within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease in high-risk individuals. Whether incremental increases in urinary albumin excretion, even within the normal range, are associated with the development of hypertension in low-risk individuals is unknown. This study included 1065 postmenopausal women from the first Nurses' Health Study and 1114 premenopausal women from the second Nurses' Health Study who had an albumin/creatinine ratio who did not have diabetes or hypertension. Among the older women, 271 incident cases of hypertension occurred during 4 yr of follow-up, and among the younger women, 296 incident cases of hypertension occurred during 8 yr of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine prospectively the association between the albumin/creatinine ratio and incident hypertension after adjustment for age, body mass index, estimated GFR, baseline BP, physical activity, smoking, and family history of hypertension. Participants who had an albumin/creatinine ratio in the highest quartile (4.34 to 24.17 mg/g for older women and 3.68 to 23.84 mg/g for younger women) were more likely to develop hypertension than those who had an albumin/creatinine ratio in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio 1.76 [95% confidence interval 1.21 to 2.56] and hazard ratio 1.35 [95% confidence interval 0.97 to 1.91] for older and younger women, respectively). Higher albumin/creatinine ratios, even within the normal range, are independently associated with increased risk for development of hypertension among women without diabetes. The definition of normal albumin excretion should be reevaluated.

  9. Higher Bilirubin Levels of Healthy Living Liver Donors Are Associated With Lower Posttransplant Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangbin; Yang, Ju Dong; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Ko, Justin Sangwook; Kim, Jong Man; Shin, Jun Chul; Son, Hee Jeong; Gwak, Mi Sook; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Gaab Soo

    2016-09-01

    Serum bilirubin level, which may reflect the host defense against increased oxidative stress, is inversely associated with the risk of cancer development. In liver transplantation, the intrinsic bilirubin metabolism of donor liver is subsequently translated into recipient. Thus, we hypothesized that liver transplantation conducted with living donors with higher serum bilirubin reduces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence. Two hundred fifty recipients who underwent liver transplantation for treating HCC within the Milan criteria were included in the study. The association between donor preoperative total bilirubin concentration and the risk of HCC recurrence was analyzed using the Fine and Gray regression model with posttransplant death as a competing risk event with adjustment for tumor biology including α-fetoprotein, histological differentiation, and microvascular invasion. All donors were confirmed to have no underlying hepatobiliary diseases or hematological disorders. Donor preoperative total bilirubin concentration was 0.7 mg/dL in median and ranged from 0.2 to 2.7 mg/dL. Thirty-five (14.0%) recipients developed HCC recurrence. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that donor preoperative total bilirubin concentration was inversely associated with the recurrence risk (hazard ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.72; P = 0.013). The highest (≥1.0 mg/dL) versus lowest (≤0.6 mg/dL) tertile of donor preoperative total bilirubin showed a significant reduction of the recurrence risk (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.70; P = 0.006). Hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence risk decreases in relation to the increase in total serum bilirubin level of healthy living donors without underlying hepatobiliary or hematological disorders. Further validation of bilirubin as a potent anticancer substance against HCC is warranted.

  10. The Relationship Between Higher Education Students’ Consumption Values and Levels of Their Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati CEMALOĞLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationships between the as consumers of education of higher education students’ consumption values and levels of their satisfaction. The population of this study is consist of 421 students who are studying at Akdeniz University, Faculty of Science, Biology in the academic year 2012-2013. Sample of this study is 156 students who selected by simple random sampling method. Descriptive statistics, Pearson-Product Moment correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were performed to analyze the data. According to the results of study, that students have consumption values in dimension of conditional value, functional value-the image and functional value-the experiential; relatively they have low consumptions values in dimension of functional value-the usefulness of a degree, epistemic value, social value have emerged. Besides the students’ are partly satisfied services offered by university; a positive and significant relationship between students’ perceptions of consumer value and satisfaction was found out

  11. Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Breed

    Full Text Available Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development.

  12. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non-humans......In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions......, that circulates across networks. If I wrote you a love letter would you write back? (and thousands of other questions’ ) (封不回的情書?千言萬語無人回 was commissioned by the Microwave International New Media Festival 2012....

  13. Higher levels of spontaneous breathing reduce lung injury in experimental moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nadja C; Güldner, Andreas; Beda, Alessandro; Rentzsch, Ines; Uhlig, Christopher; Dittrich, Susanne; Spieth, Peter M; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Kasper, Michael; Koch, Thea; Richter, Torsten; Rocco, Patricia R; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2014-11-01

    pressure/airway pressure release ventilation more than 60%. In this model of moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome in pigs, biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation with levels of spontaneous breath higher than usually seen in clinical practice, that is, more than 30% of total minute ventilation, reduced lung injury with improved respiratory function, as compared with protective controlled mechanical ventilation.

  14. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  15. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Feddo B; Briaire, Jeroen J; van der Marel, Kim S; Verbist, Berit M; Frijns, Johan H M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and the distance to the modiolus of each electrode contact were determined using high-resolution CT scanning. The threshold levels (T-levels) and maximum comfort levels (M-levels) at 1 year of follow-up were determined. The degree of speech perception of the subjects was evaluated during routine clinical follow-up. The depths of insertion of all the electrode contacts were determined. The distance to the modiolus was significantly smaller at the basal and apical cochlear parts compared with that at the middle of the cochlea (p basal end of the cochlea (3.4 dB). Additionally, the M-levels, which were fitted in our clinic using a standard profile, also increased toward the basal end, although with a lower amplitude (1.3 dB). Accordingly, the dynamic range decreased toward the basal end (2.1 dB). No correlation was found between the distance to the modiolus and the T-level or the M-level. Furthermore, the correlation between the insertion depth and stimulation levels was not affected by the duration of deafness, age at implantation or the time since implantation. Additionally, the T-levels showed a significant correlation with the speech perception scores (p stimulation levels of the cochlear implants were affected by the intracochlear position of the electrode contacts, which were determined using postoperative CT scanning. Interestingly, these levels depended on the insertion depth, whereas the distance to the modiolus did not affect the stimulation levels. The T-levels increased toward the basal end of the cochlea. The level profiles were independent of the overall stimulation levels and were not affected by the biographical data of the patients, such as the duration of deafness, age at

  16. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Baier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3, to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3 calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3 is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3 to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS directly measured net P(O3 in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3 was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3 was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3 for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3 behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3 and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2 discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3 discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model–data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3, then these results would imply that P(O3 in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3 regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone

  17. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.—Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. PMID:26718888

  18. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.-Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. © FASEB.

  19. The intermediates take it all: asymptotics of higher criticism statistics and a powerful alternative based on equal local levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontscharuk, Veronika; Landwehr, Sandra; Finner, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The higher criticism (HC) statistic, which can be seen as a normalized version of the famous Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, has a long history, dating back to the mid seventies. Originally, HC statistics were used in connection with goodness of fit (GOF) tests but they recently gained some attention in the context of testing the global null hypothesis in high dimensional data. The continuing interest for HC seems to be inspired by a series of nice asymptotic properties related to this statistic. For example, unlike Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, GOF tests based on the HC statistic are known to be asymptotically sensitive in the moderate tails, hence it is favorably applied for detecting the presence of signals in sparse mixture models. However, some questions around the asymptotic behavior of the HC statistic are still open. We focus on two of them, namely, why a specific intermediate range is crucial for GOF tests based on the HC statistic and why the convergence of the HC distribution to the limiting one is extremely slow. Moreover, the inconsistency in the asymptotic and finite behavior of the HC statistic prompts us to provide a new HC test that has better finite properties than the original HC test while showing the same asymptotics. This test is motivated by the asymptotic behavior of the so-called local levels related to the original HC test. By means of numerical calculations and simulations we show that the new HC test is typically more powerful than the original HC test in normal mixture models. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Serum Magnesium Levels in Preterm Infants Are Higher Than Adult Levels: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Rigo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg is an essential mineral in the body, impacting the synthesis of biomacromolecules, bone matrix development, energy production, as well as heart, nerve, and muscle function. Although the importance of Mg is evident, reference values for serum Mg (sMg in pediatric patients (more specifically, in neonates are not well established. This systematic literature review and meta-analysis (using 47 eligible studies aims to quantify normal and tolerable ranges of sMg concentrations during the neonatal period and to highlight the factors influencing Mg levels and the importance of regulating sMg levels during pregnancy and birth. In newborns without Mg supplementation during pregnancy, magnesium levels at birth (0.76 (95% CI: 0.52, 0.99 mmol/L were similar to that of mothers during pregnancy (0.74 (95% CI: 0.43, 1.04 mmol/L, but increased during the first week of life (0.91 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.26 mmol/L before returning to adult levels. This pattern was also seen in newborns with Mg supplementation during pregnancy, where the average was 1.29 (95% CI: 0.50, 2.08 mmol/L at birth and 1.44 (95% CI: 0.61, 2.27 mmol/L during the first week of life. Factors influencing these levels include prenatal Mg supplementation, gestational age, birth weight, renal maturity/function, and postnatal Mg intake. Elevated Mg levels (>2.5 mmol/L have been associated with an increased risk of mortality, admission into intensive care, hypotonia, hypotension, and respiratory depression but sMg concentrations up to 2.0 mmol/L appear to be well tolerated in neonates, requiring adequate survey and minimal intervention.

  1. New levels of Ta II with energies higher than 72,000 cm−1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Zaheer; Windholz, Laurentius

    2014-01-01

    We studied the hyperfine structure of Tantalum lines appearing in a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrum. Hundreds of lines of Ta in this spectrum are still unclassified; most of them, especially in the UV region, belong to Ta II. When investigating such lines we found 14 new levels of Ta II. These new levels are the highest-lying known Ta II levels and do not belong to the already known configurations. - Highlights: • We report the discovery of 14 even energy levels of the first ion of Tantalum (Ta II). • Their energy ranges from 72,000 to 81,000 cm −1 . • For comparison, up to now only even levels between 0 and 44,000 cm −1 were known. • These levels belong to up to now unknown electron configurations. • With help of these levels, approximately 100 spectral lines of Ta II can be classified

  2. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, F.B. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Marel, K.S. van der; Verbist, B.M.; Frijns, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. DESIGN: A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and

  3. Evaluating the Level of Degree Programmes in Higher Education: Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexwinkel, Trudy; Haenen, Jacques; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the level of degree programmes became crucial with the Bologna Agreement in 1999 when European ministers agreed to implement common bachelor's and master's degree programmes and a common system of quality assurance. The European Quality Assurance system demands evaluation of the degree programme level based on valid and reliable…

  4. Evaluating the level of degree programmes in higher education: The case of nursing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, G.B.; Haenen, J.P.P.; Pilot, A.

    2013-01-01

    The European Quality Assurance system demands that the degree programme level is represented in terms of quantitative outcomes to be valid and reliable. To meet this need the Educational Level Evaluator (ELE) was devised. This conceptually designed procedure with instrumentation aiming to evaluate

  5. Higher level of NT-proCNP in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasiuk, Ryszard; Lipowski, Dariusz; Szlufik, Stanislaw; Peplinska, Krystyna; Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Malgorzata

    2016-02-12

    Aminoterminal pro-C type natriuretic peptide (NT-proCNP) as an active form of CNP, has been recently proven to be a potential marker of sepsis and to be linked to inflammatory diseases. So far, there are no studies describing the level of NT-proCNP in meningitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of NT-proCNP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with meningitis and to compare it with the serum level of CRP and procalcitonin (PCT) in this group of patients. The results were compared to serum levels of CRP, PCT and CSF levels of cytosis, protein and lactate. NT-proCNP levels were statistically significant between the control group and the meningitis groups (p=0.02; R=0.3). We also noted a correlation between the level of NT-proCNP in the CSF of all of the study groups (controls and meningitis patients) and the CSF levels of cytosis (p0.05; R=0.11). These results suggest that NT-proCNP could be a potential marker of meningitis, but it cannot be used to distinguish between the types of meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janice E.

    2010-01-01

    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  7. Tensions in Higher Education Leadership: Towards a Multi-Level Model of Leadership Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Richard; Petrov, Georgy; Gosling, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    UK higher education is undergoing a period of significant change that generates a series of tensions and difficulties for universities and university leaders. This paper explores these tensions through analysis of findings from a study comprising 152 semi-structured face-to-face interviews in 12 UK universities. Building on from theories of…

  8. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  9. Lowering the Cost Barrier to Higher Education for Undocumented Students: A Promising University-Level Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangasamy, Andrew; Horan, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Undocumented students, many of Hispanic origin, face among the strictest cost barriers to higher education in the United States. Lack of legal status excludes them from most state and all federal financial aid programs. Furthermore, most states require them to pay out-of-state tuition rates at publicly supported institutions. In a new direction,…

  10. Higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in middle-aged men with low serum cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.A. Steegmans; A.W. Hoes (Arno); A.A.A. Bak (Annette); E. van der Does (Emiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Investigators from several studies have reported a positive relationship between low cholesterol levels and death due to violent causes (eg, suicide and accidents), possibly mediated by depressive symptoms, aggression or hostility, or

  11. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is associated with higher levels of myeloperoxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jacobijne J.; Meuwese, Marijn C.; van Miert, Joram N. I.; Kastelein, Arnoud; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Piek, Jan J.; Trip, Mieke D.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is linked to augmented endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. Myeloperoxidase plays an important role in the initiation, progression, and the complications of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether myeloperoxidase levels are increased in

  12. Higher levels of depression are associated with reduced global bias in visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W; Cooper, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Negative moods have been associated with a tendency to prioritise local details in visual processing. The current study investigated the relation between depression and visual processing using the Navon task, a standard task of local and global processing. In the Navon task, global stimuli are presented that are made up of many local parts, and the participants are instructed to report the identity of either a global or a local target shape. Participants with a low self-reported level of depression showed evidence of the expected global processing bias, and were significantly faster at responding to the global, compared with the local level. By contrast, no such difference was observed in participants with high levels of depression. The reduction of the global bias associated with high levels of depression was only observed in the overall speed of responses to global (versus local) targets, and not in the level of interference produced by the global (versus local) distractors. These results are in line with recent findings of a dissociation between local/global processing bias and interference from local/global distractors, and support the claim that depression is associated with a reduction in the tendency to prioritise global-level processing.

  13. Mind the Gap: An Initial Analysis of the Transition of a Second Level Curriculum Reform to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; Faulkner, Fiona; Breen, Cormac; Carr, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article details an initial analysis of the transition of a second level curriculum reform to higher education in Ireland. The reform entitled 'Project Maths' involved changes to what second level students learn in mathematics, how they learn it, and how they are assessed. Changes were rolled out nationally on a phased basis in September 2010.…

  14. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower-Level Word Processes, Higher-Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension Performance in Proficient Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…

  15. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives: Learning Business Informatics at Higher Educational Level

    OpenAIRE

    Suša, Dalia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The term digital natives refer to those born since the 1980s and have been growing up surrounded by technology. On the other hand, digital immigrants are born before 1980s and learned how to use technology later in life. Objectives: Goal of the paper is to explore attitudes of digital native students on the course of Business Informatics at higher educational institutions (HEIs), and to compare them with attitudes of digital immigrants. Methods/Approach: The survey was conducted i...

  17. Phase transitions between lower and higher level management learning in times of crisis: an experimental study based on synergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liening, Andreas; Strunk, Guido; Mittelstadt, Ewald

    2013-10-01

    Much has been written about the differences between single- and double-loop learning, or more general between lower level and higher level learning. Especially in times of a fundamental crisis, a transition between lower and higher level learning would be an appropriate reaction to a challenge coming entirely out of the dark. However, so far there is no quantitative method to monitor such a transition. Therefore we introduce theory and methods of synergetics and present results from an experimental study based on the simulation of a crisis within a business simulation game. Hypothesized critical fluctuations - as a marker for so-called phase transitions - have been assessed with permutation entropy. Results show evidence for a phase transition during the crisis, which can be interpreted as a transition between lower and higher level learning.

  18. Higher Serum Uric Acid Levels in Multiple Sclerosis Patients After Longterm Interferon Beta Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toncev Gordana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Interferon beta is a safe and efficacious treatment for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS. However, there is some evidence that uric acid, a scavenger of peroxynitrite, is involved in MS pathology and that increasing serum uric acid levels might have beneficial therapeutic effects. The aim of this study is to investigate serum uric acid levels in MS patients before and after long-term interferon beta treatment. Blood samples from 101 MS patients (53 receiving interferon beta 1a treatment and 48 receiving interferon beta 1b treatment; 28 male and 73 female; mean age at treatment onset 32,4±7,3 years; mean duration of disease at treatment onset 5,1±3,2 years; mean EDSS 2±1,3 before and after interferon beta treatment (mean treatment duration 3±2 years were analysed. Serum uric acid levels were measured using a quantitative enzymatic assay (Elitech Diagnostic, Sees, France. MS patients had significantly increased serum uric acid levels after treatment compared with those at the beginning of treatment (272,31±78,21 μmol/l vs. 210,17±53,65 μmol/l; p=0,019, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U-test. We did not find significant differences in serum uric acid levels between the interferon beta 1a and interferon beta 1b groups (p=0.98. These results indicate that one of the beneficial effects of interferon beta in MS might be based on the elevation of serum uric acid levels as a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite.

  19. Sports practice, resilience, body and sexual esteem, and higher educational level are associated with better sexual adjustment in men with acquired paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Passos Porto, Isabela; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Sacomori, Cinara

    2016-10-12

    To analyse the association of team sports practice and physical and psychological factors with sexual adjustment in men with paraplegia. More specifically, we aimed to compare athletes and non-athletes regarding sexual adjustment, resilience, body and sexual self-esteem, and functional independence. Cross-sectional study with a paired design. The study included 60 men with paraplegia (30 athletes and 30 non-athletes). We used a sociodemographic questionnaire (age, education, and time since injury); a physical and sexual esteem questionnaire; a resilience questionnaire; and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The dependent variable, sexual adjustment, was determined by the sum of 5 questions about sexual frequency, desire, and satisfaction and physical and psychological adjustment. Data were analysed by using the χ2 test, Wilcoxon's test, Spearman's correlation test, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis, with p Athletes had significantly higher sexual adjustment (p = 0.001) and higher body and sexual esteem (p esteem, higher educational level, and higher resilience levels (R2 = 58%). There was an interaction between sports practice and body and sexual esteem (p = 0.024; R2 = 62%). Participation in sports influenced the sexual adjustment of the men with paraplegia, even when controlled for psychological (resilience and body and sexual esteem) and physical (functional independence) aspects.

  20. Higher levels of state depression in masculine than in feminine nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Steptoe, A.; Wardle, J.

    Studies using identical measures have identified different levels of depression in different countries or cultures. Until now, however, explanations for such differences, other than methodological ones, have not been empirically addressed. It was hypothesized and found that soft or feminine nations

  1. The Effects of Higher Education/Military Service on Achievement Levels of Police Academy Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Allen

    This study compared levels of achievement of three groups of Houston (Texas) police academy cadets: those with no military service but with 60 or more college credit hours, those with military service and 0 hours of college credit, and those with military service and 1 to 59 hours of college credit. Prior to 1991, police cadets in Houston were…

  2. The relation between otoacoustic emissions and the broadening of the auditory filter for higher levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, A. R.; Dreschler, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    The active behaviour of outer hair cells (OHCs) is often used to explain two phenomena, namely otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and the level dependence of auditory filters. Correlations between these two phenomena may contribute to the evidence of these hypotheses. In this study auditory filters were

  3. Higher circulating levels of IGF-1 are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbieri, Michelangela; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Kimura, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Mutations that inhibit the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) extend the lifespan of worms, flies and mice. However, it appears that relatively low circulating levels of IGF-1 in humans are associated with aging-related diseases and diminished longevity. As leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is os...

  4. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  5. Evaluating the level of degree programmes in higher education: Conceptual design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, G.B.; Haenen, J.P.P.; Pilot, A.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the level of degree programmes became crucial with the Bologna Agreement in 1999 when European ministers agreed to implement common bachelor’s and master’s degree programmes and a common system of quality assurance. The European Quality Assurance system demands evaluation of the degree

  6. Two-photon excitation of higher sodium levels and population transfer in a flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, C.A. van.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the higher excited states of alkali atoms in the inelastic collisional interaction between excited alkali atoms and flame particles have been made. The emphasis is on an exploration of the possibilities that a flame, in combination with a laser, offers for such studies, rather than on obtaining detailed information concerning collisional transitions. Sodium atoms in a H 2 -O 2 -Ar flame at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 1800 K were chosen as the system to be investigated. (C.F.)

  7. Associations between Depressive State and Impaired Higher-Level Functional Capacity in the Elderly with Long-Term Care Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Soshiro; Hayashi, Chisato; Sugiura, Keiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Depressive state has been reported to be significantly associated with higher-level functional capacity among community-dwelling elderly. However, few studies have investigated the associations among people with long-term care requirements. We aimed to investigate the associations between depressive state and higher-level functional capacity and obtain marginal odds ratios using propensity score analyses in people with long-term care requirements. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on participants aged ≥ 65 years (n = 545) who were community dwelling and used outpatient care services for long-term preventive care. We measured higher-level functional capacity, depressive state, and possible confounders. Then, we estimated the marginal odds ratios (i.e., the change in odds of impaired higher-level functional capacity if all versus no participants were exposed to depressive state) by logistic models using generalized linear models with the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) for propensity score and design-based standard errors. Depressive state was used as the exposure variable and higher-level functional capacity as the outcome variable. The all absolute standardized differences after the IPTW using the propensity scores were functional capacity.

  8. Lower Squalene Epoxidase and Higher Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Protein Levels Are Involved in Reduced Serum Cholesterol Levels in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michihara, Akihiro; Mido, Mayuko; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Yurika

    2015-01-01

    A lower serum cholesterol level was recently shown to be one of the causes of stroke in an epidemiological study. Spontaneously hypertensive rats stroke-prone (SHRSP) have lower serum cholesterol levels than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the lower serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP, we determined whether the amounts of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes or the receptor and transporter involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux in the liver were altered in SHRSP. When the mRNA levels of seven cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase and squalene epoxidase (SQE) levels in the liver of SHRSP were significantly lower than those in WKY. SQE protein levels were significantly reduced in tissues other than the brain of SHRSP. No significant differences were observed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (uptake of serum LDL-cholesterol) or ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (efflux of cholesterol from the liver/formation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) protein levels in the liver and testis between SHRSP and WKY, whereas scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1: uptake of serum HDL-cholesterol) protein levels were higher in the livers of SHRSP. These results indicated that the lower protein levels of SQE and higher protein levels of SRB1 in the liver were involved in the reduced serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP.

  9. Taking Advertising Literacy to a Higher Level: An Exploratory Multilevel Analysis of Children's Advertising Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    De Pauw, Pieter; Cauberghe, Veroline; Hudders, Liselot

    2017-01-01

    As few studies focus on how children’s coping with advertising is affected by their environment, the present study uses multilevel analysis to explore the role of both primary (i.e. parents) and secondary socializing agents (i.e. classmates, teachers) in children’s advertising literacy. The results show that children’s cognitive advertising literacy and attitudes toward advertising are to a large extent determined by class-level processes. Their moral advertising literacy is a more individual...

  10. Higher levels of serum lycopene are associated with reduced mortality in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Meza, Jane L; Soliman, Ghada A; Islam, K M Monirul; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of mortality. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation may play an important role in the high mortality of individuals with metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have suggested that lycopene intake might be related to the reduced oxidative stress and decreased inflammation. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the hypothesis that lycopene is associated with mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome. A total of 2499 participants 20 years and older with metabolic syndrome were divided into 3 groups based on their serum concentration of lycopene using the tertile rank method. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from years 2001 to 2006 was linked to the mortality file for mortality follow-up data through December 31, 2011, to determine the mortality rate and hazard ratios (HR) for the 3 serum lycopene concentration groups. The mean survival time was significantly higher in the group with the highest serum lycopene concentration (120.6 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 118.8-122.3) and the medium group (116.3 months; 95% CI, 115.2-117.4), compared with the group with lowest serum lycopene concentration (107.4 months; 95% CI, 106.5-108.3). After adjusting for possible confounding factors, participants in the highest (HR, 0.61; P = .0113) and in the second highest (HR, 0.67; P = .0497) serum lycopene concentration groups showed significantly lower HRs of mortality when compared with participants in the lower serum lycopene concentration. The data suggest that higher serum lycopene concentration has a significant association with the reduced risk of mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic......As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  12. Contributions of the Higher Vibrational Levels of Nitric Oxide to the Radiative Cooling of the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, K.; Yonker, J. D.; Bailey, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 5.3μm emission from the vibrational levels of nitric oxide (NO) and the 15μm emission from CO2 are known to be the dominant sources of cooling in the thermosphere above 100 km. The 5.3μm emission is primarily produced by the radiative de-excitation of NO from its first vibrational level, which in turn is mainly populated by the collisions of NO with atomic oxygen. However, the reaction of atomic nitrogen (N(4S) and N(2D)) with O2 yields vibrationally excited NO with v>1, resulting in a radiative cascade which produces more than one 5.3μm photon per vibrationally excited NO molecule. This chemiluminescence is approximately 20% in magnitude of the emission produced by thermal collisions. These additional sources of the 5.3μm emission are introduced into a one dimensional photochemical model and the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) to assess their variability with latitude and solar activity, and to also understand their effect on the thermospheric energy budget. The results from the models are compared with data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment on-board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite, which has been making measurements of the infrared radiative response of the mesosphere and thermosphere to solar inputs since 2002.

  13. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. External supports improve knee performance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed individuals with higher kinesiophobia levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Gulcan; Ulusoy, Burak; Ozer, Hamza; Baltaci, Gul; Richards, Jim

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of knee brace (KB) and kinesiotaping (KT) on functional performance and self-reported function in individuals six months post-ACLR who desired to return to their pre-injury activity levels but felt unable to do so due to kinesiophobia. This was a cross-sectional study involving 30 individuals six months post-ACLR with Tampa Kinesiophobia Scores >37. Individuals were tested under three conditions: no intervention, KB and KT in a randomized order. Isokinetic concentric quadriceps and hamstring strength tests, one leg hop test, star excursion balance test and global rating scale were assessed under the three conditions. The involved side showed that KT and KB significantly increased the hop distance (P=0.01, P=0.04) and improved balance (P=0.01, P=0.04), respectively, but only KB was found to increase the quadriceps and hamstring peak torques compared to no intervention (P<0.05). Individuals reported having better knee function with KB when compared to no intervention (P<0.001) and KT (P=0.03). Both KB and KT have positive effects in individuals post-ACLR which may assist in reducing kinesiophobia when returning to their pre-injury activity levels, with the KB appearing to offer the participants better knee function compared to KT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  16. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Springer, Ramit Ravona; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (

  17. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors lower hemoglobin and hematocrit only in renal transplant recipients with initially higher levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasevic, I; Zaputovic, L; Zibar, L; Begic, I; Zutelija, M; Klanac, A; Majurec, I; Simundic, T; Minazek, M; Orlic, L

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed the effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on evolution of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Htc) levels as well as on the evaluation of kidney graft function in stable renal transplant recipients (RTRs) in respect with initially higher or lower Hb and Htc values. The study group comprised of 270 RTRs with stable graft function. Besides other prescribed antihypertensive therapy, 169 of them have been taking RAAS inhibitors. We wanted to analyze the effect of the use of RAAS inhibitors on Hb and Htc in patients with initially higher or lower Hb/Htc values. For this analysis, only RTRs that were taking RAAS inhibitors were stratified into two groups: one with higher Hb and Htc (initial Hb≥150g/L and Htc≥45%) and another one with lower Hb and Htc (initial Hb<150g/L and Htc<45%) values. Thirty-four RTRs with initially higher Hb and 41 RTRs with initially higher Htc had a statistically significant decrease in Hb (p=0.006) and Htc (p<0.0001) levels after 12-months of follow-up. In the group of patients with initially lower Hb (135 RTRs) and Htc (128 RTRs) there was a significant increase in Hb (p=0.0001) and Htc (p=0.004) levels through the observed period. The use of RAAS inhibitors has been associated with a trend of slowing renal insufficiency in RTRs (p=0.03). RAAS inhibitors lower Hb and Htc only in RTRs with initially higher levels. In patients with initially lower Hb and Htc levels, the use of these drugs is followed by beneficial impact on erythropoiesis and kidney graft function. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors in the development of higher levels of reading literacy: Argumentation skills in educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest levels of reading literacy, as defined within PISA study, include the ability to use various cognitive skills, with argumentative skills being one of the most important among them. In the present study our goal was to reveal some of the factors that influence the development of argumentative skills in Serbian schools. We investigated the extent to which argumentative skills are required in PISA reading literacy tasks, as well as the specific difficulties our students have faced on these tasks, through an analysis of student performance. We also conducted an analysis of the educational practice - by doing in-depth interviews with teachers and content analysis of students' textbooks. The results revealed that: 1 Argumentations skills are an important requirement within PISA tasks; 2 Serbian students are mostly successful at basic tasks of recognizing arguments or providing arguments for the given position; they face difficulties answering the tasks which require precise formulation of relevant arguments as well as those demanding meta-cognitive skills (e.g. recognizing persuasive strategies in the given text. Their performance is particularly poor on tasks requiring the combination of information from different sources or information presented in different formats (text, tables, or graphs; 3 There is a significant gap between the requirements for argumentation skills our students usually encounter and PISA reading literacy tasks. In this paper we discuss some of the difficulties and obstacles to encouraging the development of argumentative thinking.

  19. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugananthan, Sambavi; Lai, Ching Tat; Gridneva, Zoya; Mark, Peter J; Geddes, Donna T; Kakulas, Foteini

    2016-11-08

    Human milk (HM) contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM ( p < 0.0001, n = 287). No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content ( p = 0.17, n = 287), supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89). These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  20. The effects of higher hemoglobin levels on mortality and hospitalization in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofsthun, Norma; Labrecque, John; Lacson, Eduardo; Keen, Marcia; Lazarus, J Michael

    2003-05-01

    The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin for the treatment of anemia of chronic renal failure provided the opportunity to correct anemia in this patient population. The optimal target hemoglobin for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains controversial. A large database of hemodialysis patients was analyzed to determine whether increasing hemoglobin level above the current Kidney Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) recommendations was associated with increased risk of mortality and hospitalization. A longitudinal study of hemodialysis patients in Fresenius Medical Care-North America facilities was performed. Selection was restricted to patients in the census for 6 consecutive months from July 1, 1998 through June 30, 2000. Patient mean hemoglobin and other covariates measured during the initial 6 months were related to survival, number of hospitalizations, and length of stay over the subsequent 6 months of follow-up. Patients with hemoglobin /=13 g/dL had an adjusted length of stay of 9.6 days compared to 10.9 days for those with 11 12 g/dL.

  1. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambavi Kugananthan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM (p < 0.0001, n = 287. No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content (p = 0.17, n = 287, supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89. These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  2. Virtual reality laparoscopy: which potential trainee starts with a higher proficiency level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschold, M; Schröder, M; Kauff, D W; Gorbauch, T; Herzer, M; Lang, H; Kneist, W

    2011-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery requires technical skills distinct from those used in conventional surgery. The aim of this prospective study was to identify personal characteristics that may predict the attainable proficiency level of first-time virtual reality laparoscopy (VRL) trainees. Two hundred and seventy-nine consecutive undergraduate medical students without experience attended a standardized VRL training. Performance data of an abstract and a procedural task were correlated with possible predictive factors providing potential competence in VRL. Median global score requirement status was 86.7% (interquartile range (IQR) 75-93) for the abstract task and 74.4% (IQR 67-88) for the procedural task. Unadjusted analysis showed significant increase in the global score in both tasks for trainees who had a gaming console at home and frequently used it as well as for trainees who felt self-confident to assist in a laparoscopic operation. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified frequency of video gaming (often/frequently vs. rarely/not at all, odds ratio: abstract model 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.2; 3.6), P = 0.009; virtual reality operation procedure 2.4 (95% confidence interval 1.3; 4.2), P = 0.003) as a predictive factor for VRL performance. Frequency of video gaming is associated with quality of first-time VRL performance. Video game experience may be used as trainee selection criteria for tailored concepts of VRL training programs.

  3. Explaining participation differentials in Dutch higher education: The impact of subjective success probabilities on level choice and field choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Need, A.; Jong, U. de

    2010-01-01

    In this article we examine whether subjective estimates of success probabilities explain the effect of social origin, sex, and ethnicity on students' choices between different school tracks in Dutch higher education. The educational options analysed differ in level (i.e. university versus

  4. Changing conditions require a higher level of entrepreneurship by farmers: use of an interactive strategic management tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.C.G.; Lakner, D.; Smit, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Changing conditions require a higher level of entrepreneurship by farmers. The method of interactive strategic management (ISM) has been developed to support farmers in developing strategic skills. The method is based on three principles: (1) emphasis is on the entrepreneur; (2) interaction with the

  5. Modelling in Action. Scaffolding High School Students to Higher Levels of Autonomy: The School's Elevator and the Inverse Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo Rivas, Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we focus our discussion on the strategy we follow to scaffold high school students to successfully build models of a real-life system. Our aim is for students to gradually achieve a higher level of autonomy and to use and further develop their mathematical knowledge. We present work students did when we asked them to build a model…

  6. Critical Sociological Thinking and Higher-Level Thinking: A Study of Sociologists' Teaching Goals and Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Otto, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    We argue that the literature on critical thinking in sociology has conflated two different skill sets: critical sociological thinking and higher-level thinking. To begin to examine how sociologists weigh and cultivate these skill sets, we interviewed 20 sociology instructors and conducted a content analysis of 26 assignments. We found that while…

  7. Higher levels of masculine gender role stress in masculine than in feminine nations. A thirteen-nations study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; van Well, S.; Kolk, A.M.; Barelds, D.P.H.; Oei, T.P.S.; Lau, P.Y.

    2013-01-01

    It was hypothesized that societies that put greater emphasis on men being rigidly committed to culturally accepted models of masculinity (nations with high Hofstede MASculinity scores) would report higher mean national levels of masculine gender role stress (MGRS) than societies that emphasize such

  8. Higher Levels of Masculine Gender Role Stress in Masculine than in Feminine Nations : A Thirteen-Nations Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W. A.; van Well, Sonja; Kolk, Annemarie M.; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Oei, Tian P. S.; Lau, Pui Yi

    It was hypothesized that societies that put greater emphasis on men being rigidly committed to culturally accepted models of masculinity (nations with high Hofstede MASculinity scores) would report higher mean national levels of masculine gender role stress (MGRS) than societies that emphasize such

  9. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  10. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  11. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  12. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  13. Explaining participation differentials in Dutch higher education : the impact of subjective success probabilities on level choice and field choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Need, A.; Jong, U. de

    2010-01-01

    In this article we examine whether subjective estimates of success probabilities explain the effect of social origin, sex, and ethnicity on students’ choices between different school tracks in Dutch higher education. The educational options analysed differ in level (i.e. university versus

  14. Dengue-Immune Humans Have Higher Levels of Complement-Independent Enhancing Antibody than Complement-Dependent Neutralizing Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Konishi, Eiji

    2017-09-25

    Dengue is the most important arboviral disease worldwide. We previously reported that most inhabitants of dengue-endemic countries who are naturally immune to the disease have infection-enhancing antibodies whose in vitro activity does not decrease in the presence of complement (complement-independent enhancing antibodies, or CiEAb). Here, we compared levels of CiEAb and complement-dependent neutralizing antibodies (CdNAb) in dengue-immune humans. A typical antibody dose-response pattern obtained in our assay system to measure the balance between neutralizing and enhancing antibodies showed both neutralizing and enhancing activities depending on serum dilution factor. The addition of complement to the assay system increased the activity of neutralizing antibodies at lower dilutions, indicating the presence of CdNAb. In contrast, similar dose-response curves were obtained with and without complement at higher dilutions, indicating higher levels of CiEAb than CdNAb. For experimental support for the higher CiEAb levels, a cocktail of mouse monoclonal antibodies against dengue virus type 1 was prepared. The antibody dose-response curves obtained in this assay, with or without complement, were similar to those obtained with human serum samples when a high proportion of D1-V-3H12 (an antibody exhibiting only enhancing activity and thus a model for CiEAb) was used in the cocktail. This study revealed higher-level induction of CiEAb than CdNAb in humans naturally infected with dengue viruses.

  15. Cross-Age Mentoring to Support A-Level Pupils' Transition into Higher Education and Undergraduate Students' Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alana I.

    2014-01-01

    Two challenges identified for psychology higher education are supporting entry students' transition, and supporting graduates' transition into employment. The evaluation of the first phase of a cross-age mentoring action research project targeting these issues is presented; eight psychology undergraduates mentored 20 A-level psychology pupils in…

  16. Reading Comprehension, Working Memory and Higher-Level Language Skills in Children with SLI and/or Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…

  17. Higher serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in helicobacter pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Nemati, Maryam; Rezayati, Mohammad Taghi; Nabizadeh, Mansooreh; Ebrahimi, Medhi

    2013-07-01

    H. pylori infection has been associated with some autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum concentrations of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in H. pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients, H. pylori-infected asymptomatic carriers and a healthy control group. A Total of 100 H. pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients, 65 asymptomatic carriers and 30 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (as a control group) were enrolled into study. Serum samples of participants tested for the levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies by use of ELISA. The mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in peptic ulcer group was significantly higher in comparison to the control group (ppeptic ulcer patients and asymptomatic carriers groups regarding the mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies. The mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor in men with peptic ulcer was significantly higher compared to the group of healthy men (ppeptic ulcer patients or asymptomatic carriers groups, the mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor was higher than that in healthy women, but the differences were not statistically significant. Also, no significant differences were observed between men and women with peptic ulcer, asymptomatic carriers control groups based on the serum levels of anti-nuclear antibodies. The results showed higher serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in H. pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer disease which represent the H. pylori-related immune disturbance in these patients. Additional follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the clinical significance of these autoantibodies in patients with H. pylori infection.

  18. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Ravona Springer, Ramit; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (levels may have an impact on cognitive function.

  19. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  20. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  1. The effect of modifiable healthy practices on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Otsuka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the effects of the accumulation of 8 modifiable practices related to health, including smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, sleeping hours, body mass index, dietary diversity, ikigai (life worth living, and health checkup status, on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 1269 men and women aged 40 to 79 years at baseline (1997–2000 who participated in a follow-up postal survey (2013. Higher-level functional capacity was measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (total score and 3 subscales: instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, and social role. The odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for a decline in higher-level functional capacity in the follow-up study according to the total number of healthy practices were analyzed using the lowest category as a reference. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs for the total score of higher-level functional capacity, which declined according to the total number of healthy practices (0–4, 5–6, 7–8 groups were 1.00 (reference, 0.63 (0.44–0.92, and 0.54 (0.31–0.94. For the score of social role decline, multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs were 1.00 (reference, 0.62 (0.40–0.97, and 0.46 (0.23–0.90, respectively (P for trend = 0.04. Having more modifiable healthy practices, especially in social roles, may protect against a decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly community dwellers in Japan.

  2. The effect of modifiable healthy practices on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Rei; Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Tomida, Makiko; Kato, Yuki; Nakamoto, Mariko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of the accumulation of 8 modifiable practices related to health, including smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, sleeping hours, body mass index, dietary diversity, ikigai (life worth living), and health checkup status, on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 1269 men and women aged 40 to 79 years at baseline (1997-2000) who participated in a follow-up postal survey (2013). Higher-level functional capacity was measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (total score and 3 subscales: instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, and social role). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for a decline in higher-level functional capacity in the follow-up study according to the total number of healthy practices were analyzed using the lowest category as a reference. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the total score of higher-level functional capacity, which declined according to the total number of healthy practices (0-4, 5-6, 7-8 groups) were 1.00 (reference), 0.63 (0.44-0.92), and 0.54 (0.31-0.94). For the score of social role decline, multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) were 1.00 (reference), 0.62 (0.40-0.97), and 0.46 (0.23-0.90), respectively (P for trend = 0.04). Having more modifiable healthy practices, especially in social roles, may protect against a decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly community dwellers in Japan.

  3. Health status among long-term breast cancer survivors suffering from higher levels of fatigue: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Salvago, Francisco; Galiano-Castillo, Noelia; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cruz-Fernández, Mayra; Lozano-Lozano, Mario; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene

    2018-05-05

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the health status of long-term breast cancer survivors (LTBCS) suffering from higher levels of fatigue, to highlight their needs, and to establish the key points of intervention support programs. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Sport and Health Joint University Institute (iMUDS) between September 2016 and July 2017 with 80 LTBCS that were classified into non-fatigued (≤ 3.9) or fatigued (≥ 4) according to the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS) total score. The instruments used were the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core 30 and its breast cancer (BC) module, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Scale for Mood Assessment (EVEA), the International Fitness Scale (IFIS), and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. The analysis revealed that 41.2% of LTBCS were considered moderately fatigued and showed significantly higher levels for the categories of "nausea and vomiting" (P = .005), "pain," "dyspnea" and "insomnia" (P < .001), "appetite loss" (P = .002), "financial difficulties" (P = .010), "systemic therapy side effects" (P < .001), "breast symptoms" and "arm symptoms" (P = .002), and "upset by hair loss" (P = .016). In addition, LTBCS presented significantly higher levels of pain in the affected and non-affected arm, "sadness-depression." "anxiety," "anger/hostility" (All: P < .001), and lower general physical fitness (P < .001). The rest of the variables did not show significant differences. LTBCS suffering from higher levels of fatigue had lower QoL, higher level of pain, worse mood state, and lower physical fitness.

  4. Higher weight, lower education: a longitudinal association between adolescents' body mass index and their subsequent educational achievement level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Hermans, Roel C J

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescents' body mass index (BMI) z-scores and their subsequent level of schooling, extending previous longitudinal research by using objectively measured weight and height data. A longitudinal study with 3 study waves (1-year intervals) involving 1248 Dutch adolescents (49% girls; mean age = 13.7 years) at schools providing different educational levels was used to determine adolescents who moved and did not move to a lower educational level in the first year, or in the second year, and to examine whether this movement could be predicted by BMI z-scores (zBMI), after controlling for a large range of potential confounding factors. A total of 1164 Dutch adolescents continued in the same level of education, whereas 84 adolescents moved to a lower educational level (43 moved in the first and 41 in the second year). A higher zBMI significantly increased the risk of a general transition to a lower educational level, and of a transition in the first year, but not in the second year, after controlling for potential demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounds. Findings suggest that a higher zBMI during adolescence immediately lowers educational achievement level during general secondary education. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  5. It's worth the wait: optimizing questioning methods for effective intraoperative teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Meredith; Magas, Christopher P; Gruppen, Larry D; Dedhia, Priya H; Sandhu, Gurjit

    2017-07-01

    The use of questioning to engage learners is critical to furthering resident education intraoperatively. Previous studies have demonstrated that higher level questioning and optimal wait times (>3 s) result in learner responses reflective of higher cognition and retention. Given the importance of intraoperative learning, we investigated question delivery in the operating room. A total of 12 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were observed and recorded. All questions were transcribed and classified using Bloom's Taxonomy, a framework associated with hierarchical levels of learning outcomes. Wait time between question end and response was recorded. Six faculty attendings and seven house officers at our institution were observed. A total of 133 questions were recorded with an average number of questions per case of 11.2. The majority of questions 112 out of 133 (84%) were classified as Bloom's levels 1-3, with only 6% of questions of the highest level. The wait time before the resident answered the question averaged 1.75 s, with attendings interceding after 2.50 s. Question complexity and wait time did not vary based on resident postgraduate year level suggesting limited tailoring of question to learner. Intraoperative questioning is not aligned with higher level thinking. The majority of questions were Bloom's level 3 or below, limiting the complexity of answer formulation. Most responses were given within 2 s, hindering opportunity to pursue higher-order thinking. This suggests including higher level questions and tailoring questions to learner level may improve retention and maximize gains. In addition, with attendings answering 20% of their own questions, increasing their wait time offers another area for teaching development. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Increased visfatin levels are associated with higher disease activity in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejová, Hana; Kryštůfková, Olga; Mann, Heřman; Klein, Martin; Pavlíčková, Klára; Zámečník, Josef; Vencovský, Jiří; Šenolt, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of visfatin in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients, its expression in muscle tissue and to investigate potential relationships between visfatin, B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF), disease activity and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody levels. Serum levels of visfatin and BAFF were measured in 38 anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients and 35 healthy subjects. Disease activity was evaluated by myositis disease activity assessment tool (MYOACT) using visual analogue scales (VAS) and by serum muscle enzymes. Visfatin expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in muscle tissue of myositis patients (n=10) and compared with non-inflammatory control muscle tissue samples from patients with myasthenia gravis (n=5). Serum visfatin and BAFF levels were significantly higher in myositis patients compared to healthy subjects and were associated with clinical muscle activity assessed by VAS. Only serum BAFF levels, but not visfatin levels, positively correlated with muscle enzyme concentrations and anti-Jo1 antibody levels. There was a positive correlation between visfatin and BAFF serum levels in myositis patients but a negative correlation was observed in healthy subjects. Visfatin expression was up-regulated in endomysial and perimysial inflammatory infiltrates of muscle tissue from myositis patients. Up-regulation of visfatin in myositis muscle tissue and an association between increased visfatin levels and muscle disease activity evaluated by MYOACT in anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients could support possible role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of myositis.

  7. Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003

  8. Different Levels in Orexin Concentrations and Risk Factors Associated with Higher Orexin Levels: Comparison between Detoxified Opiate and Methamphetamine Addicts in 5 Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to explore the degree of orexin levels in Chinese opiate and methamphetamine addicts and the differences between them. The cross-sectional study was conducted among detoxified drug addicts from Mandatory Detoxification Center (MDC in five Chinese cities. Orexin levels were assayed with radioimmunoassay (RIA. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to detect differences across groups, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between orexin levels and characteristics of demographic and drug abuse. Between November 2009 and January 2011, 285 opiates addicts, 112 methamphetamine addicts, and 79 healthy controls were enrolled. At drug withdrawal period, both opiate and methamphetamine addicts had lower median orexin levels than controls, and median orexin levels in opiate addicts were higher than those in methamphetamine addicts (all above P<0.05. Adjusted odds of the above median concentration of orexin were higher for injection than “chasing the dragon” (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2–7.9. No significant factors associated with orexin levels of methamphetamine addicts were found. Development of intervention method on orexin system by different administration routes especially for injected opiate addicts at detoxification phase may be significant and was welcome.

  9. Adult age differences in prospective memory in the laboratory: are they related to higher stress levels in the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Hering, Alexandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Lagner, Prune; Benusch, Julia; Cichon, Anja; Zergiebel, Annekathrin; Oris, Michel; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M

    2014-01-01

    To explain age deficits found in laboratory-based prospective memory (PM) tasks, it has recently been suggested that the testing situation per se may be more stressful for older adults, thereby impairing their performance. To test this assumption, subjective and physiological stress levels were assessed at several times during the experiment in 33 younger and 29 older adults. In addition, half of participants were randomized in a condition where they completed a relaxation intervention before performing a time-based PM task. Results confirmed the age deficit in laboratory PM. Subjective and physiological stress levels showed no age difference and no detrimental association with PM. The intervention successfully reduced stress levels in both age groups but had no effect on PM or the age deficit. In conclusion, data suggest that age deficits usually observed in laboratory PM may not be due to higher stress levels in the older adults.

  10. Pressure pain threshold and β-endorphins plasma level are higher in lean polycystic ovary syndrome women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Mrozińska, Sandra; Rogatko, Iwona; Sztefko, Krystyna; Majewska, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Despite some evidence that indicates that the evolution of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is related to the activity of the endogenous opioid system, and that concentration of plasma β-endorphin levels can increase pain threshold, there are no studies which evaluate pressure pain threshold in the PCOS women population. In 48 lean women with PCOS and 38 lean women without this disorder plasma β-endorphins and PPT were measured. The β-endorphins level was higher in the PCOS group compared to the controls (15.28±2.49 pg/mL vs. 6.33±1.71 pg/mL, PPCOS group PPTs measured on deltoid and trapezius muscles were higher compared to the controls (9.33±1.3 kg/cm² vs. 5.19±0.57 kg/cm², PPCOS group. Increase in β-endorphin level of 1 pg/mL was associated with increase of PPT value on deltoid muscle of 0.23 kg/cm² (R=0.632, P=0.011) and of 0.18 kg/cm² on trapezius muscle (R=0.588, P=0.037). There were no correlations between testosterone level and PPT in PCOS group. β-endorphin serum level as well as PPT are higher in lean PCOS group than in controls. We found correlations between β-endorphin levels and PPT in the PCOS group. It may suggest the role of endogenous opioids in the pathogenesis of PCOS and also that the increases in circulating plasma β-endorphins concentration can increases PPT in this group.

  11. Adrenocortical Production Is Associated with Higher Levels of Luteinizing Hormone in Nonobese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tock

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Insulin resistance (IR and ovarian and adrenal hyperandrogenism are a common finding in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The aim of the present study was to access possible differences in insulin resistance, gonadotropins, and androgens production in obese and nonobese PCOS women. Study Design. We studied 37 PCOS women (16 nonobese and 21 obese and 18 nonobese controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, androgens, and gonadotropins levels were determined. Salivary cortisol was measured basal and in the morning after dexamethasone (DEX 0.25 mg. Results. Nonobese PCOS women showed higher basal salivary cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and luteinizing hormone (LH levels than controls and obese PCOS. These hormones levels did not differ between the obese and control groups. After DEX administration no differences were found between the three groups. In PCOS women, salivary cortisol levels showed negative correlation with BMI (r=-0.52; P=0.001 and insulin (r=-0.47; P=0.003 and positive correlation with LH (r=0.40; P=0.016. Conclusion. Our results show an increased adrenocortical production in nonobese PCOS women, not related to IR and associated with a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal suppression. Higher LH levels might be involved in this event.

  12. A higher level of education amplifies the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Laso, Ángel; Pujol, Rogelio; Barrios, Laura

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to estimate if the education level modifies the association of income with disability prevalence in the elderly. Education can have a confounding effect on income or interact with it as a health determinant. It is important to analyze the relationship between socio-economic status and disability in older people, because it helps to better understand health inequalities and organize appropriate social policies. The study is based on the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations (Spanish National Statistics Institute). Binary logistic regression models are adjusted (bivariate, adjusted for gender and age, with all variables and with the interaction between income and education levels). A bad adjustment of the model is detected and a scobit link is added, which helps to differentiate disabled and non-disabled individuals better. People with difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living are much older, frequently women and with low education and income levels. The significant interaction between education level and income means that the odds of being disabled is 43% less in people of high income compared with people of low income if they are well educated, while it is only 21%, among those with low education. A higher education level amplifies significantly the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly, what suggests that those with higher education will profit more than those with lower education from universal economic benefits policies aimed at the disabled, increasing health inequalities between groups.

  13. Analyzing of the self reported ICT literacy level of Slovakian and Serbian Students in the higher education

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    Kiss Gabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The students generally use technology for communication in the European Union and outside of the Union. First of all we have to see in this research the ICT knowledge level of the students in the higher education to make decision about the application and retraining methods. It is important to know can we find any difference in ICT literacy between the Slovakian and the Serbian students to see how long is the way to finish the ICT revolution in these countries. On the other hand is it important to see which topic need more attention from the teachers in the high school to give a good knowledge for the student before they go in the higher education. We measured the ICT literacy level with a tool consisting of 15 items (Likert scaled. The data analysis was performed with SPSS software using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney test.

  14. Fucoidan cytotoxicity against human breast cancer T47D cell line increases with higher level of sulfate ester group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepudin, Endang; Alfita Qosthalani, Fildzah; Sinurat, Ellya

    2018-01-01

    The anticancer activity of different sulfate ester group content in different molecular weight was examined. The anticancer activity was achieved in vitro on human breast cancer T47D cell line. Fucoidan with lower molecular weight (5.79 kDa) tends to have lower sulfate ester group content (8.69%) and resulted in higher IC50 value (184.22 μg/mL). While fucoidan with higher molecular weight (785.12 kDa) tends to have higher sulfate level (18.63%) and achieved lower IC50 value (75.69 μg/mL). The result showed that in order to maintain fucoidan cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer T47D cell line, the sulfate content should be remain high. Keywords: fucoidan, sulfate ester group, human breast cancer

  15. Cross-age mentoring to support A-level pupils’ transition into Higher Education and undergraduate students’ employability

    OpenAIRE

    James, Alana I.

    2014-01-01

    Two challenges identified for psychology higher education are supporting entry students’ transition, and supporting graduates’ transition into employment. The evaluation of the first phase of a cross-age mentoring action research project targeting these issues is presented; eight psychology undergraduates mentored 20 A-level psychology pupils in two schools. Mentors showed significant increases in two of nine psychological literacies, in self-efficacy but not self-esteem, were highly satisfie...

  16. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  17. Remission of depression following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Thiago Fernando Vasconcelos; Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida; da Rocha, Neusa Sica

    2016-03-01

    Research on the association between electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and increased brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels has produced conflicting result. There have been few studies which have evaluated BDNF levels in clinical contexts where there was remission following treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate whether remission of depression following ECT is associated with changes in BDNF levels. Adult inpatients in a psychiatric unit were invited to participate in this naturalistic study. Diagnoses were made using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and symptoms were evaluated at admission and discharge using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS-17). Thirty-one patients who received a diagnosis of depression and were subjected to ECT were included retrospectively. Clinical remission was defined as a score of less than eight on the HDRS-17 at discharge. Serum BDNF levels were measured in blood samples collected at admission and discharge with a commercial kit used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Subjects HDRS-17 scores improved following ECT (t = 13.29; p = 0.00). A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model revealed a remission × time interaction with BDNF levels as a dependent variable in a Wald chi-square test [Wald χ(2) = 5.98; p = 0.01]. A post hoc Bonferroni test revealed that non-remitters had lower BDNF levels at admission than remitters (p = 0.03), but there was no difference at discharge (p = 0.16). ECT remitters had higher serum BDNF levels at admission and the level did not vary during treatment. ECT non-remitters had lower serum BDNF levels at admission, but levels increased during treatment and were similar to those of ECT remitters at discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The association between parity, infant gender, higher level of paternal education and preterm birth in Pakistan: a cohort study

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    Shaikh Kiran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of antenatal depression and preterm birth have been reported in Pakistan. Self reported maternal stress and depression have been associated with preterm birth; however findings are inconsistent. Cortisol is a biological marker of stress and depression, and its measurement may assist in understanding the influence of self reported maternal stress and depression on preterm birth. Methods In a prospective cohort study pregnant women between 28 to 30 weeks of gestation from the Aga Khan Hospital for Women and Children completed the A-Z Stress Scale and the Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale to assess stress and depression respectively, and had a blood cortisol level drawn. Women were followed up after delivery to determine birth outcomes. Correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess relationship between preterm birth, stress, depression and cortisol. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the key factors predictive of preterm birth. Results 132 pregnant women participated of whom 125 pregnant women had both questionnaire and cortisol level data and an additional seven had questionnaire data only. Almost 20% of pregnant women (19·7%, 95% CI 13·3-27·5 experienced a high level of stress and nearly twice as many (40·9%, 95% CI 32·4-49·8% experienced depressive symptoms. The median of cortisol level was 27·40 ug/dl (IQR 22·5-34·2. The preterm birth rate was 11·4% (95% CI 6·5-18. There was no relationship between cortisol values and stress scale or depression. There was a significant positive relationship between maternal depression and stress. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. Insufficient numbers of preterm births were available to warrant the development of a multivariable logistic regression model. Conclusions Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery

  19. The association between parity, infant gender, higher level of paternal education and preterm birth in Pakistan: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Kiran; Premji, Shahirose S; Rose, Marianne S; Kazi, Ambreen; Khowaja, Shaneela; Tough, Suzanne

    2011-11-02

    High rates of antenatal depression and preterm birth have been reported in Pakistan. Self reported maternal stress and depression have been associated with preterm birth; however findings are inconsistent. Cortisol is a biological marker of stress and depression, and its measurement may assist in understanding the influence of self reported maternal stress and depression on preterm birth. In a prospective cohort study pregnant women between 28 to 30 weeks of gestation from the Aga Khan Hospital for Women and Children completed the A-Z Stress Scale and the Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale to assess stress and depression respectively, and had a blood cortisol level drawn. Women were followed up after delivery to determine birth outcomes. Correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess relationship between preterm birth, stress, depression and cortisol. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the key factors predictive of preterm birth. 132 pregnant women participated of whom 125 pregnant women had both questionnaire and cortisol level data and an additional seven had questionnaire data only. Almost 20% of pregnant women (19·7%, 95% CI 13·3-27·5) experienced a high level of stress and nearly twice as many (40·9%, 95% CI 32·4-49·8%) experienced depressive symptoms. The median of cortisol level was 27·40 ug/dl (IQR 22·5-34·2). The preterm birth rate was 11·4% (95% CI 6·5-18). There was no relationship between cortisol values and stress scale or depression. There was a significant positive relationship between maternal depression and stress. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. Insufficient numbers of preterm births were available to warrant the development of a multivariable logistic regression model. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. There

  20. Teacher's Questions in Reading Classes

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    Zuliati Rohmah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper discusses an English teacher's questions in Reading classes at MAN Malang III. Types of questions, functions of teacher's questions, question levels and the strategies applied by the teacher were put as the research problems. Non-participant observa­tion was applied to collect the data with the researcher as the main in­strument aided by field-notes and a tape recorder. It was found that the distribution of the questions did not allow the students to talk longer and to think more analytically. Meanwhile, the strategies applied by the teacher helped the students to respond to the questions previously unanswered. The teacher is suggested to produce more open and refer­ential question as well as inference and evaluation questions as to give more chances for the students to think aloud more.

  1. Molecular responses during cadmium-induced stress in Daphnia magna: Integration of differential gene expression with higher-level effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetaert, Anneleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: anneleen.soetaert@ua.ac.be; Vandenbrouck, Tine [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Ven, Karlijn van der [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Maras, Marleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Remortel, Piet van [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Intelligent Systems Laboratory, University of Antwerp, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim M. de [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-20

    DNA microarrays offer great potential in revealing insight into mechanistic toxicity of contaminants. The aim of the present study was (i) to gain insight in concentration- and time-dependent cadmium-induced molecular responses by using a customized Daphnia magna microarray, and (ii) to compare the gene expression profiles with effects at higher levels of biological organization (e.g. total energy budget and growth). Daphnids were exposed to three cadmium concentrations (nominal value of 10, 50, 100 {mu}g/l) for two time intervals (48 and 96 h). In general, dynamic expression patterns were obtained with a clear increase of gene expression changes at higher concentrations and longer exposure duration. Microarray analysis revealed cadmium affected molecular pathways associated with processes such as digestion, oxygen transport, cuticula metabolism and embryo development. These effects were compared with higher-level effects (energy budgets and growth). For instance, next to reduced energy budgets due to a decline in lipid, carbohydrate and protein content, we found an up-regulated expression of genes related to digestive processes (e.g. {alpha}-esterase, cellulase, {alpha}-amylase). Furthermore, cadmium affected the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in molecular pathways associated with immune response, stress response, cell adhesion, visual perception and signal transduction in the present study.

  2. EFFECTS OF HIGHER LEVELS OF CHROMIUM AND COPPER ON SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SERUM PROTEINS IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tariq Javed, F, Ahmad. N, Z, Rafique1 and M, Bashir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of higher levels of chromium alone and in combination with copper were investigated in broiler chicks divided into seven equal groups viz. A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Group G served as control receiving no treatment. Groups A, B and F received chromium chloride at the rate of 2 g/kg and nicotinic acid 150 mg/kg feed while C, D and F received chromium chloride 8 g/kg and nicotinic acid 150mg/kg. Broilers of groups A and C received copper sulfate at the rate of 200 mg/kg while groups Band D 400 mg/kg feed. Haematological parameters studied revealed non-significant difference between treatment groups and control in haemoglobin concentration and total erythrocyte counts. However, only at 4th week, lower PCV was observed in birds fed higher levels of chromium chloride alone. Increase in TLC was observed in birds fed low chromium alone or' with low levels of copper. Results of serum proteins including total protein, albumin and globulin during first three weeks showed significantly or relatively lower values in treatment groups than control. Serum globulins generally revealed non-significant difference between treatment groups and control.

  3. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization

  4. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization.

  5. Higher levels of cardiovascular fitness are associated with better executive function and prefrontal oxygenation in younger and older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eDupuy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Many studies have suggested that physical exercise training improves cognition and more selectively executive functions. There is a growing interest to clarify the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie this effect. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the neurophysiological changes in cerebral oxygenation associated with physical fitness level and executive functions. Method: In this study, 22 younger and 36 older women underwent a maximal graded continuous test (i.e., O2max in order to classifyassign them into a fitness group (higher vs. lower fit. All participants completed neuropsychological paper and pencil testing and a computerized Stroop task (which contained executive and non-executive conditions in which the change in pPrefrontal cortex oxygenation change was evaluated in all participants with a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. system during a computerized Stroop task (which contains executive and non-executive conditions. Results: Our findings revealed a Fitness x Condition interaction (p < .05 such that higher fit women scored better on measures of executive functions than lower fit women. In comparison to lower fit women, higher fit women had faster reaction times in the switching (executiveExecutive condition of the computerized Stroop task. No significant effect was observed ion the non-executive condition of the test and no interactions were found with age. In measures of cerebral oxygenation (ΔHbT and ΔHbO2, we found a main effect of fitness on cerebral oxygenation during the Stroop task such that only high fit women demonstrated a significant increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Discussion/Conclusion:Higher fit individuals who demonstrate better cardiorespiratory functions (as measured by O2max show faster reaction times and greater cerebral oxygenation in the right inferior frontal gyrus than women with lower fitness levels. The lack of interaction with age, suggests that good

  6. THE FEEDING AND PHYSICAL GROWTH OF THE SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH THE HIGHER LEVEL OF THE BONE TISSUE MINERALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Vishnevetskaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes feeding organization and quality for the children aged between 10 and 16 with the higher level of the bone tissue mineralization. The authors noted down the radical excess of the ration calorie content together with the excess of the protein and especially fat components. The researchers revealed the reduced content of the main vitamins, which contributes to the increase of the bone tissue mineralization levels among children and change in their morphofunctional status with the obesity development. in the given situation, it is necessary to speak of the ration correction according to the main components and distribution of its daily calorie content, as well as the ration supplements by introducing missing vitamins, which the polyvitaminic complexes may prove to be a good alternative to.Key words: children, bone tissue mineralization, food ration, vitamins.

  7. Effects of soybean resistance on variability in life history traits of the higher trophic level parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Li, B; Xing, G; Meng, L

    2017-02-01

    To extrapolate the influence of plant cultivars varying in resistance levels to hosts on parasitoid life history traits, we estimated variation in parasitoid developmental and reproductive performances as a function of resistance in soybean cultivars, which were randomly chosen from a line of resistant genotypes. Our study showed that the parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis varied widely in offspring survival and lifetime fecundity, but varied slightly in development time and adult body size, in response to the soybean cultivars that varied in resistance to the host Spodoptera litura. Furthermore, the variability in survival and lifetime fecundity was different between attacking the 2nd and the 4th instar host larvae, varying more in survival but less in lifetime fecundity when attacking the 4th than 2nd instar larvae. Our study provides further evidence supporting that plant resistance to herbivorous hosts have variable effects on different life history traits of higher trophic level parasitoids.

  8. Heart transplant centers with multidisciplinary team show a higher level of chronic illness management - Findings from the International BRIGHT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Baumgartner, Eva; Berben, Lut; Denhaerynck, Kris; Helmy, Remon; Schönfeld, Sandra; Berger, Gabriele; Vetter, Christine; Dobbels, Fabienne; Russell, Cynthia L; De Geest, Sabina

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) explore the proportion of HTx centers that have a multidisciplinary team and (2) assess the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of chronic illness management (CIM). The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) recommends a multidisciplinary approach in heart transplant (HTx) follow-up care but little is known regarding the proportion of HTx centers that meet this recommendation and the impact on patient care. HTx centers with a multidisciplinary team may offer higher levels of CIM, a care model that has the potential to improve outcomes after HTx. We conducted a secondary analysis of the BRIGHT study, a cross-sectional study in 11 countries. Multidisciplinarity in the 36 HTx centers was assessed through HTx director reports and was defined as having a team that was composed of physician(s), nurse(s), and another healthcare professional (either a social worker, psychiatrist, psychologist, pharmacist, dietician, physical therapist, or occupational therapist). CIM was assessed with the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of CIM. Twenty-nine (80.6%) of the HTx centers had a multidisciplinary team. Furthermore, multidisciplinarity was significantly associated with higher levels of CIM (β = 5.2, P = 0.042). Majority of the HTx centers follows the ISHLT recommendation for a multidisciplinary approach. Multidisciplinarity was associated with CIM and point toward a structural factor that needs to be in place for moving toward CIM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. STATE LEVEL MECHANISMS FOR LEARNING FROM WHISTLEBLOWING CASES AT INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available State level mechanisms for soliciting, validating, and learning from whistleblower claims of fraud, theft, or misconduct against public colleges and universities are explored in four US states: California, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Ohio. Sequential public information requests were used to understand the methods that were used in each state, the types of claims that each state experienced, and to understand their processes for learning from such claims. The types of claims, breadth of scope that the claims span, and disposition of the claims is used to characterize each state’s approach and compare and contrast results with other states in the sample. There was a wide variation in responses and approaches used in each state. Varying from no information solicited or maintained (Michigan to full histories that include case level detail (Ohio, excellent multi-year case tracking and reporting (California to the voluminous tracking of every property loss or damage in every institution (Massachusetts. An organic rubric is developed and used to compare and contrast the responses and service level provided by each of the states. Although anonymous whistleblower claims are essential to the governance and administration of higher education, state level mechanisms vary widely in their approaches to administering this process and ensuring better future outcomes. Establishing a standard based upon best practices would ensure that institutions are making the best use of all information available to them to improve their immunity from employee fraud and theft and misconduct.

  10. Higher direct bilirubin levels during mid-pregnancy are associated with lower risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoqun; Zhong, Chunrong; Zhou, Xuezhen; Chen, Renjuan; Wu, Jiangyue; Wang, Weiye; Li, Xiating; Ding, Huisi; Guo, Yanfang; Gao, Qin; Hu, Xingwen; Xiong, Guoping; Yang, Xuefeng; Hao, Liping; Xiao, Mei; Yang, Nianhong

    2017-01-01

    Bilirubin concentrations have been recently reported to be negatively associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the association between bilirubin concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus. In a prospective cohort study, 2969 pregnant women were recruited prior to 16 weeks of gestation and were followed up until delivery. The value of bilirubin was tested and oral glucose tolerance test was conducted to screen gestational diabetes mellitus. The relationship between serum bilirubin concentration and gestational weeks was studied by two-piecewise linear regression. A subsample of 1135 participants with serum bilirubin test during 16-18 weeks gestation was conducted to research the association between serum bilirubin levels and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus by logistic regression. Gestational diabetes mellitus developed in 8.5 % of the participants (223 of 2969). Two-piecewise linear regression analyses demonstrated that the levels of bilirubin decreased with gestational week up to the turning point 23 and after that point, levels of bilirubin were increased slightly. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the relative risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus was lower in the highest tertile of direct bilirubin than that in the lowest tertile (RR 0.60; 95 % CI, 0.35-0.89). The results suggested that women with higher serum direct bilirubin levels during the second trimester of pregnancy have lower risk for development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  11. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, R; Bervoets, L; De Coen, W; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels.

  12. Individuals with autism have higher 8-Iso-PGF2α levels than controls, but no correlation with quantitative assay of Paraoxonase 1 serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Bianca; Niculae, Alexandru-Ștefan; Pop, Tudor Lucian; Răchișan, Andreea Liana

    2017-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents a very large set of neurodevelopmental issues with diverse clinical outcomes. Various hypotheses have been put forth for the etiology of autism spectrum disorder, including issues pertaining to oxidative stress. In this study, we conducted measurements of serum 8-Iso-Prostaglanding F2 α (8-iso-PGF2α, which is the results of non-enzimatically mediated polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation) in a population of individuals with autism and a control group of age and sex matched controls. A quantitative assay of Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) was conducted. Data regarding comorbidities, structural MRI scans, medication, intelligence quotient (IQ) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale scores (CARS) were also included in our study. Our results show that patients diagnosed with autism have higher levels of 8-iso-PGF2α than their neurotypical counterparts. Levels of this particular metabolite, however, do not correlate with quantitative serum levels of Paraoxonase 1, which has been shown to be altered in individuals with autism. Neither 8-iso-PGF2α nor quantitative levels of PON1 provide any meaningful correlation with clinical or neuroimaging data in this study group. Future research should focus on providing data regarding PON 1 phenotype, in addition to standard quantitative measurements, in relation to 8-iso-PGF2α as well as other clinical and structural brain findings.

  13. Persistent human Borna disease virus infection modifies the acetylome of human oligodendroglia cells towards higher energy and transporter levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xia [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Justice, Shanghai 200063 (China); Liu, Siwen [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Bode, Liv [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Liu, Chengyu [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Zhang, Liang [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Xiao [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Li, Dan [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Lei, Yang [Department of Internal Medicine, University-Town Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Peng, Xiaojun [Jingjie PTM BioLab (Hangzhou) Co. Ltd, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Cheng, Zhongyi [Advanced Institute of Translational Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); and others

    2015-11-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus persistently infecting mammalian hosts including humans. Lysine acetylation (Kac) is a key protein post-translational modification (PTM). The unexpectedly broad regulatory scope of Kac let us to profile the entire acetylome upon BDV infection. Methods: The acetylome was profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Results: We identified and quantified 791 Kac sites in 473 Kac proteins in human BDV Hu-H1-infected and non-infected oligodendroglial (OL) cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that BDV infection alters the acetylation of metabolic proteins, membrane-associated proteins and transmembrane transporter activity, and affects the acetylation of several lysine acetyltransferases (KAT). Conclusions: Upon BDV persistence the OL acetylome is manipulated towards higher energy and transporter levels necessary for shuttling BDV proteins to and from nuclear replication sites. - Highlights: • We used SILAC-based proteomics to analyze the acetylome of BDV infected OL cells. • We quantified 791Kac sites in 473 proteins. • Bioinformatic analysis revealed altered acetylation of metabolic proteins et al. • BDV manipulates the OL acetylome towards higher energy and transporter levels. • BDV infection is associated with enriched phosphate-associated metabolic processes.

  14. The motivation paradox: higher psychosocial problem levels in severely mentally ill patients are associated with less motivation for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Cornelis L; Jochems, E; Kortrijk, H E

    2014-04-01

    Lack of motivation for treatment makes a subgroup of patients with severe mental illness (SMI) difficult to engage in psychiatric treatment. Such difficult-to-engage patients may also be the most in need of treatment. We hypothesized that the level of psychosocial problems would be inversely related to motivation for treatment. Cross-sectional study in two independent samples. The first sample (n = 294) included SMI patients who participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assessed using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) and self-rated and clinician-rated motivation-for-treatment scales. The second sample (n = 1,170) included SMI patients who were treated in Assertive Outreach Teams and were routinely assessed with the HoNOS and a motivation-for-treatment scale. In both samples, patients also self-rated their quality of life. In both samples, patients with HoNOS scores of 16 and higher had lower motivation scores on all motivation scales than patients with lower HoNOS scores, and also a lower quality of life. A motivation paradox seems inherent to this association between higher psychosocial problems levels, less motivation for treatment, and lower quality of life. Such a paradox has clinical relevance, as it may provide an ethical basis for outreach services which aim to engage marginally motivated SMI patients with severe psychosocial problems into mental health care.

  15. Persistent human Borna disease virus infection modifies the acetylome of human oligodendroglia cells towards higher energy and transporter levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xia; Liu, Siwen; Bode, Liv; Liu, Chengyu; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Li, Dan; Lei, Yang; Peng, Xiaojun; Cheng, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus persistently infecting mammalian hosts including humans. Lysine acetylation (Kac) is a key protein post-translational modification (PTM). The unexpectedly broad regulatory scope of Kac let us to profile the entire acetylome upon BDV infection. Methods: The acetylome was profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Results: We identified and quantified 791 Kac sites in 473 Kac proteins in human BDV Hu-H1-infected and non-infected oligodendroglial (OL) cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that BDV infection alters the acetylation of metabolic proteins, membrane-associated proteins and transmembrane transporter activity, and affects the acetylation of several lysine acetyltransferases (KAT). Conclusions: Upon BDV persistence the OL acetylome is manipulated towards higher energy and transporter levels necessary for shuttling BDV proteins to and from nuclear replication sites. - Highlights: • We used SILAC-based proteomics to analyze the acetylome of BDV infected OL cells. • We quantified 791Kac sites in 473 proteins. • Bioinformatic analysis revealed altered acetylation of metabolic proteins et al. • BDV manipulates the OL acetylome towards higher energy and transporter levels. • BDV infection is associated with enriched phosphate-associated metabolic processes.

  16. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.girod@env.ethz.c [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Haan, Peter de [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns.

  17. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels. Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien; De Haan, Peter [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns. (author)

  18. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Haan, Peter de

    2009-01-01

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO 2 -equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns.

  19. Higher TNF-α, IGF-1 and leptin levels are found in tasters than non-tasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eWang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Taste perception is controlled by taste cells that are present in the tongue and produce and secrete various metabolic hormones. Recent studies have demonstrated that taste receptors in tongue, gut and the pancreas are associated with local hormone secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a link between taste sensitivity and levels of circulating metabolic hormones in human and whether taste sensitivity is potentially related to peripheral metabolic regulation. 31 subjects were recruited and separated into tasters and non-tasters based on their phenol thiocarbamide (PTC bitter taste test results. Fasting plasma and saliva were collected and levels of hormones and cytokines were assayed. We observed significant differences in both hormone levels and hormone-body mass index (BMI correlation between tasters and non-tasters. Tasters had higher plasma levels of leptin (p=0.05, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α (p=0.04, and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (p=0.03. There was also a trend towards increased IGF-1 levels in the saliva of tasters (p=0.06. We found a positive correlation between plasma levels of glucose and BMI (R=0.4999, p=0.04 exclusively in non-tasters, not in tasters. In contrast, plasma C-peptide levels were found to be positively correlated to BMI (R=0.5563, p=0.03 in tasters. Saliva TNF-α levels were negatively correlated with BMI in tasters (R= -0.5908, p=0.03. Our findings demonstrate that there are differences in circulating levels of leptin, TNF-α and IGF-1 between tasters and non-tasters. These findings indicate that in addition to regulate eating behaviours, taste perception could also affect energy metabolism by controlling hormone secretion. People with different taste sensitivity may respond differently to the nutrient stimulation. Further work investigating the link between taste perception and peripheral metabolic control could potentially lead to the development of novel therapies for obese

  20. A REVIEW OF THE PRACTICE OF WORK-BASED LEARNING (WBL AT HIGHER EDUCATION LEVEL IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Talbot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to review the practice of work-based learning (WBL, based on the experience of higher education institutions in the United Kingdom.Methods. The methods of system and comparative analysis, synthesis and generalization are used.Results. The background and development of WBL is given; the importance and value of this form of education in the modern, rapidly changing society is shown. The main characteristics are selected and basic aspects of WBL programs profitable different from traditional university programs are designated: relevance to real production processes; student centricity; flexibility of content which is built proceeding from interests of an employer and a student; high extent of integration of various disciplines and fields of knowledge; recognition of the prior certified and independent training; optimization of time expenditure; possibility of the choice of the place of training, its sequence, schedule of control actions, and other advantages. Options of a program implementation of WBL, complexity of their implementation and methods of their overcoming are described. A few critical remarks concerning WBL programs are also presented.Scientific novelty. For the first time the analytical review of WBL practice at a higher education level, which is widespread in English-speaking countries over the last 25 years, is presented in the Russian scientific literature in education.Practical significance. The materials provided in the article can be useful to heads and teachers of institutions of higher education; methodologists of structures of vocational preparation and advanced training of personnel of high technology productions; the employers heading large-scale industries and interested in upgrading of employees’ educational level.

  1. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ruderman

    Full Text Available This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004.Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees.Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis.Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17, drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98, non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64, violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43, and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53.Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  2. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  3. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  4. Digital Clubbing Is Associated with Higher Serum KL-6 Levels and Lower Pulmonary Function in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Shiraishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although digital clubbing is a common presentation in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD, little has been reported regarding its role in assessing patients with ILD. This study evaluated patients with ILD for the presence of clubbing and investigated its association with clinical data. Methods. We evaluated patients with ILD who visited the teaching hospital at which the study was conducted, between October 2014 and January 2015. Clubbing, evaluated using a Vernier caliper for individual patients, was defined as a phalangeal depth ratio > 1. We examined the association of clubbing with clinical data. Results. Of 102 patients with ILD, we identified 17 (16.7% with clubbing. The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood was lower (65.2 ± 5.9 mmHg versus 80.2 ± 3.1 mmHg; p=0.03, serum Krebs von den Lugen-6 (KL-6 levels were higher (1495.0 ± 277.4 U/mL versus 839.1 ± 70.2 U/mL; p=0.001, and the percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide was lower (50.0 ± 6.0 versus 73.5 ± 3.1; p=0.002 in these patients with clubbing. Conclusions. Patients with clubbing had lower oxygen levels, higher serum KL-6 levels, and lower pulmonary function than those without clubbing.

  5. The -29G/A FSH receptor gene polymorphism is associated with higher FSH and LH levels in normozoospermic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburino, L; La Vignera, S; Tomaselli, V; Condorelli, R A; Cannarella, R; Mongioì, L M; Calogero, A E

    2017-10-01

    The functional role of the FSHR promoter -29G/A polymorphism (rs1394205) in men is not clear. Some studies failed to find a relationship between the FSHR -29G/A and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and did not associate the SNP with male infertility. Only one study showed that the FSHR -29 SNP modulates serum FSH levels in Baltic young male cohort. Because the SNP -29G/A has to be shown to have a strong effect on in vitro transcription activity of the FSHR promoter and the activation of FSHR is necessary for a normal FSH function, this study was undertaken to assess whether the FSHR -29G/A SNP modulates the gonadal endocrine function in men. A total of 200 men with alteration of conventional sperm parameters or normozoospermia (according to the parameters WHO 2010), were genotyped by TaqMan Assay. Hormone levels were measured by immunoassay, and sperm analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization criteria. A significant gradient of increasing FSH levels across the FSHR -29G/A genotypes was observed (p men (n = 110), those with FSHR -29A-allele carriers (GA + AA and AA) had higher serum FSH (p men with the GG genotype. The carrier status of rs1394205 genotypes did not affect the other endocrine parameters neither in men with altered sperm parameters nor in normozoospermic men. The FSHR -29G/A polymorphism modulates FSH and, for the first time, LH serum levels and BMI in normozoospermic men. These findings underline the importance to pay close attention to the studies of genetic variations associated with clinical-endocrine parameters.

  6. Higher plasma motilin levels in obese patients decrease after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and regulate hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, E; Janssen, P; Lannoo, M; Van der Schueren, B; Depoortere, I; Tack, J

    2016-07-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions of the migrating motor complex (MMC) signal hunger in healthy volunteers. The current aim was to study the role of motilin as a hunger-inducing factor in obese patients and to evaluate the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on plasma motilin levels and hunger scores. Motilin and ghrelin plasma levels were determined during a complete MMC cycle in controls and obese patients selected for RYGB before, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. 20 min after the end of the second phase III, obese patients received an intravenous infusion of 40 mg erythromycin. Hunger was scored every 5 min. Hedonic hunger was assessed in obese patients with the Power of Food Scale questionnaire. Obesity caused a switch in the origin of phase III from antrum to duodenum. Obese patients had significantly higher motilin levels compared with controls during the MMC but tended to lack the motilin peak prior to phase III necessary to trigger hunger. Hunger scores during phase III were significantly lower in obese patients, but could be restored to control levels through the administration of a low dose of the motilin agonist, erythromycin. After RYGB surgery motilin, but not ghrelin, levels decreased in parallel with hedonic hunger scores. Motilin may be an important regulator involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. The Relationship between Multiplication Fact Speed-Recall and Fluency and Higher Level Mathematics Learning with Eighth Grade Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Steven James

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second…

  8. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  9. 50 Hz hippocampal stimulation in refractory epilepsy: Higher level of basal glutamate predicts greater release of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavus, Idil; Widi, Gabriel A; Duckrow, Robert B; Zaveri, Hitten; Kennard, Jeremy T; Krystal, John; Spencer, Dennis D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on brain glutamate release in humans is unknown. Glutamate is elevated at baseline in the epileptogenic hippocampus of patients with refractory epilepsy, and increases during spontaneous seizures. We examined the effect of 50 Hz stimulation on glutamate release and its relationship to interictal levels in the hippocampus of patients with epilepsy. In addition, we measured basal and stimulated glutamate levels in a subset of these patients where stimulation elicited a seizure. Subjects (n = 10) were patients with medically refractory epilepsy who were undergoing intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation in an epilepsy monitoring unit. Electrical stimulation (50 Hz) was delivered through implanted hippocampal electrodes (n = 11), and microdialysate samples were collected every 2 min. Basal glutamate, changes in glutamate efflux with stimulation, and the relationships between peak stimulation-associated glutamate concentrations, basal zero-flow levels, and stimulated seizures were examined. Stimulation of epileptic hippocampi in patients with refractory epilepsy caused increases in glutamate efflux (p = 0.005, n = 10), and 4 of ten patients experienced brief stimulated seizures. Stimulation-induced increases in glutamate were not observed during the evoked seizures, but rather were related to the elevation in interictal basal glutamate (R(2) = 0.81, p = 0.001). The evoked-seizure group had lower basal glutamate levels than the no-seizure group (p = 0.04), with no stimulation-induced change in glutamate efflux (p = 0.47, n = 4). Conversely, increased glutamate was observed following stimulation in the no-seizure group (p = 0.005, n = 7). Subjects with an atrophic hippocampus had higher basal glutamate levels (p = 0.03, n = 7) and higher stimulation-induced glutamate efflux. Electrical stimulation of the epileptic hippocampus either increased extracellular glutamate efflux or induced seizures. The magnitude of stimulated

  10. Protein-Level Integration Strategy of Multiengine MS Spectra Search Results for Higher Confidence and Sequence Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Zhong, Jiayong; Liu, Wanting; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Gong

    2017-12-01

    Multiple search engines based on various models have been developed to search MS/MS spectra against a reference database, providing different results for the same data set. How to integrate these results efficiently with minimal compromise on false discoveries is an open question due to the lack of an independent, reliable, and highly sensitive standard. We took the advantage of the translating mRNA sequencing (RNC-seq) result as a standard to evaluate the integration strategies of the protein identifications from various search engines. We used seven mainstream search engines (Andromeda, Mascot, OMSSA, X!Tandem, pFind, InsPecT, and ProVerB) to search the same label-free MS data sets of human cell lines Hep3B, MHCCLM3, and MHCC97H from the Chinese C-HPP Consortium for Chromosomes 1, 8, and 20. As expected, the union of seven engines resulted in a boosted false identification, whereas the intersection of seven engines remarkably decreased the identification power. We found that identifications of at least two out of seven engines resulted in maximizing the protein identification power while minimizing the ratio of suspicious/translation-supported identifications (STR), as monitored by our STR index, based on RNC-Seq. Furthermore, this strategy also significantly improves the peptides coverage of the protein amino acid sequence. In summary, we demonstrated a simple strategy to significantly improve the performance for shotgun mass spectrometry by protein-level integrating multiple search engines, maximizing the utilization of the current MS spectra without additional experimental work.

  11. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...... were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Markedly higher levels of ethyl paraben compared to butyl paraben were found in all fluids and tissues. Both ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal plasma, livers, and whole-body tissues from fetus seemed to be saturated after dosing...

  12. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  13. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes are higher in youth patients with infectious mononucleosis than in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is the clinical presentation of primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Although the literature contains a massive amount of information on IM, most of this is related specifically to only children or adults separately. In order to distinguish any differences between preschool children and youth patients, we retrospectively analyzed their demographic and clinical features. Records of patients hospitalized from December 2001 to September 2011 with a diagnosis of IM were retrieved from Peking University First Hospital, which is a tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing. The demographic data and clinical characteristics were collected. IM was diagnosed in 287 patients during this 10-year period, with incidence peaks among preschool children (≤7 years old, 130/287, 45.3%) and youth patients (>15 and <24 years old, 101/287, 35.2%). Although the complaints at admission did not differ between these two patient groups, the incidence of clinical signs (tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and edema of the eyelids) was much higher in preschool children. The incidence of liver lesion and percentage of atypical lymphocytes were significantly higher in the youth group (P<0.001), and the average hospital stay was longer in this group. Pneumonia was the most common complication, and there was no case of mortality. The incidence of IM peaks among preschool children and youth patients in Beijing, China. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes increase with age.

  14. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes are higher in youth patients with infectious mononucleosis than in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsInfectious mononucleosis (IM is the clinical presentation of primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Although the literature contains a massive amount of information on IM, most of this is related specifically to only children or adults separately. In order to distinguish any differences between preschool children and youth patients, we retrospectively analyzed their demographic and clinical features.MethodsRecords of patients hospitalized from December 2001 to September 2011 with a diagnosis of IM were retrieved from Peking University First Hospital, which is a tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing. The demographic data and clinical characteristics were collected.ResultsIM was diagnosed in 287 patients during this 10-year period, with incidence peaks among preschool children (≤7 years old, 130/287, 45.3% and youth patients (>15 and <24 years old, 101/287, 35.2%. Although the complaints at admission did not differ between these two patient groups, the incidence of clinical signs (tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and edema of the eyelids was much higher in preschool children. The incidence of liver lesion and percentage of atypical lymphocytes were significantly higher in the youth group (P<0.001, and the average hospital stay was longer in this group. Pneumonia was the most common complication, and there was no case of mortality.ConclusionsThe incidence of IM peaks among preschool children and youth patients in Beijing, China. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes increase with age.

  15. Topological approach to quantum Hall effects and its important applications: higher Landau levels, graphene and its bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Janusz; Łydżba, Patrycja; Jacak, Lucjan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the topological approach to quantum Hall effects is carefully described. Commensurability conditions together with proposed generators of a system braid group are employed to establish the fractional quantum Hall effect hierarchies of conventional semiconductors, monolayer and bilayer graphene structures. Obtained filling factors are compared with experimental data and a very good agreement is achieved. Preliminary constructions of ground-state wave functions in the lowest Landau level are put forward. Furthermore, this work explains why pyramids of fillings from higher bands are not counterparts of the well-known composite-fermion hierarchy - it provides with the cause for an intriguing robustness of ν = 7/3 , 8/3 and 5/2 states (also in graphene). The argumentation why paired states can be developed in two-subband systems (wide quantum wells) only when the Fermi energy lies in the first Landau level is specified. Finally, the paper also clarifies how an additional surface in bilayer systems contributes to an observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect near half-filling, ν = 1/2 .

  16. Elementary physical education: A focus on fitness activities and smaller class sizes are associated with higher levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Kirkham-King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity during physical education is necessary for children to achieve daily physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among various contextual factors with accelerometer measured physical activity during elementary physical education. Data were collected during 2015–2016 from 281 students (1st–5th grade, 137 males, 144 females from a private school located in a metropolitan area of Utah in the U.S. Students wore accelerometers for 12 consecutive weeks at an accelerometer wear frequency of 3days per week during physical education. A multi-level general linear mixed effects model was employed to examine the relationship among various physical education contextual factors and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA, accounting for clustering of observations within students and the clustering of students within classrooms. Explored contextual factors included grade level, lesson context, sex, and class size. Main effects and interactions among the factors were explored in the multi-level models. A two-way interaction of lesson context and class size on %MVPA was shown to be statistically significant. The greatest differences were found to be between fitness lessons using small class sizes compared to motor skill lessons using larger class sizes (β=14.8%, 95% C.I. 5.7%–23.9% p<0.001. Lessons that included a focus on fitness activities with class sizes that were <25 students associated with significantly higher %MVPA during elementary physical education. Keywords: Exercise, Physical education and training, Adolescents

  17. LDPC coding for QKD at higher photon flux levels based on spatial entanglement of twin beams in PDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneshgaran, Fred; Mondin, Marina; Bari, Inam

    2014-01-01

    Twin beams generated by Parametric Down Conversion (PDC) exhibit quantum correlations that has been effectively used as a tool for many applications including calibration of single photon detectors. By now, detection of multi-mode spatial correlations is a mature field and in principle, only depends on the transmission and detection efficiency of the devices and the channel. In [2, 4, 5], the authors utilized their know-how on almost perfect selection of modes of pairwise correlated entangled beams and the optimization of the noise reduction to below the shot-noise level, for absolute calibration of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras. The same basic principle is currently being considered by the same authors for possible use in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) [3, 1]. The main advantage in such an approach would be the ability to work with much higher photon fluxes than that of a single photon regime that is theoretically required for discrete variable QKD applications (in practice, very weak laser pulses with mean photon count below one are used).The natural setup of quantization of CCD detection area and subsequent measurement of the correlation statistic needed to detect the presence of the eavesdropper Eve, leads to a QKD channel model that is a Discrete Memoryless Channel (DMC) with a number of inputs and outputs that can be more than two (i.e., the channel is a multi-level DMC). This paper investigates the use of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes for information reconciliation on the effective parallel channels associated with the multi-level DMC. The performance of such codes are shown to be close to the theoretical limits.

  18. Human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from Taiwan displayed significantly higher levels of antimicrobial resistance than those from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpdahl, Mia; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Li, Ishien; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a major zoonotic pathogen with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. This pathogen can disseminate across borders and spread far distances via the food trade and international travel. In this study, we compared the genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of 378 S. Typhimurium isolates collected in Taiwan and Denmark between 2009 and 2010. Genotyping revealed that many S. Typhimurium strains were concurrently circulating in Taiwan, Denmark and other countries in 2009 and 2010. When compared to the isolates collected from Denmark, the isolates from Taiwan displayed a significantly higher level of resistance to 11 of the 12 tested antimicrobials. Seven genetic clusters (A-G) were designated for the isolates. A high percentage of the isolates in genetic clusters C, F and G were multidrug-resistant. Of the isolates in cluster C, 79.2% were ASSuT-resistant, characterized by resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. In cluster F, 84.1% of the isolates were ACSSuT-resistant (resistant to ASSuT and chloramphenicol). Cluster G was unique to Taiwan and characterized in most isolates by the absence of three VNTRs (ST20, ST30 and STTR6) as well as a variety of multidrug resistance profiles. This cluster exhibited very high to extremely high levels of resistance to several first-line drugs, and among the seven clusters, it displayed the highest levels of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in S. Typhimurium from Taiwan highlights the necessity to strictly regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture and human health care sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  20. Nuclear questions; Le nucleaire en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-02-15

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  1. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  2. RESULTS OF THE QUALITATIVE QUESTIONS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adam Graham

    In April of 2005, Governance, Equity and Health (GEH) held an all-partners' ... data collected – six respondents left a blank response for the question addressing level of ... Meeting participants were organized into five thematic working groups:.

  3. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Regier

    Full Text Available Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. We present the most comprehensive molecular analysis of lepidopteran phylogeny to date, focusing on relationships among superfamilies.483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes, from which maximum likelihood tree estimates and bootstrap percentages were obtained using GARLI. Assessment of heuristic search effectiveness showed that better trees and higher bootstrap percentages probably remain to be discovered even after 1000 or more search replicates, but further search proved impractical even with grid computing. Other analyses explored the effects of sampling nonsynonymous change only versus partitioned and unpartitioned total nucleotide change; deletion of rogue taxa; and compositional heterogeneity. Relationships among the non-ditrysian lineages previously inferred from morphology were largely confirmed, plus some new ones, with strong support. Robust support was also found for divergences among non-apoditrysian lineages of Ditrysia, but only rarely so within Apoditrysia. Paraphyly for Tineoidea is strongly supported by analysis of nonsynonymous-only signal; conflicting, strong support for tineoid monophyly when synonymous signal was added back is shown to result from compositional heterogeneity.Support for among-superfamily relationships outside the Apoditrysia is now generally strong. Comparable support is mostly lacking within Apoditrysia, but dramatically increased bootstrap percentages for some nodes after rogue taxon removal, and concordance with other evidence, strongly suggest that our picture of apoditrysian phylogeny is approximately correct. This study highlights the challenge of finding optimal topologies when analyzing hundreds of taxa. It also shows that some nodes get strong support only when

  4. Testes mass, but not sperm length, increases with higher levels of polyandry in an ancient sex model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Vrech

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that polyandrous taxa have evolved relatively larger testes than monogamous relatives. Sperm size may either increase or decrease across species with the risk or intensity of sperm competition. Scorpions represent an ancient direct mode with spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer and are particularly well suited for studies in sperm competition. This work aims to analyze for the first time the variables affecting testes mass, ejaculate volume and sperm length, according with their levels of polyandry, in species belonging to the Neotropical family Bothriuridae. Variables influencing testes mass and sperm length were obtained by model selection analysis using corrected Akaike Information Criterion. Testes mass varied greatly among the seven species analyzed, ranging from 1.6 ± 1.1 mg in Timogenes dorbignyi to 16.3 ± 4.5 mg in Brachistosternus pentheri with an average of 8.4 ± 5.0 mg in all the species. The relationship between testes mass and body mass was not significant. Body allocation in testes mass, taken as Gonadosomatic Index, was high in Bothriurus cordubensis and Brachistosternus ferrugineus and low in Timogenes species. The best-fitting model for testes mass considered only polyandry as predictor with a positive influence. Model selection showed that body mass influenced sperm length negatively but after correcting for body mass, none of the variables analyzed explained sperm length. Both body mass and testes mass influenced spermatophore volume positively. There was a strong phylogenetic effect on the model containing testes mass. As predicted by the sperm competition theory and according to what happens in other arthropods, testes mass increased in species with higher levels of sperm competition, and influenced positively spermatophore volume, but data was not conclusive for sperm length.

  5. Mixture simultaneous factor analysis for capturing differences in latent variables between higher level units of multilevel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Roover, K.; Vermunt, J.K.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ceulemans, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Given multivariate data, many research questions pertain to the covariance structure: whether and how the variables (for example, personality measures) covary. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is often used to look for latent variables that may explain the covariances among variables; for example,

  6. Bimodality in stable isotope composition facilitates the tracing of carbon transfer from macrophytes to higher trophic levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendonca, R.; Kosten, S.; Lacerot, G.; Mazzeo, N.; Roland, F.; Ometto, J.P.; Paz, A.; Bueno, O.C.; Gomes, A.C.M.M.; Scheffer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Even though the suitability of macrophytes to act as a carbon source to food webs has been questioned by some studies, some others indicate that macrophyte-derived carbon may play an important role in the trophic transfer of organic matter in the food web of shallow lakes. To evaluate the importance

  7. A constitutive damage specific DNA-binding protein is synthesized at higher levels in UV-irradiated primate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, S.; Levine, A.S.; Ozato, K.; Protic, M.

    1990-01-01

    Using a DNA band shift assay, we have identified a DNA-binding protein complex in primate cells which is present constitutively and has a high affinity for UV-irradiated, double-stranded DNA. Cells pretreated with UV light, mitomycin C, or aphidicolin have higher levels of this damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex, suggesting that the signal for induction can either be damage to the DNA or interference with cellular DNA replication. Physiochemical modifications of the DNA and competition analysis with defined substrates suggest that the most probable target site for the damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex is a 6-4'-(pyrimidine-2'-one)-pyrimidine dimer: specific binding could not be detected with probes which contain -TT- cyclobutane dimers, and damage-specific DNA binding did not decrease after photoreactivation of UV-irradiated DNA. This damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex is the first such inducible protein complex identified in primate cells. Cells from patients with the sun-sensitive cancer-prone disease, xeroderma pigmentosum (group E), are lacking both the constitutive and the induced damage-specific DNA-binding activities. These findings suggest a possible role for this DNA-binding protein complex in lesion recognition and DNA repair of UV-light-induced photoproducts

  8. to the Question of IPv6-protocol Logical Characteristics Properties Using in order to Increase of the Security Level of the Russian Federation National Information Technology Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Anatolevich Melnikov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of IPv6-protocol logical characteristics using in order to increase the security level of the Russian Federation national information technology infrastructure and the global information society.

  9. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Orho-Melander, Marju; Nilsson, Peter M

    2017-03-08

    Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring ( n = 363) of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV) were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS). Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference ( p = 0.003), diastolic blood pressure ( p = 0.003), and glucose levels ( p = 0.036). Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight ( p zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  10. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ohlsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363 of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS. Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference (p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.003, and glucose levels (p = 0.036. Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight (p < 0.001, obesity (p = 0.047, and hyperlipidemia (p = 0.048. We cannot detect altered zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  11. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Portfolio Practices in Higher Education in Norway in an International Perspective: Macro-, Meso- and Micro-Level Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysthe, Olga; Engelsen, Knut Steinar

    2011-01-01

    The point of departure for this article is the "chameleon" aspect of portfolios and the diversity of portfolio models and practices in higher education on the international arena today. Our aim is to investigate the contextual character of this diversity by using Norwegian higher education as an example and to show how macro-level…

  13. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  14. Preparing Future Leaders in Higher Education: Excellence Practices from Staff to Mid-Level Management Role Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Erica Sherese

    2016-01-01

    Mid-level leadership is key to a functioning university and it is important that mid-level leaders feel they have the tools and resources they need in order to succeed. To be successful in a new mid-level leadership position, entering supervisors must clearly communicate a strong sense of vision, values, and principles to their staff and establish…

  15. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  16. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  17. THE ESSENCE OF QUESTIONING AND EXPLICIT READING INSTRUCTION STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa’dulloh Muzammil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Teacher’s questioning may function to assist students comprehend more reading materials and to enable them to be proficient readers. Yet, the students may be less benefited from which if the teacher neither provides sufficient explicit reading strategy nor involves higher-level questions. Consequently, the teacher should pay more careful attentions as follows: 1 teacher should involve both lower- and high-lever questions; 2 teacher should provide students with explicit reading strategy; 3 teacher should be aware of the activities in reading phases: pre-, during-, and post-reading.

  18. Adaptation of Kirkpatrick's Four Level Model of Training Criteria to Assessment of Learning Outcomes and Program Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praslova, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of educational effectiveness provides vitally important feedback to Institutions of Higher Education. It also provides important information to external stakeholders, such as prospective students, parents, governmental and local regulatory entities, professional and regional accrediting organizations, and representatives of the…

  19. Electron-impact excitation cross sections of the higher argon 3p5np (n=5,6,7) levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Tobin; Boffard, John B.; Lin, Chun C.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the electron-impact excitation cross sections for argon into the ten levels of 3p 5 5p configuration, as well as numerous levels of the 3p 5 6p and 3p 5 7p configurations. Fluorescence from the decay of the excited atoms to the levels of 3p 5 4s configuration was used to determine the optical-emission cross sections. These results were combined with transition probabilities to find apparent cross sections into the 3p 5 5p and 3p 5 6p levels. These new cross sections of the Ar(3p 5 np) levels along with the available Ne(2p 5 3p), Kr(4p 5 5p), and Xe(5p 5 6p) data help provide a global view of the excitation behaviors of the np 5 n ' p levels of the rare-gas series

  20. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-01-01

    fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of 228 Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of 228 Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of 228 Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate qualitatively the differences in behavior of both long-lived Ra isotopes, the

  2. Hierarchy of higher-level physical functions: a longitudinal investigation on a nationally representative population of community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Jung; Wang, Ching-Yi; Tang, Pei-Fang; Lee, Meng-Chih; Lin, Hui-Sheng; Chen, Hui-Ya

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the hierarchy of higher-level physical functions to infer disability level (mild, moderate or severe) is essential for the precise targeting of preventive interventions and has been examined previously in a cross-sectional study. Based on longitudinal data, this study evaluated the hierarchy of higher-level physical functions. Data from a cohort of 2729 community-dwelling persons aged over 50 with no initial disability were drawn from the "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan" from 1996 through 2007. The three-level hierarchy of eight chosen activities was examined by the median ages to disability onset with survival analyses and by Cox regressions, which examined the effects of sex and age on the development of this hierarchy. The progression of incident disability was as follows: mild level-running, carrying weight, and squatting; moderate level-climbing stairs, walking, and standing; and severe level-grasping and raising arms up. Women and older persons were at greater risk of developing more severe levels of disability. Another Cox regression with one index activity from each hierarchical level revealed similar results. The three-level hierarchy of higher-level physical functions has been validated longitudinally, suggesting rich research and clinical implications.

  3. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  4. "Monkey in a Cage": The Complicated Loyalties of Mid-Level Academic Women Working in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongalis-Macrow, Athena

    2012-01-01

    Loyalty raises a dilemma for women's career progression and leadership because it signals confidence in the organisation, despite the ongoing constraints that organisations present for women and their leadership aspirations. The research investigates women's loyalty in the context of higher education. Focussing on a select group of mid-level…

  5. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  6. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  7. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  8. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  9. DIFFERENT LEVEL OF LEARNED-HELPLESSNESS AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH LOWER GRADE AND HIGHER GRADE IN SALATIGA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Esti Ari Prasetya

    2013-06-01

    consisted of 190 of higher grade students and 127 of lower grade students. Mann-Whitney U was used to analyse the data, considering that the data were not normally distributed. This test result showed that there was a significant difference between high school students with higher grade and lower grade (the Mann-Whitney U coefficient of 10,644, with z value of -1795, p <0.05 (p = 0036, 1-tailed, with students of lower grade tend to be more prone to experience learned-helplessness. Additional results from their subjective perception on their achievement were also discussed and so were the implications of the study.

  10. Higher Education Outcomes at the National Level on the Example of the Project “Collegiate Learning Assessment”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabelnikova E. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the interpretation of the concept of “learning outcomes”. Theoretical analysis widely represents the interpretations of the learning outcomes of a high school student: academic skills: understanding, application of knowledge to solve problems, synthesis, analysis and evaluation; basic skills and basic knowledge, and skills of a higher order and advanced knowledge; skills of a higher order represented as a system of critical thinking, analytic reasoning, problem solving and written communication; wide abilities interpreted as verbal, quantitative and spatial thinking, understanding, problem solving and decision making. We conclude that each considered approach distinguishes meta-subjective skills, i.e. skills to interact with the quality of information regardless of the context. The ability to measure the meta-skills is discussed on an example of the “Collegiate learning assessment”, realized in the United States

  11. Basic and Meal Stimulated Plasma GIP Levels are Higher in Lean PCOS Women with FAI over 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, T; Migacz, K; Kiałka, M; Rogatko, I; Kowalczuk, A; Spalkowska, M; Mrozińska, S; Czajkowska, Z; Sztefko, K

    2016-02-01

    Glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) belongs to the incretins which are responsible for 70% of the insulin release after oral glucose intake. Its impaired secretion was noted in several conditions involving insulin resistance, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), known as the state with increased testosterone level. This paper considers a possible relationship between the free androgen index (FAI) and basal as well as meal stimulated level of GIP in lean women affected by PCOS. To our knowledge, no previous study has evaluated the matter so far. cross-sectional study 50 age-matched lean women (BMI=20.76±1.83) were enrolled to the study and divided into 2 groups. Patients with phenotype with FAIPCOS patients with FAI>5 formed group 2. All subjects underwent standard meal test. Serum GIP concentration was determined both at fasting and at 60 min of the test. Calculations were carried out using Statistica 10. Mann-Whitney test indicated a statistically significant difference in medians values of GIP plasma levels between groups on fasting (36.4 pg/ml vs. 59.6 pg/ml; p=0.0007) and at 60 min after meal test (50.1 pg/ml vs. 72.5 pg/ml; p=0.006). Spearman test indicated significant positive correlation between FAI and GIP levels at 0' and 60' in total study population (0':R=0.37;p=0.008; 60':R=0.28; p=0.049). Excess androgen activity might be a factor contributing to alter secretion of incretins in lean PCOS women. However it could not be ruled out that it is also possible that increased GIP levels might induce hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. An increased GIP levels may induce hyperinsulinemia and play an additive to insulin resistance role in progression to diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Postsecondary Education Issues: Visible Questions. Invisible Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

    With some justification, the inability to answer most of the important questions in higher education is due to the lack of necessary information. But careful examination of our many faceted questions suggests that more information may not be the only answer. The National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) has found other…

  13. The Relationship between Listening Comprehension of Text and Sentences in Preschoolers: Specific or Mediated by Lower and Higher Level Components?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Two studies explored the relation between listening comprehension of text and listening comprehension of sentences in preschoolers aged 4 to 5 years, 11 months. The first study analyzed this relationship taking into account the role of lower level components, namely, word knowledge and verbal working memory, as possible mediators. These components…

  14. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…

  15. Dietary lipids do not contribute to the higher hepatic triglyceride levels of fructose- compared to glucose-fed mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.M.; Wright, A.J.; Veltien, A.A.; Asten, J.J.A. van; Tack, C.J.J.; Jones, J.G.; Heerschap, A.

    2014-01-01

    Fructose consumption has been associated with the surge in obesity and dyslipidemia. This may be mediated by the fructose effects on hepatic lipids and ATP levels. Fructose metabolism provides carbons for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stimulates enterocyte secretion of apoB48. Thus, fructose-induced

  16. Higher levels of salivary MUC5B and MUC7 in individuals with gastric diseases who harbor Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, D.G.; Stevens, R.H.; Macedo, J.M.B.; Hirata, R.; Pinto, A.C.; Alves, L.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Tinoco, E.M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the salivary levels of MUC5B and MUC7 in individuals with dyspeptic disease and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the stomach, compared to individuals without dyspeptic disease. Methods: 30 individuals with dyspeptic disease, who underwent

  17. Pushing Critical Thinking Skills With Multiple-Choice Questions: Does Bloom's Taxonomy Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki L Bibler; Grob, Karri L; Monrad, Seetha M; Kurtz, Joshua B; Tai, Andrew; Ahmed, Asra Z; Gruppen, Larry D; Santen, Sally A

    2018-06-01

    Medical school assessments should foster the development of higher-order thinking skills to support clinical reasoning and a solid foundation of knowledge. Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) are commonly used to assess student learning, and well-written MCQs can support learner engagement in higher levels of cognitive reasoning such as application or synthesis of knowledge. Bloom's taxonomy has been used to identify MCQs that assess students' critical thinking skills, with evidence suggesting that higher-order MCQs support a deeper conceptual understanding of scientific process skills. Similarly, clinical practice also requires learners to develop higher-order thinking skills that include all of Bloom's levels. Faculty question writers and examinees may approach the same material differently based on varying levels of knowledge and expertise, and these differences can influence the cognitive levels being measured by MCQs. Consequently, faculty question writers may perceive that certain MCQs require higher-order thinking skills to process the question, whereas examinees may only need to employ lower-order thinking skills to render a correct response. Likewise, seemingly lower-order questions may actually require higher-order thinking skills to respond correctly. In this Perspective, the authors describe some of the cognitive processes examinees use to respond to MCQs. The authors propose that various factors affect both the question writer and examinee's interaction with test material and subsequent cognitive processes necessary to answer a question.

  18. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  19. Are lower levels of physical activity and self-rated fitness associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Croatian young adults? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Štefan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Although previous evidence has shown that physical activity and physical fitness lower the level of psychological distress, little is known of simultaneous associations between of physical activity and physical fitness and with psychological distress, especially in young adults. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to explore both separate and simultaneous association between physical activity and physical fitness with psychological distress. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study were 2,100 university students (1,041 men and 1,059 women chosen from eight faculties in the city of Zagreb. Physical activity, physical fitness and psychological distress were assessed using structured questionnaires. The associations were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results After adjusting for gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, material status, binge drinking, chronic disease/s and sleep quality, “insufficient” physical activity (OR = 2.60; 95% CI [1.92–3.52] and “lower” levels of physical fitness (tertile 2; OR = 1.94; 95% CI [1.25–3.01] and tertile 1; OR = 2.59; 95% CI [1.65–4.08] remained associated with “high” psychological distress. When physical activity and physical fitness were entered simultaneously into the model, “insufficient” physical activity (OR = 2.35; 95% CI [1.72–3.21] and “lower” levels of physical fitness (tertile 2; OR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.24–2.77] and tertile 1; OR = 2.00; 95% CI [1.26–3.20] remained associated with “high” psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that both “insufficient” physical activity and “lower” levels of physical fitness are associated with “high” psychological distress, even after adjusting for numerous covariates. Therefore, special policies aiming to increase the levels of physical activity and fitness are warranted.

  20. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  1. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  2. The use of astronomy questions as an instrument to detect student's misconceptions regarding physics concepts at high school level by using CRI (Certainty of Response Index) as identification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, D. N.; Wulandari, H. R. T.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research is to detect misconceptions in the concept of physics at high school level by using astronomy questions as a testing instrument. Misconception is defined as a thought or an idea that is different from what has been agreed by experts who are reliable in the field, and it is believed to interfere with the acquisition of new understanding and integration of new knowledge or skills. While lack of concept or knowledge can be corrected with the next instruction and learning, students who have misconceptions have to “unlearn” their misconception before learning a correct one. Therefore, the ability to differentiate between these two things becomes crucial. CRI is one of the methods that can identify efficiently, between misconceptions and lack of knowledge that occur in the students. This research used quantitative- descriptive method with ex-post-facto research approach. An instrument used for the test is astronomy questions that require an understanding of physics concepts to solve the problem. By using astronomy questions, it is expected to raise a better understanding such that a concept can be viewed from various fields of science. Based on test results, misconceptions are found on several topics of physics. This test also revealed that student's ability to analyse a problem is still quite low.

  3. Higher percent body fat in young women with lower physical activity level and greater proportion Pacific Islander ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nate; Nabokov, Vanessa; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-11-01

    Samoan women exhibit high rates of obesity, which can possibly be attenuated through diet and physical activity. Obesity, and body fatness in particular, is associated with increased risk for chronic diseases. Ancestry, physical activity, and dietary patterns have been associated with body composition. Using a cross-sectional design, the relative importance of proportion of Pacific Islander (PI) ancestry, level of physical activity, and macronutrients among healthy women in Honolulu, Hawai'i, ages 18 to 28 years was examined. All data were collected between January 2003 and December 2004. Percent body fat (%BF) was determined by whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Nutrient data were derived from a three-day food record. Means and standard deviations were computed for all variables of interest. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to determine correlates of %BF. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine relative contribution of variables significantly associated with %BF. Proportion of PI ancestry was significantly positively associated with %BF (P=0.0001). Physical activity level was significantly negatively associated with %BF (P=0.0006). Intervention to increase physical activity level of young Samoan women may be effective to decrease body fat and improve health. CRC-NIH grant: 0216.

  4. D-fence Against the Canadian Winter: Making Insufficient Vitamin D Levels a Higher Priority for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Zwicker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With most of the country situated above the latitude of the 42nd parallel north, there is a significant portion of the Canadian population that is not getting enough of the sunshine vitamin during the winter. Vitamin D is naturally produced when skin is exposed to sunlight, however during the winter months in Canada the sun is too low in the sky for this to occur. A full quarter of the Canadian population is estimated to have vitamin D levels so low as to be considered insufficient or deficient by Health Canada guidelines. Increasing vitamin D intake should be considered a public health priority. Vitamin D deficiency is known to be linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults (bone softening and malformation as well as osteoporosis (loss of bone density, increasing susceptibility to fractures. However a growing body of evidence also suggests that vitamin D may have a role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer, cognitive decline, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. There is, of course, no way to change Canada’s proximity to the equator. But there are ways to help Canadians get more vitamin D through dietary intake. Improving the vitamin D status of the Canadian population through food fortification and dietary supplements represents an inexpensive intervention that can improve the health of the population, but debate remains over how much vitamin D the Canadian population needs and how to ensure the population adheres to whatever recommendations are made. Food fortification has already demonstrated its effectiveness in improving vitamin D levels (as it has for other public health priorities, such as with iodized salt. Decades ago, the prevalence of rickets in Canadian children led health professionals to lobby for, and win, legislation making vitamin D fortification mandatory for milk. Other foods, such as orange juice, milk of plant origin and

  5. Higher levels of Zidovudine resistant HIV in the colon compared to blood and other gastrointestinal compartments in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Marle Guido

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT is the largest lymphoid organ infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. It serves as a viral reservoir and host-pathogen interface in infection. This study examined whether different parts of the gut and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL contain different drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. Methods Gut biopsies (esophagus, stomach, duodenum and colon and PBL were obtained from 8 HIV-1 infected preHAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy patients at three visits over 18 months. Patients received AZT, ddI or combinations of AZT/ddI. HIV-1 Reverse transcriptase (RT-coding sequences were amplified from viral DNA obtained from gut tissues and PBL, using nested PCR. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. The resulting sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analyses, and antiretroviral drug mutations were identified. Results Phylogenetic and drug mutation analyses revealed differential distribution of drug resistant mutations in the gut within patients. The level of drug-resistance conferred by the RT sequences was significantly different between different gut tissues and PBL, and varied with antiretroviral therapy. The sequences conferring the highest level of drug-resistance to AZT were found in the colon. Conclusion This study confirms that different drug-resistant HIV-1 variants are present in different gut tissues, and it is the first report to document that particular gut tissues may select for drug resistant HIV-1 variants.

  6. Lower Plasma Fetuin-A Levels Are Associated With a Higher Mortality Risk in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuechen; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Li, Qing; Li, Yanping; Ling, Wenhua

    2017-11-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the association of circulating fetuin-A with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. We measured plasma fetuin-A in 1620 patients using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The patients were members of the Guangdong coronary artery disease cohort and were recruited between October 2008 and December 2011. Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma fetuin-A and the risk of mortality. A total of 206 deaths were recorded during a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 146 of whom died from CVD. The hazard ratios for the second and third tertiles of the fetuin-A levels (using the first tertile as a reference) were 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.96) and 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.78) for CVD mortality ( P =0.005) and 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.91) and 0.48 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.70) for all-cause mortality ( P <0.001), respectively. Lower plasma fetuin-A levels were associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in patients with coronary artery disease independently of traditional CVD risk factors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Isotopic niche variation in a higher trophic level ectotherm: highlighting the role of succulent plants in desert food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delibes

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis of animal tissues allows description of isotopic niches, whose axes in an n-dimensional space are the isotopic ratios, compared to a standard, of different isotope systems (e.g. δ(13C, δ(15N. Isotopic niches are informative about where an animal, population or species lives and about what it consumes. Here we describe inter- and intrapopulation isotopic niche (bidimensional δ(13C-δ(15N space of the Orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra, an arthropodivorous small lizard, in ten localities of Baja California Sur (Mexico. These localities range from extreme arid to subtropical conditions. Between 13 and 20 individuals were sampled at each locality and 1 cm of tail-tip was collected for isotope analysis. As expected, interpopulation niche width variation was much larger than intrapopulation one. Besides, isotopic variation was not related to age, sex or individual size of lizards. This suggests geographic variation of the isotopic niche was related to changes in the basal resources that fuel the trophic web at each locality. The position of Bayesian isotope ellipses in the δ-space indicated that whiptails in more arid localities were enriched in 13C, suggesting most of the carbon they ingested came from CAM succulent plants (cacti, agaves and in minor degree in C4 grasses. Contrarily, whiptails in subtropical areas were depleted in 13C, as they received more carbon from C3 scrubs and trees. Localities closer to sea-level tended to be enriched in 15N, but a clear influence of marine subsidies was detected only at individual level. The study contributes to identify the origin and pathways through which energy flows across the trophic webs of North American deserts.

  8. Isotopic Niche Variation in a Higher Trophic Level Ectotherm: Highlighting the Role of Succulent Plants in Desert Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes, Miguel; Blazquez, Ma Carmen; Fedriani, Jose Maria; Granados, Arsenio; Soriano, Laura; Delgado, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of animal tissues allows description of isotopic niches, whose axes in an n-dimensional space are the isotopic ratios, compared to a standard, of different isotope systems (e.g. δ13C, δ15N). Isotopic niches are informative about where an animal, population or species lives and about what it consumes. Here we describe inter- and intrapopulation isotopic niche (bidimensional δ13C-δ15N space) of the Orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), an arthropodivorous small lizard, in ten localities of Baja California Sur (Mexico). These localities range from extreme arid to subtropical conditions. Between 13 and 20 individuals were sampled at each locality and 1 cm of tail-tip was collected for isotope analysis. As expected, interpopulation niche width variation was much larger than intrapopulation one. Besides, isotopic variation was not related to age, sex or individual size of lizards. This suggests geographic variation of the isotopic niche was related to changes in the basal resources that fuel the trophic web at each locality. The position of Bayesian isotope ellipses in the δ-space indicated that whiptails in more arid localities were enriched in 13C, suggesting most of the carbon they ingested came from CAM succulent plants (cacti, agaves) and in minor degree in C4 grasses. Contrarily, whiptails in subtropical areas were depleted in 13C, as they received more carbon from C3 scrubs and trees. Localities closer to sea-level tended to be enriched in 15N, but a clear influence of marine subsidies was detected only at individual level. The study contributes to identify the origin and pathways through which energy flows across the trophic webs of North American deserts. PMID:25973609

  9. Empathic Accuracy in Male Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Higher versus Lower Levels of Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Key, N; Brown, T; Fairchild, G

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders are reported to show deficits in empathy and emotion recognition. However, prior studies have mainly used questionnaires to measure empathy or experimental paradigms that are lacking in ecological validity. We used an empathic accuracy (EA) task to study EA, emotion recognition, and affective empathy in 77 male adolescents aged 13-18 years: 37 with Conduct Disorder (CD) and 40 typically-developing controls. The CD sample was divided into higher callous-emotional traits (CD/CU+) and lower callous-unemotional traits (CD/CU-) subgroups using a median split. Participants watched films of actors recalling happy, sad, surprised, angry, disgusted or fearful autobiographical experiences and provided continuous ratings of emotional intensity (assessing EA), as well as naming the emotion (recognition) and reporting the emotion they experienced themselves (affective empathy). The CD and typically-developing groups did not significantly differ in EA and there were also no differences between the CD/CU+ and CD/CU- subgroups. Participants with CD were significantly less accurate than controls in recognizing sadness, fear, and disgust, all ps sadness, fear, and disgust relative to controls, all ps < 0.010, rs ≥ 0.33, whereas the CD/CU+ and CD/CU- subgroups did not differ in affective empathy. These results extend prior research by demonstrating affective empathy and emotion recognition deficits in adolescents with CD using a more ecologically-valid task, and challenge the view that affective empathy deficits are specific to CD/CU+.

  10. Leveling the Playing Field: Assessment of Gross Motor Skills in Low Socioeconomic Children to their Higher Socioeconomic Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Adkins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fundamental movements (FM of children influence the willingness to engage in physical activity (PA. Thus, proper FM skills are the foundation for a lifespan of PA. Objective: This study examined what factors may affect children’s PA in relation to FM pattern capabilities. Methods: The study examined the influence of SES when three low-income schools were provided additional PA opportunities on days PE was not taught. FM patterns in relation to object control (OC and locomotor skill (LC development were evaluated on K (n = 871, 1st (n = 893, and 2nd graders (n = 829 using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 instrument (Ulrich, 2000. Schools were dichotomized and categorized as being low SES (n = 2008 and high SES (n = 578 status. Results: A significant relationship was revealed with LC (r = 0.264; p = 0.001, OC (r = 0.171; p = 0.001, and total TGMD-2 (r = 0.264; p = 0.001. Low and high SES schools significantly improved overall TGMD-2 scores. High SES schools children were significantly higher in LC [F, (2, 1272 = 29.31, p = 0.001], OC [F, (2, 1272 = 23.14, p = 0.001], and total TGMD-2 [F, (1, 1272 = 38.11, p = 0.001]. Conclusion: Low SES schools need to concentrate on PA-based activities to engage students in FM patterns, to help narrow the gap in FM capabilities. In addition, the increase in PA opportunities for lower SES schools could positively impact brain function, cardiovascular fitness, and overall well-being.

  11. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  12. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  13. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  14. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  15. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  16. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  17. A statistical analysis of student questions in a cell biology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Elena L; Polacek, Kelly M; Ingram, Ella L

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students asked about laboratory activities, 2) whether the types or quality of questions changed over time, and 3) whether the quality of questions or degree of improvement was related to academic performance. We found a majority of questions were about laboratory outcomes or seeking additional descriptive information about organisms or processes to be studied. Few questions earned the highest possible ranking, which required demonstration of extended thought, integration of information, and/or hypotheses and future experiments, although a majority of students asked such a question at least once. We found no correlation between types of student questions or improvement in questions and final grades. Only a small improvement in overall question quality was seen despite considerable practice at writing questions about science. Our results suggest that improving students' ability to generate higher-order questions may require specific pedagogical intervention.

  18. Lower Serum DHEAS levels are associated with a higher degree of physical disability and depressive symptoms in middle-aged to older African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haren, Matthew T.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Banks, William A.; Patrick, Ping; Miller, Douglas K.; Morley, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Background Changes in androgen levels and associations with chronic disease, physical and neuropsychological function and disability in women over the middle to later years of life are not well understood and have not been extensively studied in African-American women. Aims The present cross-sectional analysis reports such levels and associations in community dwelling, African American women aged 49 – 65 years from St. Louis, Missouri. Methods A home-based physical examination and a health status questionnaire were administered to randomly sampled women. Body composition (DEXA), lower limb and hand-grip muscle strength, physical and neuropsychological function and disability levels were assessed. Blood was drawn and assayed for total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), oestradiol (E2), adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokine receptors (sIL2r, sIL6r, sTNFr1 & sTNFr2). Multiple linear regression modelling was used to identify the best predictors of testosterone, DHEAS and Free Androgen Index (T/SHBG). Results Seventy-four percent of women were menopausal and a quarter of these were taking oestrogen therapy. DHEAS and E2 declined between the ages of 49 and 65 years, whereas total T, SHBG and FAI remained stable. Total T and DHEAS levels were strongly correlated. In this population sample there were no independent associations of either total T or FAI with indicators of functional limitations, disability or clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Unlike total T and FAI, lower DHEAS levels was independently associated with both higher IADL scores (indicating a higher degree of physical disability) and higher CESD scores (indicating a higher degree of clinically relevant depressive symptoms). Conclusion There is an age-related decline in serum DHEAS in African-American women. Lower DHEAS levels appear to be associated with a higher degree of physical disability and

  19. Higher B-cell activating factor levels at birth are positively associated with maternal dairy farm exposure and negatively related to allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Anna-Carin; Hesselmar, Bill; Nordström, Inger; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A high proportion of circulating immature/naive CD5(+) B cells during early infancy is a risk factor for allergy development. B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is an important cytokine for B-cell maturation. We sought to investigate whether BAFF levels are related to environmental exposures during pregnancy and early childhood and whether BAFF levels are associated with postnatal B-cell maturation and allergic disease. In the FARMFLORA study, including both farming and nonfarming families, we measured BAFF levels in plasma from mothers and their children at birth and at 1, 4, 18, and 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples were also analyzed for B-cell numbers and proportions of CD5(+) and CD27(+) B cells. Allergic disease was clinically evaluated at 18 and 36 months of age. Circulating BAFF levels were maximal at birth, and farmers' children had higher BAFF levels than nonfarmers' children. Higher BAFF levels at birth were positively associated with proportions of CD27(+) memory B cells among farmers' children and inversely related to proportions of CD5(+) immature/naive B cells among nonfarmers' children. Children with allergic disease at 18 months of age had lower cord blood BAFF levels than nonallergic children. At birth, girls had higher BAFF levels and lower proportions of CD5(+) B cells than boys. Farm exposure during pregnancy appears to induce BAFF production in the newborn child, and high neonatal BAFF levels were associated with more accelerated postnatal B-cell maturation, which lend further strength to the role of B cells in the hygiene hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors Affecting the State Anxiety Level of Higher Education Students in Macau: The Impact of Trait Anxiety and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi-Yan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the levels of anxiety of 589 day- and night-class students in higher education in Macau two weeks before the final examination period. The Chinese version of the 40-item Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch & Lusherier, 1970) was applied in this study. The two anxiety scales are…

  1. Preadipocyte Factor-1 Levels Are Higher in Women with Hypothalamic Amenorrhea and Are Associated with Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mineral Density through a Mechanism Independent of Leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronis, Konstantinos N.; Kilim, Holly; Chamberland, John P.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford

    2011-01-01

    Context: Preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1) is increased in anorexia nervosa and is associated negatively with bone mineral density (BMD). No previous studies exist on pref-1 in women with exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), which similar to anorexia nervosa, is an energy-deficiency state associated with hypoleptinemia. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate whether pref-1 levels are also elevated and associated with low BMD and to assess whether leptin regulates pref-1 levels in women with HA. Design: Study 1 was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of metreleptin administration in women with HA. Study 2 was an open-label study of metreleptin administration in low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses in healthy women volunteers. Setting and Patients: At Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 20 women with HA and leptin levels higher than 5 ng/ml and nine healthy control women participated in study 1, and five healthy women participated in study 2. Intervention: For study 1, 20 HA subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 mg/kg metreleptin (n = 11) or placebo (n = 9). For study 2, five healthy subjects received 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg metreleptin in both fed and fasting conditions for 1 and 3 d, respectively. Main Outcome Measures: Circulating pref-1 and leptin levels were measured. Results: Pref-1 was significantly higher in HA subjects vs. controls (P = 0.035) and negatively associated with BMD (ρ = −0.38; P < 0.01) and bone mineral content (ρ = −0.32; P < 0.05). Metreleptin administration did not alter pref-1 levels in any study reported herein. Conclusions: Pref-1 is higher in HA subjects than controls. Metreleptin administration at low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses does not affect pref-1 levels, suggesting that hypoleptinemia is not responsible for higher pref-1 levels and that leptin does not regulate pref-1. PMID:21795455

  2. Preadipocyte factor-1 levels are higher in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and are associated with bone mineral content and bone mineral density through a mechanism independent of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronis, Konstantinos N; Kilim, Holly; Chamberland, John P; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-10-01

    Preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1) is increased in anorexia nervosa and is associated negatively with bone mineral density (BMD). No previous studies exist on pref-1 in women with exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), which similar to anorexia nervosa, is an energy-deficiency state associated with hypoleptinemia. Our objective was to evaluate whether pref-1 levels are also elevated and associated with low BMD and to assess whether leptin regulates pref-1 levels in women with HA. Study 1 was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of metreleptin administration in women with HA. Study 2 was an open-label study of metreleptin administration in low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses in healthy women volunteers. At Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 20 women with HA and leptin levels higher than 5 ng/ml and nine healthy control women participated in study 1, and five healthy women participated in study 2. For study 1, 20 HA subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 mg/kg metreleptin (n = 11) or placebo (n = 9). For study 2, five healthy subjects received 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg metreleptin in both fed and fasting conditions for 1 and 3 d, respectively. Circulating pref-1 and leptin levels were measured. Pref-1 was significantly higher in HA subjects vs. controls (P = 0.035) and negatively associated with BMD (ρ = -0.38; P < 0.01) and bone mineral content (ρ = -0.32; P < 0.05). Metreleptin administration did not alter pref-1 levels in any study reported herein. Pref-1 is higher in HA subjects than controls. Metreleptin administration at low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses does not affect pref-1 levels, suggesting that hypoleptinemia is not responsible for higher pref-1 levels and that leptin does not regulate pref-1.

  3. Elevated basal progesterone levels are associated with increased preovulatory progesterone rise but not with higher pregnancy rates in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    To ascertain the association between basal progesterone (P) levels and the occurrence of preovulatory progesterone rise (PPR) and clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists. Serum P levels of 464 patients were measured on day 2 and day of hCG of cycles. Cycles with basal P levels>1.6ng/mL were cancelled. All embryos were cryopreserved in cycles with P levels≥2ng/mL on the day of hCG. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of PPR (P>1.5ng/mL) and CPR with regard to basal P. Basal P levels were significantly higher in cycles with PPR than in those without PPR (0.63±0.31 vs. 0.48±0.28ng/mL). Area under the curve for basal P according to ROC analysis to discriminate between elevated and normal P levels on the day of hCG was 0.65 (0.58-0.71 95% CI, pcycles with and without PPR was 0.65ng/mL. Cycles with basal P levels above 0.65ng/mL had a significantly higher incidence of PPR (30.9% vs. 13.5%) but similar clinical and cumulative pregnancy rates (38.8% vs. 31.1% and 41.7% vs. 32.6%, respectively) in comparison to cycles with basal P levels below 0.65ng/mL. In multivariate regression analysis, basal P levels, LH level on the first day of antagonist administration, and estradiol levels on the day of hCG trigger were the variables that predicted PPR. Basal P levels were associated with increased incidence of PPR but not with CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Higher glucose level and systemic oxidative stress decrease the mean velocity index of the retinal artery during flickering light stimulation in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelić, Vladimir; Drnovšek Olup, Brigita; Žižek, Bogomir; Skitek, Milan; Jerin, Aleš

    2016-10-31

    To determine whether higher glucose level and systemic oxidative stress decrease mean velocity (MV) index of the central retinal artery (CRA) during flickering light stimulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The study was performed in the period from 2008 to 2015 at the University Eye Clinic in Ljubljana. 41 patients with T1D and 37 participants without diabetes were included. MV in the CRA was measured using Doppler ultrasound diagnostics in basal conditions and during 8 Hz flickering light irritation. The plasma levels of glucose, fructosamine, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Patients with T1D had significantly higher levels of blood glucose (Ptriglycerides (P=0.108), cholesterol (P=0.531), and LDL (P=0.645) between the groups. Patients with T1D also had a significantly lower MV index in the CRA (1.11±0.15 vs 1.24±0.23; P=0.010). In the T1D group, a significant negative correlation was found between the level of glucose (r=0.58; Pindex in the CRA. At the same time, in this group fructosamine and 8-OHdG levels had a separate effect on the MV index (adjusted R2=0.38, Pglucose levels, the medium-term glucose level, and systemic oxidative stress could importantly reduce retinal vasodilatation during flickering light irritation in patients with T1D.

  5. Gaussian-2 theory: Use of higher level correlation methods, quadratic configuration interaction geometries, and second-order Moller--Plesset zero-point energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, L.A.; Raghavachari, K.; Pople, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of Gaussian-2 theory is investigated when higher level theoretical methods are included for correlation effects, geometries, and zero-point energies. A higher level of correlation treatment is examined using Brueckner doubles [BD(T)] and coupled cluster [CCSD(T)] methods rather than quadratic configuration interaction [QCISD(T)]. The use of geometries optimized at the QCISD level rather than the second-order Moller--Plesset level (MP2) and the use of scaled MP2 zero-point energies rather than scaled Hartree--Fock (HF) zero-point energies have also been examined. The set of 125 energies used for validation of G2 theory [J. Chem. Phys. 94, 7221 (1991)] is used to test out these variations of G2 theory. Inclusion of higher levels of correlation treatment has little effect except in the cases of multiply-bonded systems. In these cases better agreement is obtained in some cases and poorer agreement in others so that there is no improvement in overall performance. The use of QCISD geometries yields significantly better agreement with experiment for several cases including the ionization potentials of CS and O 2 , electron affinity of CN, and dissociation energies of N 2 , O 2 , CN, and SO 2 . This leads to a slightly better agreement with experiment overall. The MP2 zero-point energies gives no overall improvement. These methods may be useful for specific systems

  6. Estimating the cost of referral and willingness to pay for referral to higher-level health facilities: a case series study from an integrated community case management programme in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyonjo, Agnes; Bagorogoza, Benson; Kasteng, Frida; Ayebale, Godfrey; Makumbi, Fredrick; Tomson, Göran; Källander, Karin

    2015-08-28

    Integrated community case management (iCCM) relies on community health workers (CHWs) managing children with malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea, and referring children when management is not possible. This study sought to establish the cost per sick child referred to seek care from a higher-level health facility by a CHW and to estimate caregivers' willingness to pay (WTP) for referral. Caregivers of 203 randomly selected children referred to higher-level health facilities by CHWs were interviewed in four Midwestern Uganda districts. Questionnaires and document reviews were used to capture direct, indirect and opportunity costs incurred by caregivers, CHWs and health facilities managing referred children. WTP for referral was assessed through the 'bidding game' approach followed by an open-ended question on maximum WTP. Descriptive analysis was conducted for factors associated with referral completion and WTP using logistic and linear regression methods, respectively. The cost per case referred to higher-level health facilities was computed from a societal perspective. Reasons for referral included having fever with a negative malaria test (46.8%), danger signs (29.6%) and drug shortage (37.4%). Among the referred, less than half completed referral (45.8%). Referral completion was 2.8 times higher among children with danger signs (p = 0.004) relative to those without danger signs, and 0.27 times lower among children who received pre-referral treatment (p average cost per case referred was US$ 4.89 and US$7.35 per case completing referral. For each unit cost per case referred, caregiver out of pocket expenditure contributed 33.7%, caregivers' and CHWs' opportunity costs contributed 29.2% and 5.1% respectively and health facility costs contributed 39.6%. The mean (SD) out of pocket expenditure was US$1.65 (3.25). The mean WTP for referral was US$8.25 (14.70) and was positively associated with having received pre-referral treatment, completing referral and increasing

  7. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  8. Two Questions about Critical-Thinking Tests in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Roger

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author argues first, that critical-thinking skills do exist independent of disciplinary thinking skills and are not compromised by interaction effects with the major; and second, that standardized tests (e.g., the Collegiate Learning Assessment, or CLA, which is his example throughout the article) are the best way to measure…

  9. asking questions for higher order thinking in visual literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinking skills in the English visual literacy (VL) learning classroom. .... out that the use of assessment in the classroom as a tool to promote greater learner ..... tions on technical knowledge and critical language awareness were not asked.

  10. Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and Low Disease Activity because of Anti-TNF-Alpha Therapy Have Higher TRAIL Levels Than Controls: A Potential Compensatory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Genre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. TRAIL is a potential biomarker of cardiovascular (CV disease. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with metabolic syndrome (MeS and accelerated atherosclerosis. We assessed whether disease activity, systemic inflammation, and MeS features were associated with circulating TRAIL levels in AS patients undergoing TNF-α antagonist infliximab therapy and if infliximab infusion modified TRAIL levels. Methods. We measured TRAIL serum levels in 30 nondiabetic AS patients without CV disease undergoing anti-TNF-α therapy, immediately before and after an infliximab infusion, and in 48 matched controls. Correlations of TRAIL levels with disease activity, systemic inflammation and MeS features, adipokines, and biomarkers of endothelial activation were evaluated. Changes in TRAIL levels following anti-TNF-α infusion were analyzed. Results. TRAIL levels were higher in AS patients than controls. TRAIL levels displayed an inverse correlation with total and LDL cholesterol. We observed an inverse correlation with QUICKI and a marginal association with HOMA-IR. We also found an inverse correlation with resistin and a marginal association with apelin and OPN. Anti-TNF-α infusion did not change TRAIL levels after 120′. Conclusion. Elevated TRAIL levels in AS patients may be the result of a compensatory mechanism to reduce CV risk in these patients.

  11. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...

  12. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  13. Prostate-specific antigen levels are higher in African-American than in white patients in a multicenter registration study: Results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Winter, Kathryn; Sause, William; Gallagher, Michael J.; Michalski, Jeff; Roach, Mack; Porter, Arthur; Bondy, Melissa

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a national sample of African-American and white men with prostate cancer, and to attempt to explain any differences by using self-reported individual-level socioeconomic status adjustments. Methods and Materials: During 4((1)/(2)) months in 1994-95, 709 patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective study; 17.5% were African-American and 82.5% were white. Information about clinical stage, tumor grade, pretreatment PSA, type of insurance, and educational and income status was obtained. Serum PSA levels were measured and racial differences were found; how the differences were influenced by other patient- or tumor-related factors and if the differences could be explained by socioeconomic status disparities were determined. In univariate analyses, factors associated with the mean PSA levels were studied; log-converted values were used to yield a normal distribution. Multivariate analyses were done on log-linear models for description of association patterns among various categorical variables; a perfectly fitted model should have a correlation value (CV) of 1.0. Results: The mean PSA level was higher in African-Americans (14.68 ng/ml) than in whites (9.82 ng/ml) (p = 0.001). Clinical stage (p = 0.001), Gleason sum tumor grade (p = 0.0001), educational level (p = 0.001), and household income (p = 0.03) were also associated with mean PSA levels; age, type of biopsy, and insurance status were not. Disease stage (p = 0.0001), grade (p 0.0001), education (p = 0.07), and income (p = 0.02) were all associated with PSA levels for whites, but none of these factors were important for African-Americans (all p values > 0.1). The best fitted log-linear model (CV = 0.99) contained PSA ( 20), Gleason sum grade (2-5, 6-7, and 8-10), race, and two interactions: PSA by race (p = 0.0012) and PSA by Gleason sum (p = 0.0001). Models replacing race for either income (CV = 0.82) or education

  14. Effect of Task-Correlated Physiological Fluctuations and Motion in 2D and 3D Echo-Planar Imaging in a Higher Cognitive Level fMRI Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladstein, Jarle; Evensmoen, Hallvard R; Håberg, Asta K; Kristoffersen, Anders; Goa, Pål E

    2016-01-01

    To compare 2D and 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) in a higher cognitive level fMRI paradigm. In particular, to study the link between the presence of task-correlated physiological fluctuations and motion and the fMRI contrast estimates from either 2D EPI or 3D EPI datasets, with and without adding nuisance regressors to the model. A signal model in the presence of partly task-correlated fluctuations is derived, and predictions for contrast estimates with and without nuisance regressors are made. Thirty-one healthy volunteers were scanned using 2D EPI and 3D EPI during a virtual environmental learning paradigm. In a subgroup of 7 subjects, heart rate and respiration were logged, and the correlation with the paradigm was evaluated. FMRI analysis was performed using models with and without nuisance regressors. Differences in the mean contrast estimates were investigated by analysis-of-variance using Subject, Sequence, Day, and Run as factors. The distributions of group level contrast estimates were compared. Partially task-correlated fluctuations in respiration, heart rate and motion were observed. Statistically significant differences were found in the mean contrast estimates between the 2D EPI and 3D EPI when using a model without nuisance regressors. The inclusion of nuisance regressors for cardiorespiratory effects and motion reduced the difference to a statistically non-significant level. Furthermore, the contrast estimate values shifted more when including nuisance regressors for 3D EPI compared to 2D EPI. The results are consistent with 3D EPI having a higher sensitivity to fluctuations compared to 2D EPI. In the presence partially task-correlated physiological fluctuations or motion, proper correction is necessary to get expectation correct contrast estimates when using 3D EPI. As such task-correlated physiological fluctuations or motion is difficult to avoid in paradigms exploring higher cognitive functions, 2D EPI seems to be the preferred choice for higher

  15. Microvascular abnormalities in capillaroscopy correlate with higher serum IL-18 and sE-selectin levels in patients with type 1 diabetes complicated by microangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Górska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Microvascular abnormalities are one of the most important causes of persistent diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to compare microvascular changes examined by nailfold capillaroscopy with serum concentrations of soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin and IL-18 in type 1 diabetic patients with and without microangiopathy. Serum levels of sE-selectin and IL-18 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 106 patients with type 1 diabetes and in 40 healthy controls. All diabetic patients were evaluated by extensive clinical, laboratory and capillaroscopic studies. Morphological changes were observed by nailfold capillaroscopy in 86 out of 106 (81% diabetic patients. Severe capillaroscopic changes were seen in 32 out of 54 (59% patients with microangiopathy, but in only seven out of 52 (13% patients without microangiopathy. Higher serum levels of sE-selectin (p < 0.001 and IL-18 (p < 0.05 were demonstrated in diabetic patients compared to controls. Significant differences of sE-selectin (p < 0.001 and IL-18 (p < 0.01 serum concentrations were observed between diabetic patients with microangiopathy and controls. Moreover, comparison between patients with and without microangiopathic complications showed a significantly higher capillaroscopic score and sE-selectin serum concentration in the group with microangiopathy (p < 0.001. Furthermore, diabetic patients with severe microvascular changes in capillaroscopy showed significantly higher IL-18 (p < 0.001 and sE-selectin (p < 0.05 serum levels than subgroups without changes or with mild abnormalities. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in nailfold capillaroscopy may reflect the extent of microvascular involvement and are associated with higher sE-selectin and IL-18 serum levels, as well as with microangiopathic complications in diabetic patients. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 104–110

  16. Short repeats in the heme oxygenase 1 gene promoter is associated with increased levels of inflammation, ferritin and higher risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mónica; Leiva, Elba; Arredondo-Olguín, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the HO1 genotype, ferritin levels and the risk of type-2 diabetes and inflammation. Eight hundred thirty-five individuals were evaluated and classified according to their nutritional status and the presence of type-2 diabetes: 153 overweight (OW); 62 obese (OB); 55 type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM); 202 OWDM; 239 OBDM and 124 controls (C). We studied biochemical (glycemia, insulin, lipid profile, liver enzyme, creatinine, hsCRP), hematological (hemoglobin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, transferrin receptor and serum Fe and ferritin) and oxidative stress (SOD, GHS and TBARS) parameters. We determined heme oxygenase activity and the (GT)n polymorphism in its gene promoter. Individuals with diabetes, independent of nutritional status, showed high levels of ferritin and HO activity compared to control subjects. Allelic frequency was not different between the groups (Chi(2), NS) however, genotypes were different (Chi(2), P1). The SS (short-short) genotype was higher in all DM individuals compared to controls and MM was higher in controls. SM (short-medium) genotype was an independent risk factor for DM in logistic regression analysis. We observed high risk for type-2 diabetes mellitus in the presence of SM genotype and high levels of ferritin (OR adjusted: 2.7; 1.9-3.6; p1; compared to control group). It was also significantly related to inflammation. The SM genotype in HO1 gene promoter and ferritin levels were associated with higher risk for type-2 diabetes and for having a higher marker of inflammation, which is the main risk factor for the development of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Interleukins 6 and 15 Levels Are Higher in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, but Obesity Is Associated with Their Increased Content in Visceral Fat Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Izabela Jonas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation, which takes part in the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish whether subcutaneous (SAT or visceral (VAT adipose tissue plays a major role in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Concentrations of interleukins (IL: 1β, 6, 8 and 15 were measured at the protein level by an ELISA-based method and on the mRNA level by real-time PCR in VAT and SAT samples obtained from 49 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 and 16 normal-weight (BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2 controls. IL-6 and IL-15 protein concentrations were higher in SAT than in VAT for both obese (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively and control individuals (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively, while for IL-1β this was observed only in obese subjects (p = 0.047. What characterized obese individuals was the higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 at the protein level in VAT compared to normal-weight controls (p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively. Additionally, obese individuals with metabolic syndrome had higher IL-1β levels in VAT than did obese individuals without this syndrome (p = 0.003. In conclusion, concentrations of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in SAT than in VAT, but it was the increased pro-inflammatory activity of VAT that was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Fear of falling and falls self-efficacy and their relationship to higher-level competence among community-dwelling senior men and women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Yuriko; Arai, Asuna; Tomimori, Masashi; Ishida, Kozo; Lee, Romeo B; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2011-07-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationships of fear of falling and falls self-efficacy with higher-level competence among community-dwelling senior citizens in Japan. Of the 822 registered senior citizens, 731 (89%) community dwellers were requested to participate in the survey using a mailed self-accomplished questionnaire. Data from 648 respondents with duly accomplished questionnaires were analyzed using R(2) , the coefficient of determination, based on a multivariate regression analysis. Fear of falling, low falls self-efficacy and higher-level functional disability were observed among respondents. Of the hypothesized relationships examined by sex, fear of falling was significantly associated with disability among male respondents and low falls self-efficacy among both sexes. Several confounding variables were strongly associated with competence. While the data underscore the strategic importance of promoting higher-level competence among the senior citizens, there is much to suggest that their competence is likely to be maintained if their fear of falling and falls self-efficacy were modified. Programs must also consider a wide array of intervening factors. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody (TRAb)-IgM Levels Are Markedly Higher Than TRAb-IgG Levels in Graves' Disease Patients and Controls, and TRAb-IgM Production Is Related to Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumata, Keisuke; Nagata, Keiko; Matsushita, Michiko; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masako; Murakami, Ichiro; Fukata, Shuji; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder that mainly presents as hyperthyroidism and is caused by thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) that stimulate thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors. We previously reported that Graves' disease patients and healthy controls both had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected TRAb-positive B cells and the EBV-reactivated induction of these B cells in cultures may induce the production of TRAbs. In the present study, we quantified serum TRAb-IgG and TRAb-IgM levels in 34 Graves' disease patients and 15 controls using ELISA to elucidate the mechanisms underlying EBV-related antibody production. As expected, TRAb-IgG and TRAb-IgM levels were higher in Graves' disease patients than in controls; however, TRAb-IgM levels were significantly higher than those of TRAb-IgG levels, whereas total IgM levels were lower than total IgG levels. On the other hand, the enhanced production of TRAb-IgM was frequently observed in patients with EBV reactivation. These results are consistent with the fact that the percentage of autoreactive IgM B cells are higher than that of autoreactive IgG B cells, and support the EBV-related polyclonal B cell activation. It is necessary to clarify the biological characteristics of TRAb-IgM and the relationship between TRAb isotypes and the biology of Graves' disease.

  20. Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis links autism and toxic metals and highlights the impact of country development status: Higher blood and erythrocyte levels for mercury and lead, and higher hair antimony, cadmium, lead, and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-10-03

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects cognitive and higher cognitive functions. Increasing prevalence of ASD and high rates of related comorbidities has caused serious health loss and placed an onerous burden on the supporting families, caregivers, and health care services. Heavy metals are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. However, due to inconsistencies across studies, it is still hard to explain the association between ASD and toxic metals. Therefore the objective of this study was to investigate the difference in heavy metal measures between patients with ASD and control subjects. We included observational studies that measured levels of toxic metals (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium) in different specimens (whole blood, plasma, serum, red cells, hair and urine) for patients with ASD and for controls. The main electronic medical database (PubMed and Scopus) were searched from inception through October 2016. 52 studies were eligible to be included in the present systematic review, of which 48 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The hair concentrations of antimony (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.45) and lead (SMD=0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17 to 1.03) in ASD patients were significantly higher than those of control subjects. ASD patients had higher erythrocyte levels of lead (SMD=1.55, CI: 0.2 to 2.89) and mercury (SMD=1.56, CI: 0.42 to 2.70). There were significantly higher blood lead levels in ASD patients (SMD=0.43, CI: 0.02 to 0.85). Sensitivity analyses showed that ASD patients in developed but not in developing countries have lower hair concentrations of cadmium (SMD=-0.29, CI: -0.46 to -0.12). Also, such analyses indicated that ASD patients in developing but not in developed lands have higher hair concentrations of lead (SMD=1.58, CI: 0.80 to 2.36) and mercury (SMD=0

  2. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  3. Lower adiponectin levels at first trimester of pregnancy are associated with increased insulin resistance and higher risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the associations between adiponectin levels and 1) the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and 2) insulin resistance/sensitivity, β-cell function, and compensation indices in a prospective cohort representative of the general population of pregnant women. We performed anthropometric measurements and collected blood samples at 1st (6-13 weeks) and 2nd (24-28 weeks) trimesters. Diagnosis of GDM was made at 2nd trimester based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria). Insulin was measured (ELISA; Luminex) to estimate homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), insulin secretion (AUC(insulin/glucose)), and β-cell compensation (insulin secretion sensitivity index-2). Adiponectin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Among the 445 participants included in this study, 38 women developed GDM. Women who developed GDM had lower 1st-trimester adiponectin levels (9.67 ± 3.84 vs. 11.92 ± 4.59 µg/mL in women with normal glucose tolerance). Lower adiponectin levels were associated with higher risk of developing GDM (OR, 1.12 per 1 µg/mL decrease of adiponectin levels; P = 0.02, adjusted for BMI and HbA1c at 1st trimester). Adiponectin levels at 1st and 2nd trimesters were associated with HOMA-IR (both: r = -0.22, P insulin/glucose). Pregnant women with lower adiponectin levels at 1st trimester have higher levels of insulin resistance and are more likely to develop GDM independently of adiposity or glycemic measurements.

  4. Higher Levels of c-Met Expression and Phosphorylation Identify Cell Lines With Increased Sensitivity to AMG-458, a Novel Selective c-Met Inhibitor With Radiosensitizing Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo; Torossian, Artour; Sun, Yunguang; Du, Ruihong; Dicker, Adam P.; Lu Bo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: c-Met is overexpressed in some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tissues. Cell lines with higher levels of c-Met expression and phosphorylation depend on this receptor for survival. We studied the effects of AMG-458 on 2 NSCLC cell lines. Methods and Materials: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium assays assessed the sensitivities of the cells to AMG-458. Clonogenic survival assays illustrated the radiosensitizing effects of AMG-458. Western blot for cleaved caspase 3 measured apoptosis. Immunoblotting for c-Met, phospho-Met (p-Met), Akt/p-Akt, and Erk/p-Erk was performed to observe downstream signaling. Results: AMG-458 enhanced radiosensitivity in H441 but not in A549. H441 showed constitutive phosphorylation of c-Met. A549 expressed low levels of c-Met, which were phosphorylated only in the presence of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor. The combination of radiation therapy and AMG-458 treatment was found to synergistically increase apoptosis in the H441 cell line but not in A549. Radiation therapy, AMG-458, and combination treatment were found to reduce p-Akt and p-Erk levels in H441 but not in A549. H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458 after small interfering RNA knockdown of c-Met; there was no change in A549. After overexpression of c-Met, A549 became more sensitive, while H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458. Conclusions: AMG-458 was more effective in cells that expressed higher levels of c-Met/p-Met, suggesting that higher levels of c-Met and p-Met in NSCLC tissue may classify a subset of tumors that are more sensitive to molecular therapies against this receptor.

  5. Serum ferritin level is higher in male adolescents with obesity: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Jin Jeon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposePrevious reports show an association between high serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome (MS in adults. In adolescents, little information is available with obesity and serum ferritin levels.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (K-NHANES conducted during 2010 by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. A total of 849 subjects aged 10-18 years participated in the 2010 survey. A body mass index (BMI ≥95th percentile for age and sex or a BMI ≥25 was used to diagnose as obesity.ResultsThe weighted prevalence of obesity was 13.4% (62/462 in male and 8.5% (33/387 in female. We observed significantly higher serum ferritin in male than in female (mean±standard error [SE], 50.5±2.3 µU/L vs. 30.6±1.3 µU/L; P<0.0001. In male, serum ferritin is positively correlated with age (P<0.0001. White blood cell (WBC count, serum fasting blood sugar, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and ferritin levels were higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL were lower in the obesity than in the normal group. In female adolescents, WBC count, TG, insulin, and HOMA-IR were higher and HDL were lower in the obesity than in the normal group. In male, serum ferritin levels showed positive association with obesity (β=21.196, P=0.016.ConclusionSerum ferritin levels appear to be associated with obesity in Korean male adolescents.

  6. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  7. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  8. A proposal to Raise the Level of Competitive Advantage of Scientific Research from the Teaching Staff’s Perspective in Higher Education Institutions - the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Noshy Anis ELsherbiny Elbaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to provide a proposal to raise the level of competitive advantage in scientific research from the teaching staff’s perspective in higher education institutions - in the Kingdom of Bahrain. To achieve this objective, the study used a descriptive method, and a questionnaire as a tool for the field study. In order to determine the mechanisms for achieving competitive advantage in scientific research at the institutions of higher education in the Kingdom of Bahrain, the tool was administered to a sample of (137 faculty members  from some higher education institutions (public and private in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The field study revealed a number of results, inter alia, the study sample agreed with all the proposed mechanisms to achieve competitive advantage in scientific research at institutions of higher education in the Kingdom of Bahrain at a high degree. Their agreement to the themes was in this order: academic support for scientific research, financial support for scientific research, community support for scientific research, and information technology support for scientific research. The study results also showed no statistically significant differences between the responses of the study sample about the proposed mechanisms for achieving competitive advantage in scientific research due to the variables of the academic degree  and the institution. Keywords: Competitive advantage, Research, Higher education institutions.

  9. Larger, Higher-level Academic Institutions in the US Do Not Necessarily Have Better-resourced Library Web Teams. A Review of: Connell, Ruth Sara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lewis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To discover how library Web teams’ staffing, backgrounds, tools, and professional development differ among various types of academic libraries.Design – Survey.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – Academic library Web team members.Methods – A systematic sample of every twelfth institution on The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education list was used to establish a sample group. A Web search was carriedout to identify each institution’s library Web site and contact information for the Web site designer or most appropriate alternative person. Institutions were excluded from the sample if they had no Web site at all, had no library Web site, had a Web site that did not mention a library, or had a Spanish language Web site. In September 2006 an e-mail was sent to the contact for each institution in the sample group asking them to participate in an online survey. A follow up e-mail was sent two weeks later and the survey closed after one month. The survey respondents were asked to identify their institutions so that analysis of the results in relation to the sizeand type of institution could be carried out. The researchers used a simplified version of the Carnegie classification to sort the responding institutions into five main groups.Main Results – The systematic sample consisted of 288 institutions (sample size 6.5%. The profile of the responding institutions was as follows: associate’s colleges (35.5%, baccalaureate colleges (18.2%, master’s colleges and universities (20.9%, doctorate-granting universities (9% and special focus institutions (15.5%. A total of 110 institutions completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 38.19%, although not all respondents answered all the survey questions. The final sample of 110 was 2.5% of the total 4384 institutions on the Carnegielist. Seventy-one per cent of institutions with multiple libraries shared Web teams, with two

  10. Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor member ST2 exhibits higher soluble levels in type 2 diabetes, especially when accompanied with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fousteris Evangelos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble ST2, a member of the of the Toll/IL-1 superfamily, is a novel biomarker with exceptional predictive value in heart failure and myocardial infarction- related mortality as well as in acute dyspneic states. Soluble ST2 is considered a decoy receptor of IL 33 that blocks the protective effects of the cytokine in atherosclerosis and cardiac remodeling. In the present study we investigated the differences in the levels of soluble ST2, BNP and hs-CRP between healthy controls and patients with type 2 diabetes with and without left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. A secondary aim was to investigate correlations between sST2 and other biomarkers of type 2 diabetes, such as HbA1c. Methods 158 volunteers were recruited and underwent a complete Doppler-echocardiographic evaluation of both systolic & diastolic cardiac function. All subjects with ejection fraction Results Patients with type 2 diabetes with (p Conclusions Patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit higher sST2 levels compared to healthy controls. The presence of LVDD in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with even higher sST2 levels. A significant correlation between glycemic control and sST2 levels was also revealed.

  11. Effectiveness of the use of question-driven levels of inquiry based instruction (QD-LOIBI) assisted visual multimedia supported teaching material on enhancing scientific explanation ability senior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandi, A.; Muslim; Samsudin, A.; Hermita, N.; Supriyatman

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of the use of Question-Driven Levels of Inquiry Based Instruction (QD-LOIBI) assisted visual multimedia supported teaching materials on enhancing senior high school students scientific explanation ability has been studied. QD-LOIBI was designed by following five-levels of inquiry proposed by Wenning. Visual multimedia used in teaching materials included image (photo), virtual simulation and video phenomena. QD-LOIBI assisted teaching materials supported by visual multimedia were tried out on senior high school students at one high school in one district in West Java. A quasi-experiment method with design one experiment group (n = 31) and one control group (n = 32) were used. Experimental group were given QD-LOIBI assisted teaching material supported by visual multimedia, whereas the control group were given QD-LOIBI assisted teaching materials not supported visual multimedia. Data on the ability of scientific explanation in both groups were collected by scientific explanation ability test in essay form concerning kinetic gas theory concept. The results showed that the number of students in the experimental class that has increased the category and quality of scientific explanation is greater than in the control class. These results indicate that the use of multimedia supported instructional materials developed for implementation of QD-LOIBI can improve students’ ability to provide explanations supported by scientific evidence gained from practicum activities and applicable concepts, laws, principles or theories.

  12. Higher plasma levels of advanced glycation end products are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W; Jorsal, Anders; Ferreira, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    -grade inflammation, and arterial stiffness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 169 individuals with diabetic nephropathy and 170 individuals with persistent normoalbuminuria who were free of CVD at study entry and in whom levels of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of plasma levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunction, low...... or endothelial dysfunction, low-grade inflammation, or arterial stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of AGEs are associated with incident fatal and nonfatal CVD as well as all-cause mortality in individuals with type 1 diabetes, independently of other risk factors and of several potential AGEs...

  13. Individual-level movement bias leads to the formation of higher-order social structure in a mobile group of baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Tyler R; Clarke, Parry M; Henzi, S Peter; Barrett, Louise

    2017-07-01

    In mobile social groups, influence patterns driving group movement can vary between democratic and despotic. The arrival at any single pattern of influence is thought to be underpinned by both environmental factors and group composition. To identify the specific patterns of influence driving travel decision-making in a chacma baboon troop, we used spatially explicit data to extract patterns of individual movement bias. We scaled these estimates of individual-level bias to the level of the group by constructing an influence network and assessing its emergent structural properties. Our results indicate that there is heterogeneity in movement bias: individual animals respond consistently to particular group members, and higher-ranking animals are more likely to influence the movement of others. This heterogeneity resulted in a group-level network structure that consisted of a single core and two outer shells. Here, the presence of a core suggests that a set of highly interdependent animals drove routine group movements. These results suggest that heterogeneity at the individual level can lead to group-level influence structures, and that movement patterns in mobile social groups can add to the exploration of both how these structures develop (i.e. mechanistic aspects) and what consequences they have for individual- and group-level outcomes (i.e. functional aspects).

  14. HbA2 levels in β-thalassaemia carriers with the Filipino β0-deletion: are the levels higher than what is found with non-deletional forms of β0-thalassaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, E; Teh, Lai Kuan; Tan, Jama; Lai, Mei I; Wong, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Classical carriers of β-thalassaemia are identified by a raised HbA2 level. Earlier studies indicated that the Filipino β-deletion has high raised HbA2 levels. The introduction of automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for thalassaemia screening is an important advance in technology for haematology laboratories. The BioRad Variant II Hb analyser is a common instrument used to quantify HbA2 levels in thalassaemia screening. This study aimed to determine HbA2 levels in carriers of Filipino β-mutation using the BioRad Variant II Hb analyser. The Filipino β-deletion was identified using gap-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the parents of transfusion dependent β-thalassaemia patients who were homozygous for the Filipino β-deletion in the indigenous population of Sabah, Malaysia. Hb subtypes were quantified on the BioRad Variant II Hb analyser. Concurrent α-thalassaemia was identified by multiplex gap-PCR for deletions and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR for non-deletional mutations. The mean HbA2 level for Filipino β-thalassaemia trait was 5.9 ± 0.47 and with coinheritance of α-thalassaemia was 6.3 ± 0.44 (-α heterozygous) and 6.7 ± 0.36 (-α homozygous). The HbA2 levels were all >4% in keeping with the findings of classical β-thalassaemia trait and significantly higher than levels seen in non-deletional forms of β-thalassaemia. The HbA2 level measured on the BioRad Variant II Hb analyser was lower than the level in the first description of the Filipino β-thalassaemia. β-thalassaemia trait with coinheritance of α-thalassaemia (-α) is associated with significantly higher HbA2 level.

  15. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  16. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  17. The changing concept of competence and categorisation of learning outcomes in Europe: Implications for the design of higher education radiography curricula at the European level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Joseph; Caruana, Carmel J.; Wainwright, David

    2011-01-01

    The Bologna process has made the qualifications framework of the European Higher Educational Area based on three cycles and on learning outcomes central to curriculum development in higher education in Europe. The Tuning Educational Structures in Europe project recommended that learning outcomes be expressed in terms of competences. The expression of educational programme learning outcomes as inventories of competences has since become the norm at the European level. However, the more recent European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning utilises a tripartite set of categories of learning outcomes, namely, knowledge, skills and competence. In addition, the definition of competence used though overlapping with that used by Tuning, is however not identical. This article reviews and discusses the changing definition of the concept of competence and changes in categorisation of learning outcomes in Europe and their potential impact on curriculum development in radiography at the European level. It is proposed that the shift in the definition of competence and in the categorisation of learning outcomes should be taken into account in the formulation of new European curricula or the updating of present ones so that they may reference in a more direct manner to the levels of the European Qualifications Framework.

  18. African-American (AA) men with local-regional prostate cancer (PC) present with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels than whites: results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Winter, K.; Sause, W.; Gallagher, M.J.; Perez, C.; Bondy, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To use pretreatment serum PSA levels as an 20), gleason score (2-5,6-7,7-10), race (whites and AAs), and two interactions viz (a) PSA by race (p=0.0012) and (b) PSA by total gleason score (p=0.0001). When race was replaced by educational status, or income, or both, the fits (0.8246,0.8197, and 0.7815, respectively) were not as good as the fit with race in the model. Conclusion: The findings of this nation-wide prospective registration study with a high percentage of AA patient participation confirms previous, smaller, geographically-limited studies (1,2,3) results that AA patients with non-metastatic PC present with a higher mean PSA values than whites. The multivariate findings imply that, for each level of total gleason score, there is a higher percentage of whites with PSA levels 20. Education and/or income as surrogates of sociological status could not completely explain the racial differences. Other reasons for health-care barriers among AAs need to be identified

  19. Design of a medical record review study on the incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring a higher level of care in Belgian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlayen Annemie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are unintended patient injuries that arise from healthcare management resulting in disability, prolonged hospital stay or death. Adverse events that require intensive care admission imply a considerable financial burden to the healthcare system. The epidemiology of adverse events in Belgian hospitals has never been assessed systematically. Findings A multistage retrospective review study of patients requiring a transfer to a higher level of care will be conducted in six hospitals in the province of Limburg. Patient records are reviewed starting from January 2012 by a clinical team consisting of a research nurse, a physician and a clinical pharmacist. Besides the incidence and the level of causation and preventability, also the type of adverse events and their consequences (patient harm, mortality and length of stay will be assessed. Moreover, the adequacy of the patient records and quality/usefulness of the method of medical record review will be evaluated. Discussion This paper describes the rationale for a retrospective review study of adverse events that necessitate a higher level of care. More specifically, we are particularly interested in increasing our understanding in the preventability and root causes of these events in order to implement improvement strategies. Attention is paid to the strengths and limitations of the study design.

  20. Platelet activating factor-acylhydrolase (PAF-ase) activity is higher in serum of men than women and is related to levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, R.S.; Howell, S.E.; Wardlow, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    PAF-ase is a specific serum enzyme that inactivates PAF by hydrolyzing acetate from the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. A reproducible PAF-ase activity assay was developed. A unit is based on the amount of serum required to release 3.61 +/- 0.042 pm 3 H-acetate from 10 pm 3 H-labeled PAF after incubation for 1 hr at 37 0 C. Assays on two single reference serums repeated 7 days were 0.63 +/- 0.013 U and 1.33 +/- 0.031 U. Serum from 20 normal men and 20 normal premenopausal women had significantly different (p = <0.001) levels of 1.32 +/- 0.072 U and 0.97 +/- 0.051 U respectively. They previously reported that PAF-ase is associated with B-lipoprotein. Therefore, total cholesterol (TC), LDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were determined on these 40 serums. Regression analysis revealed PAF-ase units were correlated with LDL (r = 0.740; p = < 0.001) and, parenthetically, with the TC (r = 0.620; p = < 0.001) but not with HDL. These correlations were similar for men and women. Thus, serum PAF-ase was partially controlled by serum LDL levels and the higher PAF-ase levels in serum from men were due in part to higher (p = < 0.01) LDL levels in men (147.6 +/- 6.9 mg/dl) as contrasted to women (119.0 +/- 7.6 mg/dl). PAF is a potent inflammatory, bronchoconstrictive and hypotensive agent. These data indicate that sex and serum LDL levels of subjects must be considered during future studies of the role of PAF vs PAF-ase in different disease states

  1. Higher Lipoprotein (a Levels Are Associated with Better Pulmonary Function in Community-Dwelling Older People - Data from the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Buchmann

    Full Text Available Reduced pulmonary function and elevated serum cholesterol levels are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is some controversy concerning relationships between cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides and lung function. However, most previous studies compared patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD with healthy controls, and only a small number examined this relationship in population-based cohorts. Moreover, lipoprotein a [Lp(a], another lipid parameter independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, appears not to have been addressed at all in studies of lung function at the population level. Here, we determined relationships between lung function and several lipid parameters including Lp(a in 606 older community-dwelling participants (55.1% women, 68±4 years old from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II. We found a significantly lower forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1 in men with low Lp(a concentrations (t-test. This finding was further substantiated by linear regression models adjusting for known covariates, showing that these associations are statistically significant in both men and women. According to the highest adjusted model, men and women with Lp(a levels below the 20th percentile had 217.3ml and 124.2ml less FEV1 and 239.0ml and 135.2ml less FVC, respectively, compared to participants with higher Lp(a levels. The adjusted models also suggest that the known strong correlation between pro-inflammatory parameters and lung function has only a marginal impact on the Lp(a-pulmonary function association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher Lp(a levels are responsible for the increased CVD risk in people with reduced lung function, at least not in the group of community-dwelling older people studied here.

  2. Quantum theory from questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Philipp [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wever, Christopher [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to relativity, quantum theory has evaded a commonly accepted apprehension, in part because of the lack of physical statements that fully characterize it. In an attempt to remedy the situation, we summarize a novel reconstruction of the explicit formalism of quantum theory (for arbitrarily many qubits) from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's ''catalogue of knowledge'' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules, one can derive, among other things, the state spaces, the unitary group, the von Neumann evolution and show that the binary questions correspond to Pauli operators. The reconstruction also offers new structural insights in the form of novel informational charges and informational complementarity relations which define the state spaces and the unitary group. This reconstruction permits a new perspective on quantum theory.

  3. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  4. Community level patterns in diverse systems: A case study of litter fauna in a Mexican pine-oak forest using higher taxa surrogates and re-sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Claudia E.; Guevara, Roger; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo; Téllez, Dianeis; Verdú, José R.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental assessment at the community level in highly diverse ecosystems is limited by taxonomic constraints and statistical methods requiring true replicates. Our objective was to show how diverse systems can be studied at the community level using higher taxa as biodiversity surrogates, and re-sampling methods to allow comparisons. To illustrate this we compared the abundance, richness, evenness and diversity of the litter fauna in a pine-oak forest in central Mexico among seasons, sites and collecting methods. We also assessed changes in the abundance of trophic guilds and evaluated the relationships between community parameters and litter attributes. With the direct search method we observed differences in the rate of taxa accumulation between sites. Bootstrap analysis showed that abundance varied significantly between seasons and sampling methods, but not between sites. In contrast, diversity and evenness were significantly higher at the managed than at the non-managed site. Tree regression models show that abundance varied mainly between seasons, whereas taxa richness was affected by litter attributes (composition and moisture content). The abundance of trophic guilds varied among methods and seasons, but overall we found that parasitoids, predators and detrivores decreased under management. Therefore, although our results suggest that management has positive effects on the richness and diversity of litter fauna, the analysis of trophic guilds revealed a contrasting story. Our results indicate that functional groups and re-sampling methods may be used as tools for describing community patterns in highly diverse systems. Also, the higher taxa surrogacy could be seen as a preliminary approach when it is not possible to identify the specimens at a low taxonomic level in a reasonable period of time and in a context of limited financial resources, but further studies are needed to test whether the results are specific to a system or whether they are general

  5. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  6. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  7. Dietary intake of advanced glycation endproducts is associated with higher levels of advanced glycation endproducts in plasma and urine: The CODAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheijen, Jean L J M; Hanssen, Nordin M J; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M; Van der Kallen, Carla J; Feskens, Edith J M; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2018-06-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are formed by the reaction between reducing sugars and proteins. AGEs in the body have been associated with several age-related diseases. High-heat treated and most processed foods are rich in AGEs. The aim of our study was to investigate whether dietary AGEs, are associated with plasma and urinary AGE levels. In 450 participants of the Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht study (CODAM study) we measured plasma and urine concentrations of the AGEs Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), Nε-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) using UPLC-MS/MS. We also estimated dietary intake of CML, CEL and MG-H1 with the use of a dietary AGE database and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We used linear regression to investigate the association between standardized dietary AGE intake and standardized plasma or urinary AGE levels, after adjustment for age, sex, glucose metabolism status, waist circumference, kidney function, energy- and macro-nutrient intake, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol intake, LDL-cholesterol and markers of oxidative stress. We found that higher intake of dietary CML, CEL and MG-H1 was associated with significantly higher levels of free plasma and urinary CML, CEL and MG-H1 (βCML = 0.253 (95% CI 0.086; 0.415), βCEL = 0.194 (95% CI 0.040; 0.339), βMG-H1 = 0.223 (95% CI 0.069; 0.373) for plasma and βCML = 0.223 (95% CI 0.049; 0.393), βCEL = 0.180 (95% CI 0.019; 0.332), βMG-H1 = 0.196 (95% CI 0.037; 0.349) for urine, respectively). In addition, we observed non-significant associations of dietary AGEs with their corresponding protein bound plasma AGEs. We demonstrate that higher intake of dietary AGEs is associated with higher levels of AGEs in plasma and urine. Our findings may have important implications for those who ingest a diet rich in AGEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  8. Semantic annotation of consumer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Ben Abacha, Asma; Mrabet, Yassine; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Masterton, Kate; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2018-02-06

    Consumers increasingly use online resources for their health information needs. While current search engines can address these needs to some extent, they generally do not take into account that most health information needs are complex and can only fully be expressed in natural language. Consumer health question answering (QA) systems aim to fill this gap. A major challenge in developing consumer health QA systems is extracting relevant semantic content from the natural language questions (question understanding). To develop effective question understanding tools, question corpora semantically annotated for relevant question elements are needed. In this paper, we present a two-part consumer health question corpus annotated with several semantic categories: named entities, question triggers/types, question frames, and question topic. The first part (CHQA-email) consists of relatively long email requests received by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) customer service, while the second part (CHQA-web) consists of shorter questions posed to MedlinePlus search engine as queries. Each question has been annotated by two annotators. The annotation methodology is largely the same between the two parts of the corpus; however, we also explain and justify the differences between them. Additionally, we provide information about corpus characteristics, inter-annotator agreement, and our attempts to measure annotation confidence in the absence of adjudication of annotations. The resulting corpus consists of 2614 questions (CHQA-email: 1740, CHQA-web: 874). Problems are the most frequent named entities, while treatment and general information questions are the most common question types. Inter-annotator agreement was generally modest: question types and topics yielded highest agreement, while the agreement for more complex frame annotations was lower. Agreement in CHQA-web was consistently higher than that in CHQA-email. Pairwise inter-annotator agreement proved most

  9. Investing today in energy for tomorrow. U.S. civilian nuclear industry: high-level oversight. Oil prices: getting close to the psychological threshold. The future of biofuels in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter features 4 main articles dealing with: 1 - Investing today in energy for tomorrow: Whether to increase or to replace generating capacity, the amount of investment needed in energy infrastructure to meet rising demand has been identified, but many obstacles must be overcome before they become a reality. A status report and personal perspective from Pierre Gadonneix, CEO of EDF, in the 'Expert opinion' section. 2 - U.S. civilian nuclear industry - high-level oversight: The approaches are clearly different, but the licensing processes for nuclear reactor development and operation in France and the United States are both strictly regulated. Alternatives delves further. 3 - Oil prices - getting close to the psychological threshold: Are we going to stop using oil sooner rather than later if crude prices keep going up? European commodities expert Philippe Chalmin shares his opinion. 4 - The future of biofuels in question In many countries, biofuels are seen as an alternative to oil. Still, farmland is not expandable forever and the economics of biofuels deserve some scrutiny

  10. Gas exchange at whole plant level shows that a less conservative water use is linked to a higher performance in three ecologically distinct pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Tortosa, D.; Castro, J.; Rubio de Casas, R.; Viñegla, B.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Villar-Salvador, P.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation in large areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming will affect plant growth and survival. However, the impact of climatic conditions will differ across species depending on their stomatal response to increasing aridity, as this will ultimately affect the balance between carbon assimilation and water loss. In this study, we monitored gas exchange, growth and survival in saplings of three widely distributed European pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. nigra and P. sylvestris) with contrasting distribution and ecological requirements in order to ascertain the relationship between stomatal control and plant performance. The experiment was conducted in a common garden environment resembling rainfall and temperature conditions that two of the three species are expected to encounter in the near future. In addition, gas exchange was monitored both at the leaf and at the whole-plant level using a transient-state closed chamber, which allowed us to model the response of the whole plant to increased air evaporative demand (AED). P. sylvestris was the species with lowest survival and performance. By contrast, P. halepensis showed no mortality, much higher growth (two orders of magnitude), carbon assimilation (ca. 14 fold higher) and stomatal conductance and water transpiration (ca. 4 fold higher) than the other two species. As a consequence, P. halepensis exhibited higher values of water-use efficiency than the rest of the species even at the highest values of AED. Overall, the results strongly support that the weaker stomatal control of P. halepensis, which is linked to lower stem water potential, enabled this species to maximize carbon uptake under drought stress and ultimately outperform the more water conservative P. nigra and P. sylvestris. These results suggest that under a hotter drought scenario P. nigra and P. sylvestris would very likely suffer increased mortality, whereas P. halepensis could maintain

  11. Plasma levels of pollutants are much higher in loggerhead turtle populations from the Adriatic Sea than in those from open waters (Eastern Atlantic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchia, Matteo; Camacho, María; Santos, Marcelo R D; Boada, Luis D; Roncada, Paola; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we determined the levels of 63 environmental contaminants, including organic (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and PAHs) and inorganic (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn) compounds in the blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from two comparable populations that inhabit distinct geographic areas: the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean basin) and the Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). All animals were sampled at the end of a period of rehabilitation in centers of wildlife recovery, before being released back into the wild, so they can be considered to be in good health condition. The dual purpose of this paper is to provide reliable data on the current levels of contamination of this species in these geographic areas, and secondly to compare the results of both populations, as it has been reported that marine biota inhabiting the Mediterranean basin is exposed to much higher pollution levels than that which inhabit in other areas of the planet. According to our results it is found that current levels of contamination by organic compounds are considerably higher in Adriatic turtles than in the Atlantic ones (∑PCBs, 28.45 vs. 1.12ng/ml; ∑OCPs, 1.63 vs. 0.19ng/ml; ∑PAHs, 13.39 vs. 4.91ng/ml; pmercury (5.74 vs. 7.59μg/ml, p<0.01). The results of this study confirm that the concentrations are larger in turtles from the Mediterranean, probably related to the high degree of anthropogenic pressure in this basin, and thus they are more likely to suffer adverse effects related to contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  13. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  15. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    of pharmaceuticals? Seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in May, August and October 1997. Widespread ignorance about the legislation was observed. Pharmacy customers preferred to discuss the role of physicians in 'irrational drug use' to discussing community...... pharmacies. A definite split was observed between urban and rural pharmacy customers; whereas definite changes were reported in the urban setting (lower prices and increased access), the rural population's perception is that it is being left out. Although the study design is not generalisable, it is clear......The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  16. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  17. Higher Serum Direct Bilirubin Levels Were Associated with a Lower Risk of Incident Chronic Kidney Disease in Middle Aged Korean Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Zhang, Yiyi; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung; Park, Hyosoon; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Son, Hee Jung; Cho, Juhee; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between serum bilirubin levels and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between serum bilirubin concentration (total, direct, and indirect) and the risk of incident CKD. Methods and Findings Longitudinal cohort study of 12,823 Korean male workers 30 to 59 years old without CKD or proteinuria at baseline participating in medical health checkup program in a large worksite. Study participants were followed for incident CKD from 2002 through 2011. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by using the CKD-EPI equation. CKD was defined as eGFR bilirubin were 0.93 (95% CI 0.67–1.28), 0.88 (0.60–1.27) and 0.60 (0.42–0.88), respectively. In multivariable models, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of serum direct bilirubin levels was 0.60 (95% CI 0.41–0.87; P trend = 0.01). Neither serum total nor indirect bilirubin levels were significantly associated with the incidence of CKD. Conclusions Higher serum direct bilirubin levels were significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CKD, even adjusting for a variety of cardiometabolic parameters. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association and to establish the role of serum direct bilirubin as a marker for CKD risk. PMID:24586219

  18. Higher levels of physical fitness are associated with a reduced risk of suffering sarcopenic obesity and better perceived health among the elderly: the EXERNET multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Chamizo, R; Gómez-Cabello, A; Meléndez, A; Vila-Maldonado, S; Espino, L; Gusi, N; Villa, G; Casajús, J A; González-Gross, M; Ara, I

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the associations between physical fitness levels, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) and to analyze the usefulness of several physical fitness tests as a screening tool for detecting elderly people with an increased risk of suffering SO. Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based sample. Non-institutionalized Spanish elderly participating in the EXERNET multi-centre study. 2747 elderly subjects aged 65 and older. Body weight, height and body mass index were evaluated in each subject. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Four SO groups were created based on percentage of body fat and relative muscle mass; 1) normal group, 2) sarcopenic group, 3) obesity group and 4) SO group. Physical fitness was evaluated using 8 tests (balance, lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, agility, walking speed and aerobic capacity). Three tertiles were created for each test based on the calculated scores. HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol visual analogue scale. Participants with SO showed lower physical fitness levels compared with normal subjects. Better balance, agility, and aerobic capacity were associated to a lower risk of suffering SO in the fittest men (odds ratio health was associated with better physical fitness performance. Higher levels of physical fitness were associated with a reduced risk of suffering SO and better perceived health among elderly. SO elderly people have lower physical functional levels than healthy counterparts.

  19. Organized Sport Participation Is Associated with Higher Levels of Overall Health-Related Physical Activity in Children (CHAMPS Study-DK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Jeffrey J.; Møller, Niels C.; Andersen, Lars B.; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many children fail to meet international guideline recommendations for health-related activity (≥60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]), and intervention studies to date have reported negligible effects. Objective Explore the associations of organized leisure-time sport participation with overall physical activity levels and health-related physical activity guideline concordance. Methods This prospective cohort study was nested in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Study participants were a representative sample of 1124 primary school students. Organized leisure-time sport participation was reported via text messaging and physical activity was objectively measured over seven days with accelerometry. Associations between sport participation and physical activity level were explored with multilevel mixed-effects regression models and reported with beta coefficients (b) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR). Results Participants were 53% female, with mean(SD) age = 8.4(1.4) years. Boys were more active than girls (psports (gymnastics, basketball, volleyball) were inconsistent. Conclusions Many children, particularly girls and those in higher grade levels do not adhere to health-related physical activity recommendations. Organized leisure-time sport participation may be a viable strategy to increase overall health-related physical activity levels and international guideline concordance in children. PMID:26262678

  20. Questioning Behavior of Students in the Inquiry Chemistry Laboratory: Differences between Sectors and Genders in the Israeli Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Rap, Shelley; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi

    2015-01-01

    The present research is part of a longitude research study regarding the questioning behavior of students in the inquiry chemistry laboratory in Israel. We found that students who were involved in learning chemistry by the inquiry method ask more and higher-level questions. However, throughout the years, we have observed that differences between…

  1. Organized Sport Participation Is Associated with Higher Levels of Overall Health-Related Physical Activity in Children (CHAMPS Study-DK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Jeffrey J; Møller, Niels C; Andersen, Lars B; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Many children fail to meet international guideline recommendations for health-related activity (≥60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]), and intervention studies to date have reported negligible effects. Explore the associations of organized leisure-time sport participation with overall physical activity levels and health-related physical activity guideline concordance. This prospective cohort study was nested in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Study participants were a representative sample of 1124 primary school students. Organized leisure-time sport participation was reported via text messaging and physical activity was objectively measured over seven days with accelerometry. Associations between sport participation and physical activity level were explored with multilevel mixed-effects regression models and reported with beta coefficients (b) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR). Participants were 53% female, with mean(SD) age = 8.4(1.4) years. Boys were more active than girls (p<0.001), and physical activity levels and guideline concordance decreased with age (p<0.001). Soccer participation at any frequency was associated with greater overall MVPA (b[95% CI] = 0.66[0.20,1.13] to 2.44[1.44,3.44]). Depending on participation frequency, this equates to 5-20 minutes more MVPA on the average day and 3 to 15 fold increased odds of achieving recommended levels of health-related physical activity (aOR[95%CI] = 3.04[1.49,6.19] to 14.49[1.97,106.56]). Similar associations were identified among children playing handball at least twice per week. Relationships with other sports (gymnastics, basketball, volleyball) were inconsistent. Many children, particularly girls and those in higher grade levels do not adhere to health-related physical activity recommendations. Organized leisure-time sport participation may be a viable strategy to increase overall health-related physical activity levels and international

  2. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity and tonic (hair cortisol regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43 with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  3. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  4. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and higher expression levels of Nrf2 and NQO1 proteins in the airways of women chronically exposed to biomass fuel smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Saha, Hirak; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Tyagi, Neetu; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2018-01-24

    The study was carried out to examine whether chronic exposure to smoke during daily household cooking with biomass fuel (BMF) elicits changes in airway cytology and expressions of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 [NF-E2]-related factor 2 [Nrf2]), Keap1 (Kelch-like erythroid-cell-derived protein with CNC homology [ECH]-associated protein 1), and NQO1 (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1) proteins in the airways. For this, 282 BMF-using women (median age 34 year) and 236 age-matched women who cooked with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were enrolled. Particulate matter with diameters of LPG. Compared with LPG users, BMF users had 32% more leukocytes in circulation and their sputa were 1.4-times more cellular with significant increase in absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and alveolar macrophages, suggesting airway inflammation. ROS generation was 1.5-times higher in blood neutrophils and 34% higher in sputum cells of BMF users while erythrocyte SOD was 31% lower and plasma catalase was relatively unchanged, suggesting oxidative stress. In BMF users, Keap1 expression was reduced, the percentage of AEC with nuclear expression of Nrf2 was two- to three-times more, and NQO1 level in sputum cell lysate was two-times higher than that of LPG users. In conclusion, cooking with BMF was associated with Nrf2 activation and elevated NQO1 protein level in the airways. The changes may be adaptive cellular response to counteract biomass smoke-elicited oxidative stress and inflammation-related tissue injury in the airways.

  5. Despite higher glucocorticoid levels and stress responses in female rats, both sexes exhibit similar stress-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Henriëtte J; Novati, Arianna; Luiten, Paul G M; den Boer, Johan A; Meerlo, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Sex differences in stress reactivity may be one of the factors underlying the increased sensitivity for the development of psychopathologies in women. Particularly, an increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in females may exacerbate stress-induced changes in neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis, which in turn may contribute to an increased sensitivity to psychopathology. The main aim of the present study was to examine male-female differences in stress-induced changes in different aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e. cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Both sexes were exposed to a wide variety of stressors, where after differences in HPA-axis reactivity and neurogenesis were assessed. To study the role of oestradiol in potential sex differences, ovariectomized females received low or high physiological oestradiol level replacement pellets. The results show that females in general have a higher basal and stress-induced HPA-axis activity than males, with minimal differences between the two female groups. Cell proliferation in the dorsal hippocampus was significantly higher in high oestradiol females compared to low oestradiol females and males, while doublecortin (DCX) expression as a marker of cell differentiation was significantly higher in males compared to females, independent of oestradiol level. Stress exposure did not significantly influence cell proliferation or survival of new cells, but did reduce DCX expression. In conclusion, despite the male-female differences in HPA-axis activity, the effect of repeated stress exposure on hippocampal cell differentiation was not significantly different between sexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. How Difficult is it to Reduce Low-Level Cloud Biases With the Higher-Order Turbulence Closure Approach in Climate Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2015-01-01

    Low-level clouds cover nearly half of the Earth and play a critical role in regulating the energy and hydrological cycle. Despite the fact that a great effort has been put to advance the modeling and observational capability in recent years, low-level clouds remains one of the largest uncertainties in the projection of future climate change. Low-level cloud feedbacks dominate the uncertainty in the total cloud feedback in climate sensitivity and projection studies. These clouds are notoriously difficult to simulate in climate models due to its complicated interactions with aerosols, cloud microphysics, boundary-layer turbulence and cloud dynamics. The biases in both low cloud coverage/water content and cloud radiative effects (CREs) remain large. A simultaneous reduction in both cloud and CRE biases remains elusive. This presentation first reviews the effort of implementing the higher-order turbulence closure (HOC) approach to representing subgrid-scale turbulence and low-level cloud processes in climate models. There are two HOCs that have been implemented in climate models. They differ in how many three-order moments are used. The CLUBB are implemented in both CAM5 and GDFL models, which are compared with IPHOC that is implemented in CAM5 by our group. IPHOC uses three third-order moments while CLUBB only uses one third-order moment while both use a joint double-Gaussian distribution to represent the subgrid-scale variability. Despite that HOC is more physically consistent and produces more realistic low-cloud geographic distributions and transitions between cumulus and stratocumulus regimes, GCMs with traditional cloud parameterizations outperform in CREs because tuning of this type of models is more extensively performed than those with HOCs. We perform several tuning experiments with CAM5 implemented with IPHOC in an attempt to produce the nearly balanced global radiative budgets without deteriorating the low-cloud simulation. One of the issues in CAM5-IPHOC

  7. Circulating ghrelin level is higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in polygenic forms of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Natalia; Hohendorff, Jerzy; Solecka, Iwona; Szopa, Magdalena; Skupien, Jan; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Mlynarski, Wojciech; Malecki, Maciej T

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that regulates appetite. It is likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of varying forms of diabetes. In animal studies, the ghrelin expression was regulated by the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A). Mutations of the HNF1A gene cause maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). We aimed to assess the circulating ghrelin levels in HNF1A-MODY and in other types of diabetes and to evaluate its association with HNF1A mutation status. Our cohort included 46 diabetic HNF1A gene mutation carriers, 55 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subjects, 42 type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients, and 31 glucokinase (GCK) gene mutation carriers with diabetes as well as 51 healthy controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration was measured using the immunoenzymatic assay with polyclonal antibody against the C-terminal fragment of its acylated and desacylated forms. Ghrelin concentrations were 0.75 ± 0.32, 0.70 ± 0.21, 0.50 ± 0.20, and 0.40 ± 0.16 ng/ml in patients with HNF1A-MODY, GCK-MODY, T1DM, and T2DM, respectively. The ghrelin levels were higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in T1DM and T2DM (p MODY groups and common diabetes types remained significant. Analysis by a HNF1A mutation type indicated that ghrelin concentration is similar in patients with different types of sequence differences. Plasma ghrelin level is higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in the common polygenic forms of diabetes.

  8. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida M; Andersen, Andreas; Eriksson, Mia; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2009-08-20

    Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. In connection with a clinical trial of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4.5 months of age girls were less likely to have protective maternal antibody levels, the male-female ratio for protective antibody level being 1.23 (1.00-1.51). Among children sampled at 9 months of age, girls were more likely to have protective levels, the female-male ratio for having protective antibody levels being 1.65 (0.98-2.78) (p=0.054) and the geometric mean titre was significantly higher for girls (p=0.007). Children who lived in houses with known measles cases were more likely to have protective levels at 9 months of age even though they had not reported measles infection. Since we had excluded children with known measles infection, girls may have been more likely to have had subclinical measles infection. Combining clinical and possible subclinical measles infection, girls tended to be more likely than boys to contract measles infection before 9 months of age, the RR being 1.36 (0.97-1.90). Girls lost maternal measles antibodies more rapidly than boys and well before 9 months of age. They may be more likely to contract subclinical measles infection before the current age of measles vaccination.

  9. Using mineralogy and higher-level taxonomy as indicators of species sensitivity to pH: A case-study of Puget Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallin Busch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on ecosystem sensitivity to global change can help guide management decisions. Here, we characterize the sensitivity of the Puget Sound ecosystem to ocean acidification by estimating, at a number of taxonomic levels, the direct sensitivity of its species. We compare sensitivity estimates based on species mineralogy and on published literature from laboratory experiments and field studies. We generated information on the former by building a database of species in Puget Sound with mineralogy estimates for all CaCO3-forming species. For the latter, we relied on a recently developed database and meta-analysis on temperate species responses to increased CO2. In general, species sensitivity estimates based on the published literature suggest that calcifying species are more sensitive to increased CO2 than non-calcifying species. However, this generalization is incomplete, as non-calcifying species also show direct sensitivity to high CO2 conditions. We did not find a strong link between mineral solubility and the sensitivity of species survival to changes in carbonate chemistry, suggesting that, at coarse scales, mineralogy plays a lesser role to other physiological sensitivities. Summarizing species sensitivity at the family level resulted in higher sensitivity scalar scores than at the class level, suggesting that grouping results at the class level may overestimate species sensitivity. This result raises caution about the use of broad generalizations on species response to ocean acidification, particularly when developing summary information for specific locations. While we have much to learn about species response to ocean acidification and how to generalize ecosystem response, this study on Puget Sound suggests that detailed information on species performance under elevated carbon dioxide conditions, summarized at the lowest taxonomic level possible, is more valuable than information on species mineralogy.

  10. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia; Sakuma, Alice Momoyo; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  11. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia, E-mail: carmkira@ial.sp.gov.br [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); Sakuma, Alice Momoyo [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); De Capitani, Eduardo Mello [Universidade Estadual de Campinas — UNICAMP, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Centro de Controle de Intoxicações (Brazil); Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice [Secretaria de Estado da Saúde/SP, Coordenadoria de Controle de Doenças (Brazil); Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Departamento de Epidemiologia (Brazil); Gouveia, Nelson [Universidade de São Paulo — USP, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  12. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  13. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  14. Periodontal disease is associated with higher levels of C-reactive protein in non-diabetic, non-smoking acute myocardial infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodovazenitis, George; Pitsavos, Christos; Papadimitriou, Lambros; Deliargyris, Efthymios N; Vrotsos, Ioannis; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Madianos, Phoebus N

    2011-12-01

    A link between periodontal disease (PD) and cardiovascular events has been proposed, but confounding by shared risk factors such as smoking and diabetes remains a concern. We examined the prevalence of PD and its contribution to C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and in subjects without AMI and with angiographically nonobstructive coronary disease in the absence of these confounding risk factors. Periodontal status and admission CRP levels were evaluated in 87 non-diabetic and non-smoking subjects undergoing cardiac catheterization. The study group comprised of 47 patients with documented AMI, and 40 subjects without AMI and with angiographically nonobstructive coronary disease (ANCD group). Both the prevalence of PD and CRP levels were significantly higher in AMI patients compared with ANCD subjects (38.3% vs. 17.5%, p=0.03 and 44.3 vs. 8.5 mg/L, pperiodontitis may emerge as a novel target for reducing future risk in AMI survivors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Higher Levels of Caregiver Strain Perceived by Indian Mothers of Children and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy Who have Limited Self-Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, V; Patel, Anjali M; Hariohm, K; Palisano, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    Describe and compare the caregiver strain experienced among Indian mothers of children and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) living in low resource settings. 62 consecutive children and young adults with spastic CP (mean age 6.0 ± 4.5, range 2-21) and their parents were recruited from an outpatient physiotherapy department for this cross-sectional study. Ability to walk was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System and mother's caregiver strain was measured using caregiver strain index (CSI). Mothers of children and young adults who have limited self-mobility perceived higher caregiver strain (mean CSI score 12.0 ± 1.3, p < 0.05) than mothers of children who can walk (mean CSI score 4.5 ± 3.0, p < 0.05). All 46 mothers of children and youth in GMFCS levels IV and V reported high levels of caregiver stress compared with only three of 16 mothers of children and youth who walk (levels I and II). Physiotherapists and occupational therapists serving children and youth with CP are encouraged to partner with families to identify goals for ease of caregiving, activity, and participation at home and in the community.

  16. Questioning the role of actinfree Gc-Globulin as actin scavenger in neurodegenerative central nervous system disease: relationship to S-100B levels and blood-brain barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressner, Olav A; Schifflers, Marie-Claire; Kim, Philipp; Heuts, Leo; Lahme, Birgit; Gressner, Axel M

    2009-02-01

    Preliminary studies report on significantly higher levels of the major cytoskeleton protein actin in CSF of patients with neurodegenerative conditions and that the dynamics of these levels obviously correlates with disease progression and clinical disability. One of the primary functions of actinfree Gc-Globulin is to bind and neutralize extracellular monomeric actin, released into the circulation by necrotic or ruptured cells, and thus ameliorating the clinical outcome in situations of severe organ damage. This is the first study to investigate actinfree Gc-Globulin and S100-B levels (as reliable marker of neurodegeneration) in paired CSF and serum samples of patients with multietiological CNS diseases. 42% of all patients with CNS disease displayed serum concentrations of actinfree Gc-Globulin above the established reference range. CSF concentrations of actinfree Gc-Globulin and S100-B were positively correlated with the severity of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Furthermore, patients with severe BBB dysfunction presented a higher percentage of intrathecal synthesis of actinfree Gc-Globulin compared to patients with mild to moderate dysfunction and to patients with normal BBB function. Representative longitudinal data from selected patients demonstrated an inverse behaviour of actinfree Gc-Globulin and S100-B CSF concentrations, suggesting a consumption of the actin scavenger capacity of Gc-Globulin in times of increased neuronal damage. This presumption was supported by the fact that those conditions associated with a severe neuronal damage, in particular CNS trauma, and highest S100-B concentrations simultaneously displayed lowest actinfree Gc-Globulin levels, and thus residual actin binding capacity of Gc-Globulin. In summary, our data propose a function of actinfree Gc-Globulin also in the clearance of actin filaments from CSF of patients with neuronal damage. However, active recruitment of hepatic derived actinfree Gc-Globulin to the site of CNS

  17. Development of students' critical thinking: the educators' ability to use questioning skills in the baccalaureate programmes in nursing in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Tanveer; Khan, Shehla; Ahmed, Azra; Gul, Raisa; Cassum, Shanaz; Parpio, Yasmin

    2012-03-01

    To enhance the Critical Thinking skills of educators associated with the nursing baccalaureate programmes in Pakistan. By focusing on the type and level of questions asked by the educators. Ninety-one faculty members from 14 out of 17 schools participated in the study. Data on the faculty's questioning skills was obtained through classroom observations and field notes. The duration of the observations was 45-60 minutes. Using Bloom's Taxonomy for cognitive thinking, questions were categorised into high and low categories. Most of the questions (68.9 %) asked by the participants were of lower levels, while some (5.37 %) were ambiguous. In many instances, the participants did not allow a sufficient wait-time for students to think and respond. The findings suggest that educators must learn to use the questioning strategy effectively. They should ask higher level questions if they wish to inculcate Critical Thinking in students.

  18. Gary O's Fence Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the problem of finding the amount of fence it would require for the outfield fence of a baseball field of given dimensions. Presents different solution methods for each of the levels from grades 9-12. The different methods incorporate geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, and calculus. (MDH)

  19. Benzene: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This information booklet is intended to inform residents near natural gas dehydration facilities about benzene and its levels in the atmosphere. It was issued following the federal government's decision to place benzene on its Priority Substances List and to require industry to establish means for reducing benzene emissions from natural gas dehydrators and to inform residents about benzene emissions from glycol dehydration facilities. Accordingly, the booklet explains what benzene is (a colourless flammable liquid component of hydrocarbons) how it gets into the air (during gasoline refining, vehicle refueling and the production of steel and petrochemicals), the associated health hazards (a recognized carcinogen, causing an increased incidence of leukemia in concentrations of 100 parts per million), defines a glycol dehydrator (a facility built at or near some natural gas fields for the removal of water from the natural gas to prevent corrosion and freezing of pipelines), and enumerates the steps that are being taken to reduce benzene levels in the air (benzene levels in gasoline have been reduced, along with benzene emissions from petrochemical plants, refineries, steel plants and glycol dehydrators by 54 per cent to date; this will rise to 90 per cent by 2005). In addition to these actions, industry plans call for all existing glycol dehydrators within 750 metres of any permanent residence to be limited to benzene emissions of no more than three tonnes per year before 2001; new glycol dehydrators after that date will be expected to have benzene emissions reduced to the lowest level that can be practically achieved

  20. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is correlated with a reduction of soluble VEGF receptor protein level and a higher amount of VEGF-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowski, D; Szabo, L; Sator, M; Just, A; Egarter, C

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with increased vascular permeability. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system and its receptors have been identified as the main angiogenic factors responsible for increased capillary permeability and are therefore discussed as crucial for the occurrence of OHSS. Recently, a number of soluble receptors for the VEGFs have been detected (sVEGF-Rs) and it has been shown that these sVEGF-Rs compete with the membrane-standing VEGF-R to bind VEGFs. We analyzed the serum levels of soluble VEGF-R1, -R2 and -R3 in 34 patients suffering from OHSS and in 34 controls without this disease. In a subgroup analysis, we correlated the severity of the OHSS with the detected amounts of VEGF-R1, -R2 and -R3. In addition, we determined the amount of total VEGF-A in the samples. All the three soluble VEGF receptors tended to be higher in the control group compared with that in the OHSS group but this difference only reached significance for sVEGF-R2 (mean ± SEM: 15.5 ± 0.6 versus 13.8 ± 0.5 ng/ml, respectively, P< 0.05). In the subgroup analysis, sVEGF-R2 levels decreased as the severity of OHSS increased (OHSS-I: 16.8 ± 1.9 ng/ml and OHSS-III: 12.7 ± 1.0 ng/ml, P< 0.05) Moreover, the serum levels of total VEGF-A were higher in the OHSS group than those in the controls (537.7 ± 38.9 versus 351 ± 53.4 pg/ml, respectively P< 0.05). We propose that VEGF-A plays a role in the occurrence of OHSS, that the amount of biologically available VEGF-A is modulated by sVEGF-Rs and that different combinations of VEGF-A and sVEGF-R levels might contribute to the severity of OHSS.

  1. Modelling exposure of oceanic higher trophic-level consumers to polychlorinated biphenyls: pollution 'hotspots' in relation to mass mortality events of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoh, Itsuki C; Kawai, Toru

    2014-08-30

    Marine mammals in the past mass mortality events may have been susceptible to infection because their immune systems were suppressed through the bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We compiled mortality event data sets of 33 marine mammal species, and employed a Finely-Advanced Transboundary Environmental model (FATE) to model the exposure of the global fish community to PCB congeners, in order to define critical exposure levels (CELs) of PCBs above which mass mortality events are likely to occur. Our modelling approach enabled us to describe the mass mortality events in the context of exposure of higher-trophic consumers to PCBs and to identify marine pollution 'hotspots' such as the Mediterranean Sea and north-western European coasts. We demonstrated that the CELs can be applied to quantify a chemical pollution Planetary Boundary, under which a safe operating space for marine mammals and humanity can exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Higher levels of serum fibrin-monomer reflect hypercoagulable state and thrombus formation in the left atrial appendage in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Hidenobu; Hirono, Osamu; Liu, Ling; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2006-08-01

    It is sometimes difficult to make a diagnosis of cardioembolic stroke in the stroke care unit, because of the splashing and vanishing of the intracardiac source of the emboli on transesophageal echocardiography. Serum fibrin-monomer (FM) is a new marker for coagulation activity that is useful for identifying older individuals at increased risk of ischemic stroke. Two hundred and four patients with acute ischemic stroke were examined for serum coagulation and fibrinolytic activity on admission, and underwent transesophageal echocardiography within 7 days of onset. Serum levels of FM was significantly higher in patients with left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus formation (n=24) than in those with no thrombus (88+/-52 vs 14+/-9 microg/ml, pvs 8+/-5 microg/ml, pstroke.

  3. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  4. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  5. Re/imagining Higher Education Pedagogies: Gender, Emotion and Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Penny Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article explores work published in "Teaching in Higher Education" that critically engages complex questions of difference and emotion in higher education pedagogies. It considers the ways that difference is connected to gender and misrecognition, and is experienced at the level of emotion, often through symbolic forms of violence…

  6. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  7. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  8. Offspring of parents with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy have higher C-reactive protein levels suggestive of inflammatory processes: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolova Svetla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP, in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only, serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases.

  9. Cross sections for the vibrational excitation of the H2 X 1Σ+g(v) levels generated by electron collisional excitation of the higher singlet states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The excitation cross sections, σ(v,v double-prime), for an H 2 molecule initially in any one of the 15 vibrational levels, v belonging to the ground electronic state and excited to a final vibrational level, v double-prime are evaluated for direct excitations via all members of the excited electronic singlet spectrum. Account is taken of predissociation, autoionization, and radiative decay of the excited electronic spectrum that leads to a final population distribution for the ground electronic state, X 1 Σ + g (v double-prime). For v=0, account is taken explicitly of transitions via the B, C, B', and D electronic states in evaluating the cross sections. The additional contribution of excitations via all Rydberg states lying above the D state enhances these cross sections by approximately 10%. For v>0, cross sections are evaluated taking explicit account of transitions through the B and C states; higher singlet excitations enhance these values by 25%. The choice of the reference total cross sections remains a subjective one, causing the values calculated here to have a possible uncertainty of +20% -30% . For excitations occurring within a hydrogen discharge, collisional excitation-ionization events among the intermediate singlet states will effectively quench the v, v double-prime excitation process for discharge densities in excess of the range 10 15 --10 16 electrons/cm -3

  10. Mangrove associated lignite beds of Malvan, Konkan: Evidence for higher sea-level during the Late Tertiary (Neogene) along the west coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaran, K.P.N.; Shindikar, M.; Limaye, R.B. [Agharkar Research Inst., Pune (India)

    2004-01-25

    Fossil pneumatophores (breathing roots) of Avicennia are recovered and reported from the lignite beds exposed in Kolamb well-section near Malvan, Konkan area of western Maharashtra. The accrued palynoflora is dominated by mangroves (Avicennia, Aegialitis, Excoecaria, Rhizophora and Sonneratia). The spores of mangrove fern (Acrostichum aureum) an estuarine fungus Cirrenalia indicate that these lignites are autochthonous and deposited in a near-shore environment. Presence of foraminiferal linings (= microforaminifera), dinoflagellate cysts, a few calcareous nannofossils and scolecodonts is an irrefutable proof of marine and brackish water influence during the deposition of lignites under intertidal/tidal swampy condition (mangrove influenced) with fair input from freshwater swamps and hinterland. Freshwater-related forms, viz. Ceratopteris thalictroides, Nymphaeaceae, Ctenolophonaceae and hinterland taxa (Cullenia/Durio) of Bombacaceae along with abundance of microthyriaceous fungi in the palynoflora imply a warm humid tropical climate with high precipitation during the depositional period. The presence of Ctenolophon englerianus (= Ctenolophonidites costatus) in Kolamb lignites suggests the Late Neogene (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene) age. The occurrence of pneumatophores and associated lignite deposits about 37 m above the present mean sea-level, and much inland, clearly indicates the higher sea-level strand during Late Neogene along the west coast of India.

  11. THE EXPLICIT COMPREHENSION-STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP VS SELF-QUESTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Thohir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at examining and comparing the effectiveness of the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR and Self-Questioning (SQ strategies in improving the reading ability of the undergraduate students. This study was a quasi-experimental study in which two out of three classes of the third semester students at English department of Mataram University were selected randomly to receive either QAR strategy or SQ strategy instructions for ten weekly meetings. The findings of pre- and posttest with multiple-choice questions revealed that both comprehension strategies were effective in improving the undergraduate students‘ reading ability. The findings from the posttest with multiple-choice questions indicated the students who received SQ strategy instruction scored significantly higher than those students who received QAR strategy instruction. On the other hand, the students who received QAR strategy instruction scored slightly higher than those students who received SQ strategy instruction in the posttest with open-ended questions.

  12. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  13. Use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate as applied to closed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The technology of ‘wet incineration' of human exometabolites and inedible plants biomass by means of H2 O2 in alternating electromagnetic field to increase a closure of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) was developed at the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). Human exometabolites mineralized can be used in a nutrient solution for plants cultivation in the BLSS phototrophic link. The objective of the given work appears to be the study of use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels processed by the abovementioned method for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The mineralized human wastes were tested for the purpose of their sterility. Then the effect of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels both on wheat productivity and on the SLS microflora composition was examined. The SLS extract with a definite amount of human mineralized wastes was used as an irrigation solution. The conducted experiments demonstrated that the H2 O2 decreasing to 1 ml on 1 g of feces and to 0.25 ml on 1 ml of urine had not affected the sterility of mineralized human wastes. Wheat cultivation on the SLS with the addition in an irrigation solution of mineralized human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of a daily human diet showed the absence of basic dependence of plants productivity on oxidation level of human exometabolites. Yet the analysis of the microflora composition of the irrigation solutions demonstrated its dependence on the oxidation level of the exometabolites introduced. The amount of yeast-like fungi increased in 20 times in the solutions containing less oxidized exometabolites in comparison with the variant in which the human wastes were subjected to a full-scale oxidation. Besides, the solutions with less oxidized exometabolites displayed a bigger content of plant pathogenic bacteria and denitrifies. Consequently the

  14. Protective intraoperative ventilation with higher versus lower levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in obese patients (PROBESE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, T; Teichmann, R; Kiss, T; Bobek, I; Canet, J; Cinnella, G; De Baerdemaeker, L; Gregoretti, C; Hedenstierna, G; Hemmes, S N; Hiesmayr, M; Hollmann, M W; Jaber, S; Laffey, J G; Licker, M J; Markstaller, K; Matot, I; Müller, G; Mills, G H; Mulier, J P; Putensen, C; Rossaint, R; Schmitt, J; Senturk, M; Serpa Neto, A; Severgnini, P; Sprung, J; Vidal Melo, M F; Wrigge, H; Schultz, M J; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M

    2017-04-28

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) increase the morbidity and mortality of surgery in obese patients. High levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with lung recruitment maneuvers may improve intraoperative respiratory function, but they can also compromise hemodynamics, and the effects on PPCs are uncertain. We hypothesized that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using high PEEP with periodic recruitment maneuvers, as compared with low PEEP without recruitment maneuvers, prevents PPCs in obese patients. The PRotective Ventilation with Higher versus Lower PEEP during General Anesthesia for Surgery in OBESE Patients (PROBESE) study is a multicenter, two-arm, international randomized controlled trial. In total, 2013 obese patients with body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 scheduled for at least 2 h of surgery under general anesthesia and at intermediate to high risk for PPCs will be included. Patients are ventilated intraoperatively with a low tidal volume of 7 ml/kg (predicted body weight) and randomly assigned to PEEP of 12 cmH 2 O with lung recruitment maneuvers (high PEEP) or PEEP of 4 cmH 2 O without recruitment maneuvers (low PEEP). The occurrence of PPCs will be recorded as collapsed composite of single adverse pulmonary events and represents the primary endpoint. To our knowledge, the PROBESE trial is the first multicenter, international randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of two different levels of intraoperative PEEP during protective low tidal volume ventilation on PPCs in obese patients. The results of the PROBESE trial will support anesthesiologists in their decision to choose a certain PEEP level during general anesthesia for surgery in obese patients in an attempt to prevent PPCs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02148692. Registered on 23 May 2014; last updated 7 June 2016.

  15. Macrophages From Irradiated Tumors Express Higher Levels of iNOS, Arginase-I and COX-2, and Promote Tumor Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.-S.; Chen, F.-H.; Wang, C.-C.; Huang, H.-L.; Jung, Shih-Ming; Wu, C.-J.; Lee, C.-C.; McBride, William H.; Chiang, C.-S.; Hong, J.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of single and fractionated doses of radiation on tumors and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and to elucidate the potential of TAMs to influence tumor growth. Methods and Materials: A murine prostate cell line, TRAMP-C1, was grown in C57Bl/6J mice to 4-mm tumor diameter and irradiated with either 25 Gy in a single dose, or 60 Gy in 15 fractions. The tumors were removed at the indicated times and assessed for a variety of markers related to TAM content, activation status, and function. Results: In tumors receiving a single radiation dose, arginase (Arg-I), and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression increased as a small transient wave within 24 h and a larger persistent wave starting after 3 days. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was elevated only after 3 days and continued to increase up to 3 weeks. After fractionated irradiation, Arg-1 and COX-2 mRNA levels increased within 5 days, whereas iNOS was increased only after 10 fractions of irradiation had been given. Increased levels of Arg-I, COX-2, and, to a lesser extent, iNOS protein were found to associate with TAMs 1-2 weeks after tumor irradiation. Function of TAMs were compared by mixing them with TRAMP-C1 cells and injecting them into mice; TRAMP-C1 cells mixed with TAMs from irradiated tumors appeared earlier and grew significantly faster than those mixed with TAMs from unirradiated tumors or TRAMP-C1 alone. Conclusions: Tumor-associated macrophages in the postirradiated tumor microenvironment express higher levels of Arg-1, COX-2, and iNOS, and promote early tumor growth in vivo

  16. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  17. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  18. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  19. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  20. When is a research question not a research question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  1. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  2. Questions for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  3. Low Levels of Usual Physical Activity Are Associated with Higher 24 h Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Teixeira Neto Zucatti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between usual physical activity and 24 h blood pressure (BP profile in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. This is a cross-sectional study of 151 participants with type 2 DM. Usual physical activity was assessed by step counting and self-reported questionnaire. BP was measured in office and by 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM; 24 h, daytime and nighttime. Mean participant age was 61.1 ± 8.4 years, 64% was women, and mean duration of diabetes was 14.3 ± 8.5 years. Ninety-two percent of participants had hypertension, and office BP was 138 ± 18/78 ± 10 mmHg. Inverse correlations were observed between step count and 24 h BP (systolic, r=−0.186; p=0.022, daytime BP (systolic, r=−0.198; p=0.015, and nighttime BP (pulse pressure, r=−0.190; p=0.019. People were categorized into tertiles of daily step count, and the 1st tertile had higher 24 h systolic BP, daytime systolic BP, daytime mean BP, and daytime systolic BP load than those in the other tertiles, even after adjusting for age and HbA1c. Participants with type 2 DM and low levels of physical activity exhibit higher 24 h and daytime systolic ambulatory BP values as compared with those who performed more steps per day, even after adjustments for confounding factors.

  4. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  5. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Kennedy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%, in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, Body Mass Index percentile range: 5.16-99.56. Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ. After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r -0.404, medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339, anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312, bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r= -0.316, and uncus (partial r = -0.475 as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386, extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384. PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329. These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  6. The Priority of the Question: Focus Questions for Sustained Reasoning in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, David

    2010-08-01

    Science education standards place a high priority on promoting the skills and dispositions associated with inquiry at all levels of learning. Yet, the questions teachers employ to foster sustained reasoning are most likely borrowed from a textbook, lab manual, or worksheet. Such generic questions generated for a mass audience, lack authenticity and contextual cues that allow learners to immediately appreciate a question’s relevance. Teacher queries intended to motivate, guide, and foster learning through inquiry are known as focus questions. This theoretical article draws upon science education research to present a typology and conceptual framework intended to support science teacher educators as they identify, develop, and evaluate focus questions with their students.

  7. Electron-impact collision strengths for excitation of He-like ions from the levels with n = 1 and 2 to all singly excited levels with higher n less than or equal to 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, D.H.; Goett, S.J.; Clark, R.E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Intermediate-coupling collision strengths were calculated for all transitions of the kind 1s2p/sup 2S + 1/P/sub J/ - 1sn'l'/sup 2S' + 1/L'/sub J'/ with n' = 3,4 and 5 and l' greater than or equal to 1 (p, d, f, g) for 20 He-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 4 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 74. The method used is a Coulomb-Born-Exchange method especially well suited for calculating results from any members of an isoelectronic sequence simultaneously. The calculations were made for nine impact-electron energies in threshold units epsilon = 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.9, 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, 10.0, and 15.0. The results are given in the form of fits to a simple function of epsilon that is readily integrated over a Maxwellian to obtain collision rates. The parameters required in obtaining collision strengths for the simpler transitions from the 1s2p levels to the 1sn's levels the 3 less than or equal to n' less than or equal to 5 and for the transitions from the ground level and the 1s2s levels to all singly excited levels with higher n values less than or equal to 5 are given, as well. Results for transitions between energy terms and their jj coupling analogs are also included. In addition, calculated values for the transition energies and the electric-dipole radiative line strengths are given for all transitions. 21 references, 11 tables

  8. Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children. Such a self-selected sample may represent a group of students who have a higher level of motivation to seek sources of information outside their formal education and have more access to resources than the students of low social classes. To overcome this problem, 739 students were asked to write a question that they wanted to learn from a scientist and as a result 878 questions were gathered. Those students were selected from 13 different schools at 9 cities in Turkey. These schools were selected to represent a mixture of socioeconomic areas and also to cover different students' profile. Students' questions were classified into two main categories: the field of interest and the cognitive level of the question. The results point to the popularity of biology, astrophysics, nature of scientific inquiry, technology and physics over other science areas, as well as indicating a difference in interest according to gender, grade level and the setting in which the questions were asked. However, our study suggests that only considering questions submitted to informal learning environments, such as popular science magazines or Ask-A-Scientist Internet sites has limitations and deficiencies. Other methodologies of data collection also need to be considered in designing teaching and school science curriculum to meet students' needs and interest. The findings from our study tend to challenge existing thinking from other studies. Our results show that self-generated questions asked in an informal and a formal setting have different patterns. Some aspects of students' self-generated questions and their implications for policy, science

  9. Higher tacrolimus trough levels on days 2-5 post-renal transplant are associated with reduced rates of acute rejection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Seaghdha, C M

    2011-04-06

    We analyzed the association between whole-blood trough tacrolimus (TAC) levels in the first days post-kidney transplant and acute cellular rejection (ACR) rates. Four hundred and sixty-four consecutive, deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients were included. All were treated with a combination of TAC, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Patients were analyzed in four groups based on quartiles of the mean TAC on days 2 and 5 post-transplant: Group 1: median TAC 11 ng\\/mL (n = 122, range 2-13.5 ng\\/mL), Group 2: median 17 ng\\/mL (n = 123, range 14-20 ng\\/mL), Group 3: median 24 ng\\/mL (n = 108, range 20.5-27 ng\\/mL) and Group 4: median 33.5 ng\\/mL (n = 116, range 27.5-77.5 ng\\/mL). A graded reduction in the rates of ACR was observed for each incremental days 2-5 TAC. The one-yr ACR rate was 24.03% (95% CI 17.26-32.88), 22.20% (95% CI 15.78-30.70), 13.41% (95% CI 8.15-21.63) and 8.69% (95% CI 4.77-15.55) for Groups 1-4, respectively (p = 0.003). This study suggests that higher early TACs are associated with reduced rates of ACR at one yr.

  10. A higher risk of acute rejection of human kidney allografts can be predicted from the level of CD45RC expressed by the recipients' CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ordonez

    Full Text Available Although transplantation is the common treatment for end-stage renal failure, allograft rejection and marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs remain important limitations. A major challenge in the field is to identify easy, reliable and noninvasive biomarkers allowing the prediction of deleterious alloreactive immune responses and the tailoring of immunosuppressive therapy in individuals according to the rejection risk. In this study, we first established that the expression of the RC isoform of the CD45 molecule (CD45RC on CD4 and CD8 T cells from healthy individuals identifies functionally distinct alloreactive T cell subsets that behave differently in terms of proliferation and cytokine secretion. We then investigated whether the frequency of the recipients CD45RC T cell subsets before transplantation would predict acute graft rejection in a cohort of 89 patients who had undergone their first kidney transplantation. We showed that patients exhibiting more than 54.7% of CD8 CD45RC(high T cells before transplantation had a 6 fold increased risk of acute kidney graft rejection. In contrast, the proportions of CD4 CD45RC T cells were not predictive. Thus, a higher risk of acute rejection of human kidney allografts can be predicted from the level of CD45RC expressed by the recipients' CD8 T cells.

  11. The relationship between higher social trust and lower late HIV diagnosis and mortality differs by race/ethnicity: results from a state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Yusuf; Batson, Ashley; Galea, Sandro; Kawachi, Ichiro; Nash, Denis; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-04-06

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to suffer a disproportionate burden of new HIV diagnoses and mortality. To better understand some of the reasons for these profound disparities, we examined whether the association between social trust and late HIV diagnosis and mortality differed by race/ethnicity, and investigated potential indirect effects of any observed differences. We performed generalized structural equation modelling to assess main and interaction associations between trust among one's neighbours in 2009 (i.e. social trust) and race/ethnicity (Black, White, and Hispanic) predicting late HIV diagnosis (a CD4 count ≤200 cell/µL within three months of a new HIV diagnosis) rates and all-cause mortality rates of persons ever diagnosed late with HIV, across 47 American states for the years 2009-2013. We examined potential indirect effects of state-level HIV testing between social trust and late HIV diagnosis. Social trust data were from the Gallup Healthways Survey, HIV data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and HIV testing from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Covariates included state-level structural, healthcare, and socio-demographic factors including income inequality, healthcare access, and population density. We stratified analysis by transmission group (male-to-male, heterosexual, and injection drug use (IDU)). States with higher levels of social trust had lower late HIV diagnosis rates: Adjusted Rate Ratio [aRR] were consistent across risk groups (0.57; 95%CI 0.53-0.62, male-to-male), (aRR 0.58; 95%CI 0.54-0.62, heterosexual) and (aRR 0.64; 95%CI 0.60-0.69, IDU). Those associations differed by race/ethnicity (all p < 0.001). The associations were most protective for Blacks followed by Hispanics, and least protective for Whites. HIV testing mediated between 18 and 32% of the association between social trust and late HIV diagnosis across transmission group but for Blacks relative to Whites only. Social

  12. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  13. Development of Evaluation Methods Aiming at Better Questions from Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriyama, Satoshi

    A student who tries to be a good presenter needs the ability to evaluate the level of other people's presentations by using criteria. But the way of evaluating is not easy for freshmen. Therefore, in this study, I focused on questions in presentations because it seemed suitable for students to practice their logical thinking, and set the evaluation criteria of questions in order students to evaluate the levels of other people's questions. By this approach, it was confirmed that students' questions got better.

  14. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  15. Question answer relationship strategy increases reading comprehension among Kindergarten students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Question Answer Relationship (QAR strategy equips students with tools to successfully decode and comprehend what they read. An action research project over 18 days with twenty-three kindergarteners adapted exposure to QAR’s "In the Book" and "In my Head" categories with similar questions for each of two popular Aesop’s fables. The challenges and outcomes are presented with special emphasis on teacher-preparation, teacher-reflections, and a hands-on, day-by-day project-implementation. An oral pre-test, after reading The Tortoise and the Hare, served as a baseline assessment for student-comprehension levels. The QAR strategy was then explicitly taught, with opportunities to practice the comprehension skills in small and large groups with parental assistance. Students overwhelmingly scored higher on the post-test reading comprehension after the read-aloud of The Jay and the Peacock with some receiving perfect scores.

  16. HOW TO ANSWER CHILDREN QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brenifier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  17. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  18. Origin and higher-level diversification of acariform mites - evidence from nuclear ribosomal genes, extensive taxon sampling, and secondary structure alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepato, A R; Klimov, P B

    2015-09-02

    Acariformes is the most species-rich and morphologically diverse radiation of chelicerate arthropods, known from the oldest terrestrial ecosystems. It is also a key lineage in understanding the evolution of this group, with the most vexing question whether mites, or Acari (Parasitiformes and Acariformes) is monophyletic. Previous molecular studies recovered Acari either as monophyletic or non-monophyletic, albeit with a limited taxon sampling. Similarly, relationships between basal acariform groups (include little-known, deep-soil 'endeostigmatan' mites) and major lineages of Acariformes (Sarcoptiformes, Prostigmata) are virtually unknown. We infer phylogeny of chelicerate arthropods, using a large and representative dataset, comprising all main in- and outgroups (228 taxa). Basal diversity of Acariformes is particularly well sampled. With this dataset, we conduct a series of phylogenetically explicit tests of chelicerate and acariform relationships and present a phylogenetic framework for internal relationships of acariform mites. Our molecular data strongly support a diphyletic Acari, with Acariformes as the sister group to Solifugae (PP =1.0; BP = 100), the so called Poecilophysidea. Among Acariformes, some representatives of the basal group Endeostigmata (mainly deep-soil mites) were recovered as sister-groups to the remaining Acariformes (i. e., Trombidiformes + and most of Sarcoptiformes). Desmonomatan oribatid mites (soil and litter mites) were recovered as the monophyletic sister group of Astigmata (e. g., stored product mites, house dust mites, mange mites, feather and fur mites). Trombidiformes (Sphaerolichida + Prostigmata) is strongly supported (PP =1.0; BP = 98-100). Labidostommatina was inferred as the basal lineage of Prostigmata. Eleutherengona (e. g., spider mites) and Parasitengona (e. g., chiggers, fresh water mites) were recovered as monophyletic. By contrast, Eupodina (e. g., snout mites and relatives) was not. Marine mites (Halacaridae) were

  19. Actual questions in Slovak and European nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2010-01-01

    The close cohesion of research and education underlines the development of all research areas and contributes to their sustainability. In the paper, new approaches of European Commission (DG RTD Energy) to nuclear power engineering development (focused on area fission and reactor systems) and applications also for Slovak conditions are discussed in details. Research, education and training increase not only economical factor and technical development, but imply the higher level of safety culture by design or operation of nuclear installations. The paper will be focused on the actual questions in frame of Slovak as well as European nuclear sector.

  20. Questioning Strategies of Literature Teachers among Grade 8 Filipino Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M. Ocbian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Questioning is a useful and relevant tool to facilitate classroom discussion in a literature class. This study identified the levels of questions teachers use in their literature class, determined the different question strategies they utilized and proposed activities to enhance the questioning strategies of literature teachers. Video analysis was the main instrument used. These videos were provided during the conduct of class observations by the researchers. There were eight respondents in the study selected through total enumeration. They are teachers from Gubat Cluster of secondary schools of Sorsogon Province. To identify the levels of questions and questioning strategies, question tally form and percentage were used. Results revealed that knowledge was the most used level of questions followed by comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The most used question technique is the participation, followed by proving, sequencing, wait time, balance and student questions. It was recommended that literature teachers vary their level of questions when discussing literary pieces. They may utilize different question techniques to develop critical thinking skills of their students. The use of the proposed activities may enhance the questioning strategies of literature teachers. Likewise, school heads and program supervisors may utilize video analysis technique as a mode for classroom observation.

  1. Enhanced transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels caused by ocean acidification and its implications for export production: A mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxhammer, Tim; Taucher, Jan; Bach, Lennart T; Achterberg, Eric P; Algueró-Muñiz, María; Bellworthy, Jessica; Czerny, Jan; Esposito, Mario; Haunost, Mathias; Hellemann, Dana; Ludwig, Andrea; Yong, Jaw C; Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Anderson, Leif G

    2018-01-01

    Ongoing acidification of the ocean through uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is known to affect marine biota and ecosystems with largely unknown consequences for marine food webs. Changes in food web structure have the potential to alter trophic transfer, partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling of elements in the ocean. Here we investigated the impact of realistic end-of-the-century CO2 concentrations on the development and partitioning of the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica pools in a coastal pelagic ecosystem (Gullmar Fjord, Sweden). We covered the entire winter-to-summer plankton succession (100 days) in two sets of five pelagic mesocosms, with one set being CO2 enriched (~760 μatm pCO2) and the other one left at ambient CO2 concentrations. Elemental mass balances were calculated and we highlight important challenges and uncertainties we have faced in the closed mesocosm system. Our key observations under high CO2 were: (1) A significantly amplified transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from primary producers to higher trophic levels, during times of regenerated primary production. (2) A prolonged retention of all three elements in the pelagic food web that significantly reduced nitrogen and phosphorus sedimentation by about 11 and 9%, respectively. (3) A positive trend in carbon fixation (relative to nitrogen) that appeared in the particulate matter pool as well as the downward particle flux. This excess carbon counteracted a potential reduction in carbon sedimentation that could have been expected from patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes. Our findings highlight the potential for ocean acidification to alter partitioning and cycling of carbon and nutrients in the surface ocean but also show that impacts are temporarily variable and likely depending upon the structure of the plankton food web.

  2. Enhanced transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels caused by ocean acidification and its implications for export production: A mass balance approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Boxhammer

    Full Text Available Ongoing acidification of the ocean through uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is known to affect marine biota and ecosystems with largely unknown consequences for marine food webs. Changes in food web structure have the potential to alter trophic transfer, partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling of elements in the ocean. Here we investigated the impact of realistic end-of-the-century CO2 concentrations on the development and partitioning of the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica pools in a coastal pelagic ecosystem (Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. We covered the entire winter-to-summer plankton succession (100 days in two sets of five pelagic mesocosms, with one set being CO2 enriched (~760 μatm pCO2 and the other one left at ambient CO2 concentrations. Elemental mass balances were calculated and we highlight important challenges and uncertainties we have faced in the closed mesocosm system. Our key observations under high CO2 were: (1 A significantly amplified transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from primary producers to higher trophic levels, during times of regenerated primary production. (2 A prolonged retention of all three elements in the pelagic food web that significantly reduced nitrogen and phosphorus sedimentation by about 11 and 9%, respectively. (3 A positive trend in carbon fixation (relative to nitrogen that appeared in the particulate matter pool as well as the downward particle flux. This excess carbon counteracted a potential reduction in carbon sedimentation that could have been expected from patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes. Our findings highlight the potential for ocean acidification to alter partitioning and cycling of carbon and nutrients in the surface ocean but also show that impacts are temporarily variable and likely depending upon the structure of the plankton food web.

  3. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  4. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  5. Higher-level bee classifications (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato Classificação dos grandes grupos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A higher-level classification of bees, in which the entire group is treated as a single family - the Apidae - is advocated here. A total of seven subfamilies, 51 tribes and 27 subtribes are recognized. These subfamilies correspond to the families adopted in the traditional classification. Although the proposed changes do not involve any major rearrangement, basically only changing the rank given to the main groups, the new system makes the classification of bees more consistent with that adopted for other major groups of aculeate Hymenoptera. It also departs from the 19th century practice, perpetuated in the traditional classification, of giving family-status to the main groups of bees. A correspondence table associating the taxon names used in the current traditional classification with those of the revised classification is presented. Scrapterini new tribe (type-genus Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville is proposed to accommodate the southern African genus Scrapter.Apresenta-se uma classificação para as abelhas em que o todo o grupo é tratado como uma única família - Apidae. São reconhecidas sete subfamílias, 51 tribos e 27 subtribos. As subfamílias correspondem às famílias da classificação tradicional. Apesar das mudanças propostas afetarem apenas o status dos grupos, o novo sistema torna a classificação das abelhas mais consistente com aquela adotada para os grandes grupos de Hymenoptera aculeados. Além disso, distancia-se da tradição de dar status de família aos grupos principais de abelhas, uma prática do século 19 perpetuada na classificação tradicional. É apresentada uma tabela de correspondência associando os nomes dos táxons usados na classificação tradicional corrente com aquelas da classificação sendo proposta aqui. Scrapterini tribo nova (gênero-tipo Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville é proposta para acomodar Scrapter, um gênero restrito à porção sul do continente africano.

  6. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  7. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  8. Continuing the Conversation: Questions about the Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Dempsey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the prevalence of the Information Literacy Competency Standards in the library profession for the past 15 years, and the heated debate that took place regarding whether or not the Framework for Information Literacy and the Standards could harmoniously co-exist, the article raises questions about the future of information literacy in higher education. We do not necessarily have answers to these questions, but offer our own perspectives, some insight into how the Standards have served New Jersey academic librarians in the past, and how we envision using the Framework and the Standards together to further information literacy instruction at our institutions. Discussions of these questions have led us to the conclusion that the Framework and the Standards serve different purposes and have different intended audiences and are thus both valuable to the library profession.

  9. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  10. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators

  11. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    OpenAIRE

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  12. ITEM ANALYSIS FOR FINAL EXAM QUESTIONS OF ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS COURSE (VECTOR CALCULUS IN UKM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURYAZMIN AHMAT ZAINUR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of course outcome is one of the important elements in assessing students’ performance in higher institutions. Most of the courses depend on examination result as a medium to evaluate the level of students’ performances. In this study, the final exam questions of Vector Calculus course KKKQ1123 is being used to assess the difficulty index and discrimination index. 80 students from Department of Mechanical and Materials (JKMB were involved in this study. This study found that the range of difficulty index is between 0.2 and 0.8, where the question that was categorized as difficult is question number 6 whereas for easy questions is question number 3. Meanwhile the range obtained for discrimination index was in the acceptable range, that is, between 0.2 and 0.6 which indicates that the exam questions are good. With this study, it is hope that it will guide the lecturers in constructing and crafting a good and reliable exam questions consistent with the level of student's ability.

  13. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Bodil Ohlsson; Marju Orho-Melander; Peter M. Nilsson

    2017-01-01

    Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363) of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV) were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination...

  14. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    universities make a fair comparison between grades attained in A-Levels and Highers, CSYS and Advanced Highers. It was a fairly limited exercise, but a careful one, carried out by examiners and teachers rather than statisticians. They compared syllabuses, questions and candidates' answers. I quote: '... the two years of study for A-level perhaps means that there is a secure, consolidated grasp of the basics; more than the Higher candidate after one year. But there is no evidence of this from candidates' scripts.' Comparing syllabuses, the report noted a greater mathematical demand in Scotland: 'The rigour or depth of treatment is generally lower in the Syllabus Y [an A-level syllabus.] than in CSYS or Advanced Higher because many topics have a qualitative treatment rather than the mathematical treatment of CSYS and AH.' Adding a certain sting to its tail, the report concludes: `Many of the CSYS candidates will have achieved excellent grades at Higher... in four or five subjects before proceeding to CSYS. Scottish candidates tend to have qualifications in a broader range of subjects.' Perhaps this is why they get to be in charge everywhere.

  15. Additive benefit of higher testosterone levels and vitamin D plus calcium supplementation in regard to fall risk reduction among older men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both testosterone and vitamin D levels affect muscle and thus may also affect risk of falling. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sex hormone levels and the risk of falling in older men and women. 199 men and 246 women age 65 or older living at home followed for 3 years...

  16. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  17. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  18. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  19. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  20. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.