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Sample records for higher input intensities

  1. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  2. Nitrogen deposition and its contribution to nutrient inputs to intensively managed agricultural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chun-E; Wang, Xin; Liu, Xuejun; Fangmeier, Andreas; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo

    2010-01-01

    Interest in nitrogen inputs via atmospheric deposition to agricultural ecosystems has increased recently, especially on the North China Plain because of extremely intensive agricultural systems and rapid urbanization in this region. Nitrogen deposition may make a significant contribution to crop N requirements but may also impose a considerable nutrient burden on the environment in general. We quantified total N deposition at two locations, Dongbeiwang near Beijing and Quzhou in Hebei province, over a two-year period from 2005 to 2007 using an 15N tracer method, the integrated total N input (ITNI) system. Total airborne N inputs to a maize wheat rotation system at both locations ranged from 99 to 117 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1), with higher N deposition during the maize season (57-66 kg N/ha) than the wheat season (42-51 kg N/ha). Plant available N from deposition for maize and wheat was about 52 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1), accounting for 50% of the total N deposition or 31% of total N uptake by the two crop species. In addition, a correction factor was derived for the maize season to adjust values obtained from small pots (0.057 m2) compared with field trays (0.98 m2) because of higher plant density in the pots. The results indicate that atmospheric N deposition is a very important N input and must be taken into account when calculating nutrient budgets in very intensively managed agricultural ecosystems.

  3. Using Human Motion Intensity as Input for Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Gade, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    of a town square, human occupancy and motion intensities are used to generate situated or topologies presenting new adaptive methods for urban design. These methods incorporate local or as design drivers for canopy, pavement and furniture layout. The urban design solution may be congured due to various...

  4. The Economic Impact of Higher Education Institutions in Ireland: Evidence from Disaggregated Input-Output Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiantao; Larkin, Charles; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    While there has been a long history of modelling the economic impact of higher education institutions (HEIs), little research has been undertaken in the context of Ireland. This paper provides, for the first time, a disaggregated input-output table for Ireland's higher education sector. The picture painted overall is a higher education sector that…

  5. Economic structure and pollution intensity within the environmental input-output framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Maria [Departament d' Economia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avgda. Universitat no. 1, 43204 Reus (Spain)]. E-mail: maria.llop@urv.cat

    2007-06-15

    The environmental input-output approach reveals the channels through which the environmental burdens of production activities are transmitted throughout the economy. This paper uses the input-output framework and analyses the changes in Spanish emission multipliers during the period 1995-2000. By decomposing the total changes in multipliers into different components, it is possible to evaluate separately the effects of economic structure and pollution intensity captured by the environmental input-output model. Specifically, in this study, we distinguish between the effects on multipliers caused by changes in emission coefficients (the pollution intensity effects) and the effects on multipliers caused by changes in technical coefficients (the economic structure effects). Our results show a significant reduction in the pollution intensity of production activities, which contributed negatively to changes in emission multipliers. They also show that the economic structure contributed positively to changes in emission multipliers. Together, these two effects lead to a small reduction in multipliers during the period of analysis. My results also show significant differences in the individual behaviour of different sectors in terms of their contribution to multiplier changes. Since there are considerable differences in the way individual sectors affect the changes in emission levels, and in the intensity of these effects, this means that the final effects will basically depend on the activity considered.

  6. Economic structure and pollution intensity within the environmental input-output framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The environmental input-output approach reveals the channels through which the environmental burdens of production activities are transmitted throughout the economy. This paper uses the input-output framework and analyses the changes in Spanish emission multipliers during the period 1995-2000. By decomposing the total changes in multipliers into different components, it is possible to evaluate separately the effects of economic structure and pollution intensity captured by the environmental input-output model. Specifically, in this study, we distinguish between the effects on multipliers caused by changes in emission coefficients (the pollution intensity effects) and the effects on multipliers caused by changes in technical coefficients (the economic structure effects). Our results show a significant reduction in the pollution intensity of production activities, which contributed negatively to changes in emission multipliers. They also show that the economic structure contributed positively to changes in emission multipliers. Together, these two effects lead to a small reduction in multipliers during the period of analysis. My results also show significant differences in the individual behaviour of different sectors in terms of their contribution to multiplier changes. Since there are considerable differences in the way individual sectors affect the changes in emission levels, and in the intensity of these effects, this means that the final effects will basically depend on the activity considered

  7. Input energy measurement toward warm dense matter generation using intense pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ito, T.; Ishitani, T.; Tamura, F.; Kudo, T.; Takakura, N.; Kashine, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob.; Jiang, W.; Tokuchi, A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate properties of warm dense matter (WDM) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), evaluation method for the WDM with isochoric heating on the implosion time-scale using an intense pulsed power generator ETIGO-II (∼1 TW, ∼50 ns) has been considered. In this study, the history of input energy into the sample is measured from the voltage and the current waveforms. To achieve isochoric heating, a foamed aluminum with pore sizes 600 μm and with 90% porosity was packed into a hollow glass capillary (ø 5 mm × 10 mm). The temperature of the sample is calculated from the numerical calculation using the measured input power. According to the above measurements, the input energy into a sample and the achievable temperature are estimated to be 300 J and 6000 K. It indicates that the WDM state is generated using the proposed method with ICF implosion time-scale.

  8. Catalogue of European earthquakes with intensities higher than 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gils, J.M.; Leydecker, G.

    1991-01-01

    The catalogue of European earthquakes with intensities higher than 4 contains some 20 000 seismic events that happened in member countries of the European Communities, Switzerland and Austria. It was prepared on the basis of already existing national catalogues and includes historical data as well as present-day data. All historical data are harmonized as far as possible to the same intensity scale (MSK-scale) to make them suitable for computerization. Present-day data include instrumental and macroseismic data. Instrumental data are expressed in terms of magnitude (Richter scale) while macroseismic data are given in intensities. Compilation of seismic data can provide a basis for statistically supported studies of site selection procedures and the qualitative assessment of seismic risks. Three groups of seismic maps illustrate the content of the catalogue for different time periods and different intensities

  9. Is the BLM system ready to go to higher intensities?

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Guerrero, A; Grishin, S; Holzer, E; Jackson, S; Kurfuerst, C; Lechner, A; Marsili, A; Misiowiec, M; Nebot, E; Nordt, A; Priebe, A; Roderick, C; Schmidt, R; Verweij, A; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    The higher beam intensities will enhance the effects of the beam losses observed during 2010 run. In particular beam losses due to so called UFO events are discussed, but also other beam loss phenomena like luminosity losses, injection losses and the leakage from the collimation system are considered. The current understanding of the quench limits reflected in the BLM thresholds on the cold magnets is presented. The thresholds for possible increased beam energy are reviewed.

  10. Impact of intense rains and flooding on mercury riverine input to the coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewska, Dominika; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bełdowski, Jacek; Saniewski, Michał; Gębka, Karolina; Szubska, Marta; Wochna, Agnieszka

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine the impact of intense rains and flooding on mercury riverine input to the coastal zone. This study focused on four small rivers (Reda, Zagórska Struga, Płutnica, Gizdepka), typical of the Southern Baltic region, with no significant mercury sources. Samples were collected for 16months during average flow conditions and during selected meteorological events: floods, downpours, thaws and droughts. Results showed decreased retention of mercury during intense rainfalls, thus demonstrating mercury elution from the catchment. Floods and melting snow also have a tremendous impact on the outflow of mercury from the catchment. Development of urban infrastructure and farmlands increases the outflow of mercury from the catchment too, making such areas a significant source of mercury in the river. On the other hand, areas with natural character, predominated by forests, stimulate retention of mercury that reaches them through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher order visual input to the mushroom bodies in the bee, Bombus impatiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, Angelique C; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2008-11-01

    To produce appropriate behaviors based on biologically relevant associations, sensory pathways conveying different modalities are integrated by higher-order central brain structures, such as insect mushroom bodies. To address this function of sensory integration, we characterized the structure and response of optic lobe (OL) neurons projecting to the calyces of the mushroom bodies in bees. Bees are well known for their visual learning and memory capabilities and their brains possess major direct visual input from the optic lobes to the mushroom bodies. To functionally characterize these visual inputs to the mushroom bodies, we recorded intracellularly from neurons in bumblebees (Apidae: Bombus impatiens) and a single neuron in a honeybee (Apidae: Apis mellifera) while presenting color and motion stimuli. All of the mushroom body input neurons were color sensitive while a subset was motion sensitive. Additionally, most of the mushroom body input neurons would respond to the first, but not to subsequent, presentations of repeated stimuli. In general, the medulla or lobula neurons projecting to the calyx signaled specific chromatic, temporal, and motion features of the visual world to the mushroom bodies, which included sensory information required for the biologically relevant associations bees form during foraging tasks.

  12. Input-output analysis of energy requirements for short rotation, intensive culture, woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, C.H.; Grado, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    A production model for short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) plantations was developed to determine the energy and financial cost of woody biomass. The model was based on hybrid poplars planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cuttings ha -1 , with average annual growth forecast at 16 metric tonne, oven dry (mg(OD)). Energy and financial analyses showed preharvest cost 4381 megajoules (MJ) Mg -1 (OD) and $16 (US) Mg -1 (OD). Harvesting and transportation requirements increased the total costs 6130 MJ Mg -1 (OD) and $39 Mg -1 (OD) for the delivered material. On an energy cost basis, the principal input was land, whereas on a financial basis, costs were more uniformly distributed among equipment, land, labor, and materials and fuel

  13. Investigation of intense XUV emission of nitrogen-puff Z-pinch with small energy input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raus, J.; Krejci, A.; Piffl, V.

    1992-01-01

    Light elements like nitrogen or carbon are suggested as optimum working media for small Z-pinches (several kJ energy input). It is shown that such elements can be ionized up to K-shell ionization stages not only in hot-spots, but also in the bulk plasma. The yield of nitrogen K-shell radiation (about 10 J/shot) is therefore substantially higher than that of the conventionally used neon. In addition to pinch physics and radiation dynamics, such radiation could be of interest for applications in the 'water window' spectral region. (author) 1 tab., 4 figs., 8 refs

  14. RIP INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR LA DESIGN SELECTION: HIGHER THERMAL LOADING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Mon

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze waste package degradation and failure under the repository exposure conditions characterized by the higher thermal loading repository design feature and, (2) post-processing of these results into tables of waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems version 5.19.01 (RIP) computer program (Golder Associates 1998). Specifically, the WAPDEG simulations discussed in this calculation correspond to waste package emplacement conditions (repository environment and design) defined in the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA), with the exception that the higher thermal loading Design Feature (Design Feature 26) of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) analysis was analyzed. Higher thermal loading would keep the drift temperature above the boiling point of water for a longer period of time, thereby minimizing moisture around the waste packages during a longer post-closure period. The higher thermal loading would also affect the surrounding rock, which may have adverse effects. The only failure mechanism of this feature would be if the effects on the surrounding rock were determined to be unacceptable. As a result of the change in waste package placement relative to the TSPA-VA base-case design, different temperature and relative humidity time histories at the waste package surface are calculated (input to the WAPDEG simulations), and consequently different waste package failure histories (as calculated by WAPDEG) result

  15. Transferring Instantly the State of Higher-Order Linear Descriptor (Regular Differential Systems Using Impulsive Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios D. Karageorgos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, and generally speaking in many dynamical differential systems, the problem of transferring the initial state of the system to a desired state in (almost zero-time time is desirable but difficult to achieve. Theoretically, this can be achieved by using a linear combination of Dirac -function and its derivatives. Obviously, such an input is physically unrealizable. However, we can think of it approximately as a combination of small pulses of very high magnitude and infinitely small duration. In this paper, the approximation process of the distributional behaviour of higher-order linear descriptor (regular differential systems is presented. Thus, new analytical formulae based on linear algebra methods and generalized inverses theory are provided. Our approach is quite general and some significant conditions are derived. Finally, a numerical example is presented and discussed.

  16. Solar Wind Energy Input during Prolonged, Intense Northward Interplanetary Magnetic Fields: A New Coupling Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, A. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Sun, W.

    2012-04-01

    Sudden energy release (ER) events in the midnight sector at auroral zone latitudes during intense (B > 10 nT), long-duration (T > 3 hr), northward (Bz > 0 nT = N) IMF magnetic clouds (MCs) during solar cycle 23 (SC23) have been examined in detail. The MCs with northward-then-southward (NS) IMFs were analyzed separately from MCs with southward-then-northward (SN) configurations. It is found that there is a lack of substorms during the N field intervals of NS clouds. In sharp contrast, ER events do occur during the N field portions of SN MCs. From the above two results it is reasonable to conclude that the latter ER events represent residual energy remaining from the preceding S portions of the SN MCs. We derive a new solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function during northward IMFs: ENIMF = α N-1/12V 7/3B1/2 + β V |Dstmin|. The first term on the right-hand side of the equation represents the energy input via "viscous interaction", and the second term indicates the residual energy stored in the magnetotail. It is empirically found that the magnetosphere/magnetotail can store energy for a maximum of ~ 4 hrs before it has dissipated away. This concept is defining one for ER/substorm energy storage. Our scenario indicates that the rate of solar wind energy injection into the magnetosphere/magnetotail determines the form of energy release into the magnetosphere/ionosphere. This may be more important than the dissipation mechanism itself (in understanding the form of the release). The concept of short-term energy storage is applied for the solar case. It is argued that it may be necessary to identify the rate of energy input into solar magnetic loop systems to be able to predict the occurrence of solar flares.

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Thum

    Full Text Available Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax with 1 min of active recovery between bouts or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013 in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4 versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1. Eleven of 12 participants (92% preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05 and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05 in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.NCT:02981667.

  18. Higher order harmonic generation in the intense laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvizi, R.; Bahrampour, A.; Karimi, M.

    2006-01-01

    The high intensity pulse of laser field ionizes the atoms and electrons are going to the continuum states of atoms. electrons absorb energy from the strong laser field. The back ground electromagnetic field causes to come back the electrons to ground states of atoms and the absorbed energy is emitted as a high order odd harmonics of incident light. The intensity of emitted harmonics depends on the material atoms and the laser pulse shape. I this paper the effects of step pulse duration on the high order harmonic radiated by the Argon, Helium, and Hydrogen atoms are reported.

  19. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  20. The latest from the LHC : Training for higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Three weeks of intense machine development were brought to a satisfactory conclusion on the night of 21 September with the final validation of the machine protection systems for operation with bunch trains. The machine is now ready to accept more and more trains of bunches.   On Wednesday 22 September, the first physics fill was made using bunch trains, with 3 trains of 8 bunches per beam, providing 16 pairs of colliding bunches per experiment. This fill was used to restart operation for physics both for the machine and for the experiments. On Thursday, the number of bunches was increased to 56 per beam, providing 47 colliding pairs at Points 1, 5 and 8, and a smaller number at Point 2 to meet the requirements of ALICE. This is roughly the same intensity that we had in the machine in August. The first fill made under these conditions, fill 1366, brought an unexpected bonus. Bunches of nominal intensity were injected into the LHC with a smaller than usual transverse size, which was expected to cau...

  1. Control of Goos-Hänchen shift via input probe field intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-11-01

    We suggest a scheme to control Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift in an ensemble of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms, which act as super-atoms due to the dipole blockade mechanism. The ensemble of three-level cold Rydberg-dressed (87Rb) atoms follows a cascade configurations where two fields, i.e, a strong control and a weak field are employed [D. Petrosyan, J. Otterbach, and M. Fleischhauer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 213601 (2011)]. The propagation of probe field is influenced by two-photon correlation within the blockade distance, which are damped due to the saturation of super-atoms. The amplitude of GH shift in the reflected light depends on the intensity of probe field. We observe large negative GH shift in the reflected light for small values of the probe field intensities.

  2. Droplet size characteristics and energy input requirements of emulsions formed using high-intensity-pulsed electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, T.C.; Sisson, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental methods have been developed to measure droplet size characteristics and energy inputs associated with the rupture of aqueous droplets by high-intensity-pulsed electric fields. The combination of in situ microscope optics and high-speed video cameras allows reliable observation of liquid droplets down to 0.5 μm in size. Videotapes of electric-field-created emulsions reveal that average droplet sizes of less than 5 μm are easily obtained in such systems. Analysis of the energy inputs into the fluids indicates that the electric field method requires less than 1% of the energy required from mechanical agitation to create comparable droplet sizes. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Effect of expectation on pain assessment of lower- and higher-intensity stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić, Valentina; Ivanec, Dragutin; Modić Stanke, Koraljka

    2017-01-01

    Pain modulation via expectation is a well-documented phenomenon. So far it has been shown that expectations about effectiveness of a certain treatment enhance the effectiveness of different analgesics and of drug-free pain treatments. Also, studies demonstrate that people assess same-intensity stimuli differently, depending on the experimentally induced expectations regarding the characteristics of the stimuli. Prolonged effect of expectation on pain perception and possible symmetry in conditions of lower- and higher-intensity stimuli is yet to be studied. Aim of this study is to determine the effect of expectation on the perception of pain experimentally induced by the series of higher- and lower-intensity stimuli. 192 healthy participants were assigned to four experimental groups differing by expectations regarding the intensity of painful stimuli series. Expectations of two groups were congruent with actual stimuli; one group expected and received lower-intensity stimuli and the other expected and received higher-intensity stimuli. Expectations of the remaining two groups were not congruent with actual stimuli; one group expected higher-intensity stimuli, but actually received lower-intensity stimuli while the other group expected lower-intensity stimuli, but in fact received higher-intensity ones. Each group received a series of 24 varied-intensity electrical stimuli rated by the participants on a 30° intensity scale. Expectation manipulation had statistically significant effect on pain intensity assessment. When expecting lower-intensity stimuli, the participants underestimated pain intensity and when expecting higher-intensity stimuli, they overestimated pain intensity. The effect size of expectations upon pain intensity assessment was equal for both lower- and higher-intensity stimuli. The obtained results imply that expectation manipulation can achieve the desired effect of decreasing or increasing both slight and more severe pain for a longer period of

  4. All-optical universal logic gates on nonlinear multimode interference coupler using tunable input intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajaldini, Mehdi; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat

    2015-04-01

    The theory of Nonlinear Modal Propagation Analysis Method (NMPA) have shown significant features of nonlinear multimode interference (MMI) coupler with compact dimension and when launched near the threshold of nonlinearity. Moreover, NMPA have the potential to allow studying the nonlinear MMI based the modal interference to explorer the phenomenon that what happen due to the natural of multimode region. Proposal of all-optical switch based NMPA has approved its capability to achieving the all-optical gates. All-optical gates have attracted increasing attention due to their practical utility in all-optical signal processing networks and systems. Nonlinear multimode interference devices could apply as universal all-optical gates due to significant features that NMPA introduce them. In this Paper, we present a novel Ultra-compact MMI coupler based on NMPA method in low intensity compared to last reports either as a novel design method and potential application for optical NAND, NOR as universal gates on single structure for Boolean logic signal processing devices and optimize their application via studding the contrast ratio between ON and OFF as a function of output width. We have applied NMPA for several applications so that the miniaturization in low nonlinear intensities is their main purpose.

  5. Neonatal intensive care nursing curriculum challenges based on context, input, process, and product evaluation model: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Ashghali-Farahani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weakness of curriculum development in nursing education results in lack of professional skills in graduates. This study was done on master's students in nursing to evaluate challenges of neonatal intensive care nursing curriculum based on context, input, process, and product (CIPP evaluation model. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with qualitative approach, which was completed according to the CIPP evaluation model. The study was conducted from May 2014 to April 2015. The research community included neonatal intensive care nursing master's students, the graduates, faculty members, neonatologists, nurses working in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, and mothers of infants who were hospitalized in such wards. Purposeful sampling was applied. Results: The data analysis showed that there were two main categories: “inappropriate infrastructure” and “unknown duties,” which influenced the context formation of NICU master's curriculum. The input was formed by five categories, including “biomedical approach,” “incomprehensive curriculum,” “lack of professional NICU nursing mentors,” “inappropriate admission process of NICU students,” and “lack of NICU skill labs.” Three categories were extracted in the process, including “more emphasize on theoretical education,” “the overlap of credits with each other and the inconsistency among the mentors,” and “ineffective assessment.” Finally, five categories were extracted in the product, including “preferring routine work instead of professional job,” “tendency to leave the job,” “clinical incompetency of graduates,” “the conflict between graduates and nursing staff expectations,” and “dissatisfaction of graduates.” Conclusions: Some changes are needed in NICU master's curriculum by considering the nursing experts' comments and evaluating the consequences of such program by them.

  6. Organic matter decomposition and microarthropod community structure in corn fields under low input and intensive management in Guaíra (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S Rodrigues

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of organic matter decomposition and the structure of the communities of microarthropods were compared between two corn fields receiving contrasting agricultural management practices (low input and intensive farming. The rate of decomposition tended to be higher in the intensively managed field in the beginning of the growing season, but decreased to a level significantly lower than the observed in the low input field by the end of the growing season. This suggested that the biological community associated with the decomposition process could be negatively influenced in the intensively managed field. Analyses of the structure of microarthropod communities indicated differences between the two areas. The microarthropod populations present in the intensively managed field suffered abrupt decrease in numbers as the season progressed.A taxa de decomposição da matéria orgânica e a estrutura da comunidade de microartrópodes foram comparadas entre dois campos cultivados com milho mas recebendo manejos distintos, sendo um campo manejado intensivamente e outro com baixo uso de insumos. A taxa de decomposição foi mais alta no campo intensivamente manejado no início da cultura, mas decresceu para um nível significativamente inferior àquela observada no campo com baixo uso de insumos ao final da estação. Tal tendência sugeriu que a estrutura da comunidade dos organismos associados ao processo de decomposição poderia estar sendo negativamente influenciada no campo intensivamente manejado. Análises da estrutura das comunidades de microartrópodes indicaram que diferentes comunidades estavam presentes nos dois campos. As populações de microartrópodes presentes no campo sob manejo intensivo sofreram queda abrupta em números, sendo praticamente eliminadas já no segundo mês de desenvolvimento da cultura.

  7. Higher exercise intensity delays postexercise recovery of impedance-derived cardiac sympathetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Scott; Jay, Ollie; Graham, Kenneth S; Davis, Glen M

    2017-08-01

    Systolic time intervals (STIs) provide noninvasive insights into cardiac sympathetic neural activity (cSNA). As the effect of exercise intensity on postexercise STI recovery is unclear, this study investigated the STI recovery profile after different exercise intensities. Eleven healthy males cycled for 8 min at 3 separate intensities: LOW (40%-45%), MOD (75%-80%), and HIGH (90%-95%) of heart-rate (HR) reserve. Bio-impedance cardiography was used to assess STIs - primarily pre-ejection period (PEP; inversely correlated with cSNA), as well as left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and PEP:LVET - during 10 min seated recovery immediately postexercise. Heart-rate variability (HRV), i.e., natural-logarithm of root mean square of successive differences (Ln-RMSSD), was calculated as an index of cardiac parasympathetic neural activity (cPNA). Higher preceding exercise intensity elicited a slower recovery of HR and Ln-RMSSD (p return to baseline by 10 min following any intensity (p ≤ 0.009). Recovery of STIs was also slower following higher intensity exercise (p ≤ 0.002). By 30 s postexercise, higher preceding intensity resulted in a lower PEP (98 ± 14 ms, 75 ± 6 ms, 66 ± 5 ms for LOW, MOD, and HIGH, respectively, p fashion. While exercise intensity must be considered, acute recovery may be a valuable period during which to concurrently monitor these noninvasive indices, to identify potentially abnormal cardiac autonomic responses.

  8. Continuous and high-intensity interval training: which promotes higher pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno R R Oliveira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the psychological responses to continuous (CT and high-intensity interval training (HIT sessions. METHODS: Fifteen men attended one CT session and one HIT session. During the first visit, the maximum heart rate, VO2Peak and respiratory compensation point (RCP were determined through a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The HIT stimulus intensity corresponded to 100% of VO2Peak, and the average intensity of both sessions was maintained at 15% below the RCP. The order of the sessions was randomized. Psychological and physiological variables were recorded before, during and after each session. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the average percentages of VO2 during the two exercise sessions (HIT: 73.3% vs. CT: 71.8%; p = 0.779. Lower responses on the feeling scale (p≤0.01 and higher responses on the felt arousal scale (p≤0.001 and the rating of perceived exertion were obtained during the HIT session. Despite the more negative feeling scale responses observed during HIT and a greater feeling of fatigue (measured by Profile of Mood States afterwards (p<0.01, the physical activity enjoyment scale was not significantly different between the two conditions (p = 0.779. CONCLUSION: Despite the same average intensity for both conditions, similar psychological responses under HIT and CT conditions were not observed, suggesting that the higher dependence on anaerobic metabolism during HIT negatively influenced the feeling scale responses.

  9. Intensity earthquake scenario (scenario event - a damaging earthquake with higher probability of occurrence) for the city of Sofia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Irena; Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Popova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic risk to earthquakes are increasing steadily as urbanization and development occupy more areas that a prone to effects of strong earthquakes. Additionally, the uncontrolled growth of mega cities in highly seismic areas around the world is often associated with the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, and undertaken with an insufficient knowledge of the regional seismicity peculiarities and seismic hazard. The assessment of seismic hazard and generation of earthquake scenarios is the first link in the prevention chain and the first step in the evaluation of the seismic risk. The earthquake scenarios are intended as a basic input for developing detailed earthquake damage scenarios for the cities and can be used in earthquake-safe town and infrastructure planning. The city of Sofia is the capital of Bulgaria. It is situated in the centre of the Sofia area that is the most populated (the population is of more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria that faces considerable earthquake risk. The available historical documents prove the occurrence of destructive earthquakes during the 15th-18th centuries in the Sofia zone. In 19th century the city of Sofia has experienced two strong earthquakes: the 1818 earthquake with epicentral intensity I0=8-9 MSK and the 1858 earthquake with I0=9-10 MSK. During the 20th century the strongest event occurred in the vicinity of the city of Sofia is the 1917 earthquake with MS=5.3 (I0=7-8 MSK). Almost a century later (95 years) an earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 (I0=7-8 MSK) hit the city of Sofia, on May 22nd, 2012. In the present study as a deterministic scenario event is considered a damaging earthquake with higher probability of occurrence that could affect the city with intensity less than or equal to VIII

  10. Higher-order-mode (HOM) power in elliptical superconducting cavities for intense pulsed proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sang Ho Kim; Dong O Jeon; Sundeli, R

    2002-01-01

    In linacs for intense pulsed proton accelerators, the beam has a multiple time-structure, and each beam time-structure generates resonance. When a higher-order mode (HOM) is near these resonance frequencies, the induced voltage could be large and accordingly the resulting HOM power, too. In order to understand the effects of a complex beam time-structure on the mode excitations and the resulting HOM powers in elliptical superconducting cavities, analytic expressions are developed, with which the beam-induced voltage and corresponding power are explored, taking into account the properties of HOM frequency behavior in elliptical superconducting cavities. The results and understandings from this analysis are presented with the beam parameters of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac.

  11. Intensive Mode Delivery of a Neuroanatomy Unit: Lower Final Grades but Higher Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Macquarie University moved to a three-session academic year which included two 13-week sessions (traditional mode) and one seven-week session (intensive mode). This study was designed to compare the intensive and traditional modes of delivery in a unit of undergraduate neuroanatomy. The new intensive mode neuroanatomy unit provided the…

  12. Force-Deformation Response of a SMA-Based Actuator Considering the Electric Current Intensity as Step-Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Cornel Mituletu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to accomplish the response regarding the force-displacement characteristic evolution, of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA actuator element. This reveals the first research stage in controlling the SMA behavior, providing important information about the heating-cooling time intervals. Step excitation of the SMA is performed by few values of electric current intensity, which produces the heating of SMA element up to 90-95 oC. To meet the testing requirements, an adequate test stand has been set up, consisting of sensors for force, displacement and temperature. The analog values provided by sensors were acquired and afterwards analyzed. The values of temperature, displacement and force were achieved, and their characteristic evolution has been performed. Thus, the time intervals are resulted and some other important aspects have been observed, regarding the delay between parameters and the temperature overshoot

  13. Data-Intensive Evaluation: The Concept, Methods, and Prospects of Higher Education Monitoring Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanjun; Qiao, Weifeng; Li, Jiangbo

    2016-01-01

    Higher education monitoring evaluation is a process that uses modern information technology to continually collect and deeply analyze relevant data, visually present the state of higher education, and provide an objective basis for value judgments and scientific decision making by diverse bodies Higher education monitoring evaluation is…

  14. Toward a Miami University Model for Internet-Intensive Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R.; Crider, Linda; Mayer, Larry; McBride, Mark; Sherman, Richard; Vogel, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Describes principles underlying an emerging model for Internet-intensive undergraduate instruction at Miami University (Ohio) in which students learn by creating online materials themselves; faculty facilitate active learning; student intellectual exchanges are enriched; and the seminar sensibility is extended. Four applications are examined: a…

  15. Female Intense Curricula: Fashion Merchandising in Home Economics and Associated Programs in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikitka, Kathleen Faith; Van Camp, Mary Lou

    A study was done of higher education curricula with substantial enrollment by women (such as fashion merchandising and home economics) to examine the context and substance of the curricula, to identify infrastructures that have supported these programs, and to probe issues that face administrators, faculty and students engaged in such programs.…

  16. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Kyroe, Riikka; Junnila, Seppo, E-mail: jukka.heinonen@aalto.fi, E-mail: riikka.kyro@aalto.fi, E-mail: seppo.junnila@aalto.fi [School of Engineering, Department of Surveying, Aalto University, PO Box 11200, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-07-15

    Hindering urban sprawl is one of the main goals for contemporary urban planning. Urban density is considered crucial in climate change mitigation since it reduces automobile dependence and decreases unit sizes, for example. This letter analyzes the effect of density in a city context. In the study the Finnish capital Helsinki is divided into two areas of different urban densities: the high density downtown area and the more scarcely populated suburbs. The study is a continuation of a recently published study on the implications of urban structure on carbon emissions, and analyzes further the main finding of the first study-that higher urban density might have negligible or even reverse effect on the per capita carbon emissions. Similarly to the previous study, a consumption based tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is employed in order to produce a comprehensive assessment, free of territorial boundaries and system cutoffs typical of traditional LCAs. Based on the findings of the previous study, it is hypothesized that when assessing city level carbon dioxide emissions from a wider, consumer oriented LCA perspective, increased urban density may not necessarily reduce carbon emissions. Surprisingly, the study finds that carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions are substantially higher in the dense downtown area than in the surrounding suburbs, which is suggested to imply that the increased consumption due to the higher standard of living increases emissions more than the higher density is able to reduce them. The results demonstrate that, while increasing urban density can be justified from a number of ecological, social and economic viewpoints, density is not necessarily a key parameter in the particular case of climate change. In cities like Helsinki, where wealth is concentrated in the downtown area, climate policies should give higher priority to the energy consumption of buildings, to alternative energy production and distribution modes

  17. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Kyroe, Riikka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Hindering urban sprawl is one of the main goals for contemporary urban planning. Urban density is considered crucial in climate change mitigation since it reduces automobile dependence and decreases unit sizes, for example. This letter analyzes the effect of density in a city context. In the study the Finnish capital Helsinki is divided into two areas of different urban densities: the high density downtown area and the more scarcely populated suburbs. The study is a continuation of a recently published study on the implications of urban structure on carbon emissions, and analyzes further the main finding of the first study-that higher urban density might have negligible or even reverse effect on the per capita carbon emissions. Similarly to the previous study, a consumption based tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is employed in order to produce a comprehensive assessment, free of territorial boundaries and system cutoffs typical of traditional LCAs. Based on the findings of the previous study, it is hypothesized that when assessing city level carbon dioxide emissions from a wider, consumer oriented LCA perspective, increased urban density may not necessarily reduce carbon emissions. Surprisingly, the study finds that carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions are substantially higher in the dense downtown area than in the surrounding suburbs, which is suggested to imply that the increased consumption due to the higher standard of living increases emissions more than the higher density is able to reduce them. The results demonstrate that, while increasing urban density can be justified from a number of ecological, social and economic viewpoints, density is not necessarily a key parameter in the particular case of climate change. In cities like Helsinki, where wealth is concentrated in the downtown area, climate policies should give higher priority to the energy consumption of buildings, to alternative energy production and distribution modes, as

  18. Risk-associated health disorders occuring in junior schoolchildren who attend schools with higher stress and intensity of educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed comparative sanitary-hygienic assessment of regime, stress and intensity of educational process in different educational establishments, a comprehensive secondary school and an innovative educational establishment - lyceum. We detected that studying regime tended to be tight, classes were longer and more intense than in an ordinary school, and educational process involved considerable intellectual, sensory and emotional loads for children; such loads reached "1st category intense" level. Schoolchildren attending lyceums are also busy with additional educational programs and it significantly increases length of total educational load on them. By the end of a school year 20% of lyceum pupils suffer from sympathoadrenal system overstress and it doesn't only determine emotional tonus level in children but also leads to disorders in concentration and decision-making speed, lower reading speed and articulation, slower motor reactions. 15% of lyceum pupils have higher activity of autonomous nervous system and lower adaptation of cardiovascular system to psycho emotional and physical loads. Lyceum pupils also run 2.5 times higher risk of chronic nervous system diseases evolvement than school children attending ordinary schools. Autonomous nervous system disorders, posture disorders and nutrition disorders are predominant nosologic pathology forms in lyceum pupils as they occur in them 1.6-2.9 times more frequent than in schoolchildren of the same age who attend an ordinary comprehensive school. We detected direct correlation between higher intellectual and emotional components of educational process, and total educational intensity as well, and frequency of autonomous system disorders and musculoskeletal system diseases in pupils.

  19. Maximal intensity higher-order Akhmediev breathers of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and their systematic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Siu A., E-mail: chin@physics.tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Ashour, Omar A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Nikolić, Stanko N. [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Belić, Milivoj R. [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar)

    2016-10-23

    It is well known that Akhmediev breathers of the nonlinear cubic Schrödinger equation can be superposed nonlinearly via the Darboux transformation to yield breathers of higher order. Surprisingly, we find that the peak height of each Akhmediev breather only adds linearly to form the peak height of the final breather. Using this peak-height formula, we show that at any given periodicity, there exists a unique high-order breather of maximal intensity. Moreover, these high-order breathers form a continuous hierarchy, growing in intensity with increasing periodicity. For any such higher-order breather, a simple initial wave function can be extracted from the Darboux transformation to dynamically generate that breather from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. - Highlights: • Proved an analytical formula for the peak-height of an nth-order Akhmediev breather. • Constructed nth-order Akhmediev breathers of maximal peak intensity. • Extracted initial wave functions that can be used experimentally to produce these maximal breathers in optical fibers.

  20. Nutrient concentrations in a Littorella uniflora community at higher CO2 concentrations and reduced light intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Pedersen, O.; Andersen, F. Ø.

    2005-01-01

    laboratory experiments with isoetid vegetation (Littorella uniflora) where water column CO2 and light could be manipulated in order to test whether (i) light and CO2 availability affect nutrient concentrations in isoetid vegetation, and (ii) if changes in light and CO2 climate affect fluxes of inorganic...... nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from sediment to water column, which potentially could result in increased growth of epiphytic algae. 3. The results showed that the standing stocks of phosphorus and nitrogen in the L. uniflora vegetation were significantly influenced by CO2 concentration and light...... intensity. Both standing stocks of P and N were significantly higher in the mesocosm treatments with high CO2 concentration than in those at low CO2 concentration. Similarly, standing stocks of P and N enhanced with increasing light intensity. 4. Measurements of nutrient fluxes both in the field...

  1. Response of soil organic carbon fractions, microbial community composition and carbon mineralization to high-input fertilizer practices under an intensive agricultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xueping; Gebremikael, Mesfin Tsegaye; Wu, Huijun; Cai, Dianxiong; Wang, Bisheng; Li, Baoguo; Zhang, Jiancheng; Li, Yongshan; Xi, Jilong

    2018-01-01

    Microbial mechanisms associated with soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition are poorly understood. We aim to determine the effects of inorganic and organic fertilizers on soil labile carbon (C) pools, microbial community structure and C mineralization rate under an intensive wheat-maize double cropping system in Northern China. Soil samples in 0–10 cm layer were collected from a nine-year field trial involved four treatments: no fertilizer, CK; nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers, NP; maize straw combined with NP fertilizers, NPS; and manure plus straw and NP fertilizers, NPSM. Soil samples were analyzed to determine labile C pools (including dissolved organic C, DOC; light free organic C, LFOC; and microbial biomass C, MBC), microbial community composition (using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles) and SOC mineralization rate (from a 124-day incubation experiment). This study demonstrated that the application of chemical fertilizers (NP) alone did not alter labile C fractions, soil microbial communities and SOC mineralization rate from those observed in the CK treatment. Whereas the use of straw in conjunction with chemical fertilizers (NPS) became an additional labile substrate supply that decreased C limitation, stimulated growth of all PLFA-related microbial communities, and resulted in 53% higher cumulative mineralization of C compared to that of CK. The SOC and its labile fractions explained 78.7% of the variance of microbial community structure. Further addition of manure on the top of straw in the NPSM treatment did not significantly increase microbial community abundances, but it did alter microbial community structure by increasing G+/G- ratio compared to that of NPS. The cumulative mineralization of C was 85% higher under NPSM fertilization compared to that of CK. Particularly, the NPSM treatment increased the mineralization rate of the resistant pool. This has to be carefully taken into account when setting realistic and effective goals

  2. Life cycle assessment of intensive striped catfish farming in the Mekong Delta for screening hotspots as input to environmental policy and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Pham Thi Ahn,; Potting, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Intensive striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta has, in recent years, raised environmental concerns. We conducted a stakeholder-based screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of the intensive farming system to determine the critical environmental impact and their causative processes in

  3. The HART-II Test: Rotor Wakes and Aeroacoustics with Higher-Harmonic Pitch Control (HHC) Inputs - The Joint German/French/Dutch/US Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Yung H; Tung, Chee; van der Wall, Berend; Pausder, Heinz-Juergen; Burley, Casey; Brooks, Thomas; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Mercker, Edzard; Pengel, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    ...). The main objective of the program is to improve the basic understanding and the analytical modeling capabilities of rotor blade-vortex interaction noise with and without higher harmonic pitch control (HHC...

  4. Self-Regulated Learning Skills and Online Activities between Higher and Lower Performers on a Web-Intensive Undergraduate Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry B.; Lawanto, Kevin N.; Goodridge, Wade

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate students' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills used in a Web-intensive learning environment. The research question guiding the study was: How did the use of student SRL skills and student engagement in online activities compare between higher- and lower-performing students participating in a…

  5. Adopting an Active Learning Approach to Teaching in a Research-Intensive Higher Education Context Transformed Staff Teaching Attitudes and Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul J.; Larson, Ian; Styles, Kim; Yuriev, Elizabeth; Evans, Darrell R.; Rangachari, P. K.; Short, Jennifer L.; Exintaris, Betty; Malone, Daniel T.; Davie, Briana; Eise, Nicole; Mc Namara, Kevin; Naidu, Somaiya

    2016-01-01

    The conventional lecture has significant limitations in the higher education context, often leading to a passive learning experience for students. This paper reports a process of transforming teaching and learning with active learning strategies in a research-intensive educational context across a faculty of 45 academic staff and more than 1,000…

  6. Higher Precision of Heart Rate Compared with VO2 to Predict Exercise Intensity in Endurance-Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Victor M; den Tillaar, Roland Van; Marques, Mario C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg) with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s(-1) with a 0.56 m·s(-1) increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 181 ± 13 beats·min(-1). The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99) with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L(-1) lactate thresholds). The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods. Key pointsHeart rate is used in the control of exercise intensity in endurance sports.However, few studies have quantified the precision of its relationship with oxygen uptake in highly trained runners.We evaluated twelve elite half-marathon runners during track running at various intensities and established three regressions: oxygen uptake / heart rate; heart rate / running velocity and oxygen uptake / running velocity.The three regressions presented, respectively, imprecision of 4,2%, 2,75% and 4,5% at the velocity

  7. Will greenhouse gas-induced warming over the next 50 years lead to higher frequency and greater intensity of hurricanes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, L.; Botzet, M.; Esch, M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of a high resolution atmospheric model at T106 resolution, for studying the influence on greenhouse warming on tropical storm climatology, is investigated. The same method for identifying the storms has been used as in a previous study by Bengtsson et al (1994). The sea surface temperature anomalies have been taken from a previous climate change experiment, obtained with a low resolution ocean-atmosphere coupled model. The global distribution of the storms agree in their geographical position and seasonal variability with that of the present climate, but the number of storms is significantly reduced, particularly at the Southern hemisphere. The main reason to this is related to increased tropospheric stability, associated with increased warming at the upper troposphere and changes in the large scale circulation such as a weaker Hadley circulation and stronger upper air westerlies. The surface winds in the tropics are generally weaker and evaporation is also somewhat reduced, in spite of higher sea surface temperatures. (orig.)

  8. Theoretical considerations in measurement of time discrepancies between input and myocardial time-signal intensity curves in estimates of regional myocardial perfusion with first-pass contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Takahiro; Ishida, Masaki; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Nagata, Motonori; Sakuma, Hajime; Ichihara, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to determine time discrepancies between input and myocardial time-signal intensity (TSI) curves for accurate estimation of myocardial perfusion with first-pass contrast-enhanced MRI. Estimation of myocardial perfusion with contrast-enhanced MRI using kinetic models requires faithful recording of contrast content in the blood and myocardium. Typically, the arterial input function (AIF) is obtained by setting a region of interest in the left ventricular cavity. However, there is a small delay between the AIF and the myocardial curves, and such time discrepancies can lead to errors in flow estimation using Patlak plot analysis. In this study, the time discrepancies between the arterial TSI curve and the myocardial tissue TSI curve were estimated based on the compartment model. In the early phase after the arrival of the contrast agent in the myocardium, the relationship between rate constant K1 and the concentrations of Gd-DTPA contrast agent in the myocardium and arterial blood (LV blood) can be described by the equation K1={dCmyo(tpeak)/dt}/Ca(tpeak), where Cmyo(t) and Ca(t) are the relative concentrations of Gd-DTPA contrast agent in the myocardium and in the LV blood, respectively, and tpeak is the time corresponding to the peak of Ca(t). In the ideal case, the time corresponding to the maximum upslope of Cmyo(t), tmax, is equal to tpeak. In practice, however, there is a small difference in the arrival times of the contrast agent into the LV and into the myocardium. This difference was estimated to correspond to the difference between tpeak and tmax. The magnitudes of such time discrepancies and the effectiveness of the correction for these time discrepancies were measured in 18 subjects who underwent myocardial perfusion MRI under rest and stress conditions. The effects of the time discrepancies could be corrected effectively in the myocardial perfusion estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Early lactate clearance in septic patients with elevated lactate levels admitted from the emergency department to intensive care: time to aim higher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Craig A; Griffith, David M; Gray, Alasdair J; Datta, Deepankar; Hay, Alasdair W

    2013-10-01

    Septic patients with hyperlactatemia have increased mortality rates, irrespective of hemodynamic and oxygen-derived variables. The aims of the study are the following: (1) to ascertain whether lactate clearance (LC) (percentage change in lactate over unit time) predicts mortality in septic patients admitted to intensive care directly from the emergency department and (2) to calculate the optimal "cut-off" value for mortality prediction. Three-year retrospective observational study of consecutive patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted to intensive care from the emergency department of a tertiary UK hospital. We calculated 6-hour LC, performed receiver operating characteristic analyses to calculate optimal cut-off values for initial lactate and LC, dichotomized patients according to the LC cut-off, and calculated hazard ratios using a Cox proportional hazards model. One hundred six patients were identified; 78, after exclusions. Lactate clearance was independently associated with 30-day mortality (P<.04); optimal cut-off, 36%. Mortality rates were 61.1% and 10.7% for patients with 6-hour LC 36% or less and greater than 36%, respectively. Hazard ratio for death with LC 36% or less was 7.33 (95% confidence interval, 2.17-24.73; P<.001). Six-hour LC was independently associated with mortality, and the optimal cut-off value was 36%, significantly higher than previously reported. We would support further research investigating this higher LC as a distinct resuscitation end point in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TART input manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimlinger, J.R.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given

  11. Prevalence of Non-responders for Glucose Control Markers after 10 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training in Adult Women with Higher and Lower Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise training improves performance and biochemical parameters on average, but wide interindividual variability exists, with individuals classified as responders (R or non-responders (NRs, especially between populations with higher or lower levels of insulin resistance. This study assessed the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and the prevalence of NRs in adult women with higher and lower levels of insulin resistance.Methods: Forty adult women were assigned to a HIIT program, and after training were analyzed in two groups; a group with higher insulin resistance (H-IR, 40 ± 6 years; BMI: 29.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2; n = 20 and a group with lower insulin resistance (L-IR, 35 ± 9 years; 27.8 ± 2.8 kg/m2; n = 20. Anthropometric, cardiovascular, metabolic, and performance variables were measured at baseline and after 10 weeks of training.Results: There were significant training-induced changes [delta percent (Δ%] in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR scores in the H-IR group (−8.8, −26.5, −32.1%, p < 0.0001, whereas no significant changes were observed in the L-IR. Both groups showed significant pre-post changes in other anthropometric variables [waist circumference (−5.2, p < 0.010, and −3.8%, p = 0.046 and tricipital (−13.3, p < 0.010, and −13.6%, p < 0.0001, supra-iliac (−19.4, p < 0.0001, and −13.6%, p < 0.0001, and abdominal (−18.2, p < 0.0001, and −15.6%, p < 0.010 skinfold measurements]. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly only in the L-IR group (−3.2%, p < 0.010. Both groups showed significant increases in 1RMLE (+12.9, p < 0.010, and +14.7%, p = 0.045. There were significant differences in the prevalence of NRs between the H-IR and L-IR groups for fasting glucose (25 vs. 95%, p < 0.0001 and fasting insulin (p = 0.025 but not for HOMA-IR (25 vs. 45%, p = 0.185.Conclusion: Independent of the “magnitude” of the

  12. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  13. Biological 2-Input Decoder Circuit in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2n outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions. PMID:24694115

  14. Biological 2-input decoder circuit in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Michael; Bleris, Leonidas

    2014-08-15

    Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2(n) outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions.

  15. SSYST-3. Input description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyder, R.

    1983-12-01

    The code system SSYST-3 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a complete input-list for all modules and several tested inputs for a LOCA analysis. (orig.)

  16. MDS MIC Catalog Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.

  17. The Effects of Light Intensity, Casing Layers, and Layering Styles on Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes) Cultivation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanacioglu, Neşe; Boztok, Kaya; Akdeniz, Ramazan Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the effects of light intensity, casing layers, and layering styles on the production of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis in Turkey. The experiments were designed in split-split plots and replicated twice. Three different light intensities-I1, 350 lux; I2, 450 lux; and I3, 750 lux-were used in main plots as environmental factors. A mixture of 4 different casing layers- peat (100%), peat-perlite (75%:25%), peat-clinoptilolite (75%:25%), and peat-perlite-clinoptilolite (60%:20%:20%)-were used at split plots and at split plots. S1, a flat, 3-cm casing layer; S2, a flat, 5-cm casing layer; and S3, casing soil ridges 10 cm wide × 4 cm high, 10 cm apart, were deposited on top of 1-cm overall soil casing layers. At the end of the harvest phase, the total yield was estimated per 100 kg of substrate. Biological efficiency (percentage) was determined from the fresh weight of the mushrooms and the dry weight of the compost at the end of the harvesting period. The highest total yield (7.2 kg/100 kg compost) and biological efficiency (27.63%) were achieved from I2 × peat-perlite-clinoptilolite × S2 treatment. Influence of light intensity, casing layer, layering style, and their interaction in treatments with color values (L*, a*, b*, chroma*, and hue*) also were examined. It has been shown that within color values, chroma* (saturation) values of mushroom caps were affected by light intensity, casing layer, and layering style treatments and light intensity × casing layer treatments and the brightness of mushroom caps tended to increase as light intensity increased.

  18. Outsourcing, public Input provision and policy cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Thomas; Koskela, Erkki

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns public input provision as an instrument for redistribution under international outsourcing by using a model-economy comprising two countries, North and South, where firms in the North may outsource part of their low-skilled labor intensive production to the South. We consider two interrelated issues: (i) the incentives for each country to modify the provision of public input goods in response to international outsourcing, and (ii) whether international outsourcing justifie...

  19. PLEXOS Input Data Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-01

    The PLEXOS Input Data Generator (PIDG) is a tool that enables PLEXOS users to better version their data, automate data processing, collaborate in developing inputs, and transfer data between different production cost modeling and other power systems analysis software. PIDG can process data that is in a generalized format from multiple input sources, including CSV files, PostgreSQL databases, and PSS/E .raw files and write it to an Excel file that can be imported into PLEXOS with only limited manual intervention.

  20. ColloInputGenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...... it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists....

  1. Species-rich semi-natural grasslands have a higher resistance but a lower resilience than intensively managed agricultural grasslands in response to climate anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keersmaecker, De Wanda; Rooijen, van Nils; Lhermitte, Stef; Tits, Laurent; Schaminée, Joop; Coppin, Pol; Honnay, Olivier; Somers, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The stable delivery of ecosystem services provided by grasslands is strongly dependent on the stability of grassland ecosystem functions such as biomass production. Biomass production is in turn strongly affected by the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. The aim of this study is to

  2. Higher glucose variability in type 1 than in type 2 diabetes patients admitted to the intensive care unit: A retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sechterberger, Marjolein K.; van Steen, Sigrid C. J.; Boerboom, Esther M. N.; van der Voort, Peter H. J.; Bosman, Rob J.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although the course of disease of type 1 and type 2 diabetes differs, the distinction is rarely made when patients are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Here, we report patient- and admission-related characteristics in relation to glycemic measures of patients with type I and type

  3. Input description for BIOPATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, J.E.; Bergstroem, U.; Edlund, O.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program BIOPATH describes the flow of radioactivity within a given ecosystem after a postulated release of radioactive material and the resulting dose for specified population groups. The present report accounts for the input data necessary to run BIOPATH. The report also contains descriptions of possible control cards and an input example as well as a short summary of the basic theory.(author)

  4. Input and execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.; Lane, G.; Rowling, G.

    1986-11-01

    This document describes the input procedures, input data files and operating instructions for the SYVAC A/C 1.03 computer program. SYVAC A/C 1.03 simulates the groundwater mediated movement of radionuclides from underground facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes to the accessible environment, and provides an estimate of the subsequent radiological risk to man. (author)

  5. Gestures and multimodal input

    OpenAIRE

    Keates, Simeon; Robinson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    For users with motion impairments, the standard keyboard and mouse arrangement for computer access often presents problems. Other approaches have to be adopted to overcome this. In this paper, we will describe the development of a prototype multimodal input system based on two gestural input channels. Results from extensive user trials of this system are presented. These trials showed that the physical and cognitive loads on the user can quickly become excessive and detrimental to the interac...

  6. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  7. Adapting relationships with place: Investigating the evolving place attachment and ‘sense of place’ of UK higher education students during a period of intense transition

    OpenAIRE

    Holton, MJW

    2015-01-01

    In recent years interest has emerged regarding the geographies of higher education students, particularly in patterns of mobility and dispersion. While anecdotal rhetoric suggests a ‘typical student’ exists within UK institutions. What resonates is the notion that students are inherently heterogeneous, experiencing University in differing ways and times according to their circumstances and year of study. This paper uses ‘walking interviews’ conducted with University of Portsmouth students as ...

  8. Genital marginal failures after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in squamous cell anal cancer: no higher risk with IMRT when compared to 3DCRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Acqua, V; Kobiela, J; Kraja, F; Leonardi, M C; Surgo, A; Zerella, M A; Arculeo, S; Fodor, C; Ricotti, R; Zampino, M G; Ravenda, S; Spinoglio, G; Biffi, R; Bazani, A; Luraschi, R; Vigorito, S; Spychalski, P; Orecchia, R; Glynne-Jones, R; Jereczek-Fossa, B A

    2018-03-28

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is considered the preferred option in squamous cell canal cancer (SCAC), delivering high doses to tumor volumes while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues. IMRT has steep dose gradients, but the technique is more demanding as deep understanding of target structures is required. To evaluate genital marginal failure in a cohort of patients with non-metastatic SCAC treated either with IMRT or 3DCRT and concurrent chemotherapy, 117 patients with SCAC were evaluated: 64 and 53 patients were treated with IMRT and 3DCRT techniques, respectively. All patients underwent clinical and radiological examination during their follow-up. Tumor response was evaluated with response evaluation criteria in solid tumors v1.1 guideline on regular basis. All patients' data were analyzed, and patients with marginal failure were identified. Concomitant chemotherapy was administered in 97 and 77.4% of patients in the IMRT and 3DCRT groups, respectively. In the IMRT group, the median follow-up was 25 months (range 6-78). Progressive disease was registered in 15.6% of patients; infield recurrence, distant recurrence and both infield recurrence and distant recurrence were identified in 5, 4 and 1 patient, respectively. Two out of 64 patients (3.1%) had marginal failures, localized at vagina/recto-vaginal septum and left perineal region. In the 3DCRT group, the median follow-up was 71.3 months (range 6-194 months). Two out of 53 patients (3.8%) had marginal failures, localized at recto-vaginal septum and perigenital structures. The rate of marginal failures was comparable in IMRT and 3DCRT groups (χ 2 test p = 0.85). In this series, the use of IMRT for the treatment of SCAC did not increase the rate of marginal failures offering improved dose conformity to the target. Dose constraints should be applied with caution-particularly in females with involvement of the vagina or the vaginal septum.

  9. Wave energy input into the Ekman layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the wave energy input into the Ekman layer, based on 3 observational facts that surface waves could significantly affect the profile of the Ekman layer. Under the assumption of constant vertical diffusivity, the analytical form of wave energy input into the Ekman layer is derived. Analysis of the energy balance shows that the energy input to the Ekman layer through the wind stress and the interaction of the Stokes-drift with planetary vorticity can be divided into two kinds. One is the wind energy input, and the other is the wave energy input which is dependent on wind speed, wave characteristics and the wind direction relative to the wave direction. Estimates of wave energy input show that wave energy input can be up to 10% in high-latitude and high-wind speed areas and higher than 20% in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, compared with the wind energy input into the classical Ekman layer. Results of this paper are of significance to the study of wave-induced large scale effects.

  10. FLUTAN input specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Baumann, W.; Willerding, G.

    1991-05-01

    FLUTAN is a highly vectorized computer code for 3-D fluiddynamic and thermal-hydraulic analyses in cartesian and cylinder coordinates. It is related to the family of COMMIX codes originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, USA. To a large extent, FLUTAN relies on basic concepts and structures imported from COMMIX-1B and COMMIX-2 which were made available to KfK in the frame of cooperation contracts in the fast reactor safety field. While on the one hand not all features of the original COMMIX versions have been implemented in FLUTAN, the code on the other hand includes some essential innovative options like CRESOR solution algorithm, general 3-dimensional rebalacing scheme for solving the pressure equation, and LECUSSO-QUICK-FRAM techniques suitable for reducing 'numerical diffusion' in both the enthalphy and momentum equations. This report provides users with detailed input instructions, presents formulations of the various model options, and explains by means of comprehensive sample input, how to use the code. (orig.) [de

  11. GARFEM input deck description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdunek, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    The input card deck for the finite element program GARFEM version 3.2 is described in this manual. The program includes, but is not limited to, capabilities to handle the following problems: * Linear bar and beam element structures, * Geometrically non-linear problems (bar and beam), both static and transient dynamic analysis, * Transient response dynamics from a catalog of time varying external forcing function types or input function tables, * Eigenvalue solution (modes and frequencies), * Multi point constraints (MPC) for the modelling of mechanisms and e.g. rigid links. The MPC definition is used only in the geometrically linearized sense, * Beams with disjunct shear axis and neutral axis, * Beams with rigid offset. An interface exist that connects GARFEM with the program GAROS. GAROS is a program for aeroelastic analysis of rotating structures. Since this interface was developed GARFEM now serves as a preprocessor program in place of NASTRAN which was formerly used. Documentation of the methods applied in GARFEM exists but is so far limited to the capacities in existence before the GAROS interface was developed.

  12. Input or intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Navracsics

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the critical period hypothesis, the earlier the acquisition of a second language starts, the better. Owing to the plasticity of the brain, up until a certain age a second language can be acquired successfully according to this view. Early second language learners are commonly said to have an advantage over later ones especially in phonetic/phonological acquisition. Native-like pronunciation is said to be most likely to be achieved by young learners. However, there is evidence of accentfree speech in second languages learnt after puberty as well. Occasionally, on the other hand, a nonnative accent may appear even in early second (or third language acquisition. Cross-linguistic influences are natural in multilingual development, and we would expect the dominant language to have an impact on the weaker one(s. The dominant language is usually the one that provides the largest amount of input for the child. But is it always the amount that counts? Perhaps sometimes other factors, such as emotions, ome into play? In this paper, data obtained from an EnglishPersian-Hungarian trilingual pair of siblings (under age 4 and 3 respectively is analyzed, with a special focus on cross-linguistic influences at the phonetic/phonological levels. It will be shown that beyond the amount of input there are more important factors that trigger interference in multilingual development.

  13. Quality assessment in higher education in Nigeria: input, process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 3 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. GAROS input deck description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollan, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the input for the programs GAROS1 and GAROS2, version 5.8 and later, February 1988. The GAROS system, developed by Arne Vollan, Omega GmbH, is used for the analysis of the mechanical and aeroelastic properties for general rotating systems. It has been specially designed to meet the requirements of aeroelastic stability and dynamic response of horizontal axis wind energy converters. Some of the special characteristics are: * The rotor may have one or more blades. * The blades may be rigidly attached to the hub, or they may be fully articulated. * The full elastic properties of the blades, the hub, the machine house and the tower are taken into account. * With the same basic model, a number of different analyses can be performed: Snap-shot analysis, Floquet method, transient response analysis, frequency response analysis etc.

  15. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry...

  16. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry....

  17. Do efficiency scores depend on input mix?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Kronborg, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the possibility of using the standard Kruskal-Wallis (KW) rank test in order to evaluate whether the distribution of efficiency scores resulting from Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is independent of the input (or output) mix of the observations. Since the DEA frontier...... is estimated, many standard assumptions for evaluating the KW test statistic are violated. Therefore, we propose to explore its statistical properties by the use of simulation studies. The simulations are performed conditional on the observed input mixes. The method, unlike existing approaches...... the assumption of mix independence is rejected the implication is that it, for example, is impossible to determine whether machine intensive project are more or less efficient than labor intensive projects....

  18. Quantum Mechanical Noise in a Michelson Interferometer with Nonclassical Inputs: Nonperturbative Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sun-Kun

    1996-01-01

    The variances of the quantum-mechanical noise in a two-input-port Michelson interferometer within the framework of the Loudon-Ni model were solved exactly in two general cases: (1) one coherent state input and one squeezed state input, and (2) two photon number states inputs. Low intensity limit, exponential decaying signal and the noise due to mixing were discussed briefly.

  19. Modeling and generating input processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides information relevant to the selection and generation of stochastic inputs to simulation studies. The primary area considered is multivariate but much of the philosophy at least is relevant to univariate inputs as well. 14 refs.

  20. Reprocessing input data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.; Pond, R.B.; Cornella, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, graphite, and liquid-metal) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, production, and breeder), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of (-0.02 ± 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+0.50 ± 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Enhanced Input in LCTL Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Language materials for the more-commonly-taught languages (MCTLs often include visual input enhancement (Sharwood Smith 1991, 1993 which makes use of typographical cues like bolding and underlining to enhance the saliency of targeted forms. For a variety of reasons, this paper argues that the use of enhanced input, both visual and oral, is especially important as a tool for the lesscommonly-taught languages (LCTLs. As there continues to be a scarcity of teaching resources for the LCTLs, individual teachers must take it upon themselves to incorporate enhanced input into their own self-made materials. Specific examples of how to incorporate both visual and oral enhanced input into language teaching are drawn from the author’s own experiences teaching Cuzco Quechua. Additionally, survey results are presented from the author’s Fall 2010 semester Cuzco Quechua language students, supporting the use of both visual and oral enhanced input.

  2. Enhanced Input in LCTL Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Language materials for the more-commonly-taught languages (MCTLs often include visual input enhancement (Sharwood Smith 1991, 1993 which makes use of typographical cues like bolding and underlining to enhance the saliency of targeted forms. For a variety of reasons, this paper argues that the use of enhanced input, both visual and oral, is especially important as a tool for the lesscommonly-taught languages (LCTLs. As there continues to be a scarcity of teaching resources for the LCTLs, individual teachers must take it upon themselves to incorporate enhanced input into their own self-made materials. Specific examples of how to incorporate both visual and oral enhanced input into language teaching are drawn from the author’s own experiences teaching Cuzco Quechua. Additionally, survey results are presented from the author’s Fall 2010 semester Cuzco Quechua language students, supporting the use of both visual and oral enhanced input.

  3. KAJIAN INPUT ENERGI PADA BUDIDAYA PADI METODE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION Studies on Energy Input in System of Rice Intensification Method of Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Purwantana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available System of Rice Intensification (SRI is a rice cultivation method that intensively control and manage macro and micro nutrients as well as irrigation. This paper quantifies and compares the energy uses of SRI and conventional rice cultiva- tion systems. The study was conducted at some SRI’s experimental plots in the districts of Sleman, Kulonprogo, and Bantul, the province of Yogyakarta. The calculation of the energy was based on the farmers’ work schedule, the time required for each operation, the number of laborers, machines, tools, fuel, and all materials and inputs used. The result shows that SRI method consumed 35% less energy to conventional rice cultivation. Energy inputs from seed, water, fertilizer and pesticide were significantly reduces. However, there was higher input of human energy due to compost- ing, land preparation and weeding operations. The specific energy of SRI method was 1.96 MJ ha-1 lower than conven- tional method of 4.43 MJ ha-1. In the SRI method, 56.2 % of energy consumed was classified as direct energy and 43.8% was indirect energy. The SRI method used 61.9 % of renewable energy and 38.1 % of non-renewable energy. The working efficiency in composting and weeding operations should be improved in perspective of machine and tools to reduce the use of human energy. ABSTRAK System of Rice Intensification (SRI, merupakan suatu metode budidaya padi secara intensif dengan pengendalian unsur-unsur hara makro dan mikro disertai pengendalian dan pengaturan kebutuhan air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis penggunaan energi dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan penghematan energi pada budidaya padi SRI. Pe- nelitian dilakukan di Kabupaten Sleman, Kulonprogo, dan Bantul, Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Pengamatan dilakukan pada plot-plot percobaan budidaya padi SRI dengan melakukan audit seluruh input energi selama proses budidaya dan dikomparasikan dengan input energi pada budidaya padi cara konvensional. Hasil

  4. Material input of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, S.; Tarjanne, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Material Input (MI) of nuclear fuel, expressed in terms of the total amount of natural material needed for manufacturing a product, is examined. The suitability of the MI method for assessing the environmental impacts of fuels is also discussed. Material input is expressed as a Material Input Coefficient (MIC), equalling to the total mass of natural material divided by the mass of the completed product. The material input coefficient is, however, only an intermediate result, which should not be used as such for the comparison of different fuels, because the energy contents of nuclear fuel is about 100 000-fold compared to the energy contents of fossil fuels. As a final result, the material input is expressed in proportion to the amount of generated electricity, which is called MIPS (Material Input Per Service unit). Material input is a simplified and commensurable indicator for the use of natural material, but because it does not take into account the harmfulness of materials or the way how the residual material is processed, it does not alone express the amount of environmental impacts. The examination of the mere amount does not differentiate between for example coal, natural gas or waste rock containing usually just sand. Natural gas is, however, substantially more harmful for the ecosystem than sand. Therefore, other methods should also be used to consider the environmental load of a product. The material input coefficient of nuclear fuel is calculated using data from different types of mines. The calculations are made among other things by using the data of an open pit mine (Key Lake, Canada), an underground mine (McArthur River, Canada) and a by-product mine (Olympic Dam, Australia). Furthermore, the coefficient is calculated for nuclear fuel corresponding to the nuclear fuel supply of Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) company in 2001. Because there is some uncertainty in the initial data, the inaccuracy of the final results can be even 20-50 per cent. The value

  5. Phasing Out a Polluting Input

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Clas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores economic policies related to the potential conflict between economic growth and the environment. It applies a model with directed technological change and focuses on the case with low elasticity of substitution between clean and dirty inputs in production. New technology is substituted for the polluting input, which results in a gradual decline in pollution along the optimal long-run growth path. In contrast to some recent work, the era of pollution and environmental polic...

  6. Variance-based sensitivity indices for models with dependent inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, Thierry A.; Tarantola, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Computational models are intensively used in engineering for risk analysis or prediction of future outcomes. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses are of great help in these purposes. Although several methods exist to perform variance-based sensitivity analysis of model output with independent inputs only a few are proposed in the literature in the case of dependent inputs. This is explained by the fact that the theoretical framework for the independent case is set and a univocal set of variance-based sensitivity indices is defined. In the present work, we propose a set of variance-based sensitivity indices to perform sensitivity analysis of models with dependent inputs. These measures allow us to distinguish between the mutual dependent contribution and the independent contribution of an input to the model response variance. Their definition relies on a specific orthogonalisation of the inputs and ANOVA-representations of the model output. In the applications, we show the interest of the new sensitivity indices for model simplification setting. - Highlights: ► Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses are of great help in engineering. ► Several methods exist to perform variance-based sensitivity analysis of model output with independent inputs. ► We define a set of variance-based sensitivity indices for models with dependent inputs. ► Inputs mutual contributions are distinguished from their independent contributions. ► Analytical and computational tests are performed and discussed.

  7. Response sensitivity of barrel neuron subpopulations to simulated thalamic input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Michael J; Rittenhouse, Cynthia D; Pinto, David J

    2010-06-01

    Our goal is to examine the relationship between neuron- and network-level processing in the context of a well-studied cortical function, the processing of thalamic input by whisker-barrel circuits in rodent neocortex. Here we focus on neuron-level processing and investigate the responses of excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons to simulated thalamic inputs applied using the dynamic clamp method in brain slices. Simulated inputs are modeled after real thalamic inputs recorded in vivo in response to brief whisker deflections. Our results suggest that inhibitory neurons require more input to reach firing threshold, but then fire earlier, with less variability, and respond to a broader range of inputs than do excitatory neurons. Differences in the responses of barrel neuron subtypes depend on their intrinsic membrane properties. Neurons with a low input resistance require more input to reach threshold but then fire earlier than neurons with a higher input resistance, regardless of the neuron's classification. Our results also suggest that the response properties of excitatory versus inhibitory barrel neurons are consistent with the response sensitivities of the ensemble barrel network. The short response latency of inhibitory neurons may serve to suppress ensemble barrel responses to asynchronous thalamic input. Correspondingly, whereas neurons acting as part of the barrel circuit in vivo are highly selective for temporally correlated thalamic input, excitatory barrel neurons acting alone in vitro are less so. These data suggest that network-level processing of thalamic input in barrel cortex depends on neuron-level processing of the same input by excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons.

  8. Recruiting intensity

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman

    2014-01-01

    To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.

  9. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  10. Parameter setting and input reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.; van Kampen, N.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126439737

    2008-01-01

    The language acquisition procedure identifies certain properties of the target grammar before others. The evidence from the input is processed in a stepwise order. Section 1 equates that order and its typical effects with an order of parameter setting. The question is how the acquisition procedure

  11. Constituency Input into Budget Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents techniques for ensuring constituency involvement in district- and site-level budget management. Outlines four models for securing constituent input and focuses on strategies to orchestrate the more complex model for staff and community participation. Two figures are included. (LMI)

  12. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  13. Lithium inputs to subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, C.; Elliott, T.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the sedimentary and basaltic inputs of lithium to subduction zones. Various sediments from DSDP and ODP drill cores in front of the Mariana, South Sandwich, Banda, East Sunda and Lesser Antilles island arcs have been analysed and show highly variable Li contents and δ

  14. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  15. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  16. Optimization of Quantum-state-preserving Frequency Conversion by Changing the Input Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Reddy, D. V.; McKinstrie, C. J.

    We optimize frequency conversion based on four-wave mixing by using the input modes of the system. We find a 10-25 % higher conversion efficiency relative to a pump-shaped input signal.......We optimize frequency conversion based on four-wave mixing by using the input modes of the system. We find a 10-25 % higher conversion efficiency relative to a pump-shaped input signal....

  17. Input measurements in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trincherini, P.R.; Facchetti, S.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this work is to give a review of the methods and the problems encountered in measurements in 'input accountability tanks' of irradiated fuel treatment plants. This study was prompted by the conviction that more and more precise techniques and methods should be at the service of safeguards organizations and that ever greater efforts should be directed towards promoting knowledge of them among operators and all those general area of interest includes the nuclear fuel cycle. The overall intent is to show the necessity of selecting methods which produce measurements which are not only more precise but are absolutely reliable both for routine plant operation and for safety checks in the input area. A description and a critical evaluation of the most common physical and chemical methods are provided, together with an estimate of the precision and accuracy obtained in real operating conditions

  18. The Effects of Detritus Input on Soil Organic Matter Content and Carbon Dioxide Emission in a Central European Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEKETE, István

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of our research was to survey soil biological activity and organic mattercontent reduction in a Central European oak forest during treatments of various detritus inputs within theSíkfkút DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatments Project. Beside the control, three detritusremoval and two detritus duplication treatments were applied. Our examinations have proven that soilorganic matter content declined relatively fast in detritus removal treatments. The reduction wasespecially remarkable in root detritus removal treatments, where – due to the lack of transpiration – soilswere moister during the whole year than in the other treatments. The higher moisture content, despite ofthe reduction of detritus input, produced an intense soil respiration. This can be explained by the fact thatdecomposing organisms have increased the use of soil organic matter. Detritus input reduction had asignificantly greater effect on soil respiration and organic matter content than detritus input duplicationof the same extent. The latter did not cause any significant change compared to the control.

  19. Knowledge Protection and Input Complexity Arising from Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Thijs; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Controlling unique knowledge is of increasing importance to firms. Therefore, firms use knowledge protection mechanisms to prevent competitors from imitating their knowledge. We study the effects of the complexity of knowledge inputs that arises from open innovation on the importance of two widely...... used protection mechanisms: patents and trademarks. We argue that this complexity makes the threat of imitation less predictable, and thus makes knowledge protection more important. By analyzing survey data of 938 German firms, we find that patents are more important for firms in industries with higher...... knowledge input complexity. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics and not the level of knowledge input complexity positively affect the importance of trademarks....

  20. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  1. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  2. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  3. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience......This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...

  4. Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Sydorenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio on (a the learning of written and aural word forms, (b overall vocabulary gains, (c attention to input, and (d vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian participated in this study. Group one (N = 8 saw video with audio and captions (VAC; group two (N = 9 saw video with audio (VA; group three (N = 9 saw video with captions (VC. All participants completed written and aural vocabulary tests and a final questionnaire.The results indicate that groups with captions (VAC and VC scored higher on written than on aural recognition of word forms, while the reverse applied to the VA group. The VAC group learned more word meanings than the VA group. Results from the questionnaire suggest that learners paid most attention to captions, followed by video and audio, and acquired most words by associating them with visual images. Pedagogical implications of this study are that captioned video tends to aid recognition of written word forms and the learning of word meaning, while non-captioned video tends to improve listening comprehension as it facilitates recognition of aural word forms.

  5. FLUTAN 2.0. Input specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willerding, G.; Baumann, W.

    1996-05-01

    FLUTAN is a highly vectorized computer code for 3D fluiddynamic and thermal-hydraulic analyses in Cartesian or cylinder coordinates. It is related to the family of COMMIX codes originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, USA, and particularly to COMMIX-1A and COMMIX-1B, which were made available to FZK in the frame of cooperation contracts within the fast reactor safety field. FLUTAN 2.0 is an improved version of the FLUTAN code released in 1992. It offers some additional innovations, e.g. the QUICK-LECUSSO-FRAM techniques for reducing numerical diffusion in the k-ε turbulence model equations; a higher sophisticated wall model for specifying a mass flow outside the surface walls together with its flow path and its associated inlet and outlet flow temperatures; and a revised and upgraded pressure boundary condition to fully include the outlet cells in the solution process of the conservation equations. Last but not least, a so-called visualization option based on VISART standards has been provided. This report contains detailed input instructions, presents formulations of the various model options, and explains how to use the code by means of comprehensive sample input. (orig.) [de

  6. Chemical sensors are hybrid-input memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, V. I.; Arkhipov, V. E.; Okotrub, A. V.; Pershin, Y. V.

    2018-04-01

    Memristors are two-terminal electronic devices whose resistance depends on the history of input signal (voltage or current). Here we demonstrate that the chemical gas sensors can be considered as memristors with a generalized (hybrid) input, namely, with the input consisting of the voltage, analyte concentrations and applied temperature. The concept of hybrid-input memristors is demonstrated experimentally using a single-walled carbon nanotubes chemical sensor. It is shown that with respect to the hybrid input, the sensor exhibits some features common with memristors such as the hysteretic input-output characteristics. This different perspective on chemical gas sensors may open new possibilities for smart sensor applications.

  7. Phosphorus Fluxes from Three Coastal Watersheds under Varied Agriculture Intensities to the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songjie He

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate recent total phosphorus (TP and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP transport from three coastal rivers—the Calcasieu, Mermentau, and Vermilion Rivers—that drain watersheds with varied agriculture intensities (21%, 67%, and 61%, respectively into the northern Gulf of Mexico, one of the world’s largest summer hypoxic zones. The study also examined the spatial trends of TP and DIP from freshwater to saltwater along an 88-km estuarine reach with salinity increasing from 0.02 to 29.50. The results showed that from 1990–2009 to 2010–2017, the TP fluxes for one of the agriculture-intensive rivers increased while no significant change was found for the other two rivers. Change in river discharge was the main reason for this TP flux trend. The two more agriculture-intensive river basins showed consistently higher TP and DIP concentrations and fluxes, as well as higher DIP:TP ratios than the river draining less agriculture-intensive land, confirming the strong effect of land uses on phosphorus input and speciation. Longitudinal profiles of DIP along the salinity gradient of the estuarine reach displayed characteristic input behavior. Desorption of DIP from suspended solids and river bed sediments, urban inputs, as well as stronger calcium carbonate and phosphorus co-precipitation at the marine endmember could be the reasons for such mixing dynamics.

  8. Asymmetric Temporal Integration of Layer 4 and Layer 2/3 Inputs in Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Hang, Giao B.; Dan, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Neocortical neurons in vivo receive concurrent synaptic inputs from multiple sources, including feedforward, horizontal, and feedback pathways. Layer 2/3 of the visual cortex receives feedforward input from layer 4 and horizontal input from layer 2/3. Firing of the pyramidal neurons, which carries the output to higher cortical areas, depends critically on the interaction of these pathways. Here we examined synaptic integration of inputs from layer 4 and layer 2/3 in rat visual cortical slices...

  9. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  10. Repositioning Recitation Input in College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to discuss how recitation input helps overcome the negative influences on the basis of second language acquisition theory and confirms the important role that recitation input plays in improving college students' oral and written English.

  11. Textual Enhancement of Input: Issues and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, ZhaoHong; Park, Eun Sung; Combs, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The input enhancement hypothesis proposed by Sharwood Smith (1991, 1993) has stimulated considerable research over the last 15 years. This article reviews the research on textual enhancement of input (TE), an area where the majority of input enhancement studies have aggregated. Methodological idiosyncrasies are the norm of this body of research.…

  12. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... § 3430.607 Stakeholder input. CSREES shall seek and obtain stakeholder input through a variety of forums...

  13. 7 CFR 3430.15 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.15 Section 3430.15... Stakeholder input. Section 103(c)(2) of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998... RFAs for competitive programs. CSREES will provide instructions for submission of stakeholder input in...

  14. Influence of heat input in electron beam process on microstructure and properties of duplex stainless steel welded interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang; Xu, Lianyong; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Lv, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jianyang

    2018-03-01

    The influence of heat input in electron beam (EB) process on microstructure, mechanical properties, and pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel (DSS) welded interface was investigated. The rapid cooling in EB welding resulted in insufficient austenite formation. The austenite mainly consisted of grain boundary austenite and intragranular austenite, and there was abundant Cr2N precipitation in the ferrite. The Ni, Mo, and Si segregation indicated that the dendritic solidification was primarily ferrite in the weld. The weld exhibited higher hardness, lower toughness, and poorer pitting corrosion resistance than the base metal. The impact fractures of the welds were dominated by the transgranular cleavage failure of the ferrite. The ferrite was selectively attacked because of its lower pitting resistance equivalent number than that of austenite. The Cr2N precipitation accelerated the pitting corrosion. In summary, the optimised heat input slightly increased the austenite content, reduced the segregation degree and ferrite texture intensity, decreased the hardness, and improved the toughness and pitting corrosion resistance. However, the effects were limited. Furthermore, optimising the heat input could not suppress the Cr2N precipitation. Taking into full consideration the microstructure and properties, a heat input of 0.46 kJ/mm is recommended for the EB welding of DSS.

  15. Turn customer input into innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, Anthony W

    2002-01-01

    It's difficult to find a company these days that doesn't strive to be customer-driven. Too bad, then, that most companies go about the process of listening to customers all wrong--so wrong, in fact, that they undermine innovation and, ultimately, the bottom line. What usually happens is this: Companies ask their customers what they want. Customers offer solutions in the form of products or services. Companies then deliver these tangibles, and customers just don't buy. The reason is simple--customers aren't expert or informed enough to come up with solutions. That's what your R&D team is for. Rather, customers should be asked only for outcomes--what they want a new product or service to do for them. The form the solutions take should be up to you, and you alone. Using Cordis Corporation as an example, this article describes, in fine detail, a series of effective steps for capturing, analyzing, and utilizing customer input. First come indepth interviews, in which a moderator works with customers to deconstruct a process or activity in order to unearth "desired outcomes." Addressing participants' comments one at a time, the moderator rephrases them to be both unambiguous and measurable. Once the interviews are complete, researchers then compile a comprehensive list of outcomes that participants rank in order of importance and degree to which they are satisfied by existing products. Finally, using a simple mathematical formula called the "opportunity calculation," researchers can learn the relative attractiveness of key opportunity areas. These data can be used to uncover opportunities for product development, to properly segment markets, and to conduct competitive analysis.

  16. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  17. Input Shaping to Reduce Solar Array Structural Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael J.; Tolson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Structural vibrations induced by actuators can be minimized using input shaping. Input shaping is a feedforward method in which actuator commands are convolved with shaping functions to yield a shaped set of commands. These commands are designed to perform the maneuver while minimizing the residual structural vibration. In this report, input shaping is extended to stepper motor actuators. As a demonstration, an input-shaping technique based on pole-zero cancellation was used to modify the Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) actuator commands for the Lewis satellite. A series of impulses were calculated as the ideal SADA output for vibration control. These impulses were then discretized for use by the SADA stepper motor actuator and simulated actuator outputs were used to calculate the structural response. The effectiveness of input shaping is limited by the accuracy of the knowledge of the modal frequencies. Assuming perfect knowledge resulted in significant vibration reduction. Errors of 10% in the modal frequencies caused notably higher levels of vibration. Controller robustness was improved by incorporating additional zeros in the shaping function. The additional zeros did not require increased performance from the actuator. Despite the identification errors, the resulting feedforward controller reduced residual vibrations to the level of the exactly modeled input shaper and well below the baseline cases. These results could be easily applied to many other vibration-sensitive applications involving stepper motor actuators.

  18. Under conditions of large geometric miss, tumor control probability can be higher for static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy compared to volume-modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderson, Michael; Brown, Derek; Johnson, Patricia; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) under scenarios involving large geometric misses, i.e., those beyond what are accounted for when margin expansion is determined. Using a planning approach typical for these treatments, a linear-quadratic–based model for TCP was used to compare mean TCP values for a population of patients who experiences a geometric miss (i.e., systematic and random shifts of the clinical target volume within the planning target dose distribution). A Monte Carlo approach was used to account for the different biological sensitivities of a population of patients. Interestingly, for errors consisting of coplanar systematic target volume offsets and three-dimensional random offsets, static gantry IMRT appears to offer an advantage over VMAT in that larger shift errors are tolerated for the same mean TCP. For example, under the conditions simulated, erroneous systematic shifts of 15 mm directly between or directly into static gantry IMRT fields result in mean TCP values between 96% and 98%, whereas the same errors on VMAT plans result in mean TCP values between 45% and 74%. Random geometric shifts of the target volume were characterized using normal distributions in each Cartesian dimension. When the standard deviations were doubled from those values assumed in the derivation of the treatment margins, our model showed a 7% drop in mean TCP for the static gantry IMRT plans but a 20% drop in TCP for the VMAT plans. Although adding a margin for error to a clinical target volume is perhaps the best approach to account for expected geometric misses, this work suggests that static gantry IMRT may offer a treatment that is more tolerant to geometric miss errors than VMAT.

  19. Under conditions of large geometric miss, tumor control probability can be higher for static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy compared to volume-modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderson, Michael; Brown, Derek; Johnson, Patricia; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) under scenarios involving large geometric misses, i.e., those beyond what are accounted for when margin expansion is determined. Using a planning approach typical for these treatments, a linear-quadratic-based model for TCP was used to compare mean TCP values for a population of patients who experiences a geometric miss (i.e., systematic and random shifts of the clinical target volume within the planning target dose distribution). A Monte Carlo approach was used to account for the different biological sensitivities of a population of patients. Interestingly, for errors consisting of coplanar systematic target volume offsets and three-dimensional random offsets, static gantry IMRT appears to offer an advantage over VMAT in that larger shift errors are tolerated for the same mean TCP. For example, under the conditions simulated, erroneous systematic shifts of 15mm directly between or directly into static gantry IMRT fields result in mean TCP values between 96% and 98%, whereas the same errors on VMAT plans result in mean TCP values between 45% and 74%. Random geometric shifts of the target volume were characterized using normal distributions in each Cartesian dimension. When the standard deviations were doubled from those values assumed in the derivation of the treatment margins, our model showed a 7% drop in mean TCP for the static gantry IMRT plans but a 20% drop in TCP for the VMAT plans. Although adding a margin for error to a clinical target volume is perhaps the best approach to account for expected geometric misses, this work suggests that static gantry IMRT may offer a treatment that is more tolerant to geometric miss errors than VMAT. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Input filter compensation for switching regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Kelkar, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems caused by the interaction between the input filter, output filter, and the control loop are discussed. The input filter design is made more complicated because of the need to avoid performance degradation and also stay within the weight and loss limitations. Conventional input filter design techniques are then dicussed. The concept of pole zero cancellation is reviewed; this concept is the basis for an approach to control the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter and thus mitigate some of the problems caused by the input filter. The proposed approach for control of the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter is to use a feedforward loop working in conjunction with feedback loops, thus forming a total state control scheme. The design of the feedforward loop for a buck regulator is described. A possible implementation of the feedforward loop design is suggested.

  1. Response of the Black Sea methane budget to massive short-term submarine inputs of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmale, O.; Haeckel, M.; McGinnis, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    A steady state box model was developed to estimate the methane input into the Black Sea water column at various water depths. Our model results reveal a total input of methane of 4.7 Tg yr(-1). The model predicts that the input of methane is largest at water depths between 600 and 700 m (7......% of the total input), suggesting that the dissociation of methane gas hydrates at water depths equivalent to their upper stability limit may represent an important source of methane into the water column. In addition we discuss the effects of massive short-term methane inputs (e. g. through eruptions of deep......-water mud volcanoes or submarine landslides at intermediate water depths) on the water column methane distribution and the resulting methane emission to the atmosphere. Our non-steady state simulations predict that these inputs will be effectively buffered by intense microbial methane consumption...

  2. High content of MYHC II in vastus lateralis is accompanied by higher VO2/power output ratio during moderate intensity cycling performed both at low and at high pedalling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Szkutnik, Z; Karasinski, J; Duda, K; Kolodziejski, L; Zoladz, J A

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the content of various types of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) in the vastus lateralis muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake during moderate power output incremental exercise, performed at low and at high pedalling rates. Twenty one male subjects (mean +/- SD) aged 24.1 +/- 2.8 years; body mass 72.9 +/- 7.2 kg; height 179.1 +/- 4.8 cm; BMI 22.69 +/- 1.89 kg.m(-2); VO2max 50.6 +/- 5.3 ml.kg.min(-1), participated in this study. On separate days, they performed two incremental exercise tests at 60 rev.min(-1) and at 120 rev.min(-1), until exhaustion. Gas exchange variables were measured continuously breath by breath. Blood samples were taken for measurements of plasma lactate concentration prior to the exercise test and at the end of each step of the incremental exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle, using Bergström needle, and they were analysed for the content of MyHC I and MyHC II using SDS--PAGE and two groups (n=7, each) were selected: group H with the highest content of MyHC II (60.7 % +/- 10.5 %) and group L with the lowest content of MyHC II (27.6 % +/- 6.1 %). We have found that during incremental exercise at the power output between 30-120 W, performed at 60 rev.min(-1), oxygen uptake in the group H was significantly greater than in the group L (ANCOVA, p=0.003, upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship). During cycling at the same power output but at 120 rev.min(-1), the oxygen uptake was also higher in the group H, when compared to the group L (i.e. upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship, ANCOVA, p=0.002). Moreover, the increase in pedalling rate from 60 to 120 rev.min(-1) was accompanied by a significantly higher increase of oxygen cost of cycling and by a significantly higher plasma lactate concentration in subjects from group H. We concluded that the muscle mechanical efficiency, expressed by the VO2/PO ratio

  3. Residents' numeric inputting error in computerized physician order entry prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Wu, Changxu; Zhang, Kan; Wei, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system with embedded clinical decision support (CDS) can significantly reduce certain types of prescription error. However, prescription errors still occur. Various factors such as the numeric inputting methods in human computer interaction (HCI) produce different error rates and types, but has received relatively little attention. This study aimed to examine the effects of numeric inputting methods and urgency levels on numeric inputting errors of prescription, as well as categorize the types of errors. Thirty residents participated in four prescribing tasks in which two factors were manipulated: numeric inputting methods (numeric row in the main keyboard vs. numeric keypad) and urgency levels (urgent situation vs. non-urgent situation). Multiple aspects of participants' prescribing behavior were measured in sober prescribing situations. The results revealed that in urgent situations, participants were prone to make mistakes when using the numeric row in the main keyboard. With control of performance in the sober prescribing situation, the effects of the input methods disappeared, and urgency was found to play a significant role in the generalized linear model. Most errors were either omission or substitution types, but the proportion of transposition and intrusion error types were significantly higher than that of the previous research. Among numbers 3, 8, and 9, which were the less common digits used in prescription, the error rate was higher, which was a great risk to patient safety. Urgency played a more important role in CPOE numeric typing error-making than typing skills and typing habits. It was recommended that inputting with the numeric keypad had lower error rates in urgent situation. An alternative design could consider increasing the sensitivity of the keys with lower frequency of occurrence and decimals. To improve the usability of CPOE, numeric keyboard design and error detection could benefit from spatial

  4. Effect of different input management on weed composition, diversity and density of corn field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surur Khoramdel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of input intensity on species diversity, composition and density of weeds in corn (Zea mays L., an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during the year 2009. Treatments included low input, medium input and high input systems. Low input received 30 tonha-1or 30 tonha-1 compost, zero tillage and hand weeding (twice. Medium input was based on 15 tonha-1 manure, 150 kgha-1 urea as chemical fertilizer, twice tillage operations and 2, 4-D (1.5 Lha-1, at five leaves emergence as an herbicide and hand weeding (once. High input received 300 kgha-1 urea, four tillage operations and Paraquat (2 Lha-1, after planting and 2, 4-D (1.5 Lha-1, at five leaves emergence. Manure and compost were applied in the planting time. Weed samplings were done in three stages (early, mid and late growing season. Results indicated that the highest and the lowest weed species diversity and density were observed in low input based on manure and high input systems, respectively. The highest range of weed relative density was obtained for black nightshade (Solanum nigrum with 9.09-75.00%. The highest number of species was observed in low input based on manure. Also, management practices affected weed dry matter and diversity indices. The highest and the lowest amounts of weed dry matter were observed in low input based on manure and high input systems, respectively. In the first, second and the third stages of sampling, the maximum and the minimum amounts of Margalef index were observed in low input based on manure (with 5.3, 5.4 and 3.3, respectively and high input systems (with 0.8, 2.3 and 2.6, respectively. In the first, second and the third stages of sampling, the highest and the lowest values of Shannon index were observed in low input based on manure (with 0.6, 0.7 and 0.5 respectively and high input (with 0

  5. READDATA: a FORTRAN 77 codeword input package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A new codeword input package has been produced as a result of the incompatibility between different dialects of FORTRAN, especially when character variables are passed as parameters. This report is for those who wish to use a codeword input package with FORTRAN 77. The package, called ''Readdata'', attempts to combine the best features of its predecessors such as BINPUT and pseudo-BINPUT. (author)

  6. CREATING INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR RIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to create tables for input into RIP ver. 5.18 (Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems) from WAPDEG ver. 3.06 (Waste Package Degradation) output. This calculation details the creation of the RIP input tables for TSPA-VA REV.00

  7. Input Enhancement and L2 Question Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which form-focused instruction and corrective feedback (i.e., "input enhancement"), provided within a primarily communicative program, contribute to learners' accuracy in question formation. Study results are interpreted as evidence that input enhancement can bring about genuine changes in learners' interlanguage…

  8. Statistical identification of effective input variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    A statistical sensitivity analysis procedure has been developed for ranking the input data of large computer codes in the order of sensitivity-importance. The method is economical for large codes with many input variables, since it uses a relatively small number of computer runs. No prior judgemental elimination of input variables is needed. The sceening method is based on stagewise correlation and extensive regression analysis of output values calculated with selected input value combinations. The regression process deals with multivariate nonlinear functions, and statistical tests are also available for identifying input variables that contribute to threshold effects, i.e., discontinuities in the output variables. A computer code SCREEN has been developed for implementing the screening techniques. The efficiency has been demonstrated by several examples and applied to a fast reactor safety analysis code (Venus-II). However, the methods and the coding are general and not limited to such applications

  9. Effects of periodontal afferent inputs on corticomotor excitability in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Boudreau, S; Wang, M

    2010-01-01

    for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) as an internal control. Burning pain intensity and mechanical sensitivity ratings to a von Frey filament applied to the application site were recorded on an electronic visual analogue scale (VAS). All subjects reported a decreased mechanical sensitivity (anova: P = 0......-injection for the LA (anovas: P > 0.22) or capsaicin (anovas: P > 0.16) sessions. These findings suggest that a transient loss or perturbation in periodontal afferent input to the brain from a single incisor is insufficient to cause changes in corticomotor excitability of the face MI, as measured by TMS in humans....

  10. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  12. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  13. Real-time object recognition in multidimensional images based on joined extended structural tensor and higher-order tensor decomposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyganek, Boguslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a system for real-time recognition of objects in multidimensional video signals is proposed. Object recognition is done by pattern projection into the tensor subspaces obtained from the factorization of the signal tensors representing the input signal. However, instead of taking only the intensity signal the novelty of this paper is first to build the Extended Structural Tensor representation from the intensity signal that conveys information on signal intensities, as well as on higher-order statistics of the input signals. This way the higher-order input pattern tensors are built from the training samples. Then, the tensor subspaces are built based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition of the prototype pattern tensors. Finally, recognition relies on measurements of the distance of a test pattern projected into the tensor subspaces obtained from the training tensors. Due to high-dimensionality of the input data, tensor based methods require high memory and computational resources. However, recent achievements in the technology of the multi-core microprocessors and graphic cards allows real-time operation of the multidimensional methods as is shown and analyzed in this paper based on real examples of object detection in digital images.

  14. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  15. MARS code manual volume II: input requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Kim, Kyung Doo; Bae, Sung Won; Jeong, Jae Jun; Lee, Seung Wook; Hwang, Moon Kyu

    2010-02-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-Of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This input manual provides a complete list of input required to run MARS. The manual is divided largely into two parts, namely, the one-dimensional part and the multi-dimensional part. The inputs for auxiliary parts such as minor edit requests and graph formatting inputs are shared by the two parts and as such mixed input is possible. The overall structure of the input is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS3.1. MARS3.1 development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  16. Total dose induced increase in input offset voltage in JFET input operational amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.L.; Krieg, J.; Gehlhausen, M.; Black, J.

    1999-01-01

    Four different types of commercial JFET input operational amplifiers were irradiated with ionizing radiation under a variety of test conditions. All experienced significant increases in input offset voltage (Vos). Microprobe measurement of the electrical characteristics of the de-coupled input JFETs demonstrates that the increase in Vos is a result of the mismatch of the degraded JFETs. (authors)

  17. Development of inhibitory synaptic inputs on layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the rat medial prefrontal cortex

    KAUST Repository

    Virtanen, Mari A.; Lacoh, Claudia Marvine; Fiumelli, Hubert; Kosel, Markus; Tyagarajan, Shiva; de Roo, Mathias; Vutskits, Laszlo

    2018-01-01

    Inhibitory control of pyramidal neurons plays a major role in governing the excitability in the brain. While spatial mapping of inhibitory inputs onto pyramidal neurons would provide important structural data on neuronal signaling, studying their distribution at the single cell level is difficult due to the lack of easily identifiable anatomical proxies. Here, we describe an approach where in utero electroporation of a plasmid encoding for fluorescently tagged gephyrin into the precursors of pyramidal cells along with ionotophoretic injection of Lucifer Yellow can reliably and specifically detect GABAergic synapses on the dendritic arbour of single pyramidal neurons. Using this technique and focusing on the basal dendritic arbour of layer 2/3 pyramidal cells of the medial prefrontal cortex, we demonstrate an intense development of GABAergic inputs onto these cells between postnatal days 10 and 20. While the spatial distribution of gephyrin clusters was not affected by the distance from the cell body at postnatal day 10, we found that distal dendritic segments appeared to have a higher gephyrin density at later developmental stages. We also show a transient increase around postnatal day 20 in the percentage of spines that are carrying a gephyrin cluster, indicative of innervation by a GABAergic terminal. Since the precise spatial arrangement of synaptic inputs is an important determinant of neuronal responses, we believe that the method described in this work may allow a better understanding of how inhibition settles together with excitation, and serve as basics for further modelling studies focusing on the geometry of dendritic inhibition during development.

  18. Development of inhibitory synaptic inputs on layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the rat medial prefrontal cortex

    KAUST Repository

    Virtanen, Mari A.

    2018-01-10

    Inhibitory control of pyramidal neurons plays a major role in governing the excitability in the brain. While spatial mapping of inhibitory inputs onto pyramidal neurons would provide important structural data on neuronal signaling, studying their distribution at the single cell level is difficult due to the lack of easily identifiable anatomical proxies. Here, we describe an approach where in utero electroporation of a plasmid encoding for fluorescently tagged gephyrin into the precursors of pyramidal cells along with ionotophoretic injection of Lucifer Yellow can reliably and specifically detect GABAergic synapses on the dendritic arbour of single pyramidal neurons. Using this technique and focusing on the basal dendritic arbour of layer 2/3 pyramidal cells of the medial prefrontal cortex, we demonstrate an intense development of GABAergic inputs onto these cells between postnatal days 10 and 20. While the spatial distribution of gephyrin clusters was not affected by the distance from the cell body at postnatal day 10, we found that distal dendritic segments appeared to have a higher gephyrin density at later developmental stages. We also show a transient increase around postnatal day 20 in the percentage of spines that are carrying a gephyrin cluster, indicative of innervation by a GABAergic terminal. Since the precise spatial arrangement of synaptic inputs is an important determinant of neuronal responses, we believe that the method described in this work may allow a better understanding of how inhibition settles together with excitation, and serve as basics for further modelling studies focusing on the geometry of dendritic inhibition during development.

  19. Macroseismic intensity attenuation in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman

    2018-01-01

    Macroseismic intensity data plays an important role in the process of seismic hazard analysis as well in developing of reliable earthquake loss models. This paper presents a physical-based model to predict macroseismic intensity attenuation based on 560 intensity data obtained in Iran in the time period 1975-2013. The geometric spreading and energy absorption of seismic waves have been considered in the proposed model. The proposed easy to implement relation describes the intensity simply as a function of moment magnitude, source to site distance and focal depth. The prediction capability of the proposed model is assessed by means of residuals analysis. Prediction results have been compared with those of other intensity prediction models for Italy, Turkey, Iran and central Asia. The results indicate the higher attenuation rate for the study area in distances less than 70km.

  20. Exergetic assessment for resources input and environmental emissions by Chinese industry during 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Beihua; Liu, Mingchu

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the resources use and environmental impact of the Chinese industry during 1997-2006. For the purpose of this analysis the thermodynamic concept of exergy has been employed both to quantify and aggregate the resources input and the environmental emissions arising from the sector. The resources input and environmental emissions show an increasing trend in this period. Compared with 47568.7 PJ in 1997, resources input in 2006 increased by 75.4% and reached 83437.9 PJ, of which 82.5% came from nonrenewable resources, mainly from coal and other energy minerals. Furthermore, the total exergy of environmental emissions was estimated to be 3499.3 PJ in 2006, 1.7 times of that in 1997, of which 93.4% was from GHG emissions and only 6.6% from "three wastes" emissions. A rapid increment of the nonrenewable resources input and GHG emissions over 2002-2006 can be found, owing to the excessive expansion of resource- and energy-intensive subsectors. Exergy intensities in terms of resource input intensity and environmental emission intensity time-series are also calculated, and the trends are influenced by the macroeconomic situation evidently, particularly by the investment-derived economic development in recent years. Corresponding policy implications to guide a more sustainable industry system are addressed.

  1. Exergetic Assessment for Resources Input and Environmental Emissions by Chinese Industry during 1997–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the resources use and environmental impact of the Chinese industry during 1997–2006. For the purpose of this analysis the thermodynamic concept of exergy has been employed both to quantify and aggregate the resources input and the environmental emissions arising from the sector. The resources input and environmental emissions show an increasing trend in this period. Compared with 47568.7 PJ in 1997, resources input in 2006 increased by 75.4% and reached 83437.9 PJ, of which 82.5% came from nonrenewable resources, mainly from coal and other energy minerals. Furthermore, the total exergy of environmental emissions was estimated to be 3499.3 PJ in 2006, 1.7 times of that in 1997, of which 93.4% was from GHG emissions and only 6.6% from “three wastes” emissions. A rapid increment of the nonrenewable resources input and GHG emissions over 2002–2006 can be found, owing to the excessive expansion of resource- and energy-intensive subsectors. Exergy intensities in terms of resource input intensity and environmental emission intensity time-series are also calculated, and the trends are influenced by the macroeconomic situation evidently, particularly by the investment-derived economic development in recent years. Corresponding policy implications to guide a more sustainable industry system are addressed.

  2. Intrinsic intensity fluctuations in random lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, Karen L. van der; Mosk, Allard P.; Lagendijk, Ad

    2006-01-01

    We present a quantitative experimental and theoretical study of intensity fluctuations in the emitted light of a random laser that has different realizations of disorder for every pump pulse. A model that clarifies these intrinsic fluctuations is developed. We describe the output versus input power graphs of the random laser with an effective spontaneous emission factor (β factor)

  3. Perceptions of ethical challenges within the LowInputBreeds project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Michalopoulos, T.; Mejboom, F.L.B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports and analyzes the perceptions of researchers involved in the EU project LowInputBreed on the ethical challenges facing low input livestock production and how these challenges relate to the ambitions of the research project. The study is based on observations of two workshops; one...... of the problems regarding animal welfare that also characterizes intensive production systems. The question thus becomes whether these solutions will meet the consumer concerns that lies behind the choice of paying a premium for local, low input products or whether the quality of these products will disappear...

  4. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  5. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA for Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Production Systems of Iran: 1- Comparison of Inputs Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Nassiri Mahallati

    2018-02-01

    grain and three production systems were compared for the intensity of environmental impacts of each category. Results and Discussion The results indicated that on per hectare basis all impact categories increased significantly with increasing inputs level. However, with grain yield ton as a unit of functional variable, results were obtained due to yield differences in wheat production systems. Depletion of non-renewable resources (fossil fuels and P+K resource in high input systems was 27.1 GJ ha-1 which is almost 1.8 times higher than low input systems. However, energy consumption per unit of yield was exceeded in intensified system only by 10% because 1 ton of grain yield in high input systems was obtained from 2374 m2 area compared to 3850 m2 required for the same amount of yield in low input systems. Higher yield of intensified systems when calculated per ton grain was led to lower acidification potential, aquatic toxicity and terrestrial toxicity. However, global warming potential, eutrophication potential and human toxicity was not compensated by yield advantage and these impacts were higher in high input systems with both functional units. Global warming potential (GWP in high input systems reached to 2911 kg CO2eq ha-1 but it was 45% lower (1600 kg CO2eq ha-1 in low input systems. When calculated with ton grain as functional unit, GWP of high input systems (1600 kg CO2eq t-1 was only 11% greater than that of low input systems. Conclusion Global warming potential, depletion of non-renewable resources, eutrophication potential, and human toxicity were identified as the most sensitive impact groups to intensification in wheat production systems of Iran, compared to other impact categories. In general environmental impacts of high input systems were greater than low input systems and the difference was very clear when the area was used as functional unit. It seems that increasing the use efficiency of inputs together with management practices based on the

  6. Water balances in intensively monitored forest ecosystems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.

    2007-01-01

    A soil hydrological model based on Darcy's law was used to calculate hydrological fluxes for 245 intensively monitored forest plots in Europe. Local measured input data for the model were rather limited and input was partly based on generic data. To obtain the best results, the model was calibrated

  7. Energy intensity, target level of energy intensity, and room for improvement in energy intensity: An application to the study of regions in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2014-01-01

    While the previous literature shows that a decline in energy intensity represents an improvement in energy use efficiency, it does not provide a target level of energy intensity, nor what room for improvement in terms of energy intensity could entail. This study establishes an indicator of such room for improvement in terms of energy intensity by measuring the difference between the target level of energy intensity and the actual energy intensity and thereby monitors energy use efficiency. The traditional indicator of energy intensity, defined as energy use over GDP, mainly estimates energy use efficiency, but is a partial effect between the energy input and GDP output. However, our proposed indicator of the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity is the total-factor effects based on the multiple-inputs model. By taking the 27 EU members to investigate their energy use efficiency using the indicator of the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity, this study concludes that an improvement in energy intensity does not fully depend on a decline in energy intensity, and we instead need to confirm whether the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity decreases. This finding is particularly relevant for energy policy-makers. - Highlights: • This paper establishes an indicator for the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity. • This study takes the 27 EU members to investigate their energy use efficiency. • A different result appears by using our proposed indicator

  8. Low-SNR Capacity of MIMO Optical Intensity Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2017-09-18

    The capacity of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) optical intensity channel is studied, under both average and peak intensity constraints. We focus on low SNR, which can be modeled as the scenario where both constraints proportionally vanish, or where the peak constraint is held constant while the average constraint vanishes. A capacity upper bound is derived, and is shown to be tight at low SNR under both scenarios. The capacity achieving input distribution at low SNR is shown to be a maximally-correlated vector-binary input distribution. Consequently, the low-SNR capacity of the channel is characterized. As a byproduct, it is shown that for a channel with peak intensity constraints only, or with peak intensity constraints and individual (per aperture) average intensity constraints, a simple scheme composed of coded on-off keying, spatial repetition, and maximum-ratio combining is optimal at low SNR.

  9. Low-SNR Capacity of MIMO Optical Intensity Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) optical intensity channel is studied, under both average and peak intensity constraints. We focus on low SNR, which can be modeled as the scenario where both constraints proportionally vanish, or where the peak constraint is held constant while the average constraint vanishes. A capacity upper bound is derived, and is shown to be tight at low SNR under both scenarios. The capacity achieving input distribution at low SNR is shown to be a maximally-correlated vector-binary input distribution. Consequently, the low-SNR capacity of the channel is characterized. As a byproduct, it is shown that for a channel with peak intensity constraints only, or with peak intensity constraints and individual (per aperture) average intensity constraints, a simple scheme composed of coded on-off keying, spatial repetition, and maximum-ratio combining is optimal at low SNR.

  10. Integrate-and-fire vs Poisson models of LGN input to V1 cortex: noisier inputs reduce orientation selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Chun; Xing, Dajun; Shapley, Robert

    2012-12-01

    One of the reasons the visual cortex has attracted the interest of computational neuroscience is that it has well-defined inputs. The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus is the source of visual signals to the primary visual cortex (V1). Most large-scale cortical network models approximate the spike trains of LGN neurons as simple Poisson point processes. However, many studies have shown that neurons in the early visual pathway are capable of spiking with high temporal precision and their discharges are not Poisson-like. To gain an understanding of how response variability in the LGN influences the behavior of V1, we study response properties of model V1 neurons that receive purely feedforward inputs from LGN cells modeled either as noisy leaky integrate-and-fire (NLIF) neurons or as inhomogeneous Poisson processes. We first demonstrate that the NLIF model is capable of reproducing many experimentally observed statistical properties of LGN neurons. Then we show that a V1 model in which the LGN input to a V1 neuron is modeled as a group of NLIF neurons produces higher orientation selectivity than the one with Poisson LGN input. The second result implies that statistical characteristics of LGN spike trains are important for V1's function. We conclude that physiologically motivated models of V1 need to include more realistic LGN spike trains that are less noisy than inhomogeneous Poisson processes.

  11. Input of transuranic elements through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am were carried out on river water as well as its suspended matter collected seasonally in 1977 from two Mediterranean rivers, the Var and the Rhone. The results show that although the concentrations of the soluble fractions of these radionuclides are higher in the Rhone than in the Var, even the elevated concentrations of soluble 137 Cs (approximately 40 fCi.ltr -1 ) and sup(239+240)Pu (approximately 0.1 fCi.ltr -1 ) in the Rhone are much lower than the average concentrations of these nuclides in Mediterranean surface waters. On the other hand, the concentrations of the nuclides measured in suspended matter are roughly an order of magnitude higher in the Rhone than in the Var. Based on the results of measurements on the two rivers, and assuming that the annual average concentrations of the radionuclides in the Var and the Rhone respectively represent those in radiologically uncontaminated and contaminated Mediterranean rivers, the total inputs of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea have been estimated. Comparison of these estimated values with the inputs of fallout radionuclides by rain indicates that although local accumulation of transuranic nuclides may be observed on sediments taken from some limited estuarine areas, the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, as a whole, is exclusively governed today by the fallout input of these elements. (author)

  12. Six axis force feedback input device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Timothy (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a low friction, low inertia, six-axis force feedback input device comprising an arm with double-jointed, tendon-driven revolute joints, a decoupled tendon-driven wrist, and a base with encoders and motors. The input device functions as a master robot manipulator of a microsurgical teleoperated robot system including a slave robot manipulator coupled to an amplifier chassis, which is coupled to a control chassis, which is coupled to a workstation with a graphical user interface. The amplifier chassis is coupled to the motors of the master robot manipulator and the control chassis is coupled to the encoders of the master robot manipulator. A force feedback can be applied to the input device and can be generated from the slave robot to enable a user to operate the slave robot via the input device without physically viewing the slave robot. Also, the force feedback can be generated from the workstation to represent fictitious forces to constrain the input device's control of the slave robot to be within imaginary predetermined boundaries.

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  14. Network interactions: non-geniculate input to V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S

    2013-04-01

    The strongest connections to V1 are fed back from neighbouring area V2 and from a network of higher cortical areas (e.g. V3, V5, LOC, IPS and A1), transmitting the results of cognitive operations such as prediction, attention and imagination. V1 is therefore at the receiving end of a complex cortical processing cascade and not only at the entrance stage of cortical processing of retinal input. One elegant strategy to investigate this information-rich feedback to V1 is to eliminate feedforward input, that is, exploit V1's retinotopic organisation to isolate subregions receiving no direct bottom-up stimulation. We highlight the diverse mechanisms of cortical feedback, ranging from gain control to predictive coding, and conclude that V1 is involved in rich internal communication processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Boiling and burnout phenomena under transient heat input, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigebumi; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Hideaki.

    1976-01-01

    In order to simulate the thermo-hydrodynamic conditions at reactor power excursions, a test piece was placed in a forced convective channel and heated with exponential power inputs. The boiling heat transfer and the burnout heat flux under the transient heat input were measured, and pressure and water temperature changes in the test section were recorded at the same time. Following experimental results were obtained; (1) Transient boiling heat transfer characteristics at high heat flux stayed on the stationary nucleate boiling curve of each flow condition, or extrapolated line of the curves. (2) Transient burnout heat flux increased remarkably with decreasing heating-time-constant, when the flow rate was lower and the subcooling was higher. (3) Transient burnout phenomena were expressed with the relation of (q sub(max) - q sub(sBO)) tau = constant at several flow conditions. This relation was derived from the stationary burnout mechanism of pool boiling. (auth.)

  16. Computer Generated Inputs for NMIS Processor Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. A. Mullens; J. E. Breeding; J. A. McEvers; R. W. Wysor; L. G. Chiang; J. R. Lenarduzzi; J. T. Mihalczo; J. K. Mattingly

    2001-01-01

    Proper operation of the Nuclear Identification Materials System (NMIS) processor can be verified using computer-generated inputs [BIST (Built-In-Self-Test)] at the digital inputs. Preselected sequences of input pulses to all channels with known correlation functions are compared to the output of the processor. These types of verifications have been utilized in NMIS type correlation processors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since 1984. The use of this test confirmed a malfunction in a NMIS processor at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) in 1998. The NMIS processor boards were returned to the U.S. for repair and subsequently used in NMIS passive and active measurements with Pu at VNIIEF in 1999

  17. Soil C dynamics under intensive oil palm plantations in poor tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Ruegg, Johanna; Quezada, Juan Carlos; Buttler, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm cultivation mainly takes place on heavily-weathered tropical soils where nutrients are limiting factors for plant growth and microbial activity. Intensive fertilization and changes of C input by oil palms strongly affects soil C and nutrient dynamics, challenging long-term soil fertility. Oil palm plantations management offers unique opportunities to study soil C and nutrients interactions in field conditions because 1) they can be considered as long-term litter manipulation experiments since all aboveground C inputs are concentrated in frond pile areas and 2) mineral fertilizers are only applied in specific areas, i.e. weeded circle around the tree and interrows, but not in harvest paths. Here, we determined impacts of mineral fertilizer and organic matter input on soil organic carbon dynamics and microbial activity in mature oil palm plantation established on savanna grasslands. Rates of savanna-derived soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and oil palm-derived SOC net stabilization were determined using changes in isotopic signature of in C input following a shift from C4 (savanna) to C3 (oil palm) vegetation. Application of mineral fertilizer alone did not affect savanna-derived SOC decomposition or oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates, but fertilization associated with higher C input lead to an increase of oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates, with about 50% of topsoil SOC derived from oil palm after 9 years. High carbon and nutrients inputs did not increase microbial biomass but microorganisms were more active per unit of biomass and SOC. In conclusion, soil organic matter decomposition was limited by C rather than nutrients in the studied heavily-weathered soils. Fresh C and nutrient inputs did not lead to priming of old savanna-derived SOC but increased turnover and stabilization of new oil palm-derived SOC.

  18. Harmonize input selection for sediment transport prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin; Keshtegar, Behrooz; Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan; El-Shafie, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, three modeling approaches using a Neural Network (NN), Response Surface Method (RSM) and response surface method basis Global Harmony Search (GHS) are applied to predict the daily time series suspended sediment load. Generally, the input variables for forecasting the suspended sediment load are manually selected based on the maximum correlations of input variables in the modeling approaches based on NN and RSM. The RSM is improved to select the input variables by using the errors terms of training data based on the GHS, namely as response surface method and global harmony search (RSM-GHS) modeling method. The second-order polynomial function with cross terms is applied to calibrate the time series suspended sediment load with three, four and five input variables in the proposed RSM-GHS. The linear, square and cross corrections of twenty input variables of antecedent values of suspended sediment load and water discharge are investigated to achieve the best predictions of the RSM based on the GHS method. The performances of the NN, RSM and proposed RSM-GHS including both accuracy and simplicity are compared through several comparative predicted and error statistics. The results illustrated that the proposed RSM-GHS is as uncomplicated as the RSM but performed better, where fewer errors and better correlation was observed (R = 0.95, MAE = 18.09 (ton/day), RMSE = 25.16 (ton/day)) compared to the ANN (R = 0.91, MAE = 20.17 (ton/day), RMSE = 33.09 (ton/day)) and RSM (R = 0.91, MAE = 20.06 (ton/day), RMSE = 31.92 (ton/day)) for all types of input variables.

  19. Shaped input distributions for structural damage localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio; Damkilde, Lars

    2018-01-01

    localization method is cast that operates on the premise of shaping inputs—whose spatial distribution is fixed—by use of a model, such that these inputs, in one structural subdomain at a time, suppress certain steady-state vibration quantities (depending on the type of damage one seeks to interrogate for......). Accordingly, damage is localized when the vibration signature induced by the shaped inputs in the damaged state corresponds to that in the reference state, hereby implying that the approach does not point directly to damage. Instead, it operates with interrogation based on postulated damage patterns...

  20. A parallel input composite transimpedance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. J.; Kim, C.

    2018-01-01

    A new approach to high performance current to voltage preamplifier design is presented. The design using multiple operational amplifiers (op-amps) has a parasitic capacitance compensation network and a composite amplifier topology for fast, precision, and low noise performance. The input stage consisting of a parallel linked JFET op-amps and a high-speed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) gain stage driving the output in the composite amplifier topology, cooperating with the capacitance compensation feedback network, ensures wide bandwidth stability in the presence of input capacitance above 40 nF. The design is ideal for any two-probe measurement, including high impedance transport and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.

  1. Nuclear reaction inputs based on effective interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S.; Peru, S.; Dubray, N.; Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Goriely, S. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP-226, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    Extensive nuclear structure studies have been performed for decades using effective interactions as sole input. They have shown a remarkable ability to describe rather accurately many types of nuclear properties. In the early 2000 s, a major effort has been engaged to produce nuclear reaction input data out of the Gogny interaction, in order to challenge its quality also with respect to nuclear reaction observables. The status of this project, well advanced today thanks to the use of modern computers as well as modern nuclear reaction codes, is reviewed and future developments are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Simulation of a Multidimensional Input Quantum Perceptron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Alexandre Y.; Sundqvist, Kyle M.; Li, Peng; Harris, H. Rusty

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the improved data separation capabilities of the Multidimensional Input Quantum Perceptron (MDIQP), a fundamental cell for the construction of more complex Quantum Artificial Neural Networks (QANNs). This is done by using input controlled alterations of ancillary qubits in combination with phase estimation and learning algorithms. The MDIQP is capable of processing quantum information and classifying multidimensional data that may not be linearly separable, extending the capabilities of the classical perceptron. With this powerful component, we get much closer to the achievement of a feedforward multilayer QANN, which would be able to represent and classify arbitrary sets of data (both quantum and classical).

  3. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme...... estimation. In the experimental program a small structure subjected to vibration was used to estimate the loading from the measurements and the experimental modal space. The modal parameters were estimated by Natural Input Modal Analysis and the scaling factors of the mode shapes obtained by the mass change...

  4. Student Focused Marketing: Impact of Marketing Higher Education Based on Student Data and Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    USA Today headlined an article "Study: Nearly Half are Overqualified for Their Jobs," (Marklein, 2013). The article cited a study by the nonprofit Center for College Affordability and Productivity which found this apparent mismatch between qualifications and jobs held. The question then becomes, what has led to this mismatch? Three…

  5. Spectral analysis of the EEG during halothane anaesthesia: Input-output relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, F.H. Lopes da; Smith, N. Ty; Zwart, Aart; Nichols, W.W.

    1. 1. The “Halothane-brain compartment” system was investigated in dogs. The input was the inspired concentration of Halothane. The output was the intensity of EEG spectral components. The EEG was analysed by a hybrid system (analogue filters and digital integration in a small computer). For the

  6. Violation of multiparticle Bell inequalities for low- and high-flux parametric amplification using both vacuum and entangled input states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.D.; Munro, W.J.; De Martini, F.

    2002-01-01

    We show how polarization measurements on the output fields generated by parametric down conversion will reveal a violation of multiparticle Bell inequalities, in the regime of both low- and high-output intensity. In this case, each spatially separated system, upon which a measurement is performed, is comprised of more than one particle. In view of the formal analogy with spin systems, the proposal provides an opportunity to test the predictions of quantum mechanics for spatially separated higher spin states. Here the quantum behavior possible even where measurements are performed on systems of large quantum (particle) number may be demonstrated. Our proposal applies to both vacuum-state signal and idler inputs, and also to the quantum-injected parametric amplifier as studied by De Martini et al. The effect of detector inefficiencies is included, and weaker Bell-Clauser-Horne inequalities are derived to enable realistic tests of local hidden variables with auxiliary assumptions for the multiparticle situation

  7. Appreciate the Appreciation: Imported Inputs and Concern Over Dutch Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardah Naim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available If anything is to blame for a higher dollar having negative effects on the Central Canadian manufacturing sector, you are not likely to find it in any “Dutch Disease” supposedly caused by Alberta’s oil sands. Contrary to popular belief, the higher value of the Canadian dollar may even help Central Canadian manufacturers grow stronger, cut costs, and create jobs. The idea that a booming, commodity-driven dollar is hurting Canadian goods exports, afflicting the country with so-called Dutch Disease, may be popular among certain politicians, including federal Opposition leader Thomas Mulcair and former Premier of Ontario Dalton McGuinty, but is not supported by the facts. It turns out that the simple economic theory these politicians have in mind is incomplete. A more thorough, data-driven look at the nation’s manufacturing sector reveals that Canadian businesses rely very heavily on imported materials and equipment as inputs in the manufacturing process. Canadian industry overall has one of the highest import ratios for such intermediate goods in the OECD, roughly twice as high as that of the U.S., the European Union and Japan. Compared to all other sectors, manufacturers are the heaviest users of imported materials and equipment, with more than 40 per cent of their inputs coming from other countries. A higher dollar may make it more expensive for foreign buyers to purchase Canadian manufactured goods, but that effect appears to be more than offset by the savings that Canadian producers enjoy with a higher dollar that makes possible cheaper imported-inputs and lower cost of production, which have a lowering effect on prices. The net result is that Canadian manufacturers actually get more benefit from a higher dollar, and the regions that get the biggest boost from it are the Central Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Policy-makers looking to aid the Canadian economy as a whole, and the manufacturing sector in particular, should stop

  8. Metal and nutrient dynamics on an aged intensive green roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

    2014-01-01

    Runoff and rainfall quality was compared between an aged intensive green roof and an adjacent conventional roof surface. Nutrient concentrations in the runoff were generally below Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) values and the green roof exhibited NO3(-) retention. Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were in excess of EQS values for the protection of surface water. Green roof runoff was also significantly higher in Fe and Pb than on the bare roof and in rainfall. Input-output fluxes revealed the green roof to be a potential source of Pb. High concentrations of Pb within the green roof soil and bare roof dusts provide a potential source of Pb in runoff. The origin of the Pb is likely from historic urban atmospheric deposition. Aged green roofs may therefore act as a source of legacy metal pollution. This needs to be considered when constructing green roofs with the aim of improving pollution remediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.907 Section 3430.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL...

  10. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…

  11. A summary of WIMSD4 input option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of all the available input data options in the ICL 4/70 and IBM 370 versions of WIMSD4, with little more than a reference where there is already adequate documentation but with rather more detail where no such documentation exists. (author)

  12. Representations of space based on haptic input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhoek, S.

    2005-01-01

    The present thesis focused on the representations of grasping space based on haptic input. We aimed at identifying their characteristics, and the underlying neurocognitive processes and mechanisms. To this end, we studied the systematic distortions in performance on several orientation perception

  13. Hydrogen Generation Rate Model Calculation Input Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KUFAHL, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the procedures and techniques utilized in the collection and analysis of analyte input data values in support of the flammable gas hazard safety analyses. This document represents the analyses of data current at the time of its writing and does not account for data available since then

  14. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders,

  15. Instantaneous input electrical power measurements of HITU transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaboece, B; Guelmez, Y [Tuebitak Ulusal Metroloji Enstituesue (UME), P.K. 54 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Rajagapol, S; Shaw, A, E-mail: baki.karaboce@ume.tubitak.gov.t [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    HITU (High Intensity Theraupetic Ultrasound) transducers are widely used in therapeutic ultrasound in medicine. The output ultrasonic power of HITU transducer can be measured in number of methods described in IEC 61161 standard [1]. New IEC standards specifically for measurement of HITU equipment are under development. The ultrasound power radiated from a transducer is dependent on applied input electrical voltage and current and consequently power. But, up to now, no standardised method has been developed and adopted for the input electrical power measurements. Hence, a workpackage was carried out for the establishment of such method in the frequency range of 1 to 3 MHz as a part of EURAMET EMRP Era-net plus 'External Beam Cancer Therapy' project. Several current shunts were developed and evaluated. Current measurements were also realized with Philips current probe and preamplifier at NPL and Agilent current probe at UME. In this paper, a method for the measurement of instantaneous electrical power delivered to a reactive ultrasound transducer in the required frequency range is explored.

  16. Instantaneous input electrical power measurements of HITU transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaboece, B; Guelmez, Y; Rajagapol, S; Shaw, A

    2011-01-01

    HITU (High Intensity Theraupetic Ultrasound) transducers are widely used in therapeutic ultrasound in medicine. The output ultrasonic power of HITU transducer can be measured in number of methods described in IEC 61161 standard [1]. New IEC standards specifically for measurement of HITU equipment are under development. The ultrasound power radiated from a transducer is dependent on applied input electrical voltage and current and consequently power. But, up to now, no standardised method has been developed and adopted for the input electrical power measurements. Hence, a workpackage was carried out for the establishment of such method in the frequency range of 1 to 3 MHz as a part of EURAMET EMRP Era-net plus 'External Beam Cancer Therapy' project. Several current shunts were developed and evaluated. Current measurements were also realized with Philips current probe and preamplifier at NPL and Agilent current probe at UME. In this paper, a method for the measurement of instantaneous electrical power delivered to a reactive ultrasound transducer in the required frequency range is explored.

  17. Effect of heat input on heat affected zone cracking in laser welded ATI Allvac 718Plus superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idowu, O.A.; Ojo, O.A.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The heat affected zones (HAZs) of low and high heat input laser welds of a newly developed superalloy, ATI Allvac 718Plus, were studied. Low heat input welds suffered significant HAZ grain boundary liquation cracking, while no cracking was observed in spite of a more extensive HAZ intergranular liquation in the higher heat input welds. Combination of lower welding stresses generated during cooling, and relaxation of these stresses by thick intergranular liquid were suggested to be the factors that contributed to the absence of cracking in the high heat input welds. Further, healing of some of the HAZ cracks in lower heat input welds by fusion zone interdendritic liquid occurred through liquid backfilling

  18. Reconfiguring the Higher Education Value Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Virendra; Pathak, Kavita

    2010-01-01

    Forces of demand and supply are changing the dynamics of the higher education market. Transformation of institutions of higher learning into competitive enterprise is underway. Higher education institutions are seemingly under intense pressure to create value and focus their efforts and scarce funds on activities that drive up value for their…

  19. Investigating the (MisMatch between Natural Pest Control Knowledge and the Intensity of Pesticide Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mall

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transforming modern agriculture towards both higher yields and greater sustainability is critical for preserving biodiversity in an increasingly populous and variable world. However, the intensity of agricultural practices varies strongly between crop systems. Given limited research capacity, it is crucial to focus efforts to increase sustainability in the crop systems that need it most. In this study, we investigate the match (or mismatch between the intensity of pesticide use and the availability of knowledge on the ecosystem service of natural pest control across various crop systems. Using a systematic literature search on pest control and publicly available pesticide data, we find that pest control literature is not more abundant in crops where insecticide input per hectare is highest. Instead, pest control literature is most abundant, with the highest number of studies published, in crops with comparatively low insecticide input per hectare but with high world harvested area. These results suggest that a major increase of interest in agroecological research towards crops with high insecticide input, particularly cotton and horticultural crops such as citrus and high value-added vegetables, would help meet knowledge needs for a timely ecointensification of agriculture.

  20. Investigating the (Mis)Match between Natural Pest Control Knowledge and the Intensity of Pesticide Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, David; Larsen, Ashley E; Martin, Emily A

    2018-01-05

    Transforming modern agriculture towards both higher yields and greater sustainability is critical for preserving biodiversity in an increasingly populous and variable world. However, the intensity of agricultural practices varies strongly between crop systems. Given limited research capacity, it is crucial to focus efforts to increase sustainability in the crop systems that need it most. In this study, we investigate the match (or mismatch) between the intensity of pesticide use and the availability of knowledge on the ecosystem service of natural pest control across various crop systems. Using a systematic literature search on pest control and publicly available pesticide data, we find that pest control literature is not more abundant in crops where insecticide input per hectare is highest. Instead, pest control literature is most abundant, with the highest number of studies published, in crops with comparatively low insecticide input per hectare but with high world harvested area. These results suggest that a major increase of interest in agroecological research towards crops with high insecticide input, particularly cotton and horticultural crops such as citrus and high value-added vegetables, would help meet knowledge needs for a timely ecointensification of agriculture.

  1. Application of computer voice input/output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.; Shirk, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of microprocessors and other large-scale integration (LSI) circuits is making voice input and output for computers and instruments practical; specialized LSI chips for speech processing are appearing on the market. Voice can be used to input data or to issue instrument commands; this allows the operator to engage in other tasks, move about, and to use standard data entry systems. Voice synthesizers can generate audible, easily understood instructions. Using voice characteristics, a control system can verify speaker identity for security purposes. Two simple voice-controlled systems have been designed at Los Alamos for nuclear safeguards applicaations. Each can easily be expanded as time allows. The first system is for instrument control that accepts voice commands and issues audible operator prompts. The second system is for access control. The speaker's voice is used to verify his identity and to actuate external devices

  2. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  3. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler.

  4. PREP-45, Input Preparation for CITATION-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho Carlos, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: A Fortran program has been created, which saves much effort in preparing sections 004 (intervals in the coordinates) and 005 (zone numbers) of the input data file for the multigroup theory code CITATION (version CITATION-2, NESC0387/09), particularly when a thin complicated mesh is used. 2 - Method of solution: A domain is defined for CITATION calculations through specifying its sub-domains (e.g. graphite, lead, beryllium, water and fuel sub-domains) in a compact and simple way. An independent and previous geometrical specification is made of the various types of elements which are envisaged to constitute the contents of the reactor core grid positions. Then the load table for the configuration is input and scanned throughout, thus enabling the geometric mesh description to be produced (section 004). Also the zone placement (section 005) is achieved by means of element description subroutines for the different types of element (which may require appropriate but simple changes in the actual cases). The output of PREP45 is directly obtained in a format which is compatible with CITATION-2 input. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Only rectangular two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates are considered. A maximum of 12 sub-domains in the x direction (18 in the y direction) and up to 8 distinct element types are considered in this version. Other limitations exist which can nevertheless be overcome with simple changes in the source program

  5. Molecular structure input on the web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertl Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A molecule editor, that is program for input and editing of molecules, is an indispensable part of every cheminformatics or molecular processing system. This review focuses on a special type of molecule editors, namely those that are used for molecule structure input on the web. Scientific computing is now moving more and more in the direction of web services and cloud computing, with servers scattered all around the Internet. Thus a web browser has become the universal scientific user interface, and a tool to edit molecules directly within the web browser is essential. The review covers a history of web-based structure input, starting with simple text entry boxes and early molecule editors based on clickable maps, before moving to the current situation dominated by Java applets. One typical example - the popular JME Molecule Editor - will be described in more detail. Modern Ajax server-side molecule editors are also presented. And finally, the possible future direction of web-based molecule editing, based on technologies like JavaScript and Flash, is discussed.

  6. Nitrogen balance and groundwater nitrate contamination: Comparison among three intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, X.T. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Kou, C.L. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Institute of Soils and Fertilizers, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Zhang, F.S. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)]. E-mail: zfs@cau.edu.cn; Christie, P. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    The annual nitrogen (N) budget and groundwater nitrate-N concentrations were studied in the field in three major intensive cropping systems in Shandong province, north China. In the greenhouse vegetable systems the annual N inputs from fertilizers, manures and irrigation water were 1358, 1881 and 402 kg N ha{sup -1} on average, representing 2.5, 37.5 and 83.8 times the corresponding values in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) rotations and 2.1, 10.4 and 68.2 times the values in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. The N surplus values were 349, 3327 and 746 kg N ha{sup -1}, with residual soil nitrate-N after harvest amounting to 221-275, 1173 and 613 kg N ha{sup -1} in the top 90 cm of the soil profile and 213-242, 1032 and 976 kg N ha{sup -1} at 90-180 cm depth in wheat-maize, greenhouse vegetable and orchard systems, respectively. Nitrate leaching was evident in all three cropping systems and the groundwater in shallow wells (<15 m depth) was heavily contaminated in the greenhouse vegetable production area, where total N inputs were much higher than crop requirements and the excessive fertilizer N inputs were only about 40% of total N inputs. - Intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems may pose a greater nitrogen pollution threat than apple orchards or cereal rotations to soil and water quality in north China.

  7. Nitrogen balance and groundwater nitrate contamination: Comparison among three intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, X.T.; Kou, C.L.; Zhang, F.S.; Christie, P.

    2006-01-01

    The annual nitrogen (N) budget and groundwater nitrate-N concentrations were studied in the field in three major intensive cropping systems in Shandong province, north China. In the greenhouse vegetable systems the annual N inputs from fertilizers, manures and irrigation water were 1358, 1881 and 402 kg N ha -1 on average, representing 2.5, 37.5 and 83.8 times the corresponding values in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) rotations and 2.1, 10.4 and 68.2 times the values in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. The N surplus values were 349, 3327 and 746 kg N ha -1 , with residual soil nitrate-N after harvest amounting to 221-275, 1173 and 613 kg N ha -1 in the top 90 cm of the soil profile and 213-242, 1032 and 976 kg N ha -1 at 90-180 cm depth in wheat-maize, greenhouse vegetable and orchard systems, respectively. Nitrate leaching was evident in all three cropping systems and the groundwater in shallow wells (<15 m depth) was heavily contaminated in the greenhouse vegetable production area, where total N inputs were much higher than crop requirements and the excessive fertilizer N inputs were only about 40% of total N inputs. - Intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems may pose a greater nitrogen pollution threat than apple orchards or cereal rotations to soil and water quality in north China

  8. Measurements of the dynamic input impedance of a dc SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbert, C.; Clarke, J.

    1985-01-01

    The impedance of a circuit coupled magnetically via a mutual inductance M/sub i/ to a dc SQUID of geometric inductance L is modified by the dynamic input impedance of the SQUID, which can be characterized by the flux-to-current transfer function J/sub Phi/approx. =partialJ/partialPhi; J is the current circulating in the SQUID loop and ∫ is the flux applied to the loop. At the same time, the SQUID is modified by the presence of the input circuit in the lumped circuit approximation, one expects its inductance to be reduced to L'(1-α/sub e/ 2 )L, where α/sub e/ is an effective coupling coefficient. Calculations of J/sub Phi/ using an analog simulator are described and presented in the form of a dynamic inductance L and a dynamic resistance R versus bias current I and Phi. Experimental measurements of L and R were made on a planar, thin-film SQUID tightly coupled to a spiral input coil that was connected in series with a capacitor C/sub i/ to form a resonant circuit. Thus, J/sub Phi/ was determined from the change in the resonant frequency and quality factor of this circuit as a function of I and Phi. At low bias currents (low Josephson frequencies) the measured values of L were in reasonable agreement with values simulated for the reduced SQUID, while at higher bias currents (higher Josephson frequencies) the measured values were in better agreement with values simulated for the unscreened SQUID. Similar conclusions were reached in the comparison of the experimental and simulated values of the flux-to-voltage transfer function V/sub Phi/

  9. Risk indicator for agricultural inputs of trace elements to Canadian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, S C; Grant, C A; Sheppard, M I; de Jong, R; Long, J

    2009-01-01

    Trace elements (TEs) are universally present in environmental media, including soil, but agriculture uses some materials that have increased TE concentrations. Some TEs (e.g., Cu, Se, and Zn) are added to animal feeds to ensure animal health. Similarly, TEs are present in micronutrient fertilizers. In the case of phosphate fertilizers, some TEs (e.g., Cd) may be inadvertently elevated because of the source rock used in the manufacturing. The key question for agriculture is "After decades of use, could these TE additions result in the deterioration of soil quality?" An early warning would allow the development of best management practices to slow or reverse this trend. This paper discusses a model that estimates future TE concentrations for the 2780 land area polygons composing essentially all of the agricultural land in Canada. The development of the model is discussed, as are various metrics to express the risk related to TE accumulation. The elements As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, and Zn are considered, with inputs from the atmosphere, fertilizers, manures, and municipal biosolids. In many cases, steady-state concentrations could be toxic, but steady state is far in the future. In 100 yr, the soil concentrations (Century soil concentrations) are estimated to be up to threefold higher than present background, an impact even if not a problematic impact. The geographic distribution reflects agricultural intensity. Contributions from micronutrient fertilizers are perhaps the most uncertain due to the limited data available on their use.

  10. INPUT DATA OF BURNING WOOD FOR CFD MODELLING USING SMALL-SCALE EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hejtmánek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an option how to acquire simplified input data for modelling of burning wood in CFD programmes. The option lies in combination of data from small- and molecular-scale experiments in order to describe the material as a one-reaction material property. Such virtual material would spread fire, develop the fire according to surrounding environment and it could be extinguished without using complex reaction molecular description. Series of experiments including elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and difference thermal analysis, and combustion analysis were performed. Then the FDS model of burning pine wood in a cone calorimeter was built. In the model where those values were used. The model was validated to HRR (Heat Release Rate from the real cone calorimeter experiment. The results show that for the purpose of CFD modelling the effective heat of combustion, which is one of the basic material property for fire modelling affecting the total intensity of burning, should be used. Using the net heat of combustion in the model leads to higher values of HRR in comparison to the real experiment data. Considering all the results shown in this paper, it was shown that it is possible to simulate burning of wood using the extrapolated data obtained in small-size experiments.

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  15. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  16. Effects of input uncertainty on cross-scale crop modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waha, Katharina; Huth, Neil; Carberry, Peter

    2014-05-01

    data from very little to very detailed information, and compare the models' abilities to represent the spatial variability and temporal variability in crop yields. We display the uncertainty in crop yield simulations from different input data and crop models in Taylor diagrams which are a graphical summary of the similarity between simulations and observations (Taylor, 2001). The observed spatial variability can be represented well from both models (R=0.6-0.8) but APSIM predicts higher spatial variability than LPJmL due to its sensitivity to soil parameters. Simulations with the same crop model, climate and sowing dates have similar statistics and therefore similar skill to reproduce the observed spatial variability. Soil data is less important for the skill of a crop model to reproduce the observed spatial variability. However, the uncertainty in simulated spatial variability from the two crop models is larger than from input data settings and APSIM is more sensitive to input data then LPJmL. Even with a detailed, point-scale crop model and detailed input data it is difficult to capture the complexity and diversity in maize cropping systems.

  17. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  18. Does frequency count? Parental input and the acquisition of vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Judith C; Dale, Philip S; Li, Ping

    2008-08-01

    Studies examining factors that influence when words are learned typically investigate one lexical category or a small set of words. We provide the first evaluation of the relation between input frequency and age of acquisition for a large sample of words. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory provides norming data on age of acquisition for 562 individual words collected from the parents of children aged 0 ; 8 to 2 ; 6. The CHILDES database provides estimates of frequency with which parents use these words with their children (age: 0 ; 7-7 ; 5; mean age: 36 months). For production, across all words higher parental frequency is associated with later acquisition. Within lexical categories, however, higher frequency is related to earlier acquisition. For comprehension, parental frequency correlates significantly with the age of acquisition only for common nouns. Frequency effects change with development. Thus, frequency impacts vocabulary acquisition in a complex interaction with category, modality and developmental stage.

  19. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? An Exploration of Factors That Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher education attainment. Although the cost inputs to…

  20. Effect of heat input on dissimilar welds of ultra high strength steel and duplex stainless steel: Microstructural and compositional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasalloti, H., E-mail: hamed.tasalloti.kashani@student.lut.fi; Kah, P., E-mail: paul.kah@lut.fi; Martikainen, J., E-mail: jukka.martikainen@lut.fi

    2017-01-15

    The effect of heat input on the microstructure and compositional heterogeneity of welds of direct-quenched ultra high strength steel (Optim 960 QC) and duplex stainless steel (UNS S32205) was studied. The dissimilar welds were made using GMAW with a fully austenitic filler wire. In addition to grain coarsening in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the ferritic side, it was found that an increase in heat input correlatively increased the proportional volume of bainitic to martensitic phases. Coarse ferritic grains were observed in the duplex HAZ. Higher heat input, however, had a beneficial effect on the nucleation of austenite in the HAZ. Heat input had a regulatory effect on grain growth within the austenitic weld and more favorable equiaxed austenite was obtained with higher heat input. On the ferritic side of the welds, macrosegregation in the form of a martensitic intermediate zone was observed for all the cooling rates studied. However, on the duplex side, macrosegregation in the fusion boundary was only noticed with higher cooling rates. Microstructural observations and compositional analysis suggest that higher heat input could be beneficial for the structural integrity of the weld despite higher heat input increasing the extent of adverse coarse grains in the HAZ, especially on the ferritic side. - Highlights: •The effect of heat input on dissimilar welds of UHSS and DSS was studied. •Transmutation of the microstructure was discussed in detail. •The influence of heat input on compositional heterogeneity of welds was described. •Higher heat input enhanced bainitic transformation on the ferritic side. •Macrosegregation was affected by the amount of heat input on the DSS side.

  1. Scenarios of future energy intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors present scenarios of potential change in energy intensities in the OECD countries and in the Soviet Union. These scenarios are meant to illustrate how intensities might evolve over the next 20 years given different conditions with respect to energy prices, energy-efficiency policies, and other key factors. Changes in intensity will also be affected by the rates of growth and stock turnover in each sector. They have not tried to forecast how activity levels and structure will evolve. However, the OECD scenarios assume a world in which GDP averages growth in the 2-3%/year range, with some differences among countries. For the Soviet Union, the degree and pace of intensity decline will be highly dependent on the success of the transition to a market economy; each scenario explicitly envisions a different degree of success. They have not constructed comparable scenarios for the developing countries. The scenarios presented in this chapter do not predict what will happen in the future. They believe, however, that they illustrate a plausible set of outcomes if energy prices, policies, programs, and other factors evolve as described in each case. With higher energy prices and vigorous policies and programs, intensities in the OECD countries in 2010 could be nearly 50% less on average than the level where trends seem to be point. In the former Soviet Union, a combination of rapid, successful economic reform and extra effort to improve energy efficiency might result in average intensity being nearly 40% less than in a slow reform case. And in the LDCs, a mixture of sound policies, programs, and energy pricing reform could also lead to intensities being far lower than they would be otherwise. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  2. Energy intensities: Prospects and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the previous chapter, the author described how rising activity levels and structural change are pushing toward higher energy use in many sectors and regions, especially in the developing countries. The extent to which more activity leads to greater energy use will depend on the energy intensity of end-use activities. In this chapter, the author presents an overview of the potential for intensity reductions in each sector over the next 10-20 years. It is not the author's intent to describe in detail the various technologies that could be employed to improve energy efficiency, which has been done by others (see, for example, Lovins ampersand Lovins, 1991; Goldembert et al., 1987). Rather, he discusses the key factors that will shape future energy intensities in different parts of the world, and gives a sense for the changes that could be attained if greater attention were given to accelerate efficiency improvement. The prospects for energy intensities, and the potential for reduction, vary among sectors and parts of the world. In the majority of cases, intensities are tending to decline as new equipment and facilities come into use and improvements are made on existing stocks. The effect of stock turnover will be especially strong in the developing countries, where stocks are growing at a rapid pace, and the Former East Bloc, where much of the existing industrial plant will eventually be retired and replaced with more modern facilities. While reductions in energy intensity are likely in most areas, there is a large divergence between the technical and economic potential for reducing energy intensities and the direction in which present trends are moving. In the next chapter, the author presents scenarios that illustrate where trends are pointing, and what could be achieved if improving energy efficiency were a focus of public policies. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Response of spiking neurons to correlated inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Ruben; Rocha, Jaime de la; Renart, Alfonso; Parga, Nestor

    2002-01-01

    The effect of a temporally correlated afferent current on the firing rate of a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron is studied. This current is characterized in terms of rates, autocorrelations, and cross correlations, and correlation time scale τ c of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. The output rate ν out is calculated in the Fokker-Planck formalism in the limit of both small and large τ c compared to the membrane time constant τ of the neuron. By simulations we check the analytical results, provide an interpolation valid for all τ c , and study the neuron's response to rapid changes in the correlation magnitude

  4. Culture Input in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晶

    2009-01-01

    Language and culture are highly interrelated, that is to say, language is not only the carrier of culture but it is also restricted by culture. Therefore, foreign language teaching aiming at cultivate students' intercultural communication should take culture differences into consideration. In this paper, the relationship between language and culture will be discussed. Then I will illustrate the importance of intercultural communication. Finally, according to the present situation of foreign language teaching in China, several strategies for cultural input in and out of class will be suggested.

  5. Mobile gaze input system for pervasive interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    feedback to the user in response to the received command input. The unit provides feedback to the user on how to position the mobile unit in front of his eyes. The gaze tracking unit interacts with one or more controlled devices via wireless or wired communications. Example devices include a lock......, a thermostat, a light or a TV. The connection between the gaze tracking unit may be temporary or longer-lasting. The gaze tracking unit may detect features of the eye that provide information about the identity of the user....

  6. Flexible input, dazzling output with IBM i

    CERN Document Server

    Victória-Pereira, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Link your IBM i system to the modern business server world! This book presents easier and more flexible ways to get data into your IBM i system, along with rather surprising methods to export and present the vital business data it contains. You'll learn how to automate file transfers, seamlessly connect PC applications with your RPG programs, and much more. Input operations will become more flexible and user-proof, with self-correcting import processes and direct file transfers that require a minimum of user intervention. Also learn novel ways to present information: your DB2 data will look gr

  7. Stochastic conditional intensity processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    model allows for a wide range of (cross-)autocorrelation structures in multivariate point processes. The model is estimated by simulated maximum likelihood (SML) using the efficient importance sampling (EIS) technique. By modeling price intensities based on NYSE trading, we provide significant evidence......In this article, we introduce the so-called stochastic conditional intensity (SCI) model by extending Russell’s (1999) autoregressive conditional intensity (ACI) model by a latent common dynamic factor that jointly drives the individual intensity components. We show by simulations that the proposed...... for a joint latent factor and show that its inclusion allows for an improved and more parsimonious specification of the multivariate intensity process...

  8. The Importance of Input and Interaction in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党春花

    2009-01-01

    As is known to us, input and interaction play the crucial roles in second language acquisition (SLA). Different linguistic schools have different explanations to input and interaction Behaviorist theories hold a view that input is composed of stimuli and response, putting more emphasis on the importance of input, while mentalist theories find input is a necessary condition to SLA, not a sufficient condition. At present, social interaction theories, which is one type of cognitive linguistics, suggests that besides input, interaction is also essential to language acquisition. Then, this essay will discuss how input and interaction result in SLA.

  9. Brighter H- source for the intense pulsed neutron source accelerator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipp, V.; DeWitt, A.; Madsen, J.

    1983-01-01

    Further increases in the beam intensity of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory required the replacement of the H - source with a higher current source. A magnetron ion source of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) design was adapted with a grooved cathode to provide a stable 40 to 50 mA of beam operating at 30 Hz for up to a 90 μs pulse duration. Problems of space charge blowup due to the lack of neutralization of the H - beam were solved by injecting additional gs into the 20 keV transport system. The source has recently been installed in the machine and the available input to the accelerator has more than doubled

  10. Programme Evaluation: Maintaining Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, A.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery (coordinator inputs and…

  11. [Prosody, speech input and language acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungheim, M; Miller, S; Kühn, D; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    In order to acquire language, children require speech input. The prosody of the speech input plays an important role. In most cultures adults modify their code when communicating with children. Compared to normal speech this code differs especially with regard to prosody. For this review a selective literature search in PubMed and Scopus was performed. Prosodic characteristics are a key feature of spoken language. By analysing prosodic features, children gain knowledge about underlying grammatical structures. Child-directed speech (CDS) is modified in a way that meaningful sequences are highlighted acoustically so that important information can be extracted from the continuous speech flow more easily. CDS is said to enhance the representation of linguistic signs. Taking into consideration what has previously been described in the literature regarding the perception of suprasegmentals, CDS seems to be able to support language acquisition due to the correspondence of prosodic and syntactic units. However, no findings have been reported, stating that the linguistically reduced CDS could hinder first language acquisition.

  12. Radionuclides in the oceans inputs and inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, P.; Germain, P.; Metivier, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after Chernobyl, following the decision by France to end nuclear weapon testing in the Pacific ocean, after the end of the OECD-NEA Coordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance programme related to low-level waste dumping in the deep ocean, and one hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity, the IPSN wanted to compile and review the available information on artificial radioactivity levels in seas and oceans. International experts have been invited to present data on inputs and inventories of radionuclides in the marine environment, and to describe the evolution of radioactivity levels in water, sediments and living organisms. Different sources of radionuclides present in the aquatic environment are described: atmospheric fallout before and after Chernobyl, industrial wastes, dumped wastes and ships, nuclear ship accidents, river inputs, earth-sea atmospheric transfers and experimental sites for nuclear testing. Radioactivity levels due to these sources are dealt with at ocean (Atlantic, Pacific and Indian) and sea level (Channel, North Sea, Irish Sea, Mediterranean, Baltic, Black Sea and Arctic seas). These data collected in the present book give an up-to-date assessment of radionuclide distributions which will be very useful to address scientific and wider public concerns about radionuclides found in the aquatic environment. It gives many references useful to those who want to deepen their understanding of particular aspects of marine radioecology. (authors)

  13. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants

  14. FED, Geometry Input Generator for Program TRUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Elrod, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP (NESC 771). TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, or three dimensions. 2 - Method of solution: The region of interest must first be divided into areas which may consist of a common material. The boundaries of these areas are the required FED input. Each area is subdivided into volume nodes, and the geometrical properties are calculated. Finally, FED connects the adjacent nodes to one another, using the proper surface area, interface distance, and, if specified, radiation form factor and interface conductance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Rectangular bodies can only be approximated by using a very large radius of revolution compared to the total radial thickness and by considering only a small angular segment in the circumferential direction

  15. Atmospheric Inputs of Nitrogen, Carbon, and Phosphorus across an Urban Area: Unaccounted Fluxes and Canopy Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decina, Stephen M.; Templer, Pamela H.; Hutyra, Lucy R.

    2018-02-01

    Rates of atmospheric deposition are declining across the United States, yet urban areas remain hotspots of atmospheric deposition. While past studies show elevated rates of inorganic nitrogen (N) deposition in cities, less is known about atmospheric inputs of organic N, organic carbon (C), and organic and inorganic phosphorus (P), all of which can affect ecosystem processes, water quality, and air quality. Further, the effect of the tree canopy on amounts and forms of nutrients reaching urban ground surfaces is not well-characterized. We measured growing season rates of total N, organic C, and total P in bulk atmospheric inputs, throughfall, and soil solution around the greater Boston area. We found that organic N constitutes a third of total N inputs, organic C inputs are comparable to rural inputs, and inorganic P inputs are 1.2 times higher than those in sewage effluent. Atmospheric inputs are enhanced two-to-eight times in late spring and are elevated beneath tree canopies, suggesting that trees augment atmospheric inputs to ground surfaces. Additionally, throughfall inputs may directly enter runoff when trees extend above impervious surfaces, as is the case with 26.1% of Boston's tree canopy. Our results indicate that the urban atmosphere is a significant source of elemental inputs that may impact urban ecosystems and efforts to improve water quality, particularly in terms of P. Further, as cities create policies encouraging tree planting to provide ecosystem services, locating trees above permeable surfaces to reduce runoff nutrient loads may be essential to managing urban biogeochemical cycling and water quality.

  16. Effect of grazing frequency and intensity on Lolium perenne L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) system. Low frequency, low intensity grazing produced lower CDMD and herbage N levels than higher grazing frequencies and intensities. These differences were, however, generally small. Overall, levels of herbage digestibility (estimated ...

  17. Characterising Event-Based DOM Inputs to an Urban Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, D.; Bradley, C.; Hannah, D. M.; Van Loon, A.; Sadler, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) composition in urban streams is dominated by terrestrial inputs after rainfall events. Urban streams have particularly strong terrestrial-riverine connections due to direct input from terrestrial drainage systems. Event driven DOM inputs can have substantial adverse effects on water quality. Despite this, DOM from important catchment sources such as road drains and Combined Sewage Overflows (CSO's) remains poorly characterised within urban watersheds. We studied DOM sources within an urbanised, headwater watershed in Birmingham, UK. Samples from terrestrial sources (roads, roofs and a CSO), were collected manually after the onset of rainfall events of varying magnitude, and again within 24-hrs of the event ending. Terrestrial samples were analysed for fluorescence, absorbance and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentration. Fluorescence and absorbance indices were calculated, and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was undertaken to aid sample characterization. Substantial differences in fluorescence, absorbance, and DOC were observed between source types. PARAFAC-derived components linked to organic pollutants were generally highest within road derived samples, whilst humic-like components tended to be highest within roof samples. Samples taken from the CSO generally contained low fluorescence, however this likely represents a dilution effect. Variation within source groups was particularly high, and local land use seemed to be the driving factor for road and roof drain DOM character and DOC quantity. Furthermore, high variation in fluorescence, absorbance and DOC was apparent between all sources depending on event type. Drier antecedent conditions in particular were linked to greater presence of terrestrially-derived components and higher DOC content. Our study indicates that high variations in DOM character occur between source types, and over small spatial scales. Road drains located on main roads appear to contain the poorest

  18. Fogwater Inputs to a Cloud Forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, W.; Burkard, R.; Holwerda, F.; Bruijnzeel, S.; Scatena, F. N.; Siegwolf, R.

    2002-12-01

    Fog is highly persistent at upper elevations of humid tropical mountains and is an important pathway for water and nutrient inputs to mountain forest ecosystems. Measurements of fogwater fluxes were performed in the Luquillo mountains of Puerto Rico using the eddy covariance approach and a Caltech-type active strand cloudwater collector. Rainfall and throughfall were collected between 25 June--7 August 2002. Samples of fog, rain, stemflow and throughfall were analyzed for inorganic ion and stable isotope concentrations (δ18O and δD). Initial results indicate that fog inputs can occur during periods without rain and last for up to several days. The isotope ratios in rainwater and fogwater are rather similar, indicative of the proximity of the Carribbean Sea and the close interrelation between the origins of fog and rain at our experimental site. Largest differences in isotope ratios for fog were found between daytime convective and nighttime stable conditions. Throughfall was always exceeding rainfall, indicating (a) the relevance of fogwater inputs and (b) the potentially significant undersampling of rainfall due to relatively high wind speeds (5.7 m/s mean) and the exposition of our field site close to a mountain ridge. Our size-resolved measurements of cloud droplets (40 size bins between 2 and 50 μm aerodynamic diameter) indicate that the liquid water content of fog in the Luquillo mountains is 5 times higher than previously assumed, and thus does not differ from the values reported from other mountain ranges in other climate zones. Average deposition rates are 0.88 mm and 6.5 mm per day for fog and rain, respectively.

  19. Beyond the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex: Vestibular Input is Processed Centrally to Achieve Visual Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin S. Dalmaijer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents a re-analysis of data from Zink et al. (1998, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 107, who administered galvanic vestibular stimulation through unipolar direct current. They placed electrodes on each mastoid and applied either right or left anodal stimulation. Ocular torsion and visual tilt were measured under different stimulation intensities. New modelling introduced here demonstrates that directly proportional linear models fit reasonably well with the relationship between vestibular input and visual tilt, but not to that between vestibular input and ocular torsion. Instead, an exponential model characterised by a decreasing slope and an asymptote fitted best. These results demonstrate that in the results presented by Zink et al. (1998, ocular torsion could not completely account for visual tilt. This suggests that vestibular input is processed centrally to stabilise vision when ocular torsion is insufficient. Potential mechanisms and seemingly conflicting literature are discussed.

  20. Calculating the sensitivity of wind turbine loads to wind inputs using response surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinker, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    at a low computational cost. Sobol sensitivity indices (SIs) can then be calculated with relative ease using the calibrated response surface. The proposed methodology is demonstrated by calculating the total sensitivity of the maximum blade root bending moment of the WindPACT 5 MW reference model to four......This paper presents a methodology to calculate wind turbine load sensitivities to turbulence parameters through the use of response surfaces. A response surface is a high-dimensional polynomial surface that can be calibrated to any set of input/output data and then used to generate synthetic data...... turbulence input parameters: a reference mean wind speed, a reference turbulence intensity, the Kaimal length scale, and a novel parameter reflecting the nonstationarity present in the inflow turbulence. The input/output data used to calibrate the response surface were generated for a previous project...

  1. Do dyslexics have auditory input processing difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether....... The finding suggests that input processing difficulties are associated with the phonological deficit, but that these difficulties may be stronger above the level of phoneme perception.......Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether...... a group of dyslexics had word level receptive difficulties using an auditory lexical decision task with long words and nonsense words. The dyslexics were slower and less accurate than chronological age controls in an auditory lexical decision task, with disproportionate low performance on nonsense words...

  2. Auto Draw from Excel Input Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Goullioud, Renaud; Cox, Brian; Grimes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The design process often involves the use of Excel files during project development. To facilitate communications of the information in the Excel files, drawings are often generated. During the design process, the Excel files are updated often to reflect new input. The problem is that the drawings often lag the updates, often leading to confusion of the current state of the design. The use of this program allows visualization of complex data in a format that is more easily understandable than pages of numbers. Because the graphical output can be updated automatically, the manual labor of diagram drawing can be eliminated. The more frequent update of system diagrams can reduce confusion and reduce errors and is likely to uncover symmetric problems earlier in the design cycle, thus reducing rework and redesign.

  3. Optimizing microwave photodetection: input-output theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, M.; Govia, L. C. G.; Vavilov, M. G.; McDermott, R.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    High fidelity microwave photon counting is an important tool for various areas from background radiation analysis in astronomy to the implementation of circuit quantum electrodynamic architectures for the realization of a scalable quantum information processor. In this work we describe a microwave photon counter coupled to a semi-infinite transmission line. We employ input-output theory to examine a continuously driven transmission line as well as traveling photon wave packets. Using analytic and numerical methods, we calculate the conditions on the system parameters necessary to optimize measurement and achieve high detection efficiency. With this we can derive a general matching condition depending on the different system rates, under which the measurement process is optimal.

  4. Modeling the short-run effect of fiscal stimuli on GDP : A new semi-closed input-output model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart; Yang, Cuihong

    In this study, we propose a new semi-closed input-output model, which reconciles input-output analysis with modern consumption theories. It can simulate changes in household consumption behavior when exogenous stimulus policies lead to higher disposable income levels. It is useful for quantifying

  5. Modeling the short-run effect of fiscal stimuli on GDP : A new semi-closed input-output model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart; Yang, Cuihong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new semi-closed input-output model, which reconciles input-output analysis with modern consumption theories. It can simulate changes in household consumption behavior when exogenous stimulus policies lead to higher disposable income levels. It is useful for quantifying

  6. Input Mezzanine Card for the Fast Tracker at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, Tomoya; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Tracker (FTK) is an integral part of trigger upgrade program for the ATLAS experiment. At LHC Run 2, which started operations in June 2015 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the luminosity could reach up to 2*1034 cm-2s-1 and an average of 40-50 simultaneous proton collisions per beam crossing will be expected. The higher luminosity demands a more sophisticated trigger system with increased use of tracking information. The Fast Tracker is a highly-parallel hardware system that rapidly finds and reconstructs tracks in the ATLAS inner-detector at the triggering stage. This paper focuses on the FTK Input Mezzanine Board that is input module of entire system. The functions of this board are to receive the insertable b-layer, pixel and micro-strip data from the ATLAS Silicon read-out drivers, perform clustering, and forward the data to its mother board. Mass production and quality control tests of Mezzanine Boards were completed, and staged installation and commissioning are ongoing. Details of its fun...

  7. Seaweed community response to a massive CO2 input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina; Brito, Alberto; Rodríguez, Adriana; Balsalobre, Marc; Mendoza, José Carlos; Martínez, David; Hernández, José Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the structure of seaweed communities were examined following a massive CO2 input caused by a submarine eruption near the coast of El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). The event lasted almost five months (October 2011-March 2012) and created a significant pH gradient. Specifically, we compared three different zones: highly affected with extreme low pH (6.7-7.3), affected with low pH (7.6-7.8), and unaffected ambient pH zone (∼8.1) according to the pH gradient generated by the predominate currents and waves in the south of the island. Studies were carried out before, during and after the CO2 input event in each zone. We found community-wide effects on seaweed communities during the eruption; these included changes in species abundance and changes in the diversity. However, changes in all these community traits were only evident in the highly affected zone, where there were major shifts in the seaweed community, with a replacement of Lobophora variegata by ephemeral seaweeds. Lobophora variegata dropped in cover from 87-94 to 27% while ephemeral seaweeds increased 6-10 to 29%. When the impact ended Lobophora variegata began to recover reaching a cover higher than 60%. In the moderate affected area the Lobophora variegata canopies maintained their integrity avoiding phase shifts to turfs. Here the only significant changes were the reduction of the cover of the crustose and geniculate coralline algae.

  8. Ankylosing Spondylitis and Posture Control: The Role of Visual Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Marco De Nunzio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the motor control during quiet stance in patients with established ankylosing spondylitis (AS and to evaluate the effect of visual input on the maintenance of a quiet posture. Methods. 12 male AS patients (mean age 50.1 ± 13.2 years and 12 matched healthy subjects performed 2 sessions of 3 trials in quiet stance, with eyes open (EO and with eyes closed (EC on a baropodometric platform. The oscillation of the centre of feet pressure (CoP was acquired. Indices of stability and balance control were assessed by the sway path (SP of the CoP, the frequency bandwidth (FB1 that includes the 80% of the area under the amplitude spectrum, the mean amplitude of the peaks (MP of the sway density curve (SDC, and the mean distance (MD between 2 peaks of the SDC. Results. In severe AS patients, the MD between two peaks of the SDC and the SP of the center of feet pressure were significantly higher than controls during both EO and EC conditions. The MP was significantly reduced just on EC. Conclusions. Ankylosing spondylitis exerts negative effect on postural stability, not compensable by visual inputs. Our findings may be useful in the rehabilitative management of the increased risk of falling in AS.

  9. Ankylosing Spondylitis and Posture Control: The Role of Visual Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Iervolino, Salvatore; Zincarelli, Carmela; Di Gioia, Luisa; Rengo, Giuseppe; Multari, Vincenzo; Peluso, Rosario; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Pappone, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the motor control during quiet stance in patients with established ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to evaluate the effect of visual input on the maintenance of a quiet posture. Methods. 12 male AS patients (mean age 50.1 ± 13.2 years) and 12 matched healthy subjects performed 2 sessions of 3 trials in quiet stance, with eyes open (EO) and with eyes closed (EC) on a baropodometric platform. The oscillation of the centre of feet pressure (CoP) was acquired. Indices of stability and balance control were assessed by the sway path (SP) of the CoP, the frequency bandwidth (FB1) that includes the 80% of the area under the amplitude spectrum, the mean amplitude of the peaks (MP) of the sway density curve (SDC), and the mean distance (MD) between 2 peaks of the SDC. Results. In severe AS patients, the MD between two peaks of the SDC and the SP of the center of feet pressure were significantly higher than controls during both EO and EC conditions. The MP was significantly reduced just on EC. Conclusions. Ankylosing spondylitis exerts negative effect on postural stability, not compensable by visual inputs. Our findings may be useful in the rehabilitative management of the increased risk of falling in AS. PMID:25821831

  10. Laterodorsal nucleus of the thalamus: A processor of somatosensory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdudnaya, Tatiana; Keller, Asaf

    2008-04-20

    The laterodorsal (LD) nucleus of the thalamus has been considered a "higher order" nucleus that provides inputs to limbic cortical areas. Although its functions are largely unknown, it is often considered to be involved in spatial learning and memory. Here we provide evidence that LD is part of a hitherto unknown pathway for processing somatosensory information. Juxtacellular and extracellular recordings from LD neurons reveal that they respond to vibrissa stimulation with short latency (median = 7 ms) and large magnitude responses (median = 1.2 spikes/stimulus). Most neurons (62%) had large receptive fields, responding to six and more individual vibrissae. Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal nucleus interpolaris (SpVi) evoked short latency responses (median = 3.8 ms) in vibrissa-responsive LD neurons. Labeling produced by anterograde and retrograde neuroanatomical tracers confirmed that LD neurons receive direct inputs from SpVi. Electrophysiological and neuroanatomical analyses revealed also that LD projects upon the cingulate and retrosplenial cortex, but has only sparse projections to the barrel cortex. These findings suggest that LD is part of a novel processing stream involved in spatial orientation and learning related to somatosensory cues. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  12. Distribution Development for STORM Ingestion Input Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulton, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Sandia-developed Transport of Radioactive Materials (STORM) code suite is used as part of the Radioisotope Power System Launch Safety (RPSLS) program to perform statistical modeling of the consequences due to release of radioactive material given a launch accident. As part of this modeling, STORM samples input parameters from probability distributions with some parameters treated as constants. This report described the work done to convert four of these constant inputs (Consumption Rate, Average Crop Yield, Cropland to Landuse Database Ratio, and Crop Uptake Factor) to sampled values. Consumption rate changed from a constant value of 557.68 kg / yr to a normal distribution with a mean of 102.96 kg / yr and a standard deviation of 2.65 kg / yr. Meanwhile, Average Crop Yield changed from a constant value of 3.783 kg edible / m 2 to a normal distribution with a mean of 3.23 kg edible / m 2 and a standard deviation of 0.442 kg edible / m 2 . The Cropland to Landuse Database ratio changed from a constant value of 0.0996 (9.96%) to a normal distribution with a mean value of 0.0312 (3.12%) and a standard deviation of 0.00292 (0.29%). Finally the crop uptake factor changed from a constant value of 6.37e-4 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg) to a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean value of 3.38e-4 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg) and a standard deviation value of 3.33 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg)

  13. Asymmetric temporal integration of layer 4 and layer 2/3 inputs in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Giao B; Dan, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Neocortical neurons in vivo receive concurrent synaptic inputs from multiple sources, including feedforward, horizontal, and feedback pathways. Layer 2/3 of the visual cortex receives feedforward input from layer 4 and horizontal input from layer 2/3. Firing of the pyramidal neurons, which carries the output to higher cortical areas, depends critically on the interaction of these pathways. Here we examined synaptic integration of inputs from layer 4 and layer 2/3 in rat visual cortical slices. We found that the integration is sublinear and temporally asymmetric, with larger responses if layer 2/3 input preceded layer 4 input. The sublinearity depended on inhibition, and the asymmetry was largely attributable to the difference between the two inhibitory inputs. Interestingly, the asymmetric integration was specific to pyramidal neurons, and it strongly affected their spiking output. Thus via cortical inhibition, the temporal order of activation of layer 2/3 and layer 4 pathways can exert powerful control of cortical output during visual processing.

  14. Attributing uncertainty in streamflow simulations due to variable inputs via the Quantile Flow Deviation metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Syed Abu; Marshall, Lucy; Sharma, Ashish

    2018-06-01

    Every model to characterise a real world process is affected by uncertainty. Selecting a suitable model is a vital aspect of engineering planning and design. Observation or input errors make the prediction of modelled responses more uncertain. By way of a recently developed attribution metric, this study is aimed at developing a method for analysing variability in model inputs together with model structure variability to quantify their relative contributions in typical hydrological modelling applications. The Quantile Flow Deviation (QFD) metric is used to assess these alternate sources of uncertainty. The Australian Water Availability Project (AWAP) precipitation data for four different Australian catchments is used to analyse the impact of spatial rainfall variability on simulated streamflow variability via the QFD. The QFD metric attributes the variability in flow ensembles to uncertainty associated with the selection of a model structure and input time series. For the case study catchments, the relative contribution of input uncertainty due to rainfall is higher than that due to potential evapotranspiration, and overall input uncertainty is significant compared to model structure and parameter uncertainty. Overall, this study investigates the propagation of input uncertainty in a daily streamflow modelling scenario and demonstrates how input errors manifest across different streamflow magnitudes.

  15. Investing in biogas: Timing, technological choice and the value of flexibility from input mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Corato, Luca; Moretto, Michele

    2011-01-01

    In a stochastic dynamic frame, we study the technology choice problem of a continuous co-digestion biogas plant where input factors are substitutes but need to be mixed together to provide output. Given any initial rule for the composition of the feedstock, we consider the possibility of revising it if economic circumstances make it profitable. Flexibility in the mix is an advantage under randomly fluctuating input costs and comes at a higher investment cost. We show that the degree of flexibility in the productive technology installed depends on the value of the option to profitably re-arrange the input mix. Such option adds value to the project in that it provides a device for hedging against fluctuations in the input relative convenience. Accounting for such value we discuss the trade-off between investment timing and profit smoothing flexibility. - Research highlights: ► We study the technology choice problem of a continuous co-digestion biogas plant where input factors are substitutes but need to be mixed together to provide output. ► We show that the degree of flexibility in the productive technology installed depends on the value of the option to profitably re-arrange the input mix. ► Such option adds value to the project in that it provides a device for hedging against fluctuations in the input relative convenience.

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  17. AGS intensity upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    After the successful completion of the AGS Booster and several upgrades of the AGS, a new intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 protons per pulse accelerated to 24 GeV was achieved. The high intensity slow-extracted beam program at the AGS typically serves about five production targets and about eight experiments including three rare Kaon decay experiments. Further intensity upgrades are being discussed that could increase the average delivered beam intensity by up to a factor of four

  18. Reconstruction of neuronal input through modeling single-neuron dynamics and computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Qing; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Chan, Wai-lok

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models provide a mathematical description of neuron activity, which can better understand and quantify neural computations and corresponding biophysical mechanisms evoked by stimulus. In this paper, based on the output spike train evoked by the acupuncture mechanical stimulus, we present two different levels of models to describe the input-output system to achieve the reconstruction of neuronal input. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps: First, considering the neuronal spiking event as a Gamma stochastic process. The scale parameter and the shape parameter of Gamma process are, respectively, defined as two spiking characteristics, which are estimated by a state-space method. Then, leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model is used to mimic the response system and the estimated spiking characteristics are transformed into two temporal input parameters of LIF model, through two conversion formulas. We test this reconstruction method by three different groups of simulation data. All three groups of estimates reconstruct input parameters with fairly high accuracy. We then use this reconstruction method to estimate the non-measurable acupuncture input parameters. Results show that under three different frequencies of acupuncture stimulus conditions, estimated input parameters have an obvious difference. The higher the frequency of the acupuncture stimulus is, the higher the accuracy of reconstruction is.

  19. Reconstruction of neuronal input through modeling single-neuron dynamics and computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Qing; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin, E-mail: dengbin@tju.edu.cn; Chan, Wai-lok [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Mathematical models provide a mathematical description of neuron activity, which can better understand and quantify neural computations and corresponding biophysical mechanisms evoked by stimulus. In this paper, based on the output spike train evoked by the acupuncture mechanical stimulus, we present two different levels of models to describe the input-output system to achieve the reconstruction of neuronal input. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps: First, considering the neuronal spiking event as a Gamma stochastic process. The scale parameter and the shape parameter of Gamma process are, respectively, defined as two spiking characteristics, which are estimated by a state-space method. Then, leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model is used to mimic the response system and the estimated spiking characteristics are transformed into two temporal input parameters of LIF model, through two conversion formulas. We test this reconstruction method by three different groups of simulation data. All three groups of estimates reconstruct input parameters with fairly high accuracy. We then use this reconstruction method to estimate the non-measurable acupuncture input parameters. Results show that under three different frequencies of acupuncture stimulus conditions, estimated input parameters have an obvious difference. The higher the frequency of the acupuncture stimulus is, the higher the accuracy of reconstruction is.

  20. Critical carbon input to maintain current soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Luo, Zhongkui; Han, Pengfei; Chen, Huansheng; Xu, Jingjing

    2016-01-13

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  1. Quantified carbon input for maintaining existing soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1°× 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  2. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner's linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner's ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language.

  3. Analysis on relation between safety input and accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Qing-guo; ZHANG Xue-mu; LI Chun-hui

    2007-01-01

    The number of safety input directly determines the level of safety, and there exists dialectical and unified relations between safety input and accidents. Based on the field investigation and reliable data, this paper deeply studied the dialectical relationship between safety input and accidents, and acquired the conclusions. The security situation of the coal enterprises was related to the security input rate, being effected little by the security input scale, and build the relationship model between safety input and accidents on this basis, that is the accident model.

  4. Modal Parameter Identification from Responses of General Unknown Random Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    Modal parameter identification from ambient responses due to a general unknown random inputs is investigated. Existing identification techniques which are based on assumptions of white noise and or stationary random inputs are utilized even though the inputs conditions are not satisfied....... This is accomplished via adding. In cascade. A force cascade conversion to the structures system under consideration. The input to the force conversion system is white noise and the output of which is the actual force(s) applied to the structure. The white noise input(s) and the structures responses are then used...

  5. Low-carbon building assessment and multi-scale input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. Q.; Chen, H.; Chen, Z. M.; Zhang, Bo; Shao, L.; Guo, S.; Zhou, S. Y.; Jiang, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Presented as a low-carbon building evaluation framework in this paper are detailed carbon emission account procedures for the life cycle of buildings in terms of nine stages as building construction, fitment, outdoor facility construction, transportation, operation, waste treatment, property management, demolition, and disposal for buildings, supported by integrated carbon intensity databases based on multi-scale input-output analysis, essential for low-carbon planning, procurement and supply chain design, and logistics management.

  6. DETERMINANTS OF FARMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO PAYFOR SUBSIDISED FARM INPUTS IN MALAWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laston Petro Manja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most recently, citing low price elasticity of demand for inputs in theagro-based Malawian economy, economists and non-economistshave advocated for increasing prices forsubsidizedinputs. However,elasticities alone arenot enoughto make inferencessince knowledgeof whether higher prices are indeed affordableby farmers is ofspecialsignificance. This study uses the standard The results revealthat smallholder farmers are willing to pay for more inputs in theFarm Input Subsidy Programme (FISP withthe mean WTP for eachhouseholdat MK 1000beingabout ten50kgfertilizerbags and thetotal WTP at the same price being46891 bags per yearfor4742 observedhouseholds. Using datafrom the Malawi 2011/12 FarmInput Subsidy Study (FISS4, the model identifies age,sexandeducationof household head, farm size,food securityas well asradioownershipas positivedeterminants ofWTP;withcoupon receipt andfarm incomes as negative determinants.

  7. Labour input in construction of composite structures of the Balakovo NPP reactor compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alasyuk, G.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    Technical-economical results achieved when constructing the Balakovo NPP second unit reactor compartment structures are presented. The obtained data analysis shows that in the case of building the walls of non-sealed reactor compartment section in the form of composite structures the major part of labour input requirements (54-59%) falls at works on production and mounting of these structures, performed at auxiliary plants. Labour input for works performed the construction (unit-cell and space frame mounting, preparation of units for concreting, joint sealing, concrete placement) make up 41-46%, and labour input for enlarged unit-cell mounting make up 8%. Labour input per 1 m 3 of the wall structure with 0.6 and 0.9 m thicness in the monolith option are respectively by 19 an 23% higher than the same indices for composite

  8. Effect of input compression and input frequency response on music perception in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emily R; Jones, Linor L; Fraser, Matthew; Lockley, Morag; Hill-Feltham, Penelope; McKay, Colette M

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether modifications to input compression and input frequency response characteristics can improve music-listening satisfaction in cochlear implant users. Experiment 1 compared three pre-processed versions of music and speech stimuli in a laboratory setting: original, compressed, and flattened frequency response. Music excerpts comprised three music genres (classical, country, and jazz), and a running speech excerpt was compared. Experiment 2 implemented a flattened input frequency response in the speech processor program. In a take-home trial, participants compared unaltered and flattened frequency responses. Ten and twelve adult Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant users participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Experiment 1 revealed a significant preference for music stimuli with a flattened frequency response compared to both original and compressed stimuli, whereas there was a significant preference for the original (rising) frequency response for speech stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed no significant mean preference for the flattened frequency response, with 9 of 11 subjects preferring the rising frequency response. Input compression did not alter music enjoyment. Comparison of the two experiments indicated that individual frequency response preferences may depend on the genre or familiarity, and particularly whether the music contained lyrics.

  9. Fertilizing growth: Agricultural inputs and their effects in economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, John W; McCord, Gordon C

    2017-07-01

    This paper estimates the role of agronomic inputs in cereal yield improvements and the consequences for countries' processes of structural change. The results suggest a clear role for fertilizer, modern seeds and water in boosting yields. We then test for respective empirical links between agricultural yields and economic growth, labor share in agriculture and non-agricultural value added per worker. The identification strategy includes a novel instrumental variable that exploits the unique economic geography of fertilizer production and transport costs to countries' agricultural heartlands. We estimate that a half ton increase in staple yields generates a 14 to 19 percent higher GDP per capita and a 4.6 to 5.6 percentage point lower labor share in agriculture five years later. The results suggest a strong role for agricultural productivity as a driver of structural change.

  10. Hvede, rug og triticale til energi - input, udbytte og kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2000-01-01

    Yield and quality of wheat, rye or triticale for energy purposes have been evaluated in field trials. Triticale and rye had a higher biomass production than wheat in spite of a lower input of nitrogen. The straw fraction contained more chloride, potassium and sodium than the grain fraction...... of chloride and sulphur in the straw as well as content of potassium, sodium and ash may be reduced due to precipitation before harvest........ These minerals may lead to corrosion processes, ash slagging and fouling. The grain fraction contained more sulphur and nitrogen, which may lead to emission of SO2 and NOx. Fertilizers containing chloride and sulphur, may lead to an increased content of chloride and sulphur in the straw fraction. Content...

  11. Tissue-Based MRI Intensity Standardization: Application to Multicentric Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Robitaille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensity standardization in MRI aims at correcting scanner-dependent intensity variations. Existing simple and robust techniques aim at matching the input image histogram onto a standard, while we think that standardization should aim at matching spatially corresponding tissue intensities. In this study, we present a novel automatic technique, called STI for STandardization of Intensities, which not only shares the simplicity and robustness of histogram-matching techniques, but also incorporates tissue spatial intensity information. STI uses joint intensity histograms to determine intensity correspondence in each tissue between the input and standard images. We compared STI to an existing histogram-matching technique on two multicentric datasets, Pilot E-ADNI and ADNI, by measuring the intensity error with respect to the standard image after performing nonlinear registration. The Pilot E-ADNI dataset consisted in 3 subjects each scanned in 7 different sites. The ADNI dataset consisted in 795 subjects scanned in more than 50 different sites. STI was superior to the histogram-matching technique, showing significantly better intensity matching for the brain white matter with respect to the standard image.

  12. Robust input design for nonlinear dynamic modeling of AUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Nowrouz Mohammad; Valadi, Mehrdad

    2017-09-01

    Input design has a dominant role in developing the dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) through system identification. Optimal input design is the process of generating informative inputs that can be used to generate the good quality dynamic model of AUVs. In a problem with optimal input design, the desired input signal depends on the unknown system which is intended to be identified. In this paper, the input design approach which is robust to uncertainties in model parameters is used. The Bayesian robust design strategy is applied to design input signals for dynamic modeling of AUVs. The employed approach can design multiple inputs and apply constraints on an AUV system's inputs and outputs. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to solve the constraint robust optimization problem. The presented algorithm is used for designing the input signals for an AUV, and the estimate obtained by robust input design is compared with that of the optimal input design. According to the results, proposed input design can satisfy both robustness of constraints and optimality. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Compensating Level-Dependent Frequency Representation in Auditory Cortex by Synaptic Integration of Corticocortical Input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max F K Happel

    Full Text Available Robust perception of auditory objects over a large range of sound intensities is a fundamental feature of the auditory system. However, firing characteristics of single neurons across the entire auditory system, like the frequency tuning, can change significantly with stimulus intensity. Physiological correlates of level-constancy of auditory representations hence should be manifested on the level of larger neuronal assemblies or population patterns. In this study we have investigated how information of frequency and sound level is integrated on the circuit-level in the primary auditory cortex (AI of the Mongolian gerbil. We used a combination of pharmacological silencing of corticocortically relayed activity and laminar current source density (CSD analysis. Our data demonstrate that with increasing stimulus intensities progressively lower frequencies lead to the maximal impulse response within cortical input layers at a given cortical site inherited from thalamocortical synaptic inputs. We further identified a temporally precise intercolumnar synaptic convergence of early thalamocortical and horizontal corticocortical inputs. Later tone-evoked activity in upper layers showed a preservation of broad tonotopic tuning across sound levels without shifts towards lower frequencies. Synaptic integration within corticocortical circuits may hence contribute to a level-robust representation of auditory information on a neuronal population level in the auditory cortex.

  14. Metabonomics and Intensive Care

    OpenAIRE

    Antcliffe, D; Gordon, AC

    2016-01-01

    This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency medicine 2016. Other selected articles can be found online at http://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2016. Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901.

  15. Discrete Input Signaling for MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine; Rezki, Zouheir; Ghrayeb, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the achievable secrecy rate of visible light communication (VLC) links for discrete input distributions. We consider single user single eavesdropper multiple-input single-output (MISO) links. In addition, both beamforming

  16. Fertilizer consumption and energy input for 16 crops in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenumey, Sheila E.; Capel, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Fertilizer use by U.S. agriculture has increased over the past few decades. The production and transportation of fertilizers (nitrogen, N; phosphorus, P; potassium, K) are energy intensive. In general, about a third of the total energy input to crop production goes to the production of fertilizers, one-third to mechanization, and one-third to other inputs including labor, transportation, pesticides, and electricity. For some crops, fertilizer is the largest proportion of total energy inputs. Energy required for the production and transportation of fertilizers, as a percentage of total energy input, was determined for 16 crops in the U.S. to be: 19–60% for seven grains, 10–41% for two oilseeds, 25% for potatoes, 12–30% for three vegetables, 2–23% for two fruits, and 3% for dry beans. The harvested-area weighted-average of the fraction of crop fertilizer energy to the total input energy was 28%. The current sources of fertilizers for U.S. agriculture are dependent on imports, availability of natural gas, or limited mineral resources. Given these dependencies plus the high energy costs for fertilizers, an integrated approach for their efficient and sustainable use is needed that will simultaneously maintain or increase crop yields and food quality while decreasing adverse impacts on the environment.

  17. Radioactive inputs to the North Sea and the Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (radioactivity; radioisotopes; discharges from nuclear establishments); data sources (statutory requirements); sources of liquid radioactive waste (figure showing location of principal sources of radioactive discharges; tables listing principal discharges by activity and by nature of radioisotope); Central Electricity Generating Board nuclear power stations; research and industrial establishments; Ministy of Defence establishments; other UK inputs of radioactive waste; total inputs to the North Sea and the Channel (direct inputs; river inputs; adjacent sea areas); conclusions. (U.K.)

  18. Calibrating the input accountancy tanks on THORP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.G.; Hillier, A.P.; Temple, A.

    1995-01-01

    BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), at Sellafield in the UK, processes oxide fuels from customers around the world. The fuel moves through the plant from shearing and dissolution in the Head End and subsequently to solvent extraction in the Chemical Plant. Clarified dissolver liquor is accumulated in three large buffer storage tanks (each of approximately 75 m 3 capacity), in the Head End prior to feeding to the Chemical Plant. The amount of dissolver liquor being passed to these tanks is accurately measured in one of two Input Accountancy Tanks, which are each of 23 m 3 working capacity, and are equipped with high accuracy weight and level measurement systems. Several papers have been published which describe the principles applied to achieve the Safeguarding of THORP. This paper describes the setting to work of a key measurement point in the THORP process and details the complex trials that were begun during the early commissioning phases, to ensure that these accountancy systems would eventually be fully characterized

  19. Information Fusion of Conflicting Input Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Mönks

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensors, and also actuators or external sources such as databases, serve as data sources in order to realise condition monitoring of industrial applications or the acquisition of characteristic parameters like production speed or reject rate. Modern facilities create such a large amount of complex data that a machine operator is unable to comprehend and process the information contained in the data. Thus, information fusion mechanisms gain increasing importance. Besides the management of large amounts of data, further challenges towards the fusion algorithms arise from epistemic uncertainties (incomplete knowledge in the input signals as well as conflicts between them. These aspects must be considered during information processing to obtain reliable results, which are in accordance with the real world. The analysis of the scientific state of the art shows that current solutions fulfil said requirements at most only partly. This article proposes the multilayered information fusion system MACRO (multilayer attribute-based conflict-reducing observation employing the μBalTLCS (fuzzified balanced two-layer conflict solving fusion algorithm to reduce the impact of conflicts on the fusion result. The performance of the contribution is shown by its evaluation in the scope of a machine condition monitoring application under laboratory conditions. Here, the MACRO system yields the best results compared to state-of-the-art fusion mechanisms. The utilised data is published and freely accessible.

  20. Information Fusion of Conflicting Input Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönks, Uwe; Dörksen, Helene; Lohweg, Volker; Hübner, Michael

    2016-10-29

    Sensors, and also actuators or external sources such as databases, serve as data sources in order to realise condition monitoring of industrial applications or the acquisition of characteristic parameters like production speed or reject rate. Modern facilities create such a large amount of complex data that a machine operator is unable to comprehend and process the information contained in the data. Thus, information fusion mechanisms gain increasing importance. Besides the management of large amounts of data, further challenges towards the fusion algorithms arise from epistemic uncertainties (incomplete knowledge) in the input signals as well as conflicts between them. These aspects must be considered during information processing to obtain reliable results, which are in accordance with the real world. The analysis of the scientific state of the art shows that current solutions fulfil said requirements at most only partly. This article proposes the multilayered information fusion system MACRO (multilayer attribute-based conflict-reducing observation) employing the μ BalTLCS (fuzzified balanced two-layer conflict solving) fusion algorithm to reduce the impact of conflicts on the fusion result. The performance of the contribution is shown by its evaluation in the scope of a machine condition monitoring application under laboratory conditions. Here, the MACRO system yields the best results compared to state-of-the-art fusion mechanisms. The utilised data is published and freely accessible.

  1. Vomeronasal inputs to the rodent ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, I; Novejarque, A; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Pro-Sistiaga, P; Insausti, R; Martinez-Garcia, F; Lanuza, E; Martinez-Marcos, A

    2008-03-18

    Vertebrates sense chemical signals through the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. In squamate reptiles, which possess the largest vomeronasal system of all vertebrates, the accessory olfactory bulb projects to the nucleus sphericus, which in turn projects to a portion of the ventral striatum known as olfactostriatum. Characteristically, the olfactostriatum is innervated by neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin immunoreactive fibers. In this study, the possibility that a structure similar to the reptilian olfactostriatum might be present in the mammalian brain has been investigated. Injections of dextran-amines have been aimed at the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus (the putative mammalian homologue of the reptilian nucleus sphericus) of rats and mice. The resulting anterograde labeling includes the olfactory tubercle, the islands of Calleja and sparse terminal fields in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. This projection has been confirmed by injections of retrograde tracers into the ventral striato-pallidum that render retrograde labeling in the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus. The analysis of the distribution of neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and substance P in the ventral striato-pallidum of rats, and the anterograde tracing of the vomeronasal amygdaloid input in the same material confirm that, similar to reptiles, the ventral striatum of mammals includes a specialized vomeronasal structure (olfactory tubercle and islands of Calleja) displaying dense neuropeptide Y-, tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-immunoreactive innervations. The possibility that parts of the accumbens shell and/or ventral pallidum could be included in the mammalian olfactostriatum cannot be discarded.

  2. Grammar in Context using Comprehended Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Mohamed Nor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been so many ongoing disputes on different approaches to teaching grammar. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching grammar using Gass comprehended Input technique (GCI (1997 (implicit and to explore the undergraduates’ perception on the GCI technique. The respondents consisted of 30 undergraduates’ who are currently pursuing their Bachelor of English. Using the qualitative method, the research instrument was a set of 23- item interview and content analysis of the students’ written work. Results showed that the teaching of grammar using explicit instructions was more preferred than implicit instruction for complex components in grammatical rules. However, implicit instruction is equally effective regardless of the proficiency levels to enable pedagogy to be executed. It is also noted that there is lots of room for improvement, since the undergraduates have a weak grasp of the basic tense aspect of English grammar. Therefore, the Malaysian Ministry of Education should consider having grammar formally taught in isolation as what was practised previously.

  3. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  4. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    failure prone capacitors from the power stage. Q-Sync’s simpler electronics also result in higher efficiency because it eliminates the power required by the PCB to perform the obviated power conversions and PWM processes after line synchronous operating speed is reached in the first 5 seconds of operation, after which the PWM circuits drop out and a much less energy intensive “pass through” circuit takes over, allowing the grid-supplied AC power to sustain the motor’s ongoing operation.

  5. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  6. Inputs and spatial distribution patterns of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Huang, Xinmin; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Cr pollution in marine bays has been one of the critical environmental issues, and understanding the input and spatial distribution patterns is essential to pollution control. In according to the source strengths of the major pollution sources, the input patterns of pollutants to marine bay include slight, moderate and heavy, and the spatial distribution are corresponding to three block models respectively. This paper analyzed input patterns and distributions of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay, eastern China based on investigation on Cr in surface waters during 1979-1983. Results showed that the input strengths of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay could be classified as moderate input and slight input, and the input strengths were 32.32-112.30 μg L-1 and 4.17-19.76 μg L-1, respectively. The input patterns of Cr included two patterns of moderate input and slight input, and the horizontal distributions could be defined by means of Block Model 2 and Block Model 3, respectively. In case of moderate input pattern via overland runoff, Cr contents were decreasing from the estuaries to the bay mouth, and the distribution pattern was parallel. In case of moderate input pattern via marine current, Cr contents were decreasing from the bay mouth to the bay, and the distribution pattern was parallel to circular. The Block Models were able to reveal the transferring process of various pollutants, and were helpful to understand the distributions of pollutants in marine bay.

  7. Distinctiveness and Bidirectional Effects in Input Enhancement for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcroft, Joe

    2003-01-01

    This study examined input enhancement and second language (L2) vocabulary learning while exploring the role of "distinctiveness," the degree to which an item in the input diverges from the form in which other items in the input are presented, with regard to the nature and direction of the effects of enhancement. In this study,…

  8. Input Manipulation, Enhancement and Processing: Theoretical Views and Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benati, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in the field of instructed second language acquisition have been examining the issue of how learners interact with input by conducting research measuring particular kinds of instructional interventions (input-oriented and meaning-based). These interventions include such things as input flood, textual enhancement and processing…

  9. 7 CFR 3431.4 - Solicitation of stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Solicitation of stakeholder input. 3431.4 Section... Designation of Veterinarian Shortage Situations § 3431.4 Solicitation of stakeholder input. The Secretary will solicit stakeholder input on the process and procedures used to designate veterinarian shortage situations...

  10. Comparison of linear microinstability calculations of varying input realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Kinsey, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of varying 'input realism' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  11. Deqi sensations without cutaneous sensory input: results of an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simang Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deqi is defined in relation to acupuncture needling as a sensory perception of varying character. In a recently published sham laser validation study, we found that subjects in the verum and the sham laser group experienced deqi sensations. Therefore, we aim to further analyze whether the perceptions reported in the two study arms were distinguishable and whether expectancy effects exhibited considerable impact on our results. Methods A detailed re-analysis focusing on deqi sensations was performed from data collected in a previously published placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical cross-over trial for a sham laser evaluation. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (28 ± 10.7 years; 16 women, 18 men received two laser acupuncture treatments at three acupuncture points LI4 (hégu, LU7 (liéque, and LR3 (táichong; once by verum laser and once using a sham device containing an inactive laser in randomized order. Outcome measures were frequency, intensity (evaluated by visual analogue scale; VAS, and quality of the subjects' sensations perceived during treatments (assessed with the "acupuncture sensation scale". Results Both, verum and the sham laser acupuncture result in similar deqi sensations with regard to frequency (p-value = 0.67, intensity (p-value = 0.71 and quality (p-values between 0.15 - 0.98. In both groups the most frequently used adjectives to describe these perceptions were "spreading", "radiating", "tingling", "tugging", "pulsing", "warm", "dull", and "electric". Sensations reported were consistent with the perception of deqi as previously defined in literature. Subjects' conviction regarding the effectiveness of laser acupuncture or the history of having received acupuncture treatments before did not correlate with the frequency or intensity of sensations reported. Conclusions Since deqi sensations, described as sensory perceptions, were elicited without any cutaneous sensory input, we assume that they are a

  12. Energy input for tomato production what economy says, and what is good for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshyar, Ehsan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Tarazkar, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The central Fars province is the main tomato producer region in Southwest Iran. This study was undertaken to evaluate the energy consumption patterns of tomato production, corresponding GHG emissions, and relationships between inputs and output by a Cobb–Douglass econometric model. The changes...... productivities (MPPs), however, indicated that tomato yield is most sensitive to machinery and chemicals energy inputs in the C1 and C2, respectively, which should be considered first to increase in order to achieve productivity enhancement. The result displayed that higher energy consumption according...... to the econometric models and MPPs may lead to much higher CO2 emissions compared to the current average emissions particularly when MPP is low. Hence, it is suggested that production types with the highest MPPs should be considered if change in energy inputs is desired. In addition, it is recommended that “green...

  13. Optimum input leads for cryogenic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Der Nigohossian, G.

    1967-02-01

    The electrical leads used to introduce a current into a cryostat cause a heat influx due to thermal conduction and to Joule heating. It is very important to be able to minimize this flux. Theoretical calculation of optimized leads takes into account the varying heat and electrical conductivities of the leads as well as the heat exchange coefficient with the effluent gas. Practical results have been summarized in different tables which permit for a specific material i.e. copper, aluminium, brass, stainless steel with the intensity and end temperatures being known (i.e. 4,2 or 18,5 deg. K at the cold end; 77,295 or 320 deg. K at the warm end) to deduce the minimum heat flow and the length-cross section ratio of the optimized leads. A general method is indicated, which would allow to solve the same problem for other materials. (author) [fr

  14. USGS "Did You Feel It?" internet-based macroseismic intensity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Quitoriano, V.; Worden, B.; Hopper, M.; Dewey, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) "Did You Feel It?" (DYFI) system is an automated approach for rapidly collecting macroseismic intensity data from Internet users' shaking and damage reports and generating intensity maps immediately following earthquakes; it has been operating for over a decade (1999-2011). DYFI-based intensity maps made rapidly available through the DYFI system fundamentally depart from more traditional maps made available in the past. The maps are made more quickly, provide more complete coverage and higher resolution, provide for citizen input and interaction, and allow data collection at rates and quantities never before considered. These aspects of Internet data collection, in turn, allow for data analyses, graphics, and ways to communicate with the public, opportunities not possible with traditional data-collection approaches. Yet web-based contributions also pose considerable challenges, as discussed herein. After a decade of operational experience with the DYFI system and users, we document refinements to the processing and algorithmic procedures since DYFI was first conceived. We also describe a number of automatic post-processing tools, operations, applications, and research directions, all of which utilize the extensive DYFI intensity datasets now gathered in near-real time. DYFI can be found online at the website http://earthquake.usgs.gov/dyfi/. ?? 2011 by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia.

  15. Preferency of soil macrofauna to crops residue at different light intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Every species of soil macrofauna prefer specific food and environment to be establish in it's habitat. Their diversity depend on variation of food and environmental condition. The aim of this research was to study the effect of different crop residue and light intensity on population of several soil macrofauna specieses. Mycrocosmos experiment was arranged in split-plot design with two treatments factor, i.e.: (1 crop residue (albizia, papaya, elephant grass, maize, sweet potato and without crop residue input, and (2 light intensities (0, 5, 15 and 25 Watt/day. The soil macrofauna were earthworms, millipedes, scarabids larvae and cocroachs. Results of the study showed that: (1 crop residues apllication increased soil macrofauna population, especially maize residue ( by 113%, respectively, compare to control tretment, (2 on higher light intensity, population of earthworms, scarabids larvae and cocroach decreased, but population of millipedes increased, (3 the highest macrofauna population was on maize residue and 5 Watt/day light intensity treatment.

  16. Applying the input-output method to account for water footprint and virtual water trade in the Haihe River basin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Yang, Hong; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Qin, Yan

    2010-12-01

    The virtual water strategy which advocates importing water intensive products and exporting products with low water intensity is gradually accepted as one of the options for solving water crisis in severely water scarce regions. However, if we count the virtual water embodied in imported products as the water saved for a region, we might overestimate the saving by including the virtual water that is later re-exported in association with the proceeded products made from the originally imported products. This problem can be avoided by accounting for the saved water through calculating water footprint (WF) in domestic final consumptive products. In this paper, an input-output analysis (IOA) based on the water footprint accounting framework is built to account for WF and virtual water trade of final consumptive products in the water stressed Haihe River basin in China for the year 1997, 2000, and 2002. The input-output transaction tables of the three years are constructed. The results show WF of 46.57, 44.52, and 42.71 billion m(3) for the three years, respectively. These volumes are higher than the water used directly in the corresponding years in the basin. A WF intensity (WFI) indicator is then used to assess if the economic activities in the basin are consistent with the virtual water strategy. The temporal change of the WFI is also decomposed by the index number analysis method. The results showed that the basin was silently importing virtual water through the trade of raw and processed food commodities under the background of the whole economic circulation.

  17. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillerman, Joshua; Fredian, Thomas; Manduchi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud

  18. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillerman, Joshua, E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fredian, Thomas, E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... miles per hour Tennis (doubles) Ballroom dancing General gardening Vigorous Intensity Race walking, jogging, or running Swimming ... miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

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    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 10 miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute Intensity The ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  14. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Intensive care medicine is a medical specialty that was officially established in our country in 1978, with a 5-year training program including two years of common core training followed by three years of specific training in an intensive care unit accredited for training. During this 32-year period, intensive care medicine has carried out an intense and varied activity, which has allowed its positioning as an attractive and with future specialty in the hospital setting. This document summarizes the history of the specialty, its current situation, the key role played in the programs of organ donation and transplantation of the National Transplant Organization (after more than 20 years of mutual collaboration), its training activities with the development of the National Plan of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, with a trajectory of more than 25 years, its interest in providing care based on quality and safety programs for the severely ill patient. It also describes the development of reference registries due to the need for reliable data on the care process for the most prevalent diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or ICU-acquired infections, based on long-term experience (more than 15 years), which results in the availability of epidemiological information and characteristics of care that may affect the practical patient's care. Moreover, features of its scientific society (SEMICYUC) are reported, an organization that agglutinates the interests of more than 280 ICUs and more than 2700 intensivists, with reference to the journal Medicina Intensiva, the official journal of the society and the Panamerican and Iberian Federation of Critical Medicine and Intensive Care Societies. Medicina Intensiva is indexed in the Thompson Reuters products of Science Citation Index Expanded (Scisearch(®)) and Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition. The important contribution of the Spanish intensive care medicine to the scientific community is also analyzed, and in relation to

  15. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Feng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steering wheel input on vehicle roll behavior. Then, a 9 degree of freedom (9-DOF full-car roll nonlinear model including vertical and lateral dynamics was developed to study vehicle roll dynamics with or without of road excitation. Based on a 6-DOF half-car roll model and 9-DOF full-car nonlinear model, relationship between three-dimensional (3-D road excitation and various steering wheel inputs on vehicle roll performance was studied. Finally, an E-Class (SUV level car model in CARSIM® was used, as a benchmark, with and without road input conditions. Both half-car and full-car models were analyzed under steering wheel inputs of 5°, 10° and 15°. Simulation results showed that the half-car model considering road input was found to have a maximum accuracy of 65%. Whereas, the full-car model had a minimum accuracy of 85%, which was significantly higher compared to the half-car model under the same scenario.

  16. On the Capacity Region of the Intensity-Modulation Direct-Detection Optical Broadcast Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-08-11

    The capacity of the intensity-modulation direct-detection free-space optical broadcast channel (OBC) is investigated. The Gaussian model with input-independent Gaussian noise is used, with both average and peak intensity constraints. An outer bound on the capacity region is derived by adapting Bergmans\\' approach to the OBC. Inner bounds are derived by using superposition coding with either truncated-Gaussian distributions or discrete distributions. While the discrete input distribution achieves higher rates than the truncated-Gaussian distribution, the latter allows expressing the achievable rate region in a closed form. At high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), it is shown that the truncated-Gaussian distribution is nearly optimal. It achieves the symmetric-capacity within a constant gap (independent of SNR), which approaches half a bit as the number of users grows large. It also achieves the capacity region within a constant gap, which depends on the number of users. At low SNR, it is shown that on-off keying with time-division multiple-access (TDMA) is optimal, as it achieves any point on the boundary of the developed outer bound. This is interesting in practice since both OOK and TDMA have low complexity. At moderate SNR (typically [0,8] dB), a discrete distribution with a small alphabet size achieves a fairly good performance in terms of symmetric rate.

  17. On the Nature of the Input in Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heck, Fabian; Müller, Gereon; Vogel, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    The input has two main functions in optimality theory (Prince and Smolensky 1993). First, the input defines the candidate set, in other words it determines which output candidates compete for optimality, and which do not. Second, the input is referred to by faithfulness constraints that prohibit...... output candidates from deviating from specifications in the input. Whereas there is general agreement concerning the relevance of the input in phonology, the nature of the input in syntax is notoriously unclear. In this article, we show that the input should not be taken to define syntactic candidate...... and syntax is due to a basic, irreducible difference between these two components of grammar: Syntax is an information preserving system, phonology is not....

  18. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-31

    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  19. Data-intensive science

    CERN Document Server

    Critchlow, Terence

    2013-01-01

    Data-intensive science has the potential to transform scientific research and quickly translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, and economic success. But this collaborative science is still lacking the effective access and exchange of knowledge among scientists, researchers, and policy makers across a range of disciplines. Bringing together leaders from multiple scientific disciplines, Data-Intensive Science shows how a comprehensive integration of various techniques and technological advances can effectively harness the vast amount of data being generated and significan

  20. Total Factor Productivity and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to estimate the transcendental logarithmic production function and further study the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP of Indian manufacturing industries. The estimation of TFP is based on four inputs model, where apart from labour and capital, material and energy are the other two inputs. The findings of the paper suggest that labour and material inputs play major role as compared to the capital and energy input. Age of the firm, ownership, energy intensity, embodied and disembodied technology imports, research and development and exports were considered as the possible determinants of the TFP in the second stage regression. The finding of the estimates suggest that age of the firm, export intensity and disembodied technology import are positively related to the TFP, where ownership, energy intensity, embodied technology import and R&D intensity are negatively related to the TFP of the firms for Indian manufacturing.

  1. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T; Drivonikou, Vicky G; Notman, Leslie A; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R L

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest.

  2. MONITORING OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUALITY ON THE TRACTION SUBSTATION INPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Gryb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the implementation of measures to maintain the quality of the energy industrial enterprises have to spend a significant material and monetary assets. In this regard, significant is the feasibility study of the allocation of such funds and, primarily, the determination of the economic damage arising from low quality of electricity. The reliability of the electricity metering system, relay protection and automation of modern digital substations depends on the quality of electrical energy. At the present time to improve the reliability of the substation operation it is necessary to monitor indicators of quality of electric energy, allowing you to take organizational and technical solutions for their improvement. Monitoring the power quality at the input traction substation has shown that indicators such as the coefficient of the n-th harmonic component of the voltage does not meet the standards GOST 13109-97. The source of higher harmonics is a voltage Converter used on the locomotive. To eliminate higher harmonics in the supply network for traction substations will need to install power filters. Today, the USB-analyzer of power quality «Digital measurement system of power quality» type of CSICE of accuracy class 0.2. Work energy requires reliable and quality electricity supply to consumers. The new model of balancing energy market are bilateral contracts. The main task of this market, it ensure the stable and reliable operation of the unified energy system of Ukraine, that is, transmission and supply of electricity of appropriate quality.

  3. Input related microbial carbon dynamic of soil organic matter in particle size fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, A.; Kandeler, E.; Gleixner, G.

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigated the flow of carbon into different groups of soil microorganisms isolated from different particle size fractions. Two agricultural sites of contrasting organic matter input were compared. Both soils had been submitted to vegetation change from C3 (Rye/Wheat) to C4 (Maize) plants, 25 and 45 years ago. Soil carbon was separated into one fast-degrading particulate organic matter fraction (POM) and one slow-degrading organo-mineral fraction (OMF). The structure of the soil microbial community were investigated using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), and turnover of single PLFAs was calculated from the changes in their 13C content. Soil enzyme activities involved in the degradation of carbohydrates was determined using fluorogenic MUF (methyl-umbelliferryl phosphate) substrates. We found that fresh organic matter input drives soil organic matter dynamic. Higher annual input of fresh organic matter resulted in a higher amount of fungal biomass in the POM-fraction and shorter mean residence times. Fungal activity therefore seems essential for the decomposition and incorporation of organic matter input into the soil. As a consequence, limited litter input changed especially the fungal community favouring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Altogether, supply and availability of fresh plant carbon changed the distribution of microbial biomass, the microbial community structure and enzyme activities and resulted in different priming of soil organic matter. Most interestingly we found that only at low input the OMF fraction had significantly higher calculated MRT for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria suggesting high recycling of soil carbon or the use of other carbon sources. But on average all microbial groups had nearly similar carbon uptake rates in all fractions and both soils, which contrasted the turnover times of bulk carbon. Hereby the microbial carbon turnover was always faster than the soil organic carbon turnover and higher carbon input

  4. Effect of Heat Input on Geometry of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Bead on Low Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Manas Kumar; Hazra, Ritesh; Mondal, Ajit; Das, Santanu

    2018-05-01

    Among different weld cladding processes, gas metal arc welding (GMAW) cladding becomes a cost effective, user friendly, versatile method for protecting the surface of relatively lower grade structural steels from corrosion and/or erosion wear by depositing high grade stainless steels onto them. The quality of cladding largely depends upon the bead geometry of the weldment deposited. Weld bead geometry parameters, like bead width, reinforcement height, depth of penetration, and ratios like reinforcement form factor (RFF) and penetration shape factor (PSF) determine the quality of the weld bead geometry. Various process parameters of gas metal arc welding like heat input, current, voltage, arc travel speed, mode of metal transfer, etc. influence formation of bead geometry. In the current experimental investigation, austenite stainless steel (316) weld beads are formed on low alloy structural steel (E350) by GMAW using 100% CO2 as the shielding gas. Different combinations of current, voltage and arc travel speed are chosen so that heat input increases from 0.35 to 0.75 kJ/mm. Nine number of weld beads are deposited and replicated twice. The observations show that weld bead width increases linearly with increase in heat input, whereas reinforcement height and depth of penetration do not increase with increase in heat input. Regression analysis is done to establish the relationship between heat input and different geometrical parameters of weld bead. The regression models developed agrees well with the experimental data. Within the domain of the present experiment, it is observed that at higher heat input, the weld bead gets wider having little change in penetration and reinforcement; therefore, higher heat input may be recommended for austenitic stainless steel cladding on low alloy steel.

  5. Investigation of bacterial hopanoid inputs to soils from Western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Scarborough College, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ont., M1C1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Scarborough College, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ont., M1C1A4 (Canada)]. E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca

    2006-06-15

    Hopanoids have been widely used as characteristic biomarkers to study inputs of bacterial biomass to sediments because they are preserved in the geologic record. A limited number of studies have been performed on hopanoid biomarkers in soils. The present study examined the distribution and potential preservation of hopanoids in soils that are developed under different climatic conditions and varying vegetative inputs. Solvent extraction and sequential chemical degradation methods were employed to extract both 'free' and 'bound' hopanoids, from three grassland soils, a grassland-forest transition soil, and a forest soil from Western Canada. Identification and quantification of hopanoids in the soil samples were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methylbishomohopanol, bishomohopanol and bishomohopanoic acid were detected in all solvent extracts. The base hydrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide extracts contained only bishomohopanoic acid at a concentration range of 0.8-8.8 {mu}g/gC and 2.2-28.3 {mu}g/gC, respectively. The acid hydrolysis procedure did not release detectable amounts of hopanoids. The solvent extraction yielded the greatest amounts of 'free' hopanoids in two of the grassland soils (Dark Brown and Black Chernozems) and in the forest soil (Gray Luvisol). In contrast, the chemical degradation methods resulted in higher amounts of 'bound' hopanoids in the third grassland soil (Brown Chernozem) and the transition soil (Dark Gray Chernozem), indicating that more hopanoids exist in the 'bound' form in these soils. Overall, the forest and the transition soils contained more hopanoids than the grassland soils. This is hypothesized to be due to the greater degradation of hopanoids in the grassland soils and or sorption to clay minerals, as compared to the forest and transition soils.

  6. Investigation of bacterial hopanoid inputs to soils from Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2006-01-01

    Hopanoids have been widely used as characteristic biomarkers to study inputs of bacterial biomass to sediments because they are preserved in the geologic record. A limited number of studies have been performed on hopanoid biomarkers in soils. The present study examined the distribution and potential preservation of hopanoids in soils that are developed under different climatic conditions and varying vegetative inputs. Solvent extraction and sequential chemical degradation methods were employed to extract both 'free' and 'bound' hopanoids, from three grassland soils, a grassland-forest transition soil, and a forest soil from Western Canada. Identification and quantification of hopanoids in the soil samples were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methylbishomohopanol, bishomohopanol and bishomohopanoic acid were detected in all solvent extracts. The base hydrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide extracts contained only bishomohopanoic acid at a concentration range of 0.8-8.8 μg/gC and 2.2-28.3 μg/gC, respectively. The acid hydrolysis procedure did not release detectable amounts of hopanoids. The solvent extraction yielded the greatest amounts of 'free' hopanoids in two of the grassland soils (Dark Brown and Black Chernozems) and in the forest soil (Gray Luvisol). In contrast, the chemical degradation methods resulted in higher amounts of 'bound' hopanoids in the third grassland soil (Brown Chernozem) and the transition soil (Dark Gray Chernozem), indicating that more hopanoids exist in the 'bound' form in these soils. Overall, the forest and the transition soils contained more hopanoids than the grassland soils. This is hypothesized to be due to the greater degradation of hopanoids in the grassland soils and or sorption to clay minerals, as compared to the forest and transition soils

  7. How the type of input function affects the dynamic response of conducting polymer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xingcan; Alici, Gursel; Mutlu, Rahim; Li, Weihua

    2014-10-01

    There has been a growing interest in smart actuators typified by conducting polymer actuators, especially in their (i) fabrication, modeling and control with minimum external data and (ii) applications in bio-inspired devices, robotics and mechatronics. Their control is a challenging research problem due to the complex and nonlinear properties of these actuators, which cannot be predicted accurately. Based on an input-shaping technique, we propose a new method to improve the conducting polymer actuators’ command-following ability, while minimizing their electric power consumption. We applied four input functions with smooth characteristics to a trilayer conducting polymer actuator to experimentally evaluate its command-following ability under an open-loop control strategy and a simulated feedback control strategy, and, more importantly, to quantify how the type of input function affects the dynamic response of this class of actuators. We have found that the four smooth inputs consume less electrical power than sharp inputs such as a step input with discontinuous higher-order derivatives. We also obtained an improved transient response performance from the smooth inputs, especially under the simulated feedback control strategy, which we have proposed previously [X Xiang, R Mutlu, G Alici, and W Li, 2014 “Control of conducting polymer actuators without physical feedback: simulated feedback control approach with particle swarm optimization’, Journal of Smart Materials and Structure, 23]. The idea of using a smooth input command, which results in lower power consumption and better control performance, can be extended to other smart actuators. Consuming less electrical energy or power will have a direct effect on enhancing the operational life of these actuators.

  8. How the type of input function affects the dynamic response of conducting polymer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Xingcan; Alici, Gursel; Mutlu, Rahim; Li, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in smart actuators typified by conducting polymer actuators, especially in their (i) fabrication, modeling and control with minimum external data and (ii) applications in bio-inspired devices, robotics and mechatronics. Their control is a challenging research problem due to the complex and nonlinear properties of these actuators, which cannot be predicted accurately. Based on an input-shaping technique, we propose a new method to improve the conducting polymer actuators’ command-following ability, while minimizing their electric power consumption. We applied four input functions with smooth characteristics to a trilayer conducting polymer actuator to experimentally evaluate its command-following ability under an open-loop control strategy and a simulated feedback control strategy, and, more importantly, to quantify how the type of input function affects the dynamic response of this class of actuators. We have found that the four smooth inputs consume less electrical power than sharp inputs such as a step input with discontinuous higher-order derivatives. We also obtained an improved transient response performance from the smooth inputs, especially under the simulated feedback control strategy, which we have proposed previously [X Xiang, R Mutlu, G Alici, and W Li, 2014 “Control of conducting polymer actuators without physical feedback: simulated feedback control approach with particle swarm optimization’, Journal of Smart Materials and Structure, 23]. The idea of using a smooth input command, which results in lower power consumption and better control performance, can be extended to other smart actuators. Consuming less electrical energy or power will have a direct effect on enhancing the operational life of these actuators. (paper)

  9. Neural classifiers for learning higher-order correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueler, M.

    1999-01-01

    Studies by various authors suggest that higher-order networks can be more powerful and biologically more plausible with respect to the more traditional multilayer networks. These architecture make explicit use of nonlinear interactions between input variables in the form of higher-order units or product units. If it is known a priori that the problem to be implemented possesses a given set of invariances like in the translation, rotation, and scale invariant recognition problems, those invariances can be encoded, thus eliminating all higher-order terms which are incompatible with the invariances. In general, however, it is a serious set-back that the complexity of learning increases exponentially with the size of inputs. This paper reviews higher-order networks and introduces an implicit representation in which learning complexity is mainly decided by the number of higher-order terms to be learned and increases only linearly with the input size

  10. Neural Classifiers for Learning Higher-Order Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Marifi

    1999-01-01

    Studies by various authors suggest that higher-order networks can be more powerful and are biologically more plausible with respect to the more traditional multilayer networks. These architectures make explicit use of nonlinear interactions between input variables in the form of higher-order units or product units. If it is known a priori that the problem to be implemented possesses a given set of invariances like in the translation, rotation, and scale invariant pattern recognition problems, those invariances can be encoded, thus eliminating all higher-order terms which are incompatible with the invariances. In general, however, it is a serious set-back that the complexity of learning increases exponentially with the size of inputs. This paper reviews higher-order networks and introduces an implicit representation in which learning complexity is mainly decided by the number of higher-order terms to be learned and increases only linearly with the input size.

  11. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  12. Electroglottographic analysis of actresses and nonactresses' voices in different levels of intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Suely; Guzman, Marco; Carlos de Miranda, Helder; Lloyd, Adam

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies with long-term average spectrum (LTAS) showed the importance of the glottal source for understanding the projected voices of actresses. In this study, electroglottographic (EGG) analysis was used to investigate the contribution of the glottal source to the projected voice, comparing actresses and nonactresses' voices, in different levels of intensity. Thirty actresses and 30 nonactresses sustained vowels in habitual, moderate, and loud intensity levels. The EGG variables were contact quotient (CQ), closing quotient (QCQ), and opening quotient (QOQ). Other variables were sound pressure level (SPL) and fundamental frequency (F0). A KayPENTAX EGG was used. Variables were inputted in a general linear model. Actresses showed significantly higher values for SPL, in all levels, and both groups increased SPL significantly while changing from habitual to moderate and further to loud. There were no significant differences between groups for EGG quotients. There were significant differences between the levels only for F0 and CQ for both groups. SPL was significantly higher among actresses in all intensity levels, but in the EGG analysis, no differences were found. This apparently weak contribution of the glottal source in the supposedly projected voices of actresses, contrary to previous LTAS studies, might be because of a higher subglottal pressure or perhaps greater vocal tract contribution in SPL. Results from the present study suggest that trained subjects did not produce a significant higher SPL than untrained individuals by increasing the cost in terms of higher vocal fold collision and hence more impact stress. Future researches should explore the difference between trained and nontrained voices by aerodynamic measurements to evaluate the relationship between physiologic findings and the acoustic and EGG data. Moreover, further studies should consider both types of vocal tasks, sustained vowel and running speech, for both EGG and LTAS analysis

  13. Estimation of historical earthquake intensities and intensity-PGA relationship for wooden house damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Kil; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2002-01-01

    A series of tests and dynamic analyses on Korean traditional wooden houses was performed for the intensity estimation of the typical large historical earthquake records. Static and cyclic lateral load tests on the wooden frames were performed to assess the lateral load capacity of wooden frames. The shaking table tests on two 1:4 scaled models of a Korean ancient commoner's house made of fresh pine lumber were performed. Typical earthquake time histories recorded on soil and rock sites were used as input for the tests. The prototypical wooden house was analyzed for multiple time histories which match Ohsaki's ground response spectra. Seismic analyses comprise the aging of lumber and different soil condition. The relationship between the earthquake intensity and the peak ground acceleration (PGA) is proposed for the wooden house damages based on the results of this study. The intensity of major Korean historical earthquake records related with house collapses was quantitatively estimated to be MM VIII

  14. Atmospheric nutrient inputs to the northern levantine basin from a long-term observation: sources and comparison with riverine inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koçak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol and rainwater samples have been collected at a rural site located on the coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean, Erdemli, Turkey between January 1999 and December 2007. Riverine sampling was carried out at five Rivers (Ceyhan, Seyhan, Göksu, Berdan and Lamas draining into the Northeastern Levantine Basin (NLB between March 2002 and July 2007. Samples have been analyzed for macronutrients of phosphate, silicate, nitrate and ammonium (PO43−, Sidiss, NO3 and NH4+. Phosphate and silicate in aerosol and rainwater showed higher and larger variations during the transitional period when air flows predominantly originate from North Africa and Middle East/Arabian Peninsula. Deficiency of alkaline material have been found to be the main reason of the acidic rain events whilst high pH values (>7 have been associated with high Sidiss concentrations due to sporadic dust events. In general, lowest nitrate and ammonium concentrations in aerosol and rainwater have been associated with air flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Comparison of atmospheric with riverine fluxes demonstrated that DIN and PO43− fluxes to NLB have been dominated by atmosphere (~90% and ~60% respectively whereas the input of Si was mainly derived from riverine runoff (~90%. N/P ratios in the atmospheric deposition (233; riverine discharge (28 revealed that NLB receives excessive amounts of DIN and this unbalanced P and N inputs may provoke even more phosphorus deficiency. Observed molar Si/N ratio suggested Si limitation relative to nitrogen might cause a switch from diatom dominated communities to non-siliceous populations particularly at coastal NLB.

  15. Atmospheric nutrient inputs to the northern levantine basin from a long-term observation: sources and comparison with riverine inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M.; Kubilay, N.; Tuğrul, S.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol and rainwater samples have been collected at a rural site located on the coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean, Erdemli, Turkey between January 1999 and December 2007. Riverine sampling was carried out at five Rivers (Ceyhan, Seyhan, Göksu, Berdan and Lamas) draining into the Northeastern Levantine Basin (NLB) between March 2002 and July 2007. Samples have been analyzed for macronutrients of phosphate, silicate, nitrate and ammonium (PO43-, Sidiss, NO3- and NH4+). Phosphate and silicate in aerosol and rainwater showed higher and larger variations during the transitional period when air flows predominantly originate from North Africa and Middle East/Arabian Peninsula. Deficiency of alkaline material have been found to be the main reason of the acidic rain events whilst high pH values (>7) have been associated with high Sidiss concentrations due to sporadic dust events. In general, lowest nitrate and ammonium concentrations in aerosol and rainwater have been associated with air flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Comparison of atmospheric with riverine fluxes demonstrated that DIN and PO43- fluxes to NLB have been dominated by atmosphere (~90% and ~60% respectively) whereas the input of Si was mainly derived from riverine runoff (~90%). N/P ratios in the atmospheric deposition (233); riverine discharge (28) revealed that NLB receives excessive amounts of DIN and this unbalanced P and N inputs may provoke even more phosphorus deficiency. Observed molar Si/N ratio suggested Si limitation relative to nitrogen might cause a switch from diatom dominated communities to non-siliceous populations particularly at coastal NLB.

  16. Long-term atmospheric nutrient inputs to the Eastern Mediterranean: sources, solubility and comparison with riverine inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M.; Kubilay, N.; Tuǧrul, S.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2010-07-01

    Aerosol and rain samples were collected at a rural site located on the coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean, Erdemli, Turkey between January 1999 and December 2007. Riverine sampling was carried out at five Rivers (Ceyhan, Seyhan, Göksu, Berdan and Lamas) draining into the Northeastern Levantine Basin (NLB) between March 2002 and July 2007. Samples were analyzed for macronutrients of phosphate, silicate, nitrate and ammonium (PO43-, Sidiss, NO3- and NH4+). Phosphate and silicate in aerosol and rainwater showed higher and larger variation during the transitional period (March-May, September) when air flows predominantly originate from North Africa and Middle East/Arabian Peninsula. Deficiency of alkaline material were found to be the main reason of the acidic rain events whilst high pH values (>7) were associated with high Sidiss concentrations due to sporadic dust events. In general, lowest nitrate and ammonium concentrations in aerosol and rainwater were associated with air flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Unlike NO3- and NH4+ (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen, DIN), there were statistical differences for PO43- and Sidiss solubilities in sea-water and pure-water. Solubilities of PO43- and Sidiss were found to be related with air mass back trajectories and pH. Comparison of atmospheric with riverine fluxes demonstrated that DIN and PO43- fluxes to NLB were dominated by atmosphere (~90% and ~60% respectively) whereas the input of Si was mainly derived from riverine runoff (~90%). N/P ratios (atmosphere ~233; riverine ~28) revealed that NLB receives excessive amounts of DIN and this unbalanced P and N inputs may provoke even more phosphorus deficiency. Molar Si/N ratios (atmosphere + riverine) suggested Si limitation which might cause a switch from diatom dominated phytoplankton communities to non-siliceous populations in NLB.

  17. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  18. Calculating the sensitivity of wind turbine loads to wind inputs using response surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to calculate wind turbine load sensitivities to turbulence parameters through the use of response surfaces. A response surface is a highdimensional polynomial surface that can be calibrated to any set of input/output data and then used to generate synthetic data at a low computational cost. Sobol sensitivity indices (SIs) can then be calculated with relative ease using the calibrated response surface. The proposed methodology is demonstrated by calculating the total sensitivity of the maximum blade root bending moment of the WindPACT 5 MW reference model to four turbulence input parameters: a reference mean wind speed, a reference turbulence intensity, the Kaimal length scale, and a novel parameter reflecting the nonstationarity present in the inflow turbulence. The input/output data used to calibrate the response surface were generated for a previous project. The fit of the calibrated response surface is evaluated in terms of error between the model and the training data and in terms of the convergence. The Sobol SIs are calculated using the calibrated response surface, and the convergence is examined. The Sobol SIs reveal that, of the four turbulence parameters examined in this paper, the variance caused by the Kaimal length scale and nonstationarity parameter are negligible. Thus, the findings in this paper represent the first systematic evidence that stochastic wind turbine load response statistics can be modeled purely by mean wind wind speed and turbulence intensity. (paper)

  19. The intense neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1966-07-01

    The presentation discusses both the economic and research contexts that would be served by producing neutrons in gram quantities at high intensities by electrical means without uranium-235. The revenue from producing radioisotopes is attractive. The array of techniques introduced by the multipurpose 65 megawatt Intense Neutron Generator project includes liquid metal cooling, superconducting magnets for beam bending and focussing, super-conductors for low-loss high-power radiofrequency systems, efficient devices for producing radiofrequency power, plasma physics developments for producing and accelerating hydrogen, ions at high intensity that are still far out from established practice, a multimegawatt high voltage D.C. generating machine that could have several applications. The research fields served relate principally to materials science through neutron-phonon and other quantum interactions as well as through neutron diffraction. Nuclear physics is served through {mu}-, {pi}- and K-meson production. Isotope production enters many fields of applied research. (author)

  20. The intense neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1966-01-01

    The presentation discusses both the economic and research contexts that would be served by producing neutrons in gram quantities at high intensities by electrical means without uranium-235. The revenue from producing radioisotopes is attractive. The array of techniques introduced by the multipurpose 65 megawatt Intense Neutron Generator project includes liquid metal cooling, superconducting magnets for beam bending and focussing, super-conductors for low-loss high-power radiofrequency systems, efficient devices for producing radiofrequency power, plasma physics developments for producing and accelerating hydrogen, ions at high intensity that are still far out from established practice, a multimegawatt high voltage D.C. generating machine that could have several applications. The research fields served relate principally to materials science through neutron-phonon and other quantum interactions as well as through neutron diffraction. Nuclear physics is served through μ-, π- and K-meson production. Isotope production enters many fields of applied research. (author)

  1. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  2. High intensity hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  3. Automated input data management in manufacturing process simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ettefaghian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Input Data Management (IDM) is a time consuming and costly process for Discrete Event Simulation (DES) projects. Input Data Management is considered as the basis of real-time process simulation (Bergmann, Stelzer and Strassburger, 2011). According to Bengtsson et al. (2009), data input phase constitutes on the average about 31% of the time of an entire simulation project. Moreover, the lack of interoperability between manufacturing applications and simulation software leads to a high cost to ...

  4. The Economic Impact of Tourism. An Input-Output Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia SURUGIU

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an Input-Output Analysis for Romania, an important source of information for the investigation of the inter-relations existing among different industries. The Input-Output Analysis is used to determine the role and importance of different economic value added, incomes and employment and it analyses the existing connection in an economy. This paper is focused on tourism and the input-output analysis is finished for the Hotels and Restaurants Sector.

  5. Drug addiction, love, and the higher power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Leventhal, Adam M

    2011-09-01

    This discussion piece suggests that reliance on a Higher Power in drug abuse recovery programs is entertained among some addicts for its psychobiological effects. Prayer, meditation, early romantic love, and drug abuse may have in common activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways of the brain and the generation of intense emotional states. In this sense, reliance on a Higher Power may operate as a substitute addiction, which replaces the psychobiological functions formerly served by drug use. Implications of this perspective are discussed.

  6. Effect of Orifice Nozzle Design and Input Power on Two-Phase Flow and Mass Transfer Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hei Cheon [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    It is necessary to investigate the input power as well as the mass transfer characteristics of the aeration process in order to improve the energy efficiency of an aerobic water treatment. The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of orifice nozzle design and input power on the flow and mass transfer characteristics of a vertical two-phase flow. The mass ratio, input power, volumetric mass transfer coefficient, and mass transfer efficiency were calculated using the measured data. It was found that as the input power increases the volumetric mass transfer coefficient increases, while the mass ratio and mass transfer efficiency decrease. The mass ratio, volumetric mass transfer coefficient, and mass transfer efficiency were higher for the orifice configuration with a smaller orifice nozzle area ratio. An empirical correlation was proposed to estimate the effect of mass ratio, input power, and Froude number on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient.

  7. Reliability of LCI considering the uncertainties of energy consumptions in input-output analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Ishitani, H.; Kudoh, Y.; Okuma, H.; Kobayashi, O.

    2002-01-01

    The dispersion of input-coefficients in input-output (I-O) tables and the effect on LCA results are evaluated, utilizing the data for compiling the I-O tables. CO 2 emission intensity and its variance with each commodity and service categorized in the I-O tables are estimated and applied to the LCA of a specific passenger car. Calculated results show that coefficients of variation (CV) of CO 2 -emission intensity are about 0.8 for the intermediate commodities which are frequently assessed in LCA. CO 2 emissions induced by the production of the passenger car and the CV of the emissions are estimated at 1.3 Mg-C and 0.14, respectively. The value of CV is smaller than that of the most intermediate commodities since the CV of total emissions decreases as the number of components of the passenger car increases. Although emissions intensity itself given by I-O tables has large variance, I-O tables are still useful tools for LCA if the number of components of a product is large enough. (author)

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit ... Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower ...

  9. Efficient uncertainty quantification of a fully nonlinear and dispersive water wave model with random inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in next-generation industrial applications is to improve numerical analysis by quantifying uncertainties in predictions. In this work we present a formulation of a fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow water wave model with random inputs for the probabilistic description...... at different points in the parameter space, allowing for the reuse of existing simulation software. The choice of the applied methods is driven by the number of uncertain input parameters and by the fact that finding the solution of the considered model is computationally intensive. We revisit experimental...... benchmarks often used for validation of deterministic water wave models. Based on numerical experiments and assumed uncertainties in boundary data, our analysis reveals that some of the known discrepancies from deterministic simulation in comparison with experimental measurements could be partially explained...

  10. Revolutions in energy input and material cycling in Earth history and human history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Major revolutions in energy capture have occurred in both Earth and human history, with each transition resulting in higher energy input, altered material cycles and major consequences for the internal organization of the respective systems. In Earth history, we identify the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, and land colonization by eukaryotic photosynthesizers as step changes in free energy input to the biosphere. In human history we focus on the Palaeolithic use of fire, the Neolithic revolution to farming, and the Industrial revolution as step changes in free energy input to human societies. In each case we try to quantify the resulting increase in energy input, and discuss the consequences for material cycling and for biological and social organization. For most of human history, energy use by humans was but a tiny fraction of the overall energy input to the biosphere, as would be expected for any heterotrophic species. However, the industrial revolution gave humans the capacity to push energy inputs towards planetary scales and by the end of the 20th century human energy use had reached a magnitude comparable to the biosphere. By distinguishing world regions and income brackets we show the unequal distribution in energy and material use among contemporary humans. Looking ahead, a prospective sustainability revolution will require scaling up new renewable and decarbonized energy technologies and the development of much more efficient material recycling systems - thus creating a more autotrophic social metabolism. Such a transition must also anticipate a level of social organization that can implement the changes in energy input and material cycling without losing the large achievements in standard of living and individual liberation associated with industrial societies.

  11. Life cycle assessment of small-scale high-input Jatropha biodiesel production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Krishan K.; Pragya, Namita; Sahoo, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → NEB and NER of high input Jatropha biodiesel system was higher than those of low input. → These values further increase on including the energy content of the co-products, and in the further years. → Maximum energy use was during oil extraction, followed by oil processing and fertilizer use. → Allocation of resources at right time and with proper care increase the overall system productivity. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of depleting energy resources, increasing food insecurity and global warming, Jatropha has emerged as a promising energy crop for India. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle energy balance for Jatropha biodiesel production and greenhouse gas emissions from post-energy use and end combustion of biodiesel, over a period of 5 years. It's a case specific study for a small scale, high input Jatropha biodiesel system. Most of the existing studies have considered low input Jatropha biodiesel system and have used NEB (Net energy balance i.e. difference of energy output and energy input) and NER (Net energy ratio i.e. ratio of energy output to energy input) as indicators for estimating the viability of the systems. Although, many of them have shown these indicators to be positive, yet the values are very less. The results of this study, when compared with two previous studies of Jatropha, show that the values for these indicators can be increased to a much greater extent, if we use a high input Jatropha biodiesel system. Further, when compared to a study done on palm oil and Coconut oil, it was found even if the NEB and NER of biodiesel from Jatropha were lesser in comparison to those of Palm oil and Coconut oil, yet, when energy content of the co-products were also considered, Jatropha had the highest value for both the indicators in comparison to the rest two.

  12. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  13. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  14. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  15. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  16. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, Ravi; Kebritchi, Mansureh; Ellias, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Performance evaluation is a topic that has been researched and practiced extensively in business organizations but has received scant attention in higher education institutions. A review of literature revealed that context, input, process, product (CIPP) model is an appropriate performance evaluation model for higher education…

  18. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  19. Steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Alan Anwar; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition. A number of existing schemes such as binary, Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, Lucas, and Catalan-Fibonacci (CF) are evaluated in terms of payload capacity and stego quality. A new technique based on a specific representation is proposed to decompose pixel intensity values into 16 (virtual) bit-planes suitable for embedding purposes. The proposed decomposition has a desirable property whereby the sum of all bit-planes does not exceed the maximum pixel intensity value, i.e. 255. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique offers an effective compromise between payload capacity and stego quality of existing embedding techniques based on pixel intensity value decomposition. Its capacity is equal to that of binary and Lucas, while it offers a higher capacity than Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, and CF when the secret bits are embedded in 1st Least Significant Bit (LSB). When the secret bits are embedded in higher bit-planes, i.e., 2nd LSB to 8th Most Significant Bit (MSB), the proposed scheme has more capacity than Natural numbers based embedding. However, from the 6th bit-plane onwards, the proposed scheme offers better stego quality. In general, the proposed decomposition scheme has less effect in terms of quality on pixel value when compared to most existing pixel intensity value decomposition techniques when embedding messages in higher bit-planes.

  20. Economic input-output life-cycle assessment of trade between Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jonathan; Charpentier, Alex D; MacLean, Heather L

    2007-03-01

    With increasing trade liberalization, attempts at accounting for environmental impacts and energy use across the manufacturing supply chain are complicated by the predominance of internationally supplied resources and products. This is particularly true for Canada and the United States, the world's largest trading partners. We use an economic input-output life-cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) technique to estimate the economy-wide energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity for 45 manufacturing and resource sectors in Canada and the United States. Overall, we find that U.S. manufacturing and resource industries are about 1.15 times as energy-intensive and 1.3 times as GHG-intensive as Canadian industries, with significant sector-specific discrepancies in energy and GHG intensity. This trend is mainly due to a greater direct reliance on fossil fuels for many U.S. industries, in addition to a highly fossil-fuel based electricity mix in the U.S. To account for these differences, we develop a 76 sector binational EIO-LCA model that implicitly considers trade in goods between Canada and the U.S. Our findings show that accounting for trade can significantly alter the results of life-cycle assessment studies, particularly for many Canadian manufacturing sectors, and the production/consumption of goods in one country often exerts significant energy- and GHG-influences on the other.

  1. Efficient motif finding algorithms for large-alphabet inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Vladimir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the problem of identifying motifs, recurring or conserved patterns, in the biological sequence data sets. To solve this task, we present a new deterministic algorithm for finding patterns that are embedded as exact or inexact instances in all or most of the input strings. Results The proposed algorithm (1 improves search efficiency compared to existing algorithms, and (2 scales well with the size of alphabet. On a synthetic planted DNA motif finding problem our algorithm is over 10× more efficient than MITRA, PMSPrune, and RISOTTO for long motifs. Improvements are orders of magnitude higher in the same setting with large alphabets. On benchmark TF-binding site problems (FNP, CRP, LexA we observed reduction in running time of over 12×, with high detection accuracy. The algorithm was also successful in rapidly identifying protein motifs in Lipocalin, Zinc metallopeptidase, and supersecondary structure motifs for Cadherin and Immunoglobin families. Conclusions Our algorithm reduces computational complexity of the current motif finding algorithms and demonstrate strong running time improvements over existing exact algorithms, especially in important and difficult cases of large-alphabet sequences.

  2. CO2 emissions embodied in China-US trade: Input-output analysis based on the emergy/dollar ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Huibin; Guo Jianghong; Mao Guozhu; Smith, Alexander M.; Wang Xuxu; Wang, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into changes in CO 2 emissions embodied in China-US trade, an input-output analysis based on the emergy/dollar ratio (EDR) is used to estimate embodied CO 2 emissions; a structural decomposition analysis (SDA) is employed to analyze the driving factors for changes in CO 2 emissions embodied in China's exports to the US during 2002-2007. The results of the input-output analysis show that net export of CO 2 emissions increased quickly from 2002 to 2005 but decreased from 2005 to 2007. These trends are due to a reduction in total CO 2 emission intensity, a decrease in the exchange rate, and small imports of embodied CO 2 emissions. The results of the SDA demonstrate that total export volume was the largest driving factor for the increase in embodied CO 2 emissions during 2002-2007, followed by intermediate input structure. Direct CO 2 emissions intensity had a negative effect on changes in embodied CO 2 emissions. The results suggest that China should establish a framework for allocating emission responsibilities, enhance energy efficiency, and improve intermediate input structure. - Highlights: → An input-output analysis based on the emergy/dollar ratio estimated embodied CO 2 . → A structural decomposition analysis analyzed the driving factors. → Net export of CO 2 increased from 2002 to 2005 but decreased from 2005 to 2007. → Total export volume was the largest driving factor. → A framework for allocating emission responsibilities.

  3. A microfluidic device for studying cell signaling with multiple inputs and adjustable amplitudes and frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih, Zubaidah; Chon, James W. M.; Clayton, Andrew H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Cell function is largely controlled by an intricate web of macromolecular interactions called signaling networks. It is known that the type and the intensity (concentration) of stimulus affect cell behavior. However, the temporal aspect of the stimulus is not yet fully understood. Moreover, the process of distinguishing between two stimuli by a cell is still not clear. A microfluidic device enables the delivery of a precise and exact stimulus to the cell due to the laminar flow established inside its micro-channel. The slow stream delivers a constant stimulus which is adjustable according to the experiment set up. Moreover, with controllable inputs, microfluidic facilitates the stimuli delivery according to a certain pattern with adjustable amplitude, frequency and phase. Several designs of PDMS microfluidic device has been produced in this project via photolithography and soft lithography processes. To characterize the microfluidic performance, two experiments has been conducted. First, by comparing the fluorescence intensity and the lifetime of fluorescein in the present of KI, mixing extent between two inputs was observed using Frequency Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM). Furthermore, the input-output relationship of fluorescein concentration delivered was also drawn to characterize the amplitude, frequency and phase of the inputs. Second experiment involved the cell culturing inside microfluidic. Using NG108-15 cells, proliferation and differentiation were observed based on the cell number and cell physiological changes. Our results demonstrate that hurdle design gives 86% mixing of fluorescein and buffer. Relationship between inputoutput fluorescein concentrations delivered has also been demonstrated and cells were successfully cultured inside the microfluidic.

  4. Morphological composition of cultivar of Urochloa brizantha under light intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of silvopastoral systems (SSP is a management option that gives good results for animal production, but the shading of the trees can alter production, growth behavior and morphological composition of the forage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphological composition of Urochloa brizantha cultivars Marandu and Piatã under natural light and artificial shading of 30 and 60%. The experiment was conducted at FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial arrangement 3 x 2 (three shading levels: 0, 30 and 60% and two cultivars: Marandu and Piatã with three replications and repeated measures in time (3 cuts. Sample collection occurred when the cultivars reached in 35 cm of height. Significant effects (P<0.05 of cultivar x shade x cut interaction were observed on the dry matter production of leaves and stems (Table 1. The higher production of leaves and stems (P<0.05 occurred for Piatã under natural light in the third cut (3731 and 1920 kg/ha, respectively. The absence of shade favored greater leaf production, 35 and 27% higher than the reductions of 30 and 60% respectively. The increment of stems for Piatã under natural light is related to the increase of inflorescences. The leaf:stem ratio was higher (P< 0.05 for Marandu under natural light (Table 2, with effect from the interaction cultivar x brightness level. A significant effect (P<0.05 cultivar x level of light reduction for light interception parameter was detected (Table 2. For Marandu, light levels were not influenced (P<0.05 light traps (Table 2, being close to the 95% criterion used for pasture management, justified by the collection at the point of balance between forage productivity and nutritional content, and strong relationship with high input grazing. The results indicate that the morphological composition of the cultivars is modified by reducing the light intensity.

  5. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Comfort constraints. Input for simulation of residents' behavior; Comforthinder. Input bij simulatie van bewonersgedrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaff, H. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Buildings in reality, use more energy than predicted. Among many causes, occupant behaviour plays an important role. Better simulation of occupant behaviour, with respect to thermal comfort and energy use of buildings, opens the possibility to design better, comfortable buildings that have lower energy consumption in reality. Thermal discomfort, a dynamical version of Fanger's PPD, is proposed to be used as input to simulate occupant behaviour via a 'flexible task list' and two Markov processes. [Dutch] Simulatie van bewonersgedrag m.b.t. energiegebruik in gebouwen biedt de mogelijkheid om gebouwen en bijbehorende energie installaties zo te ontwerpen dat ze prettiger zijn om in te wonen en te werken. Thermisch discomfort, een dynamische versie van PPD (percentage of dissatisfied persons) wordt hier voorgesteld om via een Markov-proces en een takenlijst bewonersgedrag mee te simuleren.

  7. Effect of heat input on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas tungsten arc welded AISI 304 stainless steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Subodh; Shahi, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Welding procedure is established for welding 6 mm thick AISI 304 using GTAW process. → Mechanical properties of the weld joints are influenced strongly by the heat input. → Highest tensile strength of 657.32 MPa is achieved by joints using low heat input. → Welding parameters affect heat input and hence microstructure of weld joints. → Extent of grain coarsening in the HAZ increases with increase in the heat input. -- Abstract: Influence of heat input on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas tungsten arc welded 304 stainless steel (SS) joints was studied. Three heat input combinations designated as low heat (2.563 kJ/mm), medium heat (2.784 kJ/mm) and high heat (3.017 kJ/mm) were selected from the operating window of the gas tungsten arc welding process (GTAW) and weld joints made using these combinations were subjected to microstructural evaluations and tensile testing so as to analyze the effect of thermal arc energy on the microstructure and mechanical properties of these joints. The results of this investigation indicate that the joints made using low heat input exhibited higher ultimate tensile strength (UTS) than those welded with medium and high heat input. Significant grain coarsening was observed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of all the joints and it was found that the extent of grain coarsening in the heat affected zone increased with increase in the heat input. For the joints investigated in this study it was also found that average dendrite length and inter-dendritic spacing in the weld zone increases with increase in the heat input which is the main reason for the observable changes in the tensile properties of the weld joints welded with different arc energy inputs.

  8. The Effect of Pinyin Input Experience on the Link Between Semantic and Phonology of Chinese Character in Digital Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjun; Luo, Rong; Liu, Huashan

    2017-08-01

    With the development of ICT, digital writing is becoming much more common in people's life. Differently from keyboarding alphabets directly to input English words, keyboarding Chinese character is always through typing phonetic alphabets and then identify the glyph provided by Pinyin input-method software while in this process which do not need users to produce orthography spelling, thus it is different from traditional written language production model based on handwriting process. Much of the research in this domain has found that using Pinyin input method is beneficial to Chinese characters recognition, but only a small part explored the effects of individual's Pinyin input experience on the Chinese characters production process. We ask whether using Pinyin input-method will strengthen the semantic-phonology linkage or semantic-orthography linkage in Chinese character mental lexicon. Through recording the RT and accuracy of participants completing semantic-syllable and semantic-glyph consistency judgments, the results found the accuracy of semantic-syllable consistency judgments in high Pinyin input experienced group was higher than that in low-experienced group, and RT was reversed. There were no significant differences on semantic-glyph consistency judgments between the two groups. We conclude that using Pinyin input method in Chinese digital writing can strengthen the semantic-phonology linkage while do not weakening the semantic-orthography linkage in mental lexicon at the same time, which means that Pinyin input method is beneficial to lexical processing involving Chinese cognition.

  9. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that your...

  10. Input reduction for long-term morphodynamic simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Ruessink, G.; Hoekstra, R.; Tonnon, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Input reduction is imperative to long-term (> years) morphodynamic simulations to avoid excessive computation times. Here, we discuss the input-reduction framework for wave-dominated coastal settings introduced by Walstra et al. (2013). The framework comprised 4 steps, viz. (1) the selection of the

  11. Identifying Inputs to Leadership Development within an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of students' experiences while enrolled in an interdisciplinary leadership minor with the intent to determine programmatic inputs that spur leadership development. Based on students' reflections, three domains of programmatic inputs for leadership development within the minor were identified. These…

  12. Off-line learning from clustered input examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marangi, Carmela; Solla, Sara A.; Biehl, Michael; Riegler, Peter; Marinaro, Maria; Tagliaferri, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the generalization ability of a simple perceptron acting on a structured input distribution for the simple case of two clusters of input data and a linearly separable rule. The generalization ability computed for three learning scenarios: maximal stability, Gibbs, and optimal learning, is

  13. Phonology: An Emergent Consequence of Memory Constraints and Sensory Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Presents a theoretical model that attempts to account for the early stages of language acquisition in terms of interaction between biological constraints and input characteristics. Notes that the model uses the implications of stochastic representations of the sensory input in a volatile and limited memory. Argues that phonological structure is a…

  14. History of the special committee on INIS input preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Keizo

    2011-06-01

    The special committee on INIS input techniques was held 8 times from December 1970 to March 1973. The special committee on INIS input preparation was held 39 times from February 1974 to December 2004. The history of these two committees is described. (author)

  15. Modeling recognition memory using the similarity structure of natural input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacroix, J.P.W.; Murre, J.M.J.; Postma, E.O.; van den Herik, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The natural input memory (NIM) model is a new model for recognition memory that operates on natural visual input. A biologically informed perceptual preprocessing method takes local samples (eye fixations) from a natural image and translates these into a feature-vector representation. During

  16. Modeling Recognition Memory Using the Similarity Structure of Natural Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Joyca P. W.; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Postma, Eric O.; van den Herik, H. Jaap

    2006-01-01

    The natural input memory (NAM) model is a new model for recognition memory that operates on natural visual input. A biologically informed perceptual preprocessing method takes local samples (eye fixations) from a natural image and translates these into a feature-vector representation. During recognition, the model compares incoming preprocessed…

  17. INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS : THE NEXT 25 YEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lenzen, Manfred; Los, Bart; Guan, Dabo; Lahr, Michael L.; Sancho, Ferran; Suh, Sangwon; Yang, Cuihong; Sancho, S.

    2013-01-01

    This year marks the 25th anniversary of the International Input-Output Association and the 25th volume of Economic Systems Research. To celebrate this anniversary, a group of eight experts provide their views on the future of input-output. Looking forward, they foresee progress in terms of data

  18. A Brief Talk on Cultural Input in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2007-01-01

    Different countries have different languages and cultures. My paper starts from the differentiation between western culture and Chinese culture to point out the importance and necessity of cultural input in English teaching and puts forward some approaches to enforce the cultural input in language teaching.

  19. Determinants of Agro-inputs redemption under the electronic wallet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the spread of farmers and participation in terms of input redemption and the determinants of farmers redeemed with agro-inputs under the electronic-wallet initiative of the Growth Enhancement Support Scheme of the On-going Agricultural Transformation Agenda. Secondary data covering the Nigerian ...

  20. Does Input Enhancement Work for Learning Politeness Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Safari, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of input enhancement on the acquisition of English politeness strategies by intermediate EFL learners. Two groups of freshman English majors were randomly assigned to the experimental (enhanced input) group and the control (mere exposure) group. Initially, a TOEFL test and a discourse completion test (DCT)…

  1. Exact Repetition as Input Enhancement in Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eva Dam; Vinther, Thora

    2003-01-01

    Reports on two studies on input enhancement used to support learners' selection of focus of attention in Spanish second language listening material. Input consisted of video recordings of dialogues between native speakers. Exact repetition and speech rate reduction were examined for effect on comprehension, acquisition of decoding strategies, and…

  2. Adaptive projective synchronization of different chaotic systems with nonlinearity inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Yu-Jun; Pei Bing-Nan; Wang Xing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the projective synchronization of different chaotic systems with nonlinearity inputs. Based on the adaptive technique, sliding mode control method and pole assignment technique, a novel adaptive projective synchronization scheme is proposed to ensure the drive system and the response system with nonlinearity inputs can be rapidly synchronized up to the given scaling factor. (general)

  3. Achievable Information Rates on Linear Interference Channels with Discrete Input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In this paper lower bound on the capacity of multi-dimensional linear interference channels is derived, when the input is taken from a finite size alphabet. The bounds are based on the QR decomposition of the channel matrix, and hold for any input distribution that is independent across dimensions...

  4. A strategy for integrated low-input potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.; Loon, van C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Current systems of potato growing use large amounts of pesticides and fertilizers; these inputs are costly and cause environmental problems. In this paper a strategy for integrated low-input potato production is developed with the aim of reducing costs, improving product quality and reducing

  5. Smart-Guard: Defending User Input from Malware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denzel, Michael; Bruni, Alessandro; Ryan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Trusted input techniques can profoundly enhance a variety of scenarios like online banking, electronic voting, Virtual Private Networks, and even commands to a server or Industrial Control System. To protect the system from malware of the sender’s computer, input needs to be reliably authenticated...

  6. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  7. Sound effects: Multimodal input helps infants find displaced objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinskey, Jeanne L

    2017-09-01

    Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion, suggesting auditory input is more salient in the absence of visual input. This article addresses how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for displaced objects. In AB tasks, infants who previously retrieved an object at A subsequently fail to find it after it is displaced to B, especially following a delay between hiding and retrieval. Experiment 1 manipulated auditory input by keeping the hidden object audible versus silent, and visual input by presenting the delay in the light versus dark. Infants succeeded more at B with audible than silent objects and, unexpectedly, more after delays in the light than dark. Experiment 2 presented both the delay and search phases in darkness. The unexpected light-dark difference disappeared. Across experiments, the presence of auditory input helped infants find displaced objects, whereas the absence of visual input did not. Sound might help by strengthening object representation, reducing memory load, or focusing attention. This work provides new evidence on when bimodal input aids object processing, corroborates claims that audiovisual processing improves over the first year of life, and contributes to multisensory approaches to studying cognition. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion. This suggests they find auditory input more salient in the absence of visual input in simple search tasks. After 9 months, infants' object processing appears more sensitive to multimodal (e.g., audiovisual) input. What does this study add? This study tested how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for an object displaced in an AB task. Sound helped infants find displaced objects in both the presence and absence of visual input. Object processing becomes more

  8. Uncertainty of input data for room acoustic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marbjerg, Gerd; Brunskog, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Although many room acoustic simulation models have been well established, simulation results will never be accurate with inaccurate and uncertain input data. This study addresses inappropriateness and uncertainty of input data for room acoustic simulations. Firstly, the random incidence absorption...... and scattering coefficients are insufficient when simulating highly non-diffuse rooms. More detailed information, such as the phase and angle dependence, can greatly improve the simulation results of pressure-based geometrical and wave-based models at frequencies well below the Schroeder frequency. Phase...... summarizes potential advanced absorption measurement techniques that can improve the quality of input data for room acoustic simulations. Lastly, plenty of uncertain input data are copied from unreliable sources. Software developers and users should be careful when spreading such uncertain input data. More...

  9. On Optimal Input Design and Model Selection for Communication Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanyan [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal model (structure) selection and input design which minimize the worst case identification error for communication systems are provided. The problem is formulated using metric complexity theory in a Hilbert space setting. It is pointed out that model selection and input design can be handled independently. Kolmogorov n-width is used to characterize the representation error introduced by model selection, while Gel fand and Time n-widths are used to represent the inherent error introduced by input design. After the model is selected, an optimal input which minimizes the worst case identification error is shown to exist. In particular, it is proven that the optimal model for reducing the representation error is a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) model, and the optimal input is an impulse at the start of the observation interval. FIR models are widely popular in communication systems, such as, in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems.

  10. Analytic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of models with input correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yueying; Wang, Qiuping A.; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu

    2018-03-01

    Probabilistic uncertainty analysis is a common means of evaluating mathematical models. In mathematical modeling, the uncertainty in input variables is specified through distribution laws. Its contribution to the uncertainty in model response is usually analyzed by assuming that input variables are independent of each other. However, correlated parameters are often happened in practical applications. In the present paper, an analytic method is built for the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of models in the presence of input correlations. With the method, it is straightforward to identify the importance of the independence and correlations of input variables in determining the model response. This allows one to decide whether or not the input correlations should be considered in practice. Numerical examples suggest the effectiveness and validation of our analytic method in the analysis of general models. A practical application of the method is also proposed to the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a deterministic HIV model.

  11. Modeling inputs to computer models used in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Computer models for various risk assessment applications are closely scrutinized both from the standpoint of questioning the correctness of the underlying mathematical model with respect to the process it is attempting to model and from the standpoint of verifying that the computer model correctly implements the underlying mathematical model. A process that receives less scrutiny, but is nonetheless of equal importance, concerns the individual and joint modeling of the inputs. This modeling effort clearly has a great impact on the credibility of results. Model characteristics are reviewed in this paper that have a direct bearing on the model input process and reasons are given for using probabilities-based modeling with the inputs. The authors also present ways to model distributions for individual inputs and multivariate input structures when dependence and other constraints may be present

  12. Double input converters for different voltage sources with isolated charger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalash Sattayarak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the double input converters for different voltage input sources with isolated charger coils. This research aims to increase the performance of the battery charger circuit. In the circuit, there are the different voltage levels of input source. The operating modes of the switch in the circuit use the microcontroller to control the battery charge and to control discharge mode automatically when the input voltage sources are lost from the system. The experimental result of this research shows better performance for charging at any time period of the switch, while the voltage input sources work together. Therefore, this research can use and develop to battery charger for present or future.

  13. Primary energy and greenhouse gases embodied in Australian final consumption: an input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, M.

    1998-01-01

    Input-output modeling of primary energy and greenhouse gas embodiments in goods and services is a useful technique for designing greenhouse gas abatement policies. The present paper describes direct and indirect primary energy and greenhouse gas requirements for a given set of Australian final consumption. It considers sectoral disparities in energy prices, capital formation and international trade flows and it accounts for embodiments in the Gross National Expenditure as well as the Gross Domestic Product. Primary energy and greenhouse gas intensities in terms of MJ/$ and kg CO 2 -e/$ are reported, as well as national balance of primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  14. Income Disparities and the Global Distribution of Intensively Farmed Chicken and Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gilbert

    Full Text Available The rapid transformation of the livestock sector in recent decades brought concerns on its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, disruptions to nitrogen and phosphorous cycles and on land use change, particularly deforestation for production of feed crops. Animal and human health are increasingly interlinked through emerging infectious diseases, zoonoses, and antimicrobial resistance. In many developing countries, the rapidity of change has also had social impacts with increased risk of marginalisation of smallholder farmers. However, both the impacts and benefits of livestock farming often differ between extensive (backyard farming mostly for home-consumption and intensive, commercial production systems (larger herd or flock size, higher investments in inputs, a tendency towards market-orientation. A density of 10,000 chickens per km2 has different environmental, epidemiological and societal implications if these birds are raised by 1,000 individual households or in a single industrial unit. Here, we introduce a novel relationship that links the national proportion of extensively raised animals to the gross domestic product (GDP per capita (in purchasing power parity. This relationship is modelled and used together with the global distribution of rural population to disaggregate existing 10 km resolution global maps of chicken and pig distributions into extensive and intensive systems. Our results highlight countries and regions where extensive and intensive chicken and pig production systems are most important. We discuss the sources of uncertainties, the modelling assumptions and ways in which this approach could be developed to forecast future trajectories of intensification.

  15. Income Disparities and the Global Distribution of Intensively Farmed Chicken and Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Marius; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Cinardi, Giuseppina; Linard, Catherine; Nicolas, Gaëlle; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; D'Aietti, Laura; Wint, William; Newman, Scott H; Robinson, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    The rapid transformation of the livestock sector in recent decades brought concerns on its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, disruptions to nitrogen and phosphorous cycles and on land use change, particularly deforestation for production of feed crops. Animal and human health are increasingly interlinked through emerging infectious diseases, zoonoses, and antimicrobial resistance. In many developing countries, the rapidity of change has also had social impacts with increased risk of marginalisation of smallholder farmers. However, both the impacts and benefits of livestock farming often differ between extensive (backyard farming mostly for home-consumption) and intensive, commercial production systems (larger herd or flock size, higher investments in inputs, a tendency towards market-orientation). A density of 10,000 chickens per km2 has different environmental, epidemiological and societal implications if these birds are raised by 1,000 individual households or in a single industrial unit. Here, we introduce a novel relationship that links the national proportion of extensively raised animals to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in purchasing power parity). This relationship is modelled and used together with the global distribution of rural population to disaggregate existing 10 km resolution global maps of chicken and pig distributions into extensive and intensive systems. Our results highlight countries and regions where extensive and intensive chicken and pig production systems are most important. We discuss the sources of uncertainties, the modelling assumptions and ways in which this approach could be developed to forecast future trajectories of intensification.

  16. Income Disparities and the Global Distribution of Intensively Farmed Chicken and Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Marius; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Cinardi, Giuseppina; Linard, Catherine; Nicolas, Gaëlle; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; D'Aietti, Laura; Wint, William; Newman, Scott H.; Robinson, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid transformation of the livestock sector in recent decades brought concerns on its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, disruptions to nitrogen and phosphorous cycles and on land use change, particularly deforestation for production of feed crops. Animal and human health are increasingly interlinked through emerging infectious diseases, zoonoses, and antimicrobial resistance. In many developing countries, the rapidity of change has also had social impacts with increased risk of marginalisation of smallholder farmers. However, both the impacts and benefits of livestock farming often differ between extensive (backyard farming mostly for home-consumption) and intensive, commercial production systems (larger herd or flock size, higher investments in inputs, a tendency towards market-orientation). A density of 10,000 chickens per km2 has different environmental, epidemiological and societal implications if these birds are raised by 1,000 individual households or in a single industrial unit. Here, we introduce a novel relationship that links the national proportion of extensively raised animals to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in purchasing power parity). This relationship is modelled and used together with the global distribution of rural population to disaggregate existing 10 km resolution global maps of chicken and pig distributions into extensive and intensive systems. Our results highlight countries and regions where extensive and intensive chicken and pig production systems are most important. We discuss the sources of uncertainties, the modelling assumptions and ways in which this approach could be developed to forecast future trajectories of intensification. PMID:26230336

  17. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  18. Advert for higher education

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Provozin; А.S. Teletov

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis for high intensity swirl based ultra-low emission flameless combustor operating with liquid fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy; Katoch, Amit; Roberts, William L.; Kumar, Sudarshan

    2014-01-01

    Flameless combustion offers many advantages over conventional combustion, particularly uniform temperature distribution and lower emissions. In this paper, a new strategy is proposed and adopted to scale up a burner operating in flameless combustion mode from a heat release density of 5.4-21 MW/m(3) (thermal input 21.5-84.7 kW) with kerosene fuel. A swirl flow based configuration was adopted for air injection and pressure swirl type nozzle with an SMD 35-37 lm was used to inject the fuel. Initially, flameless combustion was stabilized for a thermal input of 21.5 kW ((Q) over dot '''= 5.37 MW/m(3)). Attempts were made to scale this combustor to higher intensities i.e. 10.2, 16.3 and 21.1 MW/m(3). However, an increase in fuel flow rate led to incomplete combustion and accumulation of unburned fuel in the combustor. Two major difficulties were identified as possible reasons for unsustainable flameless combustion at the higher intensities. (i) A constant spray cone angle and SMD increases the droplet number density. (ii) Reactants dilution ratio (R-dil) decreased with increased thermal input. To solve these issues, a modified combustor configuration, aided by numerical computations was adopted, providing a chamfer near the outlet to increase the R-dil. Detailed experimental investigations showed that flameless combustion mode was achieved at high intensities with an evenly distributed reaction zone and temperature in the combustor at all heat intensities. The emissions of CO, NOx and HC for all heat intensities (Phi = 1-0.6) varied between 11-41, 6-19 and 0-9 ppm, respectively. These emissions are well within the range of emissions from other flameless combustion systems reported in the literature. The acoustic emission levels were also observed to be reduced by 8-9 dB at all conditions. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental and numerical analysis for high intensity swirl based ultra-low emission flameless combustor operating with liquid fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy

    2014-06-21

    Flameless combustion offers many advantages over conventional combustion, particularly uniform temperature distribution and lower emissions. In this paper, a new strategy is proposed and adopted to scale up a burner operating in flameless combustion mode from a heat release density of 5.4-21 MW/m(3) (thermal input 21.5-84.7 kW) with kerosene fuel. A swirl flow based configuration was adopted for air injection and pressure swirl type nozzle with an SMD 35-37 lm was used to inject the fuel. Initially, flameless combustion was stabilized for a thermal input of 21.5 kW ((Q) over dot \\'\\'\\'= 5.37 MW/m(3)). Attempts were made to scale this combustor to higher intensities i.e. 10.2, 16.3 and 21.1 MW/m(3). However, an increase in fuel flow rate led to incomplete combustion and accumulation of unburned fuel in the combustor. Two major difficulties were identified as possible reasons for unsustainable flameless combustion at the higher intensities. (i) A constant spray cone angle and SMD increases the droplet number density. (ii) Reactants dilution ratio (R-dil) decreased with increased thermal input. To solve these issues, a modified combustor configuration, aided by numerical computations was adopted, providing a chamfer near the outlet to increase the R-dil. Detailed experimental investigations showed that flameless combustion mode was achieved at high intensities with an evenly distributed reaction zone and temperature in the combustor at all heat intensities. The emissions of CO, NOx and HC for all heat intensities (Phi = 1-0.6) varied between 11-41, 6-19 and 0-9 ppm, respectively. These emissions are well within the range of emissions from other flameless combustion systems reported in the literature. The acoustic emission levels were also observed to be reduced by 8-9 dB at all conditions. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. AGS intensity record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1994-01-01

    As flashed in the September issue, this summer the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) reached a proton beam intensity of 4.05 x 10 13 protons per puise, claimed as the highest intensity ever achieved in a proton synchrotron. It is, however, only two-thirds of the way to its final goal of 6 x 10 13 . The achievement is the resuit of many years of effort. The Report of the AGS II Task Force, issued in February 1984, laid out a comprehensive programme largely based on a careful analysis of the PS experience at CERN. The AGS plan had two essential components: the construction of a new booster, and major upgrades to the AGS itself.

  2. Intensities of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissell, David; Vannini, Phillip; Jensen, Ole B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the intensities of long-distance commuting journeys in order to understand how bodily sensibilities become attuned to the regular mobilities which they undertake. More people are travelling farther to and from work than ever before, owing to a variety of factors which relate...... to complex social and geographical dynamics of transport, housing, lifestyle, and employment. Yet, the experiential dimensions of long-distance commuting have not received the attention that they deserve within research on mobilities. Drawing from fieldwork conducted in Australia, Canada, and Denmark...... this paper aims to further develop our collective understanding of the experiential particulars of long-distance workers or ‘supercommuters’. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in broad social patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions...

  3. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  4. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  5. Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez C, V.

    1994-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)

  6. Intensive culture”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    2012-01-01

    Scott Lash argumenterer i bogen Intensive Culture for en vending fra ”ekstensiv” til ”intensiv” i den nutidige globalisering. Bogens udgangspunkt er en stadig mere ekstensiv og gennemtrængende globalisering af kultur, forbrugs- og vareformer, ”comtemporary culture, today’s capitalism – our global......, samlivsmøstre etc.; ”the sheer pace of life in the streets of today’s mega-city would seem somehow to be intensive”....

  7. Intense ion beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Sudan, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation

  8. Intense fusion neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10 15 -10 21 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10 20 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  9. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  10. Allowance Allocation and CO2 intensity of the EU15 and Norwegian refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Kristina; Zetterberg, Lars; Aahman, Markus

    2005-02-01

    On 1 January 2005, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) was launched. The launch has been preceded by an allocation process in each of the Member States. The main objective of this study was to analyse the allocation in relation to CO 2 efficiency for the mineral oil refining sector. A CO 2 intensity index for mineral oil refineries has been defined and calculated for the refineries within the EU15 and Norway. The IVL CO 2 intensity index is based both on the Solomon Energy Intensity Index (EII), an assumed fuel mix, and process-specific emissions. Due to uncertainties in input data, the determined values for the individual refineries are quite uncertain. However, the regional values can be used to identify trends. It was concluded that there are substantial differences in the CO 2 intensity between refineries within different regions/countries in the EU and these differences have not been considered in the allocation process. Only a few countries have mentioned energy efficiency or reduction potential due to CO 2 intensity of fuels used. Only one country (Denmark) has explicitly given a benchmark that will be used for allocation to new mineral oil refineries. The allocation has generally been based on historic emissions, which will result in refineries with historically higher emissions being allocated larger amounts than refineries with historically lower emissions. This might be favourable for refineries that recently have performed emission-reducing measures but might be less favourable for refineries that during a long time period have implemented emission-reducing measures

  11. Allowance Allocation and CO{sub 2} intensity of the EU15 and Norwegian refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Kristina; Zetterberg, Lars; Aahman, Markus

    2005-02-01

    On 1 January 2005, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) was launched. The launch has been preceded by an allocation process in each of the Member States. The main objective of this study was to analyse the allocation in relation to CO{sub 2} efficiency for the mineral oil refining sector. A CO{sub 2} intensity index for mineral oil refineries has been defined and calculated for the refineries within the EU15 and Norway. The IVL CO{sub 2} intensity index is based both on the Solomon Energy Intensity Index (EII), an assumed fuel mix, and process-specific emissions. Due to uncertainties in input data, the determined values for the individual refineries are quite uncertain. However, the regional values can be used to identify trends. It was concluded that there are substantial differences in the CO{sub 2} intensity between refineries within different regions/countries in the EU and these differences have not been considered in the allocation process. Only a few countries have mentioned energy efficiency or reduction potential due to CO{sub 2} intensity of fuels used. Only one country (Denmark) has explicitly given a benchmark that will be used for allocation to new mineral oil refineries. The allocation has generally been based on historic emissions, which will result in refineries with historically higher emissions being allocated larger amounts than refineries with historically lower emissions. This might be favourable for refineries that recently have performed emission-reducing measures but might be less favourable for refineries that during a long time period have implemented emission-reducing measures.

  12. Memories of social interactions: age differences in emotional intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Susan Turk; Piazza, Jennifer R

    2007-06-01

    The current study examined age differences in the intensity of emotions experienced during social interactions. Because emotions are felt most intensely in situations central to motivational goals, age differences in emotional intensity may exist in social situations that meet the goals for one age group more than the other. Guided by theories of emotional intensity and socioemotional selectivity, it was hypothesized that social partner type would elicit different affective responses by age. Younger (n = 71) and older (n = 71) adults recalled experiences of positive and negative emotions with new friends, established friends, and family members from the prior week. Compared with younger adults, older adults reported lower intensity positive emotions with new friends, similarly intense positive emotions with established friends, and higher intensity positive emotions with family members. Older adults reported lower intensity negative emotions for all social partners than did younger adults, but this difference was most pronounced for interactions with new friends. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Quantifying input uncertainty in an assemble-to-order system simulation with correlated input variables of mixed types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akçay, A.E.; Biller, B.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an assemble-to-order production system where the product demands and the time since the last customer arrival are not independent. The simulation of this system requires a multivariate input model that generates random input vectors with correlated discrete and continuous components. In

  14. Intensive meditation for refractory pain and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Madhav; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer; Levine, David; Becker, Diane; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Ford, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess patient interest in intensive meditation training for chronic symptoms. This was a cross-sectional anonymous survey among six chronic disease clinics in Baltimore including Chronic Kidney Disease, Crohn's Disease, Headache, Renal Transplant Recipients, General Rheumatology, and lupus clinic. Subjects were 1119 consecutive patients registering for their appointments at these clinics. Outcome measures were 6-month pain, global symptomatology, four-item perceived stress scale, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, and attitudes toward use of meditation for managing symptoms. We then gave a scripted description of an intensive, 10-day meditation training retreat. Patient interest in attending such a retreat was assessed. Seventy-seven percent (77%) of patients approached completed the survey. Fifty-three percent (53%) of patients reported moderate to severe pain over the past 6 months. Eighty percent (80%) reported use of some CAM therapy in the past. Thirty-five percent (35%) thought that learning meditation would improve their health, and 49% thought it would reduce stress. Overall, 39% reported interest in attending the intensive 10-day meditation retreat. Among those reporting moderate to severe pain or stress, the percentages were higher (48% and 59%). In a univariate analysis, higher education, nonworking/disabled status, female gender, higher stress, higher pain, higher symptomatology, and any CAM use were all associated with a greater odds of being moderately to very interested in an intensive 10-day meditation retreat. A multivariate model that included prior use of CAM therapies as predictors of interest in the program fit the data significantly better than a model not including CAM therapies (p = 0.0013). Over 50% of patients followed in chronic disease clinics complain of moderate to severe pain. Patients with persistent pain or stress are more likely to be interested in intensive meditation.

  15. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  16. Root carbon input in organic and inorganic fertilizer-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Olesen, Jørgen E; Porter, John

    2012-01-01

    C input to remain scant. This study aimed at determining macro-root C input and topsoil root related respiration in response to nutrient management and soil fertility building measures. Methods We sampled roots and shoots of cereals and catch crops in inorganic and organic fertilizer-based arable...... season of winter wheat by subtracting soil respiration from soil with and without exclusion of roots. Results Catch crop roots accounted for more than 40 % of total plant C. For spring barley in 2008 and spring wheat in 2010, root C was higher in the organic than in the inorganic fertilizer-based systems...... was higher (31–131 %) in inorganic than in organic fertilizer-based systems. Conclusions Our findings show that macro-roots of both cereal crops and catch crops play a relatively larger role in organically managed systems than in mineral fertilizer based systems; and that the use of fixed biomass S/R ratios...

  17. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  18. INTERNATIONALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  19. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  20. WORM: A general-purpose input deck specification language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.

    1999-01-01

    Using computer codes to perform criticality safety calculations has become common practice in the industry. The vast majority of these codes use simple text-based input decks to represent the geometry, materials, and other parameters that describe the problem. However, the data specified in input files are usually processed results themselves. For example, input decks tend to require the geometry specification in linear dimensions and materials in atom or weight fractions, while the parameter of interest might be mass or concentration. The calculations needed to convert from the item of interest to the required parameter in the input deck are usually performed separately and then incorporated into the input deck. This process of calculating, editing, and renaming files to perform a simple parameter study is tedious at best. In addition, most computer codes require dimensions to be specified in centimeters, while drawings or other materials used to create the input decks might be in other units. This also requires additional calculation or conversion prior to composition of the input deck. These additional calculations, while extremely simple, introduce a source for error in both the calculations and transcriptions. To overcome these difficulties, WORM (Write One, Run Many) was created. It is an easy-to-use programming language to describe input decks and can be used with any computer code that uses standard text files for input. WORM is available, via the Internet, at worm.lanl.gov. A user's guide, tutorials, example models, and other WORM-related materials are also available at this Web site. Questions regarding WORM should be directed to wormatlanl.gov

  1. Mars 2.2 code manual: input requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae; Jeong, Jae Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Kyung Doo; Lee, Seung Wook; Bae, Sung Won

    2003-07-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This input manual provides a complete list of input required to run MARS. The manual is divided largely into two parts, namely, the one-dimensional part and the multi-dimensional part. The inputs for auxiliary parts such as minor edit requests and graph formatting inputs are shared by the two parts and as such mixed input is possible. The overall structure of the input is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS. MARS development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  2. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    leaders of higher education institutions to set strategic directions and support their decisions in an effort to create even better study programmes with a better reputation. Finally, managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.Keywords: Reputation, image, corporate identity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a reputation model for higher education programmes, provide empirical evidence for the model and illustrate its application by using Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as the recurrent case. The developed model is a cause-and-effect model linking image...

  3. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...

  4. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur...

  5. Input data required for specific performance assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Starmer, R.J.; Dicke, C.A.; Leonard, P.R.; Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Smith, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generated this report on input data requirements for computer codes to assist States and compacts in their performance assessments. This report gives generators, developers, operators, and users some guidelines on what input data is required to satisfy 22 common performance assessment codes. Each of the codes is summarized and a matrix table is provided to allow comparison of the various input required by the codes. This report does not determine or recommend which codes are preferable

  6. Barrier island forest ecosystem: role of meteorologic nutrient inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Art, H W; Bormann, F H; Voigt, G K; Woodwell, G M

    1974-04-05

    The Sunken Forest, located on Fire Island, a barrier island in the Atlantic Ocean off Long Island, New York, is an ecosystem in which most of the basic cation input is in the form of salt spray. This meteorologic input is sufficient to compensate for the lack of certain nutrients in the highly weathered sandy soils. In other ecosystems these nutrients are generally supplied by weathering of soil particles. The compensatory effect of meteorologic input allows for primary production rates in the Sunken Forest similar to those of inland temperate forests.

  7. ORIGNATE: PC input processor for ORIGEN-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    ORIGNATE is a personal computer program that serves as a user- friendly interface for the ORIGEN-S isotopic generation and depletion code. It is designed to assist an ORIGEN-S user in preparing an input file for execution of light-water-reactor fuel depletion and decay cases. Output from ORIGNATE is a card-image input file that may be uploaded to a mainframe computer to execute ORIGEN-S in SCALE-4. ORIGNATE features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up an ORIGEN-S input file and perform error checking

  8. I-125 input into antibodies molecules specific to australian antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukayumov, A. M.; Chistyakov, P.G.; Garajshina, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    There are experimental data on I-125 input into antibodies molecules specific to superficial antigen of hepatitis B virus (australian antigen). Three ways of input are submitted: with the help of T chloramine usage, Bolton-Hunter Reagent and with the help of iodogen. There are also comparative characteristics of iodized products obtained: molar radioactivity, radiochemical frequency, immuno - reactivity. The report also discusses advantages and disadvantages of the used methods for inputting I-125 into antibodies to australian antigen in order to study the possibility of creating radio immunological test system for detecting superficial antigen of B hepatitis

  9. Robotics control using isolated word recognition of voice input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A speech input/output system is presented that can be used to communicate with a task oriented system. Human speech commands and synthesized voice output extend conventional information exchange capabilities between man and machine by utilizing audio input and output channels. The speech input facility is comprised of a hardware feature extractor and a microprocessor implemented isolated word or phrase recognition system. The recognizer offers a medium sized (100 commands), syntactically constrained vocabulary, and exhibits close to real time performance. The major portion of the recognition processing required is accomplished through software, minimizing the complexity of the hardware feature extractor.

  10. Robust Fault Detection for Switched Fuzzy Systems With Unknown Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Yingchun; Sun, Xun

    2017-10-03

    This paper investigates the fault detection problem for a class of switched nonlinear systems in the T-S fuzzy framework. The unknown input is considered in the systems. A novel fault detection unknown input observer design method is proposed. Based on the proposed observer, the unknown input can be removed from the fault detection residual. The weighted H∞ performance level is considered to ensure the robustness. In addition, the weighted H₋ performance level is introduced, which can increase the sensibility of the proposed detection method. To verify the proposed scheme, a numerical simulation example and an electromechanical system simulation example are provided at the end of this paper.

  11. Automation of Geometry Input for Building Code Compliance Check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrova, Ekaterina Aleksandrova; Johansen, Peter Lind; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2017-01-01

    Documentation of compliance with the energy performance regulations at the end of the detailed design phase is mandatory for building owners in Denmark. Therefore, besides multidisciplinary input, the building design process requires various iterative analyses, so that the optimal solutions can...... be identified amongst multiple alternatives. However, meeting performance criteria is often associated with manual data inputs and retroactive modifications of the design. Due to poor interoperability between the authoring tools and the compliance check program, the processes are redundant and inefficient...... from building geometry created in Autodesk Revit and its translation to input for compliance check analysis....

  12. Jointness through vessel capacity input in a multispecies fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Carsten Lynge

    2014-01-01

    capacity. We develop a fixed but allocatable input model of purse seine fisheries capturing this particular type of jointness. We estimate the model for the Norwegian purse seine fishery and find that it is characterized by nonjointness, while estimations for this fishery using the standard models imply...... are typically modeled as either independent single species fisheries or using standard multispecies functional forms characterized by jointness in inputs. We argue that production of each species is essentially independent but that jointness may be caused by competition for fixed but allocable input of vessel...

  13. Remote media vision-based computer input device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabnia, Hamid R.; Chen, Ching-Yi

    1991-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a vision-based computer input device which has been built at the University of Georgia. The user of this system gives commands to the computer without touching any physical device. The system receives input through a CCD camera; it is PC- based and is built on top of the DOS operating system. The major components of the input device are: a monitor, an image capturing board, a CCD camera, and some software (developed by use). These are interfaced with a standard PC running under the DOS operating system.

  14. Input Scanners: A Growing Impact In A Diverse Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kevin E.

    1989-08-01

    Just as newly invented photographic processes revolutionized the printing industry at the turn of the century, electronic imaging has affected almost every computer application today. To completely emulate traditionally mechanical means of information handling, computer based systems must be able to capture graphic images. Thus, there is a widespread need for the electronic camera, the digitizer, the input scanner. This paper will review how various types of input scanners are being used in many diverse applications. The following topics will be covered: - Historical overview of input scanners - New applications for scanners - Impact of scanning technology on select markets - Scanning systems issues

  15. OFFSCALE: PC input processor for SCALE-4 criticality sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    OFFSCALE is a personal computer program that serves as a user-friendly interface for the Criticality Safety Analysis Sequences (CSAS) available in SCALE-4. It is designed to assist a SCALE-4 user in preparing an input file for execution of criticality safety problems. Output from OFFSCALE is a card-image input file that may be uploaded to a mainframe computer to execute the CSAS4 control module in SCALE-4. OFFSCALE features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up a CSAS4 input file and perform data checking

  16. Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekik Argo Dahono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.

  17. A conceptual framework for analysing and measuring land-use intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2013-01-01

    Large knowledge gaps currently exist that limit our ability to understand and characterise dynamics and patterns of land-use intensity: in particular, a comprehensive conceptual framework and a system of measurement are lacking. This situation hampers the development of a sound understanding...... of the mechanisms, determinants, and constraints underlying changes in land-use intensity. On the basis of a review of approaches for studying land-use intensity, we propose a conceptual framework to quantify and analyse land-use intensity. This framework integrates three dimensions: (a) input intensity, (b) output...

  18. Employment impacts of energy conservation schemes in the residential sector. Calculation of direct and indirect employment effects using a dedicated input/output simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeeninga, H.; Weber, C.; Maeenpaeae, I.; Rivero Garcia, F.; Wiltshire, V.; Wade, J.

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between investments in energy efficiency and employment is investigated. The employment effects of several energy conservation schemes implemented in the residential sector are determined by means of a dedicated input/output simulation approach. The employment effects of energy conservation schemes were determined for France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Within the time frame of the project, it was not feasible to perform a comparable analysis for Greece, Ireland and Austria. For Finland, the employment effects of energy auditing schemes were investigated by means of a macro economic simulation model. The main driving force behind the positive employment effect of investment in energy efficiency in the residential sector is the fact that the energy sector has a rather low labour intensity. The resulting shift of expenditures from the energy sector to other sectors with higher labour intensity leads to increased employment. The main mechanisms that determine the net shift in employment resulting from investments in energy conservation are: 1. The employment effect related to the initial investment in energy efficiency; 2. The energy saving effect. Due to lower energy bill, a shift in expenditure pattern will occur from the labour extensive energy sector towards sectors with higher labour intensity, thus inducing a net positive effect on employment; 3. The effects of money transfers between sectors. For example, when the investment is subsidised by the government, money is transferred from the governmental sector to the residential sector; 4. Changes in the total government budget as a result of changes in total tax revenue and expenditures on unemployment benefits. Different financing methods for the investment in energy efficiency are analysed. The initial investment can be financed from the general household consumption budget, by means of a loan, using a subsidy or using private savings. The following input parameters

  19. Economic evaluation of cereal cropping systems under semiarid conditions: minimum input, organic and conventional

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo,Gabriel; Aibar,Joaquín; Cavero,José; Zaragoza,Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Cropping systems like organic farming, selling products at a higher price and promoting environmental sustainability by reducing fertilizer and pesticides, can be more profitable than conventional systems. An economic evaluation of three cropping systems in a seven year period experiment was performed, using a common rotation (fallow-barley-vetch-durum wheat) in a semi-arid rainfed field of Spain. The minimum input system included mouldboard ploughing, cultivator preparation, sowing and harve...

  20. A Systematic Study for Smart Residential Thermostats: User Needs for the Input, Output, and Intelligence Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Luen Patrick Rau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of “smart” residential thermostats—both in terms of wider connectivity and higher intelligence—has revealed great opportunity for energy conservation, as well as providing comfort and convenience. This paper focuses on the interaction design of such a novel system, and analyzed user requirements for input, output, and level of intelligence systematically through both in-depth interviews and a survey.

  1. Proton energy dependence of slow neutron intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    The choice of the proton energy is an important issue for the design of an intense-pulsed-spallation source. The optimal proton beam energy is rather unique from a viewpoint of the leakage neutron intensity but no yet clear from the slow-neutron intensity view point. It also depends on an accelerator type. Since it is also important to know the proton energy dependence of slow-neutrons from the moderators in a realistic target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA). We studied on the TMRA proposed for Japan Spallation Neutron Source. The slow-neutron intensities from the moderators per unit proton beam power (MW) exhibit the maximum at about 1-2 GeV. At higher proton energies the intensity per MW goes down; at 3 and 50 GeV about 0.91 and 0.47 times as low as that at 1 GeV. The proton energy dependence of slow-neutron intensities was found to be almost the same as that of total neutron yield (leakage neutrons) from the same bare target. It was also found that proton energy dependence was almost the same for the coupled and decoupled moderators, regardless the different moderator type, geometry and coupling scheme. (author)

  2. Orchestrating intensities and rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Juelskjær, Malou

    2016-01-01

    environmentality and learning-centered governance standards has dramatic and performative effects for the production of (educational) subjectivities. This implies a shift from governing identities, categories and structures towards orchestrating affective intensities and rhythms. Finally, the article discusses...... and the making of subjects have held sway for many years; and it is also well known that schools have been some of the most regular purchasers of psychological methods, tests and classifications. Following but also elaborating upon governmentality studies, it is suggested that a current shift towards...

  3. Exploring Higher Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Willis M.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that the social studies reform movement includes a call for the de-emphasis of rote memory and more attention to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Discusses the "thinking tasks" concept derived from the work of Hilda Taba and asserts that the tasks can be used with almost any social studies topic. (CFR)

  4. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  5. Inflation from higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1987-01-01

    We argue that an inflationary phase in the very early universe is related to the transition from a higher dimensional to a four-dimensional universe. We present details of a previously considered model which gives sufficient inflation without fine tuning of parameters. (orig.)

  6. Higher Education Funding Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

  7. Liberty and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  8. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  9. Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  10. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  11. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  12. Creativity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  13. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  14. Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Maria A.; Smith, Gina S.; Brashen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has extended beyond the schoolyard into online forums in the form of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a growing concern due to the effect on its victims. Current studies focus on grades K-12; however, cyberbullying has entered the world of higher education. The focus of this study was to identify the existence of cyberbullying in higher…

  15. Effects of Input Data Content on the Uncertainty of Simulating Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Camargos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The widely used, partly-deterministic Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT requires a large amount of spatial input data, such as a digital elevation model (DEM, land use, and soil maps. Modelers make an effort to apply the most specific data possible for the study area to reflect the heterogeneous characteristics of landscapes. Regional data, especially with fine resolution, is often preferred. However, such data is not always available and can be computationally demanding. Despite being coarser, global data are usually free and available to the public. Previous studies revealed the importance for single investigations of different input maps. However, it remains unknown whether higher-resolution data can lead to reliable results. This study investigates how global and regional input datasets affect parameter uncertainty when estimating river discharges. We analyze eight different setups for the SWAT model for a catchment in Luxembourg, combining different land-use, elevation, and soil input data. The Metropolis–Hasting Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to infer posterior model parameter uncertainty. We conclude that our higher resolved DEM improves the general model performance in reproducing low flows by 10%. The less detailed soil-map improved the fit of low flows by 25%. In addition, more detailed land-use maps reduce the bias of the model discharge simulations by 50%. Also, despite presenting similar parameter uncertainty (P-factor ranging from 0.34 to 0.41 and R-factor from 0.41 to 0.45 for all setups, the results show a disparate parameter posterior distribution. This indicates that no assessment of all sources of uncertainty simultaneously is compensated by the fitted parameter values. We conclude that our result can give some guidance for future SWAT applications in the selection of the degree of detail for input data.

  16. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  17. Soil manganese enrichment from industrial inputs: a gastropod perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina-Maria Bordean

    Full Text Available Manganese is one of the most abundant metal in natural environments and serves as an essential microelement for all living systems. However, the enrichment of soil with manganese resulting from industrial inputs may threaten terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of manganese exposure by cutaneous contact and/or by soil ingestion to a wide range of soil invertebrates. The link between soil manganese and land snails has never been made although these invertebrates routinely come in contact with the upper soil horizons through cutaneous contact, egg-laying, and feeding activities in soil. Therefore, we have investigated the direct transfer of manganese from soils to snails and assessed its toxicity at background concentrations in the soil. Juvenile Cantareus aspersus snails were caged under semi-field conditions and exposed first, for a period of 30 days, to a series of soil manganese concentrations, and then, for a second period of 30 days, to soils with higher manganese concentrations. Manganese levels were measured in the snail hepatopancreas, foot, and shell. The snail survival and shell growth were used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of manganese exposure. The transfer of manganese from soil to snails occurred independently of food ingestion, but had no consistent effect on either the snail survival or shell growth. The hepatopancreas was the best biomarker of manganese exposure, whereas the shell did not serve as a long-term sink for this metal. The kinetics of manganese retention in the hepatopancreas of snails previously exposed to manganese-spiked soils was significantly influenced by a new exposure event. The results of this study reveal the importance of land snails for manganese cycling in terrestrial biotopes and suggest that the direct transfer from soils to snails should be considered when precisely assessing the impact of anthropogenic Mn releases on soil ecosystems.

  18. Usability Improvement for Data Input into the Fatigue Avoidance Scheduling Tool (FAST)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, James C

    2005-01-01

    ...) data input mode than using the graphic schedule input mode. The Grid input mode provided both a statistically and an operationally significant reduction in data input time, compared to the Graphic mode for both novice...

  19. Stochastic weather inputs for improved urban water demand forecasting: application of nonlinear input variable selection and machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Urban water supply systems are often stressed during seasonal outdoor water use as water demands related to the climate are variable in nature making it difficult to optimize the operation of the water supply system. Urban water demand forecasts (UWD) failing to include meteorological conditions as inputs to the forecast model may produce poor forecasts as they cannot account for the increase/decrease in demand related to meteorological conditions. Meteorological records stochastically simulated into the future can be used as inputs to data-driven UWD forecasts generally resulting in improved forecast accuracy. This study aims to produce data-driven UWD forecasts for two different Canadian water utilities (Montreal and Victoria) using machine learning methods by first selecting historical UWD and meteorological records derived from a stochastic weather generator using nonlinear input variable selection. The nonlinear input variable selection methods considered in this work are derived from the concept of conditional mutual information, a nonlinear dependency measure based on (multivariate) probability density functions and accounts for relevancy, conditional relevancy, and redundancy from a potential set of input variables. The results of our study indicate that stochastic weather inputs can improve UWD forecast accuracy for the two sites considered in this work. Nonlinear input variable selection is suggested as a means to identify which meteorological conditions should be utilized in the forecast.

  20. Third order TRANSPORT with MAD [Methodical Accelerator Design] input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes computer-aided design codes for particle accelerators. Among the topics discussed are: input beam description; parameters and algebraic expressions; the physical elements; beam lines; operations; and third-order transfer matrix

  1. effects of sediment input on aquatic animal communities in New

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    the silt determiners the abundance of macroinvertebrates hence the increase in the population in the month of Nov, while Sept(43%) ... result in sediments inputs and deposition in water bodies. (Cuker, 1987). ... reduction in food quality.

  2. Input shaping control with reentry commands of prescribed duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of flexible mechanical structures often deals with the problem of unwanted vibration. The input shaping is a feedforward method based on modification of the input signal so that the output performs the demanded behaviour. The presented approach is based on a finite-time Laplace transform. It leads to no-vibration control signal without any limitations on its time duration because it is not strictly connected to the system resonant frequency. This idea used for synthesis of control input is extended to design of dynamical shaper with reentry property that transform an arbitrary input signal to the signal that cause no vibration. All these theoretical tasks are supported by the results of simulation experiments.

  3. Metacognitive Instruction: Global and Local Shifts in Considering Listening Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bozorgian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A key shift of thinking for effective learning and teaching of listening input has been seen and organized in education locally and globally. This study has probed whether metacognitive instruction through a pedagogical cycle shifts high-intermediate students' English language learning and English as a second language (ESL teacher's teaching focus on listening input. Twenty male Iranian students with an age range of 18 to 24 received a guided methodology including metacognitive strategies (planning, monitoring, and evaluation for a period of three months. This study has used the strategies and probed the importance of metacognitive instruction through interviewing both the teacher and the students. The results have shown that metacognitive instruction helped both the ESL teacher's and the students' shift of thinking about teaching and learning listening input. This key shift of thinking has implications globally and locally for classroom practices of listening input.

  4. Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian University system. ... which mostly affect women‟s job performance in the Nigerian university system. ... are essential in building a gender-friendly university work environment.

  5. Calibration of controlling input models for pavement management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) is currently using the Deighton Total Infrastructure Management System (dTIMS) software for pavement management. This system is based on several input models which are computational backbones to dev...

  6. Towards an affordable alternative educational video game input device

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the prototype design results of an alternative physical educational video gaming input device. The device elicits increased physical activity from the players as compared to the compact gaming controller. Complicated...

  7. Smart mobility solution with multiple input Output interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Aartika; Deb, Sujay; Ranjan, Prabhat; Sardar, Arghya

    2017-07-01

    Smart wheelchairs are commonly used to provide solution for mobility impairment. However their usage is limited primarily due to high cost owing from sensors required for giving input, lack of adaptability for different categories of input and limited functionality. In this paper we propose a smart mobility solution using smartphone with inbuilt sensors (accelerometer, camera and speaker) as an input interface. An Emotiv EPOC+ is also used for motor imagery based input control synced with facial expressions in cases of extreme disability. Apart from traction, additional functions like home security and automation are provided using Internet of Things (IoT) and web interfaces. Although preliminary, our results suggest that this system can be used as an integrated and efficient solution for people suffering from mobility impairment. The results also indicate a decent accuracy is obtained for the overall system.

  8. K Basins environmental impact statement technical input document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.; Bergmann, D.W.; Costley, G.E.; Jansky, M.T.; McCormack, R.L.; Monthey, M.J.; Praga, A.N.; Ullah, J.K.; Willis, W.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document describes the technical input necessary to develop and evaluate the alternatives within the Environmental Impact Statement for the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel From the K Basins at the Hanford Site

  9. Heat input control in coke ovens battery using artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Kannan, C.; Sistla, S.; Kumar, D. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2005-07-01

    Controlled heating is very essential for producing coke with certain desired properties. Controlled heating involves controlling the heat input into the battery dynamically depending on the various process parameters like current battery temperature, the set point of battery temperature, moisture in coal, ambient temperature, coal fineness, cake breakage etc. An artificial intelligence (AI) based heat input control has been developed in which currently some of the above mentioned process parameters are considered and used for calculating the pause time which is applied between reversal during the heating process. The AI based model currently considers 3 input variables, temperature deviation history, current deviation of the battery temperature from the target temperature and the actual heat input into the battery. Work is in progress to control the standard deviation of coke end temperature using this model. The new system which has been developed in-house has replaced Hoogovens supplied model. 7 figs.

  10. An Exploration of Input Conditions for Virtual Teleportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Emil Rosenlund; Ruder, Kevin Vignola; Nilsson, Niels Chr.

    2017-01-01

    This poster describes a within-groups study (n=17) comparing participants' experience of three different input conditions for instigating virtual teleportation (button clicking, physical jumping, and fist clenching). The results indicated that teleportation by clicking a button generally required...

  11. Noise & Input : videost, Portugalist ja muust / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2002-01-01

    Videokunstist, suhtumisest videokunsti Eestis, portugali videokunsti näitusest "High Input, Low Noise" Rotermanni soolalaos. Pedro Dinis (?) Reisi, Caterina (?) Campino, Francisco Quierose (?) ja Rui Toscano teostest. Võrdlus eesti videokunstiga.

  12. Jupiter's Auroral Energy Input Observed by Hisaki/EXCEED and its Modulations by Io's Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, C.; Kimura, T.; Tsuchiya, F.; Murakami, G.; Yoshioka, K.; Kita, H.; Yamazaki, A.; Kasaba, Y.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2016-12-01

    Aurora is an important indicator representing the momentum transfer from the fast-rotating outer planet to the magnetosphere and the energy input into the atmosphere through the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Long-term monitoring of Jupiter's northern aurora was achieved by the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer called EXCEED (Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscope for Exospheric Dynamics) onboard JAXA's Earth-orbiting planetary space telescope Hisaki until today after its launch in September 2013. We have proceeded the statistical survey of the Jupiter's auroral energy input into the upper atmosphere. The auroral electron energy is estimated using a hydrocarbon color ratio (CR) adopted for the wavelength range of EXCEED, and the emission power in the long wavelength range 138.5-144.8 nm is used as an indicator of total emitted power before hydrocarbon absorption and auroral electron energy flux. Temporal dynamic variation of the auroral intensity was detected when Io's volcanic activity and thus EUV emission from the Io plasma torus are enhanced in the early 2015. Average of the total input power over 80 days increases by 10% with sometimes sporadically more than a factor of 3 upto 7, while the CR indicates the auroral electron energy decrease by 20% during the volcanic event compared to the other period. This indicates much more increase in the current system and Joule heating which contributes heating of the upper atmosphere. We will discuss the impact of this event on the upper atmosphere and ionosphere.

  13. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse conserve the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing X Pan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and, manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  14. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse reflect the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weixing X; Mao, Tianyi; Dudman, Joshua T

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  15. Investigating gaze-controlled input in a cognitive selection test

    OpenAIRE

    Gayraud, Katja; Hasse, Catrin; Eißfeldt, Hinnerk; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    In the field of aviation, there is a growing interest in developing more natural forms of interaction between operators and systems to enhance safety and efficiency. These efforts also include eye gaze as an input channel for human-machine interaction. The present study investigates the application of gaze-controlled input in a cognitive selection test called Eye Movement Conflict Detection Test. The test enables eye movements to be studied as an indicator for psychological test performance a...

  16. Optimal Input Strategy for Plug and Play Process Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of optimal operation of a plant, which goal is to maintain production at minimum cost. The system considered in this work consists of a joined plant and redundant input systems. It is assumed that each input system contributes to a flow of goods into the joined pa...... the performance of the plant. The results are applied to a coal fired power plant where an additional new fuel system, gas, becomes available....

  17. Measuring the Efficiency of Financial Inputs for Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Balasubramanyan

    2009-01-01

    This study employs data on small businesses from the Office of Advocacy for the U.S. Small Business Administration, along with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Call Report data for U.S. commercial banks. It examines the efficiency of the impact of the financial inputs on small business entrepreneurial output. This study provides a metric to capture financial input efficiency to the entrepreneurial process. The metric obtained from this analysis is useful for identification and adopti...

  18. Energy Consumptions of Text Input Methods on Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Obison, Henry; Ajuorah, Chiagozie

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computing devices, in particular smartphones are powered from Lithium-ion batteries, which are limited in capacity. With the increasing popularity of mobile systems, various text input methods have been developed to improve user experience and performance. Briefly, text input method is a user interface that can be used to compose an electronic mail, configure mobile Virtual Private Network, and carryout bank transactions and online purchases. Efficient energy management in these system...

  19. IFF, Full-Screen Input Menu Generator for FORTRAN Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Albert

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The IFF-package contains input modules for use within FORTRAN programs. This package enables the programmer to easily include interactive menu-directed data input (module VTMEN1) and command-word processing (module INPCOM) into a FORTRAN program. 2 - Method of solution: No mathematical operations are performed. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Certain restrictions of use may arise from the dimensioning of arrays. Field lengths are defined via PARAMETER-statements

  20. MIFT: GIFT Combinatorial Geometry Input to VCS Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    r-w w-^ H ^ß0318is CQ BRL °RCUMr REPORT NO. 1967 —-S: ... MIFT: GIFT COMBINATORIAL GEOMETRY INPUT TO VCS CODE Albert E...TITLE (and Subtitle) MIFT: GIFT Combinatorial Geometry Input to VCS Code S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED FINAL 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER...Vehicle Code System (VCS) called MORSE was modified to accept the GIFT combinatorial geometry package. GIFT , as opposed to the geometry package

  1. Example of material accounting and verification of reprocessing input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Schoof, S.

    1981-01-01

    An example is described in this paper of material accounting at the reprocessing input point. Knowledge of the fuel history and chemical analyses of the spent fuel permitted concepts to be tested which have been developed for the determination of the input by the operator and for its verification by nuclear material safeguards with the intention of detecting a protracted as well as an abrupt diversion. Accuracies obtained for a material balance of a PWR fuel reprocessing campaign are given. 6 refs

  2. Documentation of CATHENA input files for the APOLLO computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Input files created for the VAX version of the CATHENA two-fluid code have been modified and documented for simulation on the AECB's APOLLO computer system. The input files describe the RD-14 thermalhydraulic loop, the RD-14 steam generator, the RD-12 steam generator blowdown test facility, the Stern Laboratories Cold Water Injection Facility (CWIT), and a CANDU 600 reactor. Sample CATHENA predictions are given and compared with experimental results where applicable. 24 refs

  3. Water balances in intensively monitored forest ecosystems in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salm, C. van der; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, W. de

    2007-01-01

    A soil hydrological model based on Darcy's law was used to calculate hydrological fluxes for 245 intensively monitored forest plots in Europe. Local measured input data for the model were rather limited and input was partly based on generic data. To obtain the best results, the model was calibrated on measured throughfall at the plots. Median transpiration fluxes are 350 mm; median leaching fluxes are 150 mm yr -1 with the highest values in areas with high rainfall. Uncertainty analyses indicate that the use of local meteorological data instead of generic data leads to lower leaching fluxes at 70% of the plots due to an overestimation of the wind speed on basis of main meteorological stations. The underestimation of the leaching fluxes is confirmed by the median Cl fluxes which were slightly positive for the considered plots. - Assessment of water fluxes for 245 intensively monitored forest plots in Europe using a soil hydrological model combined with an interception model and a snow module

  4. Experimental Investigation of Integrated Optical Intensive Impulse Electric Field Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Sun; Fu-Shen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    We design and fabricate an integrated optical electric field sensor with segmented electrode for intensive impulse electric field measurement. The integrated optical sensor is based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with segmented electrodes. The output/input character of the sensing system is analysed and measured. The maximal detectable electric field range (−75 kV/m to 245 kV/m) is obtained by analysing the results. As a result, the integrated optics electric field sensing system is suitable for transient intensive electric field measurement investigation

  5. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  6. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  7. SO2 policy and input substitution under spatial monopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerking, Shelby; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Following the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, electric utilities dramatically increased their utilization of low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin (PRB). Recent studies indicate that railroads hauling PRB coal exercise a substantial degree of market power and that relative price changes in the mining and transportation sectors were contributing factors to the observed pattern of input substitution. This paper asks the related question: To what extent does more stringent SO 2 policy stimulate input substitution from high-sulfur coal to low-sulfur coal when railroads hauling low-sulfur coal exercise spatial monopoly power? The question underpins the effectiveness of incentive-based environmental policies given the essential role of market performance in input, output, and abatement markets in determining the social cost of regulation. Our analysis indicates that environmental regulation leads to negligible input substitution effects when clean and dirty inputs are highly substitutable and the clean input market is mediated by a spatial monopolist. (author)

  8. Non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolaev, B.I. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Troyan, S.I. [St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Description of hadronic reactions at high energies is conventionally done in the framework of QCD factorization. All factorization convolutions comprise non-perturbative inputs mimicking non-perturbative contributions and perturbative evolution of those inputs. We construct inputs for the gluon-hadron scattering amplitudes in the forward kinematics and, using the optical theorem, convert them into inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons, embracing the cases of polarized and unpolarized hadrons. In the first place, we formulate mathematical criteria which any model for the inputs should obey and then suggest a model satisfying those criteria. This model is based on a simple reasoning: after emitting an active parton off the hadron, the remaining set of spectators becomes unstable and therefore it can be described through factors of the resonance type, so we call it the resonance model. We use it to obtain non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in unpolarized and polarized hadrons for all available types of QCD factorization: basic, K{sub T}-and collinear factorizations. (orig.)

  9. Non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, B.I.; Troyan, S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Description of hadronic reactions at high energies is conventionally done in the framework of QCD factorization. All factorization convolutions comprise non-perturbative inputs mimicking non-perturbative contributions and perturbative evolution of those inputs. We construct inputs for the gluon-hadron scattering amplitudes in the forward kinematics and, using the optical theorem, convert them into inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons, embracing the cases of polarized and unpolarized hadrons. In the first place, we formulate mathematical criteria which any model for the inputs should obey and then suggest a model satisfying those criteria. This model is based on a simple reasoning: after emitting an active parton off the hadron, the remaining set of spectators becomes unstable and therefore it can be described through factors of the resonance type, so we call it the resonance model. We use it to obtain non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in unpolarized and polarized hadrons for all available types of QCD factorization: basic, K_T-and collinear factorizations. (orig.)

  10. Integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information to "feeling" music, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter-recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, "duple" (march-like rhythms) and "triple" (waltz-like rhythms), presented in three conditions: (1) unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone); (2) various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts; and (3) bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70-85 %) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70-90 %) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60 % when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90 %). Performance dropped dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10 %), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60 %), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. These observations support the notion that meter perception is a cross-modal percept with tactile inputs underlying the perception of "feeling" music.

  11. An input-output energy analysis in greenhouse vegetable production: a case study for Antalya region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan; Akcaoz, Handan [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Antalya (Turkey); Kurklu, Ahmet [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Antalya (Turkey)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy equivalents of inputs and output in greenhouse vegetable production in the Antalya province of Turkey. For this purpose, the data for the production of four greenhouse crops (tomato, cucumber, eggplant and pepper) were collected in eighty-eight greenhouse farms by questionnaire. The results revealed that cucumber production was the most energy intensive of among the four crops investigated. Cucumber production consumed a total of 134.77 GJha{sup -1} followed by tomato with 127.32 GJha{sup -1}. The consumption of energy by eggplants and pepper were 98.68 and 80.25 GJha{sup -1}, respectively. The output-input energy ratio for greenhouse tomato, pepper, cucumber and eggplant were estimated to be 1.26, 0.99, 0.76 and 0.61, respectively. This indicated an intensive use of inputs in greenhouse vegetable production not accompanied by increase in the final product. This can lead to problems associated with these inputs such as global warming, nutrient loading and pesticide pollution. Therefore, there is a need to pursue a new policy to force producers to undertake energy efficient practices to increase the yield without diminishing natural resources. (Author)

  12. Input vs. Output Taxation—A DSGE Approach to Modelling Resource Decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Antosiewicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental taxes constitute a crucial instrument aimed at reducing resource use through lower production losses, resource-leaner products, and more resource-efficient production processes. In this paper we focus on material use and apply a multi-sector dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE model to study two types of taxation: tax on material inputs used by industry, energy, construction, and transport sectors, and tax on output of these sectors. We allow for endogenous adoption of resource-saving technologies. We calibrate the model for the EU27 area using an IO matrix. We consider taxation introduced from 2021 and simulate its impact until 2050. We compare the taxes along their ability to induce reduction in material use and raise revenue. We also consider the effect of spending this revenue on reduction of labour taxation. We find that input and output taxation create contrasting incentives and have opposite effects on resource efficiency. The material input tax induces investment in efficiency-improving technology which, in the long term, results in GDP and employment by 15%–20% higher than in the case of a comparable output tax. We also find that using revenues to reduce taxes on labour has stronger beneficial effects for the input tax.

  13. The non-lemniscal auditory cortex in ferrets: convergence of corticotectal inputs in the superior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Bajo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Descending cortical inputs to the superior colliculus (SC contribute to the unisensory response properties of the neurons found there and are critical for multisensory integration. However, little is known about the relative contribution of different auditory cortical areas to this projection or the distribution of their terminals in the SC. We characterized this projection in the ferret by injecting tracers in the SC and auditory cortex. Large pyramidal neurons were labeled in layer V of different parts of the ectosylvian gyrus after tracer injections in the SC. Those cells were most numerous in the anterior ectosylvian gyrus (AEG, and particularly in the anterior ventral field, which receives both auditory and visual inputs. Labeling was also found in the posterior ectosylvian gyrus (PEG, predominantly in the tonotopically-organized posterior suprasylvian field. Profuse anterograde labeling was present in the SC following tracer injections at the site of acoustically-responsive neurons in the AEG or PEG, with terminal fields being both more prominent and clustered for inputs originating from the AEG. Terminals from both cortical areas were located throughout the intermediate and deep layers, but were most concentrated in the posterior half of the SC, where peripheral stimulus locations are represented. No inputs were identified from primary auditory cortical areas, although some labeling was found in the surrounding sulci. Our findings suggest that higher level auditory cortical areas, including those involved in multisensory processing, may modulate SC function via their projections into its deeper layers.

  14. Prediction of Chl-a concentrations in an eutrophic lake using ANN models with hybrid inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, A.; Yuzugullu, O.

    2017-12-01

    Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations in water bodies exhibit both spatial and temporal variations. As a result, frequent sampling is required with higher number of samples. This motivates the use of remote sensing as a monitoring tool. Yet, prediction performances of models that convert radiance values into Chl-a concentrations can be poor in shallow lakes. In this study, Chl-a concentrations in Lake Eymir, a shallow eutrophic lake in Ankara (Turkey), are determined using artificial neural network (ANN) models that use hybrid inputs composed of water quality and meteorological data as well as remotely sensed radiance values to improve prediction performance. Following a screening based on multi-collinearity and principal component analysis (PCA), dissolved-oxygen concentration (DO), pH, turbidity, and humidity were selected among several parameters as the constituents of the hybrid input dataset. Radiance values were obtained from QuickBird-2 satellite. Conversion of the hybrid input into Chl-a concentrations were studied for two different periods in the lake. ANN models were successful in predicting Chl-a concentrations. Yet, prediction performance declined for low Chl-a concentrations in the lake. In general, models with hybrid inputs were superior over the ones that solely used remotely sensed data.

  15. Compton scattering at high intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinzl@plymouth.ac.u [University of Plymouth, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    High-intensity Compton scattering takes place when an electron beam is brought into collision with a high power laser. We briefly review the main intensity signatures using the formalism of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

  16. High-Voltage-Input Level Translator Using Standard CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    proposed integrated circuit would translate (1) a pair of input signals having a low differential potential and a possibly high common-mode potential into (2) a pair of output signals having the same low differential potential and a low common-mode potential. As used here, "low" and "high" refer to potentials that are, respectively, below or above the nominal supply potential (3.3 V) at which standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are designed to operate. The input common-mode potential could lie between 0 and 10 V; the output common-mode potential would be 2 V. This translation would make it possible to process the pair of signals by use of standard 3.3-V CMOS analog and/or mixed-signal (analog and digital) circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. A schematic of the circuit is shown in the figure. Standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry cannot withstand input potentials greater than about 4 V. However, there are many applications that involve low-differential-potential, high-common-mode-potential input signal pairs and in which standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry, which is relatively inexpensive, would be the most appropriate circuitry for performing other functions on the integrated-circuit chip that handles the high-potential input signals. Thus, there is a need to combine high-voltage input circuitry with standard low-voltage CMOS circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. The proposed circuit would satisfy this need. In the proposed circuit, the input signals would be coupled into both a level-shifting pair and a common-mode-sensing pair of CMOS transistors. The output of the level-shifting pair would be fed as input to a differential pair of transistors. The resulting differential current output would pass through six standoff transistors to be mirrored into an output branch by four heterojunction bipolar transistors. The mirrored differential current would be converted back to potential by a pair of diode-connected transistors

  17. Change in CO2 emission and its transmissions between Korea and Japan using international input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Hae-Chun; Chung, Hyun-Sik

    2006-01-01

    This paper is intended to analyze CO 2 transmission between Japan and South Korea through international trade based on 1990 and 1995 international input-output data. It applied a residual-free structural decomposition method proposed by Chung and Rhee [Chung, H.S., Rhee, H.C., 2001. A residual-free decomposition of the sources of carbon dioxide emissions: a case of the Korean industries. Energy 26 (1), 15-30] to emission-related international input-output analysis for the first time in the decomposition studies. This paper is a case study regarding the manner and the extent to which CO 2 emissions are influenced by international trade between Japan (an Annex I country) and South Korea (a non-Annex I country), which is of particular interest for the carbon leakage issue. In this paper, we attempted to show which factors contributed to the changes in emission of the major greenhouse gas in South Korea and Japan. The changes in emission are analyzed in terms of emission intensity, input techniques, demand composition, and trade structures. According to our analysis, South Korea, a non-Annex I country, has more energy-intensive production structures than Japan, an Annex I country. South Korea's trade pattern with Japan reflects these production features, resulting in the Korea's comparative advantage in emission intensive products, though the degree has somewhat mitigated in 1995 compared to 1990. (author)

  18. Turbulence Intensity Scaling: A Fugue

    OpenAIRE

    Basse, Nils T.

    2018-01-01

    We study streamwise turbulence intensity definitions using smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow measurements made in the Princeton Superpipe. Scaling of turbulence intensity with the bulk (and friction) Reynolds number is provided for the definitions. The turbulence intensity is proportional to the square root of the friction factor with the same proportionality constant for smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow. Turbulence intensity definitions providing the best description of the measurements are i...

  19. Effects of pulsed nutrient inputs on phytoplankton assemblage structure and blooms in an enclosed coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatharis, Sofie; Tsirtsis, George; Danielidis, Daniel B.; Chi, Thang Do; Mouillot, David

    2007-07-01

    The response of phytoplankton assemblage structure to terrestrial nutrient inputs was examined for the Gulf of Kalloni in the Northern Aegean Sea, a productive semi-enclosed coastal marine ecosystem. The study was focused on a typical annual cycle, and emphasis was placed on the comparative analysis between blooms developing after significant nutrient inputs from the watershed, and naturally occurring blooms. Baseline information was collected on a monthly basis from a network of stations located in the oligotrophic open sea and the interior and more productive part of the embayment. Intensive sampling was also carried out along a gradient in the vicinity of a river which was the most important source of freshwater and nutrient input for the Gulf. Phytoplankton assemblage structure was analyzed from 188 samples using diversity indices (Shannon and Average Taxonomic Distinctness), multivariate plotting methods (NMDS), multivariate statistics (PERMANOVA), and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Three characteristic assemblages were recognized: (1) an autumn assemblage developed under nutrient depleted conditions, having low diversity due to the dominance of two small diatoms, (2) a winter bloom of the potentially toxic species Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha occurring immediately after a nutrient peak and characterized by very low diversity, and (3) a naturally occurring early summer bloom of centric diatoms with relatively high diversity. The results of the study support the view that moderate nutrient inputs may have a beneficial effect on the functioning of coastal ecosystems, stimulating the taxonomic diversity through the growth of different taxonomic groups and taxa. On the other hand, a sudden pulse of high nutrient concentrations may greatly affect the natural succession of organisms, have a negative effect on the diversity through the dominance of a single species, and can increase the possibility of a harmful algal bloom development.

  20. Input/Output of ab-initio nuclear structure calculations for improved performance and portability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghave, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    Many modern scientific applications rely on highly computation intensive calculations. However, most applications do not concentrate as much on the role that input/output operations can play for improved performance and portability. Parallelizing input/output operations of large files can significantly improve the performance of parallel applications where sequential I/O is a bottleneck. A proper choice of I/O library also offers a scope for making input/output operations portable across different architectures. Thus, use of parallel I/O libraries for organizing I/O of large data files offers great scope in improving performance and portability of applications. In particular, sequential I/O has been identified as a bottleneck for the highly scalable MFDn (Many Fermion Dynamics for nuclear structure) code performing ab-initio nuclear structure calculations. We develop interfaces and parallel I/O procedures to use a well-known parallel I/O library in MFDn. As a result, we gain efficient I/O of large datasets along with their portability and ease of use in the down-stream processing. Even situations where the amount of data to be written is not huge, proper use of input/output operations can boost the performance of scientific applications. Application checkpointing offers enormous performance improvement and flexibility by doing a negligible amount of I/O to disk. Checkpointing saves and resumes application state in such a manner that in most cases the application is unaware that there has been an interruption to its execution. This helps in saving large amount of work that has been previously done and continue application execution. This small amount of I/O provides substantial time saving by offering restart/resume capability to applications. The need for checkpointing in optimization code NEWUOA has been identified and checkpoint/restart capability has been implemented in NEWUOA by using simple file I/O.

  1. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...

  2. Higher engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics principles required at higher engineering levelJohn Bird's approach to mathematics, based on numerous worked examples and interactive problems, is ideal for vocational students that require an advanced textbook.Theory is kept to a minimum, with the emphasis firmly placed on problem-solving skills, making this a thoroughly practical introduction to the advanced mathematics engineering that students need to master. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for upper level vocational courses. Now in

  3. Influence of agitation intensity on flotation rate of apatite particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gregianin Testa

    Full Text Available Abstract The agitation intensity has a directly influence on flotation performance, lifting the particles and promoting the contact of bubbles and particles. In this paper, the energy input by the agitation on apatite flotation was investigated. The influence of pulp agitation in the flotation rate of particles with different sizes and two dosage levels was evaluated by batch testing. The flotation tests were conducted in an oscillating grid flotation cell (OGC, developed to promote a near isotropic turbulence environment. The cell is able to control the intensity of agitation and measure the energy transferred to the pulp phase. A sample of pure apatite was crushed (P80=310µm, characterized and floated with sodium oleate as collector. Four levels of energy dissipation, from 0.1 to 2 kWm-3, and two levels of collector dosage are used during the tests. The flotation kinetics by particle size were determined in function of the energy transferred. The results show a strong influence of the agitation intensity on the apatite flotation rate with both low and high dosage. For fine particles, when increasing the energy input, the flotation rate increase too, and this fact can be attributed to elevation of bubble-particle collisions. The kinetic result for the coarse particles demonstrated a reduction of the flotation rate whenever the energy input for this particle size was increased, whereby the turbulence caused by the agitation promotes the detachment of bubble-particle.

  4. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  5. An improved input shaping design for an efficient sway control of a nonlinear 3D overhead crane with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Mohammad Javad; Mohamed, Z.; Sudin, S.; Buyamin, S.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ahmad, S. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes an improved input shaping scheme for an efficient sway control of a nonlinear three dimensional (3D) overhead crane with friction using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Using this approach, a higher payload sway reduction is obtained as the input shaper is designed based on a complete nonlinear model, as compared to the analytical-based input shaping scheme derived using a linear second order model. Zero Vibration (ZV) and Distributed Zero Vibration (DZV) shapers are designed using both analytical and PSO approaches for sway control of rail and trolley movements. To test the effectiveness of the proposed approach, MATLAB simulations and experiments on a laboratory 3D overhead crane are performed under various conditions involving different cable lengths and sway frequencies. Their performances are studied based on a maximum residual of payload sway and Integrated Absolute Error (IAE) values which indicate total payload sway of the crane. With experiments, the superiority of the proposed approach over the analytical-based is shown by 30-50% reductions of the IAE values for rail and trolley movements, for both ZV and DZV shapers. In addition, simulations results show higher sway reductions with the proposed approach. It is revealed that the proposed PSO-based input shaping design provides higher payload sway reductions of a 3D overhead crane with friction as compared to the commonly designed input shapers.

  6. Bioenergy from Low-Intensity Agricultural Systems: An Energy Efficiency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludunsin Arodudu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of possible future restrictions on the use of fossil fuel, due to climate change obligations and continuous depletion of global fossil fuel reserves, the search for alternative renewable energy sources is expected to be an issue of great concern for policy stakeholders. This study assessed the feasibility of bioenergy production under relatively low-intensity conservative, eco-agricultural settings (as opposed to those produced under high-intensity, fossil fuel based industrialized agriculture. Estimates of the net energy gain (NEG and the energy return on energy invested (EROEI obtained from a life cycle inventory of the energy inputs and outputs involved reveal that the energy efficiency of bioenergy produced in low-intensity eco-agricultural systems could be as much as much as 448.5–488.3 GJ·ha−1 of NEG and an EROEI of 5.4–5.9 for maize ethanol production systems, and as much as 155.0–283.9 GJ·ha−1 of NEG and an EROEI of 14.7–22.4 for maize biogas production systems. This is substantially higher than for industrialized agriculture with a NEG of 2.8–52.5 GJ·ha−1 and an EROEI of 1.2–1.7 for maize ethanol production systems, as well as a NEG of 59.3–188.7 GJ·ha−1 and an EROEI of 2.2–10.2 for maize biogas production systems. Bioenergy produced in low-intensity eco-agricultural systems could therefore be an important source of energy with immense net benefits for local and regional end-users, provided a more efficient use of the co-products is ensured.

  7. Analgesia, sedation, and memory of intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzo, M; Pinamonti, A; Cingolani, E; Grassi, L; Bianconi, M; Contu, P; Gritti, G; Alvisi, R

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the relationship between analgesia, sedation, and memory of intensive care. One hundred fifty-two adult, cooperative intensive care unit (ICU) patients were interviewed 6 months after hospital discharge about their memory of intensive care. The patient was considered to be cooperative when he/she was aware of self and environment at the interview. The patients were grouped as follows: A (45 patients) substantially no sedation, B (85) morphine, and C (22) morphine and other sedatives. The patients having no memory of intensive care were 38%, 34%, and 23% respectively, in the three groups. They were less ill, according to SAPS II (P memories was not different among the three groups. Females reported at least one emotional memory more frequently than males (odds ratio 4.17; 95% CI 10.97-1.59). The patients receiving sedatives in the ICU are not comparable with those receiving only opiates or nothing, due to the different clinical condition. The lack of memory of intensive care is present in one third of patients and is influenced more by length of stay in ICU than by the sedation received. Sedation does not influence the incidence of factual, sensation, and emotional memories of ICU admitted patients. Females have higher incidences of emotional memories than males. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  8. Inhibitory Gating of Basolateral Amygdala Inputs to the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Laura M; Carter, Adam G

    2016-09-07

    Interactions between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulate emotional behaviors. However, a circuit-level understanding of functional connections between these brain regions remains incomplete. The BLA sends prominent glutamatergic projections to the PFC, but the overall influence of these inputs is predominantly inhibitory. Here we combine targeted recordings and optogenetics to examine the synaptic underpinnings of this inhibition in the mouse infralimbic PFC. We find that BLA inputs preferentially target layer 2 corticoamygdala over neighboring corticostriatal neurons. However, these inputs make even stronger connections onto neighboring parvalbumin and somatostatin expressing interneurons. Inhibitory connections from these two populations of interneurons are also much stronger onto corticoamygdala neurons. Consequently, BLA inputs are able to drive robust feedforward inhibition via two parallel interneuron pathways. Moreover, the contributions of these interneurons shift during repetitive activity, due to differences in short-term synaptic dynamics. Thus, parvalbumin interneurons are activated at the start of stimulus trains, whereas somatostatin interneuron activation builds during these trains. Together, these results reveal how the BLA impacts the PFC through a complex interplay of direct excitation and feedforward inhibition. They also highlight the roles of targeted connections onto multiple projection neurons and interneurons in this cortical circuit. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding for how the BLA can influence the PFC circuit, with important implications for how this circuit participates in the regulation of emotion. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) interact to control emotional behaviors. Here we show that BLA inputs elicit direct excitation and feedforward inhibition of layer 2 projection neurons in infralimbic PFC. BLA inputs are much stronger at corticoamygdala neurons compared

  9. Teaching at higher levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see http://www.aapt.org/programs/rupc.html). Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of £60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials

  10. CBM first-level event selector input interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, Dirk [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CBM First-level Event Selector (FLES) is the central event selection system of the upcoming CBM experiment at FAIR. Designed as a high-performance computing cluster, its task is an online analysis of the physics data at a total data rate exceeding 1 TByte/s. To allow efficient event selection, the FLES performs timeslice building, which combines the data from all given input links to self-contained, overlapping processing intervals and distributes them to compute nodes. Partitioning the input data streams into specialized containers allows to perform this task very efficiently. The FLES Input Interface defines the linkage between FEE and FLES data transport framework. Utilizing a custom FPGA board, it receives data via optical links, prepares them for subsequent timeslice building, and transfers the data via DMA to the PC's memory. An accompanying HDL module implements the front-end logic interface and FLES link protocol in the front-end FPGAs. Prototypes of all Input Interface components have been implemented and integrated into the FLES framework. In contrast to earlier prototypes, which included components to work without a FPGA layer between FLES and FEE, the structure matches the foreseen final setup. This allows the implementation and evaluation of the final CBM read-out chain. An overview of the FLES Input Interface as well as studies on system integration and system start-up are presented.

  11. Global sensitivity analysis of computer models with functional inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iooss, Bertrand; Ribatet, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Global sensitivity analysis is used to quantify the influence of uncertain model inputs on the response variability of a numerical model. The common quantitative methods are appropriate with computer codes having scalar model inputs. This paper aims at illustrating different variance-based sensitivity analysis techniques, based on the so-called Sobol's indices, when some model inputs are functional, such as stochastic processes or random spatial fields. In this work, we focus on large cpu time computer codes which need a preliminary metamodeling step before performing the sensitivity analysis. We propose the use of the joint modeling approach, i.e., modeling simultaneously the mean and the dispersion of the code outputs using two interlinked generalized linear models (GLMs) or generalized additive models (GAMs). The 'mean model' allows to estimate the sensitivity indices of each scalar model inputs, while the 'dispersion model' allows to derive the total sensitivity index of the functional model inputs. The proposed approach is compared to some classical sensitivity analysis methodologies on an analytical function. Lastly, the new methodology is applied to an industrial computer code that simulates the nuclear fuel irradiation.

  12. Input-variable sensitivity assessment for sediment transport relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roberto; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2017-09-01

    A methodology to assess input-variable sensitivity for sediment transport relations is presented. The Mean Value First Order Second Moment Method (MVFOSM) is applied to two bed load transport equations showing that it may be used to rank all input variables in terms of how their specific variance affects the overall variance of the sediment transport estimation. In sites where data are scarce or nonexistent, the results obtained may be used to (i) determine what variables would have the largest impact when estimating sediment loads in the absence of field observations and (ii) design field campaigns to specifically measure those variables for which a given transport equation is most sensitive; in sites where data are readily available, the results would allow quantifying the effect that the variance associated with each input variable has on the variance of the sediment transport estimates. An application of the method to two transport relations using data from a tropical mountain river in Costa Rica is implemented to exemplify the potential of the method in places where input data are limited. Results are compared against Monte Carlo simulations to assess the reliability of the method and validate its results. For both of the sediment transport relations used in the sensitivity analysis, accurate knowledge of sediment size was found to have more impact on sediment transport predictions than precise knowledge of other input variables such as channel slope and flow discharge.

  13. Multi-Input Convolutional Neural Network for Flower Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower grading is a significant task because it is extremely convenient for managing the flowers in greenhouse and market. With the development of computer vision, flower grading has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botany and computer vision. A new dataset named BjfuGloxinia contains three quality grades; each grade consists of 107 samples and 321 images. A multi-input convolutional neural network is designed for large scale flower grading. Multi-input CNN achieves a satisfactory accuracy of 89.6% on the BjfuGloxinia after data augmentation. Compared with a single-input CNN, the accuracy of multi-input CNN is increased by 5% on average, demonstrating that multi-input convolutional neural network is a promising model for flower grading. Although data augmentation contributes to the model, the accuracy is still limited by lack of samples diversity. Majority of misclassification is derived from the medium class. The image processing based bud detection is useful for reducing the misclassification, increasing the accuracy of flower grading to approximately 93.9%.

  14. The Input-Output Relationship of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Gielow

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine efflux across different cortical areas and timescales. Such control might be achieved by differential inputs driving separable cholinergic outputs, although no input-output relationship on a brain-wide level has ever been demonstrated. Here, we identify input neurons to cholinergic cells projecting to specific cortical regions by infecting cholinergic axon terminals with a monosynaptically restricted viral tracer. This approach revealed several circuit motifs, such as central amygdala neurons synapsing onto basolateral amygdala-projecting cholinergic neurons or strong somatosensory cortical input to motor cortex-projecting cholinergic neurons. The presence of input cells in the parasympathetic midbrain nuclei contacting frontally projecting cholinergic neurons suggest that the network regulating the inner eye muscles are additionally regulating cortical state via acetylcholine efflux. This dataset enables future circuit-level experiments to identify drivers of known cortical cholinergic functions.

  15. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  16. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1990-10-01

    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)

  17. Radiation characteristics of input power from surface wave sustained plasma antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, T., E-mail: Naito.Teruki@bc.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp [Advanced Technology R& D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Yamaura, S. [Information Technology R& D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Kamakura, Kanagawa 247-8501 (Japan); Fukuma, Y. [Communication System Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Sakai, O. [Department of Electronic System Engineering, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    This paper reports radiation characteristics of input power from a surface wave sustained plasma antenna investigated theoretically and experimentally, especially focusing on the power consumption balance between the plasma generation and the radiation. The plasma antenna is a dielectric tube filled with argon and small amount of mercury, and the structure is a basic quarter wavelength monopole antenna at 2.45 GHz. Microwave power at 2.45 GHz is supplied to the plasma antenna. The input power is partially consumed to sustain the plasma, and the remaining part is radiated as a signal. The relationship between the antenna gain and the input power is obtained by an analytical derivation and numerical simulations. As a result, the antenna gain is kept at low values, and most of the input power is consumed to increase the plasma volume until the tube is filled with the plasma whose electron density is higher than the critical electron density required for sustaining the surface wave. On the other hand, the input power is consumed to increase the electron density after the tube is fully filled with the plasma, and the antenna gain increases with increasing the electron density. The dependence of the antenna gain on the electron density is the same as that of a plasma antenna sustained by a DC glow discharge. These results are confirmed by experimental results of the antenna gain and radiation patterns. The antenna gain of the plasma is a few dB smaller than that of the identical metal antenna. The antenna gain of the plasma antenna is sufficient for the wireless communication, although it is difficult to substitute the plasma antenna for metal antennas completely. The plasma antenna is suitable for applications having high affinity with the plasma characteristics such as low interference and dynamic controllability.

  18. Radiation characteristics of input power from surface wave sustained plasma antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Yamaura, S.; Fukuma, Y.; Sakai, O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports radiation characteristics of input power from a surface wave sustained plasma antenna investigated theoretically and experimentally, especially focusing on the power consumption balance between the plasma generation and the radiation. The plasma antenna is a dielectric tube filled with argon and small amount of mercury, and the structure is a basic quarter wavelength monopole antenna at 2.45 GHz. Microwave power at 2.45 GHz is supplied to the plasma antenna. The input power is partially consumed to sustain the plasma, and the remaining part is radiated as a signal. The relationship between the antenna gain and the input power is obtained by an analytical derivation and numerical simulations. As a result, the antenna gain is kept at low values, and most of the input power is consumed to increase the plasma volume until the tube is filled with the plasma whose electron density is higher than the critical electron density required for sustaining the surface wave. On the other hand, the input power is consumed to increase the electron density after the tube is fully filled with the plasma, and the antenna gain increases with increasing the electron density. The dependence of the antenna gain on the electron density is the same as that of a plasma antenna sustained by a DC glow discharge. These results are confirmed by experimental results of the antenna gain and radiation patterns. The antenna gain of the plasma is a few dB smaller than that of the identical metal antenna. The antenna gain of the plasma antenna is sufficient for the wireless communication, although it is difficult to substitute the plasma antenna for metal antennas completely. The plasma antenna is suitable for applications having high affinity with the plasma characteristics such as low interference and dynamic controllability.

  19. How model and input uncertainty impact maize yield simulations in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waha, Katharina; Huth, Neil; Carberry, Peter; Wang, Enli

    2015-02-01

    Crop models are common tools for simulating crop yields and crop production in studies on food security and global change. Various uncertainties however exist, not only in the model design and model parameters, but also and maybe even more important in soil, climate and management input data. We analyze the performance of the point-scale crop model APSIM and the global scale crop model LPJmL with different climate and soil conditions under different agricultural management in the low-input maize-growing areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. We test the models’ response to different levels of input information from little to detailed information on soil, climate (1961-2000) and agricultural management and compare the models’ ability to represent the observed spatial (between locations) and temporal variability (between years) in crop yields. We found that the resolution of different soil, climate and management information influences the simulated crop yields in both models. However, the difference between models is larger than between input data and larger between simulations with different climate and management information than between simulations with different soil information. The observed spatial variability can be represented well from both models even with little information on soils and management but APSIM simulates a higher variation between single locations than LPJmL. The agreement of simulated and observed temporal variability is lower due to non-climatic factors e.g. investment in agricultural research and development between 1987 and 1991 in Burkina Faso which resulted in a doubling of maize yields. The findings of our study highlight the importance of scale and model choice and show that the most detailed input data does not necessarily improve model performance.

  20. Myasthenic crisis patients who require intensive care unit management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hideya; Yamashita, Satoshi; Hirano, Teruyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kimura, En; Maeda, Yasushi; Uchino, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this report was to investigate predictive factors that necessitate intensive care in myasthenic crisis (MC). We retrospectively reviewed MC patients at our institution and compared ICU and ward management groups. Higher MG-ADL scale scores, non-ocular initial symptoms, infection-triggered findings, and higher MGFA classification were observed more frequently in the ICU group. In patients with these prognostic factors, better outcomes may be obtained with early institution of intensive care. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.