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Sample records for higher harm avoidance

  1. Harm avoidance and disability in old age.

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    Wilson, Robert S; Buchman, Aron S; Arnold, Steven E; Shah, Raj C; Tang, Yuxiao; Bennett, David A

    2006-01-01

    The relation of personality to disability in old age is not well understood. The authors examined the relation of harm avoidance, a trait indicating a tendency to worry, fear uncertainty, be shy, and tire easily, to disability in a group of 474 older persons without dementia. Participants completed the 35-item Harm Avoidance scale. Disability was assessed with the Rosow-Breslau scale, a self-report measure of physical mobility. Performance-based tests of lower limb functions were also administered from which composite measures of gait, balance, and strength were derived. In a logistic regression model controlled for age, sex, education, and lower limb function, persons with high levels of harm avoidance were nearly three times as likely to report mobility limitations as persons with low levels, and these effects largely reflected fatigability and fear of uncertainty. The association of harm avoidance with disability was not explained or modified by frailty, physical activity, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, extraversion, or cognition. The results suggest that harm avoidance is associated with disability in old age.

  2. Vaginismus : Heightened Harm Avoidance and Pain Catastrophizing Cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Charmaine; Peters, Madelon L.; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; de Jong, Peter J.

    Introduction. Catastrophic appraisal of experienced pain may promote hypervigilance and intense pain, while the personality trait of harm avoidance (HA) might prevent the occurrence of correcting such experiences. Women inflicted with vaginismus may enter a self-perpetuating downward spiral of

  3. Vaginismus: heightened harm avoidance and pain catastrophizing cognitions.

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    Borg, Charmaine; Peters, Madelon L; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; de Jong, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    Catastrophic appraisal of experienced pain may promote hypervigilance and intense pain, while the personality trait of harm avoidance (HA) might prevent the occurrence of correcting such experiences. Women inflicted with vaginismus may enter a self-perpetuating downward spiral of increasing avoidance of (anticipated) pain. In vaginismus the anticipation of pain may give rise to catastrophic pain ideation. This may establish hypervigilance toward painful sexual stimuli, which consequently results in negative appraisal of sexual cues. This process could impair genital and sexual responding, intensify pain and trigger avoidance, which in turn may contribute to the onset and persistence of symptoms in vaginismus and to certain extent also in dyspareunia. To investigate whether women suffering from vaginismus are characterized by heightened levels of habitual pain catastrophic cognitions, together with higher levels of HA. This study consisted of three groups: a lifelong vaginismus group (N = 35, mean age = 28.4; standard deviation [SD] = 5.8), a dyspareunia group (N = 33, mean age = 26.7; SD = 6.8), and women without sexual complaints (N = 54, mean age = 26.5; SD = 6.7). HA scale of Cloninger's tridimensional personality questionnaire, and the pain catastrophizing scale. Specifically women inflicted with vaginismus showed significantly heightened levels of catastrophic pain cognitions compared with the other two groups, as well as significant enhanced HA vs. the control group, and a trend vs. the dyspareunia group. Both traits were shown to have cumulative predictive validity for the presence of vaginismus. This study focused on the personality traits of catastrophizing pain cognitions and HA in women with lifelong vaginismus. Our findings showed that indeed, women suffering from vaginismus are characterized by trait of HA interwoven with habitual pain catastrophizing cognitions. This study could help in the refinement of the current conceptualization and might shed

  4. Disrupted avoidance learning in functional neurological disorder: Implications for harm avoidance theories

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    Laurel S. Morris

    Full Text Available Background: Functional neurological disorder (FND is an elusive disorder characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms alongside aberrant cognitive processing and negative affect, often associated with amygdala reactivity. Methods: We examined the effect of negative conditioning on cognitive function and amygdala reactivity in 25 FND patients and 20 healthy volunteers (HV. Participants were first conditioned to stimuli paired with negative affective or neutral (CS+/CS− information. During functional MRI, subjects then performed an instrumental associative learning task to avoid monetary losses in the context of the previously conditioned stimuli. We expected that FND patients would be better at learning to avoid losses when faced with negatively conditioned stimuli (increased harm avoidance. Multi-echo resting state fMRI was also collected from the same subjects and a robust denoising method was employed, important for removing motion and physiological artifacts. Results: FND subjects were more sensitive to the negative CS+ compared to HV, demonstrated by a reinforcement learning model. Contrary to expectation, FND patients were generally more impaired at learning to avoid losses under both contexts (CS+/CS−, persisting to choose the option that resulted in a negative outcome demonstrated by both behavioural and computational analyses. FND patients showed enhanced amygdala but reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses when they received negative feedback. Patients also had increased resting state functional connectivity between these two regions. Conclusions: FND patients had impaired instrumental avoidance learning, findings that parallel previous observations of impaired action-outcome binding. FND patients further show enhanced behavioural and neural sensitivity to negative information. However, this did not translate to improved avoidance learning. Put together, our findings do not support the theory of harm avoidance in FND

  5. Harm avoidance and childhood adversities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives.

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    Bey, K; Lennertz, L; Riesel, A; Klawohn, J; Kaufmann, C; Heinzel, S; Grützmann, R; Kathmann, N; Wagner, M

    2017-04-01

    The etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is assumed to involve interactions between genetically determined vulnerability factors and significant environmental features. Here, we aim to investigate how the personality trait harm avoidance and the experience of childhood adversities contribute to OCD. A total of 169 patients with OCD, 157 healthy comparison subjects, and 57 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with OCD participated in the study. Harm avoidance was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the severity of childhood adversities was measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Both patients with OCD and relatives showed elevated levels of harm avoidance compared to controls. Furthermore, patients exhibited significantly higher scores than relatives. This linear pattern was observed throughout all subscales of harm avoidance, and remained stable after controlling for the severity of depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. With regard to childhood adversities, patients with OCD reported higher levels than relatives and controls. Our results provide further evidence for a diathesis-stress model of OCD. While patients and unaffected relatives share elevated levels of harm avoidance, supporting the role of harm avoidance as an endophenotype of OCD, a heightened severity of childhood adversity was only observed in patients. The assumed biological underpinnings of these findings are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Relationship between Personality Traits and Endogenous Analgesia: The Role of Harm Avoidance.

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    Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Granovsky, Yelena; Granot, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Whether psychological factors such as anxiety and pain catastrophizing levels influence the expression of endogenous analgesia in general and, more specifically, the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) response is still under debate. It may be assumed that other psychological characteristics also play a role in the CPM response. The neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine are involved both in CPM, as well as personality traits such as harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD), which can be obtained by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). However, the associations between these traits (HA, NS, and RD) with endogenous analgesia revealed by CPM have not yet been explored. Healthy middle-age subjects (n = 28) completed the TPQ, Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and were assessed for CPM paradigms using thermal phasic temporal summation as the "test stimulus" and hand immersion into hot water bath (CPM water) or contact heat (CPM contact) for "conditioning stimulus." Higher levels of HA were associated with less-efficient CPM responses obtained by both paradigms: CPM water (r = 0.418, P = 0.027) and CPM contact (r = 0.374, P = 0.050). However, NS and RD were not associated with the other measurements. No significant relationship was observed between state anxiety and pain catastrophizing levels and the CPM responses. The relationship between the capacity of endogenous analgesia and the tendency to avoid aversive experience can be explained by mutual mechanisms involving similar neurotransmitters or brain areas. These findings illuminate the key role of harm avoidance obtained by the TPQ in determining the characteristics of pain modulation profile. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  7. Beyond Behavioral Inhibition: A Computer Avatar Task Designed to Assess Behavioral Inhibition Extends to Harm Avoidance

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    Michael Todd Allen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI, a temperamental tendency for avoidance in the face of unfamiliar situations, have been identified as risk factors for anxiety disorders. Personality factors are generally identified through self-report inventories. However, this tendency to avoid may affect the accuracy of these self-report inventories. Previously, a computer based task was developed in which the participant guides an on-screen “avatar” through a series of onscreen events; performance on the task could accurately predict participants’ BI, measured by a standard paper and pencil questionnaire (Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition, or AMBI. Here, we sought to replicate this finding as well as compare performance on the avatar task to another measure related to BI, the harm avoidance (HA scale of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ. The TPQ includes HA scales as well as scales assessing reward dependence (RD, novelty seeking (NS and persistence. One hundred and one undergraduates voluntarily completed the avatar task and the paper and pencil inventories in a counter-balanced order. Scores on the avatar task were strongly correlated with BI assessed via the AMBI questionnaire, which replicates prior findings. Females exhibited higher HA scores than males, but did not differ on scores on the avatar task. There was a strong positive relationship between scores on the avatar task and HA scores. One aspect of HA, fear of uncertainty was found to moderately mediate the relationship between AMBI scores and avatar scores. NS had a strong negative relationship with scores on the avatar task, but there was no significant relationship between RD and scores on the avatar task. These findings indicate the effectiveness of the avatar task as a behavioral alternative to self-report measures to assess avoidance. In addition, the use of computer based behavioral tasks are a viable alternative to paper and pencil self

  8. Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness characterize fibromyalgic patients and the symptom severity

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    Paolo eLeombruni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Evidence in the literature suggests peculiar personality traits for fibromyalgic patients, and it has been suggested that personality characteristics may be involved in patients' different symptomatic events and responses to treatment. The aim of the study is to investigate the personality characteristics of Italian FM patients and to explore the possibility of clustering them considering both personality traits and clinical characteristics.Design: The study used a cross-sectional methodology and involved a control group. A self-assessment procedure was used for data gathering. The study included 87 female FM patients and 83 healthy females. Patients were approached and interviewed in person during a psychiatric consultation. Healthy people were recruited from general practices with previous telephone contact.Main Outcome Measures: Participants responded to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36.Results: FM patients scored significantly different from healthy participants on the Harm-Avoidance (HA, Novelty Seeking (NS and Self-Directedness (SD. Two clusters were identified: patients in Cluster 1 (n=37 had higher scores on HA and lower scores on RD, SD and Cooperativeness and reported more serious fibromyalgia and more severe anxious-depressive symptomatology than did patients in Cluster 2 (n=46.Conclusion: This study confirms the presence of certain personality traits in the FM population. In particular, high levels of Harm Avoidance and low levels of Self-Directedness characterize a subgroup of FM patients with more severe anxious-depressive symptomatology. According to these findings, personality assessment could be useful in the diagnostic process to tailor therapeutic interventions to the personality characteristics.

  9. Reward Dependence and Harm Avoidance among Patients with Binge-Purge Type Eating Disorders.

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    Gat-Lazer, Sigal; Geva, Ronny; Gur, Eitan; Stein, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    The Cloninger's Psychobiological Model of Temperament and Character includes temperamental dimensions such as reward dependence (RD) and harm avoidance (HA). Studies of RD differentiate between sensitivity to reward (SR) versus to punishment (SP). We investigated the interrelationship between HA and RD in acutely ill patients with binge/purge (B/P) type eating disorders (EDs) and following symptomatic stabilization. Fifty patients with B/P EDs were assessed at admission to inpatient treatment, 36 of whom were reassessed at discharge. Thirty-six controls were similarly assessed. Participants completed Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), and took the Gambling Task. Patients with B/P EDs had higher TPQ-RD and lower TPQ-HA accompanied by lower SPSRQ-SR and SPSRQ-SP. SPSRQ-SP correlated positively and negatively with TPQ-HA and TPQ-RD, respectively. Combination of lower TPQ-HA, lower SPSRQ-SP, and greater risk-taking inclination may maintain disordered eating in patients with B/P EDs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Sexually dimorphic effects of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR variants on Harm Avoidance

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    Stankova Trayana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has suggested that oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR variants may account for individual differences in social behavior, the effects of stress and parenting styles. Little is known, however, on a putative role of the gene in heritable temperamental traits. Methods We addressed effects of two common OXTR variants, rs237900 and rs237902, on personality dimensions in 99 healthy subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Results When sex was controlled for and an OXTR genotype*sex interaction term was included in the regression model, 11% of the variance in Harm Avoidance could be explained (uncorrected p ≤ 0.01. Female carriers of the minor alleles scored highest, and a novel A217T mutation emerged in the most harm avoidant male participant. Conclusions Findings lend support to a modulatory effect of common OXTR variants on Harm Avoidance in healthy caucasian women and invite resequencing of the gene in anxiety phenotypes to identify more explanatory functional variation.

  11. Higher threat avoidance costs reduce avoidance behaviour which in turn promotes fear extinction in humans.

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    Rattel, Julina A; Miedl, Stephan F; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical models specifying the underlying mechanisms of the development and maintenance of anxiety and related disorders state that fear responses acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning are maintained by repeated avoidance behaviour; thus, it is assumed that avoidance prevents fear extinction. The present study investigated behavioural avoidance decisions as a function of avoidance costs in a naturalistic fear conditioning paradigm. Ecologically valid avoidance costs - manipulated between participant groups - were represented via time-delays during a detour in a gamified computer task. After differential acquisitions of shock-expectancy to a predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+), participants underwent extinction where they could either take a risky shortcut, while anticipating shock signaled by the CS+, or choose a costly avoidance option (lengthy detour); thus, they were faced with an approach-avoidance conflict. Groups with higher avoidance costs (longer detours) showed lower proportions of avoiders. Avoiders gave heightened shock-expectancy ratings post-extinction, demonstrating 'protecting from extinction', i.e. failure to extinguish. Moreover, there was an indirect effect of avoidance costs on protection from extinction through avoidance behaviour. No moderating role of trait-anxiety was found. Theoretical implications of avoidance behaviour are discussed, considering the involvement of instrumental learning in the maintenance of fear responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Cerebral Responses to Conflict Anticipation: An Exploratory Study.

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    Hu, Jianping; Hu, Sien; Maisano, Julianna R; Chao, Herta H; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2016-01-01

    Proactive control allows us to maneuver a changing environment and individuals are distinct in how they anticipate and approach such changes. Here, we examined how individual differences in personality traits influence cerebral responses to conflict anticipation, a critical process of proactive control. We explored this issue in an fMRI study of the stop signal task, in which the probability of stop signal - p(Stop) - was computed trial by trial with a Bayesian model. Higher p(Stop) is associated with prolonged go trial reaction time, indicating conflict anticipation and proactive control of motor response. Regional brain activations to conflict anticipation were correlated to novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence, as assessed by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, with age and gender as covariates, in a whole-brain linear regression. Results showed that increased anticipation of the stop signal is associated with activations in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPL), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), anterior pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), and bilateral thalamus, with men showing greater activation in the IPL than women. NS correlated negatively to activity in the anterior pre-SMA, right IPL, and MFG/lOFC, and HA correlated negatively to activity in the thalamus during conflict anticipation. In addition, the negative association between NS and MFG/lOFC activity was significant in men but not in women. Thus, NS and HA traits are associated with reduced mobilization of cognitive control circuits when enhanced behavioral control is necessary. The findings from this exploratory study characterize the influence of NS and HA on proactive control and provide preliminary evidence for gender differences in these associations.

  13. Harm avoidance and persistence are associated with somatoform disorder psychopathology: A study in Taiwan.

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    Huang, Wei-Lieh; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Chen, I-Ming; Chang, Li-Ren; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-05-15

    Whether personality features affect the development of somatoform disorders and their psychopathologies is an important issue. Aim of this study was to resolve this issue by comparing indicators of psychopathology and personality features in subjects with somatoform disorders and healthy controls. This study recruited 148 subjects with somatoform disorders and 146 healthy controls. The severity of psychopathology was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), Health Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was used to assess personality features. Demographic data, psychopathology indicators, and TPQ scores were compared between groups. Correlation and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to identify the personality dimensions or demographic variables associated with psychopathology. The somatoform group had lower novelty seeking (NS) and reward dependence (RD) and higher harm avoidance (HA) and severity of psychopathologies. Multiple regression analysis revealed that fatigability, persistence, gender, and education level were predictive of PHQ-15; HA, educational level, persistence, and dependence were predictive of HAQ; HA, persistence, education level, and NS were predictive of BDII-II; and fatigability, education level, persistence, and anticipatory worry were predictive of BAI. The development of somatoform disorders was associated with fatigability, age, residence location, education level, and attachment. The limitations include heterogeneity of the diagnosis, the high proportion of undifferentiated somatoform disorder, and the cross-sectional study design. HA/fatigability, persistence, and education level are associated with each type of psychopathology. Fatigability is a powerful predictor of somatoform disorder development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. What's the Harm? The Coverage of Ethics and Harm Avoidance in Research Methods Textbooks

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    Dixon, Shane; Quirke, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Methods textbooks play a role in socializing a new generation of researchers about ethical research. How do undergraduate social research methods textbooks portray harm, its prevalence, and ways to mitigate harm to participants? We conducted a content analysis of ethics chapters in the 18 highest-selling undergraduate textbooks used in sociology…

  15. Harm avoidance in adolescents modulates late positive potentials during affective picture processing.

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    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei; Ni, Ziyin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Dahua; Shen, Jiliang

    2013-08-01

    Research in adults has shown that individual differences in harm avoidance (HA) modulate electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli. To determine whether HA in adolescents modulates affective information processing, we collected event-related potentials from 70 adolescents while they viewed 90 pictures from the Chinese affective picture system. Multiple regressions revealed that HA negatively predicted late positive potential (LPP) for positive pictures and positively predicted for negative pictures; however, HA did not correlate with LPP for neutral pictures. The results suggest that at the late evaluative stage, high-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures while low-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures. Moreover, these dissociable attentional patterns imply that individual differences in adolescents' HA modulate the late selective attention mechanism of affective information. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Harm avoidance and depression, anxiety, insomnia, and migraine in fifth-year medical students in Taiwan

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    Chen CY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ching-Yen Chen,1–3 Nan-Wen Yu,2–4 Tien-Hao Huang,4 Wei-Shin Wang,4 Ji-Tseng Fang2,3,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Medical Education Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 5Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan Purpose: During medical school training, increased stress, depression, and anxiety are common. Certain personality traits, particularly harm avoidance (HA, may increase the risk of psychopathological disorders, insomnia, and migraine among medical students. This study evaluated the role HA may play on levels of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia among Taiwanese medical students starting their fifth and final year of medical school.Patients and methods: A series of self-report questionnaires were used to measure the severity of anxiety, depression, and insomnia, as well as somatic symptoms, particularly migraine headache, among 143 Taiwanese fifth-year medical students (94 males and 49 females. Most had normal or mild levels of anxiety, depression, insomnia, and migraine.Results: HA personality trait was significantly associated with depression (all P ≤ 0.001 after adjusting for other factors. HA was not significantly associated with anxiety, insomnia, or migraine headache days.Conclusion: HA personality trait was significantly associated with depression among fifth-year medical students in Taiwan. Keywords: anxiety, depression, harm avoidance, psychological stress, sleep initiation and maintenance disorders, migraine, students, medical

  17. Does the amygdala response correlate with the personality trait 'harm avoidance' while evaluating emotional stimuli explicitly?

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    Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Luypaert, Robert; De Raedt, Rudi; De Mey, Johan

    2014-05-07

    The affective personality trait 'harm avoidance' (HA) from Cloninger's psychobiological personality model determines how an individual deals with emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli are processed by a neural network that include the left and right amygdalae as important key nodes. Explicit, implicit and passive processing of affective stimuli are known to activate the amygdalae differently reflecting differences in attention, level of detailed analysis of the stimuli and the cognitive control needed to perform the required task. Previous studies revealed that implicit processing or passive viewing of affective stimuli, induce a left amygdala response that correlates with HA. In this new study we have tried to extend these findings to the situation in which the subjects were required to explicitly process emotional stimuli. A group of healthy female participants was asked to rate the valence of positive and negative stimuli while undergoing fMRI. Afterwards the neural responses of the participants to the positive and to the negative stimuli were separately correlated to their HA scores and compared between the low and high HA participants. Both analyses revealed increased neural activity in the left laterobasal (LB) amygdala of the high HA participants while they were rating the positive and the negative stimuli. Our results indicate that the left amygdala response to explicit processing of affective stimuli does correlate with HA.

  18. Association between A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 gene, harm avoidance and binge eating behavior in bulimia nervosa.

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    Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Martiadis, Vassilis; Serino, Ismene; Di Filippo, Carmela; Maj, Mario

    2007-06-21

    Genes involved in serotonin transmission are likely involved in the biological predisposition to bulimia nervosa. We investigated whether the A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 gene was associated to bulimia nervosa and/or to some phenotypic aspects of the disorder. One hundred eighty Caucasian women (91 patients with bulimia nervosa and 89 healthy controls) were enrolled into the study. They underwent a blood sample collection for A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 genotyping and a clinical evaluation assessing comorbidity for Axis I and II psychiatric disorders, harm avoidance personality dimension and bulimic symptoms. The distribution of both tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 A218C genotypes and alleles did not significantly differ between patients and controls. Bulimic women with the AA genotype exhibited a more severe binge eating behavior and higher harm avoidance scores than those with CC genotype. These findings support the idea that tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 A218C polymorphism does not play a part in the genetic susceptibility to bulimia nervosa, but it seems to be involved in predisposing bulimic patients to a more disturbed eating behavior and higher harm avoidance.

  19. Viewing the Personality Traits Through a Cerebellar Lens: a Focus on the Constructs of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Alexithymia.

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    Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela

    2017-02-01

    The variance in the range of personality trait expression appears to be linked to structural variance in specific brain regions. In evidencing associations between personality factors and neurobiological measures, it seems evident that the cerebellum has not been up to now thought as having a key role in personality. This paper will review the most recent structural and functional neuroimaging literature that engages the cerebellum in personality traits, as novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and it will discuss the findings in the context of contemporary theories of affective and cognitive cerebellar function. By using region of interest (ROI)- and voxel-based approaches, we recently evidenced that the cerebellar volumes correlate positively with novelty seeking scores and negatively with harm avoidance scores. Subjects who search for new situations as a novelty seeker does (and a harm avoiding does not do) show a different engagement of their cerebellar circuitries in order to rapidly adapt to changing environments. The emerging model of cerebellar functionality may explain how the cerebellar abilities in planning, controlling, and putting into action the behavior are associated to normal or abnormal personality constructs. In this framework, it is worth reporting that increased cerebellar volumes are even associated with high scores in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. On such a basis, it seems necessary to go over the traditional cortico-centric view of personality constructs and to address the function of the cerebellar system in sustaining aspects of motivational network that characterizes the different temperamental traits.

  20. Safe from harm: learned, instructed, and symbolic generalization pathways of human threat-avoidance.

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    Simon Dymond

    Full Text Available Avoidance of threatening or unpleasant events is usually an adaptive behavioural strategy. Sometimes, however, avoidance can become chronic and lead to impaired daily functioning. Excessive threat-avoidance is a central diagnostic feature of anxiety disorders, yet little is known about whether avoidance acquired in the absence of a direct history of conditioning with a fearful event differs from directly learned avoidance. In the present study, we tested whether avoidance acquired indirectly via verbal instructions and symbolic generalization result in similar levels of avoidance behaviour and threat-beliefs to avoidance acquired after direct learning. Following fear conditioning in which one conditioned stimulus was paired with shock (CS+ and another was not (CS-, participants either learned or were instructed to make a response that cancelled impending shock. Three groups were then tested with a learned CS+ and CS- (learned group, instructed CS+ (instructed group, and generalized CS+ (derived group presentations. Results showed similar levels of avoidance behaviour and threat-belief ratings about the likelihood of shock across each of the three pathways despite the different mechanisms by which they were acquired. Findings have implications for understanding the aetiology of clinical avoidance in anxiety.

  1. The association between harm avoidance personality traits and self-reported concussion history in South African rugby union players.

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    Mc Fie, Sarah; Abrahams, Shameemah; Patricios, Jon; Suter, Jason; Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V

    2018-01-01

    Personality traits have been proposed to affect the risk of sports concussion, but evidence is limited. Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) measures novelty seeking, harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TPQ scores and concussion history in rugby union players. Cross-sectional study. Rugby players from high schools, senior amateur clubs, and professional teams provided a self-reported concussion history and completed the TPQ. Participants reporting no previous concussions formed the control group, while participants reporting concussion formed the case group. A one-way analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, was used to examine the differences in TPQ scores between groups. Of the 309 participants, 54% reported a minimum of one concussion (junior: 47%; amateur: 52%; professional: 72%). HA scores were significantly higher in junior players without a history of concussion compared to cases (p=0.006). Specifically, the junior control group had higher "anticipatory worry" (p=0.009) and "fear of uncertainty" (p=0.008). In contrast, the professional control group had lower HA scores than cases (p=0.009), while the amateur cohort displayed no differences between control and case groups. This study identified a novel association between HA and concussion in rugby players, adding evidence to the role of personality in a multifactorial risk-model of concussion. The findings suggest that lower HA may lead to increased dangerous play in youth rugby, influencing concussion susceptibility. Contrasting associations in the professional cohort suggest further research is required to understand the role of personality in concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic-linked Inattentiveness Protects Individuals from Internet Overuse: A Genetic Study of Internet Overuse Evaluating Hypotheses Based on Addiction, Inattention, Novelty-seeking and Harm-avoidance

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    Cheng Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The all-pervasive Internet has created serious problems, such as Internet overuse, which has triggered considerable debate over its relationship with addiction. To further explore its genetic susceptibilities and alternative explanations for Internet overuse, we proposed and evaluated four hypotheses, each based on existing knowledge of the biological bases of addiction, inattention, novelty-seeking, and harm-avoidance. Four genetic loci including DRD4 VNTR, DRD2 Taq1A, COMT Val158Met and 5-HTTLPR length polymorphisms were screened from seventy-three individuals. Our results showed that the DRD4 4R/4R individuals scored significantly higher than the 2R or 7R carriers in Internet Addiction Test (IAT. The 5-HTTLPR short/short males scored significantly higher in IAT than the long variant carriers. Bayesian analysis showed the most compatible hypothesis with the observed genetic results was based on attention (69.8%, whereas hypotheses based harm-avoidance (21.6%, novelty-seeking (7.8% and addiction (0.9% received little support. Our study suggests that carriers of alleles (DRD4 2R and 7R, 5-HTTLPR long associated with inattentiveness are more likely to experience disrupted patterns and reduced durations of Internet use, protecting them from Internet overuse. Furthermore, our study suggests that Internet overuse should be categorized differently from addiction due to the lack of shared genetic contributions.

  3. "I'd only let you down": Guilt proneness and the avoidance of harmful interdependence.

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    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Cohen, Taya R

    2014-11-01

    Five studies demonstrated that highly guilt-prone people may avoid forming interdependent partnerships with others whom they perceive to be more competent than themselves, as benefitting a partner less than the partner benefits one's self could trigger feelings of guilt. Highly guilt-prone people who lacked expertise in a domain were less willing than were those low in guilt proneness who lacked expertise in that domain to create outcome-interdependent relationships with people who possessed domain-specific expertise. These highly guilt-prone people were more likely than others both to opt to be paid on their performance alone (Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) and to opt to be paid on the basis of the average of their performance and that of others whose competence was more similar to their own (Studies 2 and 5). Guilt proneness did not predict people's willingness to form outcome-interdependent relationships with potential partners who lacked domain-specific expertise (Studies 4 and 5). It also did not predict people's willingness to form relationships when poor individual performance would not negatively affect partner outcomes (Study 4). Guilt proneness therefore predicts whether, and with whom, people develop interdependent relationships. The findings also demonstrate that highly guilt-prone people sacrifice financial gain out of concern about how their actions would influence others' welfare. As such, the findings demonstrate a novel way in which guilt proneness limits free-riding and therefore reduces the incidence of potentially unethical behavior. Lastly, the findings demonstrate that people who lack competence may not always seek out competence in others when choosing partners.

  4. No association of CRH1 receptor polymorphism haplotypes, harm avoidance and other personality dimensions in alcohol dependence: results from the Munich gene bank project for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U W; Koller, G; Zill, P; Hesselbrock, V; Bondy, B

    2004-03-01

    Because corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role in stress regulation, the possible role of CRH1 polymorphism for anxiety-related personality variables such as harm avoidance possibly associated with alcoholism was studied. The research instruments used to phenotype patients were adopted partly from the US collaborative study of the genetics of alcoholism and include a number of personality inventories such as the temperament and character inventory (TCI). Based on the examination of 170 alcoholic subjects no association was found between CRH1 receptor haplotypes of four single nuclotid polymorphisms (SNPs) and low and high temperament traits of harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence. The possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Women with multiple chemical sensitivity have increased harm avoidance and reduced 5-HT(1A receptor binding potential in the anterior cingulate and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hillert

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is a common condition, characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. As in other idiopathic environmental intolerances, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Contrary to the expectations it was recently found that persons with MCS activate the odor-processing brain regions less than controls, while their activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is increased. The present follow-up study was designed to test the hypotheses that MCS subjects have increased harm avoidance and deviations in the serotonin system, which could render them intolerant to environmental odors. Twelve MCS and 11 control subjects, age 22-44, all working or studying females, were included in a PET study where 5-HT(1A receptor binding potential (BP was assessed after bolus injection of [(11C]WAY100635. Psychological profiles were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Swedish universities Scales of Personality. All MCS and 12 control subjects were also tested for emotional startle modulation in an acoustic startle test. MCS subjects exhibited significantly increased harm avoidance, and anxiety compared to controls. They also had a reduced 5-HT(1A receptor BP in amygdala (p = 0.029, ACC (p = 0.005 (planned comparisons, significance level 0.05, and insular cortex (p = 0.003; significance level p<0.005 with Bonferroni correction, and showed an inverse correlation between degree of anxiety and the BP in the amygdala (planned comparison. No group by emotional category difference was found in the startle test. Increased harm avoidance and the observed changes in the 5-HT(1A receptor BP in the regions processing harm avoidance provides a plausible pathophysiological ground for the symptoms described in MCS, and yields valuable information for our general understanding of idiopathic environmental intolerances.

  6. The gene-immune-behavioral pathway: Gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) simultaneously coordinates susceptibility to infectious disease and harm avoidance behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMurray, James; Comings, David E; Napolioni, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Cytokine gene variants are known to influence both infectious disease susceptibility and harm-avoidant behaviors, suggesting that these risk variants may be pleiotropically linked to instinctual disease-avoidant traits. The gamma-interferon (IFNG) +874 T>A polymorphism (rs2430561) is an ideal candidate gene variant for immune-behavioral studies. It is a functional SNP, regulating IFNG mRNA expression; it is known to modulate serotonergic activity and is therefore capable of modifying behavior; and it has previously been associated with increased susceptibility to malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy and Chagas disease. We hypothesized that the infectious disease-high-risk IFNG +874 A-allele would be associated with four personality traits previously reported as behavioral defenses against infection: Harm Avoidance (HA), Extraversion (E), Exploratory Excitability (Exp E), and Openness to Experience (O). We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 168 healthy university students from Southern California genotyped for IFNG +874 T>A and evaluated by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We found that the infectious disease-high-risk IFNG +874 A-allele was associated with increased HA (P=0.001) and decreased E (P=0.030) and Exp E (P=0.030). These findings suggest that the IFNG +874 A gene variant is linked both to infectious disease susceptibility and to proactive behavioral defenses that reduce infection risk in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The global role of health care delivery science: learning from variation to build health systems that avoid waste and harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, Albert G

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the fourth theme of the Indiana Global Health Research Working Conference, Clinical Effectiveness and Health Systems Research. It explores geographic variation in health care delivery and health outcomes as a source of learning how to achieve better health outcomes at lower cost. It focuses particularly on the relationship between investments made in capacities to deliver different health care services to a population and the value thereby created by that care for individual patients. The framing begins with the dramatic variation in per capita health care expenditures across the nations of the world, which is largely explained by variations in national wealth. The 1978 Declaration of Alma Ata is briefly noted as a response to such inequities with great promise that has not as yet been realized. This failure to realize the promise of Alma Ata grows in significance with the increasing momentum for universal health coverage that is emerging in the current global debate about post-2015 development goals. Drawing upon work done at Dartmouth over more than three decades, the framing then turns to within-country variations in per capita expenditures, utilization of different services, and health outcomes. A case is made for greater attention to the question of value by bringing better information to bear at both the population and individual levels. Specific opportunities to identify and reduce waste in health care, and the harm that is so often associated with it, are identified by learning from outcome variations and practice variations.

  8. Influence of studying in higher educational establishment on students’ harmful computer habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Kudryavtsev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine influence of educational process on prevalence of students’ harmful computer habits. Material: in the research 1st-3rd year students (803 boys and 596 girls participated. All they specialized in discipline Physical culture. The students had no health disorders. Results: it was found that in average students have 2 computer habits everyone. The most probable and dangerous in respect to addicting are habits to use internet and computer games. Student, who has these habits, spends more than 4 hours a day for them. 33% of 1st year boys and 16% of 1st year girls spend more than 2 hours a day for computer games. 15-20 % of boys and 25-30% of year girls waste more than 4 hours a day in internet. 10-15% of boys spend more than 4 hours a day for computer games. It is very probable that these students already have computer games’ addiction. Conclusions: recent time dangerous tendency to watching anime has been appearing. Physical culture faculties and departments shall take additional measures on reduction of students’ computer addictions. Teachers of all disciplines shall organize educational process with the help of electronic resources so that not to provoke progressing of students’ computer habits.

  9. Altered 5-HT2A Receptor Binding after Recovery from Bulimia-Type Anorexia Nervosa: Relationships to Harm Avoidance and Drive for Thinness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailer, Ursula F; Price, Julie C; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Mathis, Chester A; Frank, Guido K; Weissfeld, Lisa; McConaha, Claire W; Henry, Shannan E; Brooks-Achenbach, Sarah; Barbarich, Nicole C; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that a disturbance of serotonin neuronal pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). This study applied positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate the brain serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor, which could contribute to disturbances of appetite and behavior in AN and BN. To avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition, we studied 10 women recovered from bulimia-type AN (REC AN–BN, >1 year normal weight, regular menstrual cycles, no binging, or purging) compared with 16 healthy control women (CW) using PET imaging and a specific 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, [18F]altanserin. REC AN–BN women had significantly reduced [18F]altanserin binding potential relative to CW in the left subgenual cingulate, the left parietal cortex, and the right occipital cortex. [18F]altanserin binding potential was positively related to harm avoidance and negatively related to novelty seeking in cingulate and temporal regions only in REC AN–BN subjects. In addition, REC AN–BN had negative relationships between [18F]altanserin binding potential and drive for thinness in several cortical regions. In conclusion, this study extends research suggesting that altered 5-HT neuronal system activity persists after recovery from bulimia-type AN, particularly in subgenual cingulate regions. Altered 5-HT neurotransmission after recovery also supports the possibility that this may be a trait-related disturbance that contributes to the pathophysiology of eating disorders. It is possible that subgenual cingulate findings are not specific for AN–BN, but may be related to the high incidence of lifetime major depressive disorder diagnosis in these subjects. PMID:15054474

  10. Exploring the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and deliberate self-harm: the moderating roles of borderline and avoidant personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T

    2012-08-30

    Despite increasing evidence for an association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and deliberate self-harm (DSH), few studies have examined the factors that moderate this association or the impact of co-occurring personality disorders among individuals with PTSD on DSH frequency. Given the high rates of co-occurrence between PTSD and two personality disorders of particular relevance to DSH, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), this study examined the moderating role of these personality disorders in the association between PTSD and DSH frequency among a sample of substance use disorder patients (N=61). Patients completed structured clinical interviews assessing PTSD, BPD, and AVPD and a questionnaire assessing DSH. Results revealed more frequent DSH among patients with (vs. without) PTSD and provided evidence for the moderating role of AVPD in this association. Specifically, results revealed heightened levels of DSH only among PTSD patients with co-occurring AVPD. Findings are consistent with past research demonstrating that the presence of co-occurring AVPD among patients with other Axis I and II disorders is associated with worse outcomes, and highlight the importance of continuing to examine the moderating role of AVPD in the association between PTSD and a variety of health-risk behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Gharaibeh, Huda; Haddad, Linda; Alzyoud, Sukaina; El-Shahawy, Omar; Baker, Nesrin Abu; Umlauf, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. Methods: A survey was conducted among ...

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Umlauf

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondhand smoke (SHS exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. Methods: A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Results: Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject’s attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in avoiding secondhand smoke exposure among non-smoking employed women with higher education in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Huda; Haddad, Linda; Alzyoud, Sukaina; El-Shahawy, Omar; Baker, Nesrin Abu; Umlauf, Mary

    2011-11-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women's and children's exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject's attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure.

  14. Can the causal pathologies of Goedel-type universes be avoided in higher-derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.; Goncalves, A.T.

    1986-10-01

    A completely causal rotating Goedel-type universe is obtained in the context of higher-derivative gravity. The solution is such that it has no similar in the framework of standard general relativity. The aforementioned solution presents the interesting feature of relating the mass of the nontachyonic spin-O particle, concerning the linearized higher-derivative theory, with the velocity of rigid rotation of matter. (Author) [pt

  15. Self-harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-harm refers to a person's harming their own body on purpose. About 1 in 100 people hurts himself or herself in this way. More females hurt themselves than males. A person who self-harms usually does not mean to kill himself or herself. But they are at higher risk of attempting suicide if they do ...

  16. Emergency department patients self-report higher patient inertia, hopelessness, and harmful lifestyle choices than community counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, JaNae; Moore, Ashley R; Mount, David L; Simmons, Debra R; Ferrario, Carlos M; Cline, David M

    2012-12-01

    Patient inertia is defined as an individual's failure to take responsibility for proactive lifestyle change and health conditions including hypertension. Generalized and hypertension-specific patient inertia factors were compared in 110 patients (48% women; 52% African American) from a Forsyth County, NC, emergency department (ED) and 104 community members (79% women; 70% African American) using the patient inertia-facilitated survey Patient Inertia-36. Statistically, more ED than community participants added salt to food at the table and consumed fast foods 5 to 7 days a week. ED patients agreed less often with health literacy questions about salt and BP. Hypertension associated Patient inertia questions asked of 45 ED and 40 community participants with a personal history of hypertension revealed a statistically higher sense of hopelessness surrounding blood pressure management in ED participants. Past BP control experiences of family members had statistically greater impact on community participants regarding their own BP control. Using a logistic regression model, advancing age and being surveyed in the ED were correlated with hopelessness towards BP control. ED patients make unhealthier diet choices and possess heightened generalized and hypertension-specific patient inertia including hopelessness towards controlling their BP that increases with age. These factors may contribute to this population's poor BP control, particularly self-efficacy barriers. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. On the journey toward humane education in Brazil: First request for a total ban of harmful animal use in professional and higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachinski, Róber; Alves, Gutemberg; Freitas de Almeida Souza, Mariângela; Carli Bones, Vanessa; Maria Garcia, Rita de Cassia; Gebara, Rosangela; Reque Ruiz, Valeska Regina; da Silva Alonso, Luciano; Tréz, Thales; Tostes Oliveira, Simone; Rocha, Alexandro Aluisio; Leal Paixão, Rita; Pizzigatti Klein, Roseli; Gasparetto, Débora; Jukes, Nick; Matera, Júlia Maria

    2017-11-01

    The Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH( is an independent and self-managed group comprised of academics from ten different Brazilian states and a number of international collaborators. In 2016, in a concerted effort to change the educational field in Brazil and propagate humane education, RedEH sent a request to the Brazilian National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA(, asking that harmful animal use in education in professional and undergraduate courses be banned. This was the first formal request for a total replacement of harmful animal use in education in Brazil, and represented a major historic landmark in the advancement of Brazilian science education. This paper presents the full text of the request, as well as outlining its national and international repercussions. The request was supported by InterNICHE and representatives of 18 other international organisations. A major national impact of the request was its recognition by the Federal Council of Veterinary Medicine. With this action, academics and researchers took a potentially revolutionary step in the Brazilian education arena, with regard to advancing and supporting a higher quality, ethical and democratic educational system.

  18. An Investigation of Technology Avoidance Effect into Higher Education Environments: Some Empirical Evidence of Marketing Students' Background and Their Use of Personal Computers Outside the Academic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spais, George S.; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test a research hypothesis in order to explain the technology avoidance effect in higher educational environments. We addressed the core research themes of our study using a survey. Our intention was to test marketing students' perceptions in order to investigate the potent influence of a climate of…

  19. Avoiding the Manufacture of "Sameness": First-in-Family Students, Cultural Capital and the Higher Education Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon Bourdieu's theories of social and cultural capital, a number of studies of the higher education environment have indicated that students who are first-in-family to come to university may lack the necessary capitals to enact success. To address this issue, university transition strategies often have the primary objective of…

  20. Harmful Waste Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Mun Bong; Lee, Shi Jin; Park, Jun Seok; Yoon, Seok Pyo; Lee, Jae Hyo; Jo, Byeong Ryeol

    2008-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of processing harmful waste, including concerned law and definition of harmful waste, current conditions and generation of harmful waste in Korea, international condition of harmful waste, minimizing of generation of harmful waste, treatment and storage. It also tells of basic science for harmful waste disposal with physics, chemistry, combustion engineering, microbiology and technique of disposal such as physical, chemical, biological process, stabilizing and solidification, incineration and waste in landfill.

  1. Avoid eqnarray!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Whenever the eqnarray environment appears in a question or an example of a problem on comp.text.tex or the TeXhax mailing list there is a large chance that someone will tell the poster not to use eqnarray. This article will provide some examples of why many of us consider eqnarray to be harmful...

  2. Higher Doses of (+)MK-801 (Dizocilpine) Induced Mortality and Procedural but Not Cognitive Deficits in Delayed Testing in the Active Place Avoidance With Reversal on the Carousel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lobellová, Veronika; Brichtová, Eva; Petrásek, Tomáš; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2015), s. 269-275 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Dizocilpine * (+)MK-801 * active place avoidance * Carousel * Long-Evans rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  3. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toxins that may harm or kill fish and marine animals. Humans who eat shellfish contaminated with HAB toxins ... toxins that may harm or kill fish and marine animals. Humans who eat shellfish containing toxins produced by ...

  4. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  5. [Self-harming behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Nienke; Pollen, Wim; van Meijel, Berno

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of self-harm, a 28-year-old female patient and a 19-year-old female patient with self-harming behaviour are presented. The first patient refused treatment of cut wounds when the doctor enquired about the reason for self-harm. The second patient was referred for mental health care. These cases illustrate the complexity of this behaviour for the patient and the caregiver. Self-harm is often a symbol of underlying problems and serves multiple psychological functions. It is mostly used by patients to cope with unbearable emotions for which they have no other solution. The self-harm invokes different feelings in caregivers which tend to influence the attitude of the caregiver towards the patient. It is very important that caregivers are aware of their feelings and use them professionally. People who self-harm should not be judged, but treated respectfully and attention should be paid to their suffering.

  6. Self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skegg, Keren

    The term self-harm is commonly used to describe a wide range of behaviours and intentions including attempted hanging, impulsive self-poisoning, and superficial cutting in response to intolerable tension. As with suicide, rates of self-harm vary greatly between countries. 5-9% of adolescents in western countries report having self-harmed within the previous year. Risk factors include socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychiatric illness--particularly depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders. Cultural aspects of some societies may protect against suicide and self-harm and explain some of the international variation in rates of these events. Risk of repetition of self-harm and of later suicide is high. More than 5% of people who have been seen at a hospital after self-harm will have committed suicide within 9 years. Assessment after self-harm includes careful consideration of the patient's intent and beliefs about the lethality of the method used. Strong suicidal intent, high lethality, precautions against being discovered, and psychiatric illness are indicators of high suicide risk. Management after self-harm includes forming a trusting relationship with the patient, jointly identifying problems, ensuring support is available in a crisis, and treating psychiatric illness vigorously. Family and friends may also provide support. Large-scale studies of treatments for specific subgroups of people who self-harm might help to identify more effective treatments than are currently available. Although risk factors for self-harm are well established, aspects that protect people from engaging in self-harm need to be further explored.

  7. Harmful algal blooms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.; PrabhaDevi; DeSouza, L.; Verlecar, X.N.; Naik, C.G.

    as harmful algal bloom. Bloom formation is a natural process and it enhances biological productivity, but turns worrisome when caused by toxic species, leading to massive fish mortalities and hazards to human health. Incidences of'red tide' are increasing...

  8. Cutting and Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your feelings Feeling sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self- ... There are many types of self-injury, and cutting is one type that you may have heard ...

  9. Suicide Following Deliberate Self-Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie; Wang, Shuai; Crystal, Stephen; Gerhard, Tobias; Blanco, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    The authors sought to identify risk factors for repeat self-harm and completed suicide over the following year among adults with deliberate self-harm. A national cohort of Medicaid-financed adults clinically diagnosed with deliberate self-harm (N=61,297) was followed for up to 1 year. Repeat self-harm per 1,000 person-years and suicide rates per 100,000 person-years (based on cause of death information from the National Death Index) were determined. Hazard ratios of repeat self-harm and suicide were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. During the 12 months after nonfatal self-harm, the rate of repeat self-harm was 263.2 per 1,000 person-years and the rate of completed suicide was 439.1 per 100,000 person-years, or 37.2 times higher than in a matched general population cohort. The hazard of suicide was higher after initial self-harm events involving violent as compared with nonviolent methods (hazard ratio=7.5, 95% CI=5.5-10.1), especially firearms (hazard ratio=15.86, 95% CI=10.7-23.4; computed with poisoning as reference), and to a lesser extent after events of patients who had recently received outpatient mental health care (hazard ratio=1.6, 95% CI=1.2-2.0). Compared with self-harm patients using nonviolent methods, those who used violent methods were at significantly increased risk of suicide during the first 30 days after the initial event (hazard ratio=17.5, 95% CI=11.2-27.3), but not during the following 335 days. Adults treated for deliberate self-harm frequently repeat self-harm in the following year. Patients who use a violent method for their initial self-harm, especially firearms, have an exceptionally high risk of suicide, particularly right after the initial event, which highlights the importance of careful assessment and close follow-up of this group.

  10. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  11. "No Harm Done"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim

    2016-01-01

    It has been difficult to secure funding in Denmark to conduct research on third party harm from alcohol. The author relates her experiences in this area and challenges Danish society to examine how other societies have begun to examine this problem....

  12. Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

  13. Islam and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Casting light on harm reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jourdan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Harm reduction is commonly regarded as complementary to other drug problem responses - as the fourth tier. Yet even core examples of harm reduction such as the provision of injection equipment and methadone treatment has over and over encountered considerable opposition, and harm redu...

  16. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herring, Rachel; Betsy, Thom; Beccaria, Franca

    2010-01-01

    The EMCDDA’s 10th scientific monograph, entitled Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges provides a comprehensive overview of the harm reduction field. Part I of the monograph looks back at the emergence of harm reduction approaches and their diffusion, and explores the concept from diff...

  17. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children

  18. Self-harm in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Erlend; Mehlum, Lars; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Agartz, Ingrid; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Lorentzen, Steinar; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Walby, Fredrik A

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and gender profile of self-harm in a cross-sectional sample of 388 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. All patients were interviewed and assessed with respect to lifetime self-harm and relevant clinical variables. An overall of 49% of the patients reported self-harm which was associated with female gender, having had a depressive episode, younger age at psychosis onset, alcohol abuse or dependence, current suicidality, awareness of illness, and low adherence to prescribed medication. Higher awareness of having a mental disorder was associated with self-harm in men only, while emotional dysregulation was associated with self-harm in women only. We conclude that while self-harm in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders is highly prevalent in both genders, risk factors in men and women differ in several important ways.

  19. Synthesis of Porous Inorganic Hollow Fibers without Harmful Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, Sushumna; de Wit, Patrick; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Kappert, Emiel; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A route for the fabrication of porous inorganic hollow fibers with high surface-area-to-volume ratio that avoids harmful solvents is presented. The approach is based on bio-ionic gelation of an aqueous mixture of inorganic particles and sodium alginate during wet spinning. In a subsequent thermal

  20. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws.

  1. Gambling Harm and Crime Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Chahal, Corinne; Humphreys, Leslie; Clifton, Alison; Francis, Brian; Reith, Gerda

    2017-03-01

    Incarcerated populations across the world have been found to be consistently and significantly more vulnerable to problem gambling than general populations in the same countries. In an effort to gain a more specific understanding of this vulnerability the present study applied latent class analysis and criminal career theory to gambling data collected from a sample of English and Scottish, male and female prisoners (N = 1057). Theoretical links between gambling and crime were tested through three hypotheses: (1) that prisoners in the UK would have higher rates of problem gambling behaviour than the national population; (2) that if the link between gambling and crime is coincidental, gambling behaviour would be highly prevalent in an offending population, and (3) if connections between gambling behaviour and offending are co-symptomatic a mediating factor would show a strong association. The first of these was supported, the second was not supported and the third was partially supported. Latent class analysis found six gambling behaviour clusters measured by responses to the Problem Gambling Severity Index, primarily distinguished by loss chasing behaviour. Longitudinal offending data drawn from the Police National Computer database found four criminal career types, distinguished by frequency and persistence over time. A significant association was found between higher level loss chasing and high rate offending in criminal careers suggesting that impulse control may be a mediating factor for both gambling harm and criminal careers.

  2. Harmed patients gaining voice: challenging dominant perspectives in the construction of medical harm and patient safety reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, Josephine Enyonam

    2010-08-01

    Patient safety is a central issue in healthcare. In the United Kingdom, where there is more accurate information on National Health Service (NHS) hospitals than on primary care or the private sector, the evidence on adverse incidents shows that avoidable medical harm is a major concern. This paper looks at the occurrence of medical harm and argues that in the construction of patient safety reforms, it is important to be aware of alternative narratives about issues of power and accountability from harmed patients and self-help groups, that challenge dominant perspectives on the issues. The paper draws upon evidence from two sources. First, the paper draws on experiences of self-help groups set up as a result of medical harm and part of a campaigning network, where evidence was gathered from 14 groups over more than 2 years. In addition, data were obtained from 21 individuals affected by harm that attended a residential workshop called the Break Through Programme; 18 questionnaires were completed from participants and a written narrative account of their experiences and observational data were gathered from a range of workshop sessions. Looking at the issues from harmed patients' perspectives, the research illustrates that a model of medical harm focussing predominantly upon the clinical markers and individual agency associated with a medical model operates to obscure a range of social processes. These social processes, connected to the power and dominance of the medical profession and the activities of a wider state, are seen to be a major part of the construction of harm that impacts upon patients, which is further compounded by its concealment. Understanding the experiences of harmed patients is therefore seen as an important way of generating knowledge about the medical and social processes involved in harm, that can lead to a broader framework for addressing patient safety. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Helping Self-Harming Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selekman, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 14 to 17 percent of adolescents today self-harm, deliberately cutting, burning, or bruising themselves. Most self-harming adolescents use the behavior as a coping strategy to get immediate relief from emotional distress or other stressors in their lives. Stressors include fitting in with peers, activity and homework overload, fears…

  4. European rating of drug harms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; Phillips, Lawrence; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a rating study performed by a group of European Union (EU) drug experts using the multi-criteria decision analysis model for evaluating drug harms. Forty drug experts from throughout the EU scored 20 drugs on 16 harm criteria. The expert group also assessed

  5. Bipolar Disorder and the TCI: Higher Self-Transcendence in Bipolar Disorder Compared to Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Harley

    2011-01-01

    With correction for mood state, total harm avoidance (HA was higher than unaffected in both MDD and BP groups, but the mood disorder groups did not differ from each other. However, BP1 individuals had higher self-transcendence (ST than those with MDD and unaffected relatives. HA may reflect a trait marker of mood disorders whereas high ST may be specific to BP. As ST is heritable, genes that affect ST may be of relevance for vulnerability to BP.

  6. Earthworm avoidance of silver nanomaterials over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Amorim, Mónica J B; Jensen, John

    2018-01-01

    Avoidance behaviour offers a highly relevant information as it reveals the ability to avoid (or not) possible toxic compounds in the field, hence it provides information on reasons for the presence/absence in the field. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was used to study avoidance behaviour to four si...... exposure durations and showed a continuous higher avoidance with time (based on EC50 values). The AgNMs avoidance was in the order NM300Ksoil solution fraction that correlated with EC50 across materials....

  7. Reducing Alcohol Harm. International Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    last 10 years.12 Apart from the cost of medical care, the cost of alcohol use can also be associated with absenteeism and property damage. Alcohol...related harms cost British industry approximately £2 billion a year13 and the NHS about £1.7 billion a year14. Alcohol affects labour and productivity...Harmful drinking, Factsheet, June (2007). 15 “ Absenteeism due to drink”, Healthcare Today Magazine, September 19th, 2007. (Accessed on 19/09/07, at

  8. Negative Intrusive Thoughts and Dissociation as Risk Factors for Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, Helen; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between self-harm and vulnerability factors were studied in a general population of 432 participants, of whom 30% reported some experience of self-harm. This group scored higher on dissociation and childhood trauma, had lower self-worth, and reported more negative intrusive thoughts. Among the non-harming group, 10% scored similarly…

  9. Fear-avoidance beliefs and pain avoidance in low back pain--translating research into clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rainville, James; Smeets, Rob J E M; Bendix, Tom

    2011-01-01

    For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle for recov......For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle...

  10. Protecting air basins from harmful discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankovskiy, S S

    1983-01-01

    The work is a brief description of the content of the reports delivered at the seminar entitled Protecting the Air Basin from Harmful Discharges of the Machine Building Enterprises, which took place at the All Union Exhibit of the Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR (VDNKh) in 1982. Representatives of different ministries and agencies, scientific research institutes (NII), planning and design and other specialized organizations, institutes of higher learning (vuz) and enterprises from different branches of industry took part in the work of the seminar. The seminar noted measures to eliminate deficiencies which occur in individual enterprises of the branch and measures to improve the work to improve protection of the air basin from harmful discharges of machine building enterprises.

  11. Women's Benefits and Harms Trade-Offs in Breast Cancer Screening: Results from a Discrete-Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicsic, Jonathan; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie; Moumjid, Nora

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, the benefits and harms balance of breast cancer (BC) screening has been widely debated. To elicit women's trade-offs between the benefits and harms of BC screening and to analyze the main determinants of these trade-offs. A discrete-choice experiment with seven attributes depicting BC screening programs including varying levels of BC mortality, overdiagnosis, and false-positive result was used. Eight hundred twelve women aged 40 to 74 years with no personal history of BC recruited by a survey institute and representative of the French general population (age, socioeconomic level, and geographical location) completed the discrete-choice experiment. Preference heterogeneity was investigated using generalized multinomial logit models from which individual trade-offs were derived, and their main determinants were assessed using generalized linear models. Screening acceptance rates under various benefits and harms ratios were simulated on the basis of the distribution of individual preferences. The women would be willing to accept on average 14.1 overdiagnosis cases (median = 9.6) and 47.8 false-positive results (median = 27.2) to avoid one BC-related death. After accounting for preference heterogeneity, less than 50% of women would be willing to accept 10 overdiagnosis cases for one BC-related death avoided. Screening acceptance rates were higher among women with higher socioeconomic level and lower among women with poor health. Women are sensitive to both the benefits and the harms of BC screening and their preferences are highly heterogeneous. Our study provides useful results for public health authorities and clinicians willing to improve their recommendations of BC screening on the basis of women's preferences. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex-work harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekart, Michael L

    2005-12-17

    Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process.

  13. Neuromorphic UAS Collision Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Collision avoidance for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) traveling at high relative speeds is a challenging task. It requires both the detection of a possible collision...

  14. Individual Differences in Approach-Avoidance Aptitude: Some Clues from Research on Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eCosta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Approach and avoidance are two basic behavioral aptitudes of humans whose correct balance is critical for successful adaptation to the environment. As the expression of approach and avoidance tendencies may differ significantly between healthy individuals, different psychobiological factors have been posited to account for such variability. In this regard, two main issues are still open that refers to i the role played by dopamine neurotransmission and ii the possible influence of cognitive characteristics, particularly executive functioning. The aim of the present paper was to highlight the contribution of research on Parkinson’s disease (PD to our understanding of the above issues. In particular, we here reviewed PD literature to clarify whether neurobiological and neuropsychological modifications due to PD are associated to changes in approach-avoidance related personality features. Available data indicate that PD patients may show and approach-avoidance imbalance as documented by lower novelty-seeking and higher harm-avoidance behaviors, possibly suggesting a relationship with neurobiological and neurocognitive PD-related changes. However, the literature that directly investigated this issue is still sparse and much more work is needed to better clarify it.

  15. Long-term avoidance memory formation is associated with a transient increase in mushroom body synaptic complexes in leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina eFalibene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term behavioral changes related to learning and experience have been shown to be associated with structural remodeling in the brain. Leaf-cutting ants learn to avoid previously preferred plants after they have proved harmful for their symbiotic fungus, a process that involves long-term olfactory memory. We studied the dynamics of brain microarchitectural changes after long-term olfactory memory formation following avoidance learning in Acromyrmex ambiguus. After performing experiments to control for possible neuronal changes related to age and body size, we quantified synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG in olfactory regions of the mushroom bodies (MB at different times after learning. Long-term avoidance memory formation was associated with a transient change in MG densities. Two days after learning, MG density was higher than before learning. At days 4 and 15 after learning — when ants still showed plant avoidance — MG densities had decreased to the initial state. The structural reorganization of MG triggered by long-term avoidance memory formation clearly differed from changes promoted by pure exposure to and collection of novel plants with distinct odors. Sensory exposure by the simultaneous collection of several, instead of one, non-harmful plant species resulted in a decrease in MG densities in the olfactory lip. We hypothesize that while sensory exposure leads to MG pruning in the MB olfactory lip, the formation of long-term avoidance memory involves an initial growth of new MG followed by subsequent pruning.

  16. Long-term avoidance memory formation is associated with a transient increase in mushroom body synaptic complexes in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falibene, Agustina; Roces, Flavio; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term behavioral changes related to learning and experience have been shown to be associated with structural remodeling in the brain. Leaf-cutting ants learn to avoid previously preferred plants after they have proved harmful for their symbiotic fungus, a process that involves long-term olfactory memory. We studied the dynamics of brain microarchitectural changes after long-term olfactory memory formation following avoidance learning in Acromyrmex ambiguus. After performing experiments to control for possible neuronal changes related to age and body size, we quantified synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in olfactory regions of the mushroom bodies (MBs) at different times after learning. Long-term avoidance memory formation was associated with a transient change in MG densities. Two days after learning, MG density was higher than before learning. At days 4 and 15 after learning-when ants still showed plant avoidance-MG densities had decreased to the initial state. The structural reorganization of MG triggered by long-term avoidance memory formation clearly differed from changes promoted by pure exposure to and collection of novel plants with distinct odors. Sensory exposure by the simultaneous collection of several, instead of one, non-harmful plant species resulted in a decrease in MG densities in the olfactory lip. We hypothesize that while sensory exposure leads to MG pruning in the MB olfactory lip, the formation of long-term avoidance memory involves an initial growth of new MG followed by subsequent pruning.

  17. Harm minimization among teenage drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Hulvej; Curtis, Tine; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine strategies of harm minimization employed by teenage drinkers. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two periods of ethnographic fieldwork were conducted in a rural Danish community of approximately 2000 inhabitants. The fieldwork included 50 days of participant observation among 13....... In regulating the social context of drinking they relied on their personal experiences more than on formalized knowledge about alcohol and harm, which they had learned from prevention campaigns and educational programmes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that teenagers may help each other to minimize alcohol...

  18. Psychological characteristics of self-harming behavior in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2016-10-01

    Recently, self-injury is drawing the attention of researchers and clinicians. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and psychological characteristics of adolescents who engage in self-harm and to examine the risk factors for engaging in this harmful behavior among Korean mid-adolescents. Participants were 784 adolescents aged 13-15 years. They completed self-report questionnaires that assessed (1) Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: the Self-Harm Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale; (2) depression: Children's Depression Inventory; (3) adolescent-parent relationship: Parental Bonding Instrument; (4) peer attachment: Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment; and (5) academic stress. Overall, 12.4% (n=97) of participants reported engaging in self-destructive behavior at least once in their lives. The primary reason for engaging in self-harm was to regulate negative emotions such as anger and sadness. As expected, the self-harm group showed statistically significant higher levels of academic stress, alexithymia, depression, and poor relationships with their parents and peers. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that alexithymia, depression, and peer relations were significant predictors of self-harming behavior. Given that the primary reason for engaging in self-harm is to cope with negative emotions, mental health professionals in school settings should regularly evaluate self-injurious behavior and provide prevention programs for adolescents at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on

  20. Banking deregulation and corporate tax avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill B. Francis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether tax avoidance substitutes for external financing. We exploit interstate banking deregulation as a quasi-external shock to examine whether firms engage in less tax avoidance after banking deregulation, because of cheaper and easier access to credit from banks. We find no empirical evidence to support this substitutive relation, even for firms with higher financial constraints or firms with higher external financing dependence.

  1. Weathering product-harm crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleeren, K.; Dekimpe, M.G.; Helsen, K.

    2008-01-01

    To counter the negative effects of a product-harm crisis, brands hope to capitalize on their equity, and often use advertising as a communication device to regain customers’ lost trust. We study how consumer characteristics and advertising influence consumers’ first-purchase decisions for two

  2. Deliberate self harm in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, P; Geeta, M G; Riyaz, A

    2011-05-01

    To study the nature of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in children and to identify the associated factors. Child Guidance Clinic attached to the Department of Pediatrics of a teaching hospital in South India. Children with history of deliberate self harm who were referred to the CGC for psychological evaluation during a 10 year period. Children and parents were interviewed together and separately and details regarding age, sex, family and school environment, stresses and nature of self harm were documented. Psychiatric diagnosis was made based on DSM IV diagnostic criteria. Among the 30 children included in the study, 21 were boys and 9 were girls. Majority of children were between the ages of 11 and 13 years, the youngest being 6 years old. 76%of children had history of acute stressful life events and 62%of them had chronic ongoing stress. 62%of children had stress in the family and 41%had stress at school. Stress in the family included death of a parent, conflicts with parents or siblings, mental illness in the family, parental alcoholism and parental disharmony. Stress at school included conflicts with classmates, punishment or negative comments by teachers and learning problems. Psychiatric disorders were present in 52%of children, the commonest being depressive disorder. The commonest mode of DSH was self poisoning, and rat poison (zinc phosphide) was the commonest substance used. Deliberate self harm occurs in young children and the risk factors are comparable to those in adolescents.

  3. Managing Product-Harm Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. van Heerde (Harald); K. Helsen; M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractProduct-harm crises are among a firm’s worst nightmares. Since marketing investments may be instrumental to convince consumers to purchase the firm's products again, it is important to provide an adequate measurement of the effectiveness of these investments, especially after the crisis.

  4. Fear-avoidance beliefs and pain avoidance in low back pain--translating research into clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rainville, James; Smeets, Rob J E M; Bendix, Tom

    2011-01-01

    For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle...

  5. Effects of IFRS adoption on tax avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nogueira Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigates the association between mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adoption and corporate tax avoidance. In this study, tax avoidance is defined as a reduction in the effective corporate income tax rate through tax planning activities, whether these are legal, questionable, or even illegal. Three measures of tax avoidance are used and factors at the country and firm level (that have already been associated with tax avoidance in prior research are controlled. Using samples that range from 9,389 to 15,423 publicly-traded companies from 35 countries, covering 1999 to 2014, it is found that IFRS adoption is associated with higher levels of corporate tax avoidance, even when the level of book-tax conformity required in the countries and the volume of accruals are controlled, both of which are considered potential determinants of this relationship. Furthermore, the results suggest that after IFRS adoption, firms in higher book-tax conformity environments engage more in tax avoidance than firms in lower book-tax conformity environments. It is also identified that engagement in tax avoidance after IFRS adoption derives not only from accruals management, but also from practices that do not involve accruals. The main conclusion is that companies engage more in tax avoidance after mandatory IFRS adoption.

  6. Avoiding the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  7. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  8. Human pathogen avoidance adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen

  9. Geoengineering, Climate Harm, and Business as Usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankunis, F. J.; Peacock, K.

    2014-12-01

    We define geoengineering (GE) as the intentional use of technology to change the planet's climate. Many people believe GE is different in kind rather than degree from any other organized activity in human history. In fact, humans caused changes in the planet's climate long before the industrial age, and all organisms engineer their environments directly or indirectly. The relevant difference between this cumulative and generally inadvertent activity and GE is the presence of intention. Now that science has revealed the extent to which humans can change the climate, however, even the continuance of Business as Usual (BAU) is, in effect, a form of intentional GE, albeit one that will cause significant climate harm, defined as effects such as sea level rise that will impact human well-being. But as with all forms of engineering, the devil is in the details: what forms of GE should be tried first? Some methods, such as large-scale afforestation, are low risk but have long-term payoffs; others, such as aerosol injection into the stratosphere, could help buy time in a warming crisis but have unknown side-effects and little long-term future. Climate change is a world-wide, inter-generational tragedy of the commons. Rational choice theory, the spatial and temporal extension of the problem, poorly fitted moral frameworks, and political maneuvering are all factors that inhibit solutions to the climate tragedy of the commons. The longer that such factors are allowed to dominate decision-making (or the lack thereof) the more likely it is that humanity will be forced to resort to riskier and more drastic forms of GE. We argue that this fact brings an additional measure of urgency to the search for ways to engineer the climate differently so as to avoid climate harm in the most lasting and least risky way.

  10. Towards better patient care: drugs to avoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Common sense dictates that one should choose tried and tested drugs with proven, concrete benefits that outweigh their adverse effects. Many new drugs are approved each year, often despite a lack of solid evidence that they are any better than existing treatments. Worse, some are approved despite being less effective or more harmful than current options. Massive promotion is used to ensure that such drugs achieve a positive image in the eyes of healthcare professionals and patients. Renowned "opinion leaders" intervene in their favour at conferences and in specialist media, and their opinions are further propagated by specialists in the field. Finally, campaigns in the lay media are used to highlight the target illness, encouraging patients to request a prescription. New data sometimes show that older, initially promising drugs are less effective or more harmful than first thought. For all these reasons, many drugs that are now present on the market are more harmful than beneficial and should be avoided. Unfortunately, negative assessment data and warnings are often drowned in the flood of promotion and advertising. Front-line healthcare professionals who are determined to act in their patients' best interests can find themselves swimming against a tide of specialist opinion, marketing authorisation, and reimbursement decisions. By leaving drugs that are more harmful than beneficial on the market and contenting themselves with simple half-measures, healthcare authorities are failing in their duty to protect patients. Prescrire, a journal funded solely by its subscribers, does not seek to do the work of health authorities, and does not have the means to do so. Prescrire's goal is simply to help healthcare professionals provide better care. The following text lists the principal drugs that we consider more harmful than beneficial, based on our reviews published between 2010 and 2012 in our French edition. These drugs should not be used. Patients and healthcare

  11. The cost of harmful alcohol use in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzopoulos, R G; Truen, S; Bowman, B; Corrigall, J

    2014-02-01

    The economic, social and health costs associated with alcohol-related harms are important measures with which to inform alcohol management policies and laws. This analysis builds on previous cost estimates for South Africa. We reviewed existing international best-practice costing frameworks to provide the costing definitions and dimensions. We sourced data from South African costing literature or, if unavailable, estimated costs using socio-economic and health data from secondary sources. Care was taken to avoid possible causes of cost overestimation, in particular double counting and, as far as possible, second-round effects of alcohol abuse. The combined total tangible and intangible costs of alcohol harm to the economy were estimated at 10 - 12% of the 2009 gross domestic product (GDP). The tangible financial cost of harmful alcohol use alone was estimated at R37.9 billion, or 1.6% of the 2009 GDP. The costs of alcohol-related harms provide a substantial counterbalance to the economic benefits highlighted by the alcohol industry to counter stricter regulation. Curtailing these costs by regulatory and policy interventions contributes directly and indirectly to social well-being and the economy. CONCLUSIONS; Existing frameworks that guide the regulation and distribution of alcohol frequently focus on maximising the contribution of the alcohol sector to the economy, but should also take into account the associated economic, social and health costs. Current interventions do not systematically address the most important causes of harm from alcohol, and need to be informed by reliable evidence of the ongoing costs of alcohol-related harms.

  12. Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Oral Health and Overal Health Gum Disease and Cardiovascular Health ... your desktop! more... Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health Article Chapters Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral ...

  13. Psychological characteristics, stressful life events and deliberate self-harm: findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Nicola; Hawton, Keith; McMahon, Elaine M; Corcoran, Paul; De Leo, Diego; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; Ystgaard, Mette; Arensman, Ella

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest that both psychological characteristics and stressful life events are contributory factors in deliberate self-harm among young people. These links, and the possibility of a dose-response relationship between self-harm and both psychological health and life events, were investigated in the context of a seven-country school-based study. Over 30,000, mainly 15 and 16 year olds, completed anonymous questionnaires at secondary schools in Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Australia. Pupils were asked to report on thoughts and episodes of self-harm, complete scales on depression and anxiety symptoms, impulsivity and self-esteem and indicate stressful events in their lives. Level and frequency of self-harm was judged according to whether they had thought about harming themselves or reported single or multiple self-harm episodes. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the extent to which psychological characteristics and stressful life events distinguished between adolescents with different self-harm histories. Increased severity of self-harm history was associated with greater depression, anxiety and impulsivity and lower self-esteem and an increased prevalence of all ten life event categories. Female gender, higher impulsivity and experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, physical or sexual abuse and worries about sexual orientation independently differentiated single-episode self-harmers from adolescents with self-harm thoughts only. Female gender, higher depression, lower self-esteem, experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, and trouble with the police independently distinguished multiple- from single-episode self-harmers. The findings reinforce the importance of psychological characteristics and stressful life events in adolescent self-harm but nonetheless suggest that some factors are more likely than others to be implicated.

  14. Bituminization of biologically harmful wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, M.; Magyar, M.; Mozes, G.; Csikos, R.; Kristof, M.; Toth, L.; Hima, G.

    1977-01-01

    The invention claims the bitumenization of biologically harmful wastes, such as industrial wastes containing radioactive materials. These wastes containing water are transported from sludge basins, this either by gravity or by mechanical stirrino. into a suitably adapted absorption zone or to several parallel zones filled with bitumen heated to 100 to 250 degC. An inert gas is forced into the system foaming the zone contents. The foam phase is decomposed by the action of heat while water is evaporated and condensed. Bitumen containing dry matter of the radioactive wastes is discharged from the bottom part of the absorption zone and stored in a tank. (Kr)

  15. [Dutch parliament legitimizes harmful quackery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Frits S A M; Renckens, Cees N M

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch parliament has recently accepted a tax law in which certain groups of alternative therapists can be exempt from VAT. To be eligible for this VAT exemption, the disciplines to which the therapists belong have to meet certain training requirements. In this article it is contended, in agreement with the Royal College of Physicians in the UK, that statutory regulation is inappropriate for disciplines whose therapies are neither of proved benefit nor appropriately tested. It legitimizes harmful therapies. This is illustrated by two serious accidents, previously described in this journal, caused by a chiropractor and a craniosacral therapist.

  16. Comparative study of personality disorder associated with deliberate self harm in two different age groups (15-24 years and 45-74 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Saswati; Patra, Dipak Kumar; Biswas, Srilekha; Mallick, Asim Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam Kumar; Ghosh, Srijit

    2008-07-01

    To study the presence of personality disorder in cases of deliberate self harm (DSH) in young (15-24 years) and elderly (45-74 years) and compare. Deliberate self harm cases admitted in Medical and surgical departments and cases attending psychiatry department of R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata were studied. For diagnosis of personality disorder ICD 10 International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) questionnaire was used. Percentage of elderly patients having personality disorder (64%) was higher compared to young DSH patients (58.5%). In young group, most common disorder was emotionally unstable personality disorder (28.6%) and in elderly group most common was anankastic type of personality disorder (36%). Schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, and anxious-avoidant personality disorders were found in small percentages of cases. Among DSH patients, the most common personality disorder found in young age was Emotionally unstable (Impulsive and Borderline) personality disorder, but most common personality disorder found in elderly patients was Anankastic personality disorder.

  17. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  18. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  19. Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

  20. Benefits and harms of perioperative beta-blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Juul, Anne Benedicte

    2006-01-01

    randomized trials. However, confidence intervals of the intervention effects in the meta-analyses are wide, leaving room for both benefits and harms. The largest observational study performed suggests that perioperative beta-blockade is associated with higher mortality in patients with low cardiac risk...

  1. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hawk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Methods Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. Results We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. Conclusion This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of

  2. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mary; Coulter, Robert W S; Egan, James E; Fisk, Stuart; Reuel Friedman, M; Tula, Monique; Kinsky, Suzanne

    2017-10-24

    Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of their disclosure of negative health behaviors, given that health

  3. Serotonin selectively influences moral judgment and behavior through effects on harm aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Molly J; Clark, Luke; Hauser, Marc D; Robbins, Trevor W

    2010-10-05

    Aversive emotional reactions to real or imagined social harms infuse moral judgment and motivate prosocial behavior. Here, we show that the neurotransmitter serotonin directly alters both moral judgment and behavior through increasing subjects' aversion to personally harming others. We enhanced serotonin in healthy volunteers with citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and contrasted its effects with both a pharmacological control treatment and a placebo on tests of moral judgment and behavior. We measured the drugs' effects on moral judgment in a set of moral 'dilemmas' pitting utilitarian outcomes (e.g., saving five lives) against highly aversive harmful actions (e.g., killing an innocent person). Enhancing serotonin made subjects more likely to judge harmful actions as forbidden, but only in cases where harms were emotionally salient. This harm-avoidant bias after citalopram was also evident in behavior during the ultimatum game, in which subjects decide to accept or reject fair or unfair monetary offers from another player. Rejecting unfair offers enforces a fairness norm but also harms the other player financially. Enhancing serotonin made subjects less likely to reject unfair offers. Furthermore, the prosocial effects of citalopram varied as a function of trait empathy. Individuals high in trait empathy showed stronger effects of citalopram on moral judgment and behavior than individuals low in trait empathy. Together, these findings provide unique evidence that serotonin could promote prosocial behavior by enhancing harm aversion, a prosocial sentiment that directly affects both moral judgment and moral behavior.

  4. On balance: weighing harms and benefits in fundamental neurological research using nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Gardar; Clausen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    One of the most controversial areas of animal research is the use of nonhuman primates for fundamental research. At the centre of the controversy is the question of whether the benefits of research outweigh the harms. We argue that the evaluation of harms and benefits is highly problematic. We describe some common procedures in neurological research using nonhuman primates and the difficulties in evaluating the harm involved. Even if the harm could be quantified, it is unlikely that it could be meaningfully aggregated over different procedures, let alone different animals. A similar problem arises for evaluating benefits. It is not clear how benefits could be quantified, and even if they could be, values for different aspects of expected benefits cannot be simply added up. Sorting harms and benefits in three or four categories cannot avoid the charge of arbitrariness and runs the risk of imposing its structure on the moral decision. The metaphor of weighing or balancing harms and benefits is inappropriate for the moral decision about whether to use nonhuman primates for research. Arguing that the harms and benefits in this context are incommensurable, we suggest describing the moral consideration of harms and benefits as a coherent trade-off. Such a decision does not require commensurability. It must be well-informed about the suffering involved and the potential benefits, it must be consistent with the legal, regulatory and institutional framework within which it is made, and it must cohere with other judgments in relevant areas.

  5. Potential Nematode Alarm Pheromone Induces Acute Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Loeza-Cabrera, Mario; Liu, Zheng; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Nguyen, Julie K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Yuna; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A; Zhong, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; van’t Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason. F.

    2014-01-01

    decreases (to 29 percent) when the information additionally reveals the share of air travelers who buy carbon offsets. We find evidence that some people use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior—ignorance significantly decreases the probability of buying carbon offsets.......Are people strategically ignorant of the negative externalities their activities cause the environment? Herein we examine if people avoid costless information on those externalities and use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior. We develop a theoretical framework in which...... people feel internal pressure (“guilt”) from causing harm to the environment (e.g., emitting carbon dioxide) as well as external pressure to conform to the social norm for pro-environmental behavior (e.g., offsetting carbon emissions). Our model predicts that people may benefit from avoiding information...

  7. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariz Nurwidya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation.

  8. Harm avoidance and depression, anxiety, insomnia, and migraine in fifth-year medical students in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen CY; Yu NW; Huang TH; Wang WS; Fang JT

    2018-01-01

    Ching-Yen Chen,1–3 Nan-Wen Yu,2–4 Tien-Hao Huang,4 Wei-Shin Wang,4 Ji-Tseng Fang2,3,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Medical Education Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 5Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan Purpose: During medical school tra...

  9. Harm avoidance and depression, anxiety, insomnia, and migraine in fifth-year medical students in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen,Ching-Yen; Yu,Nan-Wen; Huang,Tien-Hao; Wang,Wei-Shin; Fang,Ji-Tseng

    2018-01-01

    Ching-Yen Chen,1–3 Nan-Wen Yu,2–4 Tien-Hao Huang,4 Wei-Shin Wang,4 Ji-Tseng Fang2,3,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Medical Education Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 5Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan Purpose: During medical sc...

  10. [An investigation on self-harm episodes and their relationship with suicidal psychology and behaviors in 2713 college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pu-Yu; Hao, Jia-Hu; Huang, Zhao-Hui; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the episodes and influencing factors on self-harm and to explore the relationship between self-harm episodes and suicidal psychology and behaviors in college students. Four universities were selected using cluster sampling method in Anqing city and Chaohu city. Totally, 2713 college students completed this survey. Data were analyzed by Pearson Chi-square and logistic regression. In the last six months, rates of highly lethal self-harm, less lethal self-harm with visible tissue damage, self-injury without visible tissue damage, self-harmful behaviors with latency damage, other self-harmful behaviors with menticide were 1.9%, 5.5%, 15.3%, 21.2% and 17.0% respectively. The total rate of self-harm was 31.3%. 73.1% of the students with self harmful experiences had the above mentioned behaviors more than 3 times in the last six months. The top 3 reasons for taking self-harm actions were: having learning problems (43.1%), failed love affairs (25.0%) and having conflicts with others (23.9%). There were different influencing factors among different kinds of self-harm episodes. Depression was the risk factor of self-harm. The higher score of having high self-esteem was the protective factor of all kinds of self-harm actions except highly lethal ones. Higher score of difficulties in identifying feelings was one of the risk factors. The rates of suicidal psychology and behaviors in students with self-harm were significantly higher than those in students without those behaviors. Result from linear χ(2) test indicated that the graveness of tissue damage of self-harm was higher along with the rates of suicidal psychology and behaviors (P self-esteem was the protective factor related to most of the self-harm cases.

  11. Characteristics and trends of self-harming behaviour in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, Karen

    Deliberate self-harm is recognized as a serious public health issue in young people. There is evidence that young people who self-harm are more likely to repeat self-harm, and this in turn increases their risk of completed suicide. Prevalence studies have identified that the rate of self-harm among young people is on the increase, information largely based on data arising from review and analysis of hospital attendances. However, community-based studies indicate that the prevalence is much higher, with those seen in emergency departments representing the 'tip of the iceberg' (Hawton and Rodham, 2006). Young people's motives for self-harm are discussed, as are research findings which indicate that nurses can have negative attitudes towards patients who self-harm. The article considers the implications of this for young people and identifies areas for future research.

  12. Harm reduction through a social justice lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Bernadette

    2008-02-01

    People who are street involved such as those experiencing homelessness and drug use face multiple inequities in health and access to health care. Morbidity and mortality are significantly increased among those who are street involved. Incorporation of a harm reduction philosophy in health care has the potential to shift the moral context of health care delivery and enhance access to health care services. However, harm reduction with a primary focus on reducing the harms of drug use fails focus on the harms associated with the context of drug use such as homelessness, violence and poverty. Ethical analysis of the underlying values of harm reduction and examination of different conceptions of justice are discussed as a basis for action that addresses a broad range of harms associated with drug use. Theories of distributive justice that focus primarily on the distribution of material goods are limited as theoretical frameworks for addressing the root causes of harm associated with drug use. Social justice, reconceptualised and interpreted through a critical lens as described by Iris Marion Young, is presented as a promising alternative ethical framework. A critical reinterpretation of social justice leads to insights that can illuminate structural inequities that contribute to the harms associated with the context of drug use. Such an approach provides promise as means of informing policy that aims to reduce a broad range of harms associated with drug use such as homelessness and poverty.

  13. Observations and control of beam instabilities due to higher order modes in Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Rajiv K.; Prasad, M.; Lad, M.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    In a synchrotron radiation source (SRS), the interaction between electron beam spectra and Higher Order Modes (HOMs) of RF cavities may give rise to coupled bunch instabilities. These instabilities may limit beam current and beam lifetime. Indus-2 SRS has four RF cavities equipped with precision temperature controller of cooling system and Higher Order Mode Frequency Shifter (HOMFS) to avoid harmful HOMs. Offline (i.e. without beam) and Online (i.e. with beam) measurements, observations and analysis of HOMs have been performed. Some of the Longitudinal modes such as L1 (∼ 950 MHz), L3 (∼ 1432 MHz), L4 (∼ 1521 MHz), L5 (∼1628 MHz) were observed to be quite prominent at specific operating conditions. Based on these studies, harmful HOMs were identified and suitable methods were evolved to avoid these HOMs. Experiments were performed to achieve high beam current in Indus-2. The precision chiller temperatures and HOMFS positions were set as per theoretical estimates and were further optimized in fine steps during experiments. With the optimized settings, beam current around 200 mA at Injection energy (550 MeV) and 157 mA at 2.5 GeV has been successfully achieved. At these settings of RF cavity water temperature and HOMFS, harmful HOMs were within safe limits during regular operation of Indus-2 at 2.5 GeV/100 mA in user mode for more than one year. In this paper, important observations, analysis and experiments to avoid harmful HOMs of RF cavities are presented. (author)

  14. Adolescent self-harm and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jianwei; Wang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to define the characteristics of adolescents who have engaged in self-harm behavior and ascertain the risk factors. From January 2013 to January 2014, 4,176 adolescents from senior middle schools in Linyi, China, were administered four questionnaire surveys to ascertain the following: incidence of self-harm behavior regarding the frequency of different self-harm behaviors by group (never/one to five times/greater than five times in the last 6 months) and then comparing the self-harm behavior of the different subgroups; symptom self-check, comparing the differences between the adolescents with self-harm behavior and without in nine subscales (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, fear, paranoid, and psychosis); Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List scores; and Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) scores. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of self-harm in adolescents. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was 27.60%; the occurrence of adolescent self-harm was closely related to their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU. Being female, an urban student, or an only child; having poor school performance or experiences of stressful life events, harsh parenting styles, or excessive interference; and poor mental health were the risk factors for adolescent self-harm. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was high, and their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU affected the occurrence of adolescent self-harm, which is an issue that needs greater attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. What’s the Harm? Harms in Research with Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board members. We found considerable variance. For example, adults with intellectual disability see exclusion from research as more harmful, but most psychosocial harms as less significant than others. All stakeholders agree that having someone else make the participation decision is harmful. Findings provide insights into the concept of harm and ethical research with adults with intellectual disability. PMID:28095059

  16. Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    exaggerates benefits, participation is directly recommended, and the harms are downplayed or left out, despite agreement that the objective is informed choice. This raises an ethical discussion concerning autonomy versus paternalism, and the difficulty in weighing benefits against harms. Finally, financial...

  17. Alcohol and self-harm in Anuradhapura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Jayasena, Chandima; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala

    the personal network of the drinker and lead to secondary traumatization. This can appear as emotional distress, financial difficulties and lead to domestic violence and in some cases self-harm and suicide. This interplay between alcohol and self-harm was investigated in individuals, families and communities...

  18. Harm and the Boundaries of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Patrick; Sorial, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    What is the relationship between harm and disease? Discussions of the relationship between harm and disease typically suffer from two shortcomings. First, they offer relatively little analysis of the concept of harm itself, focusing instead on examples of clear cases of harm such as death and dismemberment. This makes it difficult to evaluate such accounts in borderline cases, where the putative harms are less severe. Second, they assume that harm-based accounts of disease must be understood normatively rather than naturalistically, in the sense that they are inherently value based. This makes such accounts vulnerable to more general objections of normative accounts of disease. Here we draw on an influential account of harm from the philosophy of law to develop a harm-based account of disease that overcomes both of these shortcomings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Physical harm due to chronic substance use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Pennings, Ed; Brunt, Tibor; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Chronic use at high dose of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco is associated with physical disease. The relative physical harm of these substances has not been described before, but will benefit the guiding of policy measures about licit and illicit substances. The physical harm of 19 addictive

  20. Deprivation as un-experienced harm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keerus, Külli; Gjerris, Mickey; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Tom Regan encapsulated his principle of harm as a prima facie direct duty not to harm experiencing subjects of a life. However, his consideration of harm as deprivation, one example of which is loss of freedom, can easily be interpreted as a harm, which may not be experienced by its subject....... This creates a gap between Regan’s criterion for moral status and his account of what our duties are. However, in comparison with three basic paradigms of welfare known in nonhuman animal welfare science, Regan’s understanding coheres with a modified version of a feelings-based paradigm: not only the immediate...... feelings of satisfaction, but also future opportunities to have such feelings, must be taken into account. Such an interpretation is compatible with Regan’s understanding of harm as deprivation. The potential source of confusion, however, lies in Regan’s own possible argumentative mistakes....

  1. The relationship between alcohol consumption and related harm among young university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ellen; Burns, Sharyn

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Research has shown that Australian university students consume alcohol at a higher level than their peers from the general population and are therefore more likely to witness and experience alcohol-related harm. This study measured the prevalence of alcohol consumption among 18-24-year-old university students and the association between alcohol consumption and witnessed and experienced harms. Methods A random cross-sectional sample of university students aged 18-24 years (n=2466) was recruited via the University Survey Office and through random intercept at campus market day. All participants completed an online survey that included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Problems Scale and an additional scale measuring witnessed harm. Results Principal Components Analysis revealed three factors within the Alcohol Problems Scale; i.e. Criminal and Aggressive Behaviour, Health and Emotional Harms and Sexual Harms. Students who consume alcohol at high-risk levels were significantly more likely to score highly on each factor, 1.6 times more likely to experience harm and 1.1 times more likely to witness harm than students who consume alcohol at low-risk levels. Conclusions The positive association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm supports previous findings. This study adds previous research through the categorisation of harm into factors. So what? Integrated and comprehensive interventions addressing alcohol consumption among young university students that are informed by evidence-based research can be tailored to ensure that they meet the needs of the target group.

  2. Determinants of Aggressive Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...

  3. Predictors of avoiding medical care and reasons for avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Viji Diane; Veazie, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Delayed medical care has negative health and economic consequences; interventions have focused on appraising symptoms, with limited success in reducing delay. To identify predictors of care avoidance and reasons for avoiding care. Using the Health Information National Trends Survey (2007), we conducted logistic regressions to identify predictors of avoiding medical visits deemed necessary by the respondents; and, we then conducted similar analyses on reasons given for avoidance behavior. Independent variables included geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, personal health, health behavior, health care system, and cognitive characteristics. Approximately one third of adults avoided doctor visits they had deemed necessary. Although unadjusted associations existed, avoiding needed care was not independently associated with geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics. Avoidance behavior is characterized by low health self-efficacy, less experience with both quality care and getting help with uncertainty about health, having your feelings attended to by your provider, no usual source of care, negative affect, smoking daily, and fatalistic attitude toward cancer. Reasons elicited for avoidance include preference for self-care or alternative care, dislike or distrust of doctors, fear or dislike of medical treatments, time, and money; respondents also endorsed discomfort with body examinations, fear of having a serious illness, and thoughts of dying. Distinct predictors distinguish each of these reasons. Interventions to reduce patient delay could be improved by addressing the health-related behavioral, belief, experiential, and emotional traits associated with delay. Attention should also be directed toward the interpersonal communications between patients and providers.

  4. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  5. Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk.

  6. Benefits, harms and evidence - reflections from UK primary healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    In this paper I examine the relationship between benefits, harms and evidence-based medicine in the context of British primary healthcare. First, I will examine: 'What is a benefit and what is a harm?' Second, what should we know about where the balance of risk and benefit appear to lie? Third, what should we do with this knowledge, particularly in the context of the biopsychosocial gaze of primary care? I conclude that even perfect knowledge about benefits and harms requires to be translated in the context of the individual patient: it also requires to be interpreted according to what that persons' wishes are. By reiterating again and again how biases are stacked in favour of recommending treatments and interventions well beyond their rational evidence, my hope is that more honest medicine will result in less but higher value medicine. Stopping doing things that don't work, or work rarely, or come with an unacceptable burden of side effects or appointments should make room for the pleasure of practicing medicine. •Even perfect knowledge about benefits and harms requires to be translated in the context of the individual patient: it also requires to be interpreted according to what that persons' wishes are.•In the real, messy frontline world of general practice, we will always have uncertainty about where the balance of risk and benefit might lie.

  7. Suicide and Self-Harm Related Internet Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanathan, Prianka; Biddle, Lucy; Carroll, Robert; Derges, Jane; Potokar, John; Gunnell, David

    2018-05-31

    The rise in Internet use adds a new dimension to suicide prevention. We investigated suicide/self-harm (S/Sh)-related Internet use among patients presenting to hospital with self-harm. We asked 1,198 adult and 315 child and adolescent patients presenting to hospital following self-harm in a city in South West England about Internet use associated with their hospital presentation. Associations between Internet use and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were investigated using multivariable logistic regression models. Focus groups with clinicians explored the acceptability and utility of asking about Internet use. The prevalence of S/Sh-related Internet use was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.8-10.1%) among adult hospital presentations and 26.0% (95% CI = 21.3-31.2%) among children's hospital presentations. In both samples, S/Sh-related Internet use was associated with higher levels of suicidal intent. Mostly, clinicians found it acceptable to ask about Internet use during psychosocial assessments and believed this could inform perceptions of risk and decision-making. It is unclear whether the findings in this study are applicable to the general self-harm patient population because only those who had psychosocial assessments were included. S/Sh-related Internet use is likely to become increasingly relevant as the Internet-native generation matures. Furthermore, Internet use may be a proxy marker for intent.

  8. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  9. Fighting Harmful Tax Competition Generated by Offshore Jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Drosu Saguna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful tax competition is not just tax system, but can also undermine the interests of local communities and the environment. Tax havens are a huge drain of resources from other countries (basic non tax haven to offshore areas. To operate, tax havens are supported economically, politically, and socially by high tax states. Also, by encouraging savings, it boosts investment and capital formation. Because they are low tax jurisdictions, they exert a higher tax on tax rates worldwide.

  10. Digital Self-Harm Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchin, Justin W; Hinduja, Sameer

    2017-12-01

    Despite increased media and scholarly attention to digital forms of aggression directed toward adolescents by their peers (e.g., cyberbullying), very little research has explored digital aggression directed toward oneself. "Digital self-harm" is the anonymous online posting, sending, or otherwise sharing of hurtful content about oneself. The current study examined the extent of digital self-harm among adolescents. Survey data were obtained in 2016 from a nationally representative sample of 5,593 American middle and high school students (12-17 years old). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of participation in digital self-harm. Qualitative responses were also reviewed to better understand motivations for digital self-harm. About 6% of students have anonymously posted something online about themselves that was mean. Males were significantly more likely to report participation (7.1% compared to 5.3%). Several statistically significant correlates of involvement in digital self-harm were identified, including sexual orientation, experience with school bullying and cyberbullying, drug use, participation in various forms of adolescent deviance, and depressive symptoms. Digital self-harm is a new problem that demands additional scholarly attention. A deeper inquiry as to the motivations behind this behavior, and how it correlates to offline self-harm and suicidal ideation, can help direct mental health professionals toward informed prevention approaches. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Conflict Avoidance and University Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliacozzo, Daisy M.

    The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the…

  12. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  13. Avoiding integrity land mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Ben W

    2007-04-01

    How does a large multinational keep thousands of employees, operating in hundreds of countries, honest in a high-pressure business environment? As the chief legal officer at General Electric for nearly 20 years, Ben Heineman was part of the senior management group that sought to do just that--to make sure its executives and employees are moved to do the right thing as strongly as they are motivated to make their numbers. Heineman describes a set of systems that combine the communication of clear expectations with oversight, deterrence, and incentives. Nowhere are the expectations higher--and the sanctions more powerful--than for top executives. Heineman recounts example after example of senior leaders terminated for ethical lapses even when the business consequences of doing so were painful--and even when they had no direct knowledge of the violations occurring on their watch. To make expectations clear throughout the company, GE has systematically sought to set uniform standards that stay well ahead of current legal developments and stakeholders' changing attitudes about corporate accountability. Responsibility for implementing those standards, which are embedded in GE's operating practices, rests with the business leaders in the field. Oversight is both methodical and multifaceted. A host of auditing and assessment systems enables GE to compare the performance of its various business units against one another and against industry benchmarks. Perhaps the most powerful is the company's ombudsman system, which doesn't just allow but requires employees to lodge concerns. Failures to report into the system or up the line, or retaliation in any form, are firing offenses. The current intense focus on board-level governance has missed the point, Heineman argues. It is time to shift the debate from board oversight of the CEO to how top company leaders can most effectively infuse integrity at all levels of the corporation.

  14. QTL mapping provides evidence for lack of association of the avoidance of leaf rust in Hordeum chilense with stomata density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.; Rubiales, D.; Martin, A.; Hernandez, P.; Lindhout, W.H.; Niks, R.E.; Stam, P.

    2003-01-01

    In cereals, rust fungi are among the most harmful pathogens. Breeders usually rely on short-lived hypersensitivity resistance. As an alternative, "avoidance" may be a more durable defence mechanism to protect plants to rust fungi. In Hordeum chilense avoidance is based on extensive wax covering of

  15. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  16. Health Harms from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... those who live in rental housing. 3 For workers, exposure is relatively higher in service and blue-collar occupations than in white- collar occupations. 4 The report found that, “today, the adverse health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke are well understood, ...

  17. The Effect of Tax Rates on Fiscal Evasion and Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Mentor Gashi; Halil Kukaj

    2016-01-01

    Abstract:In order to findelements that destimulate fiscal evasion or avoidance, we have submitted six elements, through the questionnaire, to determine which elements are that destimulate the fiscal evasion and avoidance, and evaluate their impact.This paper is focused in customs duty avoidance.The elements that we have submitted to evaluate their power, are: Powerful control during customs clearance, more efficient post clearance control, probability of subject investigation, higher fines, l...

  18. Climate Adaptation and Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports local, state and tribal efforts to maintain water quality. A key element of its efforts is to reduce excess nutrient pollution and the resulting adverse impacts, including harmful algal blooms.

  19. Hurtful Emotions: Understanding Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe September 2017 Print this issue Hurtful Emotions Understanding Self-Harm En español Send us your ... help you learn new ways to cope with emotion. See the Wise Choices box for tips on ...

  20. Reducing the harms associated with risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Risk assessments are the intellectual products of dedicated public health and environmental professionals. Like many other products, risk assessments carry with them the potential for both good and harm. This paper briefly examines some of the harms to which risk assessments have contributed, and then suggests that the legal 'duty to warn' doctrine offers a logical and practical way to reduce some of these harms. The paper suggests concepts that could be incorporated into warnings accompanying every formal risk assessment as routine 'boiler plate' addenda, just as other potentially harmful products, such as lawn mowers and cook stoves, are accompanied by warnings. Finally, the paper briefly examines the 'Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals' (promulgated by the National Association of Environmental Professionals) and shows that the suggested warnings are consistent with recommended practices for environmental professionals

  1. Detecting the Killer Toxin (Harmful Algal Blooms)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    IAEA is stepping up efforts to help countries understand the phenomenon and use more reliable methods for early detection and monitoring so as to limit harmful algal blooms (HABs) adverse effects on coastal communities everywhere.

  2. Thalassiosira mala (Bacillariophyta), a potentially harmful, marine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thalassiosira malaitalic> (Bacillariophyta), a potentially harmful, marine diatom from Chilka Lake and other coastal localities of Odisha, India: Nomenclature, ... Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4370, USA; Department of Biology, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA ...

  3. Harm reduction-the cannabis paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive. Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately.

  4. Liberal egalitarianism and the harm principle

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Michele; Veneziani, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses Rawls's celebrated difference principle, and its lexicographic extension, in societies with a finite and an infinite number of agents. A unified framework of analysis is set up, which allows one to characterise Rawlsian egalitarian principles by means of a weaker version of a new axiom - the Harm Principle - recently proposed by marven09. This is quite surprising, because the Harm principle is meant to capture a liberal requirement of noninterference and it incorporates no...

  5. Assessing competition avoidance as a basic personality dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Richard M; Thornton, Bill; Gold, Joel A

    2009-03-01

    The lack of an adequate psychometric instrument has impeded personality theory testing in the area of competition avoidance. The authors conducted 6 studies in an attempt to remedy this deficiency by constructing an individual-difference measure of competition avoidance. In line with K. Horney's (1937) interpersonal theory of neurosis, participants who were higher in competition avoidance showed higher levels of neuroticism, greater fears of both success and failure, a lower desire to prove themselves in competitive situations, higher levels of self-handicapping, and more maladaptiveness than those participants who were lower in competition avoidance. Also, they were more modest and willing to conform to group standards than were those lower in competition avoidance. The authors discuss the measure's potential usefulness as a diagnostic and assessment tool in academic, athletic, and clinical settings.

  6. Authority dependence and judgments of utilitarian harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Jared; Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin

    2013-09-01

    Three studies tested the conditions under which people judge utilitarian harm to be authority dependent (i.e., whether its right or wrongness depends on the ruling of an authority). In Study 1, participants judged the right or wrongness of physical abuse when used as an interrogation method anticipated to yield useful information for preventing future terrorist attacks. The ruling of the military authority towards the harm was manipulated (prohibited vs. prescribed) and found to significantly influence judgments of the right or wrongness of inflicting harm. Study 2 established a boundary condition with regards to the influence of authority, which was eliminated when the utility of the harm was definitely obtained rather than forecasted. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of Studies 1-2 in a completely different context-an expert committee's ruling about the harming of chimpanzees for biomedical research. These results are discussed as they inform ongoing debates regarding the role of authority in moderating judgments of complex and simple harm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Harm mediates the disgust-immorality link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Chelsea; Ritter, Ryan S; Gray, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    Many acts are disgusting, but only some of these acts are immoral. Dyadic morality predicts that disgusting acts should be judged as immoral to the extent that they seem harmful. Consistent with this prediction, 3 studies reveal that perceived harm mediates the link between feelings of disgust and moral condemnation-even for ostensibly harmless "purity" violations. In many cases, accounting for perceived harm completely eliminates the link between disgust and moral condemnation. Analyses also reveal the predictive power of anger and typicality/weirdness in moral judgments of disgusting acts. The mediation of disgust by harm holds across diverse acts including gay marriage, sex acts, and religious blasphemy. Revealing the endogenous presence and moral relevance of harm within disgusting-but-ostensibly harmless acts argues against modular accounts of moral cognition such as moral foundations theory. Instead, these data support pluralistic conceptions of harm and constructionist accounts of morality and emotion. Implications for moral cognition and the concept of "purity" are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Do Coping Strategies Mediate the Relationship Between Parental Attachment and Self-Harm in Young People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    Insecure attachment is associated with self-harm in young people, but little research has explored the pathways through which this relationship develops. We investigated whether attachment impacts on self-harm via its effect on coping strategies and appraisal of problem-solving abilities. A total of 314 students aged 18-20 years completed an online survey with measures of parental attachment, emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies, and psychological distress and self-harm. A mediational model was not supported as there were no direct effects between parental attachment and self-harm. However, analysis of specific indirect pathways revealed that perceived parental attachment impacts on self-harm through problem-focused coping. Higher quality of attachment was associated with greater reliance on problem-focused (adaptive) coping, which in turn was associated with a decreased risk of having self-harmed. Furthermore, poorer paternal attachment was associated with lower appraisal of problem-solving skills, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of having self-harmed. Individuals with insecure attachment may be more vulnerable to self-harm because they lack other more constructive coping strategies for relieving stress.

  9. Avoided intersections of nodal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastra, Alejandro G; Smilansky, Uzy; Gnutzmann, Sven

    2003-01-01

    We consider real eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger operator in 2D. The nodal lines of separable systems form a regular grid, and the number of nodal crossings equals the number of nodal domains. In contrast, for wavefunctions of non-integrable systems nodal intersections are rare, and for random waves, the expected number of intersections in any finite area vanishes. However, nodal lines display characteristic avoided crossings which we study in this work. We define a measure for the avoidance range and compute its distribution for the random wave ensemble. We show that the avoidance range distribution of wavefunctions of chaotic systems follows the expected random wave distributions, whereas for wavefunctions of classically integrable but quantum non-separable systems, the distribution is quite different. Thus, the study of the avoidance distribution provides more support to the conjecture that nodal structures of chaotic systems are reproduced by the predictions of the random wave ensemble

  10. Who participates in tax avoidance?

    OpenAIRE

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Jacob, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of heterogeneity in legal tax avoidance strategies across individuals. Three conditions are required for a taxpayer to participate in tax avoidance: incentive, access, and awareness. Using rich Swedish administrative panel data with a unique link between corporate and individual tax returns, we analyze individual participation in legal tax planning around the 2006 Swedish tax reform. Our results suggest that closely held corporations are utilized to facilitate ...

  11. Predator avoidance in extremophile fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-02-06

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  12. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  13. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  14. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung Chull An; Jae-Sung Kim; Seung Sik Lee; Shyamkumar Barampuram; Eun Mi Lee; Byung Yeoup Chung

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  15. Assessing harmful effects in systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolacott Nerys F

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balanced decisions about health care interventions require reliable evidence on harms as well as benefits. Most systematic reviews focus on efficacy and randomised trials, for which the methodology is well established. Methods to systematically review harmful effects are less well developed and there are few sources of guidance for researchers. We present our own recent experience of conducting systematic reviews of harmful effects and make suggestions for future practice and further research. Methods We described and compared the methods used in three systematic reviews. Our evaluation focused on the review question, study designs and quality assessment. Results One review question focused on providing information on specific harmful effects to furnish an economic model, the other two addressed much broader questions. All three reviews included randomised and observational data, although each defined the inclusion criteria differently. Standard methods were used to assess study quality. Various practical problems were encountered in applying the study design inclusion criteria and assessing quality, mainly because of poor study design, inadequate reporting and the limitations of existing tools. All three reviews generated a large volume of work that did not yield much useful information for health care decision makers. The key areas for improvement we identified were focusing the review question and developing methods for quality assessment of studies of harmful effects. Conclusions Systematic reviews of harmful effects are more likely to yield information pertinent to clinical decision-making if they address a focused question. This will enable clear decisions to be made about the type of research to include in the review. The methodology for assessing the quality of harmful effects data in systematic reviews requires further development.

  16. Differences in risk factors for self-harm with and without suicidal intent: Findings from the ALSPAC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Becky; Heron, Jon; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Kidger, Judi; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Tilling, Kate; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a lack of consensus about whether self-harm with suicidal intent differs in aetiology and prognosis from non-suicidal self-harm, and whether they should be considered as different diagnostic categories. Method Participants were 4799 members of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK population-based birth cohort who completed a postal questionnaire on self-harm with and without suicidal intent at age 16 years. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences in the risk factor profiles of individuals who self-harmed with and without suicidal intent. Results Many risk factors were common to both behaviours, but associations were generally stronger in relation to suicidal self-harm. This was particularly true for mental health problems; compared to those with non-suicidal self-harm, those who had harmed with suicidal intent had an increased risk of depression (OR 3.50[95% CI 1.64, 7.43]) and anxiety disorder (OR 3.50[95% CI 1.72, 7.13]). Higher IQ and maternal education were risk factors for non-suicidal self-harm but not suicidal self-harm. Risk factors that appeared specific to suicidal self-harm included lower IQ and socioeconomic position, physical cruelty to children in the household and parental self-harm. Limitations i) There was some loss to follow-up, ii) difficulty in measuring suicidal intent, iii) we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causation for some exposure variables, iv) we were unable to identify the subgroup that had only ever harmed with suicidal intent. Conclusion Self-harm with and without suicidal intent are overlapping behaviours but with some distinct characteristics, indicating the importance of fully exploring vulnerability factors, motivations, and intentions in adolescents who self harm. PMID:25108277

  17. A First Look at Harm Toward Animals by Bahamians in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Fielding

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first known study on childhood cruelty towards animals in The Bahamas. An internet survey involving 1,558 respondents allowed childhood cruelty, using the Children and Animals Inventory (CAI, to be investigated in the context of other violent behaviours in the child’s home. The homes of children who did no harm animals were less violent than the homes of children who harmed animals. Consistent with other studies, males were more likely to harm animals than females. Males were more likely than females to harm sentient animals. While the use of violence to train children was not associated with a higher CAI score, domestic violence and the presence of a gun in the home were associated with a higher CAI score. The implications of these findings as they relate to the treatment of living creatures are discussed.

  18. Identity Centrality and In-Group Superiority Differentially Predict Reactions to Historical Victimization and Harm Doing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezarta Bilali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two U.S. studies report a differential effect of identity centrality and in-group superiority on reactions to in-group victimization and in-group harm-doing. Study 1 (N = 80 found that higher identity centrality predicted less justification for freely-recalled in-group victim events, whereas higher in-group superiority predicted more justification for freely-recalled in-group harm-doing events. Study 2 (N = 105 reexamined these findings in specific contexts of historical victimization (Pearl Harbor and harm-doing (Hiroshima and Nagasaki, finding that in-group superiority was a predictor of reactions to historical in-group harm-doing (justification, emotional reactions, importance of events, whereas centrality was a predictor of reactions to historical in-group victimization.

  19. A First Look at Harm Toward Animals by Bahamians in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fielding, William J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first known study on childhood cruelty towards animals in The Bahamas. An internet survey involving 1,558 respondents allowed childhood cruelty, using the Children and Animals Inventory (CAI, to be investigated in the context of other violent behaviours in the child’s home. The homes of children who did no harm animals were less violent than the homes of children who harmed animals. Consistent with other studies, males were more likely to harm animals than females. Males were more likely than females to harm sentient animals. While the use of violence to train children was not associated with a higher CAI score, domestic violence and the presence of a gun in the home were associated with a higher CAI score. The implications of these findings as they relate to the treatment of living creatures are discussed.

  20. The Association Between Secondhand Harms From Alcohol and Mental Health Outcomes Among Postsecondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kara; Davis-MacNevin, Parnell; Teehan, Michael; Stewart, Sherry

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on the prevalence and consequences of secondhand harms from alcohol. The current study (a) investigated whether secondhand harms can be clustered into latent factors that reflect distinct but related types of harms and (b) examined the associations between experiencing secondhand harms and mental health outcomes, including anxiety, depression, and subjective mental well-being, among first-year Canadian postsecondary students. The moderating effect of living arrangement (i.e., living on campus or not) on the associations was also tested. The sample included 1,885 first-year undergraduate students (49.8% female; mean age = 18.31 years) from three Canadian universities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine the factor structure of the harms measure. Path analysis was used to assess the association between harms and mental health outcomes. Models accounted for age, sex, and frequency of heavy drinking. Seventy-one percent of the sample reported experiencing at least one type of secondhand harm. The harms examined clustered into two distinct but related factors: strains (e.g., interrupted sleep) and threats (e.g., being harassed or insulted). Both threats and strains were associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression and poorer subjective well-being. Associations were stronger for threats and did not differ by living arrangement. Experiencing secondhand harms from alcohol, particularly threats, may have negative implications for student mental health over and above students' own drinking. Programs and policies on university campuses targeting both alcohol use and mental health should consider how to reduce both the prevalence and impact of secondhand harms from alcohol on students.

  1. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Self-harm vs. harming others: the lived experiences of a dysfunctional family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Mei-Feng; Yu, Shu-Hua

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of self-harm and harm to others from the perspective of two adult offspring and a father, the latter of whom was prone to alcohol abuse and domestic violence and had attempted suicide. Written informed consents were obtained from the subjects after a detailed explanation of the research aims and procedures. A qualitative, phenomenological method was applied for the study. Three subjects were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide designed by the researchers and based on the aims of the study over a six-month period of home care. A qualitative content analysis based on a phenomenological method was used to identify themes in the data. Two main categories emerged: (1) the mutual harm to the couple subsystem, (2) the misplaced parental-child subsystem. Subsequently, two to four themes were identified from each category. These results provide a better analysis and understanding of the perceived experiences of the harm to the spouse, parental, and sibling subsystems. They should also help health professionals to improve awareness of the lived experiences associated with the issues of self-harm and threats of harm to others. This study could serve as a valuable reference in promoting possible prevention strategies aiming at the reduction of self-harm and harm to others in dysfunctional families within the community.

  3. Characteristics of Self-Harm Behaviour among Identified Self-Harming Youth in Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's…

  4. Vigilance-avoidance and disengagement are differentially associated with fear and avoidant behaviors in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Travis C; Walukevich, Katherine A; Britton, Jennifer C

    2016-07-15

    Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) often exhibit preferential attention for social threat, demonstrating abnormal orientation to threat (i.e., vigilance-avoidance) and/or difficulty disengaging from threat. However, no research has compared the relationship between attention indices (i.e., vigilance-avoidance, difficulty disengaging from threat) and characteristic features of the disorder such as fear during social situations (social fear) and avoidant behaviors (social avoidance). To address this issue, seventy adults (19.29±1.47 years, 33 females) were separated into low (n=37) or high (n=33) socially anxious groups using clinical cutoff scores on the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Participants in both groups completed a dot-probe task with congruent, incongruent, and neutral trials to obtain measures of vigilance-avoidance and difficulty disengaging. Using linear regression, we examined the associations each attention index shared with self-reported social fear and social avoidance. Exclusively in the high anxious group, greater vigilance towards threat was associated with higher self-reported social fear, but not with social avoidance. However, difficulty disengaging was not associated with either social measure. In the low anxiety group, no relationships between attention indices and either social measure emerged. Future research with clinical samples is necessary to replicate and extend these findings. The small sample size studied may have limited our ability to detect other smaller effects. Indices of attention bias may contribute differently to the etiology and maintenance of SAD, which offers important implications for novel treatments that target attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. First do no harm: iatrogenic maintaining factors in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, Janet; Crane, Anna; McKnight, Rebecca; Buchanan, Emmakate; Wolfe, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the way that we as clinicians may play an inadvertent role in perpetuating eating disordered behaviour. This is considered within the theoretical framework of Schmidt and Treasures' maintenance model of anorexia nervosa (AN). The model includes four main domains; interpersonal factors, pro-AN beliefs, emotional style and thinking style. Interpersonal reactions are of particular relevance as clinicians (as with family members) may react with high expressed emotion and unknowingly encourage eating disorder behaviours to continue. Hostility in the form of coercive refeeding in either a hospital or outpatient setting may strengthen conditioned food avoidance and pessimism may hamper motivation to change. Negative schema common to eating disorders, for example low self-esteem, perfectionism and striving for social value may augment existing or initiate new eating disorder behaviour. Services can become a reinforcing influence by providing an overly protective, palliating environment which ensures safety, security and acceptance whilst reducing loneliness and isolation. This stifles the need for an individual to develop their own sense of responsibility, autonomy and independence allowing avoidance to dominate. Furthermore, the highly structured environment of inpatient care supports the rigid attention to detail and inflexibility that is characteristic of people with eating disorders, and allows these negative behaviours to thrive. Careful planning of service provision, reflective practice, supervision and regular team feedback is essential to prevent iatrogenic harm. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. IQ and adolescent self-harm behaviours in the ALSPAC birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Heron, Jon; Kidger, Judi; Lewis, Glyn; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Low IQ is associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicide attempt in adults, but less is known about the relationship between IQ and aspects of suicidal/self-harm behaviours in adolescence. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based prospective UK cohort. Binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association of IQ measured at age 8 with suicide-related outcomes amongst 4810 adolescents aged 16-17 years. There was some evidence that associations differed in boys and girls (p values for interaction ranged between 0.06 and 0.25). In boys higher IQ was associated with increased risk of suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio per 10 point increase in IQ score=1.14, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.01-1.28) and suicidal plans (1.15, 95% CI 0.93-1.43), although statistical evidence for the latter association was limited. There was also evidence for an association with non-suicidal self-harm (1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.45) but not suicidal self-harm (1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25). In girls higher IQ was associated with increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm (1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.22) but not suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans or suicidal self-harm. Loss to follow up and questionnaire non-response may have led to selection bias. In contrast to previous studies of IQ-suicide associations in adults, we found that higher IQ was associated with an increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm in male and female adolescents and suicidal thoughts in males. Associations of IQ with self-harm differed for self-harm with and without suicidal intent, suggesting that the aetiology of these behaviours may differ. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. How to avoid sedation complications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ensure patient safety, it is crucial that the airway is safeguarded. The single most important responsibility is to protect it. An unobstructed airway, with intact protective reflexes and respiratory drive, is essential to avoid complications. In some procedures, e.g. dental, the airway may need to be shared with the surgeon.

  8. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  9. Summer heatwaves promote blooms of harmful cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.D Joehnk; J. Huisman; J. Sharples; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben); P.M. Visser (Petra); J.M. Stroom

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractDense surface blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in eutrophic lakes may lead to mass mortalities of fish and birds, and provide a serious health threat for cattle, pets, and humans. It has been argued that global warming may increase the incidence of harmful algal blooms. Here, we report on a

  10. Summer heatwaves promote blooms of harmful cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jöhnk, K.D.; Huisman, J.; Sharples, J.; Sommeijer, B.; Visser, P.M.; Stroom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Dense surface blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in eutrophic lakes may lead to mass mortalities of fish and birds, and provide a serious health threat for cattle, pets, and humans. It has been argued that global warming may increase the incidence of harmful algal blooms. Here, we report on a lake

  11. Harmful traditional practices in a newborn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-11-17

    Nov 17, 2014 ... impact of harmful traditional home care practices on ... She was initially on breast milk and water until the tenth day of life ... and zygomatic bone as well as loss of subcutaneous fat. (fig 1). .... ity and protection during the neo-.

  12. Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

  13. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

  14. Mortality and Self-Harm in Association With Clozapine in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimberley, Theresa; Maccabe, James H; Laursen, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated rates of all-cause mortality and self-harm in association with clozapine treatment in individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Method: A population-based cohort of 2,370 individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia after Jan. 1, 1996, was followed...... until death, first episode of self-harm, emigration, or June 1, 2013. Time to all-cause death and time tofirst episode of self-harm were analyzed in Cox regression models with timevarying treatment, adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic covariates. Results: The rate of all-cause mortality...... with other antipsychotics (hazard ratio: 1.45, 95% CI: 0.86-2.45). Excess mortality was observed in the year after clozapine discontinuation (hazard ratio: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.47-4.78). The rate of self-harm was higher for nonclozapine antipsychotics than for clozapine (hazard ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 1...

  15. Interdependent Followers Prefer Avoidant Leaders: Followers’ Cultural Orientation Moderates Leaders’ Avoidance Relationships with Followers’ Work Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos G. Kafetsios

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies examining leader–follower interaction in Greece, a collectivistic culture, paradoxically find that leaders’ emotion suppression-related personality traits (attachment avoidance, emotion suppression, emotion control are associated with followers’ positive emotional and work attitude outcomes. These findings have been explained with reference to followers’ implicit cultural schemas, interdependence in particular. Yet, this conjuncture has not been directly tested. The present study directly examined, in a field setting, how followers’ independent and interdependent (cultural self-construal moderate the relationship between leaders’ attachment orientation and followers’ emotion and satisfaction outcomes at the work place. As hypothesized, leaders’ higher avoidance was associated with followers’ job satisfaction, group cohesion, and deep acting as well as lower negative affect and loneliness for followers higher on interdependent self-construal. The results underline perceptual processes involved in followers’ interdependent self-construal in relation to leaders’ emotion suppression-related traits.

  16. Public Involvement in Decisions to Avoid Costly Consequences Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, Judy

    2006-01-01

    There should be an agreement of goals in any project that could produce harm. Why are we developing this technology? Who benefits and who pays? What would a 'cleanup' entail? There must be consideration of alternatives with a focus on reducing harm rather than just meeting allowable limits or promising that they will be met in the future. When alternatives are weighed, the burden should be on the proponent of the activity to provide truthful information to the public and provide access and resources necessary for participation. There must be a formal, legal obligation or duty to consider science as well as non-scientific information. It should not be up to those harmed to prove the damage and force the responsible parties to make retribution. It should be the burden of the proponents to measure potential risks, and prove that the benefits to everyone outweigh the risks to everyone. The role of government in decision making should also be redefined. The considerations now seem to be limited to whether or not an action is 'legal' or if it is 'safe'. There should also be a determination that it is 'necessary'. That may seem to be a very difficult question but put simply, if there are alternatives then a thing is not 'necessary'. Governmental decision makers would say: 'We acknowledge that our world will never be free from risk. However, any risk that is unnecessary or not freely chosen is not acceptable'. There must be a move away from situations where prior, important decisions resulted in winners and losers; wealthy beneficiaries and underprivileged victims. There must be recognition that decision making needs to be inclusive, extensive and democratic and that the end products and final results are necessary and worthwhile before projects begin. They must be visible, accessible, and must reflect the cost of doing business which includes taking the time, finding the information and involving the people who will work together to make sure that harm is avoided and

  17. Avoiding Complications with MPFL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marvin K; Werner, Brian C; Diduch, David R

    2018-05-12

    To discuss the potentially significant complications associated with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Additionally, to review the most current and relevant literature with an emphasis on avoiding these potential complications. Multiple cadaveric studies have characterized the anatomy of the MPFL and the related morphologic abnormalities that contribute to recurrent lateral patellar instability. Such abnormalities include patella alta, excessive tibial tubercle to trochlear grove (TT-TG) distance, trochlear dysplasia, and malalignment. Recent studies have evaluated the clinical outcomes associated with the treatment of concomitant pathology in combination with MPFL reconstruction, which is critical in avoiding recurrent instability and complications. Although there remains a lack of consensus regarding various critical aspects of MPFL reconstruction, certain concepts remain imperative. Our preferred methods and rationales for surgical techniques are described. These include appropriate work up, a combination of procedures to address abnormal morphology, anatomical femoral insertion, safe and secure patellar fixation, appropriate graft length fixation, and thoughtful knee flexion during fixation.

  18. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Lampe,Lisa; Malhi,Gin

    2018-01-01

    Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective t...

  19. Pathogen avoidance by insect predators

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, Nicolai V.; Ormond, Emma; Roy, Helen E.; Pell, Judith K.

    2008-01-01

    Insects can detect cues related to the risk of attack by their natural enemies. Pathogens are among the natural enemies of insects and entomopathogenic fungi attack a wide array of host species. Evidence documents that social insects in particular have adapted behavioural mechanisms to avoid infection by fungal pathogens. These mechanisms are referred to as 'behavioural resistance'. However, there is little evidence for similar adaptations in non-social insects. We have conducted experime...

  20. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe L

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD, schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. Keywords: avoidant personality disorder, social anxiety disorder, social cognition, psychotherapy, attachment

  1. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  2. Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-04-01

    The rationale for breast cancer screening with mammography is deceptively simple: catch it early and reduce mortality from the disease and the need for mastectomies. But breast cancer is a complex problem, and complex problems rarely have simple solutions. Breast screening brings forward the time of diagnosis only slightly compared to the lifetime of a tumour, and screen-detected tumours have a size where metastases are possible. A key question is if screening can prevent metastases, and if the screen-detected tumours are small enough to allow breast conserving surgery rather than mastectomy. A mortality reduction can never justify a medical intervention in its own right, but must be weighed against the harms. Overdiagnosis is the most important harm of breast screening, but has gained wider recognition only in recent years. Screening leads to the detection and treatment of breast cancers that would otherwise never have been detected because they grow very slowly or not at all and would not have been detected in the woman's lifetime in the absence of screening. Screening therefore turns women into cancer patients unnecessarily, with life-long physical and psychological harms. The debate about the justification of breast screening is therefore not a simple question of whether screening reduces breast cancer mortality. This dissertation quantifies the primary benefits and harms of screening mammography. Denmark has an unscreened "control group" because only two geographical regions offered screening over a long time-period, which is unique in an international context. This was used to study breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, and the use of mastectomies. Also, a systematic review of overdiagnosis in five other countries allowed us to show that about half of the screen-detected breast cancers are overdiagnosed. An effect on breast cancer mortality is doubtful in today's setting, and overdiagnosis causes an increase in the use of mastectomies. These findings are

  3. A Population-Based Study of the Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Harm in Juvenile Detention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hygiea Casiano

    Full Text Available Suicide is the number one cause of death among incarcerated youth. We examined the demographic and forensic risk factors for self-harm in youth in juvenile detention using a Canadian provincial correctional database.We analyzed data from de-identified youth aged 12 to 18 at the time of their offense who were in custody in a Manitoba youth correctional facility between January 1, 2005 and December 30, 2010 (N = 5,102. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses determined the association between staff-identified self-harm events in custody and demographic and custodial variables. Time to the event was examined based on the admission date and date of event.Demographic variables associated with self-harm included female sex, lower educational achievement, older age, and child welfare involvement. Custodial variables associated with self-harm included higher criminal severity profiles, younger age at first incarceration, longer sentence length, disruptive institutional behavior, and a history of attempting escape. Youth identified at entry as being at risk for suicide were more likely to self-harm. Events tended to occur earlier in the custodial admission.Self-harm events tended to occur within the first 3 months of an admission stay. Youth with more serious offenses and disruptive behaviors were more likely to self-harm. Individuals with problematic custodial profiles were more likely to self-harm. Suicide screening identified youth at risk for self-harm. Strategies to identify and help youth at risk are needed.

  4. Avoidance of fluorinated greenhouse gases. Possibilities of an early exit; Fluorierte Treibhausgase vermeiden. Wege zum Ausstieg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becken, Katja; Graaf, Daniel de; Elsner, Cornelia; Hoffmann, Gabriele; Krueger, Franziska; Martens, Kerstin; Plehn, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Rolf

    2010-11-15

    In comparison to carbon dioxide, fluorinated greenhouse gases are more harmful up to a factor of 24,000. Today the amount of fluorinated greenhouse gases of the world-wide emissions of climatic harmful gases amounts 2 % and increases to 6 % in the year 2050. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on possibilities for the avoidance of the emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases. The characteristics and ecological effects of fluorinated gases as well as the development of the emission in Germany are presented. Subsequently, the applications of fluorinated hydrocarbons are described.

  5. TAX OPTIMIZATION, TAX AVOIDANCE OR TAX EVASION? CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE OFFSHORE COMPANIES’ LEGAL BACKGROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Eva ERDÕS

    2010-01-01

    Is it a legal or illegal activity to give money to establish offshore firms? What is the offshore practice is it a method of tax optimization, tax minimization or is it a harmful activity, which means tax avoidance or tax evasion. This question is very important in the European Union’s tax law system, because the EU tax law is against the harmful tax competition. Some member states’ legal system is permitted to use offshore companies’ rules, but in the European Union it is prohibited to estab...

  6. Science under pressure: problematic behaviours and social harms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Faria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will suggest the use of the Social Harm Approach (Hillyard, Pantazis, Tobs & Gordon, 2004 to problematic behaviours occurring in scientific research and higher education teaching. By analyzing data collected through interviews to scholars, it is possible to state that fabrication, falsification and plagiarism are the most criticized deviant behaviours in science. It is less common for actors to consider other problematic behaviours arising from the pressure (to publish, to get grants felt by them and originated at the heart of the organizations devoted to science. Or problematic behaviours created on the intersection of universities, corporations and/or the state (ex. commissioned research. Also, those interviewed did not have a coherent view on the rules governing science and higher education. Thus, considering the scattering of (individual and organizational problematic behaviours and rules governing them, a new approach will be put forward, one by which processes of scientific production and dissemination must be considered according to the social harms (financial, economic, physical they may cause.

  7. Harmful effects on plants. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, B.; Elstner, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    The book deals with accidentally or purposefully induced harmful effects on plants, i.e. eukariyotes and fungi, with emphasis being placed on chemicals as the main pollutants. After discussing the quantification of damage as a prerequisite for detecting, defining, and possibly preventing, damage to plants by toxic substances in the environment, the second part of the book deals with the harmful effects that are purposefully induced, for example in agriculture or horticulture, by employment of pesticides (herbicides or fungicides). In this context, all aspects of uptake, metabolism, and detoxication are discussed, especially referring to the molecular conditions of relevance to a selective elimination of metabolic or developmental processes in the plants, which is explained by the effects of pesticides and antibiotics. Injuries caused by autogenous substances in the plants, upon exceeding a certain amount or dose are also explained, together with effects of physical factors (as e.g. ionizing radiation), or biogenic factors (as e.g. parasites). (ECB) [de

  8. Boundaries between Fair and Harmful Tax Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition. The author analyses OECD’s reports and literature related to the tax competition. In the beginning, the author presents the notion of tax competition and its division into fair and unfair tax competition. Differences between tax heaven and preferential tax regime are also discussed. In the summary, the author highlights that boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition are not obvious, but there are well-known guidelines, which let distinguish above-mentioned issues. The author considers that there are real tax burden, effective exchange of tax information and transparency in the fair tax regime. The author states that taxpayer can do justified tax planning in such tax system.

  9. Party drugs - use and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Matthew

    2010-08-01

    Party drug use, the intermittent use of stimulants, ecstasy and so-called 'designer drugs' at dance parties or 'raves', is now part of the culture of many young Australians. This article discusses the risks associated with the use of 'party drugs' and describes an useful approach to general practitioner assessment and management of patients who may be using party drugs. Party drug use is associated with a range of harms, including risks associated with behaviour while drug affected, toxicity and overdose, mental health complications and physical morbidity. Multiple substance use, particularly combining sedatives, further amplifies risk. If GPs have some understanding of these drugs and their effects, they are well placed to provide an effective intervention in party drug users by supporting the reduction of harm.

  10. Harmful organisms in urban green areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousková, Irena; Boháč, Jaroslav; Sedláček, František; Šerá, Božena; Lepšová, A.; Zacharda, Miloslav

    -, č. 23 (2004), s. 58-68 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC C11.001 Grant - others:ÚEK AV ČR(CZ) OC C11.001 Program:OC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : urban green areas, harmful organisms, management, * planning Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning

  11. Slow maturation of planning in obstacle avoidance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corporaal, Sharissa H A; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Duysens, Jacques; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.

    2016-01-01

    Complex gait (e.g., obstacle avoidance) requires a higher cognitive load than simple steady-state gait, which is a more automated movement. The higher levels of the central nervous system, responsible for adjusting motor plans to complex gait, develop throughout childhood into adulthood. Therefore,

  12. Is Personality Associated with Secondhand Harm from Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis MacNevin, Parnell; Thompson, Kara; Teehan, Michael; Stuart, Heather; Stewart, Sherry

    2017-09-01

    Prior research suggests more than 70% of undergraduates have experienced harm from other students' drinking. This study built on the literature by, first, investigating whether secondhand harm cluster into latent factors that reflect distinct but related types of harm. Second, given the paucity of research examining factors that increase students' vulnerability to secondhand harm, we examined dimensions from Castellanos-Ryan and Conrod's 4-factor personality model for alcohol disorders (impulsivity [IMP], sensation seeking [SS], hopelessness [HOP], anxiety sensitivity [AS]) as predictors of secondhand harm exposure. We also investigated the possible mediating role of students' own problematic alcohol use in explaining personality-secondhand harm relationships. An online survey was administered to 1,537 first-year Canadian undergraduates (68% women). Problematic alcohol use was measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and personality was measured by the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale. Eleven secondhand harm items were included. The secondhand harm clustered into 3 distinct but related factors: "strains" (e.g., interruption of sleep or study), "threats" (e.g., harassment or assault), and "interpersonal harm" (e.g., arguments with peers). Sixty-eight percent of respondents reported strains, 44% threats, and 64% interpersonal harm, and 35% reported experiencing all 3 types of harm, in the last term. All 4 personality dimensions were independently associated with greater secondhand harm exposure. HOP was directly associated with threats and interpersonal harm, and AS was directly associated with all 3 types of harm. SS and IMP were both indirectly associated with all 3 types of harm through students' own problematic alcohol use. In addition, IMP was directly related to threats. The prevalence of secondhand harm from alcohol is high among undergraduates. Findings suggest that distinct personality risks may predispose students to experience secondhand

  13. Social acceptance of technologies in relation to their benefit and harm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobajima, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The progress and popularization of scientific techniques have brought large effects on peoples' life. In those effects, the realization of benefit (advantage) that scientific techniques for bringing abundance and convenience are aiming at and the appearance of unintentional harm spreading on the back coexist in many cases. So it can not be overlooked that the harm side is affecting people as large damages as technologies develop to higher level and more complicated. The common cause of them is thought to be lack of preliminary assessment and regulation before introducing those new technologies with the background of pursuit of mass production and mass consumption. In this research, many of examples of various effects are surveyed in literatures and analyzed to first contrast benefit and harm brought by scientific techniques. As for the harm, damage actually suffered and the possibility of hazard are classified from the view point of risks and methodologies of social risk management are discussed. In addition, externalities in environment as a kind of harm are evaluated. On this basis, policy requirements on social system for minimizing the harm brought by technologies and promoting people's acceptance of technologies in the future society are proposed as political attainment. (author)

  14. Social acceptance of technologies in relation to their benefit and harm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto

    2001-03-01

    The progress and popularization of scientific techniques have brought large effects on peoples' life. In those effects, the realization of benefit (advantage) that scientific techniques for bringing abundance and convenience are aiming at and the appearance of unintentional harm spreading on the back coexist in many cases. So it can not be overlooked that the harm side is affecting people as large damages as technologies develop to higher level and more complicated. The common cause of them is thought to be lack of preliminary assessment and regulation before introducing those new technologies with the background of pursuit of mass production and mass consumption. In this research, many of examples of various effects are surveyed in literatures and analyzed to first contrast benefit and harm brought by scientific techniques. As for the harm, damage actually suffered and the possibility of hazard are classified from the view point of risks and methodologies of social risk management are discussed. In addition, externalities in environment as a kind of harm are evaluated. On this basis, policy requirements on social system for minimizing the harm brought by technologies and promoting people's acceptance of technologies in the future society are proposed as political attainment. (author)

  15. Correlates of self-harm and suicide attempts in justice-involved young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Benjamin; Borschmann, Rohan; Kinner, Stuart A.; Hachtel, Henning

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and correlates of self-harm among young people in detention in Australia. The sample included 215 (177 male; 38 female) young people who were in youth detention in the state of Victoria, Australia. Participants were administered a series of questionnaires related to self-harm, mental health, socio-environmental experiences and behaviours. Overall, one-third (33%) of the sample reported previous self-harm and 12% reported at least one suicide attempt. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, a history of childhood trauma, contact with mental health services, and low educational interest significantly increased the likelihood of self-harm. Young people who reported a suicide attempt scored significantly higher on the measure of childhood trauma than did youth who had engaged in non-suicidal self-harm. Findings demonstrate a strong connection between childhood traumatic experiences and suicidal behaviours for youth in detention. Trauma histories and mental health concerns must be considered when identifying youth at increased risk of self-harm. PMID:29447289

  16. Mechanism of avoiding little rip

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAI Xianghua; XI Ping

    2014-01-01

    The scalar phantom field Φ leads to various catastrophic fates of the universe including big rip,little rip and other future singularity depending on the choice of its potential.For example,little rip stems from a quadratic potential in general relativity.We suggest a new mechanism to avoid little rip in the 1/R gravity.The phantom field with different potentials,including quadratic,cubic and quantic potentials are studied via numerical calculation in the 1/R gravity with R2 correction.T...

  17. Self-harming in depressed patients: pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Malhi, Gin; Mitchell, Philip; Kotze, Beth; Wilhelm, Kay; Parker, Kay

    2005-10-01

    As deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a common concomitant of depressive disorders, we undertook a study examining the relevance of possible determinants and correlates of DSH. Three separate samples of depressed outpatients were studied to determine consistency of identified factors across samples, with principal analyses involving gender, age and diagnosis-matched DSH and non-DSH subjects. Across the samples, some 20% of subjects admitted to episodes of DSH. Women reported higher rates and there was a consistent trend for higher rates in bipolar patients. Univariate analyses examined the relevance of several sociodemographic variables, illicit drug and alcohol use, past deprivational and abusive experiences, past suicidal attempts and disordered personality functioning. Multivariate analyses consistently identified previous suicide attempts and high 'acting out' behaviours across the three samples, suggesting the relevance of an externalizing response to stress and poor impulse control. Results assist the identification and management of depressed patients who are at greater risk of DSH behaviours.

  18. Sharply Reduced but Still Heavy Self-Harm Burdens in Hubei Province, China, 1990–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingju Pan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to describe fatal and non-fatal self-harm burdens, as well as burdens from the main preventable risk factors, and to investigate the different suicide methods in Hubei province in central China utilizing data from both Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 and Hubei Disease Surveillance Points system. All self-harm burdens including mortality, years of life lost (YLLs, prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs, and disability adjusted life-years (DALYs consistently demonstrated downward trends in Hubei from 1990 to 2015, with a bigger decline gap observed among females and narrower decreasing amplitudes among the elderly. Hubei experienced much higher age-standardized rates for self-harm mortality (22.0 per 100,000, YLLs (560.1 per 100,000 and DALYs (563.9 per 100,000 than the national (9.0, 292.3 and 295.0 per 100,000 respectively and global levels (11.5, 453.3 and 457.9 per 100,000 respectively in 2015. Self-harm burdens have begun shifting from females to males and the elderly suffered more self-harm burdens than other age groups. Alcohol use accounted for 20.9% of all self-harm DALYs for males, whereas intimate partner violence accounted for 24.4% of all self-harm DALYs for females. Poisoning, mainly pesticide self-poisoning, was still the most common method of suicide. Effective interventions by multi-sectoral collaboration are urgently needed to reduce the alarmingly heavy self-harm burdens in Hubei.

  19. The association between social relationships and self-harm: a case–control study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although suicide has been postulated as a result of social breakdown, relatively little attention has been paid to the association between social relationships and non-fatal self-harm. We sought to investigate the extent to which social factors correlate with self-harm in this case–control study. Methods The primary outcome was self-harm with hospital presentation. Cases of self-harm from the Emergency Department in a general hospital in Northern Taiwan were recruited, and individually age-and-gender-matched control participants were recruited from non-psychiatric outpatient clinics at the same hospital. The Close Persons Questionnaire was administered and its social support and social network subscales were used to measure social relationships in the 12 months prior to the interview. Other covariates, comprising sociodemographic factors, major life events, physical and mental health, were adjusted in conditional logistic regression models. Results A total of 124 case–control pairs were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) age of the case group was 34.7 (12.8) years and 80.6% were female. Higher social isolation score remained significantly associated with self-harm after adjustment (adjusted odds ratio per standard deviation increase 2.92, 95% confidence interval 1.44-5.95) and household size was negatively associated with the outcome (adjusted odds ratio per unit increase 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.94). Conclusions More limited social networks were associated with self-harm after adjustment for potential confounders. Enhancing social structure and effective networking of people with self-harm to community resources may be important for self-harm management in Asian societies and elsewhere. PMID:23531045

  20. Révision du genre Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obiang-Mbomio, D.; Breteler, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Revision of the genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae). Th e African genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) of Lower Guinea is revised. Two species, E. tessmannii and E. unijugum, are recognized. Th ey are illustrated and their distributions are mapped. Eurypetalum

  1. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S

    2018-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the "severity continuum hypothesis", in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment.

  2. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S

    2018-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. PMID:29563846

  3. Childhood physical abuse, non-suicidal self-harm and attempted suicide amongst regular injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Torok, Michelle

    2013-12-01

    Childhood physical abuse (CPA), non-suicidal self-harm and attempted suicide are all highly prevalent amongst injecting drug users (IDU). This paper reported on the association of CPA with self-harm and attempted suicide. Cross-sectional study, with 300 IDU administered a structured interview examining the prevalence of CPA, non-suicidal self-harm and suicide attempts. CPA was reported by 74.3%, and severe CPA by 40.3%. A history of non-suicidal self-harm was reported by 23.7%, and 25.7% had attempted suicide. Non-suicidal self-harm preceded the suicide attempt in 83.3% of cases where both had occurred. Independent correlates of non-suicidal self-harm were: female gender (OR 3.62), avoided home due to conflict (OR 2.28) and more extensive polydrug use (OR 1.32). Independent correlates of attempted suicide were: severe CPA (OR 3.18), frequent CPA (OR 2.54), avoided home due to conflict (OR 3.95), female gender (OR 2.99), a positive screen for Conduct Disorder (OR 3.53), and more extensive polydrug use (OR 1.52). Those presenting to treatment agencies are highly likely to have a history of CPA, that may still influence their behaviours. Screening for histories of CPA and non-suicidal self-harm appears warranted when determining suicide risk for this population. At the population level, reductions in the rate of CPA, could possibly reduce the rate of subsequent suicidality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godshall William T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in

  5. Risk factors for repetition of self-harm: a systematic review of prospective hospital-based studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Larkin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-harm entails high costs to individuals and society in terms of suicide risk, morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Repetition of self-harm confers yet higher risk of suicide and risk assessment of self-harm patients forms a key component of the health care management of self-harm patients. To date, there has been no systematic review published which synthesises the extensive evidence on risk factors for repetition. OBJECTIVE: This review is intended to identify risk factors for prospective repetition of self-harm after an index self-harm presentation, irrespective of suicidal intent. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsychInfo and Scirus were used to search for relevant publications. We included cohort studies which examining factors associated with prospective repetition among those presenting with self-harm to emergency departments. Journal articles, abstracts, letters and theses in any language published up to June 2012 were considered. Studies were quality-assessed and synthesised in narrative form. RESULTS: A total of 129 studies, including 329,001 participants, met our inclusion criteria. Some factors were studied extensively and were found to have a consistent association with repetition. These included previous self-harm, personality disorder, hopelessness, history of psychiatric treatment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, and living alone. However, the sensitivity values of these measures varied greatly across studies. Psychological risk factors and protective factors have been relatively under-researched but show emerging associations with repetition. Composite risk scales tended to have high sensitivity but poor specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Many risk factors for repetition of self-harm match risk factors for initiation of self-harm, but the most consistent evidence for increased risk of repetition comes from long-standing psychosocial vulnerabilities, rather than characteristics of an index episode

  6. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  7. Algae as test organisms of harmful effects of various radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The report describes a complex biotest in which algae serve as the test organisms and where a variety of algal characteristics are employed as indicators of the effects of harmful radiations on the cultures and single organisms. Rules for a successful choice of a suitable algal organism are discussed and the preparation of the latter for the test as well as the growth and morphogenic tests and some physiological responses of algae to harmful radiation are described. The survival and lethality are related to the interpretation of the test results particularly from the physiological and genetic points of view. The complex biotest concerns not only toxic but also mutagenic effects of the factors tested. Some easily detectable mutations in algae are mentioned and their spectra are recommended. The stability of the mutations and the possibility of their delayed manifestation are considered. The possibility of occurrence of teratogenic effects is also dealt with and the negative role of phenocopies in the correct evaluation of the mutation effects is mentioned. Advice for the breeding and laboratory maintenance of suitable algal strains for the biotest is given. Practical use of the biotest is demonstrated on the results of a test using modified samples of waste water from uranium industries. It is recommended that biotests confined to the evaluation of single characteristics of the test organism be replaced by this complex biotest whose results can be interpreted more extensively and exhibit a higher reliability. (author). 268 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  8. Identifying patient fear-avoidance beliefs by physical therapists managing patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calley, Darren Q; Jackson, Steven; Collins, Heather; George, Steven Z

    2010-12-01

    Cross-sectional. To evaluate the accuracy with which physical therapists identify fear-avoidance beliefs in patients with low back pain by comparing therapist ratings of perceived patient fear-avoidance to the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia 11-item (TSK-11), and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). To compare the concurrent validity of therapist ratings of perceived patient fear-avoidance and a 2-item questionnaire on fear of physical activity and harm, with clinical measures of fear-avoidance (FABQ, TSK-11, PCS), pain intensity as assessed with a numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), and disability as assessed with the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ). The need to consider psychosocial factors for identifying patients at risk for disability and chronic low back pain has been well documented. Yet the ability of physical therapists to identify fear-avoidance beliefs using direct observation has not been studied. Eight physical therapists and 80 patients with low back pain from 3 physical therapy clinics participated in the study. Patients completed the FABQ, TSK-11, PCS, ODQ, NPRS, and a dichotomous 2-item fear-avoidance screening questionnaire. Following the initial evaluation, physical therapists rated perceived patient fear-avoidance on a 0-to-10 scale and recorded 2 influences on their ratings. Spearman correlation and independent t tests determined the level of association of therapist 0-to-10 ratings and 2-item screening with fear-avoidance and clinical measures. Therapist ratings of perceived patient fear-avoidance had fair to moderate interrater reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.663). Therapist ratings did not strongly correlate with FABQ or TSK-11 scores. Instead, they unexpectedly had stronger associations with ODQ and PCS scores. Both 2-item screening questions were associated with FABQ-physical activity scores, while the fear of physical activity question was also associated with FABQ-work, TSK-11, PCS, and ODQ scores

  9. Collision avoidance in robotic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized approach to the problem of collision avoidance in robotic environments is presented. This approach transforms the three dimensional but dynamic real-world changing geometric space of the robot in its environment into a multidimensional but static space such that any possible geometric arrangement of the robotic space becomes a point in hyperspace. Major advantages of this approach include clarification of and potential solution to the basic problem of finding optimized, collision free movements from an initial to a final configuration. A major disadvantage of the approach is related to computational and data storage problems. However these latter are technically solvable while the clarification of the control and guidance problem gained through the transformational approach and its general elucidation power remain prime conceptual tools for the problem of robot design and operation

  10. Measuring emergency department nurses' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm using the Self-Harm Antipathy Scale.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Mary

    2012-01-31

    The emergency department is an important gateway for the treatment of self-harm patients. Nurses\\' attitudes towards patients who self-harm can be negative and often nurses experience frustration, helplessness, ambivalence and antipathy. Patients are often dissatisfied with the care provided, and meeting with positive or negative attitudes greatly influences whether they seek additional help. A quantitative design was utilised to measure emergency department nurses\\' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm. The \\'Self-Harm Antipathy Scale\\

  11. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    . The effects of routine clinical breast examination are unknown, but considering the results of the breast self-examination trials, it is likely that it is harmful. The effects of screening for breast cancer with thermography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging are unknown. It is not clear whether......The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false...... and will be treated unnecessarily. Furthermore, more than 200 women will experience substantial psychosocial distress for months because of false-positive findings. Regular breast self-examination does not reduce breast cancer mortality, but doubles the number of biopsies, and it therefore cannot be recommended...

  12. [Beginners' operations and medical specialist standards : Avoidance of criminal liability and civil liability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H

    2018-05-16

    In all phases, patients are entitled to receive medical treatment according to medical specialist standards. This does not mean that patients necessarily have to be treated by a medical specialist. Operations performed by "beginners", e. g. assistant physicians, are permitted. However, there are increased liability risks, both for the specialist and the assistant physician. Furthermore, there are risks of criminal responsibility for causing bodily harm by negligence or negligent manslaughter. This article portrays the requirements of civil liability and criminal responsibility concerning beginners' operations on the basis of cases and judgments of the Federal Court and the Higher Regional Courts in Germany. Additionally, the reception of the jurisprudence by the relevant legal literature will be discussed. Jurisprudence and legal literature categorize breaches of duty of care. Assistant physicians can be subject to contributory negligence liabilities, while specialists can bear liabilities for negligent selection, organization or supervision. Responsible specialist and assistant physicians can protect themselves (and the patient) and avoid legal risks by only performing operations adequate to their educational level or by delegating operations to beginners and ensuring intervention by a specialist by supervision of the operation which is suitable to the assistant physician's level of education.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Harm in the German General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Müller

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15, the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4, and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49% acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020. Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4, higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15, and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self-harming

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Harm in the German General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk; Brähler, Elmar; de Zwaan, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI) and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women) using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4), and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49%) acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020). Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4), higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15), and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self-harming behaviors in more

  15. Brief Report: The Self Harm Questionnaire--A New Tool Designed to Improve Identification of Self Harm in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ougrin, Dennis; Boege, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The Self Harm Questionnaire (SHQ) aiming at identification of self-harm in adolescents has been developed and piloted in a sample of 12-17 year olds (n = 100). The adolescents were recruited from both in- and outpatient psychiatric services. Concurrent validity of the SHQ was evaluated by comparing the SHQ results with recorded self harm in the…

  16. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  17. Life stressors, emotional avoidance and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenal, Violeta; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Martín Frías, Isabel; Martínez Lozano, Joaquina

    2008-11-01

    Two groups of women were assessed in psychological aspects considered by some authors of interest for personal well-being. The sample consisted of 118 women, 58 diagnosed with breast cancer and 60 healthy women, of similar ages and personal circumstances. The purpose of the study was: (a) to explore the existence of stressful life events in the women's history and their degree of subjective distress and (b) to determine whether or not there is an emotional avoidance style in the group of women with breast cancer. The following assessment instruments were employed: the "Cuestionario de Formas de Afrontamiento" (CEA), the Five-Factor Inventory NEO-PI-R, and the State-Trait Anger Inventory (STAXI). The results revealed more stressful vital events in the last two years in the group of women with breast cancer and significant differences in the degree of current distress. They also obtained higher scores in current anger, resignation, and neuroticism.

  18. Tax Anti-avoidance Through Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner; Riise Johansen, Thomas; Pearson, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    -driven discipline to be dealt with by accounting and tax experts. Instead, MNEs face the task of establishing a complex fit with their environment beyond the typical stakeholders with transfer pricing, i.e. tax authorities. These include government officials, tax activists, and consumers who voice......This paper examines the case of Starbucks’ UK branch, which became subject to massive public criticism over alleged tax avoidance. Despite Starbucks arguing that its transfer pricing practices were in full compliance with regulatory requirements, public pressure for higher corporate tax payments...... led Starbucks to increase its UK tax payment on transfer pricing income beyond regulatory requirements. This case study suggests that MNE tax behavior on international transfer pricing is not strictly a matter of compliance with formal tax regulation. We demonstrate the way an MNE attempts to re...

  19. Harmfulness of smoking among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Rotter

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the level of awareness of smoking and non smoking students on harmful impact of nicotine and cigarette smoke on human body. Material and methods: The study was carried out in March 2011 in high schools in Szczecin. Own elaborated questionnaire was used. 288 students from high school, technical college and vocational school were tested. Results: The majority of responders (95,1% claimed that cigarette smoke is harmful both for passive and active smokers. They most often pinpoint the direct cause connected with smoking to pulmonary diseases (264 persons and cancers (240 persons. Almost 90% of students found negative impact of tobacco products on development of fetus of pregnant women. Overwhelming majority of respondents (83,2% feels anxious if it comes to stay in a room filled with smoke. Conclusions: The awareness of high school students on negative influence of smoking on human body is quite satisfactory, but there is still a need for more education in the range of diseases and symptoms connected with smoking.

  20. FACEBOOK AND WHATSAPP: BENEFICIAL OR HARMFUL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankalp Raj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New innovations and advances in science and technology in the present day have made considerable and significant changes in the lifestyle of people all around the globe. Communication from one part of the world to another is possible at the hit of a button . Social networking is being rampantly used everywhere and by everybody, be it youngsters or the older generation. Facebook and Whatsapp are the most commonly used means of communication in social networking at present. Smart phones functioning as minicomp uters with fast internet connectivity in the pockets of today’s technosavy generation have made them create and spend most of their time interacting with people in a virtual world. There is an urgent need to understand the dynamics of social media and its effects on the lifestyle of people. Studies documenting the same have been very few. This study was conducted to understand the benefits and harms towards health and academics of MBBS students. This cross - sectional study on 147 MBBS students revealed inter esting findings and opinions of the students. Effects of Facebook and What Sapp on productivity and sleep disturbances due to it were the significant findings of the study. Facebook and Whatsapp can be considered both beneficial and harmful and it solely d epends on how it is being put to use

  1. Trichloroacetic Acid Ingestion: Self-Harm Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Black

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA, or trichloroethanoic acid, is a chemical analogue of acetic acid where three methyl group hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine. TCAAs are also abbreviated and referred to as TCAs, causing confusion with the psychiatric antidepressant drug class, especially among patients. TCAAs exist in dermatological treatments such as chemical peels or wart chemoablation medication. TCAA ingestion or overdose can cause gastric irritation symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, or lassitude. This symptomatology is less severe than TCA overdose, where symptoms may include elevated body temperature, blurred vision, dilated pupils, sleepiness, confusion, seizures, rapid heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Owing to the vast difference in symptoms, the need for clinical intervention differs greatly. While overdose of either in a self-harm attempt can warrant psychiatric hospital admission, the risk of death in TCAA ingestion is far less. Case Report. A patient ingested TCAA in the form of a commercially available dermatological chemical peel as a self-harm attempt, thinking that it was a more injurious TCA. Conclusion. Awareness among physicians, particularly psychiatrists, regarding this relatively obscure chemical compound (TCAA and its use by suicidal patients mistakenly believing it to be a substance that can be significantly more lethal (TCA, is imperative.

  2. Bipolar Disorder and the TCI: Higher Self-Transcendence in Bipolar Disorder Compared to Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, James A; Wells, J Elisabeth; Frampton, Christopher M A; Joyce, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Personality traits are potential endophenotypes for genetic studies of psychiatric disorders. One personality theory which demonstrates strong heritability is Cloninger's psychobiological model measured using the temperament and character inventory (TCI). 277 individuals who completed the TCI questionnaire as part of the South Island Bipolar Study were also interviewed to assess for lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Four groups were compared, bipolar disorder (BP), type 1 and 2, MDD (major depressive disorder), and nonaffected relatives of a proband with BP. With correction for mood state, total harm avoidance (HA) was higher than unaffected in both MDD and BP groups, but the mood disorder groups did not differ from each other. However, BP1 individuals had higher self-transcendence (ST) than those with MDD and unaffected relatives. HA may reflect a trait marker of mood disorders whereas high ST may be specific to BP. As ST is heritable, genes that affect ST may be of relevance for vulnerability to BP.

  3. Perceived harmfulness of substance use: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harm ratings of substances help in understanding the perception toward substance use and formulating policies. Evidence of such harm ratings by substance users and their caregivers provides a clearer perspective of those who experience and observe such harm closely. Materials and Methods: Substance users and their caregivers were recruited from the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. Sociodemographic details of the subjects were noted. The subjects were then asked to rate a list of psychoactive preparations according to the harms they thought the preparation caused. The list of substances was developed taking into consideration substance commonly encountered in the geographical area. The harm ratings were transformed on a scale of 0-100. Results: All subjects were males and majority of them were educated above 10 th standard, were not employed and belonged to urban background. Most of them had taken psychoactive substances in their lifetimes but were currently abstinent. Most of the subjects endorsed intravenous drugs as the most harmful, followed by heroin. Beer and chewable tobacco considered the least harmful substances. Greater degree of education was associated with lower harm rankings for heroin, cannabis, dextropropoxyphene, and raw opium; while urban residence was associated with greater harm ratings for cannabis and raw opium. Differences in the harms were perceived for different preparations of the same active compound for alcohol and nicotine. Conclusion: Harm ratings of substances can be a useful guide while formulating policies and allocating resources. Need for further research extending this pilot study is emphasized.

  4. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  5. Can harmful tax competition be curbed at the international level?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjersti, Per O. [Finans- og Tolldepartementet, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    This presentation discusses the following issues: (1) Good vs harmful tax competition?, (2) How to identify harmful competition?, (3) What is the economic and social impact of harmful tax competition?, (4) What can be done about harmful tax competition? There are three levels, the EU level, the OECD level and the global level. Existing measures to counteract harmful tax practices are insufficient because action by one country merely shifts activity to another country and puts its tax payers at a competitive disadvantage and because coordination action eases political pressure. The EU code of good conduct and the OECD guidelines for dealing with harmful preferential tax regimes are compared, with respect to general features, with respect to key factors to identify harmful measures, and with respect to general scope.

  6. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord

  7. The Global Attack on Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Franck, Gustav Grønborg; Runchel, Daniel Theis; Mac, Martin Tuannhien; Ahmed, Jahanzeeb; Bang, Lars Seneca

    2015-01-01

    The issue of tax avoidance has been subject for recommended regulations by the G20 countries in collaboration with OECD. We examine the usefulness of market failure theory to explain the economic and political issues of tax avoidance. We test our hypothesis using theory through a deductive approach incorporating content analysis to find convergence(s) between tax avoidance methods identified and the efforts of the G20 BEPS action plan to respond to those methods. The issue of tax avoidance...

  8. Tax Avoidance, Welfare Transfers, and Asset Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Gorea

    2013-01-01

    Does tax avoidance have any implications for financial markets? This paper quantifies the general equilibrium implications of tax avoidance by setting up an incomplete markets production economy model in which households pay capital gains taxes and have access to tax avoidance technologies provided by financial institutions. I find that changes in the level of tax avoidance have disproportionate effects on different groups of agents and generally benefit the old, wealthy and high income house...

  9. The cost of harm and savings through safety: using simulated patients for leadership decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Charles R; Guilloteau, Franck R

    2012-09-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is to provide an approach to understanding and communicating health-care harm and cost to compel health-care provider leadership teams to vote "yes" to investments in patient safety initiatives, with the confidence that clinical, financial, and operational performance will be improved by such programs. Through a coordinated combination of literature evaluations, careful mapping of high impact scenarios using simulated patients and consensus review of clinical, operational, and financial factors, we confirmed value in such approaches to decision support information for hospital leadership teams to invest in patient safety projects. The study resulted in the following preliminary findings: ·Communication between hospital quality and finance departments can be much improved by direct collaborative relationships through regular meetings to help both clarify direct costs, indirect costs, and the savings of waste and harm to patients by avoidance of infections. ·Governance leaders and the professional administrative leaders should consider establishing the structures and systems necessary to act on risks and hazards as they evolve to deploy resources to areas of harm and risk. ·Quality and Infection Control Professionals can best wage their war on healthcare waste and harm by keeping abreast of the latest literature regarding the latest measures, standards, and safe practices for healthcare-acquired infections and hospital-acquired conditions. ·Regular reviews of patients with health-careYassociated infections, with direct attention to the attributable cost of treatment and how financial waste and harm to patients may be avoided, may provide hospital leaders with new insights for improvement. ·If hospitals developed their own risk scenarios to determine impact of harm and waste from hospital-acquired conditions in addition to impact scenarios for specific processes through technology and process innovations, they would have

  10. No harm done? Assessing risk of harm under the federal breach notification rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Chris

    2010-08-01

    Provisions within the HITECH Act require that covered entities notify individuals if their protected health information is breached. However, the current regulation allows an exemption if the risk of harm is slight. Assessing risk can be subjective, and privacy officers have been working to create methods to conduct and document their analyses.

  11. Harming High Performers : A Social Comparison Perspective on Interpersonal Harming in Work Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Catherine K.; Van der Vegt, Gerben S.; Walter, Frank; Huang, Xu; Huang, Xin

    This study developed a multilevel model of the interpersonal harming behavior associated with social comparison processes in work teams. We tested this model using temporally lagged data from a sample of student teams (Study 1) and cross-sectional data from a sample of work teams in a

  12. Problem-solving ability and repetition of deliberate self-harm: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Carmel; Corcoran, Paul; Keeley, Helen S; Arensman, Ella; Bille-Brahe, Unni; De Leo, Diego; Fekete, Sandor; Hawton, Keith; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Kelleher, Margaret; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Michel, Konrad; Salander-Renberg, Ellinor; Schmidtke, Armin; Van Heeringen, Kees; Wasserman, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    While recent studies have found problem-solving impairments in individuals who engage in deliberate self-harm (DSH), few studies have examined repeaters and non-repeaters separately. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether specific types of problem-solving are associated with repeated DSH. As part of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, 836 medically treated DSH patients (59% repeaters) from 12 European regions were interviewed using the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule (EPSIS II) approximately 1 year after their index episode. The Utrecht Coping List (UCL) assessed habitual responses to problems. Factor analysis identified five dimensions--Active Handling, Passive-Avoidance, Problem Sharing, Palliative Reactions and Negative Expression. Passive-Avoidance--characterized by a pre-occupation with problems, feeling unable to do anything, worrying about the past and taking a gloomy view of the situation, a greater likelihood of giving in so as to avoid difficult situations, the tendency to resign oneself to the situation, and to try to avoid problems--was the problem-solving dimension most strongly associated with repetition, although this association was attenuated by self-esteem. The outcomes of the study indicate that treatments for DSH patients with repeated episodes should include problem-solving interventions. The observed passivity and avoidance of problems (coupled with low self-esteem) associated with repetition suggests that intensive therapeutic input and follow-up are required for those with repeated DSH.

  13. Conflict Avoidance in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Allan E.; Wood, Lorinda

    2005-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores patterns of conflict avoidance among university students, professors, administrators and staff. Analysis of their narratives of conflict avoidance suggests that avoidance can be beneficial in some circumstances, depending upon personality issues, cost?benefit analysis, power imbalance, type of work, length of…

  14. Risk factors and correlates of deliberate self-harm behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliege, Herbert; Lee, Jeong-Ran; Grimm, Anne; Klapp, Burghard F

    2009-06-01

    Deliberate self-harm behavior--without suicidal intent--is a serious health problem and may be studied as a clinical phenomenon in its own right. Empirical studies of sociodemographic and psychological correlates and risk factors are systematically reviewed. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX (German psychological literature), and reference lists. We targeted self-induced bodily harm without conscious suicidal intent. Studies on suicidal behavior or self-poisoning were only included if they also assessed nonsuicidal self-harm. Fifty-nine original studies met the criteria. Deliberate self-harm may occur at all ages, yet adolescents and young adults are at a higher risk. Evidence on gender is complex. Only 5 studies realize a prospective design (6 months to 10 years) and test predictors. The majority use cross-sectional and retrospective methods. No longitudinal study (separately) examines new incidence. Evidence of correlates encompasses distal/proximal, person/environment, and state/trait factors. Many studies report associations between current self-harm behavior and a history of childhood sexual abuse. Adolescent and adult self-harmers experience more frequent and more negative emotions, such as anxiety, depression, and aggressiveness, than persons who do not self-harm. Two studies yield specific interactions between childhood trauma and current traits and states such as low emotional expressivity, low self-esteem, and dissociation with respect to a vulnerability to self-harm. Evidence of distal, biographical stressors is fairly strong. Proximal stressors have rarely been investigated; protective factors, hardly at all. Despite many findings of correlates, the data do not yet justify terming them risk factors. Longitudinal studies are needed.

  15. Population avoidance in aimpoint selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    In most past studies of the effectiveness of tactical nuclear weapons vs the amount of collateral damage produced (civilian casualties), civilians have been congregated into idealized shaped towns and cities, and criteria for city avoidance were usually formulated in terms relating to a town's population. This treatment was sufficient in those studies where weapon yields were so large that great numbers of civilians were almost always placed at risk. As further studies developed, demonstrating that real progress could be made in reducing the numbers of civilians potentially placed at risk in tactical nuclear warfare situations, the inadequacies of the present treatment became obvious. The need existed for a more detailed description of the distribution of civilians. The method described determines the number of civilians at risk for a weapon under consideration being detonated at a given point and displays a symbol relating to the numbers at risk on a map or a transparency that overlays a 1:50,000 map of the region. Thus, a weapons planner making the selection of aimpoints for inflicting the necessary military damage required has the means to reduce potential civilian casualties by properly choosing the weapon and aimpoints

  16. Immediate effects on adult drinkers of exposure to alcohol harm reduction advertisements with and without drinking guideline messages: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Brennan, Emily; Dunstone, Kimberley; Durkin, Sarah J; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone; Slater, Michael D

    2018-06-01

    To compare the immediate effects on drinkers of television advertisements focusing upon short- versus long-term harms with and without low-risk drinking guidelines. Between-participants on-line experiment, with random assignment to view: (a) alcohol product advertisements (ALC control); (b) advertisements unrelated to alcohol (NON-ALC control); (c) advertisements featuring short-term harms (STH) of alcohol; (d) advertisements featuring STH plus a STH guideline (STH+G); (e) advertisements featuring long-term harms (LTH); or (f) advertisements featuring LTH plus a LTH guideline (LTH+G). Australia, 2016. A total of 3718 drinkers aged 18-64 years (48.5% male). Post-exposure likelihood that participants provided a correct estimate of drinking levels associated with short- and long-term harms; post-exposure intentions to avoid alcohol or reduce consumption. After exposure to STH+G or LTH+G advertisements, participants were more likely to estimate correctly rather than overestimate drinking levels associated with harm, compared with those exposed to STH (P < 0.001) and LTH advertisements without guidelines, respectively (P = 0.019) and ALC control (STH+G, P < 0.001; LTH+G, P < 0.001) and NON-ALC control conditions (STH+G, P < 0.001; LTH+G, P = 0.011). Drinkers exposed to STH conditions were more likely to intend to reduce next-week alcohol consumption than those exposed to ALC control (both P < 0.001) and NON-ALC control conditions (STH, P = 0.001; STH+G, P < 0.001); a similar pattern was observed for intentions to avoid alcohol. Drinkers exposed to LTH conditions were also more likely than drinkers exposed to ALC or NON-ALC controls to intend to avoid and reduce alcohol in the next week. Additionally, drinkers exposed to LTH+G were more likely to intend to reduce drinking than those exposed to LTH advertisements without guidelines (P = 0.022). Response patterns for low- and high-risk drinkers by condition were similar. Alcohol harm television

  17. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  18. When Salespeople Harbor Negative Stereotypes of their Corporate Headquarters : How Harmful is it and How can it be Avoided

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Christian; Wieseke, Jan; Lukas, Bryan A.; Mikolon, Sven

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the performance implications that organizations may suffer when their salespeople develop negative stereotypes of their corporate headquarters. How such stereotypes can be remedied through managerial action is also examined. The study draws on matched data from four different sources: sales managers, salespeople, customers, and company reports. Findings indicate that negative headquarters stereotypes among salespeople are associated with poor marketing-related performance ...

  19. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun; Dong, Kyung Rae; Han, Seung Moo

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment

  20. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  1. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  2. Harmful Effects of Nanoparticles on Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Exbrayat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since several years nanoparticles (NPs are produced by industries and used in several fields of activities. They are finally found in aquatic and terrestrial environments, where they are ingested by living organisms in which they accumulate, before being eliminated. In organisms, NPs represent foreign elements with their own physicochemical properties due to their small size. So NPs may interfere with the normal physiological mechanisms of the embryos, growing animals, and adults, and it is indispensable to understand their potentially direct or indirect harmful effects on living organisms. It has been already shown that NPs could be toxic to bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and vertebrates. In this review, several examples of recent studies are given. We will examine successively the effects of NPs on terrestrial and semiaquatic and aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

  3. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  4. Potentially harmful excipients in neonatal medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellis, Georgi; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Varendi, Heili

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe administration of eight potentially harmful excipients of interest (EOI)-parabens, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol, benzoates, saccharin sodium, sorbitol, ethanol and benzalkonium chloride-to hospitalised neonates in Europe and to identify risk factors for exposure....... METHODS: All medicines administered to neonates during 1 day with individual prescription and demographic data were registered in a web-based point prevalence study. Excipients were identified from the Summaries of Product Characteristics. Determinants of EOI administration (geographical region......, gestational age (GA), active pharmaceutical ingredient, unit level and hospital teaching status) were identified using multivariable logistical regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall 89 neonatal units from 21 countries participated. Altogether 2095 prescriptions for 530 products administered to 726 neonates...

  5. Varenicline and Risk of Self-Harm: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadrous

    Full Text Available Smoking remains a serious public health concern. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, including bupropion and varenicline, are proven means to increase quit rates. Post-marketing reports describing suicidal behaviours have raised concerns about the safety of varenicline. However, whether varenicline imparts a higher risk of suicide relative to bupropion remains uncertain.A population-based nested case-control study in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2015 was conducted. Subjects were residents of Ontario aged 18 years and older with publicly funded drug coverage receiving either bupropion or varenicline for smoking cessation. We defined cases were those with a hospitalization or emergency department visit for suicide or non-fatal self-harm within 90 days of treatment. For each case, we identified up to fifty controls from the same cohort matched on age, sex, history of self-harm, use of selected psychotropic medications, alcohol abuse and prior admission to a mental health unit. Adjusted odds ratio were used to compare the risk of suicide/self-harm of varenicline to bupropion.We identified 331 cases and 5,346 matched-controls. Following adjustment for potential confounders, we found that varenicline was not associated with an increased risk of suicide/self-harm relative to bupropion (adjusted odds ratio 1.15; 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.87.Treatment with varenicline does not appear to significantly increase the risk of suicide or self-harm relative to bupropion.

  6. The facilitative nature of avoidance coping within sports injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, F; Polman, R C J

    2010-04-01

    Avoidance coping has commonly been reported within literature to be a debilitative process. However, in situations where goal attainment is reduced or eradicated avoidance coping strategies appear to have some benefit. The aim of this study was to identify the role of avoidance coping within the sports injury rehabilitation setting. A mixed methodological approach was utilized with four professional male rugby union players, concurrent with their rehabilitation from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Twice monthly interviews were conducted with each player, along with a self-report diary and the Coping with Health, Injuries and Problems (CHIP; Endler & Parker, 2000) inventory. Content analysis showed six higher-order themes split into two general dimensions: (a) behavioral avoidance coping (physical distraction, social interaction, maladaptive behaviors), and (b) cognitive avoidance coping (denial, thought stopping, cognitive distraction). Results suggest avoidance coping strategies facilitate control of short-term emotional states, as well has appearing to have long-term benefits for injured players. Particular benefits were associated with undertaking alternate work within the sports organization.

  7. Avoidance behaviour testing of Eisenia andrei in biodegradable plastic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Tichá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance behaviour test with the earthworms (ISO 17512-1:2008 is a rapid screening test for the evaluation of soil and the influence of pollutants and chemicals on the behaviour of earthworms. The purpose of the testing is to determine the avoidance behaviour of earthworm (in this case Eisenia andrei was used which can be used as an organism for the composting and occur naturally in soil environment. The methodology was modified according to the needs of the avoidance behaviour testing of earthworms in biodegradable plastic environment. It is a biodegradable thermoplastic material Mater-Bi, which is produced from corn starch. Californian earthworm (Eisenia andrei was chosen as a test organism. The two-chamber test was used in testing. 10 earthworms were used, which were exposed to a number of concentrations of the test substance, which was mixed into the compost environment. It was recorded both a positive result, avoidance reaction, as well as a negative result, non-avoidance reaction and also there was a case, where individuals prefer both substrates equally. Organisms showed no escape reaction and were fairly evenly distributed in both halves of the test vessel, it can be assessed that organisms prefer both substrates equally. In testing, the mortality was zero, none of the individuals died, at the conclusion of the test there were not found any dead individuals. Avoidance higher than 80 % didn’t occur; it cannot be said that the substrate is toxic or degraded.

  8. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey [Department of Applied Plant Science-Horticulture, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow (India)

    2012-07-01

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by

  9. [Harmful biological agents at museum workposts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Zduniak, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata; Rembisz, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of microbiological contamination of air and surfaces in museum premises with various collection specificities. In addition, the criteria for selecting indicators of contamination with harmful biological agents at museum workposts are proposed. The analysis of microbial contamination was carried out in 14 museum premises (storehouses, restoration workshops, exhibition hall). Microbiological air purity was measured with a MAS-100 Eco Air Sampler. Surface samples were collected using contact plates RODAC Envirocheck. Biochemical API tests were used to identify bacteria and yeasts. Fungi were diagnosed with taxonomic keys, based on macro- and microscopic mycelia assessment. The levels of microbiological contamination in museums varied and ranged from 2.1 x 10(2) to 7.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3 in the air and from 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.7 x 10(4) cfu/100 cm2 on surfaces. The dominant microorganisms were fungi, which accounted respectively for 18-98% and 23-100% of all isolates from tested sites and surfaces. It was found that the amount of fungi in the indoor air of the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography and the Museum of Independence Traditions equaled respectively 4.2 x 10(2) cfu/m3 and 1.4 x 10(4) cfu/m3, which means that they exceeded the recommended reference value of 2.0 x 10(2) cfu/m3. Having analyzed the frequency of strain isolation, the source of microorganisms and the hazard to human health, 10 fungal species were isolated, which may be regarded as indicators of contamination with harmful biological agents at museum workposts. They are: Aspergillus (A. niger, A. versicolor), Cladosporium (C. herbarum, C. macrocarpum), Penicillium (P. carneum, P. digitatum, P. italicum, P. paneum, P. polonicum), Rhizopus nigricans.

  10. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey

    2012-01-01

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by

  11. Public Involvement in Decisions to Avoid Costly Consequences Later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, Judy [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2006-09-15

    will work together to make sure that harm is avoided and common goals are achieved.

  12. Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers

  13. Harm Experienced from the Heavy Drinking of Family and Friends in the General Population: A Comparative Study of Six Northern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Ramstedt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Epidemiological research on alcohol-related harm has long given priority to studies on harm to the drinker. A limitation with this perspective is that it neglects the harm drinking causes to people around the drinker, and thus, it fails to give a full picture of alcohol-related harm in society. Aim The aim was to compare the prevalence and correlates of experiencing harm from the heavy drinking by family and friends across the Nordic countries and Scotland and to discuss whether potential differences match levels of drinking, prevalence of binge drinking, and alcohol-related mortality. Data and Method Data from recent national general population surveys with similar questions on experiences of harms from the drinking of family and friends were collected from Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, and Scotland. Results National estimates of the overall population prevalence of harm from the drinking of family and friends ranged from 14% to 28% across these countries, with the highest prevalence in Finland, Iceland, and Norway and lower estimates for Denmark, Sweden, and Scotland. Across all countries, the prevalence of harm from heavy drinking by family and friends was significantly higher among women and young respondents. Conclusion This study revealed large differences in the prevalence of harm across the study countries, as well as by gender and age, but the differences do not match the variation in population drinking and other indicators of harm. The implications of the findings for future research are discussed.

  14. Potentially Harmful Therapy and Multicultural Counseling: Bridging Two Disciplinary Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Dennis C.; Gone, Joseph P.; Nagata, Donna K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years psychologists have been increasingly concerned about potentially harmful therapy, yet this recent discourse has not addressed issues that have long been voiced by the multicultural counseling and psychotherapy movement. We aim to begin to bring these seemingly disparate discourses of harm into greater conversation with one another, in the service of placing the discipline on a firmer foothold in its considerations of potentially harmful therapy. After reviewing the two discourses and exploring reasons for their divergence, we argue that they operate according to differing assumptions pertaining to the sources, objects, and scope of harm. We then argue that these differences reveal the discipline’s need to better appreciate that harm is a social construct, that psychotherapy may be inherently ethnocentric, and that strategies for collecting evidence of harm should be integrated with a social justice agenda. PMID:26339075

  15. Predictors for repeat self-harm and suicide among older people within 12 months of a self-harm presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Gary; Foster, Gisele; de Beer, Wayne; Gee, Susan; Hawkes, Tracey; Rimkeit, Sally; Tan, Yu Mwee; Merry, Sally; Sundram, Frederick

    2017-08-01

    A past history of self-harm is a significant risk factor for suicide in older people. The aims of this study are to (i) characterize older people who present with self-harm to emergency departments (EDs); and (ii) determine the predictors for repeat self-harm and suicide. Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected on older people (age 65+ years), who presented to seven EDs in New Zealand following an episode of self-harm between 1st July 2010 and 30th June 2013. In addition, 12-month follow-up information on repeat self-harm and suicide was collected. The sample included 339 older people (55.2% female) with an age range of 65-96 years (mean age = 75.0; SD = 7.6). Overdose (68.7%) was the most common method of self-harm. 76.4% of the self-harm cases were classified as suicide attempts. Perceived physical illness (47.8%) and family discord (34.5%) were the most common stressors. 12.7% of older people repeated self-harm and 2.1% died by suicide within 12 months. Older people who had a positive blood alcohol reading (OR = 3.87, 95% Cl = 1.35-11.12, p = 0.012) and were already with mental health services at the index self-harm (OR = 2.73, 95% Cl = 1.20-6.25, p = 0.047) were more likely to repeat self-harm/suicide within 12 months. Older people who self-harm are at very high risk of repeat self-harm and suicide. Screening and assessment for alcohol use disorders should be routinely performed following a self-harm presentation, along with providing structured psychological treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological treatment for depression and interventions to improve the person's resilience resources.

  16. Harmful Freshwater Algal Blooms, With an Emphasis on Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W. Paerl

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended algae, or phytoplankton, are the prime source of organic matter supporting food webs in freshwater ecosystems. Phytoplankton productivity is reliant on adequate nutrient supplies; however, increasing rates of nutrient supply, much of it manmade, fuels accelerating primary production or eutrophication. An obvious and problematic symptom of eutrophication is rapid growth and accumulations of phytoplankton, leading to discoloration of affected waters. These events are termed blooms. Blooms are a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia and anoxia, toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. Toxins produced by blooms can adversely affect animal (including human health in waters used for recreational and drinking purposes. Numerous freshwater genera within the diverse phyla comprising the phytoplankton are capable of forming blooms; however, the blue-green algae (or cyanobacteria are the most notorious bloom formers. This is especially true for harmful toxic, surface-dwelling, scum-forming genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Nodularia, Microcystis and some subsurface bloom-formers (Cylindrospermopsis, Oscillatoria that are adept at exploiting nutrient-enriched conditions. They thrive in highly productive waters by being able to rapidly migrate between radiance-rich surface waters and nutrient-rich bottom waters. Furthermore, many harmful species are tolerant of extreme environmental conditions, including very high light levels, high temperatures, various degrees of desiccation, and periodic nutrient deprivation. Some of the most noxious cyanobacterial bloom genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, Nodularia are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2, enabling them to periodically dominate under nitrogen-limited conditions. Cyanobacteria produce a range of organic compounds, including those that are toxic to higher-ranked consumers, from

  17. Predictive Factors of Suicide Attempt and Non-Suicidal Self-Harm in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Salman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide is the third cause of mortality in America, second leading cause of death in developed countries, and one of the major health problems. Self-harm is self-inflicted damage to one’s self with or without suicidal intent. In the present study, the predictive factors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm were evaluated in patients referred to emergency department (ED with these problem. Methods: The total number of 45 patients with suicide attempt or self-harm admitted to ED were included. Clinical symptoms, thoughts and behaviors of suicidal, and non-suicidal self-harm in these patients were evaluated at baseline. Suicidality, suicidal intent and ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, social withdrawal, disruptive behavior, and poor family functions were evaluated at admission time. Brief clinical visits were scheduled for the twelfth weeks. In the twelfth week, patients returned for their final visit to determine their maintenance treatment. Finally data were analyzed using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression. Results: Forty five patients were included in the study (56.1% female. The mean age of patients was 23.3±10.2 years (range: 15-75; 33.3% married. Significant association of suicide and self-injury was presented at the baseline and in the month before attempting (p=0.001. The most important predictive factors of suicide and self-harm based on univariate analysis were depression (suicidal and non-suicidal items of Hamilton depression rating scale, anxiety, hopelessness, younger age, history of non-suicidal self-harm and female gender (p<0.05. The participants’ quality of life analysis showed a significant higher quality in physical component summary (p=0.002, mental component summary (p=0.001, and general health (p=0.001 at follow up period. Conclusion: At the time of admission in ED, suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm are subsequent clinical markers for the patient attempting suicide again. The

  18. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  19. Impulsivity and self-harm in adolescence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Joanna; Daley, David; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2017-04-01

    Research supports an association between impulsivity and self-harm, yet inconsistencies in methodology across studies have complicated understanding of this relationship. This systematic review examines the association between impulsivity and self-harm in community-based adolescents aged 11-25 years and aims to integrate findings according to differing concepts and methods. Electronic searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, PubMed and The Cochrane Library, and manual searches of reference lists of relevant reviews identified 4496 articles published up to July 2015, of which 28 met inclusion criteria. Twenty-four of the studies reported an association between broadly specified impulsivity and self-harm. However, findings varied according to the conception and measurement of impulsivity and the precision with which self-harm behaviours were specified. Specifically, lifetime non-suicidal self-injury was most consistently associated with mood-based impulsivity-related traits. However, cognitive facets of impulsivity (relating to difficulties maintaining focus or acting without forethought) differentiated current self-harm from past self-harm. These facets also distinguished those with thoughts of self-harm (ideation) from those who acted on thoughts (enaction). The findings suggested that mood-based impulsivity is related to the initiation of self-harm, while cognitive facets of impulsivity are associated with the maintenance of self-harm. In addition, behavioural impulsivity is most relevant to self-harm under conditions of negative affect. Collectively, the findings indicate that distinct impulsivity facets confer unique risks across the life-course of self-harm. From a clinical perspective, the review suggests that interventions focusing on reducing rash reactivity to emotions or improving self-regulation and decision making may offer most benefit in supporting those who self-harm.

  20. Intrapersonal factors of adolescents self-harming behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Volodko, Liubov

    2014-01-01

    Researches often differentiate two groups of self-harming adolescents: those who attempters a suicide, and those who are harming themselves in a non-suicidal way, and they don‘t seek the death. However just a few community-based research, which would directly compare these groups, were done so far, and therefore information about the differences of the psychological peculiarity and self-harming behavior‘s internal factors between the groups is ambivalent. Lifestyle and Coping Skills Questionn...

  1. Adolescents' Deliberate Self-Harm, Interpersonal Stress, and the Moderating Effects of Self-Regulation: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutengren, Goran; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The predictive effects of peer victimization and harsh parenting on deliberate self-harm were examined. As derived from the experiential avoidance model, the study also tested whether these links were moderated by individual self-regulation approaches. Data were collected at two points in time from 880 junior high school students (mean age =…

  2. Repetition of self-harm and suicide following self-harm in children and adolescents: findings from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Keith; Bergen, Helen; Kapur, Navneet; Cooper, Jayne; Steeg, Sarah; Ness, Jennifer; Waters, Keith

    2012-12-01

    Self-harm (intentional self-poisoning and self-injury) in children and adolescents is often repeated and is associated with increased risk of future suicide. We have investigated factors associated with these outcomes. We used data collected in the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England on all self-harm hospital presentations by individuals aged 10-18 years between 2000 and 2007, and national death information on these individuals to the end of 2010. Cox hazard proportional models were used to identify independent and multivariable predictors of repetition of self-harm and of suicide. Repetition of self-harm occurred in 27.3% of individuals (N = 3920) who presented between 2000 and 2005 and were followed up until 2007. Multivariate analysis showed that repetition was associated with age, self-cutting, and previous self-harm and psychiatric treatment. Of 51 deaths in individuals who presented between 2000 and 2007 and were followed up to 2010 (N = 5133) half (49.0%) were suicides. The method used was usually different to that used for self-harm. Multivariate analysis showed that suicide was associated with male gender [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8], self-cutting (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.7) and prior psychiatric treatment at initial presentation (HR = 4.2, 95% CI 1.7-10.5). It was also associated with self-cutting and history of psychiatric treatment at the last episode before death, and history of previous self harm. Self-cutting as a method of self-harm in children and adolescents conveys greater risk of suicide (and repetition) than self-poisoning although different methods are usually used for suicide. The findings underline the need for psychosocial assessment in all cases. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Self-harm and ethnicity: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharifi, Ali; Krynicki, Carl R; Upthegrove, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    This review will focus on the rates, clinical characteristics, risk factors and methods of self-harm and suicide in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom, providing an update synthesis of recent literature. Studies that met the inclusion criteria between 2003 and 2013 were reviewed using the following databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE and CINAHL. The methodological quality of each study was then assessed using a structured scoring system. A total of 2,362 articles were retrieved, 10 of which matched the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Significant differences were found in the rates of self-harm between ethnic groups with Asian males being least likely to self-harm and Black females being most likely to self-harm. Also, Black and South Asian people were less likely to repeat self-harm. Factors that may help protect or predispose individuals to self-harm or attempt suicide (such as religion, mental health and coping styles) also differ between ethnic groups. There are clear ethnic differences in self-harm and suicide, which may be affected by factors such as cultural pressures and prevalence of mental illness. An awareness of these differences is vital to help prevent further attempts of self-harm and suicide. Further research into differences between ethnic and cultural groups and self-harm continues to be important. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Caring for self-harming patients in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joanne; Jaye, Chrystal

    2017-12-01

    INTRODUCTION Intentional self-harm is an international public health issue with high personal, social and financial costs to society. Poor relationship dynamics are known to have a negative influence on the psyche of people who self-harm, and this can increase anxiety and decrease self-esteem, both shown to be significant contributors to self-harm behaviours. Positive and functional social supports have been proposed as a cost-effective and constructive approach in diminishing self-harming behaviours. AIM This qualitative study investigated the aspects of professional, social, familial and romantic relationships that people who have self-harmed identified as having a positive and constructive effect on their self-harm behaviour. METHODS Twelve participants with a history of self-harming behaviours were recruited through free press advertising in primary care and interviewed. The participants ranged in age from 19 to 70 years, and represented New Zealand (NZ) European and Māori from across the Southern region of NZ. RESULTS This study shows that constructive relationships that inhibit self-harm behaviours are characterised by participants' perceptions of authenticity in their relationships, and knowing that other people genuinely care. Feeling cared for within an authentic therapeutic relationship enabled participants to overcome their perception of being damaged selves and gave them the skills and confidence to develop functional relationships within their communities. A relationship-centred care approach may be useful for general practitioners seeking to develop more effective therapeutic relationships with patients who deliberately self-harm.

  5. Contested space in the pharmacy: public attitudes to pharmacy harm reduction services in the West of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidman, Wendy; Coomber, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, community pharmacies have become increasingly involved in providing harm reduction services and health advice to people who use illicit drugs. This paper considers public opinion of community pharmacy services. It discusses attitudes to harm reduction services in the context of stigmatization of addiction and people who use drugs. This exploratory study involved twenty-six purposively sampled members of the public, from the West of Scotland, participating in one of 5 focus groups. The groups were composed to represent known groups of users and non-users of community pharmacy, none of whom were problem drug users. Three thematic categories were identified: methadone service users in community pharmacies; attitudes to harm reduction policies; contested space. Harm reduction service expansion has resulted in a high volume of drug users in and around some Scottish pharmacies. Even if harm reduction services are provided discretely users' behavior can differentiate them from other pharmacy users. Drug users' behavior in this setting is commonly perceived to be unacceptable and can deter other consumers from using pharmacy services. The results of this study infer that negative public opinion is highly suggestive of stereotyping and stigmatization of people who use drugs. Participants considered that (1) community pharmacies were unsuitable environments for harm reduction service provision, as they are used by older people and those with children; (2) current drug policy is perceived as ineffective, as abstinence is seldom achieved and methadone was reported to be re-sold; (3) people who use drugs were avoided where possible in community pharmacies. Community pharmacy harm reduction services increasingly bring together the public and drug users. Study participants were reluctant to share pharmacy facilities with drug users. This paper concludes by suggesting mechanisms to minimize stigmatization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Avoiding maladaptation to climate change: towards guiding principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnan, Alexandre

    2013-08-01

    The recent publication of the Physical Science Basis volume of IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report reaffirms an already known conclusion: even drastic reductions of global greenhouse gas emissions will be insufficient to avoid some of the impacts of climate change, and is becoming increasingly clear that the temperature increase by the end of the century is likely to exceed the official target of +2 deg. C. Urgent efforts are thus more than ever needed to support socio-ecological systems threatened by climate change, but how to make adaptation happen on the ground remains vague. Consequently, there is a real risk that climate funding may support initiatives that are actually harmful for the socio-ecological systems, i.e. that foster adaptation in the short-term but insidiously affect systems' long-term vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity to climate change. This generally defines 'mal-adaptation', and this paper affirms that avoiding mal-adaptation is a first key concrete step towards adaptation in a broader sense. Focusing on coastal areas at a local scale and with the aim of providing insights to help avoiding mal-adaptation to climate change on the ground, this paper develops eleven practice-oriented guidelines that address the environmental, socio-cultural and economic dimensions of adaptation initiatives (policies, plans, projects). Based upon this, it affirms that the more guidelines an initiative addresses, the lower will be the risk of mal-adaptation. Together, these guidelines and this assumption constitute the 'Assessment framework' for approaching mal-adaptation to climate change at a local level. (author)

  7. Control of materials harmful to water in the German Konrad repository - 16125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, Karin; Brennecke, Peter; Steyer, Stephan; Gruendler, Detlef; Boetsch, Wilma; Haider, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In order to avoid a pollution of the near surface ground water during the post closure phase of the Konrad repository the acceptable amount of material harmful to water in the radioactive waste is restricted. For this purpose the KONRAD plan approval order includes waste requirements referring to the German water law ('water law permission'). In a first part of this contribution the water law permission for the KONRAD repository is introduced. This permission contains a list of materials harmful to water with the respective limitations in mass and many instructions and proposals regarding the registering and balancing of these materials as well as quality assurance aspects. The second part deals with the implementation of the water law permission in the waste acceptance criteria. The waste producer has to describe his waste in a standardized way with respect to the material composition. The operator of the repository has to check this description and to register and balance the materials and substances harmful to water. This procedure is based on a standardized list of materials and a list of containers. In the third part quality control measures used for the proof of the compliance with the acceptance criteria (with respect to the water law permission) are described. In particular objective of the quality control, possible quality control options and acceptable margins are dealt with. (authors)

  8. [Psychiatric treatment of deliberate self-harm in the out-of-hours services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, Fredrik A; Ness, Ewa

    2009-04-30

    Patients who harm themselves are often considered difficult to treat. There are no evidence-based approaches available for the emergency setting. General practitioners should nevertheless be able to offer interventions directed towards emotional needs in self-harm patients. In this article we suggest how to intervene in such situations. Based on experience from Oslo psychiatric out-of-hours service and with elements from Dialectic Behavioural Therapy, we present a five-step model for treatment of these patients in an out-of-hours service within the primary health care services. The aim of this model is to bring the patient out of the acute crisis and to arrange for further treatment. Assessment, validation or confirmation, problem-solving, avoiding unnecessary hospitalisation, and focus on continuing established treatment, are important elements in the proposed intervention. This can all be carried out in 60 - 90 min. The model may be suitable for training general practitioners to meet and care for patients with self-harm behaviour in the out-hours-services. We have positive experience with the intervention, but systematic research is necessary to assess the effect of the model.

  9. How Dogmatic Beliefs Harm Creativity and Higher-Level Thinking. Educational Psychology Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Don, Ed.; Sternberg, Robert J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In a world plagued by enormous, complex problems requiring long-range vision and interdisciplinary insights, the need to attend to the influence of dogmatic thinking on the development of high ability and creative intelligence is pressing. This volume introduces the problem of dogmatism broadly, explores the nature and nuances of dogmatic thinking…

  10. Academic Performance Enhancement Drugs in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikins, Ross Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is a place where students are known to navigate various stages of psychosocial development, and experiment with psychoactive substances. Extant research detailing the relationship between drugs and student development typically frame the impact of substance use as exclusively negative or harmful to student health and the outcomes…

  11. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  12. Do Austerity Measures Harm International Trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Iulian CHIRIŢOIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the trade relations between Romania and the PIIGS (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Spain in order to verify whether the exports of Romania have been positively or negatively affected by the austerity measures adopted by these Eurozone periphery countries, thus diminishing Romania’s export performance in such markets. Hence, our main research question is whether austerity measures harm or affect in any way the inflows and outflows of international trade in the studied countries. To assess this hypothesis, we focused on the external trade relations, and their linkages with the macroeconomic environment, rather than the competitiveness of a state explained by a detailed sectoral analysis. In this respect, we use comparative and descriptive statistics in order to observe the consequences of the internal devaluation, and implicitly austerity measures, on the PIIGS-Romanian trade relations. Our findings suggest that the effects of austerity measures are not homogenous because they depend on the scale of trade exchanges and on the way in which the austerity measures were applied.

  13. Evaluation of Harmful Algal Bloom Outreach Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Weisman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available With an apparent increase of harmful algal blooms (HABs worldwide,healthcare providers, public health personnel and coastal managers are struggling toprovide scientifically-based appropriately-targeted HAB outreach and education. Since1998, the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami, with its 24 hour/365 day/year freeAquatic Toxins Hotline (1-888-232-8635 available in several languages, has received over 25,000 HAB-related calls. As part of HAB surveillance, all possible cases of HAB-relatedillness among callers are reported to the Florida Health Department. This pilot studyevaluated an automated call processing menu system that allows callers to access bilingualHAB information, and to speak directly with a trained Poison Information Specialist. Themajority (68% of callers reported satisfaction with the information, and many provided specific suggestions for improvement. This pilot study, the first known evaluation of use and satisfaction with HAB educational outreach materials, demonstrated that the automated system provided useful HAB-related information for the majority of callers, and decreased the routine informational call workload for the Poison Information Specialists, allowing them to focus on callers needing immediate assistance and their healthcare providers. These results will lead to improvement of this valuable HAB outreach, education and surveillance tool. Formal evaluation is recommended for future HAB outreach and educational materials.

  14. Energy drinks and adolescents: what's the harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R

    2015-04-01

    Concerns about potential dangers from energy drink consumption by youth have been raised by health experts, whereas energy drink manufacturers claim these products are safe and suitable for marketing to teens. This review summarizes the evidence used to support both sides of the debate. Unlike most beverage categories, sales of energy drinks and other highly caffeinated products continue to grow, and marketing is often targeted to youth under the age of 18 years. These products pose a risk of caffeine toxicity when consumed by some young people, and there is evidence of other troubling physiological and behavioral effects associated with their consumption by youth. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated it will reexamine the safety of caffeine in the food supply; however, more research is needed to better understand youth consumption of energy drinks and caffeine in general, as well as the long-term effects on health. Meanwhile, policymakers and physician groups have called on energy drink manufacturers to take voluntary action to reduce the potential harm of their products, including placing restrictions on marketing to youth under the age of 18 years. Additional regulatory and legislative options are also being discussed. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Calcium supplementation in osteoporosis: useful or harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Bolland, Mark J

    2018-04-01

    Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are important social and economic problems worldwide and are due to both the loss of bone mineral density and sarcopenia. Indeed, fragility fractures are associated with increased disability, morbidity and mortality. It is known that a normal calcium balance together with a normal vitamin D status is important for maintaining well-balanced bone metabolism, and for many years, calcium and vitamin D have been considered crucial in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, recently, the usefulness of calcium supplementation (alone or with concomitant vitamin D) has been questioned, since some studies reported only weak efficacy of these supplementations in reducing fragility fracture risk. On the other hand, besides the gastrointestinal side effects of calcium supplements and the risk of kidney stones related to use of co-administered calcium and vitamin D supplements, other recent data suggested potential adverse cardiovascular effects from calcium supplementation. This debate article is focused on the evidence regarding both the possible usefulness for bone health and the potential harmful effects of calcium and/or calcium with vitamin D supplementation. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins in both recreational waters and drinking source waters. Successful cyanoHAB assessment by satellites may provide a first-line of defense indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, assessment methods were developed to determine the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB occurrence frequency at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imager (OLCI) launched in 2016. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, there were 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 hectare in the 48 U.S. states. Results from this evaluation show that 5.6 % of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single pixel resolution and 0.7 % of waterbodies were resolvable when a 3x3 pixel array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data was also spatially joined to US public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single pixel resolution resolved 57% of PWSI and a 3x3 pixel array resolved 33% of

  17. European breast cancer service screening outcomes: a first balance sheet of the benefits and harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig; Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen William

    2014-07-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer death being avoided by population-based mammography screening of appropriate quality is more than that of overdiagnosis by screening. These outcomes should be communicated to women offered service screening in Europe. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Quantifying predictive capability of electronic health records for the most harmful breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yirong; Fan, Jun; Peissig, Peggy; Berg, Richard; Tafti, Ahmad Pahlavan; Yin, Jie; Yuan, Ming; Page, David; Cox, Jennifer; Burnside, Elizabeth S.

    2018-03-01

    Improved prediction of the "most harmful" breast cancers that cause the most substantive morbidity and mortality would enable physicians to target more intense screening and preventive measures at those women who have the highest risk; however, such prediction models for the "most harmful" breast cancers have rarely been developed. Electronic health records (EHRs) represent an underused data source that has great research and clinical potential. Our goal was to quantify the value of EHR variables in the "most harmful" breast cancer risk prediction. We identified 794 subjects who had breast cancer with primary non-benign tumors with their earliest diagnosis on or after 1/1/2004 from an existing personalized medicine data repository, including 395 "most harmful" breast cancer cases and 399 "least harmful" breast cancer cases. For these subjects, we collected EHR data comprised of 6 components: demographics, diagnoses, symptoms, procedures, medications, and laboratory results. We developed two regularized prediction models, Ridge Logistic Regression (Ridge-LR) and Lasso Logistic Regression (Lasso-LR), to predict the "most harmful" breast cancer one year in advance. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to assess model performance. We observed that the AUCs of Ridge-LR and Lasso-LR models were 0.818 and 0.839 respectively. For both the Ridge-LR and LassoLR models, the predictive performance of the whole EHR variables was significantly higher than that of each individual component (pbreast cancer, providing the possibility to personalize care for those women at the highest risk in clinical practice.

  19. Defining and redefining harm reduction in the Lao context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychareun Vanphanom

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The response to drug use in Laos has focused on reducing opium supply (supply reduction and rates of drug use (demand reduction. However, recently there is increased interest among government counterparts to discuss and develop broader responses to injecting drug use (IDU including the introduction of harm reduction programs. The concept of harm reduction has just been introduced to Lao PDR and as yet there is no agreement on a definition of the concept. We highlight here a range of issues that remain controversial in Lao PDR in the HIV, drug use and harm reduction discourse, the definition of 'harm reduction' and related terms; and the scope of harm reduction. This was a qualitative study, consisting of in-depth interviews with 27 law enforcement and 8 health officers who work in the fields of HIV and/or drug control about their understanding of HIV related to drug use, and concepts of harm reduction. Content analysis was performed to identify the coding, categories and themes. We found that law enforcement officers in particular had limited understanding about harm reduction and the feasibility and appropriateness of harm reduction services in the Lao context. Harm reduction should be a core element of a public health response to HIV where drug use and IDU exists. Recommendations include the necessity of increasing the awareness of harm reduction among law enforcement officers and providing appropriate evidence to support the needs of harm reduction policy and programs. HIV prevention and treatment strategies should be integrated within existing social and cultural frameworks, working with the task force for HIV/IDU and other government counterparts.

  20. Application of Decision Tree on Collision Avoidance System Design and Verification for Quadcopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-W.; Hsieh, P.-H.; Lai, W.-H.

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the research is to build a collision avoidance system with decision tree algorithm used for quadcopters. While the ultrasonic range finder judges the distance is in collision avoidance interval, the access will be replaced from operator to the system to control the altitude of the UAV. According to the former experiences on operating quadcopters, we can obtain the appropriate pitch angle. The UAS implement the following three motions to avoid collisions. Case1: initial slow avoidance stage, Case2: slow avoidance stage and Case3: Rapid avoidance stage. Then the training data of collision avoidance test will be transmitted to the ground station via wireless transmission module to further analysis. The entire decision tree algorithm of collision avoidance system, transmission data, and ground station have been verified in some flight tests. In the flight test, the quadcopter can implement avoidance motion in real-time and move away from obstacles steadily. In the avoidance area, the authority of the collision avoidance system is higher than the operator and implements the avoidance process. The quadcopter can successfully fly away from the obstacles in 1.92 meter per second and the minimum distance between the quadcopter and the obstacle is 1.05 meters.

  1. APPLICATION OF DECISION TREE ON COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM DESIGN AND VERIFICATION FOR QUADCOPTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to build a collision avoidance system with decision tree algorithm used for quadcopters. While the ultrasonic range finder judges the distance is in collision avoidance interval, the access will be replaced from operator to the system to control the altitude of the UAV. According to the former experiences on operating quadcopters, we can obtain the appropriate pitch angle. The UAS implement the following three motions to avoid collisions. Case1: initial slow avoidance stage, Case2: slow avoidance stage and Case3: Rapid avoidance stage. Then the training data of collision avoidance test will be transmitted to the ground station via wireless transmission module to further analysis. The entire decision tree algorithm of collision avoidance system, transmission data, and ground station have been verified in some flight tests. In the flight test, the quadcopter can implement avoidance motion in real-time and move away from obstacles steadily. In the avoidance area, the authority of the collision avoidance system is higher than the operator and implements the avoidance process. The quadcopter can successfully fly away from the obstacles in 1.92 meter per second and the minimum distance between the quadcopter and the obstacle is 1.05 meters.

  2. Harmful cleats of football boots: a biomechanical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, J A; Ramanathan, A K; Arnold, G P; Wang, W; Abboud, R J

    2011-09-01

    Football players wear boots of varying cleat designs with some preferring the bladed cleats while others opting for the conventional studded cleats. The current study compares biomechanically the boots with differing cleat designs and their effect on feet, if any. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers were recruited from amateur football teams. They were asked to perform three trials each of two activities: a straight run and a run cutting at a 60° angle wearing bladed and studded Adidas®-F series boots on artificial turf. Plantar pressure values were recorded using the Pedar®-X in-shoe pressure measuring device. Peak pressure and pressure-time integral were analysed over 11 clinically relevant areas under the foot. While the in-shoe pressure and pressure-time integral were higher under the medial half of the foot with studded boots, they were higher under the lateral half of the foot with the bladed design. The studded boots can be considered safer as the pressure distribution across the foot and the pattern of centre of pressure progression mimicked the normal motif, whereas the bladed boots could potentially be deemed relatively more harmful due to the unnatural increased loading under the lateral half of the foot, predisposing the foot to injuries. Copyright © 2010 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of interpersonal harm in distinguishing regret from guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M

    2008-10-01

    Regret and guilt are emotions that are produced by negative outcomes for which one is responsible. Both emotions have received ample attention in the psychological literature; however, it is still unclear to what extent regret and guilt represent distinct psychological processes. We examined the extent to which the distinction between interpersonal harm (negative outcomes for others) and intrapersonal harm (negative outcomes for self) is crucial in differentiating these two emotions. In a series of 3 studies we found that guilt is predominantly felt in situations of interpersonal harm, whereas regret is felt in both situations of interpersonal harm and intrapersonal harm. Moreover, the results show that in situations of interpersonal harm the phenomenology of regret shares many, but not all features with the phenomenology of guilt. We conclude that the emotion processes resulting from interpersonal and intrapersonal harm are clearly distinct, but that regret as an emotion label is applied to both types of processes whereas the emotion label guilt is primarily used to refer to experiences of interpersonal harm. Implications for emotion research are discussed. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Managing Sexually Harmful Behaviour in a Residential Special School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Graham, Nicola; Ikin, Annette; Penney, Heather; Kovacs, Lisa; Mercer, Dawn; Edwards, Richard; Jones, Dylan; Mace, Floyd Charles

    2012-01-01

    Children and young people with learning disabilities who present sexually harmful behaviour are marginalised and do not always participate in community activities. This case study describes a multi-component intervention that successfully reduced the sexually harmful behaviour of a 16-year-old boy with a mild learning disability. The intervention…

  5. Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review and appraisal of monitoring from 1989 to 1997. ... The Benguela upwelling system is subjected to blooms of harmful and toxic algae, the incidence and consequences of which are documented here. Red tides are common and usually attributed to members of ...

  6. Monitoring of harmful algal blooms along the Norwegian coast using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Norwegian monitoring system for harmful algal blooms, consisting of an Observer Network, the State Food Hygiene Control Agency, the Oceanographic Company of Norway, the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Fisheries, is reviewed. Potentially harmful algae on the Norwegian coast are found primarily ...

  7. Self-Harm and Conventional Gender Roles in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straiton, Melanie L.; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Grimholt, Tine K.; Dieserud, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women.…

  8. 47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidence of harm. 76.1203 Section 76.1203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A...

  9. Nurses’ attitudes towards self-harm: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Karman; prof Berno van Meijel; I.E. Poslawsky; Nienke Kool

    2014-01-01

    Self-harm is a growing health problem. Nurses in a variety of healthcare settings play a central role in the care of people who self-harm. Their professional attitudes towards these people are essential for high-quality care. This review aims to develop insight into nurses’ attitudes towards

  10. Nurses' attitudes towards self-harm: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, P.; Kool, N.; Poslawsky, I.E.; van Meijel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Accessible summary: People who self-harm experience many problems and needs related to management of emotional and practical stress. A positive attitude among nurses is especially important given the close contact they have with people who self-harm. This article is based on a review of the

  11. A Demonstration of Approach and Avoidance Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, W. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Choosing between 2 unpleasant alternatives (Would you rather be less intelligent or less attractive?) is more difficult than choosing between two desirable options (Would you rather be more intelligent or more attractive?). Here I describe a classroom demonstration of avoidance-avoidance conflicts. Students make a series of approach-approach and…

  12. Collaborative Modeling of the Benefits and Harms Associated With Different U.S. Breast Cancer Screening Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Stout, Natasha K; Schechter, Clyde B; van den Broek, Jeroen J; Miglioretti, Diana L; Krapcho, Martin; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Munoz, Diego; Lee, Sandra J; Berry, Donald A; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Kerlikowske, Karla; Tosteson, Anna N A; Near, Aimee M; Hoeffken, Amanda; Chang, Yaojen; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A; Chisholm, Gary; Huang, Xuelin; Huang, Hui; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Gangnon, Ronald; Sprague, Brian L; Plevritis, Sylvia; Feuer, Eric; de Koning, Harry J; Cronin, Kathleen A

    2016-02-16

    Controversy persists about optimal mammography screening strategies. To evaluate screening outcomes, taking into account advances in mammography and treatment of breast cancer. Collaboration of 6 simulation models using national data on incidence, digital mammography performance, treatment effects, and other-cause mortality. United States. Average-risk U.S. female population and subgroups with varying risk, breast density, or comorbidity. Eight strategies differing by age at which screening starts (40, 45, or 50 years) and screening interval (annual, biennial, and hybrid [annual for women in their 40s and biennial thereafter]). All strategies assumed 100% adherence and stopped at age 74 years. Benefits (breast cancer-specific mortality reduction, breast cancer deaths averted, life-years, and quality-adjusted life-years); number of mammograms used; harms (false-positive results, benign biopsies, and overdiagnosis); and ratios of harms (or use) and benefits (efficiency) per 1000 screens. Biennial strategies were consistently the most efficient for average-risk women. Biennial screening from age 50 to 74 years avoided a median of 7 breast cancer deaths versus no screening; annual screening from age 40 to 74 years avoided an additional 3 deaths, but yielded 1988 more false-positive results and 11 more overdiagnoses per 1000 women screened. Annual screening from age 50 to 74 years was inefficient (similar benefits, but more harms than other strategies). For groups with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk, annual screening from age 40 years had similar harms and benefits as screening average-risk women biennially from 50 to 74 years. For groups with moderate or severe comorbidity, screening could stop at age 66 to 68 years. Other imaging technologies, polygenic risk, and nonadherence were not considered. Biennial screening for breast cancer is efficient for average-risk populations. Decisions about starting ages and intervals will depend on population characteristics and the

  13. The Adverse Drug Event Collaborative: a joint venture to measure medication-related patient harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Mary E; Jackson, Aaron; Cameron, Chris; Young, Mary L; Escott, Linda; Maharaj, Ashika; Miller, Nigel

    2012-01-25

    To measure the extent of patient harm caused by medications (rate of Adverse Drug Events) in three DHBs, using a standardised trigger tool method. Counties Manukau, Capital and Coast and Canterbury DHBs decided to work collaboratively to implement the ADE Trigger Tool (TT). Definitions of ADE were agreed on and triggers refined. A random sample of closed charts (from March 2010 to February 2011) was obtained excluding patients who were admitted for <48 hours, children under the age of 18 and psychiatric admissions. In each DHB trained reviewers scanned these in a structured way to identify any of the 19 triggers. If triggers were identified, a more detailed, though time-limited review of the chart was done to determine whether an ADE had occurred. The severity of patient harm was categorised using the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention Index. No attempt was made to determine preventability of harm and ADEs from acts of omission were excluded. The ADE TT was applied to 1210 charts and 353 ADE were identified, with an average rate of 28.9/100 admissions and 38/1,000 bed days. 94.5% of the ADE identified were in the lower severity scales with temporary harm, however in 5 patients it was considered that the ADE contributed to their death, 9 required an intervention to sustain life and 4 suffered permanent harm. The most commonly implicated drugs were morphine and other opioids, anticoagulants, antibiotics, Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) and diuretics. Patients who suffered an ADE were more likely to be female, older with more complex medical illnesses, and have a longer length of stay. The rate of medication-related harm identified by the ADE TT is considerably higher than that identified through traditional voluntary reporting mechanisms. The ADE TT provides a standardised measure of harm over time that can be used to determine trends and the effect of medication safety improvement programmes. This study not

  14. 76 FR 5387 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; “`Harmful and Potentially Harmful...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville... harmful constituents, including smoke constituents, to health in each tobacco product by brand and by quantity in each brand and subbrand.'' The guidance discusses the meaning of the term ``harmful and...

  15. Receptivity to e-cigarette marketing, harm perceptions, and e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-01-01

    To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations.

  16. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  17. Avoidance within a changing assessment paradigm for Mediterranean Hake stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAGONESE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean hake Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, is the emblem of the so-called Mediterranean demersal fisheries paradox, showing a persistent, although stable, status of growth overexploitation and an impressive gap between current and any biological reference point. Almost full avoidance capability of large size females to bottom trawls, higher overall growth rates than previously believed and higher natural mortality in juveniles than adult, were considered among the most plausible explanation factors of such persistence. In the present note, arguments are illustrated to raise some concern about avoidance and highlight the important role of the other factors in improving assessments and launching a short term recovery plan for Mediterranean Hake stocks which is more acceptable to fishermen.

  18. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    .Thus, California Department of Health Services prohibits promotion of snus and medicinal nicotine as a harm reduction strategy. However, the US Federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, signed by President Obama in 2009, places tobacco products under FDA jurisdiction: FDA must define criteria for lowering carcinogens and toxicants in tobacco products, making more available medicinal nicotine, evaluating PREPs, creating a federal Tobacco Control Agency.Which approaches is Italy going to follow?

  19. Relational stressors as predictors for repeat aggressive and self-harming incidents in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulke, Christine; Klein, Annette M; von Klitzing, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether relational stressors such as psychosocial stressors, the therapist's absence and a change of therapist are associated with repeat aggressive or self-harming incidents in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient care. The study data were derived from critical incident reports and chart reviews of 107 inpatients. In multinomial regression analysis, patients with repeat aggressive or self-harming incidents were compared with patients with single incidents. Results suggested that a higher number of psychosocial stressors and a change of therapist, but not the therapist's absence are predictors for repeat aggressive and self-harming incidents. There was a high prevalence of therapist's absence during both, single and repeat, incidents. Repeat aggressive incidents were common in male children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. Repeat self-harming incidents were common in adolescent females with trauma-related disorders. Patients with repeat aggressive or self-harming incidents had a higher number of abnormal intrafamilial relationships and acute life events than patients with single incidents. Interventions to reduce a change of therapist should in particular target children and adolescents with a higher number of psychosocial stressors and/or a known history of traumatic relational experiences. After a first incident, patients should have a psychosocial assessment to evaluate whether additional relational support is needed.

  20. Evaluation of the Epidemiological Impact of Harm Reduction Programs on HIV in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    UNAIDS; World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam s HIV epidemic is concentrated, both in specific behavioral sub-populations and geographic regions. The key populations at higher risk for HIV infection in Vietnam are female sex workers (FSW) and their clients; injecting drug users (IDU); and men who have sex with men (MSM). Vietnam identified harm reduction interventions for IDU and FSW as a key component of its last 5-year Natio...

  1. Overview of harm reduction in prisons in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Gen; Scandurra, Alessio; Kamenska, Anhelita; MacNamara, Catherine; Kalpaki, Christina; Bessa, Cristina Fernandez; Laso, Gemma Nicolás; Parisi, Grazia; Varley, Lorraine; Wolny, Marcin; Moudatsou, Maria; Pontes, Nuno Henrique; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia; Libianchi, Sandro; Antypas, Tzanetos

    2016-10-07

    While the last decade has seen a growth of support for harm reduction around the world, the availability and accessibility of quality harm reduction services in prison settings is uneven and continues to be inadequate compared to the progress achieved in the broader community. This article provides a brief overview of harm reduction in prisons in Catalonia (Spain), Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, and Portugal. While each country provides a wide range of harm reduction services in the broader community, the majority fail to provide these same services or the same quality of these services, in prison settings, in clear violation of international human rights law and minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners. Where harm reduction services have been available and easily accessible in prison settings for some time, better health outcomes have been observed, including significantly reduced rates of HIV and HCV incidence. While the provision of harm reduction in each of these countries' prisons varies considerably, certain key themes and lessons can be distilled, including around features of an enabling environment for harm reduction, resource allocation, collection of disaggregated data, and accessibility of services.

  2. Ecology: avoidance of disease by social lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2006-05-25

    Transmissible pathogens are the bane of social animals, so they have evolved behaviours to decrease the probability of infection. There is no record, however, of social animals avoiding diseased individuals of their own species in the wild. Here we show how healthy, normally gregarious Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) avoid conspecifics that are infected with a lethal virus. Early detection and avoidance of infected, though not yet infectious, individuals by healthy lobsters confers a selective advantage and highlights the importance of host behaviour in disease transmission among natural populations.

  3. Needs and fears of young people presenting at accident and emergency department following an act of self-harm: secondary analysis of qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Christabel; Hansford, Lorraine; Sharkey, Siobhan; Ford, Tamsin

    2016-03-01

    Presentation at an accident and emergency (A&E) department is a key opportunity to engage with a young person who self-harms. The needs of this vulnerable group and their fears about presenting to healthcare services, including A&E, are poorly understood. To examine young people's perceptions of A&E treatment following self-harm and their views on what constitutes a positive clinical encounter. Secondary analysis of qualitative data from an experimental online discussion forum. Threads selected for secondary analysis represent the views of 31 young people aged 16-25 with experience of self-harm. Participants reported avoiding A&E whenever possible, based on their own and others' previous poor experiences. When forced to seek emergency care, they did so with feelings of shame and unworthiness. These feelings were reinforced when they received what they perceived as punitive treatment from A&E staff, perpetuating a cycle of shame, avoidance and further self-harm. Positive encounters were those in which they received 'treatment as usual', i.e. non-discriminatory care, delivered with kindness, which had the potential to challenge negative self-evaluation and break the cycle. The clinical needs of young people who self-harm continue to demand urgent attention. Further hypothesis testing and trials of different models of care delivery for this vulnerable group are warranted. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  4. Long-term avoidance memory formation is associated with a transient increase in mushroom body synaptic complexes in leaf-cutting ants

    OpenAIRE

    Falibene, Agustina; Roces, Flavio; R?ssler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term behavioral changes related to learning and experience have been shown to be associated with structural remodeling in the brain. Leaf-cutting ants learn to avoid previously preferred plants after they have proved harmful for their symbiotic fungus, a process that involves long-term olfactory memory. We studied the dynamics of brain microarchitectural changes after long-term olfactory memory formation following avoidance learning in Acromyrmex ambiguus. After performing experiments to...

  5. Prison suicides and self-harming behaviours in Italy, 1990-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio; Cascio, Maria Teresa

    2006-04-01

    Data on suicides, attempted suicides and other self-harming behaviours that occurred in Italian prisons from 1990 to 2002 was studied on official records, as documented by the Ministry of Justice. Over the study interval, completed suicide rates in Italian prisons were constantly about ten times higher than among the general population, but over time they did not increase significantly despite nearly a doubling in the absolute number of inmates. The rate of completed suicides in overcrowded prisons was about ten times higher than in non-overcrowded ones. Attempted suicides were about ten times higher than completed suicides, with females being significantly more likely to attempt to take their own lives and males being more likely to complete suicide. Self-injuring acts without the intent to die involve about one in every ten individuals, with foreigners (non-EU citizens mostly) being twice as likely to self-harm than residents. A better identification of the people suffering from mental disorders and a reduction in prison overcrowding are two key issues that need to be implemented to reduce the impact of suicide and self-harming behaviours among convicts.

  6. Harmful alcohol habits did not explain the social gradient of sickness absence in Swedish women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte M Mardby

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic distribution of harmful alcohol habits in sick-listed women and men, and whether the social gradient in sickness absence could be explained by the socioeconomic distribution of harmful alcohol habits.Methods: this cross-sectional questionnaire study included newly sick-listed individuals (n=2 798, 19-64 years, 66% women from Sweden. The outcome variable, self-reported harmful alcohol habits, was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Registered socioeconomic variables (education, income, occupational class were explanatory variables with age as confounder and selfreported health, symptoms, mental wellbeing, and self-efficacy as mediators. Chi2-tests and logistic regression models were applied.Results: 9% of sick-listed women and 22% of men had harmful alcohol habits. Women with a low annual income (≤149 000 SEK had higher odds ratios (OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.43-4.27 of harmful alcohol habits than those with ≥300 000 SEK/year. The significance of low income remained when mediators were introduced into the logistic regression model (OR=2.03, 95% CI=1.13-3.65. In the model including age, income was no longer significant. Men with low income were more likely to have harmful alcohol habits than men with high income (OR=2.59; 95% CI=1.45-4.62. When mediators were included low income remained significant (OR=2.88; 95% CI=1.56-5.31. Income was no longer significant when age was introduced. Education and occupational status were not significant.Conclusions: harmful alcohol habits were common among sick-listed women and men. The socioeconomic differences in harmful alcohol habits did not explain the social gradient in sickness absence.

  7. Subsidies which are harmful to the environment, a complex reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourquier, Francois-Xavier; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Demeulenaere, Laurence

    2017-12-01

    As the reduction of public supports which are harmful to the environment is a major stake in terms of struggle against pollutions and greenhouse gases, this publication proposes a discussion of these subsidies which are still important in France despite recent improvements, notably regarding wastes and fuels. The author first discusses how these harmful subsidies are defined by international or research bodies. He outlines that some subsidies have been suppressed since 2013, that important reforms have been initiated, and that, however, the level of harmful subsidies remains high. Then, he discusses the necessary reconciliation of different objectives, and briefly evokes the German and Italian assessment examples

  8. Physiological Correlates of Social Avoidance Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.; Lightbody, Amy A.; Huffman, Lynne C.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    The heart rate and eye-gaze avoidance of 50 boys and girls with fragile X syndrome were monitored and it was found that those with this condition has significantly higher heart rates, lower vagal tones, and lower heart rate variability estimates when compared to their sibling. Eye-gaze avoidance decreased slightly over the course of the 25-minute…

  9. Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles KidsHealth / For Parents / Toddlers at the Table: ... common concerns into opportunities to teach healthy eating habits. Most Toddlers Are Picky Eaters Many toddlers express ...

  10. How to avoid overheating during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000865.htm How to avoid overheating during exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... condition can get heat illness. Stay Cool During Exercise Try these tips to help prevent heat-related ...

  11. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  12. Directional Collision Avoidance in Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yu; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of directional collision avoidance schemes, in which antenna systems are used to direct the transmission and reception of control and data packets in channel access...

  13. Foods to Avoid or Limit during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... during pregnancy Foods to avoid or limit during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  14. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  15. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  16. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...

  17. The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodu, Brad

    2011-07-29

    Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR), with a concomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate. Numerous epidemiologic studies and subsequent meta-analyses confirm that smokeless tobacco (ST) use is associated with minimal risks for cancer and for myocardial infarction; a small increased risk for stroke cannot be excluded. Studies from Sweden document that ST use is not associated with benign gastrointestinal disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases. Although any form of nicotine should be avoided during pregnancy, the highest risks for the developing baby are associated with smoking. It is documented that ST use has been a key factor in the declining rates of smoking and of smoking-related diseases in Sweden and Norway. For other countries, the potential population health benefits of ST are far greater than the potential risks. In follow-up studies, dual users of cigarettes and ST are less likely than exclusive smokers to achieve complete tobacco abstinence, but they are also less likely to be smoking. The health risks from dual use are probably lower than those from exclusive smoking. E-cigarette users are not exposed to the many toxicants, carcinogens and abundant free radicals formed when tobacco is burned. Although laboratory studies have detected trace concentrations of some contaminants, it is a small problem amenable to improvements in quality control and manufacturing that are likely with FDA regulation as tobacco products. There is limited evidence from clinical trials that e-cigarettes deliver only small doses of nicotine compared with conventional cigarettes. However, e-cigarette use emulates successfully the cigarette handling rituals and cues of cigarette smoking, which produces

  18. The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodu Brad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR, with a concomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate. Numerous epidemiologic studies and subsequent meta-analyses confirm that smokeless tobacco (ST use is associated with minimal risks for cancer and for myocardial infarction; a small increased risk for stroke cannot be excluded. Studies from Sweden document that ST use is not associated with benign gastrointestinal disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases. Although any form of nicotine should be avoided during pregnancy, the highest risks for the developing baby are associated with smoking. It is documented that ST use has been a key factor in the declining rates of smoking and of smoking-related diseases in Sweden and Norway. For other countries, the potential population health benefits of ST are far greater than the potential risks. In follow-up studies, dual users of cigarettes and ST are less likely than exclusive smokers to achieve complete tobacco abstinence, but they are also less likely to be smoking. The health risks from dual use are probably lower than those from exclusive smoking. E-cigarette users are not exposed to the many toxicants, carcinogens and abundant free radicals formed when tobacco is burned. Although laboratory studies have detected trace concentrations of some contaminants, it is a small problem amenable to improvements in quality control and manufacturing that are likely with FDA regulation as tobacco products. There is limited evidence from clinical trials that e-cigarettes deliver only small doses of nicotine compared with conventional cigarettes. However, e-cigarette use emulates successfully the cigarette handling rituals and cues of cigarette

  19. Harmful effects of DU in the offspring of the military personnel employed in DU contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlagic, N.; Lisov, Lj.; Barjaktarovic, V.; Djurovic, B.; Spasic, Jokic V.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In 1999, during the NATO attacks on Kosovo, from AT-10 aircraft has been shot over 50000 30-mm projectiles which contained approximately 15 tones of DU. Besides DU, projectiles contained products of DU radioactive decay as well as americium, neptunium, plutonium and technetium. Due to DU contamination military personnel employed near hit targets could be contaminated and irradiated. Besides the harmful effects in exposed military personnel, harmful effects were noticed in their offsprings, too. DU can cause genetic and teratogenic harmful effects in the embryos/fetus. It is concentrated in semen of contaminated males and also can contaminate the embryo/fetus through placenta. DU, as a toxic and radioactive element, can cause variety of harmful effects, but the most important are the effects on DNA which are the cause of many diseases. The aim of this paper is to examine is there any change in the incidence in heritable effects, congenital malformations, malignant diseases, endocrine and immune disorders. For that reason we compared the incidence of these diseases in the offspring's of military personnel born from 1995-1999 (1204) with the children born from 2000-2004 (1131) / and 2005-2008. Our results showed higher incidence of congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities (12.55 % vs 4.57 %), with highest incidence of foot deformity-52.04 % and hip deformity. These abnormalities were followed with immunological disorders and dysfunction of the urine bladder. Endocrine diseases were increased too(2.16 % :1.63 %). In this period higher incidence of malignant diseases was not noticed, but in the second period (from 5-9 year) after 1999, higher incidence of malignant hematological diseases was noticed, as well as Down Sy. During the conflicts future parents as well as embryo/fetus are exposed to many harmfulness and it is very hard to separate the influence of each. Considering the fact that the effects of DU, could be delayed and synergistic with

  20. ADVERTISING AVOIDANCE PADA IKLAN DI MEDIA TELEVISI

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Dwi Pratama; Ujang Sumarwan; Hari Wijayanto

    2016-01-01

    One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES), advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the p...

  1. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  2. Pathological demand avoidance: Exploring the behavioural profile.

    OpenAIRE

    O Nions, E.; Viding, E.; Greven, C. U.; Ronald, A.; Happé, F.

    2014-01-01

    'Pathological Demand Avoidance' is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to 'socially manipulative' behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand avoidance is thought to share aspects of social impairment with autism spectrum disorders, but autism spectrum disorder-appropriate strategies, such as routine and repetition, ...

  3. Using the internet for suicide-related purposes: Contrasting findings from young people in the community and self-harm patients admitted to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Lucy; Derges, Jane; Goldsmith, Carlie; Donovan, Jenny L; Gunnell, David

    2018-01-01

    Despite accelerating interest in the impact of the internet on suicidal behaviour, empirical work has not captured detailed narratives from those who engaged in suicide-related internet use. This study explored the suicide-related online behaviour of two contrasting samples of distressed users, focusing on their purpose, methods and the main content viewed. In-depth interviews were conducted in the UK between 2014-2016 with i) young people in the community; and ii) self-harm patients presenting to hospital emergency departments. Data were analysed using methods of constant comparison. Suicide-related internet use varied according to the severity of suicidal feelings. In the young people sample, where severity was lower, use was characterised by disorganised browsing without clear purpose. A range of content was 'stumbled upon' including information about suicide methods. They also pursued opportunities to interact with others and explore online help. Self-harm patients were a higher severity group with a history of suicidal behaviour. Their use was purposeful and strategic, focused around 'researching' suicide methods to maximise effectiveness. They made specific choices about content viewed; many consulting factual content in preference to user generated accounts, while help content and communication was avoided. Findings indicate further action is necessary to improve online safety. Also, novel online help approaches are needed to engage individuals experiencing suicidal crisis. Awareness of the nature of suicide-related internet use and how this may reflect the status of an individual's suicidal thinking could be beneficial to clinicians to promote safety and indicate risk.

  4. Economics of Harmful Invasive Species: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marbuah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of invasive species; single species and groups of species at different geographical scales. However, the estimated damage costs show large variation, from less than 1 million USD to costs corresponding to 12% of gross domestic product, depending on the methods employed, geographical scale, and scope with respect to inclusion of different species. Decisions regarding optimal management strategies, when to act in the invasion chain and which policy to choose, have received much less attention in earlier years, but have been subject to increasing research during the last decade. More difficult, but also more relevant policy issues have been raised, which concern the targeting in time and space of strategies under conditions of uncertainty. In particular, the weighting of costs and benefits from early detection and mitigation against the uncertain avoidance of damage with later control, when the precision in targeting species is typically greater is identified as a key challenge. The role of improved monitoring for detecting species and their spread and damage has been emphasized, but questions remain on how to achieve this in practice. This is in contrast to the relatively large body of literature on policies for mitigating dispersal by trade, which is regarded as one of the most important vectors for the spread of invasive species. On the other hand, the literature on how to mitigate established species, by control or adaptation, is much more scant. Studies evaluating causes for success or failure of policies against invasive in practice are in principal non-existing.

  5. How Social Care Beneficiaries in Poland Rate Relative Harmfulness of Various Tobacco and Nicotine-Containing Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarz, Marek; Polańska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota

    2017-09-07

    The aim of the study was to examine how social care beneficiaries rate the relative harmfulness of tobacco/nicotine-containing products compared to traditional cigarettes. This information is crucial for the development of effective tobacco control strategies targeting disadvantaged populations. The cross-sectional study covered 1817 respondents who were taking advantage of social aid services offered by the local social care institutions in the Piotrkowski district, via face-to-face interviews. The linear regression analysis indicated that relative to women, men consider slim cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and e-cigarettes to be more harmful than traditional cigarettes ( p traditional cigarettes reported menthol cigarettes to be less harmful than traditional cigarettes, relative to the non-smokers ( p = 0.05). The current results demonstrate that social care beneficiaries are not aware of the fact that some products are less harmful than others. Education concerning tobacco/nicotine products should include advice on how to reduce the adverse health effects of smoking (e.g., avoiding inhalation of combusted products), while driving the awareness that no nicotine-containing products are safe.

  6. Self-harm in children placed in a Court-Mandated Holding and Education Centre: analysis of socio-demographic variables and influence of implementation of judicial measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. García

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze and understand the existence of self-harming behavior in a detention centre for minors. Methods: Review of self-harm cases detected in a population of 94 inmates in 2013. Results: 26.5% of young offenders have conducted some form of self injury. 28% of individuals with self harming behaviors have more than 6 episodes over the period of internment. Self-beating is the most common type of self-harm performed by this group. Inmates serving sentences in the therapeutic section tend to present spillover effects in terms of self-injury. Discussion: The population held in prison show higher percentages of self-harm than amongst the general population. The chosen type of behavior is determined by the institution. Inmates that present greater mental fragility tend to perform these behaviors and in greater number.

  7. Learning-Based Detection of Harmful Data in Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Woo Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has supported diverse types of multimedia content flowing freely on smart phones and tablet PCs based on its easy accessibility. However, multimedia content that can be emotionally harmful for children is also easily spread, causing many social problems. This paper proposes a method to assess the harmfulness of input images automatically based on an artificial neural network. The proposed method first detects human face areas based on the MCT features from the input images. Next, based on color characteristics, this study identifies human skin color areas along with the candidate areas of nipples, one of the human body parts representing harmfulness. Finally, the method removes nonnipple areas among the detected candidate areas using the artificial neural network. The experimental results show that the suggested neural network learning-based method can determine the harmfulness of various types of images more effectively by detecting nipple regions from input images robustly.

  8. Research on the Ordered Mesoporous Silica for Tobacco Harm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Y Li, Z.; Ding, J. X.; Hu, Z. J.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, G.; Huang, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    For reducting tobacco harm, this paper prepared an ordered mesoporous silica by using triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as template. The property of this material was characterized by the X-ray scattering spectrum(XRD), Transmission electron microscopy(TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Nitrogen adsorption/desorption. Then this ordered mesoporous silica was added into the cigarette filter in order to researching its effect of cigarette harm index. The result shows that the feature of SBA-15 was grain morphology, ordered arrangement, tubular porous 2-D hexagonal structure. The application of SBA-15 in cigarette filter can selectively reduce harmful components in cigarette smoke such as crotonaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, benzo pyrene and tar. The synthesized SBA-15 could properly reduce cigarette harm index.

  9. Differentiating drugs by harm potential: the rational versus the feasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalant, H

    1999-01-01

    In an ideal harm reduction model, drugs would be ranked according to their potential to cause harm, with varying implications for control policies and interventions. In such a public health oriented approach, the maximum protection of the public from harm would be balanced with the least possible restriction of freedom. In reality, however, the accuracy and completeness of the necessary information for such a ranking is highly limited. Many other factors not readily incorporated in a rational model, such as values, beliefs, and traditions, also affect drug policy decisions. Thus, rather than relying on acquisition of the necessary knowledge, it may be preferable to focus efforts on developing effective nonlegal measures to reduce drug use and harm. [Translations are provided in the International Abstracts Section of this issue.

  10. Population dynamics of potentially harmful algal blooms in Bizerte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were numerically dominated by potentially toxic species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, which were present year-round at all stations. ... Canonical correspondence analyses revealed significant relationships between the harmful phytoplankton species monitored and the environmental conditions.

  11. Problems of harmful habits and dependences of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorobey Nikolaj Petrovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of data of modern scientific literature is conducted on issue of harmful habits and dependences of students. It is shown that considerable part of student young people have harmful habits and dependences. Negative influence of harmful habits and dependences of students is exposed on the state of their health. Importance of delivering is well-proven from addiction behavior in practice of healthy way of life of students. It is set that one of foreground jobs of present time there is an increase of level of education of student young people on questions abandonment from harmful habits and dependences. The ways of decision of problem of addiction behavior of students are offered as an effective condition of improvement of the state of their health.

  12. Mental health nurses' attitudes toward self-harm: Curricular implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Shaw

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The FASH Model may inform future curriculum innovation. Adopting a holistic approach to education of nurses about self-harm may assist in developing attitudes and skills to make care provision more effective in secure mental health settings.

  13. Harmful situations, impure people: an attribution asymmetry across moral domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

    2015-03-01

    People make inferences about the actions of others, assessing whether an act is best explained by person-based versus situation-based accounts. Here we examine people's explanations for norm violations in different domains: harmful acts (e.g., assault) and impure acts (e.g., incest). Across four studies, we find evidence for an attribution asymmetry: people endorse more person-based attributions for impure versus harmful acts. This attribution asymmetry is partly explained by the abnormality of impure versus harmful acts, but not by differences in the moral wrongness or the statistical frequency of these acts. Finally, this asymmetry persists even when the situational factors that lead an agent to act impurely are stipulated. These results suggest that, relative to harmful acts, impure acts are linked to person-based attributions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Imidacloprid alters foraging and decreases bee avoidance of predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    Full Text Available Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera, to other important bee species.

  15. Imidacloprid Alters Foraging and Decreases Bee Avoidance of Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Chen, Weiwen; Dong, Shihao; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Yuchong; Nieh, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb) imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana) showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera), to other important bee species. PMID:25025334

  16. Marine harmful algal blooms, human health and wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berdalet, Elisa; Fleming, Lora E.; Gowen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    cause harm to humans and other organisms. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) have direct impacts on human health and negative influences on human wellbeing, mainly through their consequences to coastal ecosystem services (fisheries, tourism and recreation) and other marine organisms and environments...... maintaining intensive, multidisciplinary and collaborative scientific research, and strengthening the coordination with stakeholders, policymakers and the general public. Here we provide an overview of different aspects of the HABs phenomena, an important element of the intrinsic links between oceans...

  17. Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescence: A Challenge for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Ron

    2006-01-01

    Acts of deliberate self-harm (DSH) by adolescents are thought to be on the increase. Many of those who self-harm are of school age and it is to be expected that schools (and their teachers) will be aware of the problem and will respond appropriately as part of their pastoral-care provision. However, a recent survey of research in pastoral care and…

  18. Global Fund investments in harm reduction from 2002 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Jamie; Hunter, Benjamin M; Atun, Rifat

    2012-01-01

    Injecting drug use has been documented in 158 countries and is a major contributor to HIV epidemics. People who inject drugs have poor and inequitable access to HIV services. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is the leading multilateral donor for HIV programmes and encourage...... applicants to include harm reduction interventions in their proposals. This study is the first detailed analysis of Global Fund investments in harm reduction interventions....

  19. Harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm on mental health wards : the views and experiences of practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    James, Karen; Samuels, Isaac; Moran, Paul; Stewart, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Harm reduction has had positive outcomes for people using sexual health and substance misuse services. Clinical guidance recommends these approaches may be appropriately adopted by mental health practitioners when managing some people who self-harm. There has, however, been very little research in this area. Methods: We explored practitioners’ views of harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm. The Self Harm Antipathy Scale (SHAS) was administered to a rando...

  20. Drug policy, harm and human rights: a rationalist approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alex

    2011-05-01

    It has recently been argued that drug-related harms cannot be compared, so making it impossible to choose rationally between various drug policy options. Attempts to apply international human rights law to this area are valid, but have found it difficult to overcome the problems in applying codified human rights to issues of drug policy. This article applies the rationalist ethical argument of Gewirth (1978) to this issue. It outlines his argument to the 'principle of generic consistency' and the hierarchy of basic, nonsubtractive and additive rights that it entails. It then applies these ideas to drug policy issues, such as whether there is a right to use drugs, whether the rights of drug 'addicts' can be limited, and how different harms can be compared in choosing between policies. There is an additive right to use drugs, but only insofar as this right does not conflict with the basic and nonsubtractive rights of others. People whose freedom to choose whether to use drugs is compromised by compulsion have a right to receive treatment. They retain enforceable duties not to inflict harms on others. Policies which reduce harms to basic and nonsubtractive rights should be pursued, even if they lead to harms to additive rights. There exists a sound, rational, extra-legal basis for the discussion of drug policy and related harms which enables commensurable discussion of drug policy options. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. HARMFUL ENTOMOPHAUNA IMPACTS ON QUALITY OF MERCANTILE WHEAT AND FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Milošević

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Presence of harmful insects and mites is almost inevitable in mercantile wheat stored in warehouses. They cause significant damages and therefore it is necessary to perform pest control and chemical treatment. Study of harmful and destructive entomophauna impacts on quality of mercantile wheat and flour has been presented. Mercantile wheat stored in silos has been used in the study. Testing of quality of rheological properties and presence of harmful entomophauna were done in the labs within the silos «Žitoprerada d.o.o. Valpovo « and Department of Plant Protection on Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek. Presence of harmful entomophauna, quality of mercantile wheat stored in a warehouse and rheological flour properties were determined. The following harmful entomophauna were found: mites (Acarinae, primary pests of order Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, secondary pests of order Coleoptera and other insects found belong to Coleoptera, Psocoptera and useful insects of Hymenoptera orders. Influence of harmful entomophauna on quality of mercantile wheat is manifested by reduced quality of stored wheat due to decrease of water content and hectoliter mass. Lower quality of flour obtained by milling of infected wheat is manifested by change in rheological properties: dough stability, water absorption, growth, resistance, energy, extensibility, maximum resistance, start of puffing up, and viscosity.

  2. Harm expectancy violation during exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleine, Rianne A; Hendriks, Lotte; Becker, Eni S; Broekman, Theo G; van Minnen, Agnes

    2017-06-01

    Exposure therapy has proven efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotional processing theory proposes that fear habituation is a central mechanism in symptom reduction, but the empirical evidence supporting this is mixed. Recently it has been proposed that violation of harm expectancies is a crucial mechanism of action in exposure therapy. But to date, changes in harm expectancies have not been examined during exposure therapy in PTSD. The goal of the current study was to examine harm expectancy violation as mechanism of change in exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients (N=50, 44 female) with a primary diagnosis of chronic PTSD received intensive exposure therapy. Harm expectancies, harm experiences and subjective units of distress (SUDs) were assessed at each imaginal exposure session, and PTSD symptoms were assessed pre- and posttreatment with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Results showed that harm expectancies were violated within and strongly declined in-between exposure therapy sessions. However, expectancy violation was not related to PTSD symptom change. Fear habituation measures were moderately related to PTSD symptom reductions. In line with theory, exposure therapy promotes expectancy violation in PTSD patients, but this is not related to exposure therapy outcome. More work is warranted to investigate mechanisms of change during exposure therapy in PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do no harm: a defense of markets in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, William

    2010-09-01

    This paper argues that the rules that constitute a market protect autonomy and increase welfare in healthcare. Markets do the former through protecting rights to self-ownership and a cluster of rights that protect its exercise. Markets protect welfare by organizing and protecting trades. In contrast, prohibition destroys legitimate markets, giving rise to so-called black markets that harm both the autonomy and well-being of agents. For example, a fee-for-service medical system is a highly developed and specialized market. It is individuals working together, through the division of labor, to provide mutual insurance. This coordination, and the benefits it makes possible, is not possible without injunctions against harm. Prohibitions on harm are not mere ethical niceties, they are practice rules for both healthcare and markets. Placing the doctor within a healthcare market actually reinforces the doctor's moral obligation, and the legal enforcement of that obligation, not to harm. Similarly, markets reinforce patient rights to self-determination through legal and institutional enforcement of the harm principle in the form of the protection of certain basic welfare rights to life, bodily integrity, property, trade, and contract. Since the establishment of markets protects agent autonomy and welfare, and prohibition directly harms the same, there are strong reasons for establishing markets to protect trade in precisely those areas where autonomy and well-being are most vulnerable to exploitation, for example, the trade in human kidneys.

  4. Why Suicide? The Analysis of Motives for Self-Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohammed J; Mohanna, Mostafa A; Diab, Tarig A; Chikoore, Millicent; Wang, Michael

    2018-03-01

    There is a gap in understanding the meaning and motives behind suicidal behaviour. Using the Ideal Type methodology, Jean Baechler systematically examined the internal logic of suicidal and self-harming behaviours. He developed a typology of eleven typical meanings/motives: Flight, Grief, Self-punishment, Vengeance, Crime, Blackmail, Appeal, Sacrifice, Transfiguration, Ordeal and Game. To develop and validate a standardized instrument to measure the motives/meanings of suicidal and self-harming behaviours, using Baechler's typology. We developed a self-fill Likert questionnaire (Ideal Typical Meaning Questionnaire, ITMQ) covering ten of Baechler's eleven types. The questionnaire was completed by 147 patients within four weeks of attempting suicide or self-harm. The Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R) questionnaire was used to examine the concurrent validity of the Flight and the Transfiguration types and to explore the association between suicidal/self-harming motives and views about death. The final 25-item ITMQ has an eight-factor structure (Appeal/Blackmail, Ordeal/Game, Vengeance, Self-punishment, Sacrifice, Flight, Grief and Transfiguration) supporting Baechler's theory. The types have adequate reliability. Correlations with the DAP-R gave some support for the concurrent validity of the Flight and Transfiguration types. The ITMQ is a measure of suicidal and self-harming motives/meanings based on a sound conceptual framework and could significantly contribute to the understanding of suicidal and self-harming behaviour in research and clinical settings.

  5. γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 specifically suppresses green-light avoidance via GABAA receptors in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangqu; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2014-08-01

    Drosophila larvae innately show light avoidance behavior. Compared with robust blue-light avoidance, larvae exhibit relatively weaker green-light responses. In our previous screening for genes involved in larval light avoidance, compared with control w(1118) larvae, larvae with γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 (Ggt-1) knockdown or Ggt-1 mutation were found to exhibit higher percentage of green-light avoidance which was mediated by Rhodopsin6 (Rh6) photoreceptors. However, their responses to blue light did not change significantly. By adjusting the expression level of Ggt-1 in different tissues, we found that Ggt-1 in malpighian tubules was both necessary and sufficient for green-light avoidance. Our results showed that glutamate levels were lower in Ggt-1 null mutants compared with controls. Feeding Ggt-1 null mutants glutamate can normalize green-light avoidance, indicating that high glutamate concentrations suppressed larval green-light avoidance. However, rather than directly, glutamate affected green-light avoidance indirectly through GABA, the level of which was also lower in Ggt-1 mutants compared with controls. Mutants in glutamate decarboxylase 1, which encodes GABA synthase, and knockdown lines of the GABAA receptor, both exhibit elevated levels of green-light avoidance. Thus, our results elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms mediating green-light avoidance, which was inhibited in wild-type larvae. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. ADVERTISING AVOIDANCE PADA IKLAN DI MEDIA TELEVISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Dwi Pratama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES, advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the program, and advertising sector, and competition (DayPart. The study attempted to measure the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia and its relation to various factors that influence it by using the secondary data generated by Nielsen Audience Measurement Indonesia through Television Audience Measurement (TAM. The methods utilized consisted of the t-test independent sample, one way ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal Wallis, and Dunn Bonferoni. The result showed that the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia reached by 23%, with relatively similar results to the other studies in various countries. The hypothesis test results also showed a significant relationship between the advertising avoidance and demographic variables, advertising attributes, and competitions affecting this avoidance. On one hand, the findings of the study are expected to be useful for the advertisers to plan their advertisements on television so that they become more effective and efficient. On the other hand, television stations can utilize these findings as a development strategy to expand their audience segmentation and to accommodate the needs of the advertisers more optimally.Keywords: advertising avoidance, television advertisement, TAM, ANOVA, Tukey

  7. How biological microtubules may avoid decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameroff, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Entangled superpositions persisting for hundreds of milliseconds in protein assemblies such as microtubules (MTs) are proposed in biological functions, e.g. quantum computation relevant to consciousness in the Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' model. Cylindrical polymers of the protein tubulin, MTs organize cell activities. The obvious question is how biological quantum states could avoid decoherence, e.g. in the brain at 37.6 degrees centigrade. Screening/sheelding: tubulin protein states/functions are governed by van der Waals London forces, quantum interactions among clouds of delocalizable electrons in nonpolar 'hydrophobic' intra-protein pockets screened from external van der Waals thermal interactions. Such pockets include amino acid resonance structures benzene and indole rings. (Anesthetic gases erase consciousness solely by interfering with London forces in hydrophobic pockets in various brain proteins). Hence tubulin states may act as superpositioned qubits also shielded at the MT level by counter-ion Debye plasma layers (due to charged C-termini tails on tubulin) and by water-ordering actin gels which embed MTs in a quasi-solid. Biological systems may also exploit thermodynamic gradients to give extremely low effective temperatures. Decoherence free subspaces: paradoxically, a system coupled strongly to its environment through certain degrees of freedom can effectively 'freeze' other degrees of freedom (quantum Zeno effect), enabling coherent superpositions and entanglement to persist. Metabolic energy supplied to MT collective dynamics (e.g. Froehlich coherence) can cause Bose-Einstein condenzation and counter decoherence as lasers avoid decoherence at room temperature. Topological quantum error correction: MT lattice structure reveals various helical winding paths through adjacent tubulins which follow the Fibonacci series. Propagation/interactions of quasi-particles along these paths may process information. As proposed by Kitaev (1997), various

  8. Relationships Between Social Anxiety and Smoking-Specific Experiential Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; Heffner, Jaimee L; McClure, Jennifer B; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2017-01-01

    Although social anxiety is associated with higher prevalence of smoking and lower cessation rates, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of these relationships. Research suggests that socially anxious smokers have higher levels of smoking-specific experiential avoidance and are inclined to smoke to avoid internal smoking cues. However, it is unknown which types of internal smoking cues they avoid. Thus, this study aimed to address this gap in the literature. Participants (N = 450) were adult smokers from a group-based trial for smoking cessation. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical linear regression models examined relationships between baseline levels of social anxiety and acceptance of internal smoking cues-physical sensations, emotions, and cognitions. Social anxiety was associated with lower levels of acceptance of thoughts, sensations, and emotions that cue smoking. After controlling for levels of nicotine dependence, depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder, social anxiety still explained unique variability in overall acceptance of internal smoking cues and in acceptance of physical sensations and emotions that serve as smoking cues. Social anxiety no longer explained unique variability in acceptance of thoughts that trigger smoking. Smokers with high levels of social anxiety are less accepting of internal smoking cues. For physical and emotional cues, this effect was independent of level of dependence and mental health comorbidity. Results help explain why smokers with social anxiety are less likely to quit and can inform the development of targeted cessation treatments for smokers with social anxiety.

  9. Key conclusions from AVOID Work Stream One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    AVOID work stream (WS1)one has produced emission scenarios that simulate potential future global emission pathways for greenhouse gases during the 21st century. The study explored the influence of three key features of such pathways: (1) the year in which emissions peak globally, (2) the rate of emission reduction, and (3) the minimum level to which emissions are eventually reduced. It examined the resultant climate change, climate change impacts and economic implications using computer simulations. Avoided impacts, carbon taxes and GDP change increase throughout the 21st century in the models. AVOID-WS1 showed that in the absence of climate policy it is very likely that global mean temperatures would exceed 3 degrees and there are evens chances that the temperature would rise by 4 degrees relative to pre-industrial times. Scenarios that peak emissions in 2016 were more effective at constraining temperatures to below 3 degrees than those that peaked in 2030: one ‘2016' scenario achieved a probability of 45% of avoiding breaching of a 2 degree threshold. Scenarios peaking in 2030 were inconsistent with constraining temperatures to below 2 degrees. Correspondingly, scenarios that peak in 2030 are more effective at avoiding climate impacts than scenarios that peak in 2016, for all sectors that we studied. Hence the date at which emissions peak is more important than the rate of subsequent emissions reduction in determining the avoided impacts. Avoided impacts increase with time, being negligible in the 2030s, significant by the 2050s and large by the 2080s. Finally, the choice of GCM influences the magnitude of the avoided impacts strongly, so that the uncertainties in our estimates of avoided impacts for each scenario are larger than the difference between the scenarios. Our economic analysis is based on models which differ greatly in the assumptions that they make, but generally show that the date at which emissions peak is a stronger driver of induced GDP changes

  10. Hydroclimatic conditions trigger record harmful algal bloom in western Patagonia (summer 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Muñoz, Jorge; Urbina, Mauricio A; Garreaud, René; Iriarte, José Luis

    2018-01-22

    A harmful algal bloom (HAB) of the raphidophyta alga Pseudochattonella cf. verruculosa during the 2016 austral summer (February-March) killed nearly 12% of the Chilean salmon production, causing the worst mass mortality of fish and shellfish ever recorded in the coastal waters of western Patagonia. The HAB coincided with a strong El Niño event and the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode that altered the atmospheric circulation in southern South America and the adjacent Pacific Ocean. This led to very dry conditions and higher than normal solar radiation reaching the surface. Using time series of atmospheric, hydrologic and oceanographic data we show here that an increase in surface water temperature and reduced freshwater input resulted in a weakening of the vertical stratification in the fjords and sounds of this region. This allowed the advection of more saline and nutrient-rich waters, ultimately resulting in an active harmful algal bloom in coastal southern Chile.

  11. Danish emergency nurses' attitudes towards self-harm - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perbøll, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, N. M.; Østergaard, Birte

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional design...... was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48......%. Results show that the emergency nurses generally held positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. Nurses with longer ED experience held more positive attitudes, and women scored significantly higher than men on the whole scale. Only 19% of the respondents had received education...

  12. DNA elasticity: topology of self-avoidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Supurna; Ghosh, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical treatment of DNA stretching and twisting experiments, in which we discuss global topological subtleties of self-avoiding ribbons and provide an underlying justification for the worm-like rod chain (WLRC) model proposed by Bouchiat and Mezard. Some theoretical points regarding the WLRC model are clarified: the 'local writhe formula' and the use of an adjustable cut-off parameter to 'regularize' the model. Our treatment brings out the precise relation between the worm-like chain (WLC), the paraxial worm-like chain (PWLC) and the WLRC models. We describe the phenomenon of 'topological untwisting' and the resulting collapse of link sectors in the WLC model and note that this leads to a free energy profile periodic in the applied link. This periodicity disappears when one takes into account the topology of self-avoidance or at large stretch forces (paraxial limit). We note that the difficult non-local notion of self-avoidance can be replaced (in an approximation) by the simpler local notion of 'south avoidance'. This gives an explanation for the efficacy of the approach of Bouchiat and Mezard in explaining the 'hat curves' using the WLRC model, which is a south avoiding model. We propose a new class of experiments to probe the continuous transition between the periodic and aperiodic behaviour of the free energy

  13. Peer conflict avoidance: associations with loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H D; LaVoie, J C; Spenceri, M C; Mahoney-Wernli, M A

    2001-02-01

    Failure to resolve peer conflict is associated with children's reports of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance. Although these relationships are well established, researchers have not examined the association between the avoidance of peer conflict and various adjustment characteristics. The current study examined the association between avoidance of conflict and measures of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance for 59 pupils in Grade 4 (31 boys and 28 girls) and 47 in Grade 8 (22 boys and 25 girls). Volunteers indicated that conflict avoidance based on autonomy, e.g., independence issues, and interpersonal issues, e.g., closeness and cohesion, was associated with scores on loneliness for boys and girls, respectively. Conflict avoidance for emotional and physical well-being and fear of punishment was associated with increased reports of loneliness and social anxiety for children in Grade 4.

  14. A Transient Dopamine Signal Represents Avoidance Value and Causally Influences the Demand to Avoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultorak, Katherine J.; Schelp, Scott A.; Isaacs, Dominic P.; Krzystyniak, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Abstract While an extensive literature supports the notion that mesocorticolimbic dopamine plays a role in negative reinforcement, recent evidence suggests that dopamine exclusively encodes the value of positive reinforcement. In the present study, we employed a behavioral economics approach to investigate whether dopamine plays a role in the valuation of negative reinforcement. Using rats as subjects, we first applied fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to determine that dopamine concentration decreases with the number of lever presses required to avoid electrical footshock (i.e., the economic price of avoidance). Analysis of the rate of decay of avoidance demand curves, which depict an inverse relationship between avoidance and increasing price, allows for inference of the worth an animal places on avoidance outcomes. Rapidly decaying demand curves indicate increased price sensitivity, or low worth placed on avoidance outcomes, while slow rates of decay indicate reduced price sensitivity, or greater worth placed on avoidance outcomes. We therefore used optogenetics to assess how inducing dopamine release causally modifies the demand to avoid electrical footshock in an economic setting. Increasing release at an avoidance predictive cue made animals more sensitive to price, consistent with a negative reward prediction error (i.e., the animal perceives they received a worse outcome than expected). Increasing release at avoidance made animals less sensitive to price, consistent with a positive reward prediction error (i.e., the animal perceives they received a better outcome than expected). These data demonstrate that transient dopamine release events represent the value of avoidance outcomes and can predictably modify the demand to avoid. PMID:29766047

  15. Coping styles adopted in stressful situations by self-harming adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jabłkowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The state of stress and styles of coping with stress constitute an important component of life of every human being, particularly during adolescence. Effective coping mechanisms enable reduction of severity of stress experienced, while inability to manage stressful situations results in alterations in emotional and physiological domains, disturbances of mental well-being, somatic health and social functioning. Since a few years, we are witnessing a significant aggravation of the phenomenon of auto-aggression among children and adolescents, particularly in populations already undergoing psychiatric treatment. Such behaviours fulfil several functions: they may represent a way to express emotions, a means of adaptation or a style of coping with difficulties encountered in everyday life and emotional tension associated therewith. The aim of this study was to analyse predominating styles of coping with stressful situations, adopted by adolescen patients performing self-harm. The study population encompassed 35 patients, aged 16.60±0.18 years, there of 27 girls and 8 boys, hospitalised at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry of the Medical University in Łódź, who had a history of deliberate self-harm (DSH. Control group included 32 healthy volunteers aged 16.91±0.16 years, thereof 23 girls and 9 boys. In view of the size of study population, it was subdivided into subgroups depending on whether episodes of DSH were sporadic or repetitive. Data were collected using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS. This questionnaire was designed specifically to explore styles of coping with stress. Self-harming adolescents, both girls and boys, significantly more often adopted emotion-oriented style. Patients with repetitive DSH (over 4 episodes significantly more often adopted emotion-oriented style and/or avoidance-oriented style, particularly in the form of seeking social contacts – social diversion, as compared with those committing

  16. When integrated Marketing Communication Leads to Brand Avoidance : A qualitative study on why consumers actively avoid certain brands because of their marketing communication efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca, Rodillas; Hanna, Bjärkvik

    2017-01-01

    Background - Supply is nowadays higher than the demand, making it possible for consumers to pick, choose and purchase brands that responds to their individual identity. Due to the numerous offerings available, consumers have started to become resistant and they are now withstanding the influence of brands marketing activities. The concept of brand avoidance is one type of personal anti-consumption behaviour which deals with understanding why consumers actively avoid purchasing a specific bran...

  17. An avoidance layer in hierarchical process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Callatay, A.

    1994-01-01

    A project of layered software architecture is proposed: a safety-critical real-time non-stop simple kernel system includes a layer avoiding threatening actions from operators or programs in other control systems. Complex process-control applications (such as fuzzy systems) are useful for the smooth operation of the system, optimum productivity, efficient diagnostics, and safe management of degraded modes of operation. Defects in these complex process-control applications do not have an impact on safety if their commands have first to be accepted by a safety-critical module. The development, testing, and certification of complex applications computed in the outside layers can be made simpler and less expensive than for those in the kernel. Avoidance systems use rule-base systems having negative fuzzy conditions and actions. Animal and human behaviour cannot be explained without active avoidance

  18. New apparatus for training the avoidance reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1988-01-01

    A new apparatus for active avoidance training in rats consists of a short, wide runway which can be tilted from a horizontal to vertical position. One half of the electrifiable grid floor is covered by a nonconducting sheet. For brightness (black-white) discrimination training a white walled goal box can be inserted into the runway and shifted from left to right during training. Avoidance training of 24 rats (female Wistar SPF) required 14.1 +/- 2.6 (mean +/- SEM) to-criterion trials (9/10) and was completed in less than 4 min. Brightness discrimination training required 21.3 +/- 2.1 to-criterion trials and the time of training did not exceed 12 min. The retention of the acquired responses was very good in both cases. The main advantage of the apparatus is very rapid acquisition of the one-way and discriminated avoidance without the necessity of manual manipulation of the animal.

  19. Engaging Math-Avoidant College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Latiolais

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.

  20. Responsible and controlled use: Older cannabis users and harm reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis use is becoming more accepted in mainstream society. In this paper, we use Zinberg’s classic theoretical framework of drug, set, and setting to elucidate how older adult cannabis users managed health, social and legal risks in a context of normalized cannabis use. Methods We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946–1964) cannabis users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data collection consisted of a recorded, in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analyzed to discover the factors of cannabis harm reduction from the users’ perspectives. Results Interviewees made harm reduction choices based on preferred cannabis derivatives and routes of administration, as well as why, when, where, and with whom to use. Most interviewees minimized cannabis-related harms so they could maintain social functioning in their everyday lives. Responsible and controlled use was described as moderation of quantity and frequency of cannabis used, using in appropriate settings, and respect for non-users. Users contributed to the normalization of cannabis use through normification. Conclusion Participants followed rituals or cultural practices, characterized by sanctions that helped define “normal” or “acceptable” cannabis use. Users contributed to cannabis normalization through their harm reduction methods. These cultural practices may prove to be more effective than formal legal prohibitions in reducing cannabis-related harms. Findings also suggest that users with access to a regulated market (medical cannabis dispensaries) were better equipped to practice harm reduction. More research is needed on both cannabis culture and alternative routes of administration as harm reduction methods. PMID:25911027

  1. Association Between Deliberate Self-harm and Violent Criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Hanna; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Bjureberg, Johan; Lichtenstein, Paul; Molero, Yasmina; Rydell, Mina; Hedman, Erik; Runeson, Bo; Jokinen, Jussi; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hellner, Clara

    2017-06-01

    Individuals who self-harm may have an increased risk of aggression toward others, but this association has been insufficiently investigated. More conclusive evidence may affect assessment, treatment interventions, and clinical guidelines. To investigate the association between nonfatal self-harm and violent crime. This population-based longitudinal cohort study, conducted from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2013, studied all Swedish citizens born between 1982 and 1998 who were 15 years and older (N = 1 850 252). Individuals who emigrated from Sweden before the age of 15 years (n = 104 051) or immigrated to Sweden after the age of 13 years (ie, crime according to the Swedish penal code. The study cohort consisted of 1 850 525 individuals (950 382 males and 900 143 females), and the mean (SD) follow-up time was 8.1 (4.7) years (range, 0-17.0 years; minimum age, 15 years; maximum age, 32 years). During a mean follow-up period of 8.1 years, 55 185 individuals (3.0%) received clinical care for self-harm. The crude hazard ratio was 4.9 (95% CI, 4.8-5.0) for violent crime conviction in exposed individuals compared with the unexposed group. Women who self-harm were at particularly high risk for expressing violent behaviors. After adjustment for relevant psychiatric comorbidities and socioeconomic status, an almost doubled hazard of violent offense remained (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.8-1.9). Self-harm is associated with an increased risk of conviction for a violent offense in both sexes. The risk of violence, as well as the risk of suicide and self-harm, should be assessed among offending and self-harming individuals.

  2. Harm reduction - a historical view from the left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S R.; Southwell, M; Bueno, R; Paone, D; Byrne, J; Crofts, N

    2001-04-01

    The harm reduction movement formed during a period in which social movements of the working class and the excluded were weak, neo-liberalism ideologically triumphant, and potential opposition movements were viewed as offering "tinkering" with the system rather than a total social alternative. This climate shaped and limited the perspectives, strategies, and tactics of harm reductionists almost everywhere. In many countries, this period was also marked by a "political economy of scapegoating" that often targeted drug users as the cause of social woes. This scapegoating took the form of "divide and rule" political initiatives by business and political leaderships to prevent social unrest in a long period of worldwide economic trends toward lowered profit rates and toward increasing income inequality. However, times have changed. Mass strikes and other labor struggles, opposition to the World Trade Organisation and other agencies of neo-liberalism, community-based protests against belt-tightening, and other forms of social unrest have been increasing in many countries. This opens up the possibility of new allies for the harm reduction movement, but also poses difficult problems for which we need to develop answers. On-the-ground experience in alliance formation needs to be combined with careful discussion of and research about what approaches work to convince other movements to work for and with harm reduction, and which approaches do not. Class differences within the harm reduction movement are likely to become more salient in terms of (a) creating internal tensions, (b) increasingly, opening up new ways in which working class harm reductionists can organize within their own communities and workplaces, and (c) producing different strategic orientations that will need to be discussed and debated. As a movement, we will need to find ways to accommodate and discuss differing perspectives, needs, and assessments of opportunities and threats without paralyzing harm

  3. Responsible and controlled use: Older cannabis users and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-08-01

    Cannabis use is becoming more accepted in mainstream society. In this paper, we use Zinberg's classic theoretical framework of drug, set, and setting to elucidate how older adult cannabis users managed health, social and legal risks in a context of normalized cannabis use. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) cannabis users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data collection consisted of a recorded, in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analyzed to discover the factors of cannabis harm reduction from the users' perspectives. Interviewees made harm reduction choices based on preferred cannabis derivatives and routes of administration, as well as why, when, where, and with whom to use. Most interviewees minimized cannabis-related harms so they could maintain social functioning in their everyday lives. Responsible and controlled use was described as moderation of quantity and frequency of cannabis used, using in appropriate settings, and respect for non-users. Users contributed to the normalization of cannabis use through normification. Participants followed rituals or cultural practices, characterized by sanctions that helped define "normal" or "acceptable" cannabis use. Users contributed to cannabis normalization through their harm reduction methods. These cultural practices may prove to be more effective than formal legal prohibitions in reducing cannabis-related harms. Findings also suggest that users with access to a regulated market (medical cannabis dispensaries) were better equipped to practice harm reduction. More research is needed on both cannabis culture and alternative routes of administration as harm reduction methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz-Billing, I; Kentenich, H

    2008-12-01

    This article gives an overview over the huge topic of 'female genital mutilation' (FGM). FGM means non-therapeutic, partial or complete removal or injury of each of the external female genitals. It concerns about 130 million women around the world. FGM is performed in about 30 countries, most of which are located in Africa. Four types of FGM are distinguished: type I stands for the removal of the clitoral foreskin, type II means the removal of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora. Type III is the extreme type of FGM. Not only the clitoris but also the labia minora and majora were removed. The orificium vaginae is sewn up, leaving only a small opening for urine or menstruation blood. Other types like pricking, piercing of clitoris or vulva, scraping of the vagina, etc. were defined as type IV of FGM. The mentioned reasons for FGM are: encouragement of the patriarchal family system, method for birth control, guarantee of moral behaviour and faithfulness to the husband, protection of women from suspicions and disgrace, initiation ritual, symbol of feminity and beauty, hygienic, health and economic advantages. Acute physical consequences of FGM include bleeding, wound infections, sepsis, shock, micturition problems and fractures. Chronic physical problems like anemia, infections of the urinary tract, incontinence, infertility, pain, menstruation problems and dyspareunia are frequent. Women also have a higher risk for HIV infections. During pregnancy and delivery, examinations and vaginal application of medicine are more difficult. Women have a higher risk for a prolonged delivery, wound infections, a postpartum blood loss of more than 500 mL, perineal tears, a resuscitation of the infant and an inpatient perinatal death. Mental consequences after FGM include the feelings of incompleteness, fear, inferiority and suppression. Women report chronic irritability and nightmares. They have a higher risk for psychiatric and psychosomatic diseases

  5. Information Dilemmas and Blame-Avoidance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...... on information control to insulating leaders by using technical experts and agencies as 'lightning rods.' In 2003, the Chinese strategy of information containment and secrecy backfired, and the Chinese leadership eventually received blame at home and internationally for crisis mismanagement. In 2009, China put...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership....

  6. [Harm reduction interventions in drug users: current situation and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, María Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Harm reduction encompasses interventions, programmes and policies that seek to reduce the negative consequences of the consumption of both legal and illegal drugs on the individual and public health. Harm reduction looks to mitigate the harm suffered by drug users through drug use monitoring and prevention, and promotes initiatives that respect and protect the human rights of this population. The harm reduction policies that have proven effective and efficient are: opioid substitution maintenance therapy (methadone); needle and syringe exchange programmes; supervised drug consumption rooms; and overdose prevention through peer-based naloxone distribution. In order to be effective, these policies must have comprehensive coverage and be implemented in areas where the target population is prevalent. Resident-based opposition to the implementation of these policies is known as the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon, which is characterised by being against the implementation of new measures in a particular place, but does not question their usefulness. Given that any NIMBY phenomenon is a complex social, cultural and political phenomenon, it is important to conduct a thorough analysis of the situation prior to implementing any of these measures. Harm reduction policies must be extended to other substances such as alcohol and tobacco, as well as to other conditions beyond infectious/contagious diseases and overdose. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. PREP advertisement features affect smokers' beliefs regarding potential harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, A A; Tang, K Z; Tuller, M D; Cappella, J N

    2008-09-01

    The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers' beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a "red" condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a "no text" condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using "incorrect," "unsure" and "correct" as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Participants randomised to the "no text" advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, are healthier and make smoking safer. Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising.

  8. Rewarding peak avoidance: the Dutch 'Spitsmijden' projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knockaert, J.; Bakens, J.; Ettema, D.F.; Verhoef, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch road network is becoming increasingly congested. In late 2006, a group of companies, universities and government institutions established the Spitsmijden project. ‘Spitsmijden’ is the Dutch term for ‘avoiding the peak’. This joint initiative aimed to identify and assess a short-term

  9. The Netherlands Bird Avoidance Model, Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to

  10. Employer Attitudes towards Peak Hour Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  11. Employer attitudes towards peak hour avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  12. Avoidance Motivation and Conservation of Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  13. Avoidance motivation and conservation of energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  14. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  15. ALUMINUM AVOIDANCE BY MUCUNA-PRURIENS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAIRIAH, K; VANNOORDWIJK, M; STULEN, [No Value; KUIPER, PJC

    The hypothesis was tested that the avoidance of acid subsoil by the velvet bean Mucuna pruriens is based on a mechanism acting on the whole root system rather than on individual roots. In a split-root experiment with circulating nutrient solution the growth of plants with Al-containing (+/+) or

  16. Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can significantly decrease perinatal mortality. H. R. G. Ward, G. R. Howarth, O. J. N. Jennings,. R. C. Pattinson .... 6 months) and seven interns. The study was .... maternity care notes study: a randomized control trial to assess the effects of giving expectant mothers ...

  17. Hydrofluoric acid on dentin should be avoided.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2010-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM.

  18. Women Coping with a Partner's Sexual Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Domeena C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the complexities of sexual avoidance, or Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD), a previously neglected aspect of a couple's relationship. Suggests that learning from a therapist to accept and enjoy other forms of sexual exchange can open up new horizons of physical and emotional intimacy. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)

  19. Obstacle detection and avoiding of quadcopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dizhong; Lin, Jiajian

    2017-10-01

    Recent years, the flight control technology over quadcopter has been boosted vigorously and acquired the comprehensive application in a variety of industries. However, it is prominent for there to be problems existed in the stable and secure flight with the development of its autonomous flight. Through comparing with the characteristics of ultrasonic ranging and laser Time-of-Flight(abbreviated to ToF) distance as well as vision measurement and its related sensors, the obstacle detection and identification sensors need to be installed in order to effectively enhance the safety flying for aircraft, which is essential for avoiding the dangers around the surroundings. That the major sensors applied to objects perception at present are distance measuring instruments which based on the principle and application of non-contact detection technology . Prior to acknowledging the general principles of flight and obstacle avoiding, the aerodynamics modeling of the quadcopter and its object detection means has been initially determined on this paper. Based on such premise, this article emphasized on describing and analyzing the research on obstacle avoiding technology and its application status, and making an expectation for the trend of its development after analyzing the primary existing problems concerning its accuracy object avoidance.

  20. Traveler's guide to avoiding infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to-date information, please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) website -- www.cdc.gov/zika . To prevent getting the Zika virus, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Sexual transmission of the virus can be prevented by using condoms ...

  1. Approach and avoidance in fear of spiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    We examined attitudes towards spiders by employing an Approach-Avoidance Task, in which participants respond to pictures by pulling a joystick towards themselves or by pushing it away from themselves. For spider fearfuls, this stimulus–response assignment is either compatible (push spiders away) or

  2. FORUM Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of diets advocating extreme macronutrient manipulation has been reviewed extensively. Studies involving participation for 12 months or longer revealed that diet adherence, length of intervention and level of calorie. ISSUES IN MEDICINE. Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity. Maria Elizabeth Catsicas.

  3. Learn to Avoid or Overcome Leadership Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, John

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important factor in moving schools forward, yet we have been relatively random in how we prepare and support them. Four obstacles often block or diminish their effectiveness. Avoiding or overcoming each of these requires an underlying set of skills and knowledge that we believe can be learned and…

  4. PENGARUH CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP TAX AVOIDANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuralifmida Ayu Annisa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out how the influence of the corporate governance of tax avoidanceactivity in companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008. The samples are publiclytraded company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008 as many as 200 companies. Thisstudy uses data analysis and regression analysis of the elements of corporate governance and taxavoidance. The results of this study show that the elements of corporate governance that consist ofaudit quality and audit committee significantly influence the activity of tax avoidance as measuredusing proxy book tax gap. Other results show that the tax avoidance activity as measured withproxy book tax gap are not affected significantly by institutional ownership and board ofcommissioners. Limitation of this study is not to use each type of industries as control variable socan’t identify the direct effect from type of industry on tax avoidance. Another limitation of thisstudy is use corporate governance’s proxy separately, so it can’t capture the full effect ofcorporate governance. Keywords:corporate governance, ownership structure, board of commissioners, audit committee,tax avoidance, book tax gap.

  5. Avoidance: From threat encounter to action execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudova, I.

    2015-01-01

    Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both

  6. Wake Vortex Avoidance System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Knight, Howard K. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A wake vortex avoidance system includes a microphone array configured to detect low frequency sounds. A signal processor determines a geometric mean coherence based on the detected low frequency sounds. A display displays wake vortices based on the determined geometric mean coherence.

  7. Reasonable Avoidability, Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2012-01-01

    In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about...

  8. Simple Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Rehabilitation Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, Floran H.A.; Römer, GertWillem R.B.E.; Stuyt, Harry .J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm

  9. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    around the year 2000, with 1,890 among men and fewer than 25 among women. The proportions that could be avoided if industrial carcinogens were eliminated would be 70% of mesotheliomas, 20% of cancers of the nasal cavity and sinuses, 12% of lung cancers, 5% of laryngeal cancers, 2% of urinary bladder...

  10. Socioeconomic status as an effect modifier of alcohol consumption and harm: analysis of linked cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Whitley, Elise; Lewsey, Jim; Gray, Linsay; Leyland, Alastair H

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity are high in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations compared with individuals from advantaged areas. It is unclear if this increased harm reflects differences in alcohol consumption between these socioeconomic groups, reverse causation (ie, downward social selection for high-risk drinkers), or a greater risk of harm in individuals of low socioeconomic status compared with those of higher status after similar consumption. We aimed to investigate whether the harmful effects of alcohol differ by socioeconomic status, accounting for alcohol consumption and other health-related factors. The Scottish Health Surveys are record-linked cross-sectional surveys representative of the adult population of Scotland. We obtained baseline demographics and data for alcohol consumption (units per week and binge drinking) from Scottish Health Surveys done in 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. We matched these data to records for deaths, admissions, and prescriptions. The primary outcome was alcohol-attributable admission or death. The relation between alcohol-attributable harm and socioeconomic status was investigated for four measures (education level, social class, household income, and area-based deprivation) using Cox proportional hazards models. The potential for alcohol consumption and other risk factors (including smoking and body-mass index [BMI]) mediating social patterning was explored in separate regression models. Reverse causation was tested by comparing change in area deprivation over time. 50 236 participants (21 777 men and 28 459 women) were included in the analytical sample, with 429 986 person-years of follow-up. Low socioeconomic status was associated consistently with strikingly raised alcohol-attributable harms, including after adjustment for weekly consumption, binge drinking, BMI, and smoking. Evidence was noted of effect modification; for example, relative to light drinkers living in

  11. A test of the functional avoidance hypothesis in the development of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallford, D J; Austin, D W; Raes, F; Takano, K

    2018-04-18

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to the failure to recall memories of specific personally experienced events, which occurs in various psychiatric disorders. One pathway through which OGM is theorized to develop is the avoidance of thinking of negative experiences, whereby cumulative avoidance may maladaptively generalize to autobiographical memory (AM) more broadly. We tested this, predicting that negative experiences would interact with avoidance to predict AM specificity. In Study 1 (N = 281), negative life events (over six months) and daily hassles (over one month) were not related to AM specificity, nor was avoidance, and no interaction was found. In Study 2 (N = 318), we revised our measurements and used an increased timeframe of 12 months for both negative life events and daily hassles. The results showed no interaction effect for negative life events, but they did show an interaction for daily hassles, whereby increased hassles and higher avoidance of thinking about them were associated with reduced AM specificity, independent of general cognitive avoidance and depressive symptoms. No evidence was found that cognitive avoidance or AM specificity moderated the effect of negative experiences on depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that life events over 6-12 months are not associated with AM specificity, but chronic daily hassles over 12 months predict reduced AM specificity when individuals avoid thinking about them. The findings provide evidence for the functional-avoidance hypothesis of OGM development and future directions for longitudinal studies.

  12. Myopic Regret Avoidance: Feedback Avoidance and Learning in Repeated Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reb, Jochen; Connolly, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Decision makers can become trapped by "myopic regret avoidance" in which rejecting feedback to avoid short-term "outcome regret" (regret associated with counterfactual outcome comparisons) leads to reduced learning and greater long-term regret over continuing poor decisions. In a series of laboratory experiments involving repeated choices among…

  13. A collision avoidance model for two-pedestrian groups: Considering random avoidance patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuping; Cai, Yifei; Ke, Ruimin; Yang, Jiwei

    2017-06-01

    Grouping is a common phenomenon in pedestrian crowds and group modeling is still an open challenging problem. When grouping pedestrians avoid each other, different patterns can be observed. Pedestrians can keep close with group members and avoid other groups in cluster. Also, they can avoid other groups separately. Considering this randomness in avoidance patterns, we propose a collision avoidance model for two-pedestrian groups. In our model, the avoidance model is proposed based on velocity obstacle method at first. Then grouping model is established using Distance constrained line (DCL), by transforming DCL into the framework of velocity obstacle, the avoidance model and grouping model are successfully put into one unified calculation structure. Within this structure, an algorithm is developed to solve the problem when solutions of the two models conflict with each other. Two groups of bidirectional pedestrian experiments are designed to verify the model. The accuracy of avoidance behavior and grouping behavior is validated in the microscopic level, while the lane formation phenomenon and fundamental diagrams is validated in the macroscopic level. The experiments results show our model is convincing and has a good expansibility to describe three or more pedestrian groups.

  14. Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use and Associated Factors in Tuberculosis Public Primary Care Patients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Matseke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hazardous and harmful alcohol use and associated factors among patients with tuberculosis in South Africa. In a cross-sectional survey new tuberculosis (TB and TB retreatment patients were consecutively screened using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT within one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The sample included 4,900 (54.5% men and women 45.5% tuberculosis patients from 42 primary care clinics in three districts. Results indicate that, overall 23.2% of the patients were hazardous or harmful alcohol drinkers, 31.8% of men and 13.0% of women were found to be hazardous drinkers, and 9.3% of men and 3.4% of women meet criteria for probable alcohol dependence (harmful drinking as defined by the AUDIT. Men had significantly higher AUDIT scores than women. In multivariable analyses it was found that among men poor perceived health status, tobacco use, psychological distress, being a TB retreatment patient and not being on antiretroviral therapy (ART, and among women lower education, tobacco use and being a TB retreatment patient were associated with hazardous or harmful alcohol use. The study found a high prevalence of hazardous or harmful alcohol use among tuberculosis primary care patients. This calls for screening and brief intervention and a comprehensive alcohol treatment programme as a key component of TB management in South Africa.

  15. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  16. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  17. How sacrifice impacts the giver and the recipient: insights from approach-avoidance motivational theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Gere, Judith; Kogan, Aleksandr; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how sacrificing for approach versus avoidance goals shapes the giver's and the recipient's emotions and relationship quality. A sample of 80 dating couples participated in a three-part study in which they discussed sacrifice in the laboratory (Part 1), reported on their daily sacrifices for 14 days (Part 2), and completed a follow-up survey 3 months later (Part 3). When partners discussed a sacrifice they had made for approach goals, they experienced greater relationship quality, whereas when they discussed a sacrifice they had made for avoidance goals, they experienced poorer relationship quality. These effects were replicated with outside observer reports. On days when partners sacrificed for approach goals, both partners experienced increased relationship quality, but on days when people sacrificed for avoidance goals, the giver experienced decreased relationship quality. These effects were mediated by positive and negative emotions, respectively. Approach sacrifice goals predicted increases in relationship quality and avoidance sacrifice goals predicted decreases in relationship quality, as reported by both partners 3 months later. Sacrifice per se does not help or harm relationships, but the goals that people pursue when they give up their own interests can critically shape the quality of intimate bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Which benefits and harms of preoperative radiotherapy should be addressed? A Delphi consensus study among rectal cancer patients and radiation oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunneman, Marleen; Pieterse, Arwen H.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Marijnen, Corrie A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: We previously found considerable variation in information provision on preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) in rectal cancer. Our aims were to reach consensus among patients and oncologists on which benefits/harms of PRT should be addressed during the consultation, and to assess congruence with daily clinical practice. Materials and methods: A four-round Delphi-study was conducted with two expert panels: (1) 31 treated rectal cancer patients and (2) 35 radiation oncologists. Thirty-seven possible benefits/harms were shown. Participants indicated whether addressing the benefit/harm was (1) essential, (2) desired, (3) not necessary, or (4) to be avoided. Consensus was assumed when ⩾80% of the panel agreed. Results were compared to 81 audio-taped consultations. Results: The panels reached consensus that six topics should be addressed in all patients (local control, survival, long term altered defecation pattern and faecal incontinence, perineal wound healing problems, advice to avoid pregnancy), three in male patients (erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorder, infertility), and four in female patients (vaginal dryness, pain during intercourse, menopause, infertility). On average, less than half of these topics were addressed in daily clinical practice. Conclusions: This study showed substantial overlap between benefits/harms that patients and oncologists consider important to address during the consultation, and at the same time poor congruence with daily clinical practice

  19. Local competition increases people’s willingness to harm others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Why should organisms incur a cost in order to inflict a (usually greater) cost on others? Such costly harming behavior may be favored when competition for resources occurs locally, because it increases individuals' fitness relative to close competitors. However, there is no explicit experimental...... evidence supporting the prediction that people are more willing to harm others under local versus global competition. We illustrate this prediction with a game theoretic model, and then test it in a series of economic games. In these experiments, players could spend money to make others lose more. We...... manipulated the scale of competition by awarding cash prizes to the players with the highest payoffs per set of social partners (local competition) or in all the participants in a session (global competition). We found that, as predicted, people were more harmful to others when competition was local (study 1...

  20. Self-harm and overcrowding among prisoners in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hans; Casillas, Alejandra; Perneger, Thomas; Heller, Patrick; Golay, Diane; Mouton, Elisabeth; Bodenmann, Patrick; Getaz, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Prison institutional conditions affect risk for self-harm among detainees. In particular, prison overcrowding may increase the likelihood of self-harm by creating competition for resources, space, and enhancing a "deprivation state." The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between overcrowding and prisoner acts of self-harm. This cross-sectional study took place at Geneva's pre-trial prison (capacity:376) between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes were acts of self-harm that required medical attention, and self-strangulation/hanging events (combined into one group, as these are difficult to differentiate). Dichotomous predictors were overcrowding index- annual mean daily population divided by capacity ( > 200 percent vs prison change in gender, area of origin, foreign residency, religion, or psychiatric treatment. The present study is limited by the definition and identification of self-harm. The distinction between self-strangulation and self-hanging, and the precise classification of an intent to die is difficult to make in practice, especially with limited prison data records available. The relevant literature addresses the complexity of the association between non-suicidal and suicidal behavior. Despite this, the combined category self-strangulations/hangings gives some indication of severe self-harm events, especially since the methodology of categorization employed was consistent throughout the entire period of the study. Other limitations include the small sample size and the lack of individual patient data and prison data to help control for confounding factors. Despite these drawbacks, pertinent data (socio-demographics and number of prisoners treated for mental health and drug abuse) remained stable over the years. Thus, there are no apparent changes in the inmate population that could be linked to an increase in self-harm. High-security placements and mean prisoner stay have increased over time, with a decrease in staff to prisoner ratio - and these

  1. Emergency staff reactions to suicidal and self-harming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo; Ruberto, Amedeo; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2005-08-01

    Staff in the emergency departments of hospitals are reported as being negative or ambivalent toward suicidal or self-harming individuals. According to the literature, these patients are subjected to stigmatization and lack of empathy. This phenomenon has been linked to a decreased quality of care offered to these individuals and to missing an important opportunity to prevent further suicidal behavior or repetition of deliberate self-harm. Also, protocols, proper guidelines and education for the emergency staff call for a revision and an implementation. In this paper, evidence suggesting staff attitudes toward suicidal and self-harming patients is reviewed. An overview of related issues such as clinical judgment, the use of scales and nurses' role is also included in this report.

  2. Harmful Tax Competition in the EU with Reference to Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Drezgić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalisation has led, among other things, to harmful tax competition. This paper considers the efforts within the EU in combating harmful tax competition (Code of Conduct on Business Taxation and their effects when taking into account the EU regulations in relation to state aids. Considering a number of problems in the implementation of the Code, and the numerous criticisms with regard to the validity of the combat against harmful tax competition – it is difficult to give a final answer about its success. Croatian tax system, and the corporation tax in particular, are analysed in the light of the aforementioned problems. The advantages of the equal treatment of domestic and foreign investors, as well as the certain elements of state aids in tax benefits, are pointed out.

  3. Prevalence, Harm Perceptions, and Reasons for Using Noncombustible Tobacco Products Among Current and Former Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Xiao, Haijun; Stalgaitis, Carolyn; Vallone, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We provided estimates of noncombustible tobacco product (electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]; snus; chewing tobacco, dip, or snuff; and dissolvables) use among current and former smokers and examined harm perceptions of noncombustible tobacco products and reasons for their use. Methods. We assessed awareness of, prevalence of, purchase of, harm perceptions of, and reasons for using noncombustible tobacco products among 1487 current and former smokers from 8 US designated market areas. We used adjusted logistic regression to identify correlates of noncombustible tobacco product use. Results. Of the sample, 96% were aware of at least 1 noncombustible tobacco product, but only 33% had used and 21% had purchased one. Noncombustible tobacco product use was associated with being male, non-Hispanic White, younger, and more nicotine dependent. Respondents used noncombustible tobacco products to cut down or quit cigarettes, but only snus was associated with a higher likelihood of making a quit attempt. Users of noncombustible tobacco products, particularly ENDS, were most likely to endorse the product as less harmful than cigarettes. Conclusions. Smokers may use noncombustible tobacco products to cut down or quit smoking. However, noncombustible tobacco product use was not associated with a reduction in cigarettes per day or cessation. PMID:24922154

  4. Self-relevant disgust and self-harm urges in patients with borderline personality disorder and depression: a pilot study with a newly designed psychological challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsan Abdul-Hamid

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a common psychiatric condition associated with self-harm. Self-harm is poorly understood and there is currently no treatment for acute presentations with self-harm urges.By using a new task (Self-relevant Task; SRT, to explore emotions related to one's own person (PERSON task and body (BODY task, to study the correlations of these emotions, specifically disgust, with self-harm urge level changes, and to test the task's potential to be developed into an experimental model of self-harming for treatment trials.17 BPD patients, 27 major depressive disorder (MDD patients, and 25 healthy volunteers performed the SRT. Emotion labels were extracted from task narratives and disgust and self-harm urge level changes measured by visual analogue scales. We used validated rating scales to measure symptom severity.The SRT was effective at inducing negative emotions and self-harm urge changes. Self-harm urge changes correlated with borderline symptom severity. Post-task disgust levels on the visual analogue scales were higher in BPD patients than in healthy controls in the PERSON task, and higher than in both control groups in the BODY task. Changes in disgust levels during the task were significantly greater in the patient groups. Post-task disgust levels or changes in disgust were not associated with self-harm urge changes (except the latter in MDD in the PERSON task, but self-harm urge changes and disgust (but no other emotion narrative labels were on a whole sample level.Although associations with the analogue scale measures were not significant, self-disgust reported in the narrative of patients may be associated with a higher probability of self-harm urges. Further research with larger sample sizes is needed to confirm this relationship and to examine whether reducing self-disgust could reduce self-harm urges. The SRT was effective and safe, and could be standardized for experimental studies.

  5. Preserving human potential as freedom: a framework for regulating epigenetic harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics is a rapidly evolving scientific field of inquiry examining how a wide range of environmental, social, and nutritional exposures can dramatically control how genes are expressed without changing the underlying DNA. Research has demonstrated that epigenetics plays a large role in human development and in disease causation. In a sense, epigenetics blurs the distinction between "nature" and "nurture" as experiences (nurture) become a part of intrinsic biology (nature). Remarkably, some epigenetic modifications are durable across generations, meaning that exposures from our grandparents' generation might affect our health now, even if we have not experienced the same exposures. In the same vein, current exposures could affect the health of not only individuals currently living but also future generations. Given the relative novelty of epigenetics research and the multifactorial nature of human development and disease causation, it is unlikely that conclusive proof can be established showing that particular exposures lead to epigenetic risks that manifest into specific conditions. Using the Capabilities Approach ("CA") developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, this article argues that epigenetic risk is not merely a medical issue, but that it more generally implicates the underlying fairness and justice of our social contract. For instance, how we develop mentally or physically has a tremendous impact upon our inherent capabilities and our set of life options. The CA prompts us to ask questions such as: (1) what impact do particular epigenetic risks have on our ability to exercise free choices; (2) are these risks avoidable; and (3) how are these risks distributed across society? Due to the complex nature of epigenetic risk, tort law is predictably incapable of addressing this harm. Further, while regulatory agencies possess the statutory authority to begin addressing epigenetic harms, currently these agencies are not attuned to measure or to respond to

  6. Environmental triggers and avoidance in the management of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier C

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clarisse Gautier,1 Denis Charpin1,2 1Department of Pulmonology and Allergy, North Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France Abstract: Identifying asthma triggers forms the basis of environmental secondary prevention. These triggers may be allergenic or nonallergenic. Allergenic triggers include indoor allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs, molds, pets, cockroaches, and rodents, and outdoor allergens, such as pollens and molds. Clinical observations provide support for the role of HDM exposure as a trigger, although avoidance studies provide conflicting results. Molds and their metabolic products are now considered to be triggers of asthma attacks. Pets, dogs, and especially cats can undoubtedly trigger asthmatic symptoms in sensitized subjects. Avoidance is difficult and rarely adhered to by families. Cockroach allergens contribute to asthma morbidity, and avoidance strategies can lead to clinical benefit. Mouse allergens are mostly found in inner-city dwellings, but their implication in asthma morbidity is debated. In the outdoors, pollens can induce seasonal asthma in sensitized individuals. Avoidance relies on preventing pollens from getting into the house and on minimizing seasonal outdoor exposure. Outdoor molds may lead to severe asthma exacerbations. Nonallergenic triggers include viral infections, active and passive smoking, meteorological changes, occupational exposures, and other triggers that are less commonly involved. Viral infection is the main asthma trigger in children. Active smoking is associated with higher asthma morbidity, and smoking cessation interventions should be personalized. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for asthma exacerbation. The implementation of public smoking bans has led to a reduction in the hospitalization of asthmatic children. Air pollution levels have been linked with asthmatic symptoms, a decrease in lung function, and increased emergency room visits and

  7. Avoidance Behavior against Positive Allergens Detected with a Multiple Allergen Simultaneous Test Immunoblot Assay in Patients with Urticaria: Factors Associated with Avoidance Success/Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kwon, In Ho; Kim, Han Su; Kim, Heung Yeol; Cho, Eun Byul; Bae, Youin; Park, Gyeong Hun; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2016-02-01

    Avoidance behavior against positive allergens detected by using multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST)-immunoblot assay in patients with urticaria has been rarely reported. We aimed to assess the avoidance behavior of patients with urticaria against positive allergens detected with a MAST. One hundred and one urticaria patients who showed positivity to at least one allergen on a MAST completed a questionnaire regarding their test results. The avoidance behavior of the patients was evaluated, and relevant determining factors of avoidance success/failure were statistically assessed. We detected 144 different data (n=51, food allergens; n=17, pollen allergens; and n=76, aeroallergens) from 101 patients with urticaria. The avoidance failure rates were 33.3% for food allergens, 70.6% for pollen allergens, and 30.3% for aeroallergens. The pollen group showed a significantly higher avoidance failure rate than the food and aeroallergen groups (psuccessfully avoid allergens (psuccess or failure against allergens in patients with urticaria when clinicians conduct allergen-specific immunoglobulin E tests.

  8. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    to some extent could reflect differences in the quality of care, indicated by the numbers of perinatal deaths in categories of potentially avoidable deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 97% of all perinatal deaths in 1991 in the two countries were analyzed. A new classification focusing......BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...

  9. Avoiding revenue loss due to 'lesser of' contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodolak, Frederick; Gutierrez, Henry

    2014-08-01

    Finance managers seeking to avoid lost revenue attributable to lesser-of-charge-or-fixed-fee (lesser-of) clauses in their contracts should: Identify payer contracts that contain lesser-of clauses. Prepare lesser-of lost-revenue reports for non-bundled and bundled rates. For claims with covered charges below the bundled rate, identify service codes associated with the greatest proportion of total gross revenue and determine new, higher charge levels for those codes. Establish an approach for setting charges for non-bundled fee schedules to address lost-revenue-related issues. Incorporate changes into overall strategic or hospital zero-based pricing modeling and parameters.

  10. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... to some extent could reflect differences in the quality of care, indicated by the numbers of perinatal deaths in categories of potentially avoidable deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 97% of all perinatal deaths in 1991 in the two countries were analyzed. A new classification focusing...

  11. Measuring the willingness to pay to avoid guilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemare, Charles; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Strobel, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We estimate structural models of guilt aversion to measure the population level of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid feeling guilt by letting down another player. We compare estimates of WTP under the assumption that higher-order beliefs are in equilibrium (i.e., consistent with the choice...... distribution) with models estimated using stated beliefs which relax the equilibrium requirement. We estimate WTP in the latter case by allowing stated beliefs to be correlated with guilt aversion, thus controlling for a possible source of a consensus effect. All models are estimated using data from...

  12. Measuring the Willingness to Pay to Avoid Guilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemare, Charles; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Strobel, Martin

    We estimate structural models of guilt aversion to measure the population level of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid feeling guilt by letting down another player. We compare estimates of WTP under the assumption that higher-order beliefs are in equilibrium (i.e. consistent with the choice...... distribution) with models estimated using stated beliefs which relax the equilibrium requirement. We estimate WTP in the later case by allowing stated beliefs to be correlated with guilt aversion, thus controlling for a possible source of a consensus effect. All models are estimated using data from...

  13. Informed choice requires information about both benefits and harms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, K J; Brodersen, J; Hartling, O J

    2009-01-01

    women is seriously biased in favour of participation. Women are not informed about the major harms of screening, and the decision to attend has already been made for them by a public authority. This short-circuits informed decision-making and the legislation on informed consent, and violates...... the autonomy of the women. Screening invitations must present both benefits and harms in a balanced fashion, and should offer, not encourage, participation. It should be stated clearly that the choice not to participate is as sensible as the choice to do so. To allow this to happen, the responsibility...

  14. The concept of "harm" in Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2018-05-23

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a proposed condition that refers to persistent gaming leading to clinically significant impairment. However, there have been few attempts to study the different types and degrees of harm caused by IGD. This commentary describes some of the negative intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of an extreme time investment in gaming activities in the context of IGD. Future research should examine the way in which IGD harms may occur at different levels and degrees. This may enhance the screening of individuals whose behavior is suspected to meet the definition of the proposed IGD criteria.

  15. Embodied harms: gender, shame, and technology-facilitated sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Criminality in cyberspace has been the subject of much debate since the 1990s, yet comparatively little attention has been paid to technology-facilitated sexual violence and harassment (TFSV). The aim of this article is to explore the ways in which retraditionalized gender hierarchies and inequalities are manifested in online contexts, and to conceptualize the cause and effects of TFSV as "embodied harms." We argue that problematic mind/body and online/off-line dualisms result in a failure to grasp the unique nature of embodied harms, precluding an adequate understanding and theorization of TFSV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Fasting: Benefits and probable health harmfulness from the Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-06-01

    Medical science can determine the effects and consequences of thirst and hunger during the month of Ramadan. In the religious perspective, it has been emphasized that fasting is for achieving the divine virtue, and this shouldn’t be in conflict with maintaining man’s health. Therefore, the conditions in which there is the probability of harmfulness to man’s health due to fasting, man shouldn’t fast. As a result, medical science could recognize the conditions in which there is probable harmfulness to man’s health.

  17. Double Jeopardy: Insurance, Animal Harm, and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Tania; Taylor, Nik; Burke, Karena J; Brownlow, Luke

    2018-05-01

    Although the role of companion animals within the dynamic of domestic violence (DV) is increasingly recognized, the overlap of animal harm and insurance discrimination for victims/survivors of DV has not been considered. Prompted by a case study presented in a National Link Coalition LINK-Letter, this research note examines "Pet Insurance" policies available in Australia and whether nonaccidental injury caused by an intimate partner would be covered. We discuss the implications of exclusion criteria for victims/survivors of DV, shelters providing places for animals within a DV dynamic, and, more broadly, for cross- or mandatory-reporting (of animal harm) initiatives.

  18. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs. PMID:21477299

  19. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Thomas L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis and TB (tuberculosis. Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing. Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32% of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs.

  20. Beyond Sacrificial Harm: A Two-Dimensional Model of Utilitarian Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has relied on trolley-type sacrificial moral dilemmas to study utilitarian versus nonutilitarian modes of moral decision-making. This research has generated important insights into people’s attitudes toward instrumental harm—that is, the sacrifice of an individual to save a greater number. But this approach also has serious limitations. Most notably, it ignores the positive, altruistic core of utilitarianism, which is characterized by impartial concern for the well-being of everyone, whether near or far. Here, we develop, refine, and validate a new scale—the Oxford Utilitarianism Scale—to dissociate individual differences in the ‘negative’ (permissive attitude toward instrumental harm) and ‘positive’ (impartial concern for the greater good) dimensions of utilitarian thinking as manifested in the general population. We show that these are two independent dimensions of proto-utilitarian tendencies in the lay population, each exhibiting a distinct psychological profile. Empathic concern, identification with the whole of humanity, and concern for future generations were positively associated with impartial beneficence but negatively associated with instrumental harm; and although instrumental harm was associated with subclinical psychopathy, impartial beneficence was associated with higher religiosity. Importantly, although these two dimensions were independent in the lay population, they were closely associated in a sample of moral philosophers. Acknowledging this dissociation between the instrumental harm and impartial beneficence components of utilitarian thinking in ordinary people can clarify existing debates about the nature of moral psychology and its relation to moral philosophy as well as generate fruitful avenues for further research. PMID:29265854

  1. Level ofaggression and sense of control inself-harming youth receiving psychiatric treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gmitrowicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acts of autoaggression are a more and more frequent reason for psychiatric hospitalisation of adolescents. Within the last years the number of patients committing acts of deliberate self‑harm without suicidal intensions almost doubled. Deliberate self‑harm (DSH is defined as an act of direct destructiveness, in which a person wants to commit self‑harm immediately, without an intention of killing her/himself. In this paper we present the results of the study on the level and direction of aggression and the sense of control among inpatients (N=187 of the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Central University Hospital in Łódź. The studied group consisted of patients with deliberate self‑harm (DSH group, N=88, whereas the control group comprised the patients without such behaviours (non‑DSH group, N=99. For the study we recruited patients who were admitted to the hospital due to various mental disorders – 58 boys, mean age 16.81, SD=1.25, and 129 girls, mean age 16.5, SD=1.38. The mean age of all patients was 16.59 (SD=1.35. Patients with men‑ tal retardation were excluded from the study, due to expected difficulties with understanding the questions. We used the IPSA (Inventory of Psychological Syndrome of Aggression and “Delta” (test invented by Drwal, designed for evalua‑ tion of the sense of control. In the DSH group we found a significantly higher level of aggression, directed both inwards and outwards, a greater tendency of retaliatory behaviours and by far lower sense of internal control of one’s behaviours, as compared to the non‑DSH group. Therapeutic programs for patients with DSH should aim at the reduction of aggres‑ sion and the development of internal control over one’s behaviours.

  2. Perceptions of the Harm and Addictiveness of Conventional Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescent E-Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotomo, Olusegun; Maslowsky, Julie; Loukas, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Although existing evidence indicates that e-cigarette use is a risk factor for cigarette smoking initiation, mechanisms of this association are not yet known. E-cigarette users perceive e-cigarette use to be less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes, but their absolute perceptions of addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking are unknown. This study examines how e-cigarette users compare with nonusers (non-e-cigarette users/nonconventional cigarette smokers), conventional cigarette smokers, and dual users on perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking and on other known predictors of cigarette smoking such as peer smoking, influence of antismoking ads, and risk-taking propensity. National samples of 8th- and 10th-grade students from 2014 and 2015 (N = 14,151) were obtained from the Monitoring the Future Study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between adolescent smoking status and perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking while controlling for potential confounders. E-cigarette users had lower perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking compared with nonusers but higher than cigarette smokers and dual users. E-cigarette users reported lower influence by antismoking ads, more conventional cigarette-smoking peers, and greater risk-taking propensity than nonusers. E-cigarette users and cigarette smokers did not differ in their perceived harm of conventional cigarette smoking or in their risk-taking propensity. E-cigarette users' attitudes and perceptions regarding conventional cigarette smoking may leave them vulnerable to becoming conventional cigarette smokers. Future studies should explore the prospective relationship between smoking-related perceptions of conventional cigarette smoking among e-cigarette users and the onset of cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published

  3. Linking Individual Learning Styles to Approach-Avoidance Motivational Traits and Computational Aspects of Reinforcement Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Carl Aberg

    Full Text Available Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning and avoid punishments (avoidance learning is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits.

  4. Linking Individual Learning Styles to Approach-Avoidance Motivational Traits and Computational Aspects of Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Aberg, Kristoffer; Doell, Kimberly C.; Schwartz, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning) and avoid punishments (avoidance learning) is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance) learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance) trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative) outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits. PMID:27851807

  5. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Updating for the year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeder, Lea; Burger, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany (Updating for the year 2016) includes the following issues: Why the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions is necessary; subventions and related processes; international initiatives for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions, routes for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions.

  6. Research on embedded automobile collision avoidance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAO Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking ARM embedded Linux operating system as the development platform,combined with AVR microcontroller,while optimizing the ranging algorithm and using air ultrasonic transducer,the measurement range of which can be up to 50 meter,this paper designs a high-precision,range far,low price,various models suitable automobile collision avoidance warning system.The system adopts Forlinx OK6410 development board for the master.AVR microcontroller is responsible for taking the data of traveling distance between vehicles,and with the ARM development board via RS232 communication transfers vehicle′s distance and speed information to the ARM development boards.The system uses the established collision avoidance model to get alarm information.Experiments show that the system can accurately send out alarm information within a certain range.It is innovative and practical.

  7. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  8. Avoidant Personality Disorder: a Current Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, Anna; Schulze, Lars; Boettcher, Johanna; Renneberg, Babette

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on recent research on diagnostic aspects, etiology, and treatment of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). Current studies stress the close relation between AVPD and social anxiety disorder, the influence of genetic factors in the development of AVPD, and the relative stability of symptoms. Treatment approaches should target the pervasive patterns of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Empirical evidence for cognitive-behavior and schema therapy is promising. Few other therapeutic approaches have been developed, but until now, these have only been investigated in case studies. We conclude that AVPD qualifies as a neglected disorder and that more research specifically on avoidant personality disorder symptoms and its treatment is needed.

  9. Optical Flow based Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlouche Souhila

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.

  10. Construction dispute research conceptualisation, avoidance and resolution

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    There are three specific purposes of Construction Dispute Research. First, this volume aims to summarise studies on construction dispute. Second, apart from the theoretical constructs, where appropriate empirical tests are also included. This approach serves to go beyond the commonly used anecdotal approach for the subject matters. Third, it is the sincere hope of the authors that this book will help shaping research agenda of construction dispute.  The studies are mostly framed from a management perspective drawing on methods and concepts in contract law, economics, psychology and management science.   The book has twenty chapters that are arranged in four parts covering conceptualisation, avoidance, negotiation and mediation. Part 1 is devoted for dispute conceptualisation. A building is only as strong as its foundation. Thus it is no better start to study construction dispute by conceptualisation. The theme of Part 2 is dispute avoidance. The conventional wisdom of ‘prevention is better than cure’ se...

  11. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  12. Harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm on mental health wards: the views and experiences of practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karen; Samuels, Isaac; Moran, Paul; Stewart, Duncan

    2017-05-01

    Harm reduction has had positive outcomes for people using sexual health and substance misuse services. Clinical guidance recommends these approaches may be appropriately adopted by mental health practitioners when managing some people who self-harm. There has, however, been very little research in this area. We explored practitioners' views of harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm. The Self Harm Antipathy Scale (SHAS) was administered to a random sample of 395 mental health practitioners working on 31 wards in England, semi-structured interviews were then conducted with 18 survey respondents. Practitioners who had implemented the approach reported positive outcomes including a reduction in incidence and severity of self-harm and a perceived increase in empowerment of service users. Practitioners with no experience of using harm reduction were concerned that self-harm would increase in severity, and were unsure how to assess and manage risk in people under a harm reduction care plan. Some fundamentally disagreed with the principle of harm reduction for self-harm because it challenged their core beliefs about the morality of self-harm, or the ethical and potential legal ramifications of allowing individuals to harm themselves. This study was conducted solely with practitioners working on inpatient units. The majority of staff interviewed had no experience of harm reduction and so their concerns may not reflect challenges encountered by practitioners in clinical practice. Harm reduction is being used to support people who self-harm within inpatient psychiatry and some practitioners report potential benefits of this approach. However, this raises particularly complex practical, ethical and legal issues and further research is needed to assess the safety, acceptability and efficacy of the approach. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Online Learning of Commission Avoidant Portfolio Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Uziel, Guy; El-Yaniv, Ran

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel online ensemble learning strategy for portfolio selection. The new strategy controls and exploits any set of commission-oblivious portfolio selection algorithms. The strategy handles transaction costs using a novel commission avoidance mechanism. We prove a logarithmic regret bound for our strategy with respect to optimal mixtures of the base algorithms. Numerical examples validate the viability of our method and show significant improvement over the state-of-the-art.

  14. Detect and Avoid (DAA) Automation Maneuver Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    GUY A. FRENCH JOSEPH C. PRICE, MAJ, USAF Work Unit Manager Acting Chief, Supervisory Control and Cognition Branch Supervisory Control and Cognition...19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON (Monitor) a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified Guy French 19b. TELEPHONE...the ability to detect and safely avoid other aircraft in flight ( Cook & Davis, 2013). In order to increase UAS flight safety and support UAS

  15. Tax avoidance: Definition and prevention issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of resolving issues pertaining to tax avoidance, and particularly its aggressive forms, has been the focal point of discussion among tax scholars which is increasingly gaining attention of politicians alike. As opposed to tax evasion (which is illegal, the phenomenon of tax avoidance calls for careful consideration of state fiscal interests and a highly precise demarcation of the thin line between the acceptable and unacceptable conduct. In many contemporary states, tax avoidance (which implies a formal behaviour of tax payers within the limits of tax legislation but contrary to the tax regulation objectives is declared to be illegitimate. State authorities do not want to tolerate such activity, which results in tax payers' reduction or avoidance of tax liabilities. We should also bear in mind that all tax payers have the tax planning option at their disposal, by means of which they make sure that they do not pay more tax than they are legally obliged to. However, in case they skilfully use the tax regulation flaws and loopholes for the sole purpose of tax evasion, and/or resort to misrepresentation and deceptive constructs, they are considered to be exceeding the limits of acceptable tax behaviour. In comparison to the specific anti-abuse measures which have been built into some national tax legislations, there is a growing number of states that introduce the general anti-abuse legislations, which is based on judicial doctrines or statutory legislation. Yet, there is a notable difference among the envisaged anti-abuse measures depending on whether the national legislation is based on the Anglo-American or European-Continental legal system. The efficiency of applying these general anti-abuse rules in taxation largely rests on their interpretation as well as on their relationship with the principle of legality.

  16. Avoiding Local Optima with Interactive Evolutionary Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    the top of a flight of stairs selects for climbing ; suspending the robot and the target object above the ground and creating rungs between the two will...REPORT Avoiding Local Optimawith Interactive Evolutionary Robotics 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The main bottleneck in evolutionary... robotics has traditionally been the time required to evolve robot controllers. However with the continued acceleration in computational resources, the

  17. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting m...

  18. Functional neuroimaging of avoidance habits in OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Method Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 controls learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan. Following 4 blocks of training, we tested if the avoidance response had become a habit by removing the threat of shock and measuring continued avoidance. We tested for task-related differences in brain activity in 3 ROIs, the caudate, putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex at a statistical threshold of phabit formation in OCD patients, which was associated with hyper-activation in the caudate. Activation in this region was also associated with subjective ratings of increased urge to perform habits. The OCD group, as a whole, showed hyper-activation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) during the acquisition of avoidance, however this did not relate directly to habit formation. Conclusions OCD patients exhibited excessive habits that were associated with hyper-activation in a key region implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the caudate nucleus. Prior studies suggest that this region is important for goal-directed behavior, suggesting that habit-forming biases in OCD may be a result of impairments in this system, rather than differences in the build up of stimulus-response habits themselves. PMID:25526600

  19. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  20. Granting silence to avoid wireless collisions

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il; Jain, Mayank; Kazandjieva, Maria A.; Levis, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We describe grant-to-send, a novel collision avoidance algorithm for wireless mesh networks. Rather than announce packets it intends to send, a node using grant-to-send announces packets it expects to hear others send. We present evidence that inverting collision avoidance in this way greatly improves wireless mesh performance. Evaluating four protocols from 802.11 meshes and 802.15.4 sensor networks, we find that grant-to-send matches or outperforms CSMA and RTS/CTS in all cases. For example, in a 4-hop UDP flow, grantto- send can achieve 96% of the theoretical maximum throughput while maintaining a 99.9% packet delivery ratio. Grant-tosend is also general enough to replace protocol-specific collision avoidance mechanisms common to sensor network protocols. Grant-to-send is simple. For example, incorporating it into 802.11 requires only 11 lines of driver code and no hardware changes. Furthermore, as it reuses existing 802.11 mechanisms, grant-to-send inter-operates with current networks and can be incrementally deployed. © 2010 IEEE.

  1. Granting silence to avoid wireless collisions

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il

    2010-10-01

    We describe grant-to-send, a novel collision avoidance algorithm for wireless mesh networks. Rather than announce packets it intends to send, a node using grant-to-send announces packets it expects to hear others send. We present evidence that inverting collision avoidance in this way greatly improves wireless mesh performance. Evaluating four protocols from 802.11 meshes and 802.15.4 sensor networks, we find that grant-to-send matches or outperforms CSMA and RTS/CTS in all cases. For example, in a 4-hop UDP flow, grantto- send can achieve 96% of the theoretical maximum throughput while maintaining a 99.9% packet delivery ratio. Grant-tosend is also general enough to replace protocol-specific collision avoidance mechanisms common to sensor network protocols. Grant-to-send is simple. For example, incorporating it into 802.11 requires only 11 lines of driver code and no hardware changes. Furthermore, as it reuses existing 802.11 mechanisms, grant-to-send inter-operates with current networks and can be incrementally deployed. © 2010 IEEE.

  2. Acute carbon dioxide avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallem, Elissa A; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-06-10

    Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement. This response is mediated by a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated heteromeric channel TAX-2/TAX-4. CO2 avoidance is modulated by multiple signaling molecules, including the neuropeptide Y receptor NPR-1 and the calcineurin subunits TAX-6 and CNB-1. Nutritional status also modulates CO2 responsiveness via the insulin and TGFbeta signaling pathways. CO2 response is mediated by a neural circuit that includes the BAG neurons, a pair of sensory neurons of previously unknown function. TAX-2/TAX-4 function in the BAG neurons to mediate acute CO2 avoidance. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans senses and responds to CO2 using multiple signaling pathways and a neural network that includes the BAG neurons and that this response is modulated by the physiological state of the worm.

  3. Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

  4. Knowing and avoiding plagiarism during scientific writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, Svvs; Nagasree, M

    2014-09-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing.

  5. Knowing and Avoiding Plagiarism During Scientific Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588

  6. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  7. Is exposure to e-cigarette communication associated with perceived harms of e-cigarette secondhand vapour? Results from a national survey of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Mello, Susan; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2015-03-26

    E-cigarettes are frequently advertised and portrayed in the media as less harmful compared with regular cigarettes. Earlier surveys reported public perceptions of harms to people using e-cigarettes; however, public perceptions of harms from exposure to secondhand vapour (SHV) have not been studied. We examined associations between self-reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising, media coverage, and interpersonal discussion and perceived harms of SHV. Observational study. National online sample of US adults aged ≥18 years. 1449 US adults (mean age 49.5 years), 51.3% female, 76.6% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 7.5% African-American, 10.0% Hispanic and 5.9% other races. Perceived harm measures included (1) harmfulness of SHV to one's health, (2) concern about health impact of breathing SHV and (3) comparative harm of SHV versus secondhand smoke (SHS). Predictors were (1) self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette advertising, media coverage and interpersonal discussion (close friends or family) and (2) perceived valence of exposure from each source. Covariates were demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking status and e-cigarette use, and were weighted to the general US adult population. More frequent interpersonal discussion was associated with lower perceived harmfulness of SHV to one's health and lower perceived comparative harm of SHV versus SHS. Frequency of e-cigarette ad and other media exposure were not significant predictors. Perceived negative valence of ad exposure and interpersonal discussion (vs no exposure) was associated with higher perceived harm across all three outcomes, while negative valence of media coverage was associated with higher concern about health impact of breathing SHV. Perceived positive valence (vs no exposure) of interpersonal discussion was associated with lower perceived harm across all three outcomes about health impact of breathing SHV. Exposure to information about e-cigarettes through advertising, media coverage

  8. Primary School Children and Self Harm: The Emotional Impact upon Education Professionals, and Their Understandings of Why Children Self Harm and How This Is Managed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simm, Rebecca; Roen, Katrina; Daiches, Anna

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting that self harm among young people is beginning earlier, in childhood and adolescent years. This paper reports on a qualitative study of primary school staff responses to self harm among children. Some studies with adolescents show self harm presents challenges to education professionals who may lack training or…

  9. First Episode of Self-Harm in Older Age : A Report From the 10-Year Prospective Manchester Self-Harm Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Cooper, Jayne; Murphy, Elizabeth; Steeg, Sarah; Kapur, Nay; Purandare, Nitin B.

    Objective: Self-harm is closely related to completed suicide, especially in older age. As empirical research of self-harm in older age is scarce, with no studies confined to first-ever episodes in older age, we examined the clinical characteristics and the risk of repetition in first-ever self-harm

  10. First episode of self-harm in older age: a report from the 10-year prospective Manchester Self-Harm project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Cooper, J.; Murphy, E.; Steeg, S.; Kapur, N.; Purandare, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Self-harm is closely related to completed suicide, especially in older age. As empirical research of self-harm in older age is scarce, with no studies confined to first-ever episodes in older age, we examined the clinical characteristics and the risk of repetition in first-ever self-harm

  11. Harmful algal blooms and climate change: Learning from the past and present to forecast the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mark L.; Trainer, Vera L.; Smayda, Theodore J.; Karlson, Bengt S.O.; Trick, Charles G.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Ishikawa, Akira; Bernard, Stewart; Wulff, Angela; Anderson, Donald M.; Cochlan, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change pressures will influence marine planktonic systems globally, and it is conceivable that harmful algal blooms may increase in frequency and severity. These pressures will be manifest as alterations in temperature, stratification, light, ocean acidification, precipitation-induced nutrient inputs, and grazing, but absence of fundamental knowledge of the mechanisms driving harmful algal blooms frustrates most hope of forecasting their future prevalence. Summarized here is the consensus of a recent workshop held to address what currently is known and not known about the environmental conditions that favor initiation and maintenance of harmful algal blooms. There is expectation that harmful algal bloom (HAB) geographical domains should expand in some cases, as will seasonal windows of opportunity for harmful algal blooms at higher latitudes. Nonetheless there is only basic information to speculate upon which regions or habitats HAB species may be the most resilient or susceptible. Moreover, current research strategies are not well suited to inform these fundamental linkages. There is a critical absence of tenable hypotheses for how climate pressures mechanistically affect HAB species, and the lack of uniform experimental protocols limits the quantitative cross-investigation comparisons essential to advancement. A HAB “best practices” manual would help foster more uniform research strategies and protocols, and selection of a small target list of model HAB species or isolates for study would greatly promote the accumulation of knowledge. Despite the need to focus on keystone species, more studies need to address strain variability within species, their responses under multifactorial conditions, and the retrospective analyses of long-term plankton and cyst core data; research topics that are departures from the norm. Examples of some fundamental unknowns include how larger and more frequent extreme weather events may break down natural biogeographic

  12. Physical processes contributing to harmful algal blooms in Saldanha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1994, disruption of harvesting as a result of the presence of harmful algal species has been a regular late-summer phenomenon. Toxic blooms that are ultimately advected into the bay develop on the continental shelf to the north between 32°S and St Helena Bay, a region characterized by favourable conditions for ...

  13. The character of harms: operational challenges in control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sparrow, Malcolm K

    2008-01-01

    ... approach which he terms "the sabotage of harms." The book explores the institutional arrangements and decision-frameworks necessary to support this emerging operational model. Written for reflective practitioners charged with risk-control responsibilities across the public, private, and non-governmental sectors, The Character ...

  14. Harms of unsuccessful donation after circulatory death: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren J; Buffington, Anne; Scalea, Joseph R; Fost, Norman; Croes, Kenneth D; Mezrich, Joshua D; Schwarze, Margaret L

    2018-02-01

    While donation after circulatory death (DCD) has expanded options for organ donation, many who wish to donate are still unable to do so. We conducted face-to-face interviews with family members (N = 15) who had direct experience with unsuccessful DCD and 5 focus groups with professionals involved in the donation process. We used qualitative content analysis to characterize the harms of nondonation as perceived by participants. Participants reported a broad spectrum of harms affecting organ recipients, donors, and donor families. Harms included waste of precious life-giving organs and hospital resources, inability to honor the donor's memory and character, and impaired ability for families to make sense of tragedy and cope with loss. Donor families empathized with the initial hope and ultimate despair of potential recipients who must continue their wait on the transplant list. Focus group members reinforced these findings and highlighted the struggle of families to navigate the uncertainty regarding the timing of death during the donation process. While families reported significant harm, many appreciated the donation attempt. These findings highlight the importance of organ donation to donor families and the difficult experiences associated with current processes that could inform development of alternative donation strategies. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Fibre optic microarrays for the detection and enumeration of harmful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a serious threat to coastal resources, causing impacts ranging from the contamination of seafood products with potent toxins to mortalities of wild and farmed fish and other marine animals. As the threat from HABs has expanded, new approaches have become necessary, including ...

  16. Does Income Inequality Harm Health? New Cross-National Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckfield, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The provocative hypothesis that income inequality harms population health has sparked a large body of research, some of which has reported strong associations between income inequality and population health. Cross-national evidence is frequently cited in support of this important hypothesis, but the hypothesis remains controversial, and the…

  17. Evolution of helping and harming in heterogeneous groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, António M M; Gardner, Andy

    2013-08-01

    Social groups are often composed of individuals who differ in many respects. Theoretical studies on the evolution of helping and harming behaviors have largely focused upon genetic differences between individuals. However, nongenetic variation between group members is widespread in natural populations, and may mediate differences in individuals' social behavior. Here, we develop a framework to study how variation in individual quality mediates the evolution of unconditional and conditional social traits. We investigate the scope for the evolution of social traits that are conditional on the quality of the actor and/or recipients. We find that asymmetries in individual quality can lead to the evolution of plastic traits with different individuals expressing helping and harming traits within the same group. In this context, population viscosity can mediate the evolution of social traits, and local competition can promote both helping and harming behaviors. Furthermore, asymmetries in individual quality can lead to the evolution of competition-like traits between clonal individuals. Overall, we highlight the importance of asymmetries in individual quality, including differences in reproductive value and the ability to engage in successful social interactions, in mediating the evolution of helping and harming behaviors. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Immigration Enforcement Practices Harm Refugee Children and Citizen-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H.

    2018-01-01

    Aggressive immigration enforcement hurts the very youngest children. Refugee and U.S.-born children of undocumented immigrants experience many childhood adversities, compromising their development and health. Refugee children flee traumatizing violence in their home countries, face grueling migrations, and are harmed further by being held in…

  19. Harmful cyanobacteria and their cyanotoxins in Egyptian fresh waters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyanobacterial blooms have increased in freshwater ecosystems worldwide in the last century, mostly resulting from eutrophication and climate change. These blooms represent serious threats to environmental and human health because of the production of harmful metabolites, called cyanotoxins. Like many countries ...

  20. Harm to patients and others caused by impaired junior doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creative Commons licence CC-BY-NC 4.0. Harm to patients and ... enjoining doctors to 'self-report' impairment, the HPCSA Handbook on Internship .... e.g. where doctors have car accidents while driving home because they are not provided ...

  1. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for deliberate self-harm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slee, Nadja

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) intervention for patients who engage in Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH). The CBT intervention was designed to supplement usual care following an episode of DSH. The study involved 90 people (95%

  2. Effects of rising CO₂ on the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandrini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The waters of our planet are full with cyanobacteria that use CO₂, water and light for photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria form the base of the food web and have a strong impact on all life on Earth. Yet, not all cyanobacteria are beneficial. Harmful cyanobacteria (also known as ‘blue-green algae’) can

  3. Risk management and liability for environmental harm caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This calls for the existence of a liability regime that will place some legal responsibility on the party responsible for the harm. This paper assesses the South African regulatory framework of relevance to GMOs, which is composed of a fragmented set of laws that deals with risk assessment, risk management and liability for ...

  4. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322... quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of noxious or poisonous gases, other than carbon dioxide, shall... Governmental Industrial Hygienists in “Threshold Limit Values for Substance in Workroom Air” (1972). Detectors...

  5. Harming others : universal subjectivism and the expanding moral circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Floris van den

    2011-01-01

    Harming Others expounds what the author calls universal subjectivism, which is a cosmopolitan theory of political philosophy that deals with global justice, non-human animals and future generations. Although its main focus is political philosophy, the theory has wide applications to contemporary

  6. Building Face Composites Can Harm Lineup Identification Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary L.; Charman, Steve D.; Olson, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    Face composite programs permit eyewitnesses to build likenesses of target faces by selecting facial features and combining them into an intact face. Research has shown that these composites are generally poor likenesses of the target face. Two experiments tested the proposition that this composite-building process could harm the builder's memory…

  7. Mull it over: cannabis vaporizers and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Coral E

    2015-11-01

    Legalization of cannabis is likely to lead to greater use. Balanced regulation of potentially less harmful modes of administration, such as vaporizers, is needed. Further research is warranted not only on the direct health effects of vaping cannabis, but also on its potential to decrease co-administration of tobacco with cannabis.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The..., except in the Gulf of Mexico. In the Gulf of Mexico, it means the area shoreward of the lines of...

  9. Mobile phone social harms (mobile phone, communicative device or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the human inventions created in order to facilitate life but it became scourge for him is mobile phone. Ignorance on quality of using mobile phone and conscious use of it in inappropriate way will have consequences that it seems that it gradually becomes as social problem and harm. Author of this paper aims to warns ...

  10. The distribution of harm in price-fixing cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Müller, W.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a vertically related industry and analyze how the total harm due to a price increase upstream is distributed over downstream firms and final consumers. For this purpose, we develop a general model without making specific assumptions regarding demand, costs, or the mode of competition. We

  11. The Distribution of Harm in Price-Fixing Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Müller, W.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: We consider a vertically related industry and analyze how the total harm due to a price increase upstream is distributed over downstream firms and final consumers. For this purpose, we develop a general model without making specific assumptions regarding demand, costs, or the mode of

  12. The distribution of harm in price-fixing cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Müller, W.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a vertically related industry and analyze how the total harm due to a price increase upstream is distributed over downstream firms and final consumers. For this purpose, we develop a general model without making specific assumptions regarding demand, costs, or the mode of competition. We

  13. Harming ourselves and defiling others: what determines a moral domain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alek Chakroff

    Full Text Available Recent work has distinguished "harm" from "purity" violations, but how does an act get classified as belonging to a domain in the first place? We demonstrate the impact of not only the kind of action (e.g., harmful versus impure but also its target (e.g., oneself versus another. Across two experiments, common signatures of harm and purity tracked with other-directed and self-directed actions, respectively. First, participants judged self-directed acts as primarily impure and other-directed acts as primarily harmful. Second, conservatism predicted harsher judgments of self-directed but not other-directed acts. Third, while participants delivered harsher judgments of intentional versus accidental acts, this effect was smaller for self-directed than other-directed acts. Finally, participants judged self-directed acts more harshly when focusing on the actor's character versus the action itself; other-directed acts elicited the opposite pattern. These findings suggest that moral domains are defined not only by the kind of action but also by the target of the action.

  14. Mental health nurses' attitudes toward self-harm: Curricular implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Shaw

    2016-10-01

    Methods: The study aimed to explore the attitudes of mental health nurses toward service users who self-harm in secure environments, and to inform mental health curriculum development. It was conducted in a large forensic mental health unit, containing medium and low secure facilities, to the west of London, UK. A qualitative multi-method approach was adopted, underpinned by interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data were obtained from mental health nurses using individual interviews and focus groups, and analysis followed a step-by-step thematic approach using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Nurses' attitudes toward self-harm varied but were mainly negative, and this was usually related to limited knowledge and skills. The results of the study, framed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, led to the development of a proposed educational model entitled ‘Factors Affecting Self-Harming Behaviours’ (FASH. Conclusion: The FASH Model may inform future curriculum innovation. Adopting a holistic approach to education of nurses about self-harm may assist in developing attitudes and skills to make care provision more effective in secure mental health settings.

  15. Biological control of Microcystis dominated harmful algal blooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater resources are now threatened by the presence and increase of harmful algal blooms (HAB) all over the world. The HABs are sometimes a direct result of anthropogenic pollution entering water bodies, such as partially treated nutrient-rich effluents and the leaching of fertilisers and animal wastes. The impact of ...

  16. A safer alternative: Cannabis substitution as harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-11-01

    Substitution is operationalised as a conscious choice made by users to use one drug instead of, or in conjunction with another based on: perceived safety, level of addiction potential, effectiveness in relieving symptoms, access and level of acceptance. Harm reduction is a set of strategies that aim to minimise problems associated with drug use while recognising that for some users, abstinence may be neither a realistic nor a desirable goal. In this paper, we aim for deeper understandings of older adult cannabis users' beliefs and substitution practices as part of the harm reduction framework. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) marijuana users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Although the sample consisted of primary cannabis users, many had personal experience with other drugs throughout their lifetimes. Data collection consisted of an audio-recorded, semi-structured in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analysed to discover users' harm reduction beliefs and cannabis substitution practices. Study participants described using cannabis as a safer alternative for alcohol, illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals based on their perceptions of less adverse side effects, low-risk for addiction and greater effectiveness at relieving symptoms, such as chronic pain. Cannabis substitution can be an effective harm reduction method for those who are unable or unwilling to stop using drugs completely. More research is needed on cannabis as a safer alternative. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidence of harm. 68.108 Section 68.108 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions on Use of Terminal Equipment § 68.108 Incidence of...

  18. Mental health nurses' attitudes toward self-harm: Curricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David G. Shaw

    Mental health curriculum. Interpretative phenomenological analysis. Nurses ... This paper reports on a qualitative study into the attitudes of ... There are a couple of published accounts based on ... the stimulus is self-harm and the health professional (nurse) ... iours, including sex and exercise (Connor & Norman, 2005).

  19. Instabilities of higher dimensional compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accetta, F.S.

    1987-02-01

    Various schemes for cosmological compactification of higher dimensional theories are considered. Possible instabilities which drive the ground state with static internal space to de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions are discussed. These instabilities are due to semiclassical barrier penetration and classical thermal fluctuations. For the case of the ten dimensional Chapline-Manton action, it is possible to avoid such difficulties by balancing one-loop Casimir corrections against monopole contributions from the field strength H/sub MNP/ and fermionic condensates. 10 refs

  20. Predictable and avoidable: What’s next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Pezzuto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper (Dr. Ivo Pezzuto has been one of the first authors to write back in 2008 about the alleged "subprime mortgage loans fraud" which has triggered the 2008 financial crisis, in combination with multiple other complex, highly interrelated, and concurrent factors. The author has been also one of the first authors to report in that same working paper of 2008 (available on SSRN and titled "Miraculous Financial Engineering or Toxic Finance? The Genesis of the U.S. Subprime Mortgage Loans Crisis and its Consequences on the Global Financial Markets and Real Economy" the high probability of a Eurozone debt crisis, due to a number of unsolved structural macroeconomic problems, the lack of a single crisis resolution scheme, current account imbalances, and in some countries, housing bubbles/high private debt. In the book published in 2013 and titled "Predictable and Avoidable: Repairing Economic Dislocation and Preventing the Recurrence of Crisis", Dr. Ivo Pezzuto has exposed the root causes of the financial crisis in order to enables readers to understand that the crisis we have seen was predictable and should have been avoidable, and that a recurrence can be avoided, if lessons are learned and the right action taken. Almost one year after the publication of the book "Predictable and Avoidable: Repairing Economic Dislocation and Preventing the Recurrence of Crisis", the author has decided to write this working paper to explore what happened in the meantime to the financial markets and to the financial regulation implementation. Most of all, the author with this working paper aims to provide an updated analysis as strategist and scenario analyst on the topics addressed in the book "Predictable and Avoidable" based on a forward-looking perspective and on potential "tail risk" scenarios. The topics reported in this paper relate to financial crises; Government policy; financial regulation; corporate governance; credit risk management

  1. Avoiding boredom: Caudate and insula activity reflects boredom-elicited purchase bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, Dennis E; Wittmann, Bianca C

    2017-07-01

    People show a strong tendency to avoid boring situations, but the neural systems mediating this behavioural bias are yet unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the anticipation of a boring task influences decisions to purchase entertainment. Participants accepted higher prices to avoid boredom compared to control tasks, and individual differences in boredom experience predicted the increase in price. This behavioural bias was associated with higher activity in the caudate nucleus during music purchases driven by boredom avoidance. Insula activation was increased during performance of the boring task and subsequently associated with individual differences in boredom-related decision making. These results identify a mechanism that drives decisions to avoid boring situations and potentially underlies consumer decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. See-and-Avoid Collision Avoidance Using ADS-B Signal and Radar Sensing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes an innovative collision avoidance radar and communication technology to detect and track both cooperative and non-cooperative targets. The system...

  3. Maternal Avoidant Coping Mediates the Effect of Parenting Stress on Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M; Gondoli, Dawn M; Morrissey, Rebecca A

    2013-10-01

    We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers' adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11-13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the reverse direction of effects was examined, revealing that the relation between parenting stress and avoidant coping was unidirectional, while the relation between avoidant coping and depressive symptoms was bidirectional. Our results suggest that during early adolescence, mothers who experience more stress in the parenting role are more likely to engage in higher levels of avoidant coping when faced with parenting problems. In turn, a mother's long-term avoidant reactions to parenting problems may predict increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, our findings of a bidirectional relation between avoidant coping and depressive symptoms suggest that prior levels of depression might serve as a barrier to efficient and effective coping. The present study may inform preventive intervention efforts aimed at decreasing the use of avoidance in response to parenting stressors by increasing adaptive parental coping with stressors, and providing appropriate support and resources for parents.

  4. Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenling, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Holmström, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    People's implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes' approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery-approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery-avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes' anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes' well-being and performance.

  5. Water avoidance stress induces frequency through cyclooxygenase-2 expression: a bladder rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takao, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Jiro; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Okuda, Hidenobu; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Yoshioka, Iwao; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

    2012-02-01

    Water avoidance stress is a potent psychological stressor and it is associated with visceral hyperalgesia, which shows degeneration of the urothelial layer mimicking interstitial cystitis. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors have been recognized to ameliorate frequency both in clinical and experimental settings. We investigated the voiding pattern and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in a rat bladder model of water avoidance stress. After being subjected to water avoidance stress or a sham procedure, rats underwent metabolic cage analysis and cystometrography. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was carried out to examine cyclooxygenase-2 messenger ribonucleic acid in bladders of rats. Protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed with immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Furthermore, the effects of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, etodolac, were investigated by carrying out cystometrography, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Metabolic cage analysis and cystometrography showed significantly shorter intervals and less volume of voiding in water avoidance stress rats. Significantly higher expression of cyclooxygenase-2 messenger ribonucleic acid was verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed significantly higher cyclooxygenase-2 protein levels in water avoidance stress bladders. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed high cyclooxygenase-2 expression exclusively in smooth muscle cells. All water avoidance stress-induced changes were reduced by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor pretreatment. Chronic stress might cause frequency through cyclooxygenase-2 gene upregulation in bladder smooth muscle cells. Further study of cyclooxygenase-2 in the water avoidance stress bladder might provide novel therapeutic modalities for interstitial cystitis. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  6. Crystalline methamphetamine use and methamphetamine-related harms in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Sara, Grant; McKetin, Rebecca; Roxburgh, Amanda; Dobbins, Timothy; Farrell, Michael; Burns, Lucinda; Hall, Wayne D

    2017-03-01

    Concerns about crystal methamphetamine use and harm have increased in multiple countries. This paper describes how changes in the availability and use of crystal methamphetamine have impacted on methamphetamine-related harms in Australia. Data on methamphetamine use were obtained from population-level surveys, health service data and surveys of drug use among sentinel groups of ecstasy users and people who inject drugs. Data were obtained on seizures, arrests, clandestine laboratory detections, hospital separations, mental health unit admissions, drug telephone helpline calls and drug treatment episodes. Segmented linear regression models were fitted to identify changes in these series using log-transformed data where appropriate. The availability of crystal methamphetamine has increased as evidenced by increased laboratory detections, domestic seizures and purity of the seized drug. Population surveys do not report an increase in the number of people who used at least once in the past year. However, more users report using crystal methamphetamine rather than lower-purity powder methamphetamine and more regular use. Indicators of methamphetamine-related harms have increased in parallel with this change. Amphetamine-related helpline calls, drug treatment, arrests and hospital admissions for amphetamine disorders and psychosis all peaked in the mid-2000s, declined for several years and have increased steeply since 2010. The increased availability and use of crystal methamphetamine have been associated with increased regular use and harms. Treatment is required for those experiencing problems and the capacity of health services to provide care needs to be enhanced.[Degenhardt L, Sara G, Connor JP, McKetin R, Roxburgh A, Dobbins T, Farrell M, Burns L, Hall WD. Crystalline methamphetamine use and methamphetamine-related harms in Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:160-170]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Specific Emissions of Harmful Substances from Small Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horák Jiøí

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal is on of the most important energy source and its significance will increase in a future. In Czech republic coal is except else widely used as a fuel for combustion in a small boilers (up to 50 kW. Low efficiency of the small boilers which is often below 50% together with high emissions of the harmful substances into near surroundings cause in average 40 – 70% of total local air pollution. The research was performed in a scope of the Grant no. 101/98/0820 of Grant Agency of Czech Republic was focused on quality of combustion process related to combustion efficiency and creation of harmful substances at combustion of domestic fuels. Experiments were performed to compare combustion of brown coal, clack coal, coke and black coal slurry. Extremely high creation of harmful substances (CO, NOX, solid particles and organic substances was measured when the black coal slurry was used as a fuel, measured in kg of emissions per GJ of burned fuel. Combustion of brown coal produced significant emissions of solid particles which bond harmful substances as metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and others together with high emissions of SO2 . Strong dependence between emissions of CO and low quality of combustion given by low combustion temperature, shortage of combustion air, not suitable design of after-combustion chamber and short duration of fuel presence in a combustion area was found out. Emissions of wide range of metals were investigated. The results of the research grant project describe and explain the combustion process and creation of harmful substances in small boilers plus give suggestions and recommendations leading to rational operation of the small boilers and lowering their negative impact to environment.

  8. PREP advertisement features affect smokers’ beliefs regarding potential harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Tuller, Michael D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. Objective To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers’ beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. Methods A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a “red” condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a “no text” condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using “incorrect,” “unsure” and “correct” as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Results Participants randomised to the “no text” advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, healthier and make smoking safer. Conclusions Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising. PMID:18768457

  9. A Crowd Avoidance Method Using Circular Avoidance Path for Robust Person Following

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Morishita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A life-support service robot must avoid both static and dynamic obstacles for working in a real environment. Here, a static obstacle means an obstacle that does not move, and a dynamic obstacle is the one that moves. Assuming the robot is following a target person, we discuss how the robot avoids a crowd through which the target person passes and arrives at the target position. The purpose of this paper is to propose a crowd avoidance method that makes a robot to be able to avoid both static and dynamic obstacles. The method uses the surface points of the obstacles to form an avoidance region, and the robot moves along the edge of the region. We conducted experiments assuming various situations such that the robot was blocked, there was a wide gap in the crowd, or a person in the crowd yielded for the robot to pass through. As an experimental result, it was confirmed the robot could avoid the crowd even when the obstacles were aligned in an “inverted wedge” shape.

  10. The Impact of Experiential Avoidance on the Inference of Characters' Emotions: Evidence for an Emotional Processing Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Scott M; Kurby, Christopher A

    2010-12-01

    Experiential avoidance is a functional class of maladaptive strategies that contribute to the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Although previous research has demonstrated group differences in the interpretation of aversive stimuli, there is limited work on the influence of experiential avoidance during the online processing of emotion. An experimental design investigated the influence of self-reported experiential avoidance during emotion processing by assessing emotion inferences during the comprehension of narratives that imply different emotions. Results suggest that experiential avoidance is partially characterized by an emotional information processing bias. Specifically, individuals reporting higher experiential avoidance scores exhibited a bias towards activating negative emotion inferences, whereas individuals reporting lower experiential avoidance scores exhibited a bias towards activating positive emotion inferences. Minimal emotional inference was observed for the non-bias affective valence. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications of experiential avoidance as a cognitive vulnerability for psychopathology.

  11. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Andersen, A

    1997-01-01

    Alcohol intake is causally associated with cancers of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and liver. In all five Nordic countries, alcohol consumption increased substantially between 1965 (6.5 litres per adult per year) and 1975 (10 litres), but remained at about 10 litres between 1975...... and 1985. The daily consumption of men during the period was substantially higher than that of women, and that of both men and women was higher in Denmark than in the other Nordic countries. In about 2000, an annual total of almost 1,300 cancer cases (1,000 in men and 300 in women) would be avoided...... if alcohol drinking were eliminated. This corresponds to about 29% of all alcohol-related cancers, i.e. in the oesophagus (37%), oral cavity and pharynx (33%), larynx (29%) and liver (15%). About 2% of all cancers in men and 1% in women in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 will be caused...

  12. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for classification of harmful algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Kentucky University and the U.S. EPA Office of Research Development in Cincinnati Agency are collaborating to develop a harmful algal bloom detection algorithm that estimates the presence of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems by image analysis. Green and blue-green alg...

  13. Oral sildenafil citrate (viagra) for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Fink, Howard A; MacDonald, Roderick; Wilt, Timothy J; Bella, Anthony J; Ansari, Mohammed T; Garritty, Chantelle; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Daniel, Raymond; Sampson, Margaret; Moher, David

    2009-10-01

    To summarize and compare evidence on harms in sildenafil- and placebo-treated men with erectile dysfunction (ED) in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified using an electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Cochrane CENTRAL. The rates of any adverse events (AEs), most commonly reported AEs, withdrawals because of adverse events, and serious adverse events were ascertained and compared between sildenafil and placebo groups. The results of men with ED were stratified by clinical condition(s). Statistical heterogeneity was explored. Meta-analyses based on random-effects model were also performed. A total of 49 RCTs were included. Sildenafil-treated men had a higher risk for all-cause AEs (RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.38, 1.76), headache, flushing, dyspepsia, and visual disturbances compared with placebo-treated men. The magnitude of excess risk was greater in fixed- than in flexible-dose trials. The rates of serious adverse events and withdrawals because of adverse events did not differ in sildenafil vs placebo groups. A higher dose of sildenafil corresponded to a greater risk of AEs. The increased risk of harms was observed within and across clinically defined specific groups of patients. There was a lack of RCTs reporting long-term (>6 months) harms data. In short-term trials, men with ED randomized to sildenafil had an increased risk of all-cause any AEs, headache, flushing, dyspepsia, and visual disturbances. The exploration of different modes of dose optimization of sildenafil may be warranted.

  14. Psychological distress, self-harming behavior, and suicidal tendencies in adults with disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schützmann, Karsten; Brinkmann, Lisa; Schacht, Melanie; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2009-02-01

    Evaluation of psychological distress has received relatively little attention in research on persons with disorders of sex development (DSD). Results of previous studies varied considerably, but most studies did not find increased levels of psychological distress. We conducted a pilot study based on a sample of 37 persons with diverse forms of DSD recruited via various strategies. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was used to assess self-reported psychological distress. Psychological distress varied broadly across all diagnostic subgroups. Overall, the BSI Global Severity Index indicated higher distress in the sample of persons with DSD compared to a non-clinical norm population of women, with an effect size of d = 0.67. According to predefined BSI criteria, 59% of participants were classified as a clinical case. Self-harming behavior and suicidal tendencies were also assessed and compared to a community based sample of women, including subgroups of traumatized women with a history of physical or sexual abuse. The prevalence rates of self-harming behavior and suicidal tendencies in the DSD sample exceeded the rates of the non-traumatized comparison subgroup, with rates comparable to the traumatized comparison groups of women with physical or sexual abuse. As possible explanations for the higher distress found here compared to most previous studies, differences in measures and sample recruitment are discussed. Our results suggest that adults with DSD are markedly psychologically distressed with rates of suicidal tendencies and self-harming behavior on a level comparable to non-DSD women with a history of physical or sexual abuse, but sample recruitment procedures do not permit a firm generalization.

  15. Clinical characteristics in schizophrenia patients with or without suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Erlend; Walby, Fredrik A; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Steen, Nils E; Lorentzen, Steinar; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Mehlum, Lars

    2013-10-09

    To investigate whether schizophrenia patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm have earlier age of onset of psychotic and depressive symptoms and higher levels of clinical symptoms compared to patients with only suicide attempts or without suicide attempt. Using a cross-sectional design, 251 patients (18-61 years old, 58% men) with schizophrenia treated at hospitals in Oslo and Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway, were assessed with a comprehensive clinical research protocol and divided into three groups based on their history of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm. Suicide attempts were present in 88 patients (35%); 52 had suicide attempts only (29%) and 36 had both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (14%). When compared with nonattempters and those with suicide attempts without non-suicidal self-harm, patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more frequently women, younger at the onset of psychotic symptoms, had longer duration of untreated psychosis, and had higher levels of current impulsivity/aggression and depression. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to repeat suicide attempts than patients with suicide attempts only. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm had different illness history and clinical characteristics compared to patients with only suicide attempts or patients without suicidal behavior. Our study suggests that patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm represent a distinct subgroup among patients with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior with their early onset of psychotic symptoms, high rate of repeated suicidal behavior and significant treatment delay.

  16. Avoiding Plagiarism in Writing a Research Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Wajdi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how to avoid plagiarism in a research paper. Avoiding plagiarism is part of a scientific writing ethic that always stated in any publication. Every writer should pay attention to their papers submitted to a journal or a scientific forum that they are free from unethical conduct. Writing a research paper needs overall accuracy especially in avoiding plagiarism in the paper that is to be published in a journal or to be presented at a certain scientific meeting, seminar or symposium. It is based on writers’ experience as a paper writer as well as a journal reviewer. The first application that the writers use is ‘checker’, a Mac computer application, used to check spelling and grammar. It assists the writers to check how misspelling and an ungrammatical inaccuracy in the writers’ papers. The second free application is ‘plagiarism checker’. Checking originality of a paper is essential and it is not too difficult to do today. It is freely accessible that plagiarism checker can be used to check how original the paper is. By visiting “Google” then write down ‘plagiarism checker’, it will appear ‘smallseatools’ and then the writers could choose and check how original the paper is. This application is freely accessed and helps immensely to check how original a paper is and how far a paper is free from plagiarism. The unoriginal phrase will be underlined and marked red and finally will be shown how inimitable the paper is. Plagiarism scan report which consists of the date of the report, plagiarism status, total words and total characters can be downloaded.

  17. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Andrea; Levitt, Marc A; Lawal, Taiwo A; Peña, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48-72 h after the operation. The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung's disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic stricture and no mortality. Based on

  18. Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Doman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) domain addresses the development, integration, testing, and spaceflight infusion of sensing, processing, and GN&C functions critical to the success and safety of future human and robotic exploration missions. PL&HA sensors also have applications to other mission events, such as rendezvous and docking. Autonomous PL&HA builds upon the core GN&C capabilities developed to enable soft, controlled landings on the Moon, Mars, and other solar system bodies. Through the addition of a Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) function, precision landing within tens of meters of a map-based target is possible. The addition of a 3-D terrain mapping lidar sensor improves the probability of a safe landing via autonomous, real-time Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA). PL&HA significantly improves the probability of mission success and enhances access to sites of scientific interest located in challenging terrain. PL&HA can also utilize external navigation aids, such as navigation satellites and surface beacons. Advanced Lidar Sensors High precision ranging, velocimetry, and 3-D terrain mapping Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) TRN compares onboard reconnaissance data with real-time terrain imaging data to update the S/C position estimate Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) Generates a high-resolution, 3-D terrain map in real-time during the approach trajectory to identify safe landing targets Inertial Navigation During Terminal Descent High precision surface relative sensors enable accurate inertial navigation during terminal descent and a tightly controlled touchdown within meters of the selected safe landing target.

  19. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  20. Avoiding object by robot using neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasetijo, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    A Self controlling robot is necessary in the robot application in which operator control is difficult. Serial method such as process on the computer of van newman is difficult to be applied for self controlling robot. In this research, Neural network system for robotic control system was developed by performance expanding at the SCARA. In this research, it was shown that SCARA with application at Neural network system can avoid blocking objects without influence by number and density of the blocking objects, also departure and destination paint. robot developed by this study also can control its moving by self