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Sample records for higher glycosaminoglycan content

  1. Asporin-deficient mice have tougher skin and altered skin glycosaminoglycan content and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarana, Marco; Svensson, René B; Knutsson, Anki

    2017-01-01

    SLRPs is asporin. Here we describe the successful generation of an Aspn-/- mouse model and the investigation of the Aspn-/- skin phenotype. Functionally, Aspn-/- mice had an increased skin mechanical toughness, although there were no structural changes present on histology or immunohistochemistry......) was downregulated. Intriguingly no differences were observed in collagen protein content or in collagen cross-linking-related lysine oxidation or hydroxylation. The glycosaminoglycan content and structure in Aspn-/- skin was profoundly altered: chondroitin/dermatan sulfate was more than doubled and had an altered......The main structural component of connective tissues is fibrillar, cross-linked collagen whose fibrillogenesis can be modulated by Small Leucine-Rich Proteins/Proteoglycans (SLRPs). Not all SLRPs' effects on collagen and extracellular matrix in vivo have been elucidated; one of the less investigated...

  2. Experimental hypothyroidism increases content of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnik, J; Ciosek, J; Slotwinska, D; Stempniak, B; Zukowska, D; Marczynski, A; Tosik, D; Bartel, H; Dabrowski, R; Szczepanowska, A

    2009-09-01

    The connective tissue matrix of the heart remains under regulatory influence of the thyroid hormones. Some conflicting data describe the connective tissue changes in subjects with thyroid gland disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the changes of the connective tissue accumulation in the heart of rats in the state of hypothyroidism and to answer the question whether TSH is involved in mechanism of the observed phenomena. Hypothyroidism in rats was induced by methylotiouracil treatment or by thyreoidectomy. The thyroid hormones [freeT3 (fT3), freeT4 (fT4)] and pituitary TSH were measured in plasma with radioimmunological method. The glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and total collagen were measured in heart muscle of both left and right ventricles. Cells from the rat's heart were isolated and cultured. The cells were identified as myofibroblasts by electron microscopy method. The effects of TSH in concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 20 mIU/ml, on connective tissue accumulation in heart myofibroblasts cultures were tested. The primary hypothyroidism was developed both in groups with thyroidectomy and with methylthiouracil. The levels of fT3 and fT4 both in rats with thyreoidectomy and animals treated with methylthiouracil were decreased and TSH level in these two experimental groups was elevated. In the heart of the rats with experimental hypothyroidism increased content of both GAG and collagen was found. Myofibroblast number in culture was increased by TSH. Regardless of the method of its induction, hypothyroidism increased collagen and GAG contents in the heart. TSH is not involved in regulation of collagen and glycosaminoglycans accumulation in the heart of rats affected with primary hypothyroidism.

  3. Mechanical deformation and glycosaminoglycan content changes in a rabbit annular puncture disc degeneration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Deva D; Khan, Safdar N; Ye, Xiaojing; Curtiss, Shane B; Gupta, Munish C; Klineberg, Eric O; Neu, Corey P

    2011-08-15

    Evaluation of degenerated intervertebral discs from a rabbit annular puncture model by using specialized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including displacement encoding with stimulated echoes and a fast-spin echo (DENSE-FSE) acquisition and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC). To evaluate a rabbit disc degeneration model by using various MRI techniques. To determine the displacements and strains, spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) distribution of degenerated discs as compared to normal and adjacent level discs. Annular puncture of the intervertebral disc produces disc degeneration in rabbits. DENSE-FSE has been previously demonstrated in articular cartilage for the measurement of soft tissue displacements and strains. MRI also can measure the T1 of tissue, and dGEMRIC can quantify GAG concentration in cartilage. METHODS.: In eight New Zealand white rabbits, the annulus fibrosis of a lumbar disc was punctured. After 4 weeks, the punctured and cranially adjacent motion segments were isolated for MRI and histology. MRI was used to estimate the disc volume and map T1. DENSE-FSE was used to determine displacements for the estimation of strains. dGEMRIC was then used to determine GAG distributions. Histology and standard MRI indicated degeneration in punctured discs. Disc volume increased significantly at 4 weeks after the puncture. Displacement of the nucleus pulposus was distinct from that of the annulus fibrosis in most untreated discs but not in punctured discs. T1 was significantly higher and GAG concentration significantly lower in punctured discs compared with untreated adjacent level discs. Noninvasive and quantitative MRI techniques can be used to evaluate the mechanical and biochemical changes that occur with animal models of disc degeneration. DENSE-FSE, dGEMRIC, and similar techniques have potential for evaluating the progression of disc degeneration and the efficacy of treatments.

  4. Fibromodulin deficiency reduces collagen structural network but not glycosaminoglycan content in a syngeneic model of colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, P Olof; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Maccarana, Marco; Oldberg, Åke; Rubin, Kristofer

    2017-01-01

    Tumor barrier function in carcinoma represents a major challenge to treatment and is therefore an attractive target for increasing drug delivery. Variables related to tumor barrier include aberrant blood vessels, high interstitial fluid pressure, and the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix. One of the proteins associated with dense extracellular matrices is fibromodulin, a collagen fibrillogenesis modulator expressed in tumor stroma but scarce in normal loose connective tissues. Here, we investigated the effects of fibromodulin on stroma ECM in a syngeneic murine colon carcinoma model. We show that fibromodulin deficiency decreased collagen fibril thickness but glycosaminoglycan content and composition were unchanged. Furthermore, vascular density, pericyte coverage and macrophage amount were unaffected. Fibromodulin can therefore be a unique effector of dense collagen matrix assembly in tumor stroma and, without affecting other major matrix components or the cellular composition, can function as a main agent in tumor barrier function.

  5. [Profile of sulphated glycosaminoglycans content in the murine uterus during the different phases of the estrous cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Regina Célia Teixeira; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Soares, José Maria; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Baracat, Edmund C

    2007-01-01

    Identification and quantitation of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the uterus of female mice during the estrous cycle. Four groups (n = 10 each) of virgin, 100-day old female mice were assembled according to the estrous cycle phase: proestrus, estrus, metaestrus and diestrus. Samples of the median portion of uterine horns were processed for light microscopy examination (H/E and Alcian blue + PAS). The GAGs were extracted and characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Data were analyzed by the unpaired Student's t-test. At light microscopy GAGs appear in all layers of the uterus, especially in the endometrium, between collagen fibers, in the basal membrane and around fibroblasts. Biochemical analyses disclosed presence of dermatan sulphate (DS), chondroitin sulphate (CS and heparan sulphate (HS) during all estral cycle phases. There was no clear electrophoretic separation between DS and CS, thus these two GAGs were considered together (DS+CS) (proestrus = 0.854 +/- 0.192; estrus = 1.073 +/- 0.254; metaestrus = 1.003 +/- 0.255; diestrus = 0.632 +/- 0.443 microg/mg). HS was as follows: proestrus = 0.092 +/- 0.097; estrus = 0.180 +/- 0.141; metaestrus = 0.091 +/- 0.046; diestrus = 0.233 +/- 0.147 microg/mg. The uterine content of DS+CS peaked at estrus (estrogenic action) and that of HS at diestrus (progestagen action). Due to a constant turnover process, there are definite alterations in the uterine profile of GAGs content during the estrous cycle in mice, which may be modulated by female sex hormones.

  6. Assessment of lumbar intervertebral disc glycosaminoglycan content by gadolinium-enhanced MRI before and after 21-days of head-down-tilt bedrest.

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    Timmo Koy

    Full Text Available During spaceflight, it has been shown that intervertebral discs (IVDs increase in height, causing elongation of the spine up to several centimeters. Astronauts frequently report dull lower back pain that is most likely of discogenic origin and may result from IVD expansion. It is unknown whether disc volume solely increases by water influx, or if the content of glycosaminoglycans also changes in microgravity. Aim of this pilot study was to investigate effects of the spaceflight analog of bedrest on the glycosaminoglycan content of human lumbar IVDs. Five healthy, non-smoking, male human subjects of European descent were immobilized in 6° head-down-tilt bedrest for 21 days. Subjects remained in bed 24 h a day with at least one shoulder on the mattress. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scans were taken according to the delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dGEMRIC protocol before and after bedrest. The outcome measures were T1 and ΔT1. Scans were performed before and after administration of the contrast agent Gd-DOTA, and differences between T1-values of both scans (ΔT1 were computed. ΔT1 is the longitudinal relaxation time in the tissue and inversely related to the glycosaminoglycan-content. For data analysis, IVDs L1/2 to L4/5 were semi-automatically segmented. Zones were defined and analyzed separately. Results show a highly significant decrease in ΔT1 (p<0.001 after bedrest in all IVDs, and in all areas of the IVDs. The ΔT1-decrease was most prominent in the nucleus pulposus and in L4/5, and was expressed slightly more in the posterior than anterior IVD. Unexpected negative ΔT1-values were found in Pfirrmann-grade 2-discs after bedrest. Significantly lower T1 before contrast agent application was found after bedrest compared to before bedrest. According to the dGEMRIC-literature, the decrease in ΔT1 may be interpreted as an increase in glycosaminoglycans in healthy IVDs during bedrest. This interpretation seems

  7. Measurement of glycosaminoglycans in canine synovial fluid and its correlation with the cause of secondary osteoarthritis, age and body weight

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    Radka Andrysíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycans are natural components of healthy joint cartilage and they also appear in healthy synovial fluid. An increased amount of glycosaminoglycans in synovial fluid is believed to be a marker of secondary osteoarthritis, regardless of its primary cause. The aim of our study was to define the relationship between glycosaminoglycans in the synovial fluid and joint disorders, age, and body weight. The samples of synovial fluid were obtained from dogs suffering from secondary secondary osteoarthritis (n = 35 and from control dogs (n = 18; control dogs had normal body weight. The results were compared among joints of dogs with secondary osteoarthritis divided into groups according to the criteria mentioned above and control dogs. Glycosaminoglycan concentrations in synovial fluid were measured using dimethylmethylene blue assay. The lowest mean value of glycosaminoglycans in synovial fluid was measured in the control group. Significantly higher glycosaminoglycan content (P < 0.05 was found in synovial fluid isolated from obese dogs compared to control dogs. Furthermore, we observed an age-related trend, in which the highest mean values were reached either in old dogs or pups. Despite the absence of significant differences in glycosaminoglycan values among dogs suffering from various types of secondary secondary osteoarthritis, the highest mean values were measured in fragmented coronoid processus group. Our data suggest that abnormally increased body weight has an impact on glycosaminoglycan concentration in synovial fluid which may imply faster degradation and turnover of joint cartilage. Such observation has not yet been published in veterinary medicine.

  8. Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans

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    Vitor H. Pomin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this editorial to MDPI Pharmaceuticals special issue “Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans” we describe in outline the common structural features of glycosaminoglycans and the characteristics of proteoglycans, including the intracellular proteoglycan, serglycin, cell-surface proteoglycans, like syndecans and glypicans, and the extracellular matrix proteoglycans, like aggrecan, perlecan, and small leucine-rich proteoglycans. The context in which the pharmaceutical uses of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans are presented in this special issue is given at the very end.

  9. Fact versus artifact: Avoiding erroneous estimates of sulfated glycosaminoglycan content using the dimethylmethylene blue colorimetric assay for tissue-engineered constructs

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    CH Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB assay is widely used to quantify sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG contents of engineered tissues, culture media, tissue samples and bodily fluids, but the assay is subject to interference from polyanions such as hyaluronic acid (HA, DNA and RNA. We examined whether specific combinations of dye pH and absorbance wavelength could minimize non-sGAG artifacts without compromising DMMB assay sensitivity. HA and DNA solutions generated substantial signal at pH 3 but not at pH 1.5. Reducing dye pH did not significantly alter sGAG measurements for normal cartilage and meniscus tissues, but eliminated anomalously high apparent sGAG contents for enzymatically isolated chondrocytes, adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC-agarose constructs and ADSC pellets. In a cartilage tissue-engineering case study, pH 3 dye indicated high apparent sGAG readings throughout culture in both basal and chondrogenic media, with a marked decline between day 14 and 21 for chondrogenic constructs. The pH 1.5 dye, however, indicated minimal sGAG accumulation in basal medium and stable sGAG content throughout culture in chondrogenic medium. As it is often difficult to know a priori whether all groups in a study will have sGAG contents high enough to overwhelm artifacts, we recommend modifying the standard DMMB assay to reduce the risk of spurious findings in tissue engineering and clinical research. Specifically, we recommend shifting to a pH 1.5 DMMB dye and basing quantification on the absorbance difference between 525 nm (µ peak and 595 nm (β peak to compensate for the moderate loss of sensitivity associated with reducing the dye pH.

  10. Purification and partial characterization of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans from cultured rabbit smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatino, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans synthesized by cultured rabbit smooth muscle cells were isolated after incorporation of [ 3 H]-glucosamine into glycosaminoglycans in the presence or absence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Glycosaminoglycans were quantitated by two-dimensional electrophoresis after proteolytic digestion of the cell layers and media. The results show that the presence of serum has no effect on the chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate content of the cell layers. The incorporation of [ 3 H]-glucosamine into hyaluronic acid of the cell layers was three times higher in the presence of serum. In the medium , the quantity of hyaluronic was two times higher in the presence of serum while the other glycosaminoglycans remained unchanged. The incorporation of [ 3 H]-glucosamine into hyaluronic acid was unaffected by the presence of serum. Specific proteoglycans were isolated from medium after with [ 35 S]-sulfate and [ 3 H]-serine by isopycnic ultracentrifugation and chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B and DEAE-cellulose. Preparations contained a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, a condroitin sulfate-dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans synthesized by rabbit aorta smooth muscle cells are similar to those from human aorta

  11. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis by human chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thonar, E.J-M.A.; Lyons, G.; Sweet, M.B.; Immelman, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Human chondrosarcoma of low-grade malignancy was cultured in the presence of 35 S-sulphate and 3 H-glucosamine. The glycosaminoglycans isolated were fractioned on Ecteola cellulose and electrophoresed on cellulose acetate membranes before and after treatment with chondroitinase AC or Streptomyces hyaluronidase. The results demonstrated the in vitro synthesis of hyaluronate, chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate. The presence of keratan sulphate of large average chain length (approximately equal to 15 monosaccharides) supports the contention that chain length of keratan sulphate is inversely proportional to the degree of malignancy

  12. Identification of glycosaminoglycans using high-performance liquid chromatography on a hydroxyapatite column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, H; Takeda, Y; Takagaki, K; Nakamura, T; Harata, S; Endo, M

    1995-11-20

    Glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid) were labeled with a fluorescent reagent, 2-aminopyridine. The fluoro-labeled glycosaminoglycans were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography on a hydroxyapatite column. The binding property of each glycosaminoglycan to hydroxyapatite was different. The structural properties of glycosaminoglycans bound to hydroxyapatite were then investigated using chemical desulfated or enzymic depolymerized glycosaminoglycans. This revealed that the sulfate content and molecular weight of the glycosaminoglycans correlated with their binding properties to hydroxyapatite. Desulfated dermatan sulfate but not desulfated chondroitin 6-sulfate bound to the hydroxyapatite. These data indicate that iduronic acid residues of glycosaminoglycans are important for the binding property. The method described which uses hydroxyapatite columns facilitates rapid separation and microanalysis of the glycosaminoglycans, especially dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate.

  13. Glycosaminoglycans from earthworms (Eisenia andrei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, A-Rang; Park, Youmie; Sim, Joon-Soo; Zhang, Zhenqing; Liu, Zhenling; Linhardt, Robert J; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2010-02-01

    The whole tissue of the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) was lyophilized and extracted to purify glycosaminoglycans. Fractions, eluting from an anion-exchange column at 1.0 M and 2.0 M NaCl, showed the presence of acidic polysaccharides on agarose gel electrophoresis. Monosaccharide compositional analysis showed that galactose and glucose were most abundant monosaccharides in both fractions. Depolymerization of the polysaccharide mixture with glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes confirmed the presence of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate in the 2.0 M NaCl fraction. The content of GAGs (uronic acid containing polysaccharide) in the 2.0 M NaCl fraction determined by carbazole assay was 2%. Disaccharide compositional analysis using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis after chondroitinase digestion (ABC and ACII), showed that the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate contained a 4-O-sulfo (76%), 2,4-di-O-sulfo (15%), 6-O-sulfo (6%), and unsulfated (4%) uronic acid linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues. LC-ESI-MS analysis of heparin lyase I/II/III digests demonstrated the presence of N-sulfo (69%), N-sulfo-6-O-sulfo (25%) and 2-O-sulfo-N-sulfo-6-O-sulfo (5%) uronic acid linked N-acetylglucosamine residues.

  14. Induction of mutants with higher protein content in soy bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, S.; Tanaka, S.; Nakamura, S.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to examine the effects of ionizing radiation on protein content of soy beans and to estimate the potential value of ionizing radiation in soy bean breeding. In the first experiment seeds of three cultivars were acutely irradiated by gamma ray doses of 8 krad and 16 krad. Seeds of M 3 plants were analysed for protein content by the Biuret method. Selection within each variety was made to isolate plants having about 2% higher protein content than the control populations. In the second experiment growing plants of a soy bean cultivar were irradiated with 2.9 krad and 6.1 krad, from germination to maturation, in a 60 Co gamma field. Seeds on individual lines in M 5 , M 6 and M 7 plants were determined for their protein contents by the Kjeldahl method and the upper 10% of the treated lines were selected for progeny testing. From the results of the analysis of variance for each trait, significant differences were observed between the control variety and selected lines for all the traits. Six out of 19 lines showed significant increases in both 100 seed weight and protein content, and four lines promising. The mean protein content of selected lines increased 0.68% compared with the control variety. Genetic gain expected from selection for high protein content was therefore considered at about 1%; however, the likelihood of a large increase in protein content would greatly increase if large populations derived from irradiated seeds were observed

  15. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content.

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    Xuan Xu

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (dephosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal. Interestingly, expression of an (engineered laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf. Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20-30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself.

  16. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human vocal fold lamina propria

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    Sung Woo Park

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The distribution, concentration and function of glycosaminoglycans in the various vocal fold tissues are still unclear. Objective: To evaluate the distribution and concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in different layers of the human vocal fold according to gender and age. Methods: We used 11 vocal folds obtained from cadavers (7 men and 4 women with no laryngeal lesion, less than 12 h after death, and aged between 35 and 98 years. The folds underwent glycosaminoglycans extraction from the cover and ligament, and post-electrophoresis analysis. Data were compared according to the layer, age and gender. Results: The concentration of dermatan sulfate was significantly higher in all layers. No differences were observed in the total concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in layers studied according to gender. It is significantly lower in the cover of individuals aged below 60 years. Conclusion: Dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate were observed in the human vocal folds cover and ligament of both genders, with the concentration of dermatan sulfate being significantly higher in all layers. Glycosaminoglycans concentration on the cover is significantly lower in individuals below 60 years compared with elderly.

  17. Higher milk fat content is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-05-01

    Current guidelines for cow's milk consumption in children older than age 2 years suggest 1% or 2% milk to reduce the risk of obesity. Given that milk is the main dietary source of vitamin D for North American children and that vitamin D is fat soluble, we hypothesized 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to be positively associated with the fat content of milk. The objective was to determine the relationship between the fat content of milk consumed and the serum 25(OH)D concentration; our secondary objective was to explore the role that the volume of milk consumed played in this relationship. We completed a cross-sectional study of children aged 12-72 months in the TARGetKids! research network. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between milk fat content and child 25(OH)D, adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. The interaction between volume of milk and fat content was examined. Two thousand eight hundred fifty-seven children were included in the analysis. The fat content of milk was positively associated with 25(OH)D (p = 0.03), and the interaction between the volume of milk consumed and the milk fat content was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Children who drank 1% milk needed 2.46 cups (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-2.54) of milk to have a 25(OH)D concentration similar to that of children who drank 1 cup of homogenized milk (3.25% fat). Children who consumed 1% milk had 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.42) times higher odds of having a 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L compared with children who consumed homogenized milk. In conclusion, recommendations for children to drink lower-fat milk (1% or 2%) may compromise serum 25(OH)D levels and may require study to ensure optimal childhood health.

  18. Perfil de glicosaminoglicanos sulfatados no útero de camundongas durante o ciclo estral Profile of sulphated glycosaminoglycans content in the murine uterus during the different phases of the estrous cycle

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    Regina Célia Teixeira Gomes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Quantificar glicosaminoglicanos sulfatados (GAGs no útero de camundongas durante o ciclo estral. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se quatro grupos de camundongas virgens com 100 dias de idade (n= 10 cada conforme a fase ciclo estral: proestro, estro, metaestro e diestro. Amostras da porção média dos cornos uterinos foram preparadas para observação em microscopia de luz (H/E e Alcian blue + PAS. Os GAGs foram extraídos e caracterizados por eletroforese em gel de agarose. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste t de Student não pareado. RESULTADOS: À microscopia de luz, os GAGs sulfatados apresentam-se em todas as camadas do útero, em especial no endométrio, entre as fibras colágenas, na membrana basal e ao redor dos fibroblastos. A análise bioquímica mostrou haver dermatam sulfato (DS, condroitim sulfato (CS e heparam sulfato (HS durante todas as fases do ciclo estral. Não houve separação eletroforética clara entre DS e CS, de modo que estes dois GAGs foram considerados em conjunto (DS+CS (proestro = 0,854 ± 0,192; estro = 1,073 ± 0,254; metaestro = 1,003 ± 0,255; e diestro = 0,632 ± 0,443 µg/mg. Os resultados de HS foram: proestro = 0,092 ± 0,097; estro = 0,180 ± 0,141; metaestro = 0,091 ± 0,046; e diestro = 0,233 ± 0,147 µg/mg. A concentração DS+CS apresentou-se maior no estro (ação estrogênica e a do HS no diestro (ação progestagênica. CONCLUSÃO: Os GAGs no útero de camundongas sofrem alterações durante as fases do ciclo estral, refletindo o constante processo de renovação, sendo modulados pelos hormônios sexuais.OBJECTIVE: Identification and quantitation of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs in the uterus of female mice during the estrous cycle. METHODS: Four groups (n = 10 each of virgin, 100-day old female mice were assembled according to the estrous cycle phase: proestrus, estrus, metaestrus and diestrus. Samples of the median portion of uterine horns were processed for light microscopy examination (H

  19. Should Contentment Be a Key Aim in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions are major concentrations of political, social, economic, intellectual and communicative resources. They reach freely across populations and cultures and connect to government, professions, industry and the arts. The neoliberal logic of markets has entered the realm of (higher) education. This leads to discourse on the…

  20. Should contentment be a key aim in higher education?

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions are major concentrations of political, social, economic, intellectual and communicative resources. They reach freely across populations and cultures, and connect to government, professions, industry and the arts. The neo-liberal logic of markets has entered the realm of (higher) education. Marketing functions centre on the creation, codification and transmission of knowledge, and the certification of graduates and the nature of education are commercialised, both ...

  1. [Serum glycosaminoglycans in Graves' disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna B; Olczyk, Krystyna Z; Koźma, Ewa M; Komosińska-Vassev, Katarzyna B; Wisowski, Grzegorz R; Marcisz, Czesław

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the blood serum sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration of Graves' disease patients before treatment and after attainment of the euthyroid state. The study was carried out on the blood serum obtained from 17 patients with newly recognised Graves' disease and from the same patients after attainment of the euthyroid state. Graves' patients had not any clinical symptoms neither of ophthalmopathy nor pretibial myxedema. GAGs were isolated from the blood serum by the multistage extraction and purification using papaine hydrolysis, alkali elimination, as well as cetylpyridium chloride binding. Total amount of GAGs was quantified by the hexuronic acids assay. HA content in obtained GAGs sample was evaluated by the ELISA method. Increased serum concentration of sulfated GAGs in non-treated Graves' disease patients was found. Similarly, serum HA level in untreated patients was significantly elevated. The attainment of euthyroid state was accompanied by the decreased serum sulfated GAGs level and by normalization of serum HA concentration. In conclusion, the results obtained demonstrate that the alterations of GAGs metabolism connected with Graves' disease can lead to systemic changes of the extracellular matrix properties.

  2. Determinants of Glycosaminoglycan (GAG Structure

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    Kristian Prydz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteoglycans (PGs are glycosylated proteins of biological importance at cell surfaces, in the extracellular matrix, and in the circulation. PGs are produced and modified by glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains in the secretory pathway of animal cells. The most common GAG attachment site is a serine residue followed by a glycine (-ser-gly-, from which a linker tetrasaccharide extends and may continue as a heparan sulfate, a heparin, a chondroitin sulfate, or a dermatan sulfate GAG chain. Which type of GAG chain becomes attached to the linker tetrasaccharide is influenced by the structure of the protein core, modifications occurring to the linker tetrasaccharide itself, and the biochemical environment of the Golgi apparatus, where GAG polymerization and modification by sulfation and epimerization take place. The same cell type may produce different GAG chains that vary, depending on the extent of epimerization and sulfation. However, it is not known to what extent these differences are caused by compartmental segregation of protein cores en route through the secretory pathway or by differential recruitment of modifying enzymes during synthesis of different PGs. The topic of this review is how different aspects of protein structure, cellular biochemistry, and compartmentalization may influence GAG synthesis.

  3. Raman spectroscopy: a structural probe of glycosaminoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansil, R.; Stanley, H.E.; Yannas, I.V.

    1978-01-01

    The authors report the first Raman spectroscopic study of the glycosaminoglycans chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate and hyaluronic acid, both in solution and in the solid state. To aid in spectral identification, infrared spectra were also recorded from films of these samples. Vibrational frequencies for important functional groups like the sulfate groups, glycosidic linkages, C-OH and the N-acetyl group can be identified from the Raman spectra. Certain differences in the spectra of the different glycosaminoglycans can be interpreted in terms of the geometry of the various substituents, while other differences can be related to differences in chemical composition. (Auth.)

  4. Changes in glycosaminoglycan structure on differentiation of human embryonic stem cells towards mesoderm and endoderm lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasimli, Leyla; Hickey, Anne Marie; Yang, Bo; Li, Guoyun; dela Rosa, Mitche; Nairn, Alison V; Kulik, Michael J; Dordick, Jonathan S; Moremen, Kelley W; Dalton, Stephen; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Proteoglycans are found on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, and serve as prime sites for interaction with signaling molecules. Proteoglycans help regulate pathways that control stem cell fate, and therefore represent an excellent tool to manipulate these pathways. Despite their importance, there is a dearth of data linking glycosaminoglycan structure within proteoglycans with stem cell differentiation. Human embryonic stem cell line WA09 (H9) was differentiated into early mesoderm and endoderm lineages, and the glycosaminoglycanomic changes accompanying these transitions were studied using transcript analysis, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and disaccharide analysis. Pluripotent H9 cell lumican had no glycosaminoglycan chains whereas in splanchnic mesoderm lumican was glycosaminoglycanated. H9 cells have primarily non-sulfated heparan sulfate chains. On differentiation towards splanchnic mesoderm and hepatic lineages N-sulfo group content increases. Differences in transcript expression of NDST1, HS6ST2 and HS6ST3, three heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes, within splanchnic mesoderm cells compared to H9 cells correlate to changes in glycosaminoglycan structure. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells markedly changes the proteoglycanome. The glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic pathway is complex and highly regulated, and therefore, understanding the details of this pathway should enable better control with the aim of directing stem cell differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between binding activity of sup 67 Ga and low sulfated acid glycosaminoglycans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Yasuhito; Tsukada, Fumitake; Kohno, Hiroyuki (Tohoku Coll. of Pharmacy, Sendai (Japan)); Kubodera, Akiko (Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). School of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

    1989-01-01

    Sulfate content of acid glycosaminoglycan (AGAG) extracted from granuloma which had been produced by turpentine oil was inversely proportional to the amount of {sub 67}Ga accumulation in the granuloma. Additionally, the lowest sulfation occurred in granuloma at a peak of inflammation when the uptake of {sub 67}Ga had reached a maximum. On the basis of electrophoretic pattern, sulfate content, and specific optical rotation, it was concluded that acid glycosaminoglycans obtained from granuloma are mainly composed of chondroitin sulfate-A, -B, and desulfated heparin, while haparan sulfate was a minor component. From in vitro assays, desulfated acid glycosaminoglycans, especially desulfated-heparin and desulfated-heparan sulfate, were found to have a high affinity to {sub 67}Ga. These results suggest that low- or de-sulfation of AGAG is related to the accumulation of {sub 67}Ga in inflammatory lesions such as granuloma. Moreover, these results suggest that {sub 67}Ga does not bind to glycosaminoglycans via sulfuric acid residues. (author).

  6. Elder Abuse and Neglect Content in Higher Education Programs on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen F.

    This study sought to: (1) investigate the degree to which course content on elder abuse and neglect is a part of higher education curriculums in aging; (2) determine which specific elder abuse and neglect course content is included in required and elective coursework; and (3) describe the attitudes of instructors toward including elder abuse and…

  7. Evolution of glycosaminoglycans and their glycosyltransferases: Implications for the extracellular matrices of animals and the capsules of pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Paul L

    2002-11-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (linear polysaccharides with a repeating disaccharide backbone containing an amino sugar) are essential components of extracellular matrices of animals. These complex molecules play important structural, adhesion, and signaling roles in mammals. Direct detection of glycosaminoglycans has been reported in a variety of organisms, but perhaps more definitive tests for the glycosyltransferase genes should be utilized to clarify the distribution of glycosaminoglycans in metazoans. Recently, glycosyltransferases that form the hyaluronan, heparin/heparan, or chondroitin backbone were identified at the molecular level. The three types of glycosyltransferases appear to have evolved independently based on sequence comparisons and other characteristics. All metazoans appear to possess heparin/heparan. Chondroitin is found in some worms, arthropods, and higher animals. Hyaluronan is found only in two of the three main branches of chordates. The presence of several types of glycosaminoglycans in the body allows multiple communication channels and adhesion systems to operate simultaneously. Certain pathogenic bacteria produce extracellular coatings, called capsules, which are composed of glycosaminoglycans that increase their virulence during infection. The capsule helps shield the microbe from the host defenses and/or modulates host physiology. The bacterial and animal polysaccharides are chemically identical or at least very similar. Therefore, no immune response is generated, in contrast to the vast majority of capsular polymers from other bacteria. In microbial systems, it appears that in most cases functional convergent evolution of glycosaminoglycan glycosyltransferases occurred, rather than direct horizontal gene transfer from their vertebrate hosts. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  9. Engaging adolescents with LD in higher order thinking about history concepts using integrated content enhancement routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgren, Janis; Deshler, Donald D; Lenz, B Keith

    2007-01-01

    The understanding and use of historical concepts specified in national history standards pose many challenges to students. These challenges include both the acquisition of content knowledge and the use of that knowledge in ways that require higher order thinking. All students, including adolescents with learning disabilities (LD), are expected to understand and use concepts of history to pass high-stakes assessments and to participate meaningfully in a democratic society. This article describes Content Enhancement Routines (CERs) to illustrate instructional planning, teaching, and assessing for higher order thinking with examples from an American history unit. Research on the individual components of Content Enhancement Routines will be illustrated with data from 1 of the routines. The potential use of integrated sets of materials and procedures across grade levels and content areas will be discussed.

  10. Glycosaminoglycan, computed tomography and gallium-67 scanning in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Fujii, Junji; Yamakawa, Kiyohiro; Tamura, Shinsuke; Amuro, Yoshiki; Nabeshima, Kenji; Hada, Toshikazu; Higashino, Kazuya; Horai, Takeshi.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an unusual disease, often difficult to diagnose. This paper describes the results of quantitative studies on glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in tumor tissues and the findings of chest computed tomography (CT) and gallium-67 scanning in 5 malignant pleural mesotheliomas. The total amount of GAG in tumor tissue was 2.3 to 17.0 times as high as that in adenocarcinoma of the lung. The amount of hyaluronic acid was 3.5 to 170 times higher than that in adenocarcinoma. Also, the amount of chondroitin sulfate increased 2.6 to 10.0 times, but there were no changes in dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate contents in this neoplasm when compared with adenocarcinoma. The present study suggests that a marked increase of the total amount of GAG and elevation of either hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate content or both is a characteristic abnormality in this neoplasm. In most cases, CT scan of the chest showed pleural effusion, irregular pleural tumorous thickening surrounding the whole lung surface and extension into the fissure. In 3 cases, tumorous lesions extending into the chest wall at the site of pleural biopsy could be visualized on CT. In the terminal stage, the thoracic cavity was occupied by tumor tissues. Gallium-67 scanning showed a diffusely increased radionuclide accumulation over the involved hemithorax with or without particular intensity in the periphery. Conversely, identification of these characteristic findings of CT and gallium-67 scanning indicates the possibility of malignant pleural mesothelioma. (author)

  11. How members of the human gut microbiota overcome the sulfation problem posed by glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmell, Alan; Lowe, Elisabeth C; Baslé, Arnaud; Firbank, Susan J; Ndeh, Didier A; Murray, Heath; Terrapon, Nicolas; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Czjzek, Mirjam; Gilbert, Harry J; Bolam, David N

    2017-07-03

    The human microbiota, which plays an important role in health and disease, uses complex carbohydrates as a major source of nutrients. Utilization hierarchy indicates that the host glycosaminoglycans heparin (Hep) and heparan sulfate (HS) are high-priority carbohydrates for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron , a prominent member of the human microbiota. The sulfation patterns of these glycosaminoglycans are highly variable, which presents a significant enzymatic challenge to the polysaccharide lyases and sulfatases that mediate degradation. It is possible that the bacterium recruits lyases with highly plastic specificities and expresses a repertoire of enzymes that target substructures of the glycosaminoglycans with variable sulfation or that the glycans are desulfated before cleavage by the lyases. To distinguish between these mechanisms, the components of the B. thetaiotaomicron Hep/HS degrading apparatus were analyzed. The data showed that the bacterium expressed a single-surface endo-acting lyase that cleaved HS, reflecting its higher molecular weight compared with Hep. Both Hep and HS oligosaccharides imported into the periplasm were degraded by a repertoire of lyases, with each enzyme displaying specificity for substructures within these glycosaminoglycans that display a different degree of sulfation. Furthermore, the crystal structures of a key surface glycan binding protein, which is able to bind both Hep and HS, and periplasmic sulfatases reveal the major specificity determinants for these proteins. The locus described here is highly conserved within the human gut Bacteroides , indicating that the model developed is of generic relevance to this important microbial community.

  12. LEAN-GREEN MANUFACTURING: COLLABORATIVE CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION AND ENGINEERING COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO RUDOLFO CALVETE GASPAR

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lean and Green manufacturing processes aim at achieving lower material and labour costs, while reducing impacts on the environment, and promoting sustainability as a whole. This paper reports on a pilot experiment with higher education and engineering students, exploring the full potential of a collaborative approach on courses integrating the Portuguese Polytechnic of Castelo Branco engineering studies curricula, while simultaneously improving their proficiency in English. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL has become a key area of curricular innovation since it is known for improving both language and content teacher and student motivation. In this context, instructional design for CLIL entailed tandem work of content (engineering and language (English teacher to design learning sequences and strategies. This allowed students to improve not only their language skills in English but also their knowledge in the specific engineering domain content on green and lean manufacturing processes.

  13. Exploring the Content of Instrumental Lessons and Gender Relations in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This observational study analysed the lesson content of 24 instrumental lessons (piano, strings and winds) using a gender-balanced sample (equal numbers of male/female teachers and students) from five Australian higher education institutions to ascertain the priorities of topics in advanced applied music lessons in the Western Classical tradition.…

  14. Increased physical activity severely induces osteoarthritic changes in knee joints with papain induced sulfate-glycosaminoglycan depleted cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelt, M.; Groen, H.C.; Koelewijn, S.J.; De Blois, E.; Sandker, M.; Waarsing, J.H.; Müller, C.; Van Osch, G.J.V.M.; De Jong, M.; Weinans, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Articular cartilage needs sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) to withstand high pressures while mechanically loaded. Chondrocyte sGAG synthesis is regulated by exposure to compressive forces. Moderate physical exercise is known to improve cartilage sGAG content and might protect against

  15. Increased physical activity severely induces osteoarthritic changes in knee joints with papain induced sulfate-glycosaminoglycan depleted cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Siebelt (Michiel); H.C. Groen (Harald); S. Koelewijn (Stuart); E. de Blois (Erik); M. Sandker (Marjan); J.H. Waarsing (Jan); C. Müller (Cristina); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); M. de Jong (Marcel); H.H. Weinans (Harrie)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Articular cartilage needs sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) to withstand high pressures while mechanically loaded. Chondrocyte sGAG synthesis is regulated by exposure to compressive forces. Moderate physical exercise is known to improve cartilage sGAG content and might

  16. Deciphering functional glycosaminoglycan motifs in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Robert A; Bülow, Hannes E

    2018-03-23

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparan sulfate, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, and keratan sulfate are linear glycans, which when attached to protein backbones form proteoglycans. GAGs are essential components of the extracellular space in metazoans. Extensive modifications of the glycans such as sulfation, deacetylation and epimerization create structural GAG motifs. These motifs regulate protein-protein interactions and are thereby repsonsible for many of the essential functions of GAGs. This review focusses on recent genetic approaches to characterize GAG motifs and their function in defined signaling pathways during development. We discuss a coding approach for GAGs that would enable computational analyses of GAG sequences such as alignments and the computation of position weight matrices to describe GAG motifs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fine Structure of Glycosaminoglycans from Fresh and Decellularized Porcine Cardiac Valves and Pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cigliano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac valves are dynamic structures, exhibiting a highly specialized architecture consisting of cells and extracellular matrix with a relevant proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan content, collagen and elastic fibers. Biological valve substitutes are obtained from xenogenic cardiac and pericardial tissues. To overcome the limits of such non viable substitutes, tissue engineering approaches emerged to create cell repopulated decellularized scaffolds. This study was performed to determine the glycosaminoglycans content, distribution, and disaccharides composition in porcine aortic and pulmonary valves and in pericardium before and after a detergent-based decellularization procedure. The fine structural characteristics of galactosaminoglycans chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate were examined by FACE. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of decellularized pericardium and its propensity to be repopulated by in vitro seeded fibroblasts were investigated. Results show that galactosaminoglycans and hyaluronan are differently distributed between pericardium and valves and within heart valves themselves before and after decellularization. The distribution of glycosaminoglycans is also dependent from the vascular district and topographic localization. The decellularization protocol adopted resulted in a relevant but not selective depletion of galactosaminoglycans. As a whole, data suggest that both decellularized porcine heart valves and bovine pericardium represent promising materials bearing the potential for future development of tissue engineered heart valve scaffolds.

  18. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  19. Soybean seeds expressing feedback-insensitive cystathionine γ-synthase exhibit a higher content of methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shikui; Hou, Wensheng; Godo, Itamar; Wu, Cunxiang; Yu, Yang; Matityahu, Ifat; Hacham, Yael; Sun, Shi; Han, Tianfu; Amir, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    Soybean seeds provide an excellent source of protein for human and livestock nutrition. However, their nutritional quality is hampered by a low concentration of the essential sulfur amino acid, methionine (Met). In order to study factors that regulate Met synthesis in soybean seeds, this study used the Met-insensitive form of Arabidopsis cystathionine γ-synthase (AtD-CGS), which is the first committed enzyme of Met biosynthesis. This gene was expressed under the control of a seed-specific promoter, legumin B4, and used to transform the soybean cultivar Zigongdongdou (ZD). In three transgenic lines that exhibited the highest expression level of AtD-CGS, the level of soluble Met increased significantly in developing green seeds (3.8-7-fold). These seeds also showed high levels of other amino acids. This phenomenon was more prominent in two transgenic lines, ZD24 and ZD91. The total Met content, which including Met incorporated into proteins, significantly increased in the mature dry seeds of these two transgenic lines by 1.8- and 2.3-fold, respectively. This elevation was accompanied by a higher content of other protein-incorporated amino acids, which led to significantly higher total protein content in the seeds of these two lines. However, in a third transgenic line, ZD01, the level of total Met and the level of other amino acids did not increase significantly in the mature dry seeds. This line also showed no significant change in protein levels. This suggests a positive connection between high Met content and the synthesis of other amino acids that enable the synthesis of more seed proteins.

  20. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in cultured endothelial cells from capillaries and large vessels of human and bovine origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, R.S.; Dake, B.L.; Spanheimer, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The ( 35 S)glycosaminoglycans (( 35 S)GAG) synthesized by capillary endothelial cells were analyzed and compared to GAG synthesized by endothelial cells cultured from 4 larger vessels. Two separate cultures of endothelial cells were established from bovine fat capillaries and from 4 larger vessels of human origin (umbilical vein) and bovine origin (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and aorta). After incubation with 35 SO 4 for 72 h, the ( 35 S)glycosaminoglycans (GAG) composition of the media, pericellular and cellular fractions of each culture were determined by selective degradation with nitrous acid, chondroitinase ABC and chondroitinase AC. All endothelial cells produced large amounts of ( 35 S)GAG with increased proportions of heparinoids (heparan sulfate and heparin) in the cellular and pericellular fractions. Each culture showed a distinct distribution of ( 35 S)GAG in the media, pericellular and cellular fractions with several specific differences found among the 5 cultures. The differences in GAG content were confirmed in a second group of separate cultures from each of the 5 vessels indicating that, although having several features of GAG metabolism in common, each endothelial cell culture demonstrated a characteristic complement of synthesized, secreted and cell surface-sulfated glycosaminoglycans. (author)

  1. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in cultured endothelial cells from capillaries and large vessels of human and bovine origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.S.; Dake, B.L.; Spanheimer, R.G.

    1985-07-01

    The (/sup 35/S)glycosaminoglycans ((/sup 35/S)GAG) synthesized by capillary endothelial cells were analyzed and compared to GAG synthesized by endothelial cells cultured from 4 larger vessels. Two separate cultures of endothelial cells were established from bovine fat capillaries and from 4 larger vessels of human origin (umbilical vein) and bovine origin (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and aorta). After incubation with /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ for 72 h, the (/sup 35/S)glycosaminoglycans (GAG) composition of the media, pericellular and cellular fractions of each culture were determined by selective degradation with nitrous acid, chondroitinase ABC and chondroitinase AC. All endothelial cells produced large amounts of (/sup 35/S)GAG with increased proportions of heparinoids (heparan sulfate and heparin) in the cellular and pericellular fractions. Each culture showed a distinct distribution of (/sup 35/S)GAG in the media, pericellular and cellular fractions with several specific differences found among the 5 cultures. The differences in GAG content were confirmed in a second group of separate cultures from each of the 5 vessels indicating that, although having several features of GAG metabolism in common, each endothelial cell culture demonstrated a characteristic complement of synthesized, secreted and cell surface-sulfated glycosaminoglycans. (author). 16 refs.

  2. Evaluation of consequence due to higher hydrazine content in partitioning stream of PUREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Suresh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Special Nuclear Recycle Facility

    2016-07-01

    Hydrazine nitrate is being used as a stabilizer for U(IV) as well as Pu(III) during partitioning of Pu in PUREX process by scavenging the nitrous acid present along with nitric acid. As hydrazine hydrate as well as its salts have been successfully used for scrubbing of degradation products of TBP to aqueous phase, experiments were conducted to evaluate the consequence of hydrazine content during Pu partitioning. It was observed that higher amount of hydrazine nitrate along with uranous nitrate in the partitioning stream of PUREX process leads to build up of DBP in aqueous phase and resulted in precipitation of Pu.

  3. Radiation synovectomy stimulates glycosaminoglycan synthesis by normal articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.L.; Slowman, S.D.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation synovectomy has been considered a therapeutic alternative to surgical synovectomy. Whether intraarticular irradiation affects the composition or biochemistry, and therefore the biomechanical properties, of normal articular cartilage has not been established. In the present study, yttrium 90 silicate was injected into one knee of nine normal adult dogs, and three other dogs received nonradioactive yttrium silicate. When the animals were killed 4 to 13 weeks after the injection, synovium from the irradiated knees showed areas of necrosis and fibrosis. Up to 29% less hyaluronate was synthesized in vitro by the synovial intima from irradiated knees than by the intima from the contralateral knees (mean difference 18%). Morphologic abnormalities were not observed in articular cartilage from either the irradiated or control knees, nor did the water content or concentrations of uronic acid or DNA in cartilage from the irradiated knees differ from that in cartilage from the contralateral knees. However, net 35 SO 4 -labeled glycosaminoglycan synthesis in organ cultures of cartilage from irradiated knees was increased (mean difference 21%, p = 0.03) in comparison with that in cultures of contralateral knee cartilage

  4. Radiation synovectomy stimulates glycosaminoglycan synthesis by normal articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S.L.; Slowman, S.D.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-07-01

    Radiation synovectomy has been considered a therapeutic alternative to surgical synovectomy. Whether intraarticular irradiation affects the composition or biochemistry, and therefore the biomechanical properties, of normal articular cartilage has not been established. In the present study, yttrium 90 silicate was injected into one knee of nine normal adult dogs, and three other dogs received nonradioactive yttrium silicate. When the animals were killed 4 to 13 weeks after the injection, synovium from the irradiated knees showed areas of necrosis and fibrosis. Up to 29% less hyaluronate was synthesized in vitro by the synovial intima from irradiated knees than by the intima from the contralateral knees (mean difference 18%). Morphologic abnormalities were not observed in articular cartilage from either the irradiated or control knees, nor did the water content or concentrations of uronic acid or DNA in cartilage from the irradiated knees differ from that in cartilage from the contralateral knees. However, net /sup 35/SO/sub 4/-labeled glycosaminoglycan synthesis in organ cultures of cartilage from irradiated knees was increased (mean difference 21%, p = 0.03) in comparison with that in cultures of contralateral knee cartilage.

  5. Making User-Generated Content Communities Work in Higher Education - The Importance of Setting Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom Brocke, Jan; White, Cynthia; Walker, Ute; Vom Brocke, Christina

    The concept of User-Generated Content (UGC) offers impressive potential for innovative learning and teaching scenarios in higher education. Examples like Wikipedia and Facebook illustrate the enormous effects of multiple users world-wide contributing to a pool of shared resources, such as videos and pictures and also lexicographical descriptions. Apart from single examples, however, the systematic use of these virtual technologies in higher education still needs further exploration. Only few examples display the successful application of UGC Communities at university scenarios. We argue that a major reason for this can be seen in the fact that the organizational dimension of setting up UGC Communities has widely been neglected so far. In particular, we indicate the need for incentive setting to actively involve students and achieve specific pedagogical objectives. We base our study on organizational theories and derive strategies for incentive setting that have been applied in a practical e-Learning scenario involving students from Germany and New Zealand.

  6. How Glycosaminoglycans Promote Fibrillation of Salmon Calcitonin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmos, Kirsten Gade; Bjerring, Morten; Jessen, Christian Moestrup; Nielsen, Erik Holm Toustrup; Poulsen, Ebbe T.; Christiansen, Gunna; Vosegaard, Thomas; Skrydstrup, Troels; Enghild, Jan J.; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) bind all known amyloid plaques and help store protein hormones in (acidic) granular vesicles, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these important effects are unclear. Here we investigate GAG interactions with the peptide hormone salmon calcitonin (sCT). GAGs induce fast sCT fibrillation at acidic pH and only bind monomeric sCT at acidic pH, inducing sCT helicity. Increasing GAG sulfation expands the pH range for binding. Heparin, the most highly sulfated GAG, binds sCT in the pH interval 3–7. Small angle x-ray scattering indicates that sCT monomers densely decorate and pack single heparin chains, possibly via hydrophobic patches on helical sCT. sCT fibrillates without GAGs, but heparin binding accelerates the process by decreasing the otherwise long fibrillation lag times at low pH and accelerates fibril growth rates at neutral pH. sCT·heparin complexes form β-sheet-rich heparin-covered fibrils. Solid-state NMR reveals that heparin does not alter the sCT fibrillary core around Lys11 but makes changes to Val8 on the exterior side of the β-strand, possibly through contacts to Lys18. Thus GAGs significantly modulate sCT fibrillation in a pH-dependent manner by interacting with both monomeric and aggregated sCT. PMID:27281819

  7. Glycosaminoglycan interactions in murine gammaherpesvirus-68 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gillet

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs commonly participate in herpesvirus entry. They are thought to provide a reversible attachment to cells that promotes subsequent receptor binding. Murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68 infection of fibroblasts and epithelial cells is highly GAG-dependent. This is a function of the viral gp150, in that gp150-deficient mutants are much less GAG-dependent than wild-type. Here we show that the major MHV-68 GAG-binding protein is not gp150 but gp70, a product of ORF4. Surprisingly, ORF4-deficient MHV-68 showed normal cell binding and was more sensitive than wild-type to inhibition by soluble heparin rather than less. Thus, the most obvious viral GAG interaction made little direct contribution to infection. Indeed, a large fraction of the virion gp70 had its GAG-binding domain removed by post-translational cleavage. ORF4 may therefore act mainly to absorb soluble GAGs and prevent them from engaging gp150 prematurely. In contrast to gp70, gp150 bound poorly to GAGs, implying that it provides little in the way of adhesion. We hypothesize that it acts instead as a GAG-sensitive switch that selectively activates MHV-68 entry at cell surfaces.

  8. Developing Accounting Information System Course Content for Iraqi Higher Education Institution: An Instrument Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Yousif Hanna Lallo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In ensuring that competent graduates are produced in the universities, the course used embedding knowledge in the students, mindsets needs to be effective. However, the unusual circumstances that happened in Iraq were affected on a universities course. The revolution in information technology (IT affects most of our activations. As a result, it is important to consider the impact of IT on accounting careers. Developing accenting information system course content can generate an accountant who is armed with the knowledge and skills before entering accounting job. Also the development process required instructors have characteristics that make the integrating process of IT knowledge components in AIS course content more smoothly. Iraq is the country facing many difficulties that makes its higher education institutions (HEIs suffered from un updated learning environment and technological backwardness. This causes a low level of accounting graduates’ knowledge and in turn leads to led to consider the Iraqi accountant incapable of working with international organizations and companies or conducting was it professionally. The aim of this paper is to explain the role of IT knowledge elements in developing AIS course content in Iraqi HEIs with considering the moderate effect of the instructors’ characteristics. Furthermore, this paper discusses the development and validation of the quantitative instrument (questionnaire for IT knowledge elements in Iraqi HEIs. Moreover, the reliability of the constructs is also discussed.

  9. Indian girls have higher bone mineral content per unit of lean body than boys through puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Sanwalka, Neha; Mughal, M Zulf; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2018-05-01

    Our aim is to describe changes in the muscle-bone unit assessed as a ratio of bone mineral content (BMC) to lean body mass (LBM) through puberty at total body and various skeletal sites in Indian boys and girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted (888 children, 480 boys, aged 5-17 years) in Pune, India. Pubertal staging was assessed. BMC, LBM and fat percentage at the arms, legs, android, gynoid and total body (less the head) were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The amount of BMC per unit LBM (BMC/LBM) was computed. Changes in mean BMC/LBM at 5 Tanner (pubertal) stages after adjustment for age and fat percentage were calculated. In boys, adjusted BMC/LBM was significantly higher with successive Tanner stages [legs (TS-II vs TS-I), android (TS-III vs TS-II, TS-IV vs TS-III) and gynoid region (TS-III vs TS-II and TS-II vs TS-I) (p LBM was significantly higher with successive Tanner stages at total body, legs and gynoid (TS-III vs TS-II; TS-II vs TS-I; TS-V vs TS-IV), arms (TS-I to TS-V) and android regions (TS-V vs TS-IV) (p LBM than girls at earlier Tanner stages (TS-I to TS-III), whereas girls had significantly higher adjusted BMC/LBM than boys at later Tanner stages (TS-IV, TS-V) (p LBM with successive pubertal stages. Girls had higher BMC/LBM than boys which may possibly act as a reservoir for later demands of pregnancy and lactation.

  10. Brazilian savanna fruits contain higher bioactive compounds content and higher antioxidant activity relative to the conventional red delicious apple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Machado de Almeida Siqueira

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds content and the antioxidant activity (AA of twelve fruits native to the Cerrado were compared with the Red Delicious apple by means of the antiradical efficiency (using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil assay/DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and the β-carotene/linoleic system. The antiradical efficiency (AE and the kinetic parameters (Efficient concentration/EC50 and time needed to reach the steady state to EC50 concentration/TEC50 of the DPPH curve were also evaluated for comparison with the Trolox equivalent (TE values. A strong, significant and positive correlation was observed between the TE and AE values, whereas a weak and negative correlation was observed between TE and EC50, suggesting that the values of AE and TE are more useful for the determination of antiradical activity in fruits than the widely used EC50. The total phenolic content found in the fruits corresponded positively to their antioxidant activity. The high content of bioactive compounds (flavanols, anthocyanins or vitamin C relative to the apple values found in araticum, cagaita, cajuzinho, jurubeba, lobeira, magaba and tucum corresponded to the high antioxidant activity of these fruits. Flavanols and anthocyanins may be the main bioactive components in these Cerrado fruits. The daily consumption of at least seven of the twelve Cerrado fruits studied, particularly, araticum, cagaita, lobeira and tucum, may confer protection against oxidative stress, and thus, they may prevent chronic diseases and premature aging. The findings of this study should stimulate demand, consumption and cultivation of Cerrado fruits and result in sustainable development of the region where this biome dominates.

  11. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK): Exploring its Usefulness for Science Lecturers in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sharon P.

    2016-02-01

    In the past 30 years, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) frameworks have become important constructs in educational research undertaken in the school education system and a focus for research for curriculum and teacher education researchers. As regards science, PCK research has been plentiful, but thus far, the concept of PCK (significantly enhanced since its proposal) has only been validated in the school context (Kindergarten to Grade 12). Within this environment, however, it has proven to be a very useful construct for understanding teacher practice and contributing to the improvement of teacher education courses. Knowledge about whether PCK is useful as a conceptual framework for science lecturers (teachers) working in higher education is as yet unknown and represents a gap in the research literature; the research outlined here is a first step in exploring its usefulness in this context. This paper provides an analysis of data obtained from semi-structured interviews conducted with nine Australian science university lecturers from various disciplines and levels of seniority and experience of tertiary teaching, as well as an academic developer skilled in facilitating science academics' understanding of pedagogy in higher education. The research aimed to investigate the extent to which one version of a school-based science PCK framework resonated with the pedagogical thinking of university science lecturers and the ways in which it could influence their teaching practice.

  12. INCREASE OF GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS AND METALLOPROTEINASES 2 AND 9 IN LIVER EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX ON EARLY STAGES OF EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Rodrigues GUEDES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Cholestasis produces hepatocellular injury, leukocyte infiltration, ductular cells proliferation and fibrosis of liver parenchyma by extracellular matrix replacement. Objective Analyze bile duct ligation effect upon glycosaminoglycans content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs activities. Methods Animals (6-8 weeks; n = 40 were euthanized 2, 7 or 14 days after bile duct ligation or Sham-surgery. Disease evolution was analyzed by body and liver weight, seric direct bilirubin, globulins, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (Alk-P, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, tissue myeloperoxidase and MMP-9, pro MMP-2 and MMP-2 activities, histopathology and glycosaminoglycans content. Results Cholestasis caused cellular damage with elevation of globulins, GGT, Alk-P, ALT, AST. There was neutrophil infiltration observed by the increasing of myeloperoxidase activity on 7 (P = 0.0064 and 14 (P = 0.0002 groups which leads to the magnification of tissue injuries. Bile duct ligation increased pro-MMP-2 (P = 0.0667, MMP-2 (P = 0.0003 and MMP-9 (P<0.0001 activities on 14 days indicating matrix remodeling and establishment of inflammatory process. Bile duct ligation animals showed an increasing on dermatan sulfate and/or heparan sulfate content reflecting extracellular matrix production and growing mitosis due to parenchyma depletion. Conclusions Cholestasis led to many changes on rats’ liver parenchyma, as so as on its extracellular matrix, with major alterations on MMPs activities and glycosaminoglycans content.

  13. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Nagano, Takatoshi; Hu, Jan Cc; Yamakoshi, Fumiko; Simmer, James P

    2011-02-03

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp), the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp), is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB) and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG) attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were tentatively assigned at Thr200, Thr216 and Thr

  14. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi Fumiko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp, the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp, is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. Results To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were

  15. The association of personal semantic memory to identity representations: insight into higher-order networks of autobiographical contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D

    2017-11-01

    Identity representations are higher-order knowledge structures that organise autobiographical memories on the basis of personality and role-based themes of one's self-concept. In two experiments, the extent to which different types of personal semantic content are reflected in these higher-order networks of memories was investigated. Healthy, young adult participants generated identity representations that varied in remoteness of formation and verbally reflected on these themes in an open-ended narrative task. The narrative responses were scored for retrieval of episodic, experience-near personal semantic and experience-far (i.e., abstract) personal semantic contents. Results revealed that to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, experience-far personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-near personal semantic contents. In contrast, to reflect on recently formed identity representations, experience-near personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-far personal semantic contents. Although episodic memory contents were retrieved less than both personal semantic content types to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, this content type was retrieved at a similar frequency as experience-far personal semantic content to reflect on recently formed identity representations. These findings indicate that the association of personal semantic content to identity representations is robust and related to time since acquisition of these knowledge structures.

  16. Synthesis of Higher Alcohols via Syngas on Cu/Zn/Si Catalysts. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rong-Ji; Yan, Xing; Fan, Jin-Chuan; Huang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Cu/Zn/Si catalysts with different polyethylene glycol (PEG) content were prepared by a complete liquid-phase method, and characterized by XRD, H2-TPR, N2-adsorption, and XPS. The influence of PEG content on the higher alcohols synthesis from syngas was investigated. The results showed that addition of PEG can influence the texture and surface properties of the catalysts, and therefore affect their activity and product distribution. With an increase in PEG content, BET surface area, Cu crystallite size and surface active ingredient content of the catalysts first increased and then decreased, the CO conversion had similar variation tendency. However, the pore volume and pore diameter of the catalyst increased, and the binding energy of the active component and the content of Cu2O decreased, which resulted in higher catalyst selectivity towards higher alcohols. The highest C2+OH selectivity in total alcohols was 60.6 wt %.

  17. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis in amiodarone-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinas, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) have previously been demonstrated to be synthesized in greater than normal amounts following a single intratracheal insufflation of bleomycin in hamsters. This suggests that GAG may play a role in the propagation of pulmonary fibrotic reactions. To further test this hypothesis, GAG synthesis was studied in a new hamster model of interstitial lung injury, induced by the cardiac drug, aminodarone. Animals received a single intratracheal instillation of 1.25 mg aminodarone. At 4, 9, and 21 days post-insufflation, the animals were sacrificed, their lungs removed, and 1 mm fragments placed in explant culture for 6 hours at 37 0 C in the presence of 35 S-sulfate. The labeled GAG were isolated and measured for 35 S incorporation. The author then isolated the hexosamine portions of the respective GAGs, Heparan Sulfate (HEP S), Chondroitin-6-Sulfate (Ch-6-S) and Chondroitin-4-Sulfate and Dermatan Sulfate (CH-4-S and DS) using the enzyme ABC and paper chromatography. They also studied the GAG content and distribution in hamster lung fibroblasts incorporated with 35 S for 48 hours and subjected to either 0, 0.01 mg, 0.1 mg, or 1 mg of aminodarone. GAG synthesis is increased at an early stage following the induction of lung injury by aminodarone and remains elevated for a 3 week period. The change in GAG distribution boards elevated CH-4-S and DS may be characteristic of interstitial diseases in general. The GAGs that are synthesized by fibroblasts may be responsible for the increased CH-4-S and DS synthesis

  18. Characteristics and properties of cladding tubes for VVER-1000 higher Uranium content fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregud, M.; Markelov, A.; Novikov, V.; Gusev, A.; Konkov, V.; Pimenov, Y.; Agapitov, V.; Shtutsa, M.

    2009-01-01

    To improve the fuel cycle economics and to further increase the VVER fuel usability the work programme is under way to design novel improved fuel, fuel rods and fuel assemblies. Longer FA operation time that is needed to increase the fuel burnup and the related design developments of novel fuel assemblies resulted not only in changing types and sizes of Zirconium items and fuel assembly components but also altered the requirements placed on their technical characteristics. To use fuel rods having a larger charge of fuel, to improve their behaviour in LOCA, to reduce fuel rod damage ability during assembling the work was carried out to perfect the characteristics of both the cladding (reduced wall thickness and more rigid tolerances for geometry) and its material. To meet the more rigid requirements for the geometry dimensions of cladding tubes an improved process flow sheet has been designed and employed for their fabrication and also the finishing treatment of tube surfaces has been improved. The higher and stable properties of the cladding materials were managed through using the special purity in terms of Hafnium Zirconium (not higher than 100 ppm Hf) as a base of the E110 alloy and maintaining within the valid specifications for the alloy the optimized contents of Oxygen and Iron at the levels of (600 - 990) ppm and (250 - 700) ppm, respectively. The work was under way in 2004 - 2008 years; during this period the technology and materials science solutions were mastered that were phased-in introduced into the production of the cladding tubes for the fuels loaded into the of the Kalinin NPP Unit 1

  19. Development of assessment methods for transport and storage containers with higher content of metallic recycling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Droste, B.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transport and storage containers made of ductile cast iron melted with higher content of metallic recycling material from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations is investigated. With drop tests of cubic container-like models, the influence of different real targets on the stresses in the cask body and the fracture behaviour is examined. A test stand foundation is suggested, which can be manufactured simply and improves the reproducibility of the test results strongly. The test objects are partially equipped with artificial cracklike defects. Dynamic fracture mechanics analyses of these defects were performed by means of finite element calculations to uncover safety margins. Numerous test results show depending on the requirements that containers for final disposal can be built by means of a ductile cast iron with fracture toughness more than half under the lower bound value for the licensed material qualities yet. The application limits of the material are determined also by the opportunities of the safety assessment methods. This project supports the application of brittle fracture safe transport and storage packages for radioactive materials as recommended in App. VI of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA No. TS-G-1.1)

  20. Shape Memory Polymers Containing Higher Acrylate Content Display Increased Endothelial Cell Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Tina; Shandas, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are smart materials that can recall their shape upon the application of a stimulus, which makes them appealing materials for a variety of applications, especially in biomedical devices. Most prior SMP research has focused on tuning bulk properties; studying surface effects of SMPs may extend the use of these materials to blood-contacting applications, such as cardiovascular stents, where surfaces that support rapid endothelialization have been correlated to stent success. Here, we evaluate endothelial attachment onto the surfaces of a family of SMPs previously developed in our group that have shown promise for biomedical devices. Nine SMP formulations containing varying amounts of tert-Butyl acrylate (tBA) and Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) were analyzed for endothelial cell attachment. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), contact angle studies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to verify bulk and surface properties of the SMPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) attachment and viability was verified using fluorescent methods. Endothelial cells preferentially attached to SMPs with higher tBA content, which have rougher, more hydrophobic surfaces. HUVECs also displayed an increased metabolic activity on these high tBA SMPs over the course of the study. This class of SMPs may be promising candidates for next generation blood-contacting devices. PMID:29707382

  1. Development of assessment methods for transport and storage containers with higher content of metallic recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Droste, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transport and storage containers made of ductile cast iron melted with higher content of metallic recycling material from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations is investigated. With drop tests of cubic container-like models, the influence of different real targets on the stresses in the cask body and the fracture behaviour is examined. A test stand foundation is suggested, which can be manufactured simply and improves the reproducibility of the test results strongly. The test objects are partially equipped with artificial cracklike defects. Dynamic fracture mechanics analyses of these defects were performed by means of finite element calculations to uncover safety margins. Numerous test results show depending on the requirements that containers for final disposal can be built by means of a ductile cast iron with fracture toughness more than half under the lower bound value for the licensed material qualities yet. The application limits of the material are determined also by the opportunities of the safety assessment methods. This project supports the application of brittle fracture safe transport and storage packages for radioactive materials as recommended in App. VI of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA No. TS-G-1.1).

  2. Shape Memory Polymers Containing Higher Acrylate Content Display Increased Endothelial Cell Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Govindarajan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs are smart materials that can recall their shape upon the application of a stimulus, which makes them appealing materials for a variety of applications, especially in biomedical devices. Most prior SMP research has focused on tuning bulk properties; studying surface effects of SMPs may extend the use of these materials to blood-contacting applications, such as cardiovascular stents, where surfaces that support rapid endothelialization have been correlated to stent success. Here, we evaluate endothelial attachment onto the surfaces of a family of SMPs previously developed in our group that have shown promise for biomedical devices. Nine SMP formulations containing varying amounts of tert-Butyl acrylate (tBA and Poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA were analyzed for endothelial cell attachment. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, contact angle studies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to verify bulk and surface properties of the SMPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC attachment and viability was verified using fluorescent methods. Endothelial cells preferentially attached to SMPs with higher tBA content, which have rougher, more hydrophobic surfaces. HUVECs also displayed an increased metabolic activity on these high tBA SMPs over the course of the study. This class of SMPs may be promising candidates for next generation blood-contacting devices.

  3. Peptide p5 binds both heparinase-sensitive glycosaminoglycans and fibrils in patient-derived AL amyloid extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Emily B.; Williams, Angela [Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States); Heidel, Eric [Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States); Macy, Sallie [Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States); Kennel, Stephen J. [Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States); Wall, Jonathan S., E-mail: jwall@utmck.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States)

    2013-06-21

    Highlights: •Polybasic peptide p5 binds human light chain amyloid extracts. •The binding of p5 with amyloid involves both glycosaminoglycans and fibrils. •Heparinase treatment led to a correlation between p5 binding and fibril content. •p5 binding to AL amyloid requires electrostatic interactions. -- Abstract: In previously published work, we have described heparin-binding synthetic peptides that preferentially recognize amyloid deposits in a mouse model of reactive systemic (AA) amyloidosis and can be imaged by using positron and single photon emission tomographic imaging. We wanted to extend these findings to the most common form of visceral amyloidosis, namely light chain (AL); however, there are no robust experimental animal models of AL amyloidosis. To further define the binding of the lead peptide, p5, to AL amyloid, we characterized the reactivity in vitro of p5 with in situ and patient-derived AL amyloid extracts which contain both hypersulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans as well as amyloid fibrils. Histochemical staining demonstrated that the peptide specifically localized with tissue-associated AL amyloid deposits. Although we anticipated that p5 would undergo electrostatic interactions with the amyloid-associated glycosaminoglycans expressing heparin-like side chains, no significant correlation between peptide binding and glycosaminoglycan content within amyloid extracts was observed. In contrast, following heparinase I treatment, although overall binding was reduced, a positive correlation between peptide binding and amyloid fibril content became evident. This interaction was further confirmed using synthetic light chain fibrils that contain no carbohydrates. These data suggest that p5 can bind to both the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and protein fibril components of AL amyloid. Understanding these complex electrostatic interactions will aid in the optimization of synthetic peptides for use as amyloid imaging agents and potentially as

  4. Effect of irradiation on glycosaminoglycans connect in rat tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, M; Kucharz, E; Glowacki, A; Zylka, J

    1981-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) fractions were determined in tissues (skin, liver, lungs, aortic wall) and blood serum of rats irradiated with a single dose of 500 R. An increase of total GAGs as well as changes in the fractions were found in the tissues and urine of exposed rats.

  5. Progress in structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... The rising interest in the application of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is ... in functional food, clinical medicine, cosmetics and biomaterial. .... labor leads to incomplete hydrolysis and lower results. In ... GAG are spectrum analysis combined with enzymolysis ... spectrometry (ESI-FTMS), and nuclear magnetic.

  6. Cartilage collagen damage in hip osteoarthritis similar to that seen in knee osteoarthritis; a case-control study of relationship between collagen, glycosaminoglycan and cartilage swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseininia, Shahrzad; Lindberg, Lisbeth R; Dahlberg, Leif E

    2013-01-09

    It remains to be shown whether OA shares molecular similarities between different joints in humans. This study provides evidence for similarities in cartilage molecular damage in osteoarthritic (OA) joints. Articular cartilage from osteoarthritic hip joints were analysed and compared to non-OA controls regarding collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content. Femoral heads from 16 osteoarthritic (OA) and 20 reference patients were obtained from hip replacement surgery due to OA and femoral neck fracture, respectively. Cartilage histological changes were assessed by Mankin grading and denatured collagen type II immunostaining and cartilage was extracted by α-chymotrypsin. Hydroxyproline and Alcian blue binding assays were used to measure collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, respectively. Mankin and immunohistology scores were significantly higher in hip OA samples than in reference samples. Cartilage water content was 6% higher in OA samples than in references. 2.5 times more collagen was extracted from OA than from reference samples. There was a positive association between water content and percentage of extractable collagen pool (ECP) in both groups. The amounts of collagen per wet and dry weights did not differ statistically between OA and reference cartilage. % Extractable collagen was not related to collagen per dry weight in either group. However when collagen was expressed by wet weight there was a negative correlation between % extractable and collagen in OA cartilage. The amount of GAG per wet weight was similar in both groups but the amount of GAG per dry weight was higher in OA samples compared to reference samples, which suggests a capacity for GAG biosynthesis in hip OA cartilage. Neither of the studied parameters was related to age in either group. Increased collagen extractability and water content in human hip cartilage is associated with OA pathology and can be observed at early stages of the degenerative hip OA process. Our results

  7. Cartilage collagen damage in hip osteoarthritis similar to that seen in knee osteoarthritis; a case–control study of relationship between collagen, glycosaminoglycan and cartilage swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseininia Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains to be shown whether OA shares molecular similarities between different joints in humans. This study provides evidence for similarities in cartilage molecular damage in osteoarthritic (OA joints. Methods Articular cartilage from osteoarthritic hip joints were analysed and compared to non-OA controls regarding collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content. Femoral heads from 16 osteoarthritic (OA and 20 reference patients were obtained from hip replacement surgery due to OA and femoral neck fracture, respectively. Cartilage histological changes were assessed by Mankin grading and denatured collagen type II immunostaining and cartilage was extracted by α-chymotrypsin. Hydroxyproline and Alcian blue binding assays were used to measure collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG content, respectively. Results Mankin and immunohistology scores were significantly higher in hip OA samples than in reference samples. Cartilage water content was 6% higher in OA samples than in references. 2.5 times more collagen was extracted from OA than from reference samples. There was a positive association between water content and percentage of extractable collagen pool (ECP in both groups. The amounts of collagen per wet and dry weights did not differ statistically between OA and reference cartilage. % Extractable collagen was not related to collagen per dry weight in either group. However when collagen was expressed by wet weight there was a negative correlation between % extractable and collagen in OA cartilage. The amount of GAG per wet weight was similar in both groups but the amount of GAG per dry weight was higher in OA samples compared to reference samples, which suggests a capacity for GAG biosynthesis in hip OA cartilage. Neither of the studied parameters was related to age in either group. Conclusions Increased collagen extractability and water content in human hip cartilage is associated with OA pathology and can be observed at

  8. Glycosaminoglycan composition of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells: a comparison with PC12D cells, a new subline of PC12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh-Semba, R.; Oohira, A.; Sano, M.; Watanabe, K.; Kitajima, S.; Kashiwamata, S.

    1989-03-01

    PC12D cells, a new subline of conventional PC12 cells, respond not only to nerve growth factor but also to cyclic AMP by extending their neurites. These cells are flat in shape and are similar in appearance to PC12 cells that have been treated with nerve growth factor for a few days. In both cell lines, we have characterized the glycosaminoglycans, the polysaccharide moieties of proteoglycans, which are believed to play an important role in cell adhesion and in cell morphology. Under the present culture conditions, only chondroitin sulfate was detected in the media from PC12 and PC12D cells, whereas both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate were found in the cell layers. The levels of cell-associated heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were about twofold and fourfold higher in PC12D cells than in PC12 cells, respectively. Compared to PC12 cells, the amounts of (/sup 35/S)sulfate incorporated for 48 h into chondroitin sulfate were twofold lower but those into heparan sulfate were 35% higher in PC12D cells. The amount of chondroitin sulfate released by PC12D cells into the medium was about a half of that released by PC12 cells. The ratio of (/sup 35/S)sulfate-labeled heparan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate was 6.2 in PC12D cells and 2.2 in PC12 cells. These results suggest that there may be some correlation between the increase in content of glycosaminoglycans and the change in cell morphology, which is followed by neurite outgrowth.

  9. Ceramide content is higher in type I compared to type II fibers in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Larsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese......, and control subjects, were performed. A fasting blood sample was obtained and plasma insulin and glucose determined. A muscle biopsy was obtained from deltoideus and vastus lateralis, and fiber-type ceramide content was determined by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Insulin sensitivity estimated by Quicki...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...

  10. An approach to breeding for higher protein content in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, H.K.; Singhal, N.C.; Singh, M.P.; Austin, A.

    1975-01-01

    This study deals with the development of a suitable experimental approach for improving the protein content of seeds in bread wheat. It has been found that scoring of protein content on a per seed basis rather than as a percentage of seed weight gives better results. In the first place, the heritability of protein content increases nearly three times when scoring is done on the basis of seed number. Also, protein content scored in this way showed a significant positive correlation with seed size. Correlation between seed size and percentage of protein in the seed is negative. An important implication of these findings is that scoring of protein content on the basis of seed number should help to avoid selection of genotypes showing reduced starch synthesis and, therefore, a lower yield of grains as well as protein on a per acre basis. Also, the observations suggest that selection for larger seed size may be an important means of improving the protein content of wheat. These and other implications are discussed. (author)

  11. Antiproliferative heparin (glycosaminoglycans) isolated from giant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... source of these sulfated polysaccharides (Nader and. Dietrich, 1989) and it often corresponds up to 90% of the total GAG content of these organisms. Heparin and heap- rin-like substances have a wide range of important biolo- gical activities including inhibition of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell ...

  12. Synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by undifferentiated and differentiated HT29 human colonic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Assmann, P; Bouziges, F; Daviaud, D; Haffen, K; Kedinger, M

    1987-08-15

    Among the extracellular matrix components which have been suggested to be involved in developmental and neoplastic changes are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To try to correlate their amount and nature with the process of enterocytic differentiation, we studied glycosaminoglycan synthesis of human colonic adenocarcinoma cells (HT29 cell line) by [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate incorporation. Enterocytic differentiation of the cells obtained in a sugar-free medium (for review, see A. Zweibaum et al. In: Handbook of Physiology. Intestinal Transport of the Gastrointestinal System, in press, 1987) resulted in a marked increase in total incorporation of labeled precursors (20-fold for [3H]glucosamine, 4.5-fold for [35S]sulfate) as well as in uronic acid content (5-fold); most of the synthesized GAGs were found associated with the cell pellet. Chromatographic and electrophoretic analysis of the labeled GAGs revealed that undifferentiated cells synthesized and secreted hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and one class of chondroitin sulfate. Differentiation of HT29 cells because associated with the synthesis of an additional class of chondroitin sulfate (CS4) concomitant to a decrease in heparan sulfate which is no longer found secreted in the medium. Furthermore, the charge density of this latter GAG component varied as assessed by a shift of its affinity on ion-exchange chromatography.

  13. Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge: Implications for How Mathematics Is Taught in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This investigation explored pre-service teachers' mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and beliefs associated with mathematics education practices. An Exploratory Factor Analysis, conducted on a beliefs and attitudes questionnaire, produced three common attitude factors associated with (1) inquiry-based teaching; (2) how mathematics knowledge is…

  14. Facilitating LGBT Medical, Health and Social Care Content in Higher Education Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Zowie; Amsler, Sarah; Duncombe, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) health care is becoming an important quality assurance feature of primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare in Britain. While acknowledging these very positive developments, teaching LGBT curricula content is contingent upon having educators understand the complexity of LGBT lives. The…

  15. Facilitating LGBT Medical, Health and Social Care Content in Higher Education Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zowie Davy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT health care is becoming an important quality assurance feature of primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare in Britain. While acknowledging these very positive developments, teaching LGBT curricula content is contingent upon having educators understand the complexity of LGBT lives. The study adopted a qualitative mixed method approach. The study investigated how and in what ways barriers and facilitators of providing LGBT medical, health and social care curricula content figure in the accreditation policies and within undergraduate and postgraduate medical and healthcare teaching. This paper illustrates opposing views about curricula inclusion. The evidence presented suggests that LGBT content teaching is often challenged at various points in its delivery. In this respect, we will focus on a number of resistances that sometimes prevents teachers from engaging with and providing the complexities of LGBT curricula content. These include the lack of collegiate, colleague and student cooperation. By investing some time on these often neglected areas of resistance, the difficulties and good practice met by educators will be explored. This focus will make visible how to support medical, health and social care students become aware and confident in tackling contemporaneous health issues for LGBT patients.

  16. Curriculum Mapping in Higher Education: A Case Study and Proposed Content Scope and Sequence Mapping Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafeh, Sousan

    2016-01-01

    Best practice in curriculum development and implementation requires that discipline-based standards or requirements embody both curricular and programme scopes and sequences. Ensuring these are present and aligned in course/programme content, activities and assessments to support student success requires formalised and systematised review and…

  17. Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on constituents of glycosaminoglycans in different tissues in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Suresh; Vijayalakshmi, B; Salimath, P V

    2006-06-01

    Diet is now one of the well established means in the management of diabetes. Bitter gourd and spent turmeric at 10% level were tested for their efficacy on glycosaminoglycan metabolism in various tissues viz., liver, spleen, lungs, heart and testis in control, diabetic and treated rats. The glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were isolated from defatted and dried tissues. The contents of sulfated GAGs decreased in all the tissues and the decrease was more prominent in heart and testis. In the isolated GAGs, contents of total sugar, amino sugar, uronic acid and sulfate were studied. Decrease in total sugar content was maximum in testis. Amino sugar content decreased considerably in testis (38%) and lungs (15%). The content of uronic acid also decreased in testis (33%) besides heart (29%) and liver (25%). Sulfate groups in GAGs perform pivotal functions in many biological events and decrease in sulfate content was significant in heart (40%), testis (37%) and liver (37%). GAGs profile on the cellulose acetate electrophoresis revealed that heparan sulfate (HS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) were present in liver, spleen and lungs. HS, CS were present in heart, DS/CS was observed in testis. The observed beneficial effects in GAGs metabolism during diabetes may be due to the presence of high amounts of dietary fibres present in bitter gourd and spent turmeric, besides, possible presence of bioactive compounds in one or both of them.

  18. Are Mergers a Win-Win Strategic Model? A Content Analysis of Inter-Institutional Collaboration between Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll-Soler, Carlos; de-Miguel-Molina, María

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this paper, based on a content analysis of the literature about models of inter-institutional collaboration between higher education institutions, is to establish the characteristics that set them apart, contextualize each of these models in terms of the features of the setting in which they are implemented, and ascertain their…

  19. Submerged Cultivation of Mycelium with High Ergothioneine Content from the Culinary-Medicinal Golden Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chien, Shih-Chang; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of submerged culture of the culinary-medicinal golden oyster mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, was studied using a one-factor-at-a-time, two-stage stimulation and central composite rotatable design to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content. The optimal culture conditions for mycelia harvested at day 22 were a temperature of 25°C, an inoculation ratio of 5%, 2% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, and adjustment of the initial pH value to 10. The biomass and ergothioneine content were 8.28 g/L and 10.65 mg/g dry weight (dw), respectively. The addition of an amino acid precursor increased the ergothioneine content of mycelia; cysteine was the most effective. In addition, the results obtained from central composite rotatable design showed that the recommended combination for cysteine, histidine, and methionine was 8, 4, and 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. The predicted ergothioneine content was 13.90 mg/g dw, whereas the experimental maximal ergothioneine content was 14.57 mg/g dw. With the addition of complex precursors and under optimal culture conditions, mycelia harvested at days 16-20 had higher ergothioneine content. Accordingly, the information obtained could be used to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content.

  20. Biochemical imaging of cervical intervertebral discs with glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging: feasibility and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Christoph; Mueller-Lutz, Anja; Zimmermann, Lisa; Boos, Johannes; Wittsack, Hans-Joerg; Antoch, Gerald; Miese, Falk; Schmitt, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer (gagCEST) imaging at 3T in the assessment of the GAG content of cervical IVDs in healthy volunteers. Forty-two cervical intervertebral discs of seven healthy volunteers (four females, three males; mean age: 21.4 ± 1.4 years; range: 19-24 years) were examined at a 3T MRI scanner in this prospective study. The MRI protocol comprised standard morphological, sagittal T2 weighted (T2w) images to assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based grading system for cervical intervertebral disc degeneration (IVD) and biochemical imaging with gagCEST to calculate a region-of-interest analysis of nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF). GagCEST of cervical IVDs was technically successful at 3T with significant higher gagCEST values in NP compared to AF (1.17 % ± 1.03 % vs. 0.79 % ± 1.75 %; p = 0.005). We found topological differences of gagCEST values of the cervical spine with significant higher gagCEST effects in lower IVDs (r = 1; p = 0). We could demonstrate a significant, negative correlation between gagCEST values and cervical disc degeneration of NP (r = -0.360; p = 0.019). Non-degenerated IVDs had significantly higher gagCEST effects compared to degenerated IVDs in NP (1.76 % ± 0.92 % vs. 0.52 % ± 1.17 %; p < 0.001). Biochemical imaging of cervical IVDs is feasible at 3T. GagCEST analysis demonstrated a topological GAG distribution of the cervical spine. The depletion of GAG in the NP with increasing level of morphological degeneration can be assessed using gagCEST imaging. (orig.)

  1. Cytogenetic studies of marine organisms in the areas with higher contents of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.; Floru, Kh.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Chalulu, K.; Gorbenko, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations in cells of marine crustaceans and worms have been studied at sites with a high natural radioactivity level (the Black Sea coast at the mountain Karadag in the Crimea and the Ikaria Island in the Aegean Sea, an area around the hydrothermal spa) as well as at sites with the normal natural radiation level. Higher level of chromosome mutagenesis was found in cells of Melita palmata embryos and in germ and somatic cells of Lycastopsis sp. juveniles in the area around the spa. Probably, chromosome aberrations were induced by higher concentrations of natural radionuclides and their radiation in the environment

  2. Technologies for a content and language integrated approach to dropout problems in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marjolein Simons; Dr. Hajer Maaike; Ton Koenraad; Rintse van der Werf

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on CATS (2006-2007), a project initiated by the Research Centre ‘Teaching in Multicultural Schools’, that addresses language related dropout problems of both native and non-native speakers of Dutch in higher education. The project’s main objective is to develop a model for the

  3. The concept of structure and content of health related trainings for higher educational establishments’ students

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.A. Kopylov; L.N. Jackowska; M.D. Kudryavtsev; V.A. Kuzmin; I.A. Tolstopyatov; S. S. Iermakov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: analysis of modern directions of physical culture education scientific and practical problems’ solution in higher educational establishment of health related orientation. Material: analysis of publications in scientific journals. Results: we have shown significance of student’s physical functioning as the basis of his motor, coordination and mental qualities’ development. Main difficulties of existing physical education practice have been cleared up. It has been found that prevailing...

  4. Structure, Content, Delivery, Service, and Outcomes: Quality e-Learning in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colla J. MacDonald

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the need for quality e-Learning experiences. We used the Demand-Driven Learning Model (MacDonald, Stodel, Farres, Breithaupt, and Gabriel, 2001 to evaluate an online Masters in Education course. Multiple data collection methods were used to understand the experiences of stakeholders in this case study: the learners, design team, and facilitators. We found that all five dimensions of the model (structure, content, delivery, service, and outcomes must work in concert to implement a quality e-Learning course. Key themes include evolving learner needs, the search for connection, becoming an able e-participant, valued interactions, social construction of content, integration of delivery partners, and mindful weighing of benefits and trade-offs. By sharing insights into what is needed to design and deliver an e-Learning experience, our findings add to the growing knowledge of online learning. Using this model to evaluate perceptions of quality by key stakeholders has led to insights and recommendations on the Demand Driven Learning Model itself which may be useful for researchers in this area and strengthen the model. Quality has been defined in terms of the design of the e-Learning experience, the contextualized experience of learners, and evidence of learning outcomes (Carr and Carr, 2000; Jung 2000; Salmon, 2000. Quality and design of e-Learning courses, however, are sometimes compromised in an “ . . . effort to simply get something up and running��� in response to pressing consumer demands (Dick, 1996, p. 59. Educators and researchers have voiced concern over the lack of rigorous evaluation studies of e-Learning programs (e.g., Arbaugh, 2000; Howell, Saba, Lindsay, and Williams, 2004; Lockyer, Patterson, and Harper, 1999; Robinson, 2001. McGorry (2003 adds, “although the number of courses being delivered via the Internet is increasing rapidly, our knowledge of what makes these courses effective learning experiences

  5. Optimization of papain hydrolysis conditions for release of glycosaminoglycans from the chicken keel cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vien, Nguyen Thi; Nguyen, Pham Bao; Cuong, Lam Duc; An, Trinh Thi Thua; Dao, Dong Thi Anh

    2017-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are natural biocompounds which join to construct cartilage tissuses, it can be extracted from cartilage of sharks, pigs, cows, chickens, etc. GAGs contain a Chondroitin sulfate (CS) content which is a supplement of functional food used for preventing and supporting treatment of arthritis and eye diseases. Therefore, the GAGs extraction from byproducts of the industry of cattle and poultry slaughter to identify the CS content by papain enzyme is necessary. In this study, the optimal hydrolysis conditions were obtained by response surface methodology (RSM). The independent variables were coded as: pH (x1), enzyme concentration (x2), incubation temperature (x3) and hydrolysis time (x4). The results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) shown that the variables actively affected GAGs content. The optimal conditions of hydrolysis were derived at pH of 7.1, ratio of enzyme per substances of 0.62% w/wpo, temperature of 65°C and hydrolysis time of 230 minutes, GAGs content reached 14.3% of the dry matter of raw material. Analyzes by HPLC revealed that 56.17% of the dry preparations of GAGs were CS compound, were equivalent to 8.11% of the dry matter of chicken keel cartilage. Molecular weight of the dry preparations GAGs was 259.6 kDa. The dry preparations included the contents of moisture 12.2%, protein 8.42%, lipid 0%, ash 10.03% and extracted GAGs 69.35%.

  6. Not all lubricin isoforms are substituted with a glycosaminoglycan chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lord, Megan S; Estrella, Ruby P; Chuang, Christine Y

    2012-01-01

    antibodies (MAb) 2-B-6 and MAb 3-B-3 after chondroitinase ABC treatment and keratan sulfate (KS) that was detected by MAb 5-D-4. Further analysis of lubricin-containing fractions that eluted from an anion exchange column indicated that the major population of lubricin could be separated from the CS and KS...... stubs which indicated that this fraction of lubricin was not decorated with glycosaminoglycan chain and was the glycoprotein form of lubricin. Lubricin present in fractions that also contained CS was found to be decorated with CS structures which were reactive with MAb 3-B-3 after chondroitinase ABC...

  7. Calprotectin in serum and zonulin in serum and feces are elevated after introduction of a diet with lower carbohydrate content and higher fiber, fat and protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Roth, Bodil; Larsson, Ewa; Höglund, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Calprotectin is a marker of inflammation and zonulin is a marker of intestinal permeability. Diets with lower carbohydrate content and higher contents of fat, fiber and protein, e.g., Okinawan-based diet, are considered to reduce inflammation and intestinal permeability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate calprotectin and zonulin levels in serum and feces after intervention with an Okinawan-based Nordic diet. Thirty patients (17 women) with type 2 diabetes, mean age 57.5±8.2 years, BMI 29.9±4.1 kg/m 2 , were served the diet during 12 weeks, and were followed for another 16 weeks. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were registered. Fasting levels of calprotectin and zonulin in serum and feces, and hormones in plasma, were measured by Luminex or ELISA before study start and after 12 and 28 weeks. Calprotectin in serum tended to be increased (P=0.074) after 12 weeks. Zonulin in serum and feces were elevated after 12 weeks (P=0.019 vs. Pvs. P=0.079). Energy percentage of protein in breakfast correlated with serum calprotectin (P=0.008) and tended to correlate with serum zonulin (P=0.059). Calprotectin in serum tended to be elevated, and zonulin in serum and feces are elevated after introduction of an Okinawan-based Nordic diet. These biomarkers correlate with energy percentage of protein.

  8. Clinical cases of joint disease in horse. Total glycosaminoglycans sulphate and keratansulphate in synovial fluid as markers of degenerative cartilage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, F.M.; Pezzoli, G.; Borghetti, P.; Benazzi, C.

    1997-01-01

    Total glycosaminoglycans sulphate (GAGs) and keratan sulphate (KS) were measured in synovial fluid (SF) obtained from 28 horses with different joint diseases (degenerative joint disease (DJD), osteochondrosis (OCD), positivity to Flex Test (FT)) and 15 horses without any clinical sign of lameness. All groups of animals with joint disease showed levels of total GAGs significantly higher (P0.001) than normal. On the contrary, only DJD affected joints showed a significantly (P0.01) higher level of KS [it

  9. High-throughput differentiation of heparin from other glycosaminoglycans by pyrolysis mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Peter; Hoover, William J; Keire, David A

    2013-08-06

    Sensors with high chemical specificity and enhanced sample throughput are vital to screening food products and medical devices for chemical or biochemical contaminants that may pose a threat to public health. For example, the rapid detection of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in heparin could prevent reoccurrence of heparin adulteration that caused hundreds of severe adverse events including deaths worldwide in 2007-2008. Here, rapid pyrolysis is integrated with direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry to rapidly screen major glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, chondroitin sulfate A, dermatan sulfate, and OSCS. The results demonstrate that, compared to traditional liquid chromatography-based analyses, pyrolysis mass spectrometry achieved at least 250-fold higher sample throughput and was compatible with samples volume-limited to about 300 nL. Pyrolysis yielded an abundance of fragment ions (e.g., 150 different m/z species), many of which were specific to the parent compound. Using multivariate and statistical data analysis models, these data enabled facile differentiation of the glycosaminoglycans with high throughput. After method development was completed, authentically contaminated samples obtained during the heparin crisis by the FDA were analyzed in a blinded manner for OSCS contamination. The lower limit of differentiation and detection were 0.1% (w/w) OSCS in heparin and 100 ng/μL (20 ng) OSCS in water, respectively. For quantitative purposes the linear dynamic range spanned approximately 3 orders of magnitude. Moreover, this chemical readout was successfully employed to find clues in the manufacturing history of the heparin samples that can be used for surveillance purposes. The presented technology and data analysis protocols are anticipated to be readily adaptable to other chemical and biochemical agents and volume-limited samples.

  10. Comparison of the Content of Web Sites of Higher Education Institutions Providing for Sports Management Education: The Case of Turkish and English Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katirci, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Considering various themes, this study aims to examine the content of web sites of universities that provide sports management education in higher education level in Turkey and in England. Within this framework, the websites of the higher education institutions that provide sports management education are analyzed by using the content analysis…

  11. Mapping by monoclonal antibody detection of glycosaminoglycans in connective tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Caterson, B; Christner, J E

    1984-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans are widespread connective tissue components and chemical analysis of cartilage and other proteoglycans has demonstrated molecular speciation involving the degree and position of sulphation of the carbohydrate chains. This may, in turn, affect the properties...... of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG), particularly with respect to self-association and interactions with other extracellular matrix components. Interactions with specific molecules from different connective tissue types, such as the collagens and their associated glycoproteins, could be favoured by particular charge...... and dermatan sulphate. These provide novel opportunities to study the in vivo distribution of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans. We demonstrate that chondroitin sulphates exhibit remarkable connective tissue specificity and furthermore provide evidence that some proteoglycans may predominantly carry only one...

  12. Human Genetic Disorders and Knockout Mice Deficient in Glycosaminoglycan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Mizumoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs are constructed through the stepwise addition of respective monosaccharides by various glycosyltransferases and maturated by epimerases and sulfotransferases. The structural diversity of GAG polysaccharides, including their sulfation patterns and sequential arrangements, is essential for a wide range of biological activities such as cell signaling, cell proliferation, tissue morphogenesis, and interactions with various growth factors. Studies using knockout mice of enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the GAG side chains of proteoglycans have revealed their physiological functions. Furthermore, mutations in the human genes encoding glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases, and related enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of GAGs cause a number of genetic disorders including chondrodysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. This review focused on the increasing number of glycobiological studies on knockout mice and genetic diseases caused by disturbances in the biosynthetic enzymes for GAGs.

  13. [Glycosaminoglycans in subepithelial opacity after excimer laser keratectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayasu, K; Gotoh, T; Ishikawa, T; Kanai, A

    1996-05-01

    We evaluated histochemically the characteristics of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the corneal subepithelial opacity after excimer laser keratectomy on rabbit corneas. We also performed the same evaluations on the cornea after mechanical keratectomy. Twenty days after the operations, the area immediately subjacent to the epithelium showed strong staining with toluidine blue, alcian blue, and colloidal iron. However, after treatment with chondroitinase ABC or chondroitinase AC, alcian blue staining in this area decreased dramatically. Antilarge proteoglycan antibody also reacted strongly in this area. Histochemical and immunohistochemical examination of the cornea where mechanical keratectomy was done showed basically similar findings with the cornea of excimer laser keratectomy. These results suggest that large-molecula proteoglycans with chondroitine sulfate side chains become localized in the subepithelial area after two different kinds of keratectomies. We presume from histochemical and immunohistochemical observations that the subepithelial opacity observed after excimer laser keratectomy is not a special reaction to excimer laser but simply a corneal scar formed after stromal resection.

  14. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  15. Comparison of Engineered Peptide-Glycosaminoglycan Microfibrous Hybrid Scaffolds for Potential Applications in Cartilage Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Romanelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in tissue engineering have enabled the ability to design and fabricate biomaterials at the nanoscale that can actively mimic the natural cellular environment of host tissue. Of all tissues, cartilage remains difficult to regenerate due to its avascular nature. Herein we have developed two new hybrid polypeptide-glycosaminoglycan microfibrous scaffold constructs and compared their abilities to stimulate cell adhesion, proliferation, sulfated proteoglycan synthesis and soluble collagen synthesis when seeded with chondrocytes. Both constructs were designed utilizing self-assembled Fmoc-protected valyl cetylamide nanofibrous templates. The peptide components of the constructs were varied. For Construct I a short segment of dentin sialophosphoprotein followed by Type I collagen were attached to the templates using the layer-by-layer approach. For Construct II, a short peptide segment derived from the integrin subunit of Type II collagen binding protein expressed by chondrocytes was attached to the templates followed by Type II collagen. To both constructs, we then attached the natural polymer N-acetyl glucosamine, chitosan. Subsequently, the glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate was then attached as the final layer. The scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro culture studies were carried out in the presence of chondrocyte cells for both scaffolds and growth morphology was determined through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy taken at different magnifications at various days of culture. Cell proliferation studies indicated that while both constructs were biocompatible and supported the growth and adhesion of chondrocytes, Construct II stimulated cell adhesion at higher rates and resulted in the formation of three dimensional cell-scaffold matrices within 24 h. Proteoglycan

  16. How members of the human gut microbiota overcome the sulfation problem posed by glycosaminoglycans

    OpenAIRE

    Cartmell, Alan; Lowe, Elisabeth C.; Basl?, Arnaud; Firbank, Susan J.; Ndeh, Didier A.; Murray, Heath; Terrapon, Nicolas; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Turnbull, Jeremy E.; Czjzek, Mirjam; Gilbert, Harry J.; Bolam, David N.

    2017-01-01

    The human microbiota, which plays an important role in health and disease, uses complex carbohydrates as a major source of nutrients. Utilization hierarchy indicates that the host glycosaminoglycans heparin (Hep) and heparan sulfate (HS) are high-priority carbohydrates for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent member of the human microbiota. The sulfation patterns of these glycosaminoglycans are highly variable, which presents a significant enzymatic challenge to the polysaccharide lyases...

  17. An Exploration of the Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK Framework: Utilising a Social Networking Site in Irish Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Glowatz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into the use of social media for academic purposes is growing. Much of it suggests that social networking sites (SNSs could be used as innovative tools for teaching (Duncan & Baryzck, 2013; Harris, 2012; O’Brien & Glowatz, 2013. This paper argues that research in this field has often neglected to take account of the pedagogy involved in successfully utilising a SNS for educational purposes. Koehler & Mishra (2009 have proposed the technological, pedagogical and content knowledge framework (TPACK to explore the relationship of technology to teaching in order to build the basis for further research. We explore the suitability of the TPACK framework in the context of SNSs for academic engagement, and we review its relevance to the adoption of a SNS as a teaching tool. Our investigation so far suggests that the current TPACK framework overlooks some important elements that are relevant to the adoption of SNSs. This paper outlines some of these overlooked elements and evaluates the use of the TPACK framework in the exploration of SNS usage in higher education to engage students with curriculum. Specifically, we address the key question, ‘Does the TPACK framework provide an insight into the knowledge base required to effectively deliver a module utilizing SNSs?’

  18. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Norton, Andrew L; Gesteira, Tarsis F; Cavalheiro, Renan P; Meneghetti, Maria Cecília Z; Martins, João R; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite) and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin) and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  19. Suppression of tumor growth by a new glycosaminoglycan isolated from the African giant snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Sil; Yang, Hyun Ok; Shin, Kuk Hyun; Choi, Hyung Seok; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yong Man; Oh, Deok Kun; Linhardt, Robert J; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2003-03-28

    Acharan sulfate is a new type of glycosaminoglycan from the giant African snail, Achatina fulica. Acharan sulfate, which has a primary repeating disaccharide structure of alpha-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl-2-O-sulfo-alpha-L-iduronic acid, was studied as a potential antitumor agent in both in vivo and in vitro assays. The antiangiogenic activity of acharan sulfate was evaluated in the chorioallantoic membrane assay and by measuring its effect on the proliferation of calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells. In vivo, a matrigel plug assay showed that acharan sulfate suppressed basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-stimulated angiogenesis and lowered the hemoglobin (Hb) content inside the plug. Acharan sulfate was administered s.c. at two doses for 15 days to C57BL/6 mice implanted with murine Lewis lung carcinoma in the back. It was also administered i.p. to ICR mice bearing sarcoma 180 at a dose of 30 mg/kg. Subcutaneous injection of acharan sulfate at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg decreased tumor weight and tumor volume by 40% without toxicity or resistance. Intraperitoneal injection of acharan sulfate also decreased tumor weight and volume by 40% in sarcoma 180-bearing mice. These results suggest that the antitumor activity of acharan sulfate may be related to the inhibition of angiogenesis.

  20. Evaluation of the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans in patients with interstitial cystis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lucon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC pathogenesis is not fully known, but evidence shows that glycosaminoglycans (GAG of bladder urothelium can participate in its genesis. The loss of these compounds facilitates the contact of urine compounds with deeper portions of bladder wall triggering an inflammatory process. We investigated GAG in urine and tissue of PBS/IC and pure stress urinary incontinence (SUI patients to better understand its metabolism. Materials and Methods: Tissue and urine of 11 patients with PBS/IC according to NIDDK criteria were compared to 11 SUI patients. Tissue samples were analyzed by histological, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence methods. Statistical analysis were performed using t Student test and Anova, considering significant when p < 0.05. Results: PBS/IC patients had lower concentration of GAG in urine when compared to SUI (respectively 0.45 ± 0.11 x 0.62 ± 0.13 mg/mg creatinine, p < 0.05. However, there was no reduction of the content of GAG in the urothelium of both groups. Immunofluorescence showed that PBS/IC patients had a stronger staining of TGF-beta, decorin (a proteoglycan of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, fibronectin and hyaluronic acid. Conclusion: the results suggest that GAG may be related to the ongoing process of inflammation and remodeling of the dysfunctional urothelium that is present in the PBS/IC.

  1. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette M Coulson-Thomas

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs. Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS and hyaluronic acid (HA. In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  2. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the mandibular condyle during growth adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, T; Pirttiniemi, P; Tuominen, M; Poikela, A

    1994-01-01

    Condylar growth was studied after an operation simulating functional orthodontic appliances. Twenty-five rabbits underwent a surgical operation for the induction of premature synostosis to displace the glenoid fossa posteriorly during growth. Twenty-five control rabbits underwent sham operations. At the age of 15 days, 10 experimental and 10 control animals and, at the age of 20 days, 5 experimental and 5 control animals were killed. Their mandibular condyles were organ-cultured for 3 h in the presence of radiolabelled sulphur. The condyles were used for autoradiographic purposes. Digital image analysis of autoradiograms of histological sections showed synthesis of glycosaminoglycans to have increased from the anterior to the posterior direction. This increase was more marked in experimental animals than in the condyles of control animals. Ten experimental and 10 control animals were killed at the age of 15 days, and mandibular condyles were organ-cultured for 1, 4 and 7 days. Differentiation of proliferating prechondroblasts into hypertrophied chondrocytes continued under organ culture conditions. A marked decrease in the proliferating cell layer was noticed, especially in control condyles. Hypertrophy was faster and came closer to the surface of the condyle in the anterior region of the condyle. This was most marked in the condyles of experimental animals. The results indicate that a procedure carried out on the glenoid fossa with the same effect as functional appliances increases the synthesis of extracellular matrix in the posterosuperior region of the mandibular condyle.

  3. Higher fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris (pyrenoidosa): Content of indivudual acids and use of the algae for the preparation of higher fatty acids - 14C(G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of data on the occurrence of higher fatty acids in the lipids of C h l o r e l l a v u l g a r i s (pyrenoidosa) is presented with a view to the biosynthetical preparation of fatty acids- 14 C(G). (author)

  4. Macrophage polarization alters the expression and sulfation pattern of glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Pierre; Denys, Agnès; Delos, Maxime; Sikora, Anne-Sophie; Carpentier, Mathieu; Julien, Sylvain; Pestel, Joël; Allain, Fabrice

    2015-05-01

    Macrophages are major cells of inflammatory process and take part in a large number of physiological and pathological processes. According to tissue environment, they can polarize into pro-inflammatory (M1) or alternative (M2) cells. Although many evidences have hinted to a potential role of cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the functions of macrophages, the effect of M1 or M2 polarization on the biosynthesis of these polysaccharides has not been investigated so far. GAGs are composed of repeat sulfated disaccharide units. Heparan (HS) and chondroitin/dermatan sulfates (CS/DS) are the major GAGs expressed at the cell membrane. They are involved in numerous biological processes, which rely on their ability to selectively interact with a large panel of proteins. More than 20 genes encoding sulfotransferases have been implicated in HS and CS/DS biosynthesis, and the functional repertoire of HS and CS/DS has been related to the expression of these isoenzymes. In this study, we analyzed the expression of sulfotransferases as a response to macrophage polarization. We found that M1 and M2 activation drastically modified the profiles of expression of numerous HS and CS/DS sulfotransferases. This was accompanied by the expression of GAGs with distinct structural features. We then demonstrated that GAGs of M2 macrophages were efficient to present fibroblast growth factor-2 in an assay of tumor cell proliferation, thus indicating that changes in GAG structure may contribute to the functions of polarized macrophages. Altogether, our findings suggest a regulatory mechanism in which fine modifications in GAG biosynthesis may participate to the plasticity of macrophage functions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Infrared irradiation alters the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and glycosaminoglycans in the cornea and crystalline lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoukis, Panagiotis; Klagas, Ioannis; Komnenou, Anastasia; Karakiulakis, George; Karoutis, Athanasios; Karampatakis, Vassilios; Papakonstantinou, Eleni

    2013-08-01

    Prolonged exposure to infrared (IR) radiation is associated with different types of damage to cornea and lens. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of acute and chronic exposure to IR radiation on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 and on the expression of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the rabbit cornea and crystalline lens. New Zealand rabbits were subjected to IR radiation for 4 months (chronic exposure to IR) or to normal light (control group). In experiments regarding acute exposure, animals were subjected to IR radiation or normal light for 12 h, in the presence of 0.1% diclofenac sodium (eye drops instilled in the right eye of animals) or saline (instilled in the left eye of animals). The cornea and lens were dissected away and homogenized. The activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was assayed by gelatine zymography. Total GAG were isolated from tissue specimens after lipid extraction and extensive digestion with pronase and DNase and characterized by treatment with GAG-degrading enzymes, followed by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes. Acute or chronic exposure to IR radiation induced the activity of MMP-2 in cornea and lens, whereas only acute IR radiation increased the content of heparan sulphate in crystalline lens. Local administration of diclofenac sodium did not prevent the above effects of acute IR radiation. The detrimental effects of excessive or prolonged exposure of the eyes to IR radiation are associated with induced activity of MMP-2 in cornea and lens and alterations in the content of heparan sulphate in lens. Thus, MMP and GAG may offer alternative targets for pharmacological intervention to confront ocular damages associated with IR radiation.

  6. Surface glycosaminoglycans mediate adherence between HeLa cells and Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Rebeca; Martín, Carla; Escobedo, Susana; Suárez, Juan E; Quirós, Luis M

    2013-09-17

    The adhesion of lactobacilli to the vaginal surface is of paramount importance to develop their probiotic functions. For this reason, the role of HeLa cell surface proteoglycans in the attachment of Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72, a mutualistic strain of vaginal origin, was investigated. Incubation of cultures with a variety of glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate A and C, heparin and heparan sulfate) resulted in marked binding interference. However, no single glycosaminoglycan was able to completely abolish cell binding, the sum of all having an additive effect that suggests cooperation between them and recognition of specific adhesins on the bacterial surface. In contrast, chondroitin sulfate B enhanced cell to cell attachment, showing the relevance of the stereochemistry of the uronic acid and the sulfation pattern on binding. Elimination of the HeLa surface glycosaminoglycans with lyases also resulted in severe adherence impairment. Advantage was taken of the Lactobacillus-glycosaminoglycans interaction to identify an adhesin from the bacterial surface. This protein, identify as a soluble binding protein of an ABC transporter system (OppA) by MALDI-TOF/(MS), was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and shown to interfere with L. salivarius Lv72 adhesion to HeLa cells. These data suggest that glycosaminoglycans play a fundamental role in attachment of mutualistic bacteria to the epithelium that lines the cavities where the normal microbiota thrives, OppA being a bacterial adhesin involved in the process.

  7. Glycosaminoglycan Distribution in the Rat Uterine Cervix During the Estrous Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Jairo Jose Matozinho; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo Martins; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares, José Maria

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the amount of glycosaminoglycans in the uterine cervix during each phase of the rat estrous cycle. DESIGN: Based on vaginal smears, forty female, regularly cycling rats were divided into four groups (n = 10 for each group): GI – proestrous, GII – estrous, GIII – metaestrous and GIV – diestrous. Animals were sacrificed at each phase of the cycle, and the cervix was immediately removed and submitted to biochemical extraction and determination of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid. The results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test. RESULTS: The uterine cervix had the highest amount of total sulfated glycosaminoglycans and dermatan sulfate during the estrous phase (8.90 ± 0.55 mg/g of cetonic extract, phyaluronic acid in the uterine cervix during the estrous cycle. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the amount of total sulfated glycosaminoglycans may be influenced by hormonal fluctuations related to the estrous cycle, with dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate being the glycosaminoglycans most sensitive to hormonal change. PMID:20668628

  8. Allosteric Inhibition of Factor XIIIa. Non-Saccharide Glycosaminoglycan Mimetics, but Not Glycosaminoglycans, Exhibit Promising Inhibition Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami A Al-Horani

    Full Text Available Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa is a transglutaminase that catalyzes the last step in the coagulation process. Orthostery is the only approach that has been exploited to design FXIIIa inhibitors. Yet, allosteric inhibition of FXIIIa is a paradigm that may offer a key advantage of controlled inhibition over orthosteric inhibition. Such an approach is likely to lead to novel FXIIIa inhibitors that do not carry bleeding risks. We reasoned that targeting a collection of basic amino acid residues distant from FXIIIa's active site by using sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs or non-saccharide GAG mimetics (NSGMs would lead to the discovery of the first allosteric FXIIIa inhibitors. We tested a library of 22 variably sulfated GAGs and NSGMs against human FXIIIa to discover promising hits. Interestingly, although some GAGs bound to FXIIIa better than NSGMs, no GAG displayed any inhibition. An undecasulfated quercetin analog was found to inhibit FXIIIa with reasonable potency (efficacy of 98%. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies revealed an allosteric mechanism of inhibition. Fluorescence studies confirmed close correspondence between binding affinity and inhibition potency, as expected for an allosteric process. The inhibitor was reversible and at least 9-fold- and 26-fold selective over two GAG-binding proteins factor Xa (efficacy of 71% and thrombin, respectively, and at least 27-fold selective over a cysteine protease papain. The inhibitor also inhibited the FXIIIa-mediated polymerization of fibrin in vitro. Overall, our work presents the proof-of-principle that FXIIIa can be allosterically modulated by sulfated non-saccharide agents much smaller than GAGs, which should enable the design of selective and safe anticoagulants.

  9. “UKRAINIAN SACRED MUSIC” ELECTRONIC STUDU GUIDE: CONTENT, STRUCTURE, USE RECOMMENDATIONS AT A PEDAGOGICAL HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gavrilova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the electronic textbook “Ukrainian Sacred Music”, created for the students of pedagogical universities – future teachers of music. We consider the content of the electronic manual, its structure, requirements for the computer, as well as the prospects for its use in the classroom on the history of Ukrainian music and self-study.

  10. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped…

  11. Utilization of Glycosaminoglycans/Proteoglycans as Carriers for Targeted Therapy Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Suniti; Hascall, Vincent C.; Atanelishvili, Ilia; Moreno Rodriguez, Ricardo; Markwald, Roger R.; Ghatak, Shibnath

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of patients with cancer has improved significantly in the past decade with the incorporation of drugs targeting cell surface adhesive receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, and modulation of several molecules of extracellular matrices (ECMs), the complex composite of collagens, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans that dictates tissue architecture. Cancer tissue invasive processes progress by various oncogenic strategies, including interfering with ECM molecules and their interactions with invasive cells. In this review, we describe how the ECM components, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, influence tumor cell signaling. In particular this review describes how the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) and its major receptor CD44 impact invasive behavior of tumor cells, and provides useful insight when designing new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26448753

  12. Glycosaminoglycans and fibrillar collagen in Priapulida: a histo- and cytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, U; Erlinger, R; Storch, V

    1992-12-01

    The distribution of glycosaminoglycans and fibrillar collagen was studied in various tissues of priapulids, which represent an ancient group of marine metazoa. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans, as demonstrated at the electron microscopical level by Cupromeronic blue, were predominantly found in the cuticle, in basement membranes and also in the narrow connective tissue space below epidermis and anterior intestine. On the basis of their morphology the Cupromeronic blue precipitates could be divided into several groups. Fibrillar collagen occurred in the connective tissue under the epidermis and the epithelium of the anterior intestine. The spatial interrelationship between fibrillar collagen and glycosaminoglycans lacked with some exceptions, the high regularity found in connective tissues of other invertebrates and of vertebrates. This might be related to the special skeletal system of priapulids, consisting mainly of a strong extracellular cuticle and the turgor of the fluid-filled body cavity. In such a system the usual supportive structures seem to be of less functional significance.

  13. Dose- and time-dependent radiation inhibition of RNA and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in embryonic cartilage: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, M.; Thierens, H.; De Ridder, L. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

    1990-05-01

    Radiation effects on the RNA and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis of embryonic cartilaginous tibiae were studied in vitro during a 4- or 7-day culture period. Before culture, tibiae received single radiation doses of 20, 50 or 100 Gy. A limited, dose-dependent immediate effect on RNA and GAG synthesis was found. This effect was unchanged for 2 days. After this period a time-dependent delayed effect was observed. For each radiation dose, and for each precursor, the same time-related pattern was found. At the end of the culture period acid phosphatase activity, an early indicator of apoptosis, was higher in irradiated tibiae than in controls. No other morphological ultrastructural differences were observed at this time. The authors conclude that metabolic alterations are probably due to stimulation of initial stages of the apoptotic process in the irradiated cartilage cells. (author).

  14. Submerged cultivation of mycelium with high ergothioneine content from the culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii (higher Basidiomycetes) and its composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Hung; Huang, Ling-Yi; Ho, Kung-Jui; Lin, Shin-Yi; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-01-01

    The culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, was used to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content using a one-factor-at-a-time method. The optimal culture conditions for mycelia harvested at day 14 were 25°C, 10% inoculation rate, 2% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, and no adjustment to the initial pH value. With histidine or amino acid mix added, biomasses and the ergothioneine content of mycelia were higher than those of the control. The ergothioneine content of mycelia harvested at days 16-20 were higher than that of mycelia harvested at day 14. In addition, the ergothioneine content of mycelia from the fermentor (5.84-5.76 mg/g) was much higher than that of mycelia from the shaken flask (4.93-5.04 mg/g). Mycelia with high ergothioneine content showed a profile of proximate composition similar to that of regular mycelia but lost its characteristic umami taste. Overall, mycelia high in ergothioneine could be prepared by optimal culture conditions, the addition of precursors, prolonged harvest, and aeration in the fermentor.

  15. Separation of sulfated urinary glycosaminoglycans by high-resolution electrophoresis for isotyping of mucopolysaccharidoses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Azimah; Zabedah, Md Yunus; Norsiah, Md Desa; Ngu, Lock Hock; Suhaila, Abd Rahman

    2010-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of inherited disorders caused by the deficiency of specific lysosomal enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) degradation. Currently, there are 11 enzyme deficiencies resulting in seven distinct MPS clinical syndromes and their subtypes. Different MPS syndromes cannot be clearly distinguished clinically due to overlapping signs and symptoms. Measurement of GAGs content in urine and separation of GAGs using high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) are very useful initial screening tests for isotyping of MPS before specific enzyme diagnostics. In this study, we measured total urinary GAGs by a method using dimethylmethylene blue (DMB), and followed by isolation and separation of GAGs using high resolution electrophoresis (HRE) technique. Of 760 urine samples analyzed, 40 have abnormal GAGs HRE patterns. Thirty-five of these 40 cases have elevated urinary GAGs levels as well. These abnormal HRE patterns could be classified into 4 patterns: Pattern A (elevated DS and HS; suggestive of MPS I, II or VII; 16 cases), Pattern B (elevated HS and CS; suggestive of MPS III; 17 cases), and Pattern C (elevated KS and CS; suggestive of MPS IV, 5 cases), and Pattern D (elevated DS; suggestive of MPS VI; 2 cases). Based on the GAGs HRE pattern and a few discriminating clinical signs, we performed selective enzymatic investigation in 16 cases. In all except one case with MPS VII, the enzymatic diagnosis correlated well with the provisional MPS type as suggested by the abnormal HRE pattern. Our results showed that GAGs HRE is a useful, inexpensive and practical first-line screening test when MPS is suspected clinically, and it provides an important guide to further enzymatic studies on a selective basis.

  16. Separation of 2-aminobenzoic acid-derivatized glycosaminoglycans and asparagine-linked glycans by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kae; Sato, Kiichi; Okubo, Akira; Yamazaki, Sunao

    2005-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the analysis of oligosaccharides combined with derivatization with 2-aminobenzoic acid. Glycosaminoglycan delta-disaccharides were effectively resolved on a fused-silica capillary tube using 150 mM borate, pH 8.5, as a running electrolyte solution. This analytical method was applied to the identification of glycosaminoglycan in combination with enzymatic digestion. The separation of N-glycans or glucose-oligomers was performed with a phosphate buffer containing polyethylene glycol or borate as an electrolyte solution. This method is expected to be useful in the determination of oligosaccharide structures in a glycoprotein.

  17. A Comparison of Higher-Order Thinking between the Common Core State Standards and the 2009 New Jersey Content Standards in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Dario; Tienken, Christopher H.; Kim, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    The creators and supporters of the Common Core State Standards claim that the Standards require greater emphasis on higher-order thinking than previous state standards in mathematics and English language arts. We used a qualitative case study design with content analysis methods to test the claim. We compared the levels of thinking required by the…

  18. Changes in glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans of normal breast and fibroadenoma during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Cilene Rebouças; de Arimatéa dos Santos Junior, José; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto; Michelacci, Yara M

    2012-07-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumor in young women, and its growth and metabolism may be under hormonal control. In the present paper we described the proteoglycan (PG) composition and synthesis rate of normal breast and fibroadenoma during the menstrual cycle. Samples of fibroadenoma and adjacent normal breast tissue were obtained at surgery. PGs were characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis and enzymatic degradation with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) lyases, and immunolocalized by confocal microscopy. To assess the synthesis rate, PGs were metabolic labeled by 35S-sulfate. The concentration of PGs in normal breast was higher during the secretory phase. Fibroadenoma contained and synthesized more PGs than their paired controls, but the PG concentrations varied less with the menstrual cycle and, in contrast to normal tissue, peaked in the proliferative phase. The main mammary GAGs are heparan sulfate (HS, 71%-74%) and dermatan sulfate (DS, 26%-29%). The concentrations of both increased in fibroadenoma, but DS increased more, becoming 35%-37% of total. The DS chains contained more β-d-glucuronic acid (IdoUA/GlcUA ratios were >10 in normal breast and 2-7 in fibroadenoma). The 35S-sulfate incorporation rate revealed that the in vitro synthesis rate of DS was higher than HS. Decorin was present in both tissues, while versican was found only in fibroadenoma. In normal breast, the PG concentration varied with the menstrual cycle. It was increased in fibroadenoma, especially DS. PGs are increased in fibroadenoma, but their concentrations may be less sensitive to hormonal control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Partial reversal by beta-D-xyloside of salicylate-induced inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmoski, M.J.; Brandt, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    While net 35 S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis in normal canine articular cartilage was suppressed by 10(-3)M sodium salicylate to about 70% of the control value, addition of xyloside (10(-6)M-10(-3)M) to the salicylate-treated cultures led to a concentration-dependent increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which rose to 120-237% of controls. Similar results were obtained when 3 H-glucosamine was used to measure glycosaminoglycan synthesis, confirming that salicylate suppresses and xyloside stimulates net glycosaminoglycan synthesis, and not merely sulfation. Salicylate (10-3)M) did not affect the activity of xylosyl or galactosyl transferase prepared from canine knee cartilage, and net protein synthesis was unaltered by either salicylate or xyloside. The proportion of newly synthesized proteoglycans existing as aggregates when cartilage was cultured with xyloside was similar to that in controls, although the average hydrodynamic size of disaggregated proteoglycans and of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was diminished

  20. Digital immigrants teaching digital natives: A phenomenological study of higher education faculty perspectives on technology integration with English core content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Robert C.

    In the last two decades, technology use has escalated and educators grapple with its advances and integration into the classroom. Issues surrounding what constitutes a literate society, the clarion calls for educational reform emanating from US presidents to parent teacher organizations, and educators' ability to cope with advances in technology in the classroom demand attention. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and understand the professional and educational experiences of six English faculty members teaching undergraduate courses at Midwest universities. Using the framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge -- TPACK (Koehler and Mishra 2008), the major focus of the study was to determine how faculty members understood what characterized the nature of teaching with technology in undergraduate classrooms. Results of this study revealed five themes showing how the participants were introduced to technology, how they assimilated it into their pedagogy, and how they integrated it into teaching practice. This study has the potential to impact the nature of illustrating the methods and techniques used by the six participants as they merge technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge and set in motion classroom practices that assist faculty at all levels to develop and teach technology skills necessary for the 21st century and to better prepare students for thinking critically about how to use digital advances.

  1. Research on the integration of teaching content of core courses in Agro-ecological environmental specialties of higher vocational colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Ma, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    Curriculum is the means to cultivate higher vocational talents. On the basis of analyzing the core curriculum problems of curriculum reform and Agro-ecological environmental specialties in higher vocational colleges, this paper puts forward the optimization and integration measures of 6 core courses, including “Eco-environment Repair Technology”, “Agro-environmental Management Plan”, “Environmental Engineering Design”, “Environmental Pest Management Technology”, “Agro-chemical Pollution Control Technology”, “Agro-environmental Testing and Analysis”. It integrates the vocational qualification certificate education and professional induction certificate training items, and enhances the adaptability, skills and professionalism of professional core curriculum.

  2. Higher Education Curriculum for Sustainability: Course Contents Analyses of Purchasing and Supply Management Programme of Polytechnics in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etse, Daniel; Ingley, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of attention to and the nature of sustainability issues in the curriculum of the Higher National Diploma (HND) Purchasing and Supply Management programme of Ghana. Design/Methodology/Approach: Documentary research is the approach used to analyse the curriculum document for the programme…

  3. Quality of Higher Education: Organisational or Educational? A Content Analysis of Chinese University Self-Evaluation Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yihuan; Du, Xiangyun; Rasmussen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Based on a study of Chinese university self-evaluation reports, this paper argues that higher education institutions are trying to manage the tensions between educational and organisational quality and the increasing and worldwide concerns about quality assurance. After 30 years of dramatic educational reform, China has established a nationwide…

  4. Viscosity of Industrially Important Zn-Al Alloys Part II: Alloys with Higher Contents of Al and Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, V. M. B.; Queirós, C. S. G. P.; Lourenço, M. J. V.; Santos, F. J. V.; Nieto de Castro, C. A.

    2018-05-01

    The viscosity of Zn-Al alloys melts, with industrial interest, was measured for temperatures between 693 K and 915 K, with an oscillating cup viscometer, and estimated expanded uncertainties between 3 and 5 %, depending on the alloy. The influence of minor components, such as Si, Mg and Ce + La, on the viscosity of the alloys is discussed. An increase in the amount of Mg triggers complex melt/solidification processes while the addition of Ce and La renders alloys viscosity almost temperature independent. Furthermore, increases in Al and Si contents decrease melts viscosity and lead to an Arrhenius type behavior. This paper complements a previous study describing the viscosity of Zn-Al alloys with quasi-eutectic compositions.

  5. Reduced supportive capacity of bone marrow stroma upon chemotherapy is mediated via changes in glycosaminoglycan profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweegman, Sonja; Kessler, Floortje L.; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Heimerikx, Mike; Celie, Johanna W. A. M.; Janssen, Jeroen J. W. M.; Huijgens, Peter C.; Drager, Angelika M.; van den Born, Jacob

    High dose chemotherapy and radiation have been found to impair the hematopoiesis-supportive capacity of bone marrow stroma. We now provide evidence for an important role of chemotherapy-induced alterations in stromal glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in reduction of the supportive properties of stromal

  6. Molecular structure of basic oligomeric building units of heparan-sulfate glycosaminoglycans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remko, Milan; Van Duijnen, Piet Th.; Broer, Ria

    2010-01-01

    This study reports in detail the results of systematic large-scale theoretical investigations of the acidic dimeric structural units (D-E, E-F, F-G, and G-H) and pentamer D-E-F-G-H (fondaparinux) of the glycosaminoglycan heparin, and their anionic forms. The geometries and energies of these

  7. Evaluation of glycosaminoglycans and heparanase in placentas of women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famá, Eduardo Augusto Brosco; Souza, Renan Salvioni; Melo, Carina Mucciolo; Melo Pompei, Luciano; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder whose etiology remains unclear. It is already known that circulation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) is directly involved in pre-eclampsia development. However, the molecular mechanisms involved with sFlt-1 shedding are still unidentified. We identified, quantified glycosaminoglycans and determined the enzymatic activity of heparanase in placentas of women with preeclampsia, in order to possibly explain if these compounds could be related to cellular processes involved with preeclampsia. A total of 45 samples collected from placentas, 15 samples from placentas of preeclampsia women and 30 samples from non-affected women. Heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate were identified and quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis, whilst hyaluronic acid was quantified by an ELISA like assay. Heparanase activity was determined using biotynilated heparan sulfate as substrate. The results showed that dermatan sulfate (P=0.019), heparan sulfate levels (P=0.015) and heparanase activity (P=0.006) in preeclampsia were significantly higher than in the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups for hyaluronic acid expression in placentas (P=0.110). The present study is the first to demonstrate directly the increase of heparan sulfate in human placentas from patients with preeclampsia, suggesting that endogenous heparan sulfate could be involved in the release of sFlt-1 from placenta, increasing the level of circulating sFlt-1. Alterations of extracellular matrix components in placentas with preeclampsia raise the possibility that heparan sulfate released by heparanase is involved in mechanisms of preeclampsia development. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Biomimetic fiber assembled gradient hydrogel to engineer glycosaminoglycan enriched and mineralized cartilage: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Neethu; Wilson, Jijo; Joseph, Dexy; Vaikkath, Dhanesh; Nair, Prabha D

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated the potential of electrospun fiber assembled hydrogel, with physical gradients of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and sol-gel-derived bioactive glass (BG), to engineer hyaline and mineralized cartilage in a single 3D system. Electrospun poly(caprolactone) (PCL) fibers incorporated with 0.1% w/w of CS (CSL) and 0.5% w/w of CS (CSH), 2.4% w/w of BG (BGL) and 12.5% w/w of BG (BGH) were fabricated. The CS showed a sustained release up to 3 days from CSL and 14 days from CSH fibers. Chondrocytes secreted hyaline like matrix with higher sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG), collagen type II and aggrecan on CSL and CSH fibers. Mineralization was observed on BGL and BGH fibers when incubated in simulated body fluid for 14 days. Chondrocytes cultured on these fibers secreted a mineralized matrix that consisted of sGAG, hypertrophic proteins, collagen type X, and osteocalcin. The CS and BG incorporated PCL fiber mats were assembled in an agarose-gelatin hydrogel to generate a 3D hybrid scaffold. The signals in the fibers diffused and generated continuous opposing gradients of CS (chondrogenic signal) and BG (mineralization) in the hydrogel. The chondrocytes were encapsulated in hybrid scaffolds; live dead assay at 48 h showed viable cells. Cells maintained their phenotype and secreted specific extracellular matrix (ECM) in response to signals within the hydrogel. Continuous opposing gradients of sGAG enriched and mineralized ECM were observed surrounding each cell clusters on gradient hydrogel after 14 days of culture in response to the physical gradients of raw materials CS and BG. A construct with gradient mineralization might accelerate integration to subchondral bone during in vivo regeneration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Content and Target Aspects of the Relativism Concept of National Stereotypes in the Higher School Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sorokina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the innovative educational concept of teaching the foreign languages to the senior university students. The research methodology is based on M. Bennett’s model of intercultural sensitivitydevelopment necessary for the gradual transformation of ethnocentrism into ethno-relativism. The development of students’ relativistic perception of national stereotypes is perceived by the author as an important factor of both the natural cognitive mechanism and intercultural communication. The author argues that relativistic perception of national stereotypes can be achieved by fostering the intercultural world outlook, and therefore recommends incorporating a relativistic world view component in educational content structure along with the traditional components of knowledge, skills, attitudes, motives, creative activity expertise, etc.The paper emphasizes three consequent educational modules of ethnodifferentiation, ethno-integration and ethno-relativity in the proposed methodological system. The gradual fulfillment of educational goals, relatedto the above modules, can ensure the transformation of students’ perception of national stereotypes at the cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels. The proposed educational concept, approbated in the GermanLanguage Department of Zabaykalsky State University in 2010 – 2013, along with the research data prove the effectiveness of the given method, and demonstrate a substantial development of students’ intercultural competence and a decline in the ethnocentrism level.

  10. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Dung Beetle Glycosaminoglycan on db Mice and Gene Expression Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Ban Ji; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Hwang, Jae Sam; Park, Kun-Koo

    2018-04-01

    Anti-diabetes activity of Catharsius molossus (Ca, a type of dung beetle) glycosaminoglycan (G) was evaluated to reduce glucose, creatinine kinase, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in db mice. Diabetic mice in six groups were administrated intraperitoneally: Db heterozygous (Normal), Db homozygous (CON), Heuchys sanguinea glycosaminoglycan (HEG, 5 mg/kg), dung beetle glycosaminoglycan (CaG, 5 mg/kg), bumblebee ( Bombus ignitus ) queen glycosaminoglycan (IQG, 5 mg/kg) and metformin (10 mg/kg), for 1 month. Biochemical analyses in the serum were evaluated to determine their anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory actions in db mice after 1 month treatment with HEG, CaG or IQG treatments. Blood glucose level was decreased by treatment with CaG. CaG produced significant anti-diabetic actions by inhiting creatinine kinase and alkaline phosphatase levels. As diabetic parameters, serum glucose level, total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased in CaG5-treated group compared to the controls. Dung beetle glycosaminoglycan, compared to the control, could be a potential therapeutic agent with anti-diabetic activity in diabetic mice. CaG5-treated group, compared to the control, showed the up-regulation of 48 genes including mitochondrial yen coded tRNA lysine (mt-TK), cytochrome P450, family 8/2, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 (Cyp8b1), and down-regulation of 79 genes including S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100a9) and immunoglobulin kappa chain complex (Igk), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoenzymeAsynthase1 (Hmgcs1). Moreover, mitochondrial thymidine kinase (mt-TK), was up-regulated, and calgranulin A (S100a9) were down-regulated by CaG5 treatment, indicating a potential therapeutic use for anti-diabetic agent.

  11. Altered expression of glycosaminoglycans in metastatic 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, P.A.; Cheong, P.H.; Nakajima, M.; Yung, W.K.A.; Moser, R.P.; Nicolson, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    A difference in the expression and metabolism of [ 35 S]sulfated glycosaminoglycans between rat mammary tumor cells derived from a primary tumor and those from its metastatic lesions has been observed. Cells from the primary tumor possessed about equal quantities of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate on their cell surfaces but released fourfold more chondroitin sulfate than heparan sulfate into their medium. In contrast, cells from distal metastatic lesions expressed approximately 5 times more heparan sulfate than chondroitin sulfate in both medium and cell surface fractions. This was observed to be the result of differential synthesis of the glycosaminoglycans and not of major structural alterations of the individual glycosaminoglycans. The degree of sulfation and size of heparan sulfate were similar for all cells examined. However, chondroitin sulfate, observed to be only chondroitin 4-sulfate, from the metastases-derived cells had a smaller average molecular weight on gel filtration chromatography and showed a decreased quantity of sulfated disaccharides upon degradation with chondroitin ABC lyase compared to the primary tumor derived cells. Major qualitative or quantitative alterations were not observed for hyaluronic acid among the various 13762NF cells. The metabolism of newly synthesized sulfated glycosaminoglycans was also different between cells from primary tumor and metastases. A pulse-chase kinetics study demonstrated that both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were degraded by the metastases-derived cells, whereas the primary tumor derived cells degraded only heparan sulfate and degraded it at a slower rate. These results suggested that altered glycosaminoglycan expression and metabolism may be associated with the metastatic process in 13762NF rat mammary tumor cells

  12. EDUCast@fccn: An example of European cooperation to implement the production of AV content in Higher Education Institutions in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Martins; Hugo Ribeiro; Rui Ribeiro; Nelson Dias

    2012-01-01

    The specific logistics of each Higher Education Institution (HEI) in Portugal and the specific teaching of each academic community are some of the major challenges faced by technical staff, administrative staff and educational support staff of these institutions when trying to find an appropriate solution for the provision of audiovisual content. In this sense, it was developed since 2010 an innovative partnership initiated by the Portuguese Foundation for National Scientific Computing (FCCN)...

  13. Extraction and Biochemical Characterization of Sulphated Glycosaminoglycans from Chicken Keel Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Majeed Khan1, Muhammad Ashraf2, Abu Saeed Hashmi3, Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad4 and Aftab Ahmad Anjum5

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to explore the potential and cheaper source of major and abundantly found sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs in chicken keel cartilage. Chicken is comparatively readily accessible to all the communities of Pakistan and its cartilages are the rich source of sulphated GAGs. The GAGs were extracted from prewashed and ground keel cartilages (n=3 of chicken using 3 M MgCl2, dialyzed, digested with papain, precipitated with three volumes of ethanol, and finally lyophilized to dry powder. The dry products were used for proximate analysis (carbohydrates 65.49±0.10, crude protein 12.82±0.26, ash 11.12±.56, moisture 9.88±0.32 and fat 0.69±0.14%. Dimethylmethylene blue binding (DMMB assay was performed to determine the quantity of total GAGs in each group of product and protein contents were estimated by Bradford method. Identification of extracted samples of GAGs was performed with FTIR spectrometer using KBr disc and purity of the samples was determined by SDS-PAGE. Quantity of total GAGs in extracted samples was 70.77±2.27% and estimated amount of protein was 4.64±0.29%. FTIR spectra of standard and samples of CS showed identical and characteristic peaks in finger print region. Finger print region revealed the presence of C-O-S, S=O, -COO, -C-C, R-SO2–R, -CONH2 and R-SO2-NH2 molecules. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the presence of 77.8 and 50.5 kDa proteins in all extracted samples of GAGs. It can be concluded that chicken keel cartilage is the potential and cheap source of GAGs. Analysis by SDS-PAGE revealed that most of the non-collagen protein can be removed by three volumes of solvent extraction and FTIR is an advance technique for identification of GAGs in mid infrared region (400-4000 cm-1.

  14. Hyaluronidase-inhibitory activities of glycosaminoglycans from Liparis tessellatus eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ticar, Bernadeth F.; Rohmah, Zuliyati; Mussatto, Solange Ines

    2017-01-01

    Polysaccharide fractions isolated from L. tessellatus eggs were purified and eluted using the DEAE-sepharose fast flow column. These were collected, tested and pooled based on their sugars content: F1, F2, and F3 which contain 26.8, 23.3, and 20.2% sulfated glycans; 34.5, 38.2, and 45.0% uronic a...... the presence of uronic acids on F3, which could be a 0,2A2 fragment plus loss of methyl group which is very common among nonmethylated, sulfated disaccharides.......Polysaccharide fractions isolated from L. tessellatus eggs were purified and eluted using the DEAE-sepharose fast flow column. These were collected, tested and pooled based on their sugars content: F1, F2, and F3 which contain 26.8, 23.3, and 20.2% sulfated glycans; 34.5, 38.2, and 45.0% uronic...

  15. Small molecule inhibitors of protein interaction with glycosaminoglycans (SMIGs), a novel class of bioactive agents with anti-inflammatory properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harris, N.; Kogan, F. Y.; Ilková, G.; Juhás, Štefan; Lahmy, O.; Gregor, Y. I.; Koppel, J.; Zhuk, R.; Gregor, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1840, č. 1 (2014), s. 245-254 ISSN 0304-4165 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : heparan sulfate * heparin binding protein * glycosaminoglycan Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.381, year: 2014

  16. Glycosaminoglycan-sac formation in vitro. Interactions between normal and malignant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetou-Rella, H.

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of monolayer normal human or normal rat cells with suspension Walker rat tumor cells was demonstrated cytologically, during a cocultivation period of thirty days. At ten days, Walker rat tumor cells were interiorized in the cytoplasm of the normal monolayer host cells. At twenty days, degeneration of the interiorized tumor cells followed by mucification led to glycosaminoglycan-sac formation. At thirty days, tumor nodules and protease (a,- c...

  17. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Hannesson, Kirsten O.; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; B?verfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400?d? was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were add...

  18. Aglycone Ebselen and β-d-Xyloside Primed Glycosaminoglycans Co-contribute to Ebselen β-d-Xyloside-Induced Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Zhang, Siqi; Chang, Yajing; Fan, Dacheng; Agostini, Ariane De; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Tao

    2018-04-12

    Most β-d-xylosides with hydrophobic aglycones are nontoxic primers for glycosaminoglycan assembly in animal cells. However, when Ebselen was conjugated to d-xylose, d-glucose, d-galactose, and d-lactose (8A-D), only Ebselen β-d-xyloside (8A) showed significant cytotoxicity in human cancer cells. The following facts indicated that the aglycone Ebselen and β-d-xyloside primed glycosaminoglycans co-contributed to the observed cytotoxicity: 1. Ebselen induced S phase cell cycle arrest, whereas 8A induced G2/M cell cycle arrest; 2. 8A augmented early and late phase cancer cell apoptosis significantly compared to that of Ebselen and 8B-D; 3. Both 8A and phenyl-β-d-xyloside primed glycosaminoglycans with similar disaccharide compositions in CHO-pgsA745 cells; 4. Glycosaminoglycans could be detected inside of cells only when treated with 8A, indicating Ebselen contributed to the unique property of intracellular localization of the primed glycosaminoglycans. Thus, 8A represents a lead compound for the development of novel antitumor strategy by targeting glycosaminoglycans.

  19. Glycosaminoglycans affect the interaction of human plasma kallikrein with plasminogen, factor XII and inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozzo A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma kallikrein, a serine proteinase, plays a key role in intrinsic blood clotting, in the kallikrein-kinin system, and in fibrinolysis. The proteolytic enzymes involved in these processes are usually controlled by specific inhibitors and may be influenced by several factors including glycosaminoglycans, as recently demonstrated by our group. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glycosaminoglycans (30 to 250 µg/ml on kallikrein activity on plasminogen and factor XII and on the inhibition of kallikrein by the plasma proteins C1-inhibitor and antithrombin. Almost all available glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, bovine and tuna dermatan sulfate, chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates reduced (1.2 to 3.0 times the catalytic efficiency of kallikrein (in a nanomolar range on the hydrolysis of plasminogen (0.3 to 1.8 µM and increased (1.9 to 7.7 times the enzyme efficiency in factor XII (0.1 to 10 µM activation. On the other hand, heparin, heparan sulfate, and bovine and tuna dermatan sulfate improved (1.2 to 3.4 times kallikrein inhibition by antithrombin (1.4 µM, while chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates reduced it (1.3 times. Heparin and heparan sulfate increased (1.4 times the enzyme inhibition by the C1-inhibitor (150 nM.

  20. A Modified Glycosaminoglycan, GM-0111, Inhibits Molecular Signaling Involved in Periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Savage

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is characterized by microbial infection, inflammation, tissue breakdown, and accelerated loss of alveolar bone matrix. Treatment targeting these multiple stages of the disease provides ways to treat or prevent periodontitis. Certain glycosaminoglycans (GAGs block multiple inflammatory mediators as well as suppress bacterial growth, suggesting that these GAGs may be exploited as a therapeutic for periodontitis.We investigated the effects of a synthetic GAG, GM-0111, on various molecular events associated with periodontitis: growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans pathogenic bacteria associated with periodontitis; activation of pro-inflammatory signaling through TLR2 and TLR4 in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and heterologously expressed HEK 293 cells; osteoclast formation and bone matrix resorption in cultured mouse pre-osteoclasts.(1 GM-0111 suppressed the growth of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans even at 1% (w/v solution. The antibacterial effects of GM-0111 were stronger than hyaluronic acid (HA or xylitol in P. gingivalis at all concentrations and comparable to xylitol in A. actinomycetemcomitans at ≥2% (w/v solution. We also observed that GM-0111 suppressed biofilm formation of P. gingivalis and these effects were much stronger than HA. (2 GM-0111 inhibited TLR-mediated pro-inflammatory cellular signaling both in macrophage and HEK 293 cells with higher selectivity for TLR2 than TLR4 (IC50 of 1-10 ng/mL vs. > 100 μg/mL, respectively. (3 GM-0111 blocked RANKL-induced osteoclast formation (as low as 300 ng/mL and bone matrix resorption. While GM-0111 showed high affinity binding to RANKL, it did not interfere with RANKL/RANK/NF-κB signaling, suggesting that GM-0111 inhibits osteoclast formation by a RANKL-RANK-independent mechanism.We report that GM-0111 inhibits multiple molecular events involved in periodontitis, spanning from the

  1. Glycosaminoglycan-functionalized poly-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytocompatibility, and cellular uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamichhane SP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surya P Lamichhane,1 Neha Arya,1,2 Nirdesh Ojha,3 Esther Kohler,1 V Prasad Shastri1,2,41Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, 2Helmholtz Virtual Institute on “Multifunctional Biomaterials for Medicine”, 3Laboratory for Process Technology, Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, 4Centre for Biological Signaling Studies (BIOSS, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, GermanyAbstract: The efficient delivery of chemotherapeutics to the tumor via nanoparticle (NP-based delivery systems remains a significant challenge. This is compounded by the fact that the tumor is highly dynamic and complex environment composed of a plurality of cell types and extracellular matrix. Since glycosaminoglycan (GAG production is altered in many diseases (or pathologies, NPs bearing GAG moieties on the surface may confer some unique advantages in interrogating the tumor microenvironment. In order to explore this premise, in the study reported here poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA NPs in the range of 100–150 nm bearing various proteoglycans were synthesized by a single-step nanoprecipitation and characterized. The surface functionalization of the NPs with GAG moieties was verified using zeta potential measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To establish these GAG-bearing NPs as carriers of therapeutics, cellular toxicity assays were undertaken in lung epithelial adenocarcinoma (A549 cells, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC, and renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. In general NPs were well tolerated over a wide concentration range (100–600 µg/mL by all cell types and were taken up to appreciable extents without any adverse cell response in A549 cells and HPMEC. Further, GAG-functionalized PLGA NPs were taken up to different extents in A459 cells and HPMEC. In both cell systems, the uptake of heparin-modified NPs was diminished by 50%–65% in comparison to that of

  2. Changes Of Hydration Level In Type I Collagen And Glycosaminoglycans Synthesized In The Rat’s Skin Under The Mechanical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr M. Ponomarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes of Hydratation Level Of Type I Collagen And Glycosaminoglycans That Are Synthesized In The Rat’s Skin Under The Mechanical Stress. The effect of the mechanical stress on the levels of hydratation of type I collagen and glycosaminoglycans that are synthesized in it, has been studied in vitro using the rats’ skin. The measured hydration of isotherms has shown that mechanical stress in the skin increases and decreases the amount of absorbed water in glycosaminoglycans and in collagen, respectively. Сalculated the average amounts of water molecules in collagen tripeptide and glycosaminoglycans disaccharide unit in the inside and outside layers of their hydrate shells

  3. Increased physical activity severely induces osteoarthritic changes in knee joints with papain induced sulfate-glycosaminoglycan depleted cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelt, Michiel; Groen, Harald C; Koelewijn, Stuart J; de Blois, Erik; Sandker, Marjan; Waarsing, Jan H; Müller, Cristina; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; de Jong, Marion; Weinans, Harrie

    2014-01-29

    Articular cartilage needs sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) to withstand high pressures while mechanically loaded. Chondrocyte sGAG synthesis is regulated by exposure to compressive forces. Moderate physical exercise is known to improve cartilage sGAG content and might protect against osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated whether rat knee joints with sGAG depleted articular cartilage through papain injections might benefit from moderate exercise, or whether this increases the susceptibility for cartilage degeneration. sGAGs were depleted from cartilage through intraarticular papain injections in the left knee joints of 40 Wistar rats; their contralateral joints served as healthy controls. Of the 40 rats included in the study, 20 rats remained sedentary, and the other 20 were subjected to a moderately intense running protocol. Animals were longitudinally monitored for 12 weeks with in vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) to measure subchondral bone changes and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT to determine synovial macrophage activation. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12 weeks with ex vivo contrast-enhanced μCT and histology to measure sGAG content and cartilage thickness. All outcome measures were unaffected by moderate exercise in healthy control joints of running animals compared with healthy control joints of sedentary animals. Papain injections in sedentary animals resulted in severe sGAG-depleted cartilage, slight loss of subchondral cortical bone, increased macrophage activation, and osteophyte formation. In running animals, papain-induced sGAG-depleted cartilage showed increased cartilage matrix degradation, sclerotic bone formation, increased macrophage activation, and more osteophyte formation. Moderate exercise enhanced OA progression in papain-injected joints and did not protect against development of the disease. This was not restricted to more-extensive cartilage damage, but also resulted in pronounced

  4. Increased physical activity severely induces osteoarthritic changes in knee joints with papain induced sulfate-glycosaminoglycan depleted cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Articular cartilage needs sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) to withstand high pressures while mechanically loaded. Chondrocyte sGAG synthesis is regulated by exposure to compressive forces. Moderate physical exercise is known to improve cartilage sGAG content and might protect against osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated whether rat knee joints with sGAG depleted articular cartilage through papain injections might benefit from moderate exercise, or whether this increases the susceptibility for cartilage degeneration. Methods sGAGs were depleted from cartilage through intraarticular papain injections in the left knee joints of 40 Wistar rats; their contralateral joints served as healthy controls. Of the 40 rats included in the study, 20 rats remained sedentary, and the other 20 were subjected to a moderately intense running protocol. Animals were longitudinally monitored for 12 weeks with in vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) to measure subchondral bone changes and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT to determine synovial macrophage activation. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12 weeks with ex vivo contrast-enhanced μCT and histology to measure sGAG content and cartilage thickness. Results All outcome measures were unaffected by moderate exercise in healthy control joints of running animals compared with healthy control joints of sedentary animals. Papain injections in sedentary animals resulted in severe sGAG-depleted cartilage, slight loss of subchondral cortical bone, increased macrophage activation, and osteophyte formation. In running animals, papain-induced sGAG-depleted cartilage showed increased cartilage matrix degradation, sclerotic bone formation, increased macrophage activation, and more osteophyte formation. Conclusions Moderate exercise enhanced OA progression in papain-injected joints and did not protect against development of the disease. This was not restricted to more-extensive cartilage

  5. Effect of castration on renal glycosaminoglycans and their urinary excretion in male and female rats with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, C.C.S.; Tovar, A.M.F.; Guimarães, M.A.M.; Bregman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) participate in a variety of processes in the kidney, and evidence suggests that gender-related hormones participate in renal function. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of GAGs, gender, and proteinuria in male and female rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). GAGs were analyzed in total kidney tissue and 24-h urine of castrated (c), male (M), and female (F) Wistar control (C) rats (CM, CMc, CF, CFc) and after 30 days of CRF induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (CRFM, CRFMc, CRFF, CRFFc). Total GAG quantification and composition were determined using agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. Renal GAGs were higher in CF compared to CM. CRFM presented an increase in renal GAGs, heparan sulfate (HS), and proteinuria, while castration reduced these parameters. However, CRFF and CRFFc groups showed a decrease in renal GAGs concomitant with an increase in proteinuria. Our results suggest that, in CRFM, sex hormones quantitatively alter GAGs, mainly HS, and possibly the glomerular filtration barrier, leading to proteinuria. The lack of this response in CRFMc, where HS did not increase, corroborates this theory. This pattern was not observed in females. Further studies of CRF are needed to clarify gender-dependent differences in HS synthesis

  6. Preadipocyte Factor-1 Levels Are Higher in Women with Hypothalamic Amenorrhea and Are Associated with Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mineral Density through a Mechanism Independent of Leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronis, Konstantinos N.; Kilim, Holly; Chamberland, John P.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford

    2011-01-01

    Context: Preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1) is increased in anorexia nervosa and is associated negatively with bone mineral density (BMD). No previous studies exist on pref-1 in women with exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), which similar to anorexia nervosa, is an energy-deficiency state associated with hypoleptinemia. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate whether pref-1 levels are also elevated and associated with low BMD and to assess whether leptin regulates pref-1 levels in women with HA. Design: Study 1 was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of metreleptin administration in women with HA. Study 2 was an open-label study of metreleptin administration in low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses in healthy women volunteers. Setting and Patients: At Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 20 women with HA and leptin levels higher than 5 ng/ml and nine healthy control women participated in study 1, and five healthy women participated in study 2. Intervention: For study 1, 20 HA subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 mg/kg metreleptin (n = 11) or placebo (n = 9). For study 2, five healthy subjects received 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg metreleptin in both fed and fasting conditions for 1 and 3 d, respectively. Main Outcome Measures: Circulating pref-1 and leptin levels were measured. Results: Pref-1 was significantly higher in HA subjects vs. controls (P = 0.035) and negatively associated with BMD (ρ = −0.38; P < 0.01) and bone mineral content (ρ = −0.32; P < 0.05). Metreleptin administration did not alter pref-1 levels in any study reported herein. Conclusions: Pref-1 is higher in HA subjects than controls. Metreleptin administration at low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses does not affect pref-1 levels, suggesting that hypoleptinemia is not responsible for higher pref-1 levels and that leptin does not regulate pref-1. PMID:21795455

  7. Preadipocyte factor-1 levels are higher in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and are associated with bone mineral content and bone mineral density through a mechanism independent of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronis, Konstantinos N; Kilim, Holly; Chamberland, John P; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-10-01

    Preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1) is increased in anorexia nervosa and is associated negatively with bone mineral density (BMD). No previous studies exist on pref-1 in women with exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), which similar to anorexia nervosa, is an energy-deficiency state associated with hypoleptinemia. Our objective was to evaluate whether pref-1 levels are also elevated and associated with low BMD and to assess whether leptin regulates pref-1 levels in women with HA. Study 1 was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of metreleptin administration in women with HA. Study 2 was an open-label study of metreleptin administration in low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses in healthy women volunteers. At Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 20 women with HA and leptin levels higher than 5 ng/ml and nine healthy control women participated in study 1, and five healthy women participated in study 2. For study 1, 20 HA subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 mg/kg metreleptin (n = 11) or placebo (n = 9). For study 2, five healthy subjects received 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg metreleptin in both fed and fasting conditions for 1 and 3 d, respectively. Circulating pref-1 and leptin levels were measured. Pref-1 was significantly higher in HA subjects vs. controls (P = 0.035) and negatively associated with BMD (ρ = -0.38; P < 0.01) and bone mineral content (ρ = -0.32; P < 0.05). Metreleptin administration did not alter pref-1 levels in any study reported herein. Pref-1 is higher in HA subjects than controls. Metreleptin administration at low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses does not affect pref-1 levels, suggesting that hypoleptinemia is not responsible for higher pref-1 levels and that leptin does not regulate pref-1.

  8. Urinary Glycosaminoglycan Electrophoresis With Optimized Keratan Sulfate Separation Using Peltier System for the Screening of Mucopolysaccharidoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihriban Tijen Tanyalcin MD, PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this communication is to indicate a simple and rapid method with a small volume of urine sample to detect urine glycosaminoglycan (GAG and serve as a screening procedure for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs. Total GAG measurement for patients with MPS disorders is considered to be the first step in diagnosis of those heterogeneous group of lysosomal storage disorders presenting clinical phenotype. In this study, modified 9-dimethylmethylene blue method is used for total GAG measurement. Following GAG quantitation, the procedure described here allows GAG isolation from a very a small volume of urine sample and subjected to high-resolution GAG electrophoresis, which can be easily performed in routine clinical diagnostic laboratories. Glycosaminoglycan precipitation is a modified method based on total GAG concentration in the urine. For optimized isolation of total GAG for electrophoresis, instead of considering the urine creatinine concentration, 300 μg/mL GAG containing urine is considered to be the target concentration for the best precipitation with 1000 μL cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC/citrate buffer. Glycosaminoglycan concentration-based precipitation of urine with CPC allows the laboratory to be able to work with a small volume of urine sample by keeping the precipitating ratio with CPC constant for samples that contain GAG less than 300 μg/mL. Based on the effect of cold buffer using low voltage, GAGs high-resolution electrophoresis banding patterns described here enable a clear separation of keratan sulfate from chondroitin sulfate as well as dermatan sulfate (DS1 and DS2 and heparan sulfate. By this procedure, GAG patterns are more clear, easily identified, and provide a guide for the enzyme analysis deficient in the MPS disorders.

  9. Glycosaminoglycan sulphation affects the seeded misfolding of a mutant prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Lawson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of protease resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP(res is a key pathological feature of prion diseases. Polyanions, including RNA and glycosaminoglycans have been identified as factors that contribute to the propagation, transmission and pathogenesis of prion disease. Recent studies have suggested that the contribution of these cofactors to prion propagation may be species specific. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study a cell-free assay was used to investigate the molecular basis of polyanion stimulated PrP(res formation using brain tissue or cell line derived murine PrP. Enzymatic depletion of endogenous nucleic acids or heparan sulphate (HS from the PrP(C substrate was found to specifically prevent PrP(res formation seeded by mouse derived PrP(Sc. Modification of the negative charge afforded by the sulphation of glycosaminoglycans increased the ability of a familial PrP mutant to act as a substrate for PrP(res formation, while having no effect on PrP(res formed by wildtype PrP. This difference may be due to the observed differences in the binding of wild type and mutant PrP for glycosaminoglycans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cofactor requirements for PrP(res formation are host species and prion strain specific and affected by disease associated mutations of the prion protein. This may explain both species and strain dependent propagation characteristics and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of familial prion disease. It further highlights the challenge of designing effective therapeutics against a disease which effects a range of mammalian species, caused by range of aetiologies and prion strains.

  10. N-[3H]acetyl-labeling, a convenient method for radiolabeling of glycosaminoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, M.; Riesenfeld, J.; Lindahl, U.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the introduction of N-[ 3 H]acetyl groups into glycosaminoglycans is described. The procedure is based on [ 3 H]acetylation of N-unsubstituted hexosamine residues by treating the polysaccharides with [ 3 H]acetic anhydride. Preparations of heparin and heparin sulfate were found to contain significant numbers of N-unsubstituted hexosamine residues, as isolates. In contrast, such units could not be detected in chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, or hyaluronic acid. These polysaccharides were therefore subjected to partial N-deacetylation by reaction with hydrazine in the presence of hydrazine sulfate. After treatment with [ 3 H]acetic anhydride, the specific activities of the resulting labeled polysaccharide preparations ranged between 0.1 X 10 6 and 0.6 X 10 6 cpm 3 H/μg of uronic acid. The 3 H-labeled polysaccharide preparations did not differ significantly from the corresponding unlabeled starting materials with regard to polyanion properties (chromatography on DEAE-cellulose) or polymer chain size (gel chromatography). Further, the radiolabeled polysaccharide derivatives were susceptible to specific enzymatic degradation (chondroitinase ABC and mammalian heparitinase) and retained their ability to interact specifically with certain proteins - for example, [ 3 H]heparin with antithrombin [ 3 H]hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. These findings indicate that the labeling procedures did not induce any major structural derangement of the polysaccharide molecules. The method developed should be useful in providing labeled glycosaminoglycans for metabolic and enzymatic experiments as well as for studies on the interacion between glycosaminoglycans and other bilogical macromolecules

  11. Rotavirus NSP4 is secreted from infected cells as an oligomeric lipoprotein and binds to glycosaminoglycans on the surface of non-infected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didsbury Alicia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonstructural glycoprotein 4 (NSP4 encoded by rotavirus is the only viral protein currently believed to function as an enterotoxin. NSP4 is synthesized as an intracellular transmembrane glycoprotein and as such is essential for virus assembly. Infection of polarized Caco-2 cells with rotavirus also results in the secretion of glycosylated NSP4 apparently in a soluble form despite retention of its transmembrane domain. We have examined the structure, solubility and cell-binding properties of this secreted form of NSP4 to further understand the biochemical basis for its enterotoxic function. We show here that NSP4 is secreted as discrete detergent-sensitive oligomers in a complex with phospholipids and demonstrate that this secreted form of NSP4 can bind to glycosaminoglycans present on the surface of a range of different cell types. Methods NSP4 was purified from the medium of infected cells after ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration by successive lectin-affinity and ion exchange chromatography. Oligomerisation of NSP4 was examined by density gradient centrifugation and chemical crosslinking and the lipid content was assessed by analytical thin layer chromatography and flame ionization detection. Binding of NSP4 to various cell lines was measured using a flow cytometric-based assay. Results Secreted NSP4 formed oligomers that contained phospholipid but dissociated to a dimeric species in the presence of non-ionic detergent. The purified glycoprotein binds to the surface of various non-infected cells of distinct lineage. Binding of NSP4 to HT-29, a cell line of intestinal origin, is saturable and independent of divalent cations. Complementary biochemical approaches reveal that NSP4 binds to sulfated glycosaminoglycans on the plasma membrane. Conclusion Our study is the first to analyze an authentic (i.e. non-recombinant form of NSP4 that is secreted from virus-infected cells. Despite retention of the transmembrane domain

  12. Glycosaminoglycans are interactants of Langerin: comparison with gp120 highlights an unexpected calcium-independent binding mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Eric; Nurisso, Alessandra; Daina, Antoine; Vassal-Stermann, Emilie; Thepaut, Michel; Girard, Eric; Vivès, Romain R; Fieschi, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Langerin is a C-type lectin specifically expressed in Langerhans cells. As recently shown for HIV, Langerin is thought to capture pathogens and mediate their internalisation into Birbeck Granules for elimination. However, the precise functions of Langerin remain elusive, mostly because of the lack of information on its binding properties and physiological ligands. Based on recent reports that Langerin binds to sulfated sugars, we conducted here a comparative analysis of Langerin interaction with mannose-rich HIV glycoprotein gp120 and glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), a family of sulfated polysaccharides expressed at the surface of most mammalian cells. Our results first revealed that Langerin bound to these different glycans through very distinct mechanisms and led to the identification of a novel, GAG-specific binding mode within Langerin. In contrast to the canonical lectin domain, this new binding site showed no Ca(2+)-dependency, and could only be detected in entire, trimeric extracellular domains of Langerin. Interestingly binding to GAGs, did not simply rely on a net charge effect, but rather on more discrete saccharide features, such as 6-O-sulfation, or iduronic acid content. Using molecular modelling simulations, we proposed a model of Langerin/heparin complex, which located the GAG binding site at the interface of two of the three Carbohydrate-recognition domains of the protein, at the edge of the a-helix coiled-coil. To our knowledge, the binding properties that we have highlighted here for Langerin, have never been reported for C-type lectins before. These findings provide new insights towards the understanding of Langerin biological functions.

  13. Current Understanding of Physicochemical Mechanisms for Cell Membrane Penetration of Arginine-rich Cell Penetrating Peptides: Role of Glycosaminoglycan Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi-Haraya, Yuki; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are very promising drug carriers to deliver membrane-impermeable pharmaceuticals, such as siRNA, bioactive peptides and proteins. CPPs directly penetrate into cells across cell membranes via a spontaneous energy-independent process, in which CPPs appear to interact with acidic lipids in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. However, acidic lipids represent only 10 to 20% of the total membrane lipid content and in mammalian cell membranes they are predominantly located in the inner leaflet. Alternatively, CPPs favorably bind in a charge density- dependent manner to negatively charged, sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which are abundant on the cell surface and are involved in many biological functions. We have recently demonstrated that the interaction of CPPs with sulfated GAGs plays a critical role in their direct cell membrane penetration: the favorable enthalpy contribution drives the high-affinity binding of arginine-rich CPPs to sulfated GAGs, initiating an efficient cell membrane penetration. The favorable enthalpy gain is presumably mainly derived from a unique property of the guanidino group of arginine residues forming multidentate hydrogen bonding with sulfate and carboxylate groups in GAGs. Such interactions can be accompanied with charge neutralization of arginine-rich CPPs, promoting their partition into cell membranes. This review summarizes the current understanding of the physicochemical mechanism for lipid membrane penetration of CPPs, and discusses the role of the GAG interactions on the cell membrane penetration of CPPs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Glycosaminoglycans are interactants of Langerin: comparison with gp120 highlights an unexpected calcium-independent binding mode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chabrol

    Full Text Available Langerin is a C-type lectin specifically expressed in Langerhans cells. As recently shown for HIV, Langerin is thought to capture pathogens and mediate their internalisation into Birbeck Granules for elimination. However, the precise functions of Langerin remain elusive, mostly because of the lack of information on its binding properties and physiological ligands. Based on recent reports that Langerin binds to sulfated sugars, we conducted here a comparative analysis of Langerin interaction with mannose-rich HIV glycoprotein gp120 and glycosaminoglycan (GAGs, a family of sulfated polysaccharides expressed at the surface of most mammalian cells. Our results first revealed that Langerin bound to these different glycans through very distinct mechanisms and led to the identification of a novel, GAG-specific binding mode within Langerin. In contrast to the canonical lectin domain, this new binding site showed no Ca(2+-dependency, and could only be detected in entire, trimeric extracellular domains of Langerin. Interestingly binding to GAGs, did not simply rely on a net charge effect, but rather on more discrete saccharide features, such as 6-O-sulfation, or iduronic acid content. Using molecular modelling simulations, we proposed a model of Langerin/heparin complex, which located the GAG binding site at the interface of two of the three Carbohydrate-recognition domains of the protein, at the edge of the a-helix coiled-coil. To our knowledge, the binding properties that we have highlighted here for Langerin, have never been reported for C-type lectins before. These findings provide new insights towards the understanding of Langerin biological functions.

  15. Relaxin's induction of metalloproteinases is associated with the loss of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in synovial joint fibrocartilaginous explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Tabassum; Duong, Trang T; Hashem, Gihan; Shiga, Momotoshi; Zhang, Qin; Kapila, Sunil

    2005-01-01

    Diseases of specific fibrocartilaginous joints are especially common in women of reproductive age, suggesting that female hormones contribute to their etiopathogenesis. Previously, we showed that relaxin dose-dependently induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in isolated joint fibrocartilaginous cells. Here we determined the effects of relaxin with or without β-estradiol on the modulation of MMPs in joint fibrocartilaginous explants, and assessed the contribution of these proteinases to the loss of collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in this tissue. Fibrocartilaginous discs from temporomandibular joints of female rabbits were cultured in medium alone or in medium containing relaxin (0.1 ng/ml) or β-estradiol (20 ng/ml) or relaxin plus β-estradiol. Additional experiments were done in the presence of the MMP inhibitor GM6001 or its control analog. After 48 hours of culture, the medium was assayed for MMPs and the discs were analyzed for collagen and GAG concentrations. Relaxin and β-estradiol plus relaxin induced the MMPs collagenase-1 and stromelysin-1 in fibrocartilaginous explants – a finding similar to that which we observed in pubic symphysis fibrocartilage, but not in articular cartilage explants. The induction of these proteinases by relaxin or β-estradiol plus relaxin was accompanied by a loss of GAGs and collagen in joint fibrocartilage. None of the hormone treatments altered the synthesis of GAGs, suggesting that the loss of this matrix molecule probably resulted from increased matrix degradation. Indeed, fibrocartilaginous explants cultured in the presence of GM6001 showed an inhibition of relaxin-induced and β-estradiol plus relaxin-induced collagenase and stromelysin activities to control baseline levels that were accompanied by the maintenance of collagen or GAG content at control levels. These findings show for the first time that relaxin has degradative effects on non-reproductive synovial joint fibrocartilaginous tissue and

  16. Structural analysis and biological activity of a highly regular glycosaminoglycan from Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhou, Lutan; He, Zhicheng; Gao, Na; Shang, Feineng; Xu, Jianping; Li, Zi; Yang, Zengming; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2018-02-01

    Edible snails have been widely used as a health food and medicine in many countries. A unique glycosaminoglycan (AF-GAG) was purified from Achatina fulica. Its structure was analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, analysis of monosaccharide composition, and 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Chemical composition analysis indicated that AF-GAG is composed of iduronic acid (IdoA) and N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and its average molecular weight is 118kDa. Structural analysis clarified that the uronic acid unit in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is the fully epimerized and the sequence of AF-GAG is →4)-α-GlcNAc (1→4)-α-IdoA2S (1→. Although its structure with a uniform repeating disaccharide is similar to those of heparin and heparan sulfate, this GAG is structurally highly regular and homogeneous. Anticoagulant activity assays indicated that AF-GAG exhibits no anticoagulant activities, but considering its structural characteristic, other bioactivities such as heparanase inhibition may be worthy of further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of glycosaminoglycans during tooth development and mineralization in the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistuba, J; Völker, W; Ehmcke, J; Clemen, G

    2003-10-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) involved in the formation of the teeth of Ambystoma mexicanum were located and characterized with the cuprolinic blue (CB) staining method and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Glycosaminoglycan-cuprolinic blue precipitates (GAGCB) were found in different compartments of the mineralizing tissue. Various populations of elongated GAGCB could be discriminated both according to their size and their preferential distribution in the extracellular matrix (ECM). GAGCB populations that differ in their composition could be attributed not only to the compartments of the ECM but also to different zones and to different tooth types (early-larval and transformed). Larger precipitates were only observed within the dentine matrix of the shaft of the early-larval tooth. The composition of the populations differed significantly between the regions of the transformed tooth: pedicel, shaft and dividing zone. In later stages of tooth formation, small-sized GAGCBs were seen as intracellular deposits in the ameloblasts. It is concluded that the composition of GAGCB populations seems to play a role in the mineralization processes during tooth development in A. mexicanum and influence qualitative characteristics of the mineral in different tooth types and zones, and it is suggested that GAGs might be resorbed by the enamel epithelium during the late phase of enamel formation.

  18. Hexuronic Acid Stereochemistry Determination in Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan Oligosaccharides by Electron Detachment Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Franklin E.; Ly, Mellisa; Laremore, Tatiana N.; Wolff, Jeremy J.; Perlow, Jacob; Linhardt, Robert J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) has previously provided stereo-specific product ions that allow for the assignment of the acidic C-5stereochemistry in heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), but application of the same methodology to an epimer pair in the chondroitin sulfate glycoform class does not provide the same result. A series of experiments have been conducted in which glycosaminoglycan precursor ions are independently activated by electron detachment dissociation (EDD), electron induced dissociation (EID), and negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) to assign the stereochemistry in chondroitin sulfate (CS) epimers and investigate the mechanisms for product ion formation during EDD in CS glycoforms. This approach allows for the assignment of electronic excitation products formed by EID and detachment products to radical pathways in NETD, both of which occur simultaneously during EDD. The uronic acid stereochemistry in electron detachment spectra produces intensity differences when assigned glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages are compared. The variations in the intensities of the doubly deprotonated 0,2X3 and Y3 ions have been shown to be indicative of CS-A/DS composition during the CID of binary mixtures. These ions can provide insight into the uronic acid composition of binary mixtures in EDD, but the relative abundances, although reproducible, are low compared with those in a CID spectrum acquired on an ion trap. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) presents a multivariate approach to determining the uronic acid stereochemistry spectra of these GAGs by taking advantage of the reproducible peak distributions produced by electron detachment.

  19. Percoll gradient-centrifuged capacitated mouse sperm have increased fertilizing ability and higher contents of sulfogalactosylglycerolipid and docosahexaenoic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine compared to washed capacitated mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Anna; Vuong, Ngoc; Xu, Hongbin; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Xu, Min; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bou Khalil, Maroun; Kates, Morris; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj

    2005-03-01

    Although Percoll gradient centrifugation has been used routinely to prepare motile human sperm, its use in preparing motile mouse sperm has been limited. Here, we showed that Percoll gradient-centrifuged (PGC) capacitated mouse sperm had markedly higher fertilizing ability (sperm-zona pellucida [ZP] binding and in vitro fertilization) than washed capacitated mouse sperm. We also showed that the lipid profiles of PGC capacitated sperm and washed capacitated sperm differed significantly. The PGC sperm had much lower contents of cholesterol and phospholipids. This resulted in relative enrichment of male germ cell-specific sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), a ZP-binding ligand, in PGC capacitated sperm, and this would explain, in part, their increased ZP-binding ability compared with that of washed capacitated sperm. Analyses of phospholipid fatty acyl chains revealed that PGC capacitated sperm were enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species containing highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22: 6n-3) being the predominant HUFA (42% of total hydrocarbon chains of PC). In contrast, the level of PC-HUFAs comprising arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6), and DHA in washed capacitated sperm was only 27%. Having the highest unsaturation degree among all HUFAs in PC, DHA would enhance membrane fluidity to the uppermost. Therefore, membranes of PGC capacitated sperm would undergo fertilization-related fusion events at higher rates than washed capacitated sperm. These results suggested that PGC mouse sperm should be used in fertilization experiments and that SGG and DHA should be considered to be important biomarkers for sperm fertilizing ability.

  20. Implementing CLIL in Higher Education in Thailand: The Extent to Which CLIL Improves Agricultural Students' Writing Ability, Agricultural Content, and Cultural Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansri, Charinee; Wasanasomsithi, Punchalee

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which a CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) course at university level in Thailand improves undergraduate Agricultural students' writing ability, agricultural content, and cultural knowledge. The study sample consisted of 27 students majoring in Agriculture at a public university in…

  1. Content Interactivity: The Effect of Higher Levels of Interactivity on Learner Performance Outcomes and Satisfaction in Web-Based Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of content interactivity on performance outcomes and satisfaction has been studied by researchers who compared the results of Web-based and computer-based learning to classroom learning. Few scholars have compared the effects of the same content produced at different levels (low and high) of interactivity and the resulting effects. The…

  2. Diabetes-impaired wound healing is improved by matrix therapy with heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan mimetic OTR4120 in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tong (Miao); B. Tuk (Bastiaan); P. Shang (Peng); J.M. Hekking-Weijma (Ineke); E.M.G. Fijneman (Esther ); M. Guijt (Marnix); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); J.W. van Neck (Han)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWound healing in diabetes is frequently impaired, and its treatment remains a challenge. We tested a therapeutic strategy of potentiating intrinsic tissue regeneration by restoring the wound cellular environment using a heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan mimetic, OTR4120. The effect of

  3. An oncofetal glycosaminoglycan modification provides therapeutic access to Cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiler, Roland; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Tortora, Davide

    2017-01-01

    the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, we can target these sugar chains, and our results showed a significant antitumor effect in cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer. This novel treatment paradigm provides therapeutic access to bladder cancers not responding to cisplatin.......BACKGROUND: Although cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) improves survival of unselected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), only a minority responds to therapy and chemoresistance remains a major challenge in this disease setting. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical...... significance of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate (ofCS) glycosaminoglycan chains in cisplatin-resistant MIBC and to evaluate these as targets for second-line therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An ofCS-binding recombinant VAR2CSA protein derived from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (rVAR2...

  4. Nanocoating of titanium implant surfaces with organic molecules. Polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna Aleksandra; Svava, Rikke; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stability of titanium implants are dependent on a variety of factors. Nanocoating with organic molecules is one of the method used to improve osseointegration. Nanoscale modification of titanium implants affects surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, biochemical bonding capacity...... and roughness. This influences cell behaviour on the surface such as adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells as well as the mineralization of the extracellular matrix at the implant surfaces. The aim of the present systematic review was to describe organic molecules used for surface nanocoating...... nanocoatings. The included in vivo studies, showed improvement of bone interface reactions measured as increased Bone-to-Implant Contact length and Bone Mineral Density adjacent to the polysaccharide coated surfaces. Based on existing literature, surface modification with polysaccharide and glycosaminoglycans...

  5. Pharmacological activities of a new glycosaminoglycan, acharan sulfate isolated from the giant African snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jin Young; Lee, Yeon Sil; Jung, Sang Hoon; Choi, Hyung Seok; Shin, Kuk Hyun; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2002-12-01

    Acharan sulfate (AS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) prepared from the giant African snail, Achatina fulica. In this study, some biological activities of AS were evaluated on the basis of structural similarities to heparin/heparan sulfate and the biological functions of GAGs. We demonstrated that it exhibited strong immunostimulating activities as measured by carbon clearance test in mice and in vivo phagocytosis. It also exhibited a significant hypoglycemic activity in epinephrine (EP)-induced hyperglycemia as well as antifatigue effects by weight-loaded forced swimming test. And it showed hypolipidemic activities in cholesterol-rich mixture induced hyperlipidemia in rats. The above results indicate that AS has diverse biological activities and suggest therapeutically important target molecules.

  6. Tensile force transmission in human patellar tendon fascicles is not mediated by glycosaminoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René B; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip

    2011-01-01

    suggested that the proteoglycan-associated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) found on the surface of the collagen fibrils may be an important transmitter of load, but existing results are ambiguous and have not investigated human tendons. We have used a small-scale mechanical testing system to measure...... change the tendon modulus, relative energy dissipation, peak stress, or peak strain. The effect of deformation rate was not modulated by the treatment either, indicating no effect on viscosity. These results suggest that GAGs cannot be considered mediators of tensile force transmission in the human...... patellar tendon, and as such, force transmission must either take place through other matrix components or the fibrils must be mechanically continuous at least to the tested length of 7 mm....

  7. Removal of glycosaminoglycans from bovine granulosa cells contributes to increased binding of hydrogen-3 heparin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ax, R.L.; Stodd, C.M.; Boehm, S.K.; Bellin, M.E.

    1986-02-01

    Granulosa cells from small or large bovine follicles were pretreated with enzymes that hydrolyze various glycosaminoglycans, and binding of (/sup 3/H)-heparin to the granulosa was measured. Binding of (/sup 3/H) heparin increased significantly after enzymatic pretreatments with chondroitinase ABC and fungal hyaluronidase, and similar results were obtained with granulosa from small and large follicles. No changes in binding of (/sup 3/H) heparin were detected after hydrolyses with chondroitinase AC and heparinase in either follicle size. Heparitinase, which hydrolyzes heparan sulfate, led to a significant 50% increase in binding of (/sup 3/H) heparin to granulosa from large follicles but was without effect in small follicles. These results suggest that the lower binding of (/sup 3/H) heparin, which has been reported with follicular enlargement, may be due to heparan sulfate occupying or obstructing binding sites for heparin on granulosa from large follicles.

  8. Oncofetal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans are key players in integrin signaling and tumor cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Bento Ayres Pereira, Marina Maria; Al Nakouzi, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Many tumors express proteoglycans modified with oncofetal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains (ofCS), which are normally restricted to the placenta. However, the role of ofCS in cancer is largely unknown. The function of ofCS in cancer was analyzed using the recombinant ofCS-binding VAR2...... revealed an overrepresentation of proteins involved in cell motility and integrin signaling, such as integrin-β1 (ITGB1) and integrin-α4 (ITGA4). Saturating concentrations of rVAR2 inhibited downstream integrin signaling, which was mimicked by knockdown of the core chondroitin sulfate synthesis enzymes β-1......,3-glucuronyltransferase 1 (B3GAT1) and chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (CSGALNACT1). The ofCS modification was highly expressed in both human and murine metastatic lesions in situ and preincubation or early intravenous treatment of tumor cells with rVAR2 inhibited seeding and spreading of tumor...

  9. The involvement of glycosaminoglycans in airway disease associated with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) present with severe airway destruction and extensive bronchiectasis. It has been assumed that these structural airway changes have occurred secondary to infection and inflammation, but recent studies suggest that glycosaminoglycan (GAG) remodelling may be an important independent parallel process. Evidence is accumulating that not only the concentration, but also sulphation of GAGs is markedly increased in CF bronchial cells and tissues. Increased expression of GAGs and, in particular, heparan sulphate, has been linked to a sustained inflammatory response and neutrophil recruitment to the CF airways. This present review discusses the biological role of GAGs in the lung, as well as their involvement in CF respiratory disease, and their potential as therapeutic targets.

  10. LL-37 complexation with glycosaminoglycans in cystic fibrosis lungs inhibits antimicrobial activity, which can be restored by hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergsson, Gudmundur

    2009-07-01

    There is an abundance of antimicrobial peptides in cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs. Despite this, individuals with CF are susceptible to microbial colonization and infection. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial response within the CF lung, focusing on the human cathelicidin LL-37. We demonstrate the presence of the LL-37 precursor, human cathelicidin precursor protein designated 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein, in the CF lung along with evidence that it is processed to active LL-37 by proteinase-3. We demonstrate that despite supranormal levels of LL-37, the lung fluid from CF patients exhibits no demonstrable antimicrobial activity. Furthermore Pseudomonas killing by physiological concentrations of exogenous LL-37 is inhibited by CF bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid due to proteolytic degradation of LL-37 by neutrophil elastase and cathepsin D. The endogenous LL-37 in CF BAL fluid is protected from this proteolysis by interactions with glycosaminoglycans, but while this protects LL-37 from proteolysis it results in inactivation of LL-37 antimicrobial activity. By digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BAL fluid, endogenous LL-37 is liberated and the antimicrobial properties of CF BAL fluid restored. High sodium concentrations also liberate LL-37 in CF BAL fluid in vitro. This is also seen in vivo in CF sputum where LL-37 is complexed to glycosaminoglycans but is liberated following nebulized hypertonic saline resulting in increased antimicrobial effect. These data suggest glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 complexes to be potential therapeutic targets. Factors that disrupt glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 aggregates promote the antimicrobial effects of LL-37 with the caveat that concomitant administration of antiproteases may be needed to protect the now liberated LL-37 from proteolytic cleavage.

  11. Serum content of oleic acid is associated with higher platelet-, endothelial- and leukocyte-derived circulating microparticles in Norwegian normolipidemic elderly patients after an acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiva-Blanch, G; Bratseth, V; Laake, K

    2016-01-01

    (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from three different adipose tissue compartments [epicardial (EAT), pericardial (PAT) and subcutaneous (SAT)]. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between the content of EPA and DHA in these compartments and in atrial tissue (AT). METHODS We obtained AT from......OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...... auricles, EAT above the right ventricle, PAT, and SAT below the sternum from 50 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Samples were frozen at -80°C and the content of n-3 PUFAs determined by gas chromatography with results given in relative weight%. RESULTS EPA and DHA were significantly correlated in EAT...

  12. Data Science Programs in U.S. Higher Education: An Exploratory Content Analysis of Program Description, Curriculum Structure, and Course Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rong; Sae-Lim, Watinee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an exploratory content analysis of 30 randomly selected Data Science (DS) programs from eight disciplines revealed significant gaps in current DS education in the United States. The analysis centers on linguistic patterns of program descriptions, curriculum requirements, and DS course focus as pertaining to key skills and domain…

  13. Immortalisation with hTERT Impacts on Sulphated Glycosaminoglycan Secretion and Immunophenotype in a Variable and Cell Specific Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina P Dale

    Full Text Available Limited options for the treatment of cartilage damage have driven the development of tissue engineered or cell therapy alternatives reliant on ex vivo cell expansion. The study of chondrogenesis in primary cells is difficult due to progressive cellular aging and senescence. Immortalisation via the reintroduction of the catalytic component of telomerase, hTERT, could allow repeated, longitudinal studies to be performed while bypassing senescent phenotypes.Three human cell types: bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMA13, embryonic stem cell-derived (1C6 and chondrocytes (OK3 were transduced with hTERT (BMA13H, 1C6H and OK3H and proliferation, surface marker expression and tri-lineage differentiation capacity determined. The sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG content of the monolayer and spent media was quantified in maintenance media (MM and pro-chondrogenic media (PChM and normalised to DNA.hTERT expression was confirmed in transduced cells with proliferation enhancement in 1C6H and OK3H cells but not BMA13H. All cells were negative for leukocyte markers (CD19, CD34, CD45 and CD73 positive. CD14 was expressed at low levels on OK3 and OK3H and HLA-DR on BMA13 (84.8%. CD90 was high for BMA13 (84.9% and OK3 (97.3% and moderate for 1C6 (56.7%, expression was reduced in BMA13H (33.7% and 1C6H (1.6%. CD105 levels varied (BMA13 87.7%, 1C6 8.2%, OK3 43.3% and underwent reduction in OK3H (25.1%. 1C6 and BMA13 demonstrated osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation but mineralised matrix and lipid accumulation appeared reduced post hTERT transduction. Chondrogenic differentiation resulted in increased monolayer-associated sGAG in all primary cells and 1C6H (p<0.001, and BMA13H (p<0.05. In contrast OK3H demonstrated reduced monolayer-associated sGAG in PChM (p<0.001. Media-associated sGAG accounted for ≥55% (PChM-1C6 and ≥74% (MM-1C6H.In conclusion, hTERT transduction could, but did not always, prevent senescence and cell phenotype, including

  14. Positive effect of oral supplementation with glycosaminoglycans and antioxidants on the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the knee joint

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Handl, M.; Amler, Evžen; Bräun, K.; Holzheu, J.; Imhoff, A.B.; Lytvynets, Andrej; Filová, Eva; Kotyk, Arnošt; Martínek, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2007), s. 243-249 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400110403; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500390702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Cartilage * Glycosaminoglycans * Oral supplementatio Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2007

  15. Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of chebulagic acid and punicalagin against viruses that use glycosaminoglycans for entry

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chen, Ting-Ying; Lin, Song-Chow; Chung, Chueh-Yao; Lin, Ta-Chen; Wang, Guey-Horng; Anderson, Robert; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously identified two hydrolyzable tannins, chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG) that blocked herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entry and spread. These compounds inhibited viral glycoprotein interactions with cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Based on this property, we evaluated their antiviral efficacy against several different viruses known to employ GAGs for host cell entry. Results Extensive analysis of the tannins? mechanism of action was performed on a ...

  16. Intravesical Glycosaminoglycan Replacement with Chondroitin Sulphate (Gepan? instill) in Patients with Chronic Radiotherapy- or Chemotherapy-Associated Cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Schwalenberg, Thilo; Berger, Frank Peter; Horn, Lars Christian; Thi, Phuc Ho; Stolzenburg, Jens?Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Intravesical instillation of glycosaminoglycans is a promising option for the treatment of chronic cystitis, as it supports the regeneration of the damaged urothelial layer. We investigated the efficacy of short-term intravesical chondroitin sulphate treatment (six courses of instillation) in patients with chronic radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-associated cystitis. Methods This prospective, observational study included patients with chronic radiotherapy- or chemotherap...

  17. Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marolla, Ana Paula Cleto [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Waisberg, Jaques [Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Saba, Gabriela Tognini [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Waisberg, Daniel Reis [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Margeotto, Fernando Beani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. Tissue samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues were obtained from 64 operated patients who had colorectal carcinoma with no distant metastases. Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. The statistical analysis included mean, standard deviation, and Student’s t test. The glycosaminoglycans extracted from colorectal tissue showed three electrophoretic bands in agarose gel. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). On the other hand, the average amount of heparan decreased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p= 0.03). The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues.

  18. Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marolla, Ana Paula Cleto; Waisberg, Jaques; Saba, Gabriela Tognini; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Margeotto, Fernando Beani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2015-01-01

    To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. Tissue samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues were obtained from 64 operated patients who had colorectal carcinoma with no distant metastases. Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. The statistical analysis included mean, standard deviation, and Student'st test. The glycosaminoglycans extracted from colorectal tissue showed three electrophoretic bands in agarose gel. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). On the other hand, the average amount of heparan decreased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p= 0.03). The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues.

  19. Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marolla, Ana Paula Cleto; Waisberg, Jaques; Saba, Gabriela Tognini; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Margeotto, Fernando Beani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2015-01-01

    To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. Tissue samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues were obtained from 64 operated patients who had colorectal carcinoma with no distant metastases. Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. The statistical analysis included mean, standard deviation, and Student’s t test. The glycosaminoglycans extracted from colorectal tissue showed three electrophoretic bands in agarose gel. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). On the other hand, the average amount of heparan decreased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p= 0.03). The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues

  20. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like fluorescence assay to investigate the interactions of glycosaminoglycans to cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucas, Rodrigo Ippolito [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Trindade, Edvaldo S. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Tersariol, Ivarne L.S. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Bioquimica, Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Mogi das Cruzes, SP (Brazil); Dietrich, Carl P. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nader, Helena B. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: hbnader.bioq@epm.br

    2008-06-23

    Sulfated glycosaminoglycans were labeled with biotin to study their interaction with cells in culture. Thus, heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate were labeled using biotin-hydrazide, under different conditions. The structural characteristics of the biotinylated products were determined by chemical (molar ratios of hexosamine, uronic acid, sulfate and biotin) and enzymatic methods (susceptibility to degradation by chondroitinases and heparitinases). The binding of biotinylated glycosaminoglycans was investigated both in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in culture, using a novel time resolved fluorometric method based on interaction of europium-labeled streptavidin with the biotin covalently linked to the compounds. The interactions of glycosaminoglycans were saturable and number of binding sites could be obtained for each individual compound. The apparent dissociation constant varied among the different glycosaminoglycans and between the two cell lines. The interactions of the biotinylated glycosaminoglycans with the cells were also evaluated using confocal microscopy. We propose a convenient and reliable method for the preparation of biotinylated glycosaminoglycans, as well as a sensitive non-competitive fluorescence-based assay for studies of the interactions and binding of these compounds to cells in culture.

  1. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like fluorescence assay to investigate the interactions of glycosaminoglycans to cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucas, Rodrigo Ippolito; Trindade, Edvaldo S.; Tersariol, Ivarne L.S.; Dietrich, Carl P.; Nader, Helena B.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfated glycosaminoglycans were labeled with biotin to study their interaction with cells in culture. Thus, heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate were labeled using biotin-hydrazide, under different conditions. The structural characteristics of the biotinylated products were determined by chemical (molar ratios of hexosamine, uronic acid, sulfate and biotin) and enzymatic methods (susceptibility to degradation by chondroitinases and heparitinases). The binding of biotinylated glycosaminoglycans was investigated both in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in culture, using a novel time resolved fluorometric method based on interaction of europium-labeled streptavidin with the biotin covalently linked to the compounds. The interactions of glycosaminoglycans were saturable and number of binding sites could be obtained for each individual compound. The apparent dissociation constant varied among the different glycosaminoglycans and between the two cell lines. The interactions of the biotinylated glycosaminoglycans with the cells were also evaluated using confocal microscopy. We propose a convenient and reliable method for the preparation of biotinylated glycosaminoglycans, as well as a sensitive non-competitive fluorescence-based assay for studies of the interactions and binding of these compounds to cells in culture

  2. New roles of glycosaminoglycans in α-synuclein aggregation in a cellular model of Parkinson disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Lehri-Boufala

    Full Text Available The causes of Parkinson disease (PD remain mysterious, although some evidence supports mitochondrial dysfunctions and α-synuclein accumulation in Lewy bodies as major events. The abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein has been associated with a deficiency in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. Cathepsin D (cathD, the major lysosomal protease responsible of α-synuclein degradation was described to be up-regulated in PD model. As glycosaminoglycans (GAGs regulate cathD activity, and have been recently suggested to participate in PD physiopathology, we investigated their role in α-synuclein accumulation by their intracellular regulation of cathD activity. In a classical neuroblastoma cell model of PD induced by MPP+, the genetic expression of GAGs-biosynthetic enzymes was modified, leading to an increase of GAGs amounts whereas intracellular level of α-synuclein increased. The absence of sulfated GAGs increased intracellular cathD activity and limited α-synuclein accumulation. GAGs effects on cathD further suggested that specific sequences or sulfation patterns could be responsible for this regulation. The present study identifies, for the first time, GAGs as new regulators of the lysosome degradation pathway, regulating cathD activity and affecting two main biological processes, α-synuclein aggregation and apoptosis. Finally, this opens new insights into intracellular GAGs functions and new fields of investigation for glycobiological approaches in PD and neurobiology.

  3. Cell-Penetrating Ability of Peptide Hormones: Key Role of Glycosaminoglycans Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Tchoumi Neree

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the potential usage of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs for the intracellular delivery of various molecules has prompted the identification of novel peptidic identities. However, cytotoxic effects and unpredicted immunological responses have often limited the use of various CPP sequences in the clinic. To overcome these issues, the usage of endogenous peptides appears as an appropriate alternative approach. The hormone pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38 has been recently identified as a novel and very efficient CPP. This 38-residue polycationic peptide is a member of the secretin/glucagon/growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH superfamily, with which PACAP38 shares high structural and conformational homologies. In this study, we evaluated the cell-penetrating ability of cationic peptide hormones in the context of the expression of cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Our results indicated that among all peptides evaluated, PACAP38 was unique for its potent efficiency of cellular uptake. Interestingly, the abilities of the peptides to reach the intracellular space did not correlate with their binding affinities to sulfated GAGs, but rather to their capacity to clustered heparin in vitro. This study demonstrates that the uptake efficiency of a given cationic CPP does not necessarily correlate with its affinity to sulfated GAGs and that its ability to cluster GAGs should be considered for the identification of novel peptidic sequences with potent cellular penetrating properties.

  4. Analyzing the effects of mechanical and osmotic loading on glycosaminoglycan synthesis rate in cartilaginous tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Zhu, Qiaoqiao; Gu, Weiyong

    2015-02-26

    The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) plays an important role in cartilaginous tissues to support and transmit mechanical loads. Many extracellular biophysical stimuli could affect GAG synthesis by cells. It has been hypothesized that the change of cell volume is a primary mechanism for cells to perceive the stimuli. Experimental studies have shown that the maximum synthesis rate of GAG is achieved at an optimal cell volume, larger or smaller than this level the GAG synthesis rate decreases. Based on the hypothesis and experimental findings in the literature, we proposed a mathematical model to quantitatively describe the cell volume dependent GAG synthesis rate in the cartilaginous tissues. Using this model, we investigated the effects of osmotic loading and mechanical loading on GAG synthesis rate. It is found our proposed mathematical model is able to well describe the change of GAG synthesis rate in isolated cells or in cartilage with variations of the osmotic loading or mechanical loading. This model is important for evaluating the GAG synthesis activity within cartilaginous tissues as well as understanding the role of mechanical loading in tissue growth or degeneration. It is also important for designing a bioreactor system with proper extracellular environment or mechanical loading for growing tissue at the maximum synthesis rate of the extracellular matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Xyloside primed glycosaminoglycans alter hair bundle micromechanical coupling and synaptic transmission: Pharmacokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Holly A.; Nguyen, Lynn Y. [Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Tran, Vy M.; Arungundram, Sailaja; Kalita, Mausam [Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Kuberan, Balagurunathan [Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Neuroscience Program, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Rabbitt, Richard D. [Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Neuroscience Program, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Otolaryngology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ubiquitous in the inner ear, and disorders altering their structure or production often result in debilitating hearing and balance deficits. The specific mechanisms responsible for loss of hair-cell function are not well understood. We recently reported that introduction of a novel BODIPY conjugated xyloside (BX) into the endolymph primes fluorescent GAGs in vivo [6, 15]. Confocal and two-photon fluorescence imaging revealed rapid turnover and assembly of a glycocalyx enveloping the kinocilia and extending into the cupula, a structure that presumably serves as a mechanical link between the hair bundle and the cupula. Extracellular fluorescence was also observed around the basolateral surface of hair cells and surrounding afferent nerve projections into the crista. Single unit afferent recordings during mechanical hair bundle stimulation revealed temporary interruption of synaptic transmission following BX administration followed by recovery, demonstrating an essential role for GAGs in function of the hair cell synapse. In the present work we present a pharmacokinetic model to quantify the time course of BX primed GAG production and turnover in the ear.

  6. Xyloside primed glycosaminoglycans alter hair bundle micromechanical coupling and synaptic transmission: Pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, Holly A.; Nguyen, Lynn Y.; Tran, Vy M.; Arungundram, Sailaja; Kalita, Mausam; Kuberan, Balagurunathan; Rabbitt, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ubiquitous in the inner ear, and disorders altering their structure or production often result in debilitating hearing and balance deficits. The specific mechanisms responsible for loss of hair-cell function are not well understood. We recently reported that introduction of a novel BODIPY conjugated xyloside (BX) into the endolymph primes fluorescent GAGs in vivo [6, 15]. Confocal and two-photon fluorescence imaging revealed rapid turnover and assembly of a glycocalyx enveloping the kinocilia and extending into the cupula, a structure that presumably serves as a mechanical link between the hair bundle and the cupula. Extracellular fluorescence was also observed around the basolateral surface of hair cells and surrounding afferent nerve projections into the crista. Single unit afferent recordings during mechanical hair bundle stimulation revealed temporary interruption of synaptic transmission following BX administration followed by recovery, demonstrating an essential role for GAGs in function of the hair cell synapse. In the present work we present a pharmacokinetic model to quantify the time course of BX primed GAG production and turnover in the ear

  7. Regulation by basic fibroblast growth factor of glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis in cultured vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, T; Hiraga, S; Ohkawara, S; Inada, M; Yamamoto, C; Kozuka, H; Koizumi, F

    1995-05-01

    The alteration of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells after exposure to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was investigated. It was found that the incorporation of [3H]glucosamine into GAGs was markedly increased by bFGF in both the cell layer and the conditioned medium; however, that of [35S]sulfate was not changed by the growth factor. These results indicated that bFGF enhanced the sugar-chain formation but did not affect their sulfation in endothelial GAG production. Similar changes were observed in either bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells and human fibroblastic IMR-90 cells to greater and lesser degrees, respectively. Characterization of GAGs in the endothelial cell layer and the conditioned medium revealed that bFGF enhanced both heparan sulfate and the other GAGs to a similar degree. The present data suggest that bFGF may be involved in the regulation of the blood coagulation system via altering GAGs of the vascular tissue when the endothelium was damaged.

  8. Exopolysaccharides produced by marine bacteria and their applications as glycosaminoglycan-like molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eDELBARRE-LADRAT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although polysaccharides are ubiquitous and the most abundant renewable bio-components, their studies, covered by the glycochemistry and glycobiology fields, remain a challenge due to their high molecular diversity and complexity.Polysaccharides are industrially used in food products; human therapeutics fall into a more recent research field and pharmaceutical industry is looking for more and more molecules with enhanced activities. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs found in animal tissues play a critical role in cellular physiological and pathological processes as they bind many cellular components. Therefore, they present a great potential for the design and preparation of therapeutic drugs.On the other hand, microorganisms producing exopolysaccharides (EPS are renewable resources meeting well the actual industrial demand. In particular, the diversity of marine microorganisms is still largely unexplored offering great opportunities to discover high value products such as new molecules and biocatalysts.EPS-producing bacteria from the marine environment will be reviewed with a focus on marine-derived EPS from bacteria isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Information on chemical and structural features, putative pathways of biosynthesis, novel strategies for chemical and enzymatic modifications and potentialities in the biomedical field will be provided. An integrated approach should be used to increase the basic knowledge on these compounds and their applications; new clean environmentally friendly processes for the production of carbohydrate bio-active compounds should also be proposed for a sustainable industry.

  9. Exopolysaccharides produced by marine bacteria and their applications as glycosaminoglycan-like molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbarre-Ladrat, Christine; Sinquin, Corinne; Lebellenger, Lou; Zykwinska, Agata; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia

    2014-10-01

    Although polysaccharides are ubiquitous and the most abundant renewable bio-components, their studies, covered by the glycochemistry and glycobiology fields, remain a challenge due to their high molecular diversity and complexity. Polysaccharides are industrially used in food products; human therapeutics fall into a more recent research field and pharmaceutical industry is looking for more and more molecules with enhanced activities. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) found in animal tissues play a critical role in cellular physiological and pathological processes as they bind many cellular components. Therefore, they present a great potential for the design and preparation of therapeutic drugs. On the other hand, microorganisms producing exopolysaccharides (EPS) are renewable resources meeting well the actual industrial demand. In particular, the diversity of marine microorganisms is still largely unexplored offering great opportunities to discover high value products such as new molecules and biocatalysts. EPS-producing bacteria from the marine environment will be reviewed with a focus on marine-derived EPS from bacteria isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Information on chemical and structural features, putative pathways of biosynthesis, novel strategies for chemical and enzymatic modifications and potentialities in the biomedical field will be provided. An integrated approach should be used to increase the basic knowledge on these compounds and their applications; new clean environmentally friendly processes for the production of carbohydrate bio-active compounds should also be proposed for a sustainable industry.

  10. Glycan-deficient PrP stimulates VEGFR2 signaling via glycosaminoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenxing; Zhang, Huixia; Hu, Fei; Yang, Liheng; Yang, Xiaowen; Zhu, Ying; Sy, Man-Sun; Li, Chaoyang

    2016-06-01

    Whether the two N-linked glycans are important in prion, PrP, biology is unresolved. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the two glycans are clearly not important in the cell surface expression of transfected human PrP. Compared to fully-glycosylated PrP, glycan-deficient PrP preferentially partitions to lipid raft. In CHO cells glycan-deficient PrP also interacts with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), resulting in VEGFR2 activation and enhanced Akt phosphorylation. Accordingly, CHO cells expressing glycan-deficient PrP lacking the GAG binding motif or cells treated with heparinase to remove GAG show diminished Akt signaling. Being in lipid raft is critical, chimeric glycan-deficient PrP with CD4 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains is absent in lipid raft and does not activate Akt signaling. CHO cells bearing glycan-deficient PrP also exhibit enhanced cellular adhesion and migration. Based on these findings, we propose a model in which glycan-deficient PrP, GAG, and VEGFR2 interact, activating VEGFR2 and resulting in changes in cellular behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannesson, Kirsten O; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; Bæverfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.

  12. Glycosaminoglycans analogues from marine invertebrates: structure, biological effects and potential as new therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sergio Pavao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, several glycosaminoglycan analogs obtained from different marine invertebrate are reported. The structure, biological activity and mechanism of action of these unique molecules are detailed reviewed and exemplified by experiments in vitro and in vivo. Among the glycans studied are low-sulfated heparin-like polymers from ascidians, containing significant anticoagulant activity and no bleeding effect; dermatan sulfates with significant neurite outgrowth promoting activity and anti-P-selectin from ascidians, and a unique fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumbers, possessing anticoagulant activity after oral administration and high anti P- and L-selectin activities. The therapeutic value and safety of these invertebrate glycans have been extensively proved by several experimental animal models of diseases, including thrombosis, inflammation and metastasis. These invertebrate glycans can be obtained in high concentrations from marine organisms that have been used as a food source for decades, and usually obtained from marine farms in sufficient quantities to be used as starting material for new therapeutics.

  13. Use of a commercial agarose gel for analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans in mucopolysaccharidoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Breier

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS are a group of inherited metabolic disorders caused by deficiency of enzymes that degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Urinary excretion of GAGs is a common feature of MPS, and is considered their major biomarker. We aimed to adapt the GAG electrophoresis method to a commercial agarose gel which would be able to separate urinary GAGs in a simpler way with good sensitivity and reproducibility. Urine samples from patients previously diagnosed with MPS I, IV, and VI were used as electrophoretic standards. Samples from patients on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT were also assessed. Commercial agarose gel electrophoresis was effective, showing proper definition and separation of GAG bands. Detection sensitivity exceeded 0.1 µg and band reproducibility were consistent. GAG bands quantified in urine samples from patients on ERT correlated very strongly (correlation coefficient = 0.98 with total GAG concentrations. This application of gel electrophoresis demonstrates the possibility of monitoring patients with MPS treated with ERT by analyzing separately the GAGs excreted in urine. We suggest this process should be applied to MPS screening as well as to follow-up of patients on treatment.

  14. Periodontal Ligament Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Increase Proliferation and Glycosaminoglycans Formation of Temporomandibular Joint Derived Fibrochondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ disorders are common disease in maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this study is to regenerate fibrocartilage with a mixture of TMJ fibrochondrocytes and periodontal ligament derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs. Materials and Methods. Fibrochondrocytes and PD-MSC were cocultured (ratio 1 : 1 for 3 weeks. Histology and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs assay were performed to examine the deposition of GAG. Green florescent protein (GFP was used to track PD-MSC. Conditioned medium of PD-MSCs was collected to study the soluble factors. Gene expression of fibrochondrocytes cultured in conditioned medium was tested by quantitative PCR (qPCR. Results. Increased proliferation of TMJ-CH was observed in coculture pellets when compared to monoculture. Enhanced GAG production in cocultures was shown by histology and GAG quantification. Tracing of GFP revealed the fact that PD-MSC disappears after coculture with TMJ-CH for 3 weeks. In addition, conditioned medium of PD-MSC was also shown to increase the proliferation and GAG deposition of TMJ-CH. Meanwhile, results of qPCR demonstrated that conditioned medium enhanced the expression levels of matrix-related genes in TMJ-CH. Conclusions. Results from this study support the mechanism of MSC-chondrocyte interaction, in which MSCs act as secretor of soluble factors that stimulate proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition of chondrocytes.

  15. Endostatin competes with bFGF for binding to heparin-like glycosaminoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Renata C.M.; Schuppan, Detlef; Barreto, Aline C.; Bauer, Michael; Bork, Jens P.; Hassler, Gerda; Coelho-Sampaio, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Endostatin is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Here, we used human endothelial cells from lung capillaries to investigate if endostatin competes with the proangiogenic growth factors, bFGF and VEGF, for binding to costimulatory heparan sulfate molecules. Endostatin inhibited 79% and 95% of the increase in proliferation induced by bFGF and VEGF 165 , respectively. The stimulatory effect of VEGF 165 was not affected by the presence of exogenous heparin, while that of bFGF was further enhanced in the presence of up to 0.1 μg/ml heparin. The heparin-binding protein protamine completely blocked bFGF-stimulated proliferation, while it did not affect the response to VEGF 165 . Simultaneous addition of endostatin and protamine led to additive effects both in inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Although bFGF was found to bind more strongly to heparin-Sepharose than endostatin, the latter, but not the former, displaced protamine from heparin in solution, which supports the notion that endostatin can compete with bFGF for binding to heparan sulfate in vivo. Taken as a whole, our results demonstrate that there is a direct connection between the dependence of endostatin activity on heparin-like glycosaminoglycans and its ability to antagonize bFGF

  16. Inhibition of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans incorporation affected odontoblast differentiation in cultured embryonic mouse molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lipei; Chen, Weiting; Li, Lefeng; Xu, Fangfang; Jiang, Beizhan

    2017-12-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) is an important component of extracellular matrix (ECM), it is composed of a core protein and one or more chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan side chains (CS-GAGs). To investigate the roles of its CS-GAGs in dentinogenesis, the mouse mandibular first molar tooth germs at early bell stage were cultivated with or without β-xyloside. As expected, the CS-GAGs were inhibited on their incorporation to CSPGs by β-xyloside, accompanied by the change of morphology of the cultured tooth germs. The histological results and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation indicated that β-xyloside exhibited obvious inhibiting effects on odontoblasts differentiation compared with the control group. Meanwhile the results of immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR for type I collagen, dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein, the products of differentiated odontoblasts, further proved that odontoblasts differentiation was inhibited. Collagen fibers detected in TEM decreased and arranged in disorder as well. Thus we conclude that the inhibition of CS-GAGs incorporation to CSPGs can affect odontoblast differentiation in cultured embryonic mouse molars.

  17. Capillary electrophoresis of heparin and other glycosaminoglycans using a polyamine running electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loegel, Thomas N.; Trombley, John D.; Taylor, Richard T.; Danielson, Neil D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ethylenediamine is likely acting as an ion-pairing agent. ► Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate is last peak instead of first peak. ► There is about a factor of five improved detectability with a 12.5 min analysis time. ► Use of a 50 μm ID capillary is possible. - Abstract: This study involves the use of polyamines as potential resolving agents for the capillary electrophoresis (CE) of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), specifically heparin, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, over-sulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), and hyaluronan. All of the compounds can be separated from each other with the exception of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan. Using optimization software, the final run conditions are found to be 200 mM ethylenediamine and 45.5 mM phosphate as the electrolyte with −14 V applied across a 50 μm ID × 24.5 cm fused silica capillary at 15 °C. The ion migration order, with OSCS as the last instead of the first peak, is in contrast to previous reports using either a high molarity TRIS or lithium phosphate run buffer with narrower bore capillaries. Total analysis time is 12. 5 min and the relative standard deviation of the heparin migration time is about 2.5% (n = 5). The interaction mechanism between selected polyamines and heparin is explored using conductivity measurements in addition to CE experiments to show that an ion-pairing mechanism is likely.

  18. Chondroitin sulfate-derivatized agarose beads: a new system for studying cation binding to glycosaminoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has been covalently attached to aminoethyl-agarose beads in a carbodiimide-catalyzed reaction. In this process, an amide bond is formed between carboxylate groups on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and the primary amine groups of the beads. Under optimal conditions, up to 160 micrograms of CS is attached per milligram of beads. CS-agarose beads have been used to study Ca binding to GAGs. The beads are mixed with a solution containing CaCl 2 and 45 Ca and allowed to sediment under unit gravity. An aliquot of supernatant is then removed and 45 Ca activity is determined to quantitate remaining (free) Ca. Using this system, it was shown that CS binds approximately 0.7 Ca/disaccharide unit at saturation. Under the conditions used, the apparent association constant (KA) is approximately 14 mM. In principle, this derivatization protocol may be used to attach any proteoglycan or GAG (except keratan sulfate) to an insoluble support. CS-agarose beads provide a rapid, simple, and relatively artifact-free system for studying cation-GAG interactions

  19. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis by adult rat submandibular salivary-gland secretory units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, L S; Christian, C P; Rendell, J K

    1987-01-01

    The synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) by a preparation of purified, functional submandibular-gland secretory units (acini and intercalated ducts) was examined. Such units were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats by digestion of minced gland with hyaluronidase and collagenase followed by gentle sieving of the digest through a graded series of Teflon screens. They incorporated amino acids into exocrine proteins which could be released by stimulation with isoproterenol as in vivo, indicating their functional integrity. Secretory units, incubated for 2 h in medium containing [35S]-sodium sulphate alone or in combination with [3H]-glucosamine, were then washed, homogenized and digested in pronase. The resulting material was then sequentially digested by specific enzymic and chemical procedures and analysed by chromatography on Sephadex G-50 columns to identify the various GAG synthesized. Secretory units synthesized a GAG mixture which was 20-25 per cent hyaluronic acid, 70-75 per cent heparan sulphate, and only 3-5 per cent chondroitin or dermatan sulphates, similar to that synthesized in vivo. No GAG was present in the secretory material, suggesting that all the GAG synthesized was destined for the basement membrane or cell surface.

  20. Targhee Russet: A high yielding dual purpose, long russet potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content and resistance to tuber soft rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targhee Russet is a dark-skinned russet potato variety with tubers slightly longer than Russet Burbank. It produces higher total and marketable yields than does Russet Burbank at most of the sites it was tested in the western United States. Tuber dormancy is about 58 days shorter than Russet Burba...

  1. Universal Signatures of Quantum Critical Points from Finite-Size Torus Spectra: A Window into the Operator Content of Higher-Dimensional Conformal Field Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Michael; Whitsitt, Seth; Henry, Louis-Paul; Sachdev, Subir; Läuchli, Andreas M

    2016-11-18

    The low-energy spectra of many body systems on a torus, of finite size L, are well understood in magnetically ordered and gapped topological phases. However, the spectra at quantum critical points separating such phases are largely unexplored for (2+1)D systems. Using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we accurately calculate and analyze the low-energy torus spectrum at an Ising critical point which provides a universal fingerprint of the underlying quantum field theory, with the energy levels given by universal numbers times 1/L. We highlight the implications of a neighboring topological phase on the spectrum by studying the Ising* transition (i.e. the transition between a Z_{2} topological phase and a trivial paramagnet), in the example of the toric code in a longitudinal field, and advocate a phenomenological picture that provides qualitative insight into the operator content of the critical field theory.

  2. Interleukins 6 and 15 Levels Are Higher in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, but Obesity Is Associated with Their Increased Content in Visceral Fat Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Izabela Jonas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation, which takes part in the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish whether subcutaneous (SAT or visceral (VAT adipose tissue plays a major role in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Concentrations of interleukins (IL: 1β, 6, 8 and 15 were measured at the protein level by an ELISA-based method and on the mRNA level by real-time PCR in VAT and SAT samples obtained from 49 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 and 16 normal-weight (BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2 controls. IL-6 and IL-15 protein concentrations were higher in SAT than in VAT for both obese (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively and control individuals (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively, while for IL-1β this was observed only in obese subjects (p = 0.047. What characterized obese individuals was the higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 at the protein level in VAT compared to normal-weight controls (p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively. Additionally, obese individuals with metabolic syndrome had higher IL-1β levels in VAT than did obese individuals without this syndrome (p = 0.003. In conclusion, concentrations of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in SAT than in VAT, but it was the increased pro-inflammatory activity of VAT that was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  3. Are lower epiphytes really that better than higher plants for indicating airborne contaminants? An insight into the elemental contents of lichen thalli and tree bark by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.M.G.; Freitas, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Few dedicated attempts at comparing the monitoring performance of lower and higher plants have been carried out so far. As a contribution to such an issue, the relative magnitude of elemental signals from epiphytic lichens (Parmelia spp.) and olive tree (Olea europaea Linn.) bark, determined by INAA is studied. A representative set of 12 elements - As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, V, Zn - was used for an ab initio comparison between raw data and Rb-normalized data, using distribution-free statistics. Correlation analysis shows an overall improvement in the degree of association between bark and lichen signals when proceeding from raw data to relative enrichment. Apart from Cl, no element is enriched in lichens to a higher extent than in bark. Sign tests are quite conclusive: bark factors are either statistically greater than or equal to lichens'. These findings prompt a word of caution when dealing with biological monitoring data, without accounting for soil, rock or litter inputs into the biomonitors' elemental pools. (author)

  4. Oncofetal Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans are Key Players in Integrin Signaling and Tumor Cell Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Pereira, Marina Ayres; Al Nakouzi, Nader; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Agerbæk, Mette Ø; Lee, Sherry; Ørum-Madsen, Maj Sofie; Christensen, Anders Riis; El-Naggar, Amal; Grandgenett, Paul M.; Grem, Jean L.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Holst, Peter J.; Theander, Thor; Sorensen, Poul H.; Daugaard, Mads; Salanti, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Many tumors express proteoglycans modified with oncofetal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains (ofCS), which are normally restricted to the placenta. However, the role of ofCS in cancer is largely unknown. The function of ofCS in cancer was analyzed using the recombinant ofCS-binding VAR2CSA protein (rVAR2) derived from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. We demonstrate that ofCS plays a key role in tumor cell motility by affecting canonical integrin signaling pathways. Binding of rVAR2 to tumor cells inhibited the interaction of cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) components, which correlated with decreased phosphorylation of Src kinase. Moreover, rVAR2 binding decreased migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells in vitro. Mass spectrometry of ofCS-modified proteoglycan complexes affinity purified from tumor cell lines on rVAR2 columns, revealed an overrepresentation of proteins involved in cell motility and integrin signaling, such as integrin β1 (ITGB1) and integrin α4 (ITGA4). Saturating concentrations of rVAR2 inhibited downstream integrin signaling, which was mimicked by knockdown of the core CS synthesis enzymes Beta-1,3-Glucuronyltransferase 1 (B3GAT1) and Chondroitin Sulfate N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (CSGALNACT1). The ofCS modification was highly expressed in both human and murine metastatic lesions in situ and pre-incubation or early intravenous treatment of tumor cells with rVAR2 inhibited seeding and spreading of tumor cells in mice. This was associated with a significant increase in survival of the animals. These data functionally link ofCS modifications with cancer cell motility and further highlights ofCS as a novel therapeutic cancer target. Implications The cancer specific expression of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate aids in metastatic phenotypes and is a candidate target for therapy. PMID:27655130

  5. Glycosaminoglycan blotting on nitrocellulose membranes treated with cetylpyridinium chloride after agarose-gel electrophoretic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

    2002-09-01

    We describe a method for blotting and immobilizing several nonsulfated and sulfated complex polysaccharides on membranes made hydrophilic and positively charged by a cationic detergent after their separation by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. Nitrocellulose membranes were derivatized with the cationic detergent cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and mixtures of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were capillary-blotted after their separation in agarose gel electrophoresis in barium acetate/1,2-diaminopropane. Single purified species of variously sulfated polysaccharides were transferred onto the derivatized membranes after electrophoresis with an efficiency of 100% and stained with alcian blue (irreversible staining) and toluidine blue (reversible staining) permitting about 0.1 nug threshold of detection. Nonsulfated polyanions, hyaluronic acid, a fructose-containing polysaccharide with a chondroitin backbone purified from Escherichia coli U1-41, and its defructosylated product, were also electrophoretically separated and transferred onto membranes. The limit of detection for desulfated GAGs was about 0.1-0.5 nug after irreversible or reversible staining. GAG extracts from bovine, lung and aorta, and human aorta and urine were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and blotted on CPC-treated nitrocellulose membranes. The polysaccharide composition of these extracts was determined. The membrane stained with toluidine blue (reversible staining) was destained and the same lanes used for immunological detection or other applications. Reversible staining was also applied to recover single species of polysaccharides after electrophoretic separation of mixtures of GAGs and their transfer onto membranes. Single bands were released from the membrane with an efficiency of 70-100% for further biochemical characterization.

  6. Influence of zinc on growth, somatomedin, and glycosaminoglycan metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolze, M.S.; Reeves, R.D.; Lindbeck, F.E.; Elders, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed control ad libitum, zinc-deficient (ZD, 1 ppm zinc) or pair-fed (PF) control diets for 13 days. Rats subsequently were refed control diets for up to 8 days and serially killed. ZD and PF diets significantly decreased growth rate, feed intake, and feed efficiency compared to controls. Body weight and feed efficiency, but not feed intake, were significantly less in ZD compared to PF. Bone zinc was 315, 286, and 109 μg/g for control, PF, and ZD at the end of depletion. 35 SO 4 uptake by glycosaminoglycans (GAG) was significantly less in ZD compared to either control ad libitum or PF rats. Xylosyltransferase activity was decreased significantly below PF and control by ZD, suggesting depressed enzyme activity and/or decreased GAG acceptor sites. Bioassayable somatomedin (Sm) activity was 0.81, 0.42 and 0.33 +/- 0.09 relative activity for control, PF and ZD at the end of depletion. Sm was statistically less in ZD compared to PF at day 2 and 5 of refeeding, but not at the end of depletion. Sm activity and GAG metabolism returned to normal after refeeding for 2-5 days in PF and for 5-8 days in ZD rats. Serum insulin but not glucose was significantly depressed by ZD and PF diets. Thus, zinc deficiency depressed growth and cartilage metabolism and was associated with decreased Sm activity and insulin levels. Some of these changes could be attributed to decreased feed intake as a result of ZD

  7. Structure of collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix and the influence to its integrity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuying; Patra, Prabir; Faezipour, Miad

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is a chain-like disaccharide that is linked to polypeptide core to connect two collagen fibrils/fibers and provide the intermolecular force in Collagen-GAG matrix (C-G matrix). Thus, the distribution of GAG in C-G matrix contributes to the integrity and mechanical properties of the matrix and related tissue. This paper analyzes the transverse isotropic distribution of GAG in C-G matrix. The angle of GAGs related to collagen fibrils is used as parameters to qualify the GAGs isotropic characteristic in both 3D and 2D rendering. Statistical results included that over one third of GAGs were perpendicular directed to collagen fibril with symmetrical distribution for both 3D matrix and 2D plane cross through collagen fibrils. The three factors tested in this paper: collagen radius, collagen distribution, and GAGs density, were not statistically significant for the strength of Collagen-GAG matrix in 3D rendering. However in 2D rendering, a significant factor found was the radius of collagen in matrix for the GAGs directed to orthogonal plane of Collagen-GAG matrix. Between two cross-section selected from Collagen-GAG matrix model, the plane cross through collagen fibrils was symmetrically distributed but the total percentage of perpendicular directed GAG was deducted by decreasing collagen radius. There were some symmetry features of GAGs angle distribution in selected 2D plane that passed through space between collagen fibrils, but most models showed multiple peaks in GAGs angle distribution. With less GAGs directed to perpendicular of collagen fibril, strength in collagen cross-section weakened. Collagen distribution was also a factor that influences GAGs angle distribution in 2D rendering. True hexagonal collagen packaging is reported in this paper to have less strength at collagen cross-section compared to quasi-hexagonal collagen arrangement. In this work focus is on GAGs matrix within the collagen and its relevance to anisotropy.

  8. Direct measurement of osmotic pressure of glycosaminoglycan solutions by membrane osmometry at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Nadeen O; Chen, Faye H; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2005-09-01

    Articular cartilage is a hydrated soft tissue composed of negatively charged proteoglycans fixed within a collagen matrix. This charge gradient causes the tissue to imbibe water and swell, creating a net osmotic pressure that enhances the tissue's ability to bear load. In this study we designed and utilized an apparatus for directly measuring the osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate, the primary glycosaminoglycan found in articular cartilage, in solution with varying bathing ionic strength (0.015 M, 0.15 M, 0.5 M, 1 M, and 2 M NaCl) at room temperature. The osmotic pressure (pi) was found to increase nonlinearly with increasing chondroitin sulfate concentration and decreasing NaCl ionic bath environment. Above 1 M NaCl, pi changes negligibly with further increases in salt concentration, suggesting that Donnan osmotic pressure is negligible above this threshold, and the resulting pressure is attributed to configurational entropy. Results of the current study were also used to estimate the contribution of osmotic pressure to the stiffness of cartilage based on theoretical and experimental considerations. Our findings indicate that the osmotic pressure resulting from configurational entropy is much smaller in cartilage (based on an earlier study on bovine articular cartilage) than in free solution. The rate of change of osmotic pressure with compressive strain is found to contribute approximately one-third of the compressive modulus (H(A)(eff)) of cartilage (Pi approximately H(A)(eff)/3), with the balance contributed by the intrinsic structural modulus of the solid matrix (i.e., H(A) approximately 2H(A)(eff)/3). A strong dependence of this intrinsic modulus on salt concentration was found; therefore, it appears that proteoglycans contribute structurally to the magnitude of H(A), in a manner independent of osmotic pressure.

  9. N-acetylneuraminlactose sulfate in milk and its role in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieras, F.J.; Kastin, S.; Rerecich, M.; Sturman, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Mammals in early life are incapable of synthesizing inorganic sulfate, an important constituent of connective tissue glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Studies have shown that [ 35 S]Na 2 SO 4 injected into lactating rats is secreted into the milk as [ 35 S] N-acetylneuraminlactose sulfate (NLS); this compound accounts for ≥ 95% of the radioactivity found in milk. They have studied the metabolic fate of the sulfate moiety of NLS in the newborn rat. Lactating rat dams were injected with [ 35 S] Na 2 SO 4 at various times postpartum and pups were allowed to suckle for 48 hrs before sacrifice. Pups of varying ages (3 d. - 19 d.) were sacrificed and the GAGs were prepared from 9 different organs and tissues. Pups of all ages showed appreciable radiosulfate incorporated into all of the tissues and organs examined. In young pups (3 and 5 d old) a high of 75% of the total [ 35 S] sulfate in the homogenate was found in the GAGs of bone, and a low of 27% in the GAGs of liver. Analysis of the composition of the GAGs by enzymatic degradation showed that bone GAGs consisted entirely of chondroitin 4/6 sulfate (C4/6S) while liver GAGs contained 50% C4/6S, 10% dermatan sulfate (DS), and 40% chondroitinase resistant material (probably heparan sulfate). These data show that sulfate in the form of NLS is incorporated in substantial amounts into the sulfated GAGs of the developing rat and support the hypothesis that NLS is an important source of nutrient sulfate during rat development

  10. An Automated, High-Throughput Method for Interpreting the Tandem Mass Spectra of Glycosaminoglycans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jiana; Jonathan Amster, I.

    2018-05-01

    The biological interactions between glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and other biomolecules are heavily influenced by structural features of the glycan. The structure of GAGs can be assigned using tandem mass spectrometry (MS2), but analysis of these data, to date, requires manually interpretation, a slow process that presents a bottleneck to the broader deployment of this approach to solving biologically relevant problems. Automated interpretation remains a challenge, as GAG biosynthesis is not template-driven, and therefore, one cannot predict structures from genomic data, as is done with proteins. The lack of a structure database, a consequence of the non-template biosynthesis, requires a de novo approach to interpretation of the mass spectral data. We propose a model for rapid, high-throughput GAG analysis by using an approach in which candidate structures are scored for the likelihood that they would produce the features observed in the mass spectrum. To make this approach tractable, a genetic algorithm is used to greatly reduce the search-space of isomeric structures that are considered. The time required for analysis is significantly reduced compared to an approach in which every possible isomer is considered and scored. The model is coded in a software package using the MATLAB environment. This approach was tested on tandem mass spectrometry data for long-chain, moderately sulfated chondroitin sulfate oligomers that were derived from the proteoglycan bikunin. The bikunin data was previously interpreted manually. Our approach examines glycosidic fragments to localize SO3 modifications to specific residues and yields the same structures reported in literature, only much more quickly.

  11. Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans Are Targeted by Bleomycin in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiulian; Lan, Ying; He, Yanli; Liu, Yong; Luo, Heng; Yu, Haibo; Song, Ni; Ren, Sumei; Liu, Tianwei; Hao, Cui; Guo, Yunliang; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Bleomycin is a clinically used anti-cancer drug that produces DNA breaks once inside of cells. However, bleomycin is a positively charged molecule and cannot get inside of cells by free diffusion. We previously reported that the cell surface negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may be involved in the cellular uptake of bleomycin. We also observed that a class of positively charged small molecules has Golgi localization once inside of the cells. We therefore hypothesized that bleomycin might perturb Golgi-operated GAG biosynthesis. We used stable isotope labeling coupled with LC/MS analysis of GAG disaccharides simultaneously from bleomycin-treated and non-treated cancer cells. To further understand the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and its relationship to GAGs, we used sodium chlorate to inhibit GAG sulfation and commercially available GAGs to compete for cell surface GAG/bleomycin interactions in seven cell lines including CHO745 defective in both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. we discovered that heparan sulfate GAG was significantly undersulfated and the quantity and disaccharide compositions of GAGs were changed in bleomycin-treated cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We revealed that bleomycin-induced cytotoxicity was directly related to cell surface GAGs. GAGs were targeted by bleomycin both at cell surface and at Golgi. Thus, GAGs might be the biological relevant molecules that might be related to the bleomycin-induced fibrosis in certain cancer patients, a severe side effect with largely unknown molecular mechanism. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Capillary electrophoresis of heparin and other glycosaminoglycans using a polyamine running electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loegel, Thomas N.; Trombley, John D.; Taylor, Richard T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Danielson, Neil D., E-mail: danielnd@muohio.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States)

    2012-11-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethylenediamine is likely acting as an ion-pairing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate is last peak instead of first peak. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is about a factor of five improved detectability with a 12.5 min analysis time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of a 50 {mu}m ID capillary is possible. - Abstract: This study involves the use of polyamines as potential resolving agents for the capillary electrophoresis (CE) of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), specifically heparin, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, over-sulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), and hyaluronan. All of the compounds can be separated from each other with the exception of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan. Using optimization software, the final run conditions are found to be 200 mM ethylenediamine and 45.5 mM phosphate as the electrolyte with -14 V applied across a 50 {mu}m ID Multiplication-Sign 24.5 cm fused silica capillary at 15 Degree-Sign C. The ion migration order, with OSCS as the last instead of the first peak, is in contrast to previous reports using either a high molarity TRIS or lithium phosphate run buffer with narrower bore capillaries. Total analysis time is 12. 5 min and the relative standard deviation of the heparin migration time is about 2.5% (n = 5). The interaction mechanism between selected polyamines and heparin is explored using conductivity measurements in addition to CE experiments to show that an ion-pairing mechanism is likely.

  13. IL-8 dictates glycosaminoglycan binding and stability of IL-18 in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of airway inflammation contributes to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Inflammation is mediated by inflammatory cytokines, including IL-8, which illustrates an increase in biological half-life and proinflammatory activity when bound to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The aim of this project was to compare IL-8 and IL-18 for their relative stability, activity, and interaction with GAGs, including chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and heparan sulfate, present in high quantities in the lungs of patients with CF. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from patients with CF (n = 28), non-CF controls (n = 14), and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 12). Increased levels of IL-8 and reduced concentrations of IL-18 were detected in bronchial samples obtained from CF individuals. The low level of IL-18 was not a defect in IL-18 production, as the pro- and mature forms of the molecule were expressed and produced by CF epithelial cells and monocytes. There was, however, a marked competition between IL-8 and IL-18 for binding to GAGs. A pronounced loss of IL-18 binding capacity occurred in the presence of IL-8, which displaced IL-18 from these anionic-matrices, rendering the cytokine susceptible to proteolytic degradation by neutrophil elastase. As a biological consequence of IL-18 degradation, reduced levels of IL-2 were secreted by Jurkat T lymphocytes. In conclusion, a novel mechanism has been identified highlighting the potential of IL-8 to determine the fate of other inflammatory molecules, such as IL-18, within the inflammatory milieu of the CF lung.

  14. Teacher training: the use of media content and technology in the process of teaching and learning in higher education - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v33i1.11307

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cristina Batistela Francisco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss and analyze media content and use of Information and Communication Technology - ICT in teaching and learning in higher education institutions, reflecting on issues of teacher education. For that, we held a discussion in the literature that presents the difficulties faced by teachers in this new educational reality, raising questions about their training, and how they should act in a way that learning is carried with media students, with support of technologies and media

  15. Glycosaminoglycan and transforming growth factor beta1 changes in human plasma and urine during the menstrual cycle, in vitro fertilization treatment, and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Pierina; Capobianco, Giampiero; Formato, Marilena; Lepedda, Antonio Junior; Cherchi, Gian Mario; Gordini, Laila; Dessole, Salvatore

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG) changes in human plasma and urine during the menstrual cycle, IVF-ET, and pregnancy. Prospective clinical study. University hospital. Thirteen women with apparently normal menstrual cycle (group 1); 18 women undergoing IVF-ET (group 2); and 14 low-risk pregnant women (group 3). We assayed plasma and urine concentrations of TGF-beta1, urine content, and distribution of GAG. Blood and urine samples were collected during days 2 to 3, 12 to 13, and 23 to 24 in group 1; in group 2, samples were obtained at menstrual phase, oocyte pick-up day, and 15 days after ET; in group 3, samples were obtained during gestational weeks 10-12, 22-24, and 30-32 and 1 month after delivery. Changes in TGF-beta1 and GAG content. The mean value of total urinary trypsin inhibitor/chondroitin sulfate (UTI/CS) showed a distinct peak at day 12 of the menstrual cycle in the fertile women in whom we monitored the ovulatory period. In the IVF-ET group, GAG distribution and TGF-beta1 levels showed significant differences during the cycle. We observed increased levels of plasma TGF-beta1 15 days after ET. A significant increase of total UTI/CS value with increasing gestation was detected. Transforming growth factor beta1 and GAG levels could represent an additional tool to monitor reproductive events and could be useful, noninvasive markers of ovulation and ongoing pregnancy.

  16. Glycosaminoglycan-Mimetic Signals Direct the Osteo/Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Three-Dimensional Peptide Nanofiber Extracellular Matrix Mimetic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Elif; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2016-04-11

    Recent efforts in bioactive scaffold development focus strongly on the elucidation of complex cellular responses through the use of synthetic systems. Designing synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) materials must be based on understanding of cellular behaviors upon interaction with natural and artificial scaffolds. Hence, due to their ability to mimic both the biochemical and mechanical properties of the native tissue environment, supramolecular assemblies of bioactive peptide nanostructures are especially promising for development of bioactive ECM-mimetic scaffolds. In this study, we used glycosaminoglycan (GAG) mimetic peptide nanofiber gel as a three-dimensional (3D) platform to investigate how cell lineage commitment is altered by external factors. We observed that amount of fetal bovine serum (FBS) presented in the cell media had synergistic effects on the ability of GAG-mimetic nanofiber gel to mediate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. In particular, lower FBS concentration in the culture medium was observed to enhance osteogenic differentiation while higher amount FBS promotes chondrogenic differentiation in tandem with the effects of the GAG-mimetic 3D peptide nanofiber network, even in the absence of externally administered growth factors. We therefore demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cell differentiation can be specifically controlled by the combined influence of growth medium components and a 3D peptide nanofiber environment.

  17. A HIGHER PROPORTION OF PUFA IN DIET INCREASES THE PUFA CONTENT IN RABBIT MEAT, BUT REDUCES THE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Trebušak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the changes in the fatty acid composition of rabbit meat, if palm fat (99% of saturated fatty acids (SFA, as a source of fat in rabbit diet, was replaced with linseed oil (71% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, containing 52% of α-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA. The Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves were added in the diet as potential antioxidant in order to protect the PUFA against oxidation. 48 SIKA rabbits were randomly divided by mass and gender in four groups: CONT- 6% palm fat, CONT+ 6% linseed oil, REISHI 6% linseed oil and 1% Ganoderma lucidum, OLIVE 6% linseed oil and 1% olive leaves. After 22 days of the experimental procedure, the samples of back muscle were taken and divided in 7 portions. One was for fatty acid determination, other six for malondialdehyde (MDA determination after different storage condition; fresh, 6 days at 4°C or 3 months at -20°C, raw or cooked (60 minutes, 85°C. Addition of linseed oil resulted in a significant higher proportion of PUFA (n-3 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and lower proportion of SFA in the back muscle, but the oxidative stability of meat was reduced, since the level of MDA was significantly higher. After cooking, the level of MDA increased in all the groups, but more in the groups with linseed oil in the diet, the addition of Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves slightly decreased the level of MDA, but the difference was not significant.

  18. Role for chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in NEDD9-mediated breast cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Joji; Dorchak, Jesse; Clancy, Rebecca; Slavik, Juliana; Ellsworth, Rachel; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; Pugacheva, Elena N; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Mural, Richard J; Cutler, Mary Lou; Shriver, Craig D

    2015-01-15

    There are lines of evidence demonstrating that NEDD9 (Cas-L, HEF-1) plays a key role in the development, progression, and metastasis of breast cancer cells. We previously reported that NEDD9 plays a critical role for promoting migration and growth of MDA-MB-231. In order to further characterize the mechanisms of NEDD9-mediated cancer migration and growth, stable cells overexpressing NEDD9 were generated using HCC38 as a parental cell line which expresses low level of endogenous NEDD9. Microarray studies demonstrated that core proteins of CD44 and Serglycin were markedly upregulated in HCC38(NEDD9) cells compared to HCC38(Vector) cells, while those of Syndecan-1, Syndecan-2, and Versican were downregulated in HCC38(NEDD9). Importantly, enzymes generating chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS) such as CHST11, CHST15, and CSGALNACT1 were upregulated in HCC38(NEDD9) compared to HCC38(Vector). Immunofluorescence studies using specific antibody, GD3G7, confirmed the enhanced expression of CS-E subunit in HCC38(NEDD9). Immunoprecipitation and western blotting analysis demonstrated that CS-E was attached to CD44 core protein. We demonstrated that removing CS by chondroitinase ABC significantly inhibited anchorage-independent colony formation of HCC38(NEDD9) in methylcellulose. Importantly, the fact that GD3G7 significantly inhibited colony formation of HCC38(NEDD9) cells suggests that CS-E subunit plays a key role in this process. Furthermore, treatment of HCC38(NEDD9) cells with chondroitinase ABC or GD3G7 significantly inhibited mammosphere formation. Exogenous addition of CS-E enhanced colony formation and mammosphere formation of HCC38 parental and HCC38(Vector) cells. These results suggest that NEDD9 regulates the synthesis and expression of tumor associated glycocalyx structures including CS-E, which plays a key role in promoting and regulating breast cancer progression and metastasis and possibly stem cell phenotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Oncofetal Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans Are Key Players in Integrin Signaling and Tumor Cell Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Pereira, Marina Ayres; Al Nakouzi, Nader; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Agerbæk, Mette Ø; Lee, Sherry; Ørum-Madsen, Maj Sofie; Kristensen, Anders Riis; El-Naggar, Amal; Grandgenett, Paul M; Grem, Jean L; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Holst, Peter J; Theander, Thor; Sorensen, Poul H; Daugaard, Mads; Salanti, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Many tumors express proteoglycans modified with oncofetal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains (ofCS), which are normally restricted to the placenta. However, the role of ofCS in cancer is largely unknown. The function of ofCS in cancer was analyzed using the recombinant ofCS-binding VAR2CSA protein (rVAR2) derived from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum We demonstrate that ofCS plays a key role in tumor cell motility by affecting canonical integrin signaling pathways. Binding of rVAR2 to tumor cells inhibited the interaction of cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) components, which correlated with decreased phosphorylation of Src kinase. Moreover, rVAR2 binding decreased migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells in vitro Mass spectrometry of ofCS-modified proteoglycan complexes affinity purified from tumor cell lines on rVAR2 columns revealed an overrepresentation of proteins involved in cell motility and integrin signaling, such as integrin-β1 (ITGB1) and integrin-α4 (ITGA4). Saturating concentrations of rVAR2 inhibited downstream integrin signaling, which was mimicked by knockdown of the core chondroitin sulfate synthesis enzymes β-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 1 (B3GAT1) and chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (CSGALNACT1). The ofCS modification was highly expressed in both human and murine metastatic lesions in situ and preincubation or early intravenous treatment of tumor cells with rVAR2 inhibited seeding and spreading of tumor cells in mice. This was associated with a significant increase in survival of the animals. These data functionally link ofCS modifications with cancer cell motility and further highlights ofCS as a novel therapeutic cancer target. The cancer-specific expression of ofCS aids in metastatic phenotypes and is a candidate target for therapy. Mol Cancer Res; 14(12); 1288-99. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Unusual Glycosaminoglycans from a Deep Sea Hydrothermal Bacterium Improve Fibrillar Collagen Structuring and Fibroblast Activities in Engineered Connective Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Guezennec

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers produced by marine organisms can offer useful tools for regenerative medicine. Particularly, HE800 exopolysaccharide (HE800 EPS secreted by a deep-sea hydrothermal bacterium displays an interesting glycosaminoglycan-like feature resembling hyaluronan. Previous studies demonstrated its effectiveness to enhance in vivo bone regeneration and to support osteoblastic cell metabolism in culture. Thus, in order to assess the usefulness of this high-molecular weight polymer in tissue engineering and tissue repair, in vitro reconstructed connective tissues containing HE800 EPS were performed. We showed that this polysaccharide promotes both collagen structuring and extracellular matrix settle by dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, from the native HE800 EPS, a low-molecular weight sulfated derivative (HE800 DROS displaying chemical analogy with heparan-sulfate, was designed. Thus, it was demonstrated that HE800 DROS mimics some properties of heparan-sulfate, such as promotion of fibroblast proliferation and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP secretion. Therefore, we suggest that the HE800EPS family can be considered as an innovative biotechnological source of glycosaminoglycan-like compounds useful to design biomaterials and drugs for tissue engineering and repair.

  1. Glycosaminoglycans are involved in pathogen adherence to corneal epithelial cells differently for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium of the cornea is continuously exposed to pathogens, and adhesion to epithelial cells is regarded as an essential first step in bacterial pathogenesis. In this article, the involvement of glycosaminoglycans in the adhesion of various pathogenic bacteria to corneal epithelial cells is analyzed. All microorganisms use glycosaminoglycans as receptors, but arranged in different patterns depending on the Gram-type of the bacterium. The heparan sulfate chains of syndecans are the main receptors, though other molecular species also seem to be involved, particularly in Gram-negative bacteria. Adherence is inhibited differentially by peptides, including heparin binding sequences, indicating the participation of various groups of Gram-positive and -negative adhesins. The length of the saccharides produces a major effect, and low molecular weight chains inhibit the binding of Gram-negative microorganisms but increase the adherence of Gram-positives. Pathogen adhesion appears to occur preferentially through sulfated domains, and is very dependent on N- and 6-O-sulfation of the glucosamine residue and, to a lesser extent, 2-O sulfation of uronic acid. These data show the differential use of corneal receptors, which could facilitate the development of new anti-infective strategies.

  2. Unusual Glycosaminoglycans from a Deep Sea Hydrothermal Bacterium Improve Fibrillar Collagen Structuring and Fibroblast Activities in Engineered Connective Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senni, Karim; Gueniche, Farida; Changotade, Sylvie; Septier, Dominique; Sinquin, Corinne; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Lutomski, Didier; Godeau, Gaston; Guezennec, Jean; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Biopolymers produced by marine organisms can offer useful tools for regenerative medicine. Particularly, HE800 exopolysaccharide (HE800 EPS) secreted by a deep-sea hydrothermal bacterium displays an interesting glycosaminoglycan-like feature resembling hyaluronan. Previous studies demonstrated its effectiveness to enhance in vivo bone regeneration and to support osteoblastic cell metabolism in culture. Thus, in order to assess the usefulness of this high-molecular weight polymer in tissue engineering and tissue repair, in vitro reconstructed connective tissues containing HE800 EPS were performed. We showed that this polysaccharide promotes both collagen structuring and extracellular matrix settle by dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, from the native HE800 EPS, a low-molecular weight sulfated derivative (HE800 DROS) displaying chemical analogy with heparan-sulfate, was designed. Thus, it was demonstrated that HE800 DROS mimics some properties of heparan-sulfate, such as promotion of fibroblast proliferation and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion. Therefore, we suggest that the HE800EPS family can be considered as an innovative biotechnological source of glycosaminoglycan-like compounds useful to design biomaterials and drugs for tissue engineering and repair. PMID:23612369

  3. Different Use of Cell Surface Glycosaminoglycans As Adherence Receptors to Corneal Cells by Gram Positive and Gram Negative Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Beatriz; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Rodríguez, David; Alcalde, Ignacio; García-Suárez, Olivia; Alfonso, José F.; Baamonde, Begoña; Fernández-Vega, Andrés; Vazquez, Fernando; Quirós, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    The epithelium of the cornea is continuously exposed to pathogens, and adhesion to epithelial cells is regarded as an essential first step in bacterial pathogenesis. In this article, the involvement of glycosaminoglycans in the adhesion of various pathogenic bacteria to corneal epithelial cells is analyzed. All microorganisms use glycosaminoglycans as receptors, but arranged in different patterns depending on the Gram-type of the bacterium. The heparan sulfate chains of syndecans are the main receptors, though other molecular species also seem to be involved, particularly in Gram-negative bacteria. Adherence is inhibited differentially by peptides, including heparin binding sequences, indicating the participation of various groups of Gram-positive, and -negative adhesins. The length of the saccharides produces a major effect, and low molecular weight chains inhibit the binding of Gram-negative microorganisms but increase the adherence of Gram-positives. Pathogen adhesion appears to occur preferentially through sulfated domains, and is very dependent on N- and 6-O-sulfation of the glucosamine residue and, to a lesser extent, 2-O sulfation of uronic acid. These data show the differential use of corneal receptors, which could facilitate the development of new anti-infective strategies. PMID:27965938

  4. Growth-related variations in the glycosaminoglycan synthesis of ultraviolet light-induced murine cutaneous fibrosarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepkorn, M.; Carney, H.; Linker, A.

    1985-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycan synthesis was studied in cell populations of ultraviolet light-induced murine cutaneous fibrosarcoma cells under conditions of varying growth rates in vitro. After labeling with the precursors, 3 H-glucosamine and 35 SO 4 , sulfated glycosaminoglycans recoverable by direct proteolysis of the culture monolayers increased approximately 5-fold on a per cell basis from sparsely populated, exponential cell cultures (greater than 85% of cells in S, G2, or M phases) to stationary cultures inhibited by high cell density (greater than 50% of cells in G1). Within this cell surface-associated material, the relative ratio of heparan sulfate to the chondroitin sulfates was approximately 60/40% under conditions of exponential growth; in the growth-arrested cultures, the reverse ratio was found. The substratum attached material, obtained from the flask surface after ethyl glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-mediated detachment of the monolayers, contained relatively more hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfates in the most actively proliferating cultures compared with the growth-inhibited cell populations. Furthermore, heparan sulfate and the chondroitin sulfates, which were enriched in the substratum material and in the cell pellet of exponential cultures, showed a relative shift to the cell surface-associated compartment (releasable by mild trypsinization after EGTA-mediated cell detachment) and to the compartment loosely associated with the pericellular matrix (i.e., released into the supernatant during detachment of the monolayers in the presence of EGTA)

  5. A study on the relationship between radiologic classification and glycosaminoglycan analysis of cystic fluids in oral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Woo; You, Dong Soo

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the correlationship between radiologic classifications of cysts in oral region and glycosaminoglycan analysis of cystic fluids using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The materials for this study consisted of 37 cases-8 periapical cysts, 10 dentigerous cysts, 10 primordial cysts, 2 residual cyst, 3 incisive canal cysts, 2 post-operative maxillary cysts, 1 mucocele on maxillary sinus, and 1 unicystic ameloblastoma-diagnosed as cystic lesions radiologically. The obtained results were as follows: 1. At the stepwise discriminant analysis, four variables-low mobility material, hiparin, hyaluronic acid, and dermatan sulfate- were used to define diagnostic model for the odontogenic cyst. The model produced a seventeenths of 100% and a specificity of 85%. 2. The intensities of heparin and chondroitin-4-sulfate were greater in dentigerous cyst than periapical cyst (p<0.05). 3. It showed no statistically significant difference in glycosaminoglycan of the cystic fluids between dentigerous cyst and primordial cyst (p<0.05). 4. On the fluids of the cysts originated from maxillary sinus, there were especially high intensities of heparin and dermatan sulfate, and low intensity of chondroitin-4-sulfate. 5. On the fluids of unicystic ameloblastoma, there were high intensity of dermatan sulfate and low intensity of chondroitin-4-sulfate.

  6. A study on the relationship between radiologic classification and glycosaminoglycan analysis of cystic fluids in oral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, In Woo; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-08-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the correlationship between radiologic classifications of cysts in oral region and glycosaminoglycan analysis of cystic fluids using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The materials for this study consisted of 37 cases-8 periapical cysts, 10 dentigerous cysts, 10 primordial cysts, 2 residual cyst, 3 incisive canal cysts, 2 post-operative maxillary cysts, 1 mucocele on maxillary sinus, and 1 unicystic ameloblastoma-diagnosed as cystic lesions radiologically. The obtained results were as follows: 1. At the stepwise discriminant analysis, four variables-low mobility material, hiparin, hyaluronic acid, and dermatan sulfate- were used to define diagnostic model for the odontogenic cyst. The model produced a seventeenths of 100% and a specificity of 85%. 2. The intensities of heparin and chondroitin-4-sulfate were greater in dentigerous cyst than periapical cyst (p<0.05). 3. It showed no statistically significant difference in glycosaminoglycan of the cystic fluids between dentigerous cyst and primordial cyst (p<0.05). 4. On the fluids of the cysts originated from maxillary sinus, there were especially high intensities of heparin and dermatan sulfate, and low intensity of chondroitin-4-sulfate. 5. On the fluids of unicystic ameloblastoma, there were high intensity of dermatan sulfate and low intensity of chondroitin-4-sulfate.

  7. Time dependence of changes of two cartilage layers in anterior cruciate ligament insertion after resection on chondrocyte apoptosis and decrease in glycosaminoglycan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakane Masataka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to clarify the differences in time-dependent histological changes (chondrocyte apoptosis and glycosaminoglycan (GAG layer thickness decrease between uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF and calcified fibrocartilage (CF layers at the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL insertion after ACL resection of rabbits. Methods Forty male Japanese white rabbits underwent ACL substance resection in the right knee (resection group and same operation without resection in the left knee (sham group. Animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after surgery. Results In the UF layer, the apoptosis rate in the resection group was significantly higher than that in the sham group at 1 and 2 weeks. The GAG layer thicknesses of the UF layer in the resection group at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks were lower than those in the sham group. In the CF layer, the apoptosis rate in the resection group was significantly higher than that in the sham group at 2 and 4 weeks. The GAG layer thickness of the CF layer in the resection group was lower than that in the sham group only at 6 weeks. Conclusion The increase in chondrocyte apoptosis rate preceded the decrease in GAG layer thickness in both layers. In the UF layer, the increase in chondrocyte apoptosis rate and the decrease in GAG layer thickness preceded those in the CF layer. Using a surviving ligament and minimizing a debridement of ACL remnant during ACL reconstruction may be important to maintain cartilage layers of ACL insertion. An injured ACL should be repaired before degenerative changes of the insertion occur.

  8. Collagen and Glycosaminoglycan Profiles in the Canine Cervix during Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle and in Open- and Closed-Cervix Pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    LINHARATTANARUKSA, Pichanun; SRISUWATANASAGUL, Sayamon; PONGLOWHAPAN, Suppawiwat; KHALID, Muhammad; CHATDARONG, Kaywalee

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson’s trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra. PMID:24152876

  9. Chondroitinase C Selectively Degrades Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans that Inhibit Axonal Growth within the Endoneurium of Peripheral Nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Graham

    Full Text Available The success of peripheral nerve regeneration is highly dependent on the regrowth of axons within the endoneurial basal lamina tubes that promote target-oriented pathfinding and appropriate reinnervation. Restoration of nerve continuity at this structural level after nerve transection injury by direct repair and nerve grafting remains a major surgical challenge. Recently, biological approaches that alter the balance of growth inhibitors and promoters in nerve have shown promise to improve appropriate axonal regeneration and recovery of peripheral nerve function. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are known inhibitors of axonal growth. This growth inhibition is mainly associated with a CSPG's glycosaminoglycan chains. Enzymatic degradation of these chains with chondroitinase eliminates this inhibitory activity and, when applied in vivo, can improve the outcome of nerve repair. To date, these encouraging findings were obtained with chondroitinase ABC (a pan-specific chondroitinase. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of CSPG subtypes in rodent, rabbit, and human peripheral nerve and to test more selective biological enzymatic approaches to improve appropriate axonal growth within the endoneurium and minimize aberrant growth. Here we provide evidence that the endoneurium, but not the surrounding epineurium, is rich in CSPGs that have glycosaminoglycan chains readily degraded by chondroitinase C. Biochemical studies indicate that chondroitinase C has degradation specificity for 6-sulfated glycosaminoglycans found in peripheral nerve. We found that chondroitinase C degrades and inactivates inhibitory CSPGs within the endoneurium but not so much in the surrounding nerve compartments. Cryoculture bioassays (neurons grown on tissue sections show that chondroitinase C selectively and significantly enhanced neuritic growth associated with the endoneurial basal laminae without changing growth-inhibiting properties of the surrounding

  10. Chondroitinase C Selectively Degrades Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans that Inhibit Axonal Growth within the Endoneurium of Peripheral Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James B; Muir, David

    2016-01-01

    The success of peripheral nerve regeneration is highly dependent on the regrowth of axons within the endoneurial basal lamina tubes that promote target-oriented pathfinding and appropriate reinnervation. Restoration of nerve continuity at this structural level after nerve transection injury by direct repair and nerve grafting remains a major surgical challenge. Recently, biological approaches that alter the balance of growth inhibitors and promoters in nerve have shown promise to improve appropriate axonal regeneration and recovery of peripheral nerve function. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are known inhibitors of axonal growth. This growth inhibition is mainly associated with a CSPG's glycosaminoglycan chains. Enzymatic degradation of these chains with chondroitinase eliminates this inhibitory activity and, when applied in vivo, can improve the outcome of nerve repair. To date, these encouraging findings were obtained with chondroitinase ABC (a pan-specific chondroitinase). The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of CSPG subtypes in rodent, rabbit, and human peripheral nerve and to test more selective biological enzymatic approaches to improve appropriate axonal growth within the endoneurium and minimize aberrant growth. Here we provide evidence that the endoneurium, but not the surrounding epineurium, is rich in CSPGs that have glycosaminoglycan chains readily degraded by chondroitinase C. Biochemical studies indicate that chondroitinase C has degradation specificity for 6-sulfated glycosaminoglycans found in peripheral nerve. We found that chondroitinase C degrades and inactivates inhibitory CSPGs within the endoneurium but not so much in the surrounding nerve compartments. Cryoculture bioassays (neurons grown on tissue sections) show that chondroitinase C selectively and significantly enhanced neuritic growth associated with the endoneurial basal laminae without changing growth-inhibiting properties of the surrounding epineurium

  11. High content of MYHC II in vastus lateralis is accompanied by higher VO2/power output ratio during moderate intensity cycling performed both at low and at high pedalling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Szkutnik, Z; Karasinski, J; Duda, K; Kolodziejski, L; Zoladz, J A

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the content of various types of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) in the vastus lateralis muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake during moderate power output incremental exercise, performed at low and at high pedalling rates. Twenty one male subjects (mean +/- SD) aged 24.1 +/- 2.8 years; body mass 72.9 +/- 7.2 kg; height 179.1 +/- 4.8 cm; BMI 22.69 +/- 1.89 kg.m(-2); VO2max 50.6 +/- 5.3 ml.kg.min(-1), participated in this study. On separate days, they performed two incremental exercise tests at 60 rev.min(-1) and at 120 rev.min(-1), until exhaustion. Gas exchange variables were measured continuously breath by breath. Blood samples were taken for measurements of plasma lactate concentration prior to the exercise test and at the end of each step of the incremental exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle, using Bergström needle, and they were analysed for the content of MyHC I and MyHC II using SDS--PAGE and two groups (n=7, each) were selected: group H with the highest content of MyHC II (60.7 % +/- 10.5 %) and group L with the lowest content of MyHC II (27.6 % +/- 6.1 %). We have found that during incremental exercise at the power output between 30-120 W, performed at 60 rev.min(-1), oxygen uptake in the group H was significantly greater than in the group L (ANCOVA, p=0.003, upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship). During cycling at the same power output but at 120 rev.min(-1), the oxygen uptake was also higher in the group H, when compared to the group L (i.e. upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship, ANCOVA, p=0.002). Moreover, the increase in pedalling rate from 60 to 120 rev.min(-1) was accompanied by a significantly higher increase of oxygen cost of cycling and by a significantly higher plasma lactate concentration in subjects from group H. We concluded that the muscle mechanical efficiency, expressed by the VO2/PO ratio

  12. Evaluation of early healing events around mesenchymal stem cell-seeded collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold. An experimental study in Wistar rats.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alhag, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    Tissue engineering using cell-seeded biodegradable scaffolds offers a new bone regenerative approach that might circumvent many of the limitations of current therapeutic modalities. The aim of this experiment was to study the early healing events around mesenchymal stem cell-seeded collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds.

  13. Optimization of 7-T Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Parameters for Validation of Glycosaminoglycan and Amide Proton Transfer of Fibroglandular Breast Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dula, Adrienne N.; Dewey, Blake E.; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Williams, Jason M.; Klomp, DWJ; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Smith, Seth

    Purpose: To (a) implement simulation-optimized chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) measurements sensitive to amide proton transfer (APT) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) hydroxyl proton transfer effects in the human breast at 7 T and (b) determine the reliability of these techniques for

  14. Effects of retinal growth factor and of the increase of the number of subcultures on sulfated glycosaminoglycans of bovine lens epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moczar, E.; Courtois, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Sulfated glycosaminoglycans of cultured bovine lens epithelial cells grown in the presence and in the absence of a retinal growth factor were investigated comparatively. The newly formed [ 35 S] sulfate-labeled glycosaminoglycans were analysed in the extra-, peri- and intracellular compartments of early (4-5th) and late (17-18h) subcultures. The following results were obtained: (1) Cultured lens epithelial cells grown in the presence or in the absence of the growth factor synthesize chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates and dermatan sulfate, with heparan sulfate as the main component, the pericellular compartments were particularly rich in heparan sulfate; (2) The distribution pattern of the glycosaminoglycans changes during successive subcultures; the proportion of heparan sulfate increases in the pericellular compartment, the dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate ratio increases in all three compartments; (3) In contrast to the drastic decrease in the fibronectin levels in the presence of growth factor in the early subcultures, only minor differences were found between the glycosaminoglycan patterns for the treated and non-treated cells. ( orig.)

  15. Acid glycosaminoglycan (aGAG) excretion is increased in children with autism spectrum disorder, and it can be controlled by diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endreffy, Ildikó; Bjørklund, Geir; Dicső, Ferenc; Urbina, Mauricio A; Endreffy, Emőke

    2016-04-01

    Autism research continues to receive considerable attention as the options for successful management are limited. The understanding of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) etiology has now progressed to encompass genetic, epigenetic, neurological, hormonal, and environmental factors that affect outcomes for patients with ASD. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a family of linear, sulfated polysaccharides that are associated with central nervous system (CNS) development, maintenance, and disorders. Proteoglycans (PG) regulate diverse functions in the central nervous system. Heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are two major GAGs present in the PGs of the CNS. As neuroscience advances, biochemical treatments to correct brain chemistry become better defined. Nutrient therapy can be very potent and has minimal to no side effects, since no molecules foreign to the body are needed. Given GAGs are involved in several neurological functions, and that its level can be somewhat modulated by the diet, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of GAGs levels in ASD symptoms. Both tGAG and its different fractions were evaluated in the urine of ASD and healthy control childrens. As levels differed between groups, a second trial was conduted evaluating if diet could reduce tGAG levels and if this in turn decrease ASD symptoms. The present study found that tGAG concentration was significantly higher in the urine of children with ASD compared to healthy control children and this was also evident in all GAG fractions. Within groups (controls and ASD), no gender differences in GAG excretion were found. The use of a 90 days elimination diet (casein-free, special carbohydrates, multivitamin/mineral supplement), had major effects in reducing urinary tGAG excretion in children with ASD.

  16. Effect of long-term culture of mouse embryonic stem cells under low oxygen concentration as well as on glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan on cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, M Á; Pericuesta, E; Yáñez-Mó, M; Palasz, A; Gutiérrez-Adán, A

    2011-02-01

    Maintaining undifferentiated stem cells in defined conditions is of critical importance to improve their in vitro culture. We have evaluated the effects of culturing mouse stem (mES) cells under physiological oxygen concentration as well as by replacing fibroblast feeder layer (mEF) with gelatin or glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), on cell proliferation and differentiation. After 3 days culture or after long-term cell culture under different conditions, levels of apoptotic cell death were determined by cell cycle and TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assays and levels of cell proliferation by CFSE (5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester) labelling. We assessed spontaneous differentiation into cardiomyocytes and mRNA expression of pluripotency and differentiation biomarkers. After 3 days culture under hypoxic conditions, levels of proliferation and apoptosis of mES cells were higher, in correlation with increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species. However, when cells were continuously grown for 1 month under those conditions, the level of apoptosis was, in all cases, under 4%. Hypoxia reduced spontaneous differentiation of mES into cardiomyocytes. Long-term culture on HA was more effective in maintaining the pluripotent state of the mES cells when compared to that on gelatin. Level of terminal differentiation was highest on mEF, intermediate on HA and lowest on gelatin. Our data suggest that hypoxia is not necessary for maintaining pluripotency of mES cells and appeared to be detrimental during ES differentiation. Moreover, HA may offer a valuable alternative for long-term culture of mES cells in vitro. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Fast screening of glycosaminoglycan disaccharides by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE): applications to biologic samples and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karousou, Evgenia; Asimakopoulou, Athanasia P; Zafeiropoulou, Vassiliki; Viola, Manuela; Monti, Luca; Rossi, Antonio; Passi, Alberto; Karamanos, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and heparan sulfate (HS) are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with a great importance in biological processes as they participate in functional cell properties, such as migration, adhesion, and proliferation. A perturbation of the quantity and/or the sulfation of GAGs is often associated with pathological conditions. In this chapter, we present valuable and validated protocols for the analysis of HA-, CS-, and HS-derived disaccharides after derivatization with 2-aminoacridone and by using the fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). FACE is a well-known technique and a reliable tool for a fast screening of GAGs, as it is possible to analyze 16 samples at the same time with one electrophoretic apparatus. The protocols for the gel preparation are based on the variations of the acrylamide/bisacrylamide and buffer concentrations. Different approaches for the extraction and purification of the disaccharides of various biologic samples and pharmaceutical preparations are also stressed.

  18. Experimental approaches to the interaction of the prion protein with nucleic acids and glycosaminoglycans: Modulators of the pathogenic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jerson L; Vieira, Tuane C R G; Gomes, Mariana P B; Rangel, Luciana P; Scapin, Sandra M N; Cordeiro, Yraima

    2011-03-01

    The concept that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused only by proteins has changed the traditional paradigm that disease transmission is due solely to an agent that carries genetic information. The central hypothesis for prion diseases proposes that the conversion of a cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a misfolded, β-sheet-rich isoform (PrP(Sc)) accounts for the development of (TSE). There is substantial evidence that the infectious material consists chiefly of a protein, PrP(Sc), with no genomic coding material, unlike a virus particle, which has both. However, prions seem to have other partners that chaperone their activities in converting the PrP(C) into the disease-causing isoform. Nucleic acids (NAs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are the most probable accomplices of prion conversion. Here, we review the recent experimental approaches that have been employed to characterize the interaction of prion proteins with nucleic acids and glycosaminoglycans. A PrP recognizes many nucleic acids and GAGs with high affinities, and this seems to be related to a pathophysiological role for this interaction. A PrP binds nucleic acids and GAGs with structural selectivity, and some PrP:NA complexes can become proteinase K-resistant, undergoing amyloid oligomerization and conversion to a β-sheet-rich structure. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous polyanions (such as NAs and GAGs) may accelerate the rate of prion disease progression by acting as scaffolds or lattices that mediate the interaction between PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) molecules. In addition to a still-possible hypothesis that nucleic acids and GAGs, especially those from the host, may modulate the conversion, the recent structural characterization of the complexes has raised the possibility of developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A molecular dynamics-based algorithm for evaluating the glycosaminoglycan mimicking potential of synthetic, homogenous, sulfated small molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Nagarajan

    Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs are key natural biopolymers that exhibit a range of biological functions including growth and differentiation. Despite this multiplicity of function, natural GAG sequences have not yielded drugs because of problems of heterogeneity and synthesis. Recently, several homogenous non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics (NSGMs have been reported as agents displaying major therapeutic promise. Yet, it remains unclear whether sulfated NSGMs structurally mimic sulfated GAGs. To address this, we developed a three-step molecular dynamics (MD-based algorithm to compare sulfated NSGMs with GAGs. In the first step of this algorithm, parameters related to the range of conformations sampled by the two highly sulfated molecules as free entities in water were compared. The second step compared identity of binding site geometries and the final step evaluated comparable dynamics and interactions in the protein-bound state. Using a test case of interactions with fibroblast growth factor-related proteins, we show that this three-step algorithm effectively predicts the GAG structure mimicking property of NSGMs. Specifically, we show that two unique dimeric NSGMs mimic hexameric GAG sequences in the protein-bound state. In contrast, closely related monomeric and trimeric NSGMs do not mimic GAG in either the free or bound states. These results correspond well with the functional properties of NSGMs. The results show for the first time that appropriately designed sulfated NSGMs can be good structural mimetics of GAGs and the incorporation of a MD-based strategy at the NSGM library screening stage can identify promising mimetics of targeted GAG sequences.

  20. Effects of endothelial removal and regeneration on smooth muscle glycosaminoglycan synthesis and growth in rat carotid artery in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrilees, M.J.; Scott, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Segments of rat carotid artery were maintained in serum-free and serum-supplemented media with endothelium both present and substantially removed by air drying. At intervals of 3, 7, and 14 days the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan across the vessel walls was determined by autoradiographic detection of incorporated [ 3 H]glucosamine. In control carotids the typical pattern of incorporation was 40% of label in the intima, consisting of endothelium and subendothelial matrix, 23, 13, and 15% in the three medial layers (M1, M2, M3, respectively), and 9% in the adventitia. During the first week in culture the proportion, and often the amount, of label in M1 increased significantly. Following air drying labeling decreased markedly in M1 but often increased in M2 and M3. By 14 days residual endothelial cells had regenerated, and the pattern of incorporation in the medial layers beneath this new endothelium was the same as for the controls with a high level of labeling in M1. In areas free of endothelium incorporation in M1 remained at a low level. Digestion with chondroitinase ABC and Streptomyces hyaluronidase showed that the changes in M1-labeling levels were due to changes in the amounts of both hyaluronic acid and sulfated glycosaminoglycan, whereas pulse and continuous labeling studies showed that the different labeling levels for the various layers and conditions were due to different rates of synthesis and not degradation. Carotids were also labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine. Control and regenerating endothelia were active in serum- free and serum-supplemented media and had similar mitotic indices. Indices for smooth muscle cells in M1, however, were generally very low and were not affected by the presence or absence of endothelium

  1. RX-207, a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Protein Interaction with Glycosaminoglycans (SMIGs), Reduces Experimentally Induced Inflammation and Increases Survival Rate in Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP)-Induced Sepsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juhás, Štefan; Harris, N.; Ilková, G.; Rehák, P.; Zsila, F.; Kogan, F. Y.; Lahmy, O.; Zhuk, R.; Gregor, P.; Koppel, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2018), s. 307-314 ISSN 0360-3997 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : heparin binding protein * glycosaminoglycan * neutrophil Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.955, year: 2016

  2. Acharan sulfate, the new glycosaminoglycan from Achatina fulica Bowdich 1822. Structural heterogeneity, metabolic labeling and localization in the body, mucus and the organic shell matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Tuane C R G; Costa-Filho, Adilson; Salgado, Norma C; Allodi, Silvana; Valente, Ana-Paula; Nasciutti, Luiz E; Silva, Luiz-Claudio F

    2004-02-01

    Acharan sulfate, a recently discovered glycosaminoglycan isolated from Achatina fulica, has a major disaccharide repeating unit of -->4)-2-acetyl,2-deoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranose(1-->4)-2-sulfo-alpha-l-idopyranosyluronic acid (1-->, making it structurally related to both heparin and heparan sulfate. It has been suggested that this glycosaminoglycan is polydisperse, with an average molecular mass of 29 kDa and known minor disaccharide sequence variants containing unsulfated iduronic acid. Acharan sulfate was found to be located in the body of this species using alcian blue staining and it was suggested to be the main constituent of the mucus. In the present work, we provide further information on the structure and compartmental distribution of acharan sulfate in the snail body. Different populations of acharan sulfate presenting charge and/or molecular mass heterogeneities were isolated from the whole body, as well as from mucus and from the organic shell matrix. A minor glycosaminoglycan fraction susceptible to degradation by nitrous acid was also purified from the snail body, suggesting the presence of N-sulfated glycosaminoglycan molecules. In addition, we demonstrate the in vivo metabolic labeling of acharan sulfate in the snail body after a meal supplemented with [35S]free sulfate. This simple approach might be applied to the study of acharan sulfate biosynthesis. Finally, we developed histochemical assays to localize acharan sulfate in the snail body by metachromatic staining and by histoautoradiography following metabolic radiolabeling with [35S]sulfate. Our results show that acharan sulfate is widely distributed among several organs.

  3. Mutations in B3GALT6, which Encodes a Glycosaminoglycan Linker Region Enzyme, Cause a Spectrum of Skeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Mizumoto, Shuji; Miyake, Noriko; Kogawa, Ryo; Iida, Aritoshi; Ito, Hironori; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Aya; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Osamu; Kosaki, Rika; Horikawa, Reiko; Lai, Angeline; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dupuis, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Proteoglycans (PGs) are a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues and function as structural and regulatory molecules. PGs are composed of core proteins and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. The biosynthesis of GAGs starts with the linker region that consists of four sugar residues and is followed by repeating disaccharide units. By exome sequencing, we found that B3GALT6 encoding an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the GAG linker region is responsible for a sever...

  4. Suppression of glycosaminoglycan synthesis by articular cartilage, but not of hyaluronic acid synthesis by synovium, after exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugenberg, S.T.; Myers, S.L.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    We recently found that injection of 2 mCi of yttrium 90 (90Y; approximately 23,000 rads) into normal canine knees stimulated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by femoral condylar cartilage. The present investigation was conducted to determine whether radiation affects cartilage metabolism directly. Rates of GAG synthesis and degradation in normal canine articular cartilage were studied following irradiation. Cultured synovium from the same knees was treated similarly, to determine the effects of irradiation on hyaluronic acid synthesis. Twenty-four hours after exposure to 1,000 rads, 10,000 rads, or 50,000 rads, 35S-GAG synthesis by the cartilage was 93%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, of that in control, nonirradiated cartilage. The effect was not rapidly reversible: 120 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, GAG synthesis remained at only 28% of the control level. Autoradiography showed marked suppression of 35S uptake by chondrocytes after irradiation. Cartilage GAG degradation was also increased following irradiation: 4 hours and 8 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, the cartilage GAG concentration was only 66% and 54%, respectively, of that at time 0, while corresponding values for control, nonirradiated cartilage were 90% and 87%. In contrast to its effects on cartilage GAG metabolism, radiation at these levels had no effect on synovial hyaluronic acid synthesis

  5. Suppression of glycosaminoglycan synthesis by articular cartilage, but not of hyaluronic acid synthesis by synovium, after exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugenberg, S.T.; Myers, S.L.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-04-01

    We recently found that injection of 2 mCi of yttrium 90 (90Y; approximately 23,000 rads) into normal canine knees stimulated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by femoral condylar cartilage. The present investigation was conducted to determine whether radiation affects cartilage metabolism directly. Rates of GAG synthesis and degradation in normal canine articular cartilage were studied following irradiation. Cultured synovium from the same knees was treated similarly, to determine the effects of irradiation on hyaluronic acid synthesis. Twenty-four hours after exposure to 1,000 rads, 10,000 rads, or 50,000 rads, 35S-GAG synthesis by the cartilage was 93%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, of that in control, nonirradiated cartilage. The effect was not rapidly reversible: 120 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, GAG synthesis remained at only 28% of the control level. Autoradiography showed marked suppression of 35S uptake by chondrocytes after irradiation. Cartilage GAG degradation was also increased following irradiation: 4 hours and 8 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, the cartilage GAG concentration was only 66% and 54%, respectively, of that at time 0, while corresponding values for control, nonirradiated cartilage were 90% and 87%. In contrast to its effects on cartilage GAG metabolism, radiation at these levels had no effect on synovial hyaluronic acid synthesis.

  6. Structural Elucidation and Biological Activity of a Highly Regular Fucosylated Glycosaminoglycan from the Edible Sea Cucumber Stichopus herrmanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomei; Luo, Lan; Cai, Ying; Yang, Wenjiao; Lin, Lisha; Li, Zi; Gao, Na; Purcell, Steven W; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2017-10-25

    Edible sea cucumbers are widely used as a health food and medicine. A fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) was purified from the high-value sea cucumber Stichopus herrmanni. Its physicochemical properties and structure were analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods. Chemical analysis indicated that this FG with a molecular weight of ∼64 kDa is composed of N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, d-glucuronic acid (GlcA), and l-fucose. Structural analysis clarified that the FG contains the chondroitin sulfate E-like backbone, with mostly 2,4-di-O-sulfated (85%) and some 3,4-di-O-sulfated (10%) and 4-O-sulfated (5%) fucose side chains that link to the C3 position of GlcA. This FG is structurally highly regular and homogeneous, differing from the FGs of other sea cucumbers, for its sulfation patterns are simpler. Biological activity assays indicated that it is a strong anticoagulant, inhibiting thrombin and intrinsic factor Xase. Our results expand the knowledge on structural types of FG and illustrate its biological activity as a functional food material.

  7. Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of chebulagic acid and punicalagin against viruses that use glycosaminoglycans for entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously identified two hydrolyzable tannins, chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG) that blocked herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entry and spread. These compounds inhibited viral glycoprotein interactions with cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Based on this property, we evaluated their antiviral efficacy against several different viruses known to employ GAGs for host cell entry. Results Extensive analysis of the tannins’ mechanism of action was performed on a panel of viruses during the attachment and entry steps of infection. Virus-specific binding assays and the analysis of viral spread during treatment with these compounds were also conducted. CHLA and PUG were effective in abrogating infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus (DENV), measles virus (MV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), at μM concentrations and in dose-dependent manners without significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the natural compounds inhibited viral attachment, penetration, and spread, to different degrees for each virus. Specifically, the tannins blocked all these steps of infection for HCMV, HCV, and MV, but had little effect on the post-fusion spread of DENV and RSV, which could suggest intriguing differences in the roles of GAG-interactions for these viruses. Conclusions CHLA and PUG may be of value as broad-spectrum antivirals for limiting emerging/recurring viruses known to engage host cell GAGs for entry. Further studies testing the efficacy of these tannins in vivo against certain viruses are justified. PMID:23924316

  8. Age- and gender-related alteration in plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentrations in physiological ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Pawel; Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna; Kuznik-Trocha, Kornelia; Klimek, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Krystyna

    2012-02-13

    The authors studied the role of increased oxidative stress in the development of oxidative protein damage and extracellular matrix (ECM) components in ageing. The age- and gender-associated disturbances in connective tissue metabolism were evaluated by the plasma chondroitin sulphated glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG) and non-sulphated GAG-hyaluronan (HA) measurements. Plasma concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) was analysed in order to assess oxidative protein damage and evaluate the possible deleterious role of oxidative phenomenon on tissue proteoglycans' metabolism during the physiological ageing process. Sulphated and non-sulphated GAGs as well as AOPP were quantified in plasma samples from 177 healthy volunteers. A linear age-related decline of plasma CS-GAG level was found in this study (r=-0.46; page (r=0.44; page-dependent relationship has been shown in regard to AOPP. AOPP levels significantly increased with age (r=0.63; pphysiological ageing. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of AOPP and both CS-GAG (r=-0.31; page changes in the ECM are reflected by CS-GAG and HA plasma levels. Strong correlations between AOPP and ECM components indicate that oxidative stress targets protein and non-protein components of the connective tissue matrix during human ageing.

  9. Substrate Deprivation Therapy to Reduce Glycosaminoglycan Synthesis Improves Aspects of Neurological and Skeletal Pathology in MPS I Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainslie L. K. Derrick-Roberts

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I is the most common form of the MPS group of genetic diseases. MPS I results from a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme α-l-iduronidase, leading to accumulation of undegraded heparan and dermatan sulphate glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains in patient cells. MPS children suffer from multiple organ failure and die in their teens to early twenties. In particular, MPS I children also suffer from profound mental retardation and skeletal disease that restricts growth and movement. Neither brain nor skeletal disease is adequately treated by current therapy approaches. To overcome these barriers to effective therapy we have developed and tested a treatment called substrate deprivation therapy (SDT. MPS I knockout mice were treated with weekly intravenous injections of 1 mg/kg rhodamine B for six months to assess the efficacy of SDT. Mice were assessed using biochemistry, micro-CT and a battery of behaviour tests to determine the outcome of treatment. A reduction in female bodyweight gain was observed with the treatment as well as a decrease in lung GAG. Behavioural studies showed slight improvements in inverted grid and significant improvements in learning ability for female MPS I mice treated with rhodamine B. Skeletal disease also improved with a reduction in bone mineral volume observed. Overall, rhodamine B is safe to administer to MPS I knockout mice where it had an effect on improving aspects of neurological and skeletal disease symptoms and may therefore provide a potential therapy or adjunct therapy for MPS I patients.

  10. Changes in the extracellular matrix and glycosaminoglycan synthesis during the initiation of regeneration in adult newt forelimbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mescher, A.L.; Munaim, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the distal tissues in a newt limb stump is completely reorganized in the 2-3-week period following amputation. In view of numerous in vitro studies showing that extracellular material influences cellular migration and proliferation, it is likely that the changes in the limb's ECM are important activities in the process leading to regeneration of such limbs. Using biochemical, autoradiographic, and histochemical techniques we studied temporal and spatial differences in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during the early, nerve-dependent phase of limb regeneration. Hyaluronic acid synthesis began with the onset of tissue dedifferentiation, became maximal within 1 weeks, and continued throughout the period of active cell proliferation. Chondroitin sulfate synthesis began somewhat later, increased steadily, and reached very high levels during chondrogenesis. During the first 10 days after amputation, distributions of sulfated and nonsulfated GAGs were both uniform throughout dedifferentiating tissues, except for a heavier localization near the bone. Since nerves are necessary to promote the regenerative process, we examined the neural influence on synthesis and accumulation of extracellular GAGs. Denervation decreased GAG production in all parts of the limb stump by approximately 50%. Newt dorsal root ganglia and brain-derived fibroblast growth factor each produced twofold stimulation of GAG synthesis in cultured 7-day regenerates. The latter effect was primarily on synthesis of hyaluronic acid. The results indicate that the trophic action of nerves on amphibian limb regeneration includes a positive influence on synthesis and extracellular accumulation of GAGs

  11. Down-regulation of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase affects glycosaminoglycans synthesis and motility in HCT-8 colorectal carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tsung-Pao; Pan, Yun-Ru; Fu, Chien-Yu; Chang, Hwan-You, E-mail: hychang@life.nthu.edu.tw

    2010-10-15

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) catalyzes oxidation of UDP-glucose to yield UDP-glucuronic acid, a precursor of hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in extracellular matrix. Although association of extracellular matrix with cell proliferation and migration has been well documented, the importance of UGDH in these behaviors is not clear. Using UGDH-specific small interference RNA to treat HCT-8 colorectal carcinoma cells, a decrease in both mRNA and protein levels of UGDH, as well as the cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and GAG production was observed. Treatment of HCT-8 cells with either UGDH-specific siRNA or HA synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone effectively delayed cell aggregation into multicellular spheroids and impaired cell motility in both three-dimensional collagen gel and transwell migration assays. The reduction in cell aggregation and migration rates could be restored by addition of exogenous HA. These results indicate that UGDH can regulate cell motility through the production of GAG. The enzyme may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention of colorectal cancers.

  12. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus infection by lactoferrin is dependent on interference with the virus binding to glycosaminoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, Magda; Trybala, Edward; Superti, Fabiana; Johansson, Maria; Bergstroem, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports have indicated that lactoferrin inhibits herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during the very early phases of the viral replicative cycle. In the present work we investigated the mechanism of the antiviral activity of lactoferrin in mutant glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-deficient cells. Bovine lactoferrin (BLf) was a strong inhibitor of HSV-1 infection in cells expressing either heparan sulfate (HS) or chondroitin sulfate (CS) or both, but was ineffective or less efficient in GAG-deficient cells or in cells treated with GAG-degrading enzymes. In contrast to wild-type HSV-1, virus mutants devoid of glycoprotein C (gC) were significantly less inhibited by lactoferrin in GAG-expressing cells, indicating that lactoferrin interfered with the binding of viral gC to cell surface HS and/or CS. Finally, we demonstrated that lactoferrin bound directly to both HS and CS isolated from surfaces of the studied cells, as well as to commercial preparations of GAG chains. The results support the hypothesis that the inhibition of HSV-1 infectivity by lactoferrin is dependent on its interaction with cell surface GAG chains of HS and CS

  13. Glycosaminoglycan-resistant and pH-sensitive lipid-coated DNA complexes produced by detergent removal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Julia; Hyvönen, Zanna; Subrizi, Astrid; Bunjes, Heike; Urtti, Arto

    2008-10-21

    Cationic polymers are efficient gene delivery vectors in in vitro conditions, but these carriers can fail in vivo due to interactions with extracellular polyanions, i.e. glycosaminoglycans (GAG). The aim of this study was to develop a stable gene delivery vector that is activated at the acidic endosomal pH. Cationic DNA/PEI complexes were coated by 1,2-dioleylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS) (3:2 mol/mol) using two coating methods: detergent removal and mixing with liposomes prepared by ethanol injection. Only detergent removal produced lipid-coated DNA complexes that were stable against GAGs, but were membrane active at low pH towards endosome mimicking liposomes. In relation to the low cellular uptake of the coated complexes, their transfection efficacy was relatively high. PEGylation of the coated complexes increased their cellular uptake but reduced the pH-sensitivity. Detergent removal was thus a superior method for the production of stable, but acid activatable, lipid-coated DNA complexes.

  14. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  15. Extraction of Glycosaminoglycans Containing Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate from Chicken Claw Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken cartilage (claw is a waste of chicken cuts which are widely available in Indonesia. Cartilage part of chicken claw becomes a potential source of chondroitin sulfate (CS and glucosamine (GS. This study aims to determine the most optimal extraction methods of CS and GS from cartilage of chicken claw. Various types of extraction methods used in this study are taken from the extraction by using boiling water (2 and 2.5 hours, acetic acid (7 and 17 hours, as well as proteolysis by papain (24 and 48 hours. Parameters observed include chemical characteristics of powdered cartilage of chicken claw as well as CS and GS levels in powdered cartilage of chicken claw extract. The results of this research show that the levels of CS and GS of chicken claw cartilage powder were 2.17% and 13%. Meanwhile, the highest GS level was obtained from the extraction with water treatment for 2.5 hours which was 8.1%. The treatment and duration of extraction will significantly affect the number of GS which was produced. The highest content of CS was obtained from the extraction with the enzyme treatment for 48 hours which was 2.47%. The best treatment is the extraction with water treatment for 2.5 hours which were the extracts with GS levels of 8.1% and 2.03% CS was selected through the analysis of multiple attribute.

  16. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  17. Synergistic Effects of a Mixture of Glycosaminoglycans to Inhibit Adipogenesis and Enhance Chondrocyte Features in Multipotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar D. Petrov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells affect homeostasis of adipose and joint tissues. Factors influencing their differentiation fate are of interest for both obesity and joint problems. We studied the impact of a mixture of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs (hyaluronic acid: dermatan sulfate 1:0.25, w/w used in an oral supplement for joint discomfort (Oralvisc™ on the differentiation fate of multipotent cells. Methods: Primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs were used as a model system. Post-confluent monolayer MEF cultures non-stimulated or hormonally stimulated to adipogenesis were chronically exposed to the GAGs mixture, its individual components or vehicle. The appearance of lipid laden cells, lipid accumulation and expression of selected genes at the mRNA and protein level was assessed. Results: Exposure to the GAGs mixture synergistically suppressed spontaneous adipogenesis and induced the expression of cartilage extracellular matrix proteins, aggrecan core protein, decorin and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. Hormonally-induced adipogenesis in the presence of the GAGs mixture resulted in decreased adipogenic differentiation, down-regulation of adipogenic/lipogenic factors and genes for insulin resistance-related adipokines (resistin and retinol binding protein 4, and up-regulation of oxidative metabolism-related genes. Adipogenesis in the presence of dermatan sulfate, the minor component of the mixture, was not impaired but resulted in smaller lipid droplets and the induction of a more complete brown adipocyte-related transcriptional program in the cells in the adipose state. Conclusions: The Oralvisc™ GAGs mixture can tip the adipogenic/chondrogenic fate balance of multipotent cells away from adipogenesis while favoring chondrocyte related gene expression. The mixture and its dermatan sulfate component also have modulatory effects of interest on hormonally-induced adipogenesis and on metabolic and secretory capabilities of

  18. Blocking of proteolytic processing and deletion of glycosaminoglycan side chain of mouse DMP1 by substituting critical amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Huang, Bingzhen; Sun, Yao; Lu, Yongbo; Bonewald, Lynda; Chen, Shuo; Butler, William T; Feng, Jerry Q; D'Souza, Rena N; Qin, Chunlin

    2009-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of dentin and bone as processed NH(2)- and COOH-terminal fragments, resulting from proteolytic cleavage at the NH(2) termini of 4 aspartic acid residues during rat DMP1 processing. One cleavage site residue, Asp(181) (corresponding to Asp(197) of mouse DMP1), and its flanking region are highly conserved across species. We speculate that cleavage at the NH(2) terminus of Asp(197) of mouse DMP1 represents an initial, first-step scission in the whole cascade of proteolytic processing. To test if Asp(197) is critical for initiating the proteolytic processing of mouse DMP1, we substituted Asp(197) with Ala(197) by mutating the corresponding nucleotides of mouse cDNA that encode this amino acid residue. This mutant DMP1 cDNA was cloned into a pcDNA3.1 vector. Data from transfection experiments indicated that this single substitution blocked the proteolytic processing of mouse DMP1 in HEK-293 cells, indicating that cleavage at the NH(2) terminus of Asp(197) is essential for exposing other cleavage sites for the conversion of DMP1 to its fragments. The NH(2)-terminal fragment of DMP1 occurs as a proteoglycan form (DMP1-PG) that contains a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain. Previously, we showed that a GAG chain is linked to Ser(74) in rat DMP1 (Ser(89) in mouse DMP1). To confirm that mouse DMP1-PG possesses a single GAG chain attached to Ser(89), we substituted Ser(89) by Gly(89). Data from transfection analysis indicated that this substitution completely prevented formation of the GAG-containing form, confirming that DMP1-PG contains a single GAG chain attached to Ser(89) in mouse DMP1. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Intravesical Glycosaminoglycan Replacement with Chondroitin Sulphate (Gepan(®) instill) in Patients with Chronic Radiotherapy- or Chemotherapy-Associated Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalenberg, Thilo; Berger, Frank Peter; Horn, Lars Christian; Thi, Phuc Ho; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    Intravesical instillation of glycosaminoglycans is a promising option for the treatment of chronic cystitis, as it supports the regeneration of the damaged urothelial layer. We investigated the efficacy of short-term intravesical chondroitin sulphate treatment (six courses of instillation) in patients with chronic radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-associated cystitis. This prospective, observational study included patients with chronic radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-associated cystitis, who received six once-weekly intravesical instillations of 0.2% chondroitin sulphate 40 mL. Every week, patients recorded their symptoms and their benefits and tolerance of treatment, using a self-completed questionnaire. The study included 16 patients (mean age 68.5 years; 50% male). During the study, a reduction in all evaluated parameters was observed. After one dose of chondroitin sulphate, symptom improvement was observed in 38% of patients, and after the second dose, an additional 31% of patients showed improvement. At week 6, 80% of patients had either improved or were symptom free, and significant improvements in urinary urgency (p = 0.0082), pollakisuria (p = 0.0022), urge frequency (p = 0.0033) and lower abdominal pain (p = 0.0449) were observed. Haematuria, present in 9 of the 16 patients at baseline, was completely resolved in all cases after 6 weeks. The majority of patients (93%) evaluated the tolerance of chondroitin sulphate as 'good' or 'very good'. No treatment-related adverse events were reported. Intravesical administration of chondroitin sulphate was effective for the treatment of radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-associated cystitis. Even short-term treatment appears to be effective in reducing symptoms and improving the quality of life of patients.

  20. Effects of NSAIDs on the metabolism of sulphated glycosaminoglycans in healthy and (post) arthritic murine articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, B J; van den Berg, W B; Vitters, E; van de Putte, L B

    1988-01-01

    Several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were studied for their effects on normal and damaged murine articular cartilage, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, in the absence of serum, sodium salicylate caused significant suppression of 35S-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis, whereas tiaprofenic acid, piroxicam, prednisolone sodium phosphate and several other NSAIDs were without effect. Trypsin-mediated proteoglycan depletion did not change the susceptibility of the articular chondrocyte to these drugs. Similarly, no enhancement of drug effect was seen when arthritic cartilage was taken from an acutely inflamed joint, and prenisolone sodium phosphate even seemed to diminish inflammation-mediated suppression of 35S-GAG synthesis. The short term in vivo effects of some of the drugs were tested in mice with unilateral zymosan-induced arthritis. At day 1 after arthritis induction, in vivo 35S-GAG synthesis by the cartilage of the arthritic joint was decreased to 63%. Only sodium salicylate suppressed in vivo 35S-GAG synthesis in the healthy and arthritic joint to the same extent in both. At day 28, GAG synthesis in the postarthritic joint was enhanced to 160%. This type of cartilage appeared to be more susceptible to drug effects, since all drugs tested showed clear suppression of the augmented GAG production in vivo. Finally, in vivo drug effects were tested on normal and enhanced 35S-GAG degradation, the latter in the zymosan-induced arthritic joint. Both tiaprofenic acid and prednisolone sodium phosphate appeared to suppress degradation in healthy and, to some extent, in arthritic cartilage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS AND ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kozlova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study sulodexide clinical efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and ischemic heart disease (IHD in prevention of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN. Material and мethods. Patients with type 2 DM and IHD who undergone X-Ray contrast intervention. The patients were randomized into 2 groups: 56 patients of the main group were i/v administered sulodexide (Vessel Due F , “Alfa Wassermann”, Italy according to standard procedure; 56 patients of the control group were treated with unfractionated heparin. Results. The incidence of CIN in the main and control groups was, respectively , 16% and 42% (p<0.01. Reduction of microalbuminuria (MAU was found in 89.3% of the sulodexide group patients. MAU dynamics in patients of control group was not observed. There were no deteriorations in echocardiography characteristics in patients of both groups. The reduction in  low density cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels was observed in the main group. Sulodexide induced a lengthening of the activated partial thromboplastin time (from 30±0.6 to 34±0.5 s, without altering fibrinogen level. There were no thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications of endovascular intervention in sulodexide group. No one case of thrombocytopenia was observed. Higher risk of CIN in patients without sulodexide treatment compared with this in sulodexide treated patients was associated with multiple lesions of coronary arteries, diuretic intake in periprocedural period, contrast agent dose, duration of hospitalization, seriousness of intervention. Conclusion. Sulodexide therapy in patients with 2 type DM and IHD undergone X-Ray contrast intervention prevents renal dysfunction, providing antiproteinuric effect and correcting lipid metabolism and coagulation system disturbances.

  2. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  3. Implication of C-type natriuretic peptide-3 signaling in glycosaminoglycan synthesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy during TGF-β1 induced chondrogenic differentiation of chicken bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocamaz, Erdogan; Gok, Duygu; Cetinkaya, Ayse; Tufan, A Cevik

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the involvement of CNP-3, chick homologue for human C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), in TGF-β1 induced chondrogenic differentiation of chicken bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs in pellet cultures was induced by TGF-β1. Chondrogenic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan synthesis were analyzed on the basis of basic histology, collagen type II expression, and Alcian blue staining. Antibodies against CNP and NPR-B were used to block their function during these processes. Results revealed that expression of CNP-3 and NPR-B in MSCs were regulated by TGF-β1 in monolayer cultures at mRNA level. In pellet cultures of MSCs, TGF-β1 successfully induced chondrogenic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Addition of CNP into the TGF-β1 supplemented chondrogenic differentiation medium further induced the glycosaminoglycan synthesis and hypertrophy of differentiated chondrocytes in these pellets. Pellets induced with TGF-β1 and treated with antibodies against CNP and NPR-B, did show collagen type II expression, however, Alcian blue staining showing glycosaminoglycan synthesis was significantly suppressed. In conclusion, CNP-3/NPR-B signaling may strongly be involved in synthesis of glycosaminoglycans of the chondrogenic matrix and hypertrophy of differentiated chondrocytes during TGF-β1 induced chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs.

  4. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  5. [The development of pollen grains and formation of pollen tubes in higher plants : I. Quantitative measurements of the DNA-content of generative and vegetative nuclei in the pollen grain and pollen tube of Petunia hybrida mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesemann, C U

    1971-01-01

    The DNA-content of generative and vegetative nuclei in mature pollen grains of four Petunia hybrida mutants was determined by cytophotometry. In addition the DNA-content of generative and vegetative nuclei in the pollen tube of two of these four mutants (virescens-2 n and ustulata-2 n) was cytophotometrically measured.The DNA-values found in the generative nuclei indicate that the DNA-replication continues in the mature pollen grain and comes to an end only after the migration of the nuclei into the pollen tube. These data are in disagreement with the results of DNA-measurements described for a limited number of other species which all show completion of DNA-synthesis during the maturation stage of the pollen grains.The vegetative nuclei of the four Petunia mutants studied show significant differences in the onset of the degenerative phase. Extreme variation is manifested in the ustulata-2 n mutant in which the degeneration of nuclei may reach the final stage in the maturing pollen grain. However in this mutant vegetative nuclei with an unaltered DNA-content may also be demonstrated in the pollen tube. Some of the vegetative nuclei in the pollen tube of ustulata-2 n exhibit an increased amount of DNA which could be the result of differential DNA-replication in the vegetative nuclei. The decrease of the DNA-content in a certain fraction of the vegetative nuclei in the maturing pollen grain does not agree with observations made in other species by several authors who report DNA constancy until the pollen grain is fully mature.The data obtained from the analysis of the four Petunia hybrida mutants point to an important role of the vegetative nucleus in the development of the pollen tube. The Petunia hybrida mutants may be regarded as especially favourable material for investigations concerning the function of the vegetative cell in the development of the pollen grain and pollen tube.

  6. Glycosaminoglycans mediate retention of the poxvirus type I interferon binding protein at the cell surface to locally block interferon antiviral responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanuy, Imma; Alejo, Ali; Alcami, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Eradication of smallpox was accomplished 30 yr ago, but poxviral infections still represent a public health concern due to the potential release of variola virus or the emergence of zoonotic poxviruses, such as monkeypox virus. A critical determinant of poxvirus virulence is the inhibition of interferons (IFNs) by the virus-encoded type I IFN-binding protein (IFNα/βBP). This immunomodulatory protein is secreted and has the unique property of interacting with the cell surface in order to prevent IFN-mediated antiviral responses. However, the mechanism of its attachment to the cell surface remains unknown. Using surface plasmon resonance and cell-binding assays, we report that the IFNα/βBP from vaccinia virus, the smallpox vaccine, interacts with cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Analysis of the contribution of different regions of the protein to cell surface binding demonstrated that clusters of basic residues in the first immunoglobulin domain mediate GAG interactions. Furthermore, mutation of the GAG-interaction motifs does not affect its IFN-binding and -blocking capacity. Functional conservation of GAG-binding sites is demonstrated for the IFNα/βBP from variola and monkeypox viruses, extending our understanding of immune modulation by the most virulent human poxviruses. These results are relevant for the design of improved vaccines and intervention strategies.—Montanuy, I., Alejo, A., Alcami, A. Glycosaminoglycans mediate retention of the poxvirus type I interferon binding protein at the cell surface to locally block interferon antiviral responses. PMID:21372110

  7. Reactivating the extracellular matrix synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans to improve the human skin aspect and its mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajra H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hanane Chajra,1 Daniel Auriol,1 Francine Joly,2 Aurélie Pagnon,3 Magda Rodrigues,4 Sophie Allart,4 Gérard Redziniak,5 Fabrice Lefevre1 1Libragen, Induchem (Givaudan Active Beauty, Toulouse, 2Sephra Pharma, Puteaux, 3Novotec, Bron, 4Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse-Purpan, Toulouse, 5Cosmetic Inventions, Antony, France Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a defined cosmetic composition is able to induce an increase in the production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs and/or proteoglycans and finally to demonstrate that the composition, through its combined action of enzyme production and synthesis of macromolecules, modulates organization and skin surface aspect with a benefit in antiaging applications. Materials and methods: Gene expression was studied by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using normal human dermal fibroblasts isolated from a 45-year-old donor skin dermis. De novo synthesis of sGAGs and proteoglycans was determined using Blyscan™ assay and/or immunohistochemical techniques. These studies were performed on normal human dermal fibroblasts (41- and 62-year-old donors and on human skin explants. Dermis organization was studied either ex vivo on skin explants using bi-photon microscopy and transmission electron microscopy or directly in vivo on human volunteers by ultrasound technique. Skin surface modification was investigated in vivo using silicone replicas coupled with macrophotography, and the mechanical properties of the skin were studied using Cutometer. Results: It was first shown that mRNA expression of several genes involved in the synthesis pathway of sGAG was stimulated. An increase in the de novo synthesis of sGAGs was shown at the cellular level despite the age of cells, and this phenomenon was clearly related to the previously observed stimulation of mRNA expression of genes. An increase in the expression of the corresponding core protein of decorin, perlecan

  8. Teton Russet: an early-maturing, dual-purpose potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content, low Asparagine, and resistances to common scab and Fusarium dry rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teton Russet is an early-maturing, medium- russeted, potato cultivar with high merit for both fresh-pack and processing. In early harvest trials in the Pacific Northwest, Teton Russet had total yields similar to Russet Norkotah, and higher than Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank. Marketable yield of T...

  9. Mechanism of action and efficacy of RX-111, a thieno[2,3-c]pyridine derivative and small molecule inhibitor of protein interaction with glycosaminoglycans (SMIGs), in delayed-type hypersensitivity, TNBS-induced colitis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harris, N.; Koppel, J.; Zsila, F.; Juhás, Štefan; Ilková, G.; Kogan, F. Y.; Lahmy, O.; Wildbaum, G.; Karin, N.; Zhuk, R.; Gregor, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 4 (2016), s. 285-294 ISSN 1023-3830 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : small molecule drug * glycosaminoglycan * heparin binding protein * heparan sulfate * inflammation * autoimmune disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2016

  10. 高级醇和烃类化合物含量对甲醇水混溶性的影响%Impact of the Contents of Higher Alcohols and Hydrocarbon Compounds of Methanol upon the Methanol-Water Compatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟艳春

    2012-01-01

    基于工业甲醇中高级醇、烃类化合物与水以一定比例混合后澄清度的差异,在规定的条件下,利用气相色谱法,分析了高级醇、烃类化合物含量的高低对甲醇水混溶性的影响.试验结果表明:高级醇含量增加,甲醇的水混溶性变差;烃类物质含量越高,甲醇的水混溶性越差.%Methanol is an important and widely used raw material in basic organic chemistry. A gas chromatography test was done under specified conditions to show the impact of the amount of higher alcohol and hydrocarbon compounds upon the water compatibility of methanol. The result showed that the existence of higher alcohol and hydrocarbon compounds in methanol makes it not clear, which great affected the quality of the product, besides, it affected the adjustment of the process parameters.

  11. Advertising Content

    OpenAIRE

    Simon P. Anderson; Régis Renault

    2002-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that most advertisements contain little direct informa- tion. Many do not mention prices. We analyze a firm'ss choice of advertising content and the information disclosed to consumers. A firm advertises only product informa- tion, price information, or both; and prefers to convey only limited product information if possible. Extending the "persuasion" game, we show that quality information takes precedence over price information and horizontal product information.T...

  12. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  13. Assessment of the patellofemoral cartilage: Correlation of knee pain score with magnetic resonance cartilage grading and magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry of glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Yang, Jaemoon; Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2017-01-01

    Biochemical imaging of glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer (gagCEST) could predict the depletion of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in early osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTR asym ) of gagCEST images and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores in the knee joint. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. A phantom study was performed using hyaluronic acid to validate the MTR asym values of gagCEST images. Knee magnetic resonance (MR) images of 22 patients (male, 9; female, 13; mean age, 50.3years; age range; 25-79years) with knee pain were included in this study. The MR imaging (MRI) protocol involved standard knee MRI as well as gagCEST imaging, which allowed region-of-interest analyses of the patellar facet and femoral trochlea. The MTR asym at 1.0ppm was calculated at each region. The cartilages of the patellar facets and femoral trochlea were graded according to the Outerbridge classification system. Data regarding the VAS scores of knee pain were collected from the electronic medical records of the patients. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's correlation. The results of the phantom study revealed excellent correlation between the MTR asym values and the concentration of GAGs (r=0.961; p=0.003). The cartilage grades on the MR images showed significant negative correlation with the MTR asym values in the patellar facet and femoral trochlea (r=-0.460; p=0.031 and r=-0.543; p=0.009, respectively). The VAS pain scores showed significant negative correlation with the MTR asym values in the patellar facet and femoral trochlea (r=-0.435; p=0.043 and r=-0.671; p=0.001, respectively). The pain scores were associated with the morphological and biochemical changes in articular cartilages visualized on knee MR images. The biochemical changes, visualized in terms of the MTR asym values of the gagCEST images, exhibited

  14. Engineering potato starch with a higher phosphate content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a

  15. A biomimetic porous hydrogel of gelatin and glycosaminoglycans cross-linked with transglutaminase and its application in the culture of hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Colli, M; Massimi, M; Barbetta, A; Di Rosario, B L; Nardecchia, S; Dentini, M; Conti Devirgiliis, L

    2012-01-01

    The development of blended gelatin and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) scaffolds can potentially be used in many soft tissue engineering applications since these scaffolds mimic the structure and biological function of native extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we were able to obtain a gelatin–GAG scaffold by using a concentrated emulsion templating technique known as high internal phase emulsion (HIPE), in which a prevailing in volume organic phase is dispersed in the form of discrete droplets inside an aqueous solution of three biopolymers represented by gelatin, hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) in the presence of a suitable surfactant. In order to preserve the bioactive potential of the biopolymers employed, the cross-linking procedure involved the use of transglutaminase (MTGase) that catalyzes the formation of covalent N-ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine amide bonds. Since neither HA nor CS possess the necessary primary amino groups toward which MTGase is active, they were functionalized with the dipeptide glycine-lysine (GK). In this way the introduction of foreign cross-linking bridging units with an unpredictable biocompatibility was avoided. These enzymatic cross-linked gelatin–GAG scaffolds were tested in the culture of primary rat and C3A hepatocytes. Results underlined the good performance of this novel support in maintaining and promoting hepatocyte functions in vitro. (paper)

  16. Glycosaminoglycans Regulate CXCR3 Ligands at Distinct Levels: Protection against Processing by Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV/CD26 and Interference with Receptor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Metzemaekers

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 direct chemotaxis of mainly T cells and NK cells through activation of their common CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR3. They are inactivated upon NH2-terminal cleavage by dipeptidyl peptidase IV/CD26. In the present study, we found that different glycosaminoglycans (GAGs protect the CXCR3 ligands against proteolytic processing by CD26 without directly affecting the enzymatic activity of CD26. In addition, GAGs were shown to interfere with chemokine-induced CXCR3 signaling. The observation that heparan sulfate did not, and heparin only moderately, altered CXCL10-induced T cell chemotaxis in vitro may be explained by a combination of protection against proteolytic inactivation and altered receptor interaction as observed in calcium assays. No effect of CD26 inhibition was found on CXCL10-induced chemotaxis in vitro. However, treatment of mice with the CD26 inhibitor sitagliptin resulted in an enhanced CXCL10-induced lymphocyte influx into the joint. This study reveals a dual role for GAGs in modulating the biological activity of CXCR3 ligands. GAGs protect the chemokines from proteolytic cleavage but also directly interfere with chemokine–CXCR3 signaling. These data support the hypothesis that both GAGs and CD26 affect the in vivo chemokine function.

  17. Correlation of the levels of glycosaminoglycans between urine and dried urine in filter paper samples and their stability over time under different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, Ana Carolina; Cé, Jaqueline; Coelho, Janice Carneiro

    2014-06-10

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of lysosomal storage diseases caused by the deficiency/absence of enzymes which catalyze the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The use of biological samples dried on filter paper has been increasing because it makes it easy to ship them to reference laboratories. Urinary GAGs are the main biomarkers of MPS and, thus, we studied the correlations of determinations to GAGs and creatinine, as well as compared the GAGs' profile on electrophoresis, between urine and dried urine in filter paper (DUFP) samples. We also assessed the GAG stability over time under different storage temperatures. We quantified the GAG concentration in both sample types and compared the results by Pearson correlation. The results were very similar, with r=0.97 for creatinine and with r=0.94 and r=0.98 for GAGs for controls and patients, respectively, with similar electrophoretic profiles. The GAG stability in DUFP was up to 30days at -20, 4, and 25°C and up to 21days at 37°C. Our proposal assessed urinary GAGs in DUFP and concluded that these samples can be used in the investigation of MPS, replacing urine samples in neonatal screening and monitoring of therapies, due to ease of transportation and storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mutations in B3GALT6, which encodes a glycosaminoglycan linker region enzyme, cause a spectrum of skeletal and connective tissue disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Mizumoto, Shuji; Miyake, Noriko; Kogawa, Ryo; Iida, Aritoshi; Ito, Hironori; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Aya; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Osamu; Kosaki, Rika; Horikawa, Reiko; Lai, Angeline; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dupuis, Lucie; Chitayat, David; Howard, Andrew; Leal, Gabriela F; Cavalcanti, Denise; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Watanabe, Shigehiko; Lausch, Ekkehart; Unger, Sheila; Bonafé, Luisa; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Gen; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2013-06-06

    Proteoglycans (PGs) are a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues and function as structural and regulatory molecules. PGs are composed of core proteins and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. The biosynthesis of GAGs starts with the linker region that consists of four sugar residues and is followed by repeating disaccharide units. By exome sequencing, we found that B3GALT6 encoding an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the GAG linker region is responsible for a severe skeletal dysplasia, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity type 1 (SEMD-JL1). B3GALT6 loss-of-function mutations were found in individuals with SEMD-JL1 from seven families. In a subsequent candidate gene study based on the phenotypic similarity, we found that B3GALT6 is also responsible for a connective tissue disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (progeroid form). Recessive loss-of-function mutations in B3GALT6 result in a spectrum of disorders affecting a broad range of skeletal and connective tissues characterized by lax skin, muscle hypotonia, joint dislocation, and spinal deformity. The pleiotropic phenotypes of the disorders indicate that B3GALT6 plays a critical role in a wide range of biological processes in various tissues, including skin, bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis and reutilization of beta-D-xyloside-initiated chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycans in fetal kidney branching morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.J.; Brown, D.M.; Moran, A.; Oegema, T.R. Jr.; Platt, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis by explanted fetal mouse kidneys were previously shown to be inhibited by p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside (beta-D-xyloside) while glomerular development and heparan sulfate proteoglycan synthesis were unaffected. The metabolic fate of fetal kidney explant proteoglycans was investigated to determine whether or not recovery of proteoglycan synthesis and morphogenesis occur after exposure to beta-D-xyloside. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis resumed within 4 hr of removal of beta-D-xyloside and was enhanced once beta-D-xyloside-initiated chondroitin/dermatan- 35 SO 4 glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were released from the tissue. Radioactivity incorporated into beta-D-xyloside-initiated chondroitin/dermatan- 35 SO 4 GAGs during labeling in the presence of beta-D-xyloside was reutilized in the synthesis of chondroitin- 35 SO 4 proteoglycan during a 24-hr chase in nonradioactive medium without beta-D-xyloside. Further, highly purified beta-D-xyloside-initiated chondroitin/dermatan- 35 SO 4 GAGs were taken up by kidneys more avidly than was free [ 35 S]sulfate. These 35 S-GAGs were degraded and reutilized in the synthesis of chondroitin- 35 SO 4 proteoglycan. Ureteric bud branching resumed 48 hr after beta-D-xyloside was removed from the incubation medium. These findings support the idea that both chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis and proteoglycan processing may be involved in branching morphogenesis

  20. Differentiating chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans using collision-induced dissociation; uronic acid cross-ring diagnostic fragments in a single stage of tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailemia, Muchena J; Patel, Anish B; Johnson, Dane T; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J; Amster, I Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The stereochemistry of the hexuronic acid residues of the structure of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is a key feature that affects their interactions with proteins and other biological functions. Electron based tandem mass spectrometry methods, in particular electron detachment dissociation (EDD), have been able to distinguish glucuronic acid (GlcA) from iduronic acid (IdoA) residues in some heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides by producing epimer-specific fragments. Similarly, the relative abundance of glycosidic fragment ions produced by collision-induced dissociation (CID) or EDD has been shown to correlate with the type of hexuronic acid present in chondroitin sulfate GAGs. The present work examines the effect of charge state and degree of sodium cationization on the CID fragmentation products that can be used to distinguish GlcA and IdoA containing chondroitin sulfate A and dermatan sulfate chains. The cross-ring fragments (2,4)A(n) and (0,2)X(n) formed within the hexuronic acid residues are highly preferential for chains containing GlcA, distinguishing it from IdoA. The diagnostic capability of the fragments requires the selection of a molecular ion and fragment ions with specific ionization characteristics, namely charge state and number of ionizable protons. The ions with the appropriate characteristics display diagnostic properties for all the chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate chains (degree of polymerization of 4-10) studied.

  1. Quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and keratan sulfate by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osago, Harumi; Shibata, Tomoko; Hara, Nobumasa; Kuwata, Suguru; Kono, Michihaya; Uchio, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Mikako

    2014-12-15

    We developed a method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Using one-shot analysis with our MS/MS method, we demonstrated the simultaneous quantification of a total of 23 variously sulfated disaccharides of four GAG classes (8 chondroitin/dermatan sulfates, 1 hyaluronic acid, 12 heparan sulfates, and 2 keratan sulfates) with a sensitivity of less than 0.5 pmol within 20 min. We showed the differences in the composition of GAG classes and the sulfation patterns between porcine articular cartilage and yellow ligament. In addition to the internal disaccharides described above, some saccharides derived from the nonreducing terminal were detected simultaneously. The simultaneous quantification of both internal and nonreducing terminal saccharides could be useful to estimate the chain length of GAGs. This method would help to establish comprehensive "GAGomic" analysis of biological tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of acrolein-induced autophagy and apoptosis by a glycosaminoglycan from Sepia esculenta ink in mouse Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi-Peng; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Luo, Ping; Li, Yan-Qun; Tao, Ye-Xing; Duan, Zhen-Hua; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Da-Yan; Liu, Hua-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    In our recent reports, a squid ink polysaccharide (SIP) was found having preventive activity against cyclophosphamide induced damage in mouse testis and ovary. Here we further reveal the regulative mechanism of SIP against chemical toxicity on testis. Leydig cells exposed to acrolein (ACR) underwent apoptosis at 12h and 24h. Before apoptosis, cells occurred autophagy that was confirmed by high autophagic rate and Beclin-1 protein content at 3h. PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signal pathways involved in the regulatory mechanisms. These outcomes of ACR were recovered completely by SIP, which was demonstrated by attenuated disruption of redox equilibrium and increased testosterone production, through suppressing ACR-caused autophagy and apoptosis regulated by PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signal pathways in Leydig cells. Summarily, autophagy occurred before apoptosis caused by ACR-activated p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways were blocked by SIP, resulting in survival and functional maintenance of Leydig cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pulsed-low intensity ultrasound enhances extracellular matrix production by fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti PM Bohari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of pulsed-low intensity ultrasound on cell proliferation, collagen production and glycosaminoglycan deposition by 3T3 fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate was evaluated. Hoechst 33258 assay for cell number, hydroxyproline assay for collagen content and dimethylamine blue assay for glycosaminoglycan content were performed on samples from cell cultures treated with pulsed-low intensity ultrasound and a control group. Pulsed-low intensity ultrasound shows no effect on cell proliferation, while collagen and glycosaminoglycan contents were consistently higher in the samples treated with pulsed-low intensity ultrasound, showing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 on day 10. Alcian blue staining showed that glycosaminoglycans were deposited around the cells in both groups. These results suggest that pulsed-low intensity ultrasound shows no effect on cell proliferation but has potential for inducing collagen and glycosaminoglycan production in cells cultured in alginate gels.

  4. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) functions as receptor for specific sulfated glycosaminoglycans, and anti-RAGE antibody or sulfated glycosaminoglycans delivered in vivo inhibit pulmonary metastasis of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Takahashi, Jun; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2012-06-01

    Altered expression of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) at the surfaces of tumor cells plays a key role in malignant transformation and tumor metastasis. Previously we demonstrated that a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-derived tumor cell line with high metastatic potential had a higher proportion of E-disaccharide units, GlcUA-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate), in CS chains than low metastatic LLC cells and that such CS chains are involved in the metastatic process. The metastasis was markedly inhibited by the pre-administration of CS-E from squid cartilage rich in E units or by preincubation with a phage display antibody specific for CS-E. However, the molecular mechanism of the inhibition remains to be investigated. In this study the receptor molecule for CS chains containing E-disaccharides expressed on LLC cells was revealed to be receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily predominantly expressed in the lung. Interestingly, RAGE bound strongly to not only E-disaccharide, but also HS-expressing LLC cells. Furthermore, the colonization of the lungs by LLC cells was effectively inhibited by the blocking of CS or HS chains at the tumor cell surface with an anti-RAGE antibody through intravenous injections in a dose-dependent manner. These results provide the clear evidence that RAGE is at least one of the critical receptors for CS and HS chains expressed at the tumor cell surface and involved in experimental lung metastasis and that CS/HS and RAGE are potential molecular targets in the treatment of pulmonary metastasis.

  5. Genistein-mediated inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which corrects storage in cells of patients suffering from mucopolysaccharidoses, acts by influencing an epidermal growth factor-dependent pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barańska Sylwia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS are inherited metabolic disorders caused by mutations leading to dysfunction of one of enzymes involved in degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Due to their impaired degradation, GAGs accumulate in cells of patients, which results in dysfunction of tissues and organs. Substrate reduction therapy is one of potential treatment of these diseases. It was demonstrated previously that genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyisoflavone inhibits synthesis and reduces levels of GAGs in cultures of fibroblasts of MPS patients. Recent pilot clinical study indicated that such a therapy may be effective in MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome. Methods To learn on details of the molecular mechanism of genistein-mediated inhibition of GAG synthesis, efficiency of this process was studied by measuring of incorporation of labeled sulfate, storage of GAGs in lysosomes was estimated by using electron microscopic techniques, and efficiency of phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor was determined by using an ELISA-based assay with fluorogenic substrates. Results Effects of genistein on inhibition of GAG synthesis and accumulation in fibroblasts from patients suffering from various MPS types were abolished in the presence of an excess of EGF, and were partially reversed by an increased concentration of genistein. No such effects were observed when an excess of 17β-estradiol was used instead of EGF. Moreover, EGF-mediated stimulation of phsophorylation of the EGF receptor was impaired in the presence of genistein in both wild-type and MPS fibroblasts. Conclusion The results presented in this report indicate that the mechanism of genistein-mediated inhibition of GAG synthesis operates through epidermal growth factor (EGF-dependent pathway.

  6. Overexpression of Galnt3 in chondrocytes resulted in dwarfism due to the increase of mucin-type O-glycans and reduction of glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Carolina Andrea; Kawane, Tetsuya; Moriishi, Takeshi; Purushothaman, Anurag; Miyazaki, Toshihiro; Komori, Hisato; Mori, Masako; Qin, Xin; Hashimoto, Ayako; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Yamana, Kei; Takada, Kenji; Komori, Toshihisa

    2014-09-19

    Galnt3, UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3, transfers N-acetyl-D-galactosamine to serine and threonine residues, initiating mucin type O-glycosylation of proteins. We searched the target genes of Runx2, which is an essential transcription factor for chondrocyte maturation, in chondrocytes and found that Galnt3 expression was up-regulated by Runx2 and severely reduced in Runx2(-/-) cartilaginous skeletons. To investigate the function of Galnt3 in chondrocytes, we generated Galnt3(-/-) mice and chondrocyte-specific Galnt3 transgenic mice under the control of the Col2a1 promoter-enhancer. Galnt3(-/-) mice showed a delay in endochondral ossification and shortened limbs at embryonic day 16.5, suggesting that Galnt3 is involved in chondrocyte maturation. Galnt3 transgenic mice presented dwarfism, the chondrocyte maturation was retarded, the cell cycle in chondrocytes was accelerated, premature chondrocyte apoptosis occurred, and the growth plates were disorganized. The binding of Vicia villosa agglutinin, which recognizes the Tn antigen (GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr), was drastically increased in chondrocytes, and aggrecan (Acan) was highly enriched with Tn antigen. However, safranin O staining, which recognizes glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and Acan were severely reduced. Chondroitin sulfate was reduced in amount, but the elongation of chondroitin sulfate chains had not been severely disturbed in the isolated GAGs. These findings indicate that overexpression of Galnt3 in chondrocytes caused dwarfism due to the increase of mucin-type O-glycans and the reduction of GAGs, probably through competition with xylosyltransferases, which initiate GAG chains by attaching O-linked xylose to serine residues, suggesting a negative effect of Galnt family proteins on Acan deposition in addition to the positive effect of Galnt3 on chondrocyte maturation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Cyclic tensile strain enhances human mesenchymal stem cell Smad 2/3 activation and tenogenic differentiation in anisotropic collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WK Grier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthopaedic injuries, particularly those involving ligaments and tendons, are some of the most commonly treated ailments in the United States and are associated with both high costs and poor outcomes. Regenerative medicine strategies for tendon injuries could be enhanced by three-dimensional biomaterials that can promote cell alignment and pro-tenogenic differentiation of patient-derived MSCs. We have previously described a collagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG scaffold possessing aligned structural features able to promote bone marrow MSC differentiation towards a tenogenic lineage, in the absence of growth factor supplementation. We aimed to employ a bioreactor to enhance MSC tenogenic differentiation within the aligned CG scaffold via cyclic tensile strain (CTS, and further to evaluate the relative effects of strain cycle duration and extended application of repeated cycles of CTS on MSC response. Human MSCs were cultured in CG scaffolds for up to 6 d under static (unloaded or cyclic tensile strain (1 Hz for 10 min every 6 h. Time-dependent activation of ERK 1/2 and p38 mechanotransduction pathways was observed within each 6 h strain cycle. MSCs remained viable throughout the experiment and application of CTS robustly upregulated the expression of tendon-specific extracellular matrix proteins and phenotypic markers. Simultaneously, CTS promoted increased phosphorylation of Smad 2/3, suggesting a link between tensile stimulation and TGF-β family growth factor production. Together, we demonstrated the design, fabrication and validation of a high-throughput tensile stimulation bioreactor to increase MSC tenogenic differentiation in porous CG scaffolds.

  8. Interaction with glycosaminoglycans is required for cyclophilin B to trigger integrin-mediated adhesion of peripheral blood T lymphocytes to extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Fabrice; Vanpouille, Christophe; Carpentier, Mathieu; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Durieux, Sandrine; Spik, Geneviève

    2002-03-05

    Cyclophilins A and B (CyPA and CyPB) are cyclosporin A-binding proteins that are involved in inflammatory events. We have reported that CyPB interacts with two types of cell-surface-binding sites. The first site corresponds to a functional receptor and requires interaction with the central core of CyPB. This region is highly conserved in cyclophilins, suggesting that CyPA and CyPB might share biological activities mediated by interaction with this receptor. The second site is identified with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), the binding region located in the N terminus of CyPB. The difference in the N-terminal extensions of CyPA and CyPB suggests that a unique interaction with GAGs might account for selective activity of CyPB. To explore this hypothesis, we analyzed the lymphocyte responses triggered by CyPA, CyPB, and CyPB(KKK-), a mutant unable to interact with GAGs. The three ligands seemed capable enough to elicit calcium signal and chemotaxis by binding to the same signaling receptor. In contrast, only CyPB enhanced firm adhesion of T cells to the extracellular matrix. This activity depended on the interactions with GAGs and signaling receptor. CyPB-mediated adhesion required CD147 presumably because it was a costimulatory molecule and was related to an activation of alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins. Finally, we showed that CyPB was capable mainly to enhance T cell adhesion of the CD4+CD45RO+ subset. The present data indicate that CyPB rather than CyPA is a proinflammatory factor for T lymphocytes and highlight the crucial role of CyPB-GAG interaction in the chemokine-like activity of this protein.

  9. Analysis of glycosaminoglycans in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with mucopolysaccharidoses by isotope-dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoyue; Young, Sarah P; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Orchard, Paul J; Tolar, Jakub; Millington, David S

    2011-07-01

    New therapies for the treatment of mucopolysaccharidoses that target the brain, including intrathecal enzyme replacement, are being explored. Quantitative analysis of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that accumulate in these disorders is required to assess the disease burden and monitor the effect of therapy in affected patients. Because current methods lack the required limit of quantification and specificity to analyze GAGs in small volumes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we developed a method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Samples of CSF (25 μL) were evaporated to dryness and subjected to methanolysis. The GAGs were degraded to uronic acid-N-acetylhexosamine dimers and mixed with internal standards derived from deuteriomethanolysis of GAG standards. Specific dimers derived from heparan, dermatan and chondroitin sulfates (HS, DS and CS) were separated by UPLC and analyzed by electrospray ionization MS/MS using selected reaction monitoring for each targeted GAG product and its corresponding internal standard. CSF from control pediatric subjects (n = 22) contained <0.38 mg/L HS, 0.26 mg/L DS, and 2.8 mg/L CS, whereas CSF from patients with Hurler syndrome (n = 7) contained concentrations of DS and HS that were at least 6-fold greater than the upper control limits. These concentrations were reduced by 17.5% to 82.5% after allogeneic transplantation and treatment with intrathecal and intravenous enzyme replacement therapy. The method described here has potential value in monitoring patients with mucopolysaccharidoses receiving treatment targeted to the brain.

  10. Injectable glycosaminoglycan-protein nano-complex in semi-interpenetrating networks: A biphasic hydrogel for hyaline cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Janani; Subramanian, Anuradha; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2017-11-01

    Articular hyaline cartilage regeneration remains challenging due to its less intrinsic reparability. The study develops injectable biphasic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN) hydrogel impregnated with chondroitin sulfate (ChS) nanoparticles for functional cartilage restoration. ChS loaded zein nanoparticles (∼150nm) prepared by polyelectrolyte-protein complexation were interspersed into injectable SIPNs developed by blending alginate with poly(vinyl alcohol) and calcium crosslinking. The hydrogel exhibited interconnected porous microstructure (39.9±5.8μm pore diameter, 57.7±5.9% porosity), 92% swellability and >350Pa elastic modulus. Primary chondrocytes compatibility, chondrocyte-matrix interaction with cell-cell clustering and spheroidal morphology was demonstrated in ChS loaded hydrogel and long-term (42days) proliferation was also determined. Higher fold expression of cartilage-specific genes sox9, aggrecan and collagen-II was observed in ChS loaded hydrogel while exhibiting poor expression of collagen-I. Immunoblotting of aggregan and collagen II demonstrate favorable positive influence of ChS on chondrocytes. Thus, the injectable biphasic SIPNs could be promising composition-mimetic substitute for cartilage restoration at irregular defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fragility Fracture Incidence in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients Associates With Nanoporosity, Mineral/Matrix Ratio, and Pyridinoline Content at Actively Bone-Forming Trabecular Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Dempster, David; Jorgetti, Vanda; Borba, Victoria; Boguszewski, Cesar L; Klaushofer, Klaus; Moreira, Carolina A

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and altered microstructure by bone histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography. Nevertheless, not all COPD patients sustain fragility fractures. In the present study, we used Raman microspectroscopic analysis to determine bone compositional properties at actively forming trabecular surfaces (based on double fluorescent labels) in iliac crest biopsies from 19 postmenopausal COPD patients (aged 62.1 ± 7.3 years). Additionally, we analyzed trabecular geometrical centers, representing tissue much older than the forming surfaces. Eight of the patients had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. None of the patients had taken oral glucocorticoids. The monitored parameters were mineral/matrix ratio (MM), nanoporosity, and relative glycosaminoglycan (GAG), lipid, and pyridinoline contents (PYD). There were no significant differences between the glucocorticoid-treated patients and those who did not receive any. On the other hand, COPD patients sustaining fragility fractures had significantly lower nanoporosity and higher MM and PYD values compared with COPD patients without fragility fractures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to discriminate between fracture and non-fracture COPD patients based on differences in the material properties of bone matrix. Given that these bone material compositional differences are evident close to the cement line (a major bone interface), they may contribute to the inferior bone toughness and coupled with the lower lumbar spine bone mineral density values result in the fragility fractures prevalent in these patients. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. Decorin Content and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Dried Collagenous Biomaterial Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schreyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficient removal of proteoglycans, such as decorin, from the hide when processing it to leather by traditional means is generally acceptable and beneficial for leather quality, especially for softness and flexibility. A patented waterless or acetone dehydration method that can generate a product similar to leather called Dried Collagenous Biomaterial (known as BCD was developed but has no effect on decorin removal efficiency. The Alcian Blue colorimetric technique was used to assay the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG portion of decorin. The corresponding residual decorin content was correlated to the mechanical properties of the BCD samples and was comparable to the control leather made traditionally. The waterless dehydration and instantaneous chrome tanning process is a good eco-friendly alternative to transforming hides to leather because no additional effects were observed after examination using NIR spectroscopy and additional chemometric analysis.

  13. Decorin content and near infrared spectroscopy analysis of dried collagenous biomaterial samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldema-Ramos, Mila L; Castell, Joan Carles; Muir, Zerlina E; Adzet, Jose Maria; Sabe, Rosa; Schreyer, Suzanne

    2012-12-14

    The efficient removal of proteoglycans, such as decorin, from the hide when processing it to leather by traditional means is generally acceptable and beneficial for leather quality, especially for softness and flexibility. A patented waterless or acetone dehydration method that can generate a product similar to leather called Dried Collagenous Biomaterial (known as BCD) was developed but has no effect on decorin removal efficiency. The Alcian Blue colorimetric technique was used to assay the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) portion of decorin. The corresponding residual decorin content was correlated to the mechanical properties of the BCD samples and was comparable to the control leather made traditionally. The waterless dehydration and instantaneous chrome tanning process is a good eco-friendly alternative to transforming hides to leather because no additional effects were observed after examination using NIR spectroscopy and additional chemometric analysis.

  14. Decorin Content and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Dried Collagenous Biomaterial Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldema-Ramos, Mila L.; Castell, Joan Carles; Muir, Zerlina E.; Adzet, Jose Maria; Sabe, Rosa; Schreyer, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The efficient removal of proteoglycans, such as decorin, from the hide when processing it to leather by traditional means is generally acceptable and beneficial for leather quality, especially for softness and flexibility. A patented waterless or acetone dehydration method that can generate a product similar to leather called Dried Collagenous Biomaterial (known as BCD) was developed but has no effect on decorin removal efficiency. The Alcian Blue colorimetric technique was used to assay the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) portion of decorin. The corresponding residual decorin content was correlated to the mechanical properties of the BCD samples and was comparable to the control leather made traditionally. The waterless dehydration and instantaneous chrome tanning process is a good eco-friendly alternative to transforming hides to leather because no additional effects were observed after examination using NIR spectroscopy and additional chemometric analysis. PMID:24970152

  15. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  16. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  17. Mechanism of action and efficacy of RX-111, a thieno[2,3-c]pyridine derivative and small molecule inhibitor of protein interaction with glycosaminoglycans (SMIGs), in delayed-type hypersensitivity, TNBS-induced colitis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nicholas; Koppel, Juraj; Zsila, Ferenc; Juhas, Stefan; Il'kova, Gabriela; Kogan, Faina Yurgenzon; Lahmy, Orly; Wildbaum, Gizi; Karin, Nathan; Zhuk, Regina; Gregor, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Elucidate the mechanism of action of the small molecule inhibitor of protein binding to glycosaminoglycans, RX-111 and assay its anti-inflammatory activity in animal models of inflammatory disease. The glycosaminoglycan, heparin, was used in the mechanism of action study of RX-111. Human T lymphocytes and umbilical vein endothelial cells were used to assay the in vitro activity of RX-111. Mouse and rat models of disease were used to assay the anti-inflammatory activity of RX-111 in vivo. Circular dichroism and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy were used to study the binding of RX-111 to the glycosaminoglycan, heparin. T lymphocyte rolling on endothelial cells under shear flow was used to assay RX-111 activity in vitro. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and tri-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats were used to assay anti-inflammatory activity of RX-111 in vivo. RX-111 was shown to bind directly to heparin. It inhibited leukocyte rolling on endothelial cells under shear flow and reduced inflammation in the mouse model of DTH. RX-111 was efficacious in the mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease, TNBS-induced colitis and the rat model of multiple sclerosis, EAE. RX-111 exercises its broad spectrum anti-inflammatory activity by a singular mechanism of action, inhibition of protein binding to the cell surface GAG, heparan sulfate. RX-111 and related thieno[2,3-c]pyridine derivatives are potential therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  18. Estimativa da acidez potencial pelo método do pH SMP em solos com elevado teor de matéria orgânica Estimation of potencial acidity by the pH SMP method in soils with higher organic matter content in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do potencial para uso agrícola e das características edáficas peculiares, poucos são os métodos desenvolvidos para a recomendação de adubação e calagem para os solos com elevado teor de matéria orgânica. O objetivo deste estudo foi definir um modelo matemático que estime a acidez potencial (H+Al a partir do pH SMP medido em água e em solução de CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 em solos com elevado teor de matéria orgânica. Foram utilizadas 41 amostras de horizontes superficiais de solos com elevado teor de matéria orgânica de vários Estados do Brasil. Os resultados demonstraram que a acidez potencial pode ser estimada por meio da regressão da solução-tampão SMP (r =0,85**. Também foi observada correlação significativa (r = 0,65** entre o pH em CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 e o pH SMP.In spite of agricultural potential for use and the peculiar edaphic characteristics, there are few methods developed for manuring and liming recommendation for soils with high organic matter contents. The objective of this study was to determine a mathematical model that estimates the potencial acidity with pH SMP measured in water and in solution of CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 in soil with high organic matter content. Forty one surface soil samples of Histosols and other soils whith higher organic matter content of different states of Brazil were utilized. The results showed that potential acidity can be estimated by pH SMP buffer suspension regression ( R=0.85** and that in pH determined in CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 was significantly correlated (R= 0.65** to pH determined in SMP.

  19. Studies of the antitumor mechanism of action of dermaseptin B2, a multifunctional cationic antimicrobial peptide, reveal a partial implication of cell surface glycosaminoglycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Dos Santos

    Full Text Available Dermaseptin-B2 (DRS-B2 is a multifunctional cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAP isolated from frog skin secretion. We previously reported that DRS-B2 possesses anticancer and antiangiogenic activities in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the antiproliferative activity of DRS-B2 on numerous tumor cell lines, its cell internalization and studies of its molecular partners as well as their influences on its structure. Confocal microscopy using ([Alexa594]-(Cys0-DRS-B2 shows that in sensitive human tumor cells (PC3, DRS-B2 seems to accumulate rapidly at the cytoplasmic membranes and enters the cytoplasm and the nucleus, while in less sensitive tumor cells (U87MG, DRS-B2 is found packed in vesicles at the cell membrane. Furthermore FACS analysis shows that PC3 cells viability decreases after DRS-B2 treatment while U87 MG seems to be unaffected. However, "pull down" experiments performed with total protein pools from PC3 or U87MG cells and the comparison between the antiproliferative effect of DRS-B2 and its synthetic analog containing all D-amino acids suggest the absence of a stereo-selective protein receptor. Pretreatment of PC3 cells with sodium chlorate, decreases the antiproliferative activity of DRS-B2. This activity is partially restored after addition of exogenous chondroitin sulfate C (CS-C. Moreover, we demonstrate that at nanomolar concentrations CS-C potentiates the antiproliferative effect of DRS-B2. These results highlight the partial implication of glycosaminoglycans in the mechanism of antiproliferative action of DRS-B2. Structural analysis of DRS-B2 by circular dichroism in the presence of increasing concentration of CS-C shows that DRS-B2 adopts an α-helical structure. Finally, structure-activity-relationship studies suggest a key role of the W residue in position 3 of the DRS-B2 sequence for its antiproliferative activity.

  20. A Sulfated Glycosaminoglycan Linkage Region is a Novel Type of Human Natural Killer-1 (HNK-1 Epitope Expressed on Aggrecan in Perineuronal Nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Yabuno

    Full Text Available Human natural killer-1 (HNK-1 carbohydrate (HSO3-3GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R is highly expressed in the brain and required for learning and neural plasticity. We previously demonstrated that expression of the HNK-1 epitope is mostly abolished in knockout mice for GlcAT-P (B3gat1, a major glucuronyltransferase required for HNK-1 biosynthesis, but remained in specific regions such as perineuronal nets (PNNs in these mutant mice. Considering PNNs are mainly composed of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs and regulate neural plasticity, GlcAT-P-independent expression of HNK-1 in PNNs is suggested to play a role in neural plasticity. However, the function, structure, carrier glycoprotein and biosynthetic pathway for GlcAT-P-irrelevant HNK-1 epitope remain unclear. In this study, we identified a unique HNK-1 structure on aggrecan in PNNs. To determine the biosynthetic pathway for the novel HNK-1, we generated knockout mice for GlcAT-S (B3gat2, the other glucuronyltransferase required for HNK-1 biosynthesis. However, GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S double-knockout mice did not exhibit reduced HNK-1 expression compared with single GlcAT-P-knockout mice, indicating an unusual biosynthetic pathway for the HNK-1 epitope in PNNs. Aggrecan was purified from cultured cells in which GlcAT-P and -S are not expressed and we determined the structure of the novel HNK-1 epitope using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS as a sulfated linkage region of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, HSO3-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-R. Taken together, we propose a hypothetical model where GlcAT-I, the sole glucuronyltransferase required for synthesis of the GAG linkage, is also responsible for biosynthesis of the novel HNK-1 on aggrecan. These results could lead to discovery of new roles of the HNK-1 epitope in neural plasticity.

  1. Free Flowing Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cass, Andrew Knox; Kravchenko, Mariia

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions are moving to exploit information andcommunication technologies by increasing the use of videos both online and inclass. This is led, by definition, by ‘early adopters’ and most of the research intothis process reflects this. Increasingly, institutions are making...... strategic decisionsto move courses online however, some teachers involved are not well equippedto transition. The barriers are reported to be time constraints and a lack offamiliarity with the technology to make video. Also, there is a fear of the‘presented self’ where teachers may initially resent the idea...... do not secure theintegrity of the learning. This paper sets out the methods used to assist teacherstake the maximum benefit of their existing content as presentation style lecturesand utilize them for video recording suitable for both flipped and online classes.A central theme is removing the fear...

  2. Radioactivity content of books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    The natural and fallout radioactivity was measured in a large number of books produced in various countries after 1955. Results of these measurements showed that the books contained radioactivity due to fallout 137 Cs and 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K radioisotopes of primordial origin. Books printed in the U.S.A. had low radioactivity of 40K and 226 Ra origin compared to books printed in the European subcontinent. Books printed during high fallout rate (1962-64) or thereafter did not exhibit any significantly higher 137 Cs levels. The maximum radiation dose to the eyes calculated for the radioactivity content of the books was 0.8 μR/hr and the minimum was 0.07 μR/hr; most of the books were in the range 0.3-0.5 μR/hr. (U.K.)

  3. Managerialism and higher education governance: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary ...

  4. Digital Content Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Halbheer, Daniel; Stahl, Florian; Koenigsberg, Oded; Lehmann, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  5. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  6. Publishing and Revising Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editors and Webmasters can publish content without going through a workflow. Publishing times and dates can be set, and multiple pages can be published in bulk. Making an edit to published content created a revision.

  7. Content in Context Improves Deception Detection Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. Pete; Levine, Timothy R.; Shaw, Allison S.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that people are only slightly better than chance at distinguishing truths from lies. Higher accuracy rates, however, are possible when contextual knowledge is used to judge the veracity of situated message content. The utility of content in context was shown in a series of experiments with students (N = 26, 45, 51, 25, 127)…

  8. Plasmaspheric electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, G.K.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the plasmaspheric electron content are reviewed with particular reference to the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment. From the review, it appears likely that measurement of the plasmaspheric electron content is the only one capable of monitoring electron fluxes continuously between L 1 and L 2. Some recent important results deduced from plasmaspheric electron content measurements are discussed

  9. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  10. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  11. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  12. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  13. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  14. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  15. Higher physics for CFE with answers

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Paul; Moore, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The only new textbook appropriate for all new Higher Physics syllabus requirements from 2012 onwards Higher Physics for CfE provides complete coverage of the latest SQA syllabus for the Revised Higher (for examination 2012 onwards), and is also tailored specifically to the extended requirements, teaching approaches and syllabus outlines detailed in the Higher revisions for Curriculum for Excellence. Each section of the book matches a unit of the CfE syllabus; each chapter corresponds to a content area. The text is composed of three units: Our Dynamic Universe, Particles and Waves, and Electric

  16. Naturalising Representational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  17. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  18. Assessment and Feedback in Higher Education: A Review of Literature for the Higher Education Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackel, Brad; Pearce, Jacob; Radloff, Ali; Edwards, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This literature review has been undertaken for the Higher Education Academy (HEA). It explores recent scholarly contributions in the area of assessment and feedback in higher education (HE). As outlined in the HEA's terms of reference for this work, the contents of this review are designed to "help practitioners, policy makers and researchers…

  19. Effect of irradiation on carbohydrates content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantharasakul, S.

    1971-01-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C and total acidity contents of Hom Tong banana was described. There was a slight decrease in vitamin C contents in both irradiated and non-irradiated banana during storage. No difference was detected in term of vitamin C contents between irradiated and non-irradiated banana at any storage time. The total acidity of the banana increased with increasing time of storage owing to the ripening effect of the fruit. Higher total acidity content of non-irradiated banana during storage indicated the faster rate of ripening of the fruit

  20. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  1. Advert for higher education

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Provozin; А.S. Teletov

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  2. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  3. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  4. Higher derivative regularization and chiral anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Yoshinori.

    1985-02-01

    A higher derivative regularization which automatically leads to the consistent chiral anomaly is analyzed in detail. It explicitly breaks all the local gauge symmetry but preserves global chiral symmetry and leads to the chirally symmetric consistent anomaly. This regularization thus clarifies the physics content contained in the consistent anomaly. We also briefly comment on the application of this higher derivative regularization to massless QED. (author)

  5. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-01-01

    The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability). Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of ca...

  6. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  7. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  8. INTERNATIONALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  9. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  10. Plasma catecholamine content using radioenzymatic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Masaru; Togashi, Hiroko; Koike, Yuichi; Shimamura, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Noriko

    1980-01-01

    Catecholamine (CA) contents in blood plasma of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and human blood plasma were measured by radioenzymatic assay (REA) and trihydroxyindol (THI) fluorescent method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and both measurement methods were compared. The standard curve of REA showed a good linear relationship between total CA contents and separated CA contents. Though there was a danger of exposure to β-ray when REA was performed, this method was useful for measurement of CA contents in blood of small animals and small quantity of blood because CA content of only 50 μg of blood plasma could be measured by this method. Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) contents in men with normal blood pressure measured by REA was 250 +- 61 pg/ml and 37 +- 22 pg/ml, respectively. NE and E contents in patients with mild hypertension were 460 +- 128 pg/ml and 50 +- 20 pg/ml, respectively. There was not a significant difference between NE and E contents in men with normal blood pressure and those in patients with mild hypertension. Total CA content in blood plasma of SHR killed by decapitation was 5,000 +- 1,131 pg/ml, which was 5 times NE and E contents in blood plasma obtained from femoral vein of anesthetized SHR (816 +- 215 pg/ml and 209 +- 44 pg/ml). Total CA content in the same sample was measured by REA and HPLC. As a result, total CA content measured by REA was higher than that measured by HPLC, but there was a good relationship between total CA content measured by REA and that measured by HPLC. NE content in men with normal blood pressure measured by HPLC was elevated significantly according to an increase in their age, but this tendency was not observed in patients with hypertension. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    leaders of higher education institutions to set strategic directions and support their decisions in an effort to create even better study programmes with a better reputation. Finally, managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.Keywords: Reputation, image, corporate identity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a reputation model for higher education programmes, provide empirical evidence for the model and illustrate its application by using Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as the recurrent case. The developed model is a cause-and-effect model linking image...

  12. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...

  13. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur...

  14. Exploring Higher Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Willis M.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that the social studies reform movement includes a call for the de-emphasis of rote memory and more attention to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Discusses the "thinking tasks" concept derived from the work of Hilda Taba and asserts that the tasks can be used with almost any social studies topic. (CFR)

  15. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  16. Inflation from higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1987-01-01

    We argue that an inflationary phase in the very early universe is related to the transition from a higher dimensional to a four-dimensional universe. We present details of a previously considered model which gives sufficient inflation without fine tuning of parameters. (orig.)

  17. Higher Education Funding Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

  18. Liberty and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  19. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  20. Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  1. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  2. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  3. Creativity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  4. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  5. Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Maria A.; Smith, Gina S.; Brashen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has extended beyond the schoolyard into online forums in the form of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a growing concern due to the effect on its victims. Current studies focus on grades K-12; however, cyberbullying has entered the world of higher education. The focus of this study was to identify the existence of cyberbullying in higher…

  6. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  7. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  8. Branded content infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl RODRÍGUEZ-FERRÁNDIZ

    2017-01-01

    Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  9. Branded content infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl RODRÍGUEZ-FERRÁNDIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  10. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  11. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  12. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Satu Elo; Maria Kääriäinen; Outi Kanste; Tarja Pölkki; Kati Utriainen; Helvi Kyngäs

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studie...

  13. Accreditation and Expansion in Danish Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, an accreditation system for higher education has been introduced in Denmark. Accreditation partly represents continuity from an earlier evaluation system, but it is also part of a government policy to increasingly define higher education institutions as market actors....... The attempts of universities to increase their student enrolments have combined with the logic of accreditation to produce an increasing number of higher education degrees, often overlapping in content. Students’ scope for choice has been widened, but the basis for and the consequences of choice have become...

  14. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  15. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  16. Integrated Information System for Higher Education Qualifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we aim to study thoroughly and detail aspects related to architectures specific for e-learning and management of human resources training interconnected to management of qualifications. In addition, we take into consideration combining e-learning architectures with software in an e-learning system interconnected with the National Registry of Qualifications of Higher Education, in view of developing and information system that correlates educational supply from higher education from Romania with labor market demands through qualifications. The scientific endeavor consists of original architectural solutions to integrate data, systems, processes, services from various sources and to use them in the proposed system. The practical result of the scientific endeavor is represented by design of architectures required for developing an e-learning system interconnected with the National Registry of Qualifications from Romania, which involve in first stage the qualifications provided by higher education. The proposed innovative solution consists in the fact that the proposed information system combines the advantages of content management system (CMS with learning content management system (LCMS and with reusable learning objects (RLO. Thus, the architecture proposed in the research ensures the integration of a content management system with a portal for information, guidance and support in making a professional project. The integration enables correlation of competences with content areas and specific items from various teaching subjects, thus evaluating the usefulness for this registry from learning/educational perspective. Using the proposed information system in enables correlation among qualifications, content of educational program and continuous self-evaluation opportunities, which facilitate monitoring of progress and adjustment of learning content.

  17. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...

  18. Higher engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics principles required at higher engineering levelJohn Bird's approach to mathematics, based on numerous worked examples and interactive problems, is ideal for vocational students that require an advanced textbook.Theory is kept to a minimum, with the emphasis firmly placed on problem-solving skills, making this a thoroughly practical introduction to the advanced mathematics engineering that students need to master. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for upper level vocational courses. Now in

  19. Learning Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache JURUBESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  20. Building and Contents Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, William C.

    Insurance coverage of school buildings and contents is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain, and increases of 50 percent or more in the premium are not uncommon. Methods of reducing premium increases are outlined in this speech. (MLF)

  1. Selenium content of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stijve, T

    1977-07-29

    The selenium contents of 83 species of wild mushrooms were determined by oxygen combustion of the sample, followed by conversion of selenite to bromopiazselenol and final estimation by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Selenium concentration were found to range from 0.012-20.0 mg/kg dry weight. Selenium content was species-dependent. High concentrations were found in Agaricaceae and in certain Boletaceae of the genus Tubiporus, whereas in Russulaceae, Amanitaceae and Cantharellaceae selenium-rich species were absent or rare. Ascomycetes and all mushrooms growing on wood had a very low selenium content. The highest selenium concentrations (up to 20 ppm) were found in Boletus (Tubiporus) edulis, a most popular edible mushroom. Analyses of various parts of carpophores of B. edulis, Suillus luteus and Amanita muscaria indicate that in all three species the stalk contains less selenium than the fleshy part of the cap. In Boletus and Suillus the highest selenium content was found in the tubes.

  2. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  3. METHODS OF CONTENTS CURATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kukharenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Content curated - a new activity (started in 2008 qualified network users with process large amounts of information to represent her social network users. To prepare content curators developed 7 weeks distance course, which examines the functions, methods and tools curator. Courses showed a significant relationship success learning on the availability of advanced personal learning environment and the ability to process and analyze information.

  4. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Elo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studies, our own experiences, and methodological textbooks. Trustworthiness was described for the main qualitative content analysis phases from data collection to reporting of the results. We concluded that it is important to scrutinize the trustworthiness of every phase of the analysis process, including the preparation, organization, and reporting of results. Together, these phases should give a reader a clear indication of the overall trustworthiness of the study. Based on our findings, we compiled a checklist for researchers attempting to improve the trustworthiness of a content analysis study. The discussion in this article helps to clarify how content analysis should be reported in a valid and understandable manner, which would be of particular benefit to reviewers of scientific articles. Furthermore, we discuss that it is often difficult to evaluate the trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis studies because of defective data collection method description and/or analysis description.

  5. Teaching at higher levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see http://www.aapt.org/programs/rupc.html). Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of £60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials

  6. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  7. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1990-10-01

    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)

  8. Learning higher mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontrjagin, Lev Semenovič

    1984-01-01

    Lev Semenovic Pontrjagin (1908) is one of the outstanding figures in 20th century mathematics. In a long career he has made fundamental con­ tributions to many branches of mathematics, both pure and applied. He has received every honor that a grateful government can bestow. Though in no way constrained to do so, he has through the years taught mathematics courses at Moscow State University. In the year 1975 he set himself the task of writing a series of books on secondary school and beginning university mathematics. In his own words, "I wished to set forth the foundations of higher mathematics in a form that would have been accessible to myself as a lad, but making use of all my experience as a scientist and a teacher, ac­ cumulated over many years. " The present volume is a translation of the first two out of four moderately sized volumes on this theme planned by Pro­ fessor Pontrjagin. The book begins at the beginning of modern mathematics, analytic ge­ ometry in the plane and 3-dimensional space. Refin...

  9. Residual glycosaminoglycan accumulation in mitral and aortic valves of a patient with attenuated MPS I (Scheie syndrome after 6 years of enzyme replacement therapy: Implications for early diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Sato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS is an inherited metabolic disease caused by deficiency of the enzymes needed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG degradation. MPS type I is caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-l-iduronidase and is classified into Hurler syndrome, Scheie syndrome, and Hurler–Scheie syndrome based on disease severity and onset. Cardiac complications such as left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac valve disease, and coronary artery disease are often observed in MPS type I. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT has been available for MPS type I, but the efficacy of this treatment for cardiac valve disease is unknown. We report on a 56-year-old female patient with attenuated MPS I (Scheie syndrome who developed aortic and mitral stenosis and coronary artery narrowing. The cardiac valve disease progressed despite ERT and she finally underwent double valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting. The pathology of the cardiac valves revealed GAG accumulation and lysosomal enlargement in both the mitral and aortic valves. Zebra body formation was also confirmed using electron microscopy. Our results suggest that ERT had limited efficacy in previously established cardiac valve disease. Early diagnosis and initiation of ERT is crucial to avoid further cardiac complications in MPS type I.

  10. Horizontal gene transfer contributed to the evolution of extracellular surface structures: the freshwater polyp Hydra is covered by a complex fibrous cuticle containing glycosaminoglycans and proteins of the PPOD and SWT (sweet tooth families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Böttger

    Full Text Available The single-cell layered ectoderm of the fresh water polyp Hydra fulfills the function of an epidermis by protecting the animals from the surrounding medium. Its outer surface is covered by a fibrous structure termed the cuticle layer, with similarity to the extracellular surface coats of mammalian epithelia. In this paper we have identified molecular components of the cuticle. We show that its outermost layer contains glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans and we have identified chondroitin and chondroitin-6-sulfate chains. In a search for proteins that could be involved in organising this structure we found PPOD proteins and several members of a protein family containing only SWT (sweet tooth domains. Structural analyses indicate that PPODs consist of two tandem β-trefoil domains with similarity to carbohydrate-binding sites found in lectins. Experimental evidence confirmed that PPODs can bind sulfated glycans and are secreted into the cuticle layer from granules localized under the apical surface of the ectodermal epithelial cells. PPODs are taxon-specific proteins which appear to have entered the Hydra genome by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Their acquisition at the time Hydra evolved from a marine ancestor may have been critical for the transition to the freshwater environment.

  11. Quality of higher education: organisational or educational?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Du, Xiangyun; Rasmussen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Based on a study of Chinese university self-evaluation reports, this paper argues that higher education institutions are trying to manage the tensions between educational and organisational quality and the increasing and worldwide concerns about quality assurance. After 30 years of dramatic...... remain an important basis for external review. In an attempt to examine the institutional understanding of quality in higher education, the authors conducted a content analysis study of 53 self-evaluation reports written by a wide range of higher education institutions in China. This study concludes...... educational reform, China has established a nationwide evaluation system for assessing its higher education institutions. This comprehensive system includes a series of procedures for both internal self-evaluation and external peer reviewing, among which self-evaluation reports prepared by each institution...

  12. Higher education journals as didactic frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2018-01-01

    topics. Students as participants and learners are a frequent topic in especially one journal, but receive little attention in the other journals. Also, educational technologies receive a varying degree of attention across the journals. Based on the mapping, this article discusses Higher Education......During the last 20 years, we have witnessed a growing interest in research in teaching, learning and educational development in higher education (HE). The result is that ‘Higher Education Didactics’ has established itself as a research field in its own right. This article explores Higher Education...... influential, while the others stem from the Anglo-Saxon curriculum tradition. The mapping shows that all journals are strongly occupied with teaching methods, especially methods grounded in theories of active and social learning. In contrast, didactic categories such as goal, content and assessment are rare...

  13. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  14. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    failure prone capacitors from the power stage. Q-Sync’s simpler electronics also result in higher efficiency because it eliminates the power required by the PCB to perform the obviated power conversions and PWM processes after line synchronous operating speed is reached in the first 5 seconds of operation, after which the PWM circuits drop out and a much less energy intensive “pass through” circuit takes over, allowing the grid-supplied AC power to sustain the motor’s ongoing operation.

  15. O ensino de conteúdos atitudinais na formação inicial do enfermeiro La enseñanza de los contenidos actitudinales en la formación de enfermeras The teaching of attitudinal content in higher education of nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Nosow

    2009-12-01

    principal dificultad es la evaluación de los contenidos actitudinales. Trabajar las actitudes como los objetivos de aprendizaje y crear las herramientas adecuadas es el objetivo a considerar en el nuevo currículo.Qualitative research, exploratory and descriptive, had the aim to investigate teaching of the attitudinal content on training of nurses by professors in a public school of nursing. It was held at the Escola de Enfermagem da USP, with nine teachers in nursing baccalaureate and members of Grupo de Apoio Pedagógico. After approval of the project, data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. For want of insertion of the attitudinal contents in the courses programs, they are worked by the individual teacher's initiative that uses different strategies in the classroom or on the practice field. In the process of teaching teachers found possibilities and limitations related to the institution, teachers and students. The major difficulty is the assessment of attitudinal content. Work attitudes as learning objectives and build the right tools is the goal to be considered in the new curriculum.

  16. Trustworthy content push

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntze, Nicolai; Schmidt, Andreas U.

    2006-01-01

    Delivery of content to mobile devices gains increasing importance in industrial environments to support employees in the field. An important application are e-mail push services like the fashionable Blackberry. These systems are facing security challenges regarding data transport to, and storage of the data on the end user equipment. The emerging Trusted Computing technology offers new answers to these open questions.

  17. LCS Content Document Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  18. Tourist-created Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    study of social media sites and destination brands, relying on qualitative research methods, content analysis and field research. Findings – Tourists are largely contributing to destination image formation, while avoiding the use of the formal elements of the brands. The most popular strategies used...

  19. Loser Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Mørk

    2008-01-01

    In this article [ 1 ] some of the critical aspects of Web 2.0 are mapped in relation to labor and the production of user generated content. For many years the Internet was considered an apt technology for subversion of capitalism by the Italian post–Marxists. What we have witnessed, however...

  20. Hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate content of osteoarthritic human knee cartilage: site-specific correlation with weight-bearing force based on femorotibial angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Shuhei; Nakajima, Mikio; Lotz, Martin; Kinoshita, Mitsuo

    2008-09-01

    This study analyzed glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in specific compartments of the knee joint to determine the impact of malalignment and helped refine indications for osteotomy. To assess malalignment, the radiological femorotibial angle (FTA) was measured and knee joints were also graded for OA severity with the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) classification. Cartilage samples were obtained from 36 knees of 32 OA patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery. Explants were harvested from the medial femoral condyle (MFC), lateral femoral condyle (LFC), patellar groove (PG), and lateral posterior femoral condyle (LPC). Concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). With OA severity, the average FTA significantly increased. HA and CS content in MFC was negatively correlated with radiographic FTA. In LFC, HA ratio, which is HA content in lateral condyle divided by medial condyle and chondroitin 6 sulfate, increased until about 190 degrees FTA. Importantly, at >190 degrees these contents were significantly decreased. HA and CS content of the femoral condyle shows topographic differences that are related to OA grade and weight-bearing force based on FTA. The clinical relevance is that osteotomy may not be indicated for patients with severe varus (>190 degrees) abnormalities. (c) 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society

  1. Harmonic Content of the BESSY FEL Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Meseck, Atoosa

    2005-01-01

    BESSY proposes a linac-based cascaded High-Gain Harmonic-Generation (HGHG) free electron laser (FEL) multi-user facility. The BESSY soft X-ray FEL will consist of three undulator lines. The associated tunable lasers will cover the spectral range of 230nm to 460nm. Two to four HGHG stages reduce the seed wavelength to the desired radiation range of 1.24nm < λ < 51nm. The harmonic content of the high-intensity radiator output can be used to reduce the number of necessary HGHG stages. Moreover the higher harmonic content of the final output extends the offered spectral range and thus is of high interest for the user community. In this paper, the higher harmonic content of the final output as well as of the output of several radiators are investigated. The main parameters such as output power, pulse duration and bandwidth as well as their suitability for seeding are discussed.

  2. Less Is Sometimes More: Goal Content Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia; Lacante, Marlies

    2004-01-01

    According to expectancy-value theories, increasing the utility value of a learning activity should result in higher motivation and better learning. In contrast, self-determination theory posits that the content of the future goals (intrinsic vs. extrinsic) that enhance the utility value of the learning activity needs to be considered as well.…

  3. Proanthocyanadin (condensed tannin) content of Brachystegia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The higher contents of PA in the leaves that were harvested when mature than in young leaves could explain why animals prefer eating young rather than mature leaves of B. spiciformis. Keywords: browse legume, proanthocyanidins n-butanol, stages. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(3): 197–200 ...

  4. Content Maps: A Teaching and Assessment Tool for Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Lehwald, Harry; Lee, Yun Soo

    2015-01-01

    Developing content knowledge in teachers presents a constant challenge for teacher educators. This article introduces a teaching and assessment tool called a "content map," which allows teacher educators, teachers, and coaches to conceptualize the scope, sequence, and relational characteristics of the content being taught. Content maps…

  5. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  6. Muscle ceramide content in man is higher in type I than type II fibers and not influenced by glycogen content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Prats, C; Kristensen, D

    2010-01-01

    +/- 2 mL O2 min(-1) kg(-1)) participated in the study. On the first day, one leg was glycogen-depleted (DL) by exhaustive intermittent exercise followed by low carbohydrate diet. Next day, in the overnight fasted condition, muscle biopsies were excised from vastus lateralis before and after exhaustive...

  7. Content Documents Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  8. Avaliação dos glicosaminoglicanos do tecido periuretral de pacientes com e sem prolapso genital Evaluation of glycosaminoglycans of periurethral tissue in patients with and without pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cezar Feldner Jr

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar e quantificar os subtipos de glicosaminoglicanos sulfatados (GAGs existentes no tecido peri-uretral de pacientes com e sem prolapso genital. METODOS: Foram incluídas 35 pacientes que se submeteram a cirurgia vaginal para correção de distopias genitais e/ou incontinência urinária de esforço ou por outra condição benigna. As pacientes foram avaliadas por anamnese padronizada, exame físico e urodinâmico e agrupadas segundo a existência do prolapso genital. Durante o procedimento cirúrgico, amostras de aproximadamente 1,0 x 1,0 cm do tecido periuretral foram retiradas para avaliação. Os GAGs foram extraídos do tecido por proteólise e precipitação por ácido tricloroacético e caracterizados por eletroforese em gel de agarose. A quantificação foi feita por meio de densitometria a 525 nm do gel corado com azul de toluidina. Compararam-se os dados pela análise de variância (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Nos grupos estudados, houve maior predomínio de dermatam sulfato (DS, em torno de 85% do total de GAGs, seguido do condroitim sulfato (CS e do heparam sulfato (HS. Observou-se aumento significativo dos GAGs totais, do DS e do HS em mulheres com prolapso genital. Não se observou diferença significante com relação ao CS. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou diferenças na matriz extracelular do tecido periuretral com aumento de GAGs totais, DS e HS nas mulheres com prolapso genital.OBJECTIVE: To characterize and quantify periurethral tissue sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse. STUDY DESIGN: Periurethral tissue was obtained from 35 women who underwent surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, for stress urinary incontinence, or for other gynecological benign conditions. Patients were submitted to a clinical history, physical and urodynamic examination and were divided in two groups according to genital prolapse. The standard biopsy with 1.0 x 1.0 cm was taken from periurethral

  9. Novel use of a flowable collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix (Integra™ Flowable Wound Matrix) combined with percutaneous cannula scar tissue release in treatment of post-burn malfunction of the hand--A preliminary 6 month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirche, C; Senghaas, A; Fischer, S; Hollenbeck, S T; Kremer, T; Kneser, U

    2016-02-01

    Long-term function following severe burns to the hand may be poor secondary to scar adhesions to the underlying tendons, webspaces, and joints. In this pilot study, we report the feasibility of applying a pasty dermal matrix combined with percutaneous cannula teno- and adhesiolysis. In this 6 month follow-up pilot study, we included eight hands in five patients with hand burns undergoing minimal-invasive, percutaneous cannula adhesiolysis and injection of INTEGRA™ Flowable Wound Matrix for a pilot study of this new concept. The flowable collagen-glycosaminoglycan wound matrix (FCGWM) was applied with a buttoned 2mm cannula to induce formation of a neo-gliding plane. Post treatment follow-up was performed to assess active range of motion (AROM), grip strength, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) and quality of life Short-Form (SF)-36 questionnaire. No complications were detected associated with the treatment of FCGWM injection. The mean improvement (AROM) at 6 months was 30.6° for digits 2-5. The improvement in the DASH score was a mean of 9 points out of 100. The VSS improved by a mean of 2 points out of 14. The study demonstrates the feasibility and safety of percutaneous FCGWM for dermal augmentation after burn. Results from this pilot study show improvements in AROM for digits 2-5, functional scores from the patient's perspective (DASH) and scar quality (VSS). The flowable form of established INTEGRA™ wound matrix offers the advantage of minimal-invasive injection after scar release in the post-burned hand with a reduction in the risk of postsurgical re-scarring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. The Dot.xxx Challenge to Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, William H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes some of the dimensions of the "e-cology" of Internet-based "e-Learning" in higher education. Discusses e-Learning service and operating dimensions; higher education's challenge to balance virtual and traditional educational delivery; instructor-led and instructor-less learning; the roles of content and instructor in instructor-led…

  11. Determinants of Innovation Culture amongst Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffeei, Siti Hajar Mohd; Yusop, Farrah Dina; Kamarulzaman, Yusniza

    2018-01-01

    Globalisation has made many higher educational institutions reassess their educational contents and research activities in order to enhance innovation culture amongst students of higher education. Many universities now focus on research activities and research funding in raising their reputation and ranking which in turn will improve student…

  12. Content Marketing Practices in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Suuronen, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to draw attention to increasingly important business phenomenon of content marketing. This paper defines content marketing, identifies its key elements and phases, and explores content marketing practices. The theorethical part is based on Pam Didner's 4P model that describes the stages of content marketing cycle: plan, produce, promote and perfect. The empirical part of the study is based on semi-structured interviews of seasoned content marketing professionals t...

  13. Determining gold content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for determining the gold content of a material, comprises irradiating a body of the material with neutrons and determining the intensity of γ-rays having an energy of 279 keV arising from the reaction 179 Au(nn') 179 Au → 279 keV. The apparatus has means for conveying the materials past an assembly, which has a neutron source, which does not produce neutrons having sufficient energy to excite fast neutron reactions in non-auriferous constituents. (author)

  14. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  15. Praxis II mathematics content knowledge test (0061)

    CERN Document Server

    McCune, Ennis Donice

    2007-01-01

    Your guide to a higher score on the Praxis II?: Mathematics Content Knowledge Test (0061) Why CliffsTestPrep Guides? Go with the name you know and trust Get the information you need--fast! Written by test-prep specialists About the contents: Introduction * Overview of the exam * How to use this book * Proven study strategies and test-taking tips Part I: Subject Review * Focused review of all exam topics: arithmetic and basic algebra, geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, functions and their graphs, calculus, probability and statistics, discrete mathematics, linear algebra, compute

  16. Experimental RA reactor operation with 80% enriched fuel - Program of experimental operation: a) Program of experimental operation with 80% enriched fuel at low power, b) contents of the experimental operation with 80% enriched fuel at higher power levels; Program probnog rada: a) Program probnog rada reaktora sa 80% obogacenim gorivom na malim snagama, b) sadrzaj programa probnog rada reaktora RA sa 80% obogacenim gorivom na vecim snagama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinc, R; Sotic, O; Skoric, M; Cupac, S; Bulovic, V; Maric, I; Marinkov, L [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1980-10-15

    Highly enriched (80%) uranium oxide fuel was regularly used in the mixed reactor core with the 2% enriched fuel since 1976. The most important changes related to reactor operation, in comparison with the original design project were related to reactor core fuelling schemes. At the end of 1979 reactor was shutdown due to the corrosion coating noticed on some fuel elements and due to decrease quality of the heavy water. Subsequently the Sanitary inspector of Serbia has prohibited further reactor operation. Restart of the reactor will not be a simple continuation of operation. It is indispensable to perform complete experimental program including measurements of critical parameters at different power levels for the core with fresh 80% enriched fuel. The aim of this document is to obtain working permission and its contents are in agreement with the procedure demanded by the Safety Committee of the Institute. It includes results of optimization and safety analysis for the initial reactor core. Since the permission for restart is not obtained, a separate RA reactor safety report is prepared in addition to the program for experimental operation. This report includes: detailed program for reactor experimental operation with 80% enriched fuel in the core at low power levels, and contents of the experimental operation with 80% enriched fuel in the core at higher power levels. [Serbo-Croat] Od decembra 1976. godine redovno je korisceno 80% obogaceno gorivo u mesanoj resetki reaktorskog jezgra sa 2% obogacenim gorivom. Najvece izmene na reaktoru u odnosu na originalni projekat izvrsene su u nacinu rukovanja gorivom. Krajem marta 1979. godine obustavljen je rad reaktora usled naslaga na gorivnim elementima i loseg stanja teske vode. Naknadno je izdata zabrana za rad reaktora od strane Sanitarnog inspektora SR Srbije. Ponovno pustanje reaktora u rad nece biti jednostavan nastavak rada. Neophodno je da se izvede kompletan program merenja kriticnih parametara i drugih

  17. Sharing of Alcohol-Related Content on Social Networking Sites: Frequency, Content, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Vedaa, Øystein; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to explore students' reports of their sharing of alcohol-related content on different social networking sites (i.e., frequency of sharing and connotations of alcohol-related posts), and to identify indicators of such posting. Students at the four largest institutions for higher education in Bergen, Norway, were invited to participate in an Internet-based survey. The sample size was 11,236 (a 39.4% response rate). The survey included questions about disclosure of alcohol-related content on social networking sites, alcohol use (using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), personality factors (using the Mini-IPIP), and demographic characteristics. Binary logistic regressions were used to analyze indicators of frequent sharing of alcohol-related content depicting positive and negative aspects of alcohol use. A majority of the students had posted alcohol-related content (71.0%), although few reported having done so frequently. Positive aspects of alcohol use (e.g., enjoyment or social community) were most frequently shared. Young, single, and extroverted students with high alcohol consumption were more likely to report frequent sharing of alcohol-related content. Positive attitudes toward posting alcohol-related content and reports of exposure to such content particularly increased the likelihood of one's own posting of alcohol-related content. Positive aspects of alcohol use seem to be emphasized on social networking sites. Sharing of alcohol-related content is associated with heightened alcohol use, which implies that such sites can be relevant for prevention agents. Social influence from social networking sites, such as exposure to others' alcohol-related content, is associated with one's own sharing of similar content.

  18. Sustainable spatial development in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Terlević

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is not only a great challenge for society as a whole, but also for higher education institutions, which have been rapidly including sustainable development in their educational process in the last two decades. Directly or indirectly, education for sustainable spatial development includes all aspects of sustainable development: environmental, economic, social and cultural. Space is a junction of various interests, which requires coordinating the entire process of spatial planning, taking into account the goal of sustainable spatial development. The existing values of space are insufficient for the rapid implementation of a sustainable spatial development paradigm. Suitable education is needed by both individuals and spatial planning professionals and at all levels of education. It is therefore necessary to transform some of the academic programs in the higher education curriculum by integrating teaching content and methods that include long-term knowledge and holistic thinking, taking into account the importance of interdisciplinary integration. This article reviews literature in sustainable development in higher education from 2002 to 2013. Topics discussed include students’ and teachers’ conceptions of sustainable development, the presence of sustainable development and sustainable spatial development in higher education and the reasons for the slow introduction of this material into the curriculum. Based on a literature analysis, the last section identifies important drivers that can contribute to a more rapid integration of a sustainable spatial development paradigm into higher education.

  19. Makerere Journal of Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makerere Journal of Higher Education (MAJOHE) is the official publication of ... management and improvement of higher education from an international viewpoint. ... Historical Development of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria: ...

  20. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    OpenAIRE

    Charmaine du Plessis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely bee...

  1. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  2. A Tax for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  3. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  4. Multimedia content analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical backgrounds and practical aspects of image, video and audio feature expression, e.g., color, texture, edge, shape, salient point and area, motion, 3D structure, audio/sound in time, frequency and cepstral domains, structure and melody. Up-to-date algorithms for estimation, search, classification and compact expression of feature data are described in detail. Concepts of signal decomposition (such as segmentation, source tracking and separation), as well as composition, mixing, effects, and rendering, are discussed. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the aspects covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by problem-solving exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia content analysis systems in industry. .

  5. Angular momentum content of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaya, E.J.; Tully, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    A schema of galaxy formation is developed in which the environmental influence of large-scale structure plays a dominant role. This schema was motivated by the observation that the fraction of E and S0 galaxies is much higher in clusters than in low-density regions and by an inference that those spirals that are found in clusters probably have fallen in relatively recently from the low-density regions. It is proposed that the tidal field of the Local Supercluster acts to determine the morphology of galaxies through two complementary mechanisms. In the first place, the supercluster can apply torques to protogalaxies. Galaxies which collapsed while expanding away from the central cluster decoupled from the external tidal field and conserved the angular momentum that they acquired before collapse. Galaxies which formed in the cluster while the cluster collapsed continued to feel the tidal field. In the latter case, the spin of outer collapsing layers can be halted and reversed, and tends to cancel the spin of inner layers. The result is a reduction of the total angular momentum content of the galaxy. In addition, the supercluster tidal field can regulate accretion of fresh material onto the galaxies since the field creates a Roche limit about galaxies and material beyond this limit is lost. Any material that has not collapsed onto a galaxy by the time the galaxy falls into a cluster will be tidally stripped. The angular momentum content of that part of the protogalactic cloud which has not yet collapsed . continues to grow linearly with time due to the continued torquing by the supercluster and neighbors. Galaxies at large distances from the cluster core can continue to accrete this high angular momentum material until the present, but galaxies that enter the cluster are cut off from replenishing material

  6. Content and language integrated learning: principles and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    BAKLAGOVA J.

    2014-01-01

    This article is devoted to the innovative model for language education Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) which has gained in immense popularity all over the world. Based on communicative approach, CLIL provides progress in language and in the content subject, creativity and independence in language using, developing higher order thinking skills. A successful CLIL lesson should combine such elements as content, communication, cognition and culture

  7. The Challenges in Developing E-Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowati Juhary

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is considered an active key player in information communication technologies (ICTs especially in education. In fact, in the National Higher Education Strategic Plan, one of the Critical Agenda Projects (CAPs of the Minister of Higher Education is e-learning. It goes without saying that all higher learning providers in Malaysia must be prepared to provide state-of-the-art facilities for the students. One critical aspect of e-learning is the quality and quantity of the content, or what will be referred by many scholars as e-content. This paper attempts to identify the challenges of content development for e-learning practice at the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM. It is crucial to investigate this issue since the university just purchased its Learning Management System (LMS. It is expected that resistance will be present as the academics at the defence university is a mixture of junior and senior lecturers, as well as civilian and military lecturers; and some of these academics have been teaching without the assistance of e-learning. In so doing, the methodology of this paper will mainly be content analysis of various reports, governmental documents, as well as semi-structured interviews with lecturers at the NDUM. As this paper acts as a preliminary investigation into the issue of e-content at the university, only seven lecturers were interviewed. Initial findings suggest that there are basically five challenges of developing e-content at the NDUM. These include the lack of ICT and e-learning policy that can provide guidelines to academics; the uncertainty of ownership for e-learning initiatives; the lack of understanding of the roles of e-learning; the lack of awareness on e-learning; and the difficulties to develop military based content due to confidentiality issues. Two possible solutions for these challenges are also examined which take into consideration the urgent need to set up an e-Learning Unit and to provide

  8. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine du Plessis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely been overlooked. Objective: The purpose of this article was to investigate content marketing’s role in social media content communities to engage with the target audience in an innate manner. Method: This study made use of a directed, inductive content analysis of 51 practitioner documents relating to business-to-consumer content marketing practices to add another perspective to existing research on communities in social media. The content analysis was facilitated by using QDA Miner, a widely adopted and reliable qualitative data analysis software programme. Results: Three categories emerged from the data namely building content communities, platform-specific content and understanding channels. These categories provide sufficient evidence of how brands make use of social media content communities to connect with the target audience in an unobtrusive manner, in addition to being present in virtual brand communities. Conclusion: The findings make several contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, it provides a clearer distinction between brand and social media content communities. Secondly, it extends conceptions about social media communities to include content communities and, thirdly, it provides sufficient evidence of how content marketing could benefit a brand by naturally becoming part of social media conversations.

  9. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar ‘74-x’ had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’; the bulbs of cultivar ‘Gailiang’ had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of ‘Hanzhong purple’ also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar ‘74-x’ had highest protection capability, following by cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’, and the bulbs of cultivar ‘No. 105 from Korea’ had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  10. Anthocyanin content of two Hibiscus sabdariffa cultivars grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthocyanin content of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces was determined to compare two cultivars from Senegal called Koor and Vimto. Results showed a significant difference in terms of total anthocyanin content (TA) and relative abundance (RA) of anthocyanin species. Values of TA for Vimto were 3-fold higher than Koor's.

  11. Preliminary measures of tritium content in the Hague (Cotentin) area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezu, T.

    1971-01-01

    Tritium content of about thirty samples (seawater, algae and rainwater) taken during April-July 1973 in La Hague (Cotentin) area was determined with a liquid scintillation detector after electrolytic enrichment. Tritium content was 15 to 130 tritium units not much higher than concentration generally observed in environment nowadays [fr

  12. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  13. Review of A-level chemistry content

    OpenAIRE

    Read, David; Harrison, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This document is a review of the content of the A-level Chemistry specifications from the main UK exam boards (Scottish highers not included - sorry!). These A-level specifications commenced teaching in September 2008. Students entering university in 2010 will have studied the new A-levels, and this document is intended to help academics to identify what students will have covered. The document also contains a summary of discussions which took place between teachers and academics at our annua...

  14. Determination of soluble protein contents from RVNRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Nurulhuda Othman

    1996-01-01

    This project was carried out to determine the soluble protein contents on RVNRL film vulcanisates, with respect to the RVNRL storage time, gamma irradiation dose absorbed by the latex and the effect of different leaching time and leaching conditions. These three factors are important in the hope to determine the best possible mean of minimizing the soluble protein contents in products made from RVNRL. Within the nine months storage period employed in the study, the results show that, the longer the storage period the less the soluble protein extracted from the film samples. Gamma irradiation dose absorbed by the samples, between 5.3 kGy to 25.2 kGy seems to influence the soluble protein contents of the RVNRL films vulcanisates. The higher the dose the more was the soluble protein extracted from the film samples. At an absorbed dose of 5.3 kGy and 25.2 kGy, the soluble contents were 0. 198 mg/ml and 0.247 mg/ml respectively. At a fixed leaching temperature, the soluble proteins increases with leaching time and at a fixed leaching time, the soluble proteins increases with leaching temperature. ne highest extractable protein contents was determined at a leaching time of 10 minutes and leaching temperature of 90'C The protein analysis were done by using Modified Lowry Method

  15. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJRED Editorial

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES PAGEPassive Design of Buildings for Extreme Weather EnvironmentS.N. Al-Zubaidy, S. Tokbolat, R. Tokpatayeva 1-11 Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource SubstitutionK.J. Sreekanth, S. Jayaraj, N. Sudarsan 13-18 Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi KenyaMary Njenga, A Yonemitsu, N Karanjaa, M Iiyama, J Kithinji, M Dubbeling C Sundberge, R R Jamnadass 19-29 A Novel Design of Multi-Chambered Biomass BatteryK. Sudhakar, R. Ananthakrishnan, A. Goyal, H.K. Darji 31-34 Power Quality Improvement Wind Energy System Using Cascaded Multilevel InverterJ.S. Sathiyanarayanan, A. S. Kumar 35-43 Solar PV Lighting and Studying after Sunset: Analysis of Micro-benefits in Off-grid Rural GhanaGeorge Y. Obeng 45-51 Innovative Green Technology for Sustainable Industrial Estate DevelopmentR. Hadiwijoyo, P Purwanto, Sudharto P Hadi 53-58 Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy For Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security And Equitability Of Rural CommunitiesN.A. Ahmad, H. Byrd 59-68

  16. Some higher order Hardy inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kufner, Alois; Kuliev, K.; Persson, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, Mar 26 (2012), s. 69 ISSN 1029-242X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.822, year: 2012 http://www.journalofinequalitiesandapplications.com/content/2012/1/69

  17. Content validity and its estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmale F

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring content validity of instruments are important. This type of validity can help to ensure construct validity and give confidence to the readers and researchers about instruments. content validity refers to the degree that the instrument covers the content that it is supposed to measure. For content validity two judgments are necessary: the measurable extent of each item for defining the traits and the set of items that represents all aspects of the traits. Purpose: To develop a content valid scale for assessing experience with computer usage. Methods: First a review of 2 volumes of International Journal of Nursing Studies, was conducted with onlyI article out of 13 which documented content validity did so by a 4-point content validity index (CV! and the judgment of 3 experts. Then a scale with 38 items was developed. The experts were asked to rate each item based on relevance, clarity, simplicity and ambiguity on the four-point scale. Content Validity Index (CVI for each item was determined. Result: Of 38 items, those with CVIover 0.75 remained and the rest were discarded reSulting to 25-item scale. Conclusion: Although documenting content validity of an instrument may seem expensive in terms of time and human resources, its importance warrants greater attention when a valid assessment instrument is to be developed. Keywords: Content Validity, Measuring Content Validity

  18. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATIVE CONTENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kushnir

    2014-09-01

    of the solution system, the notion of vector and its coordinates; on mathematical analysis and algebra in school course with advanced study of mathematics or specialized colleges (concept of infinite numerical sequence and its convergence, the rules of convergence in infinite sequences of numbers, the concept of numerical range and its convergence, the rules of numerical series convergence, calculations of members of infinite and partial sums of the numerical series with pre-specified accuracy; with Maple (organization of linear programs, organization of cycles, conditional branches, the concept of sets and lists and work with them, solving systems of nonlinear equations, the construction of drawings in program mode, the syntax of Maple, creation of the program in accordance with the method of solving the problem in general, the mathematical model and its solution method, criterion for selection of the desired solution models, conditions and parameters of the original problem. Solving problems of the integrative content forms integrative knowledge as knowledge of a higher level compared with a simple set of one discipline knowledge, develops search and research skills, creativity, generates creative potential, mathematical and information culture of a subject of study. Such problems are not resolved by typical methods and the same typical algorithms, it is necessary to find a way to create a solution and the corresponding algorithm for each of them.

  19. Histochemical determination of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes neural tube defects (NTD) and growth deficiency in experimental animals. NTDs are a group of malformations that result in failure of neural tube (NT) closure in early embryonic development and are among the most common congenital malformations in humans. NTDs are also associated ...

  20. Observation on CEA and IL-6 contents in gastric juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhonglin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice in patients with gastric cancer and gastritis. Methods: CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice were measured with RIA in 60 patients and 30 controls. Results: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastric carcinoma were significantly higher than those in the controls (p < 0.001), however, CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastritis and controls were not much different. Conclusion: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 assay is of diagnostic significance in patients with gastric malignant tumor

  1. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  2. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  3. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  4. Women in Higher Education Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    Two papers are presented that examine the barriers to women in academic decision making and identify a variety of effective strategies for improving the status of women in higher education administration. "Strategies for Advancing Women in Higher Education Administration," by Garry D. Hays, proposes that commitment to increasing the…

  5. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  6. Higher Education and Ethical Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the importance of ethical value in higher education as well as the relevance between ethical value and higher education. In order to examine the study logically, three research questions are addressed: First, what is value, ethical value, and Asiatic ethical value? Second, for whom and what is higher…

  7. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  8. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  9. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  10. Learning Entrepreneurship in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatila, Vesa P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There is a constant need to produce more entrepreneurial graduates from higher education institutions. This paper aims to present and discuss several successful cases of entrepreneurial learning environments in order to suggest some important aspects that higher education institutions should consider. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  11. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  12. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  13. Leading Change in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoy, Ian; Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the situation in the UK higher education system and investigates specifically the leadership practice in a cluster of UK institutions as they changed their status. The research goes further to advocate a form of contextualized leadership that is relevant to higher institutions under change. (Contains 1 figure.)

  14. Higher Education: Open for Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  15. Polish Higher Education: Intersectoral Distinctiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes degrees of differences between the private and public sectors of Polish higher education. It finds them to be strong: Polish private institutions function very differently from Polish public institutions and these differences correspond with those found in the literature on higher education elsewhere in the world. Polish…

  16. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  17. Fact Book on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about…

  18. Higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Igusa, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The book is devoted to the theory of topological higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion in K-theory. The author defines the higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion based on Volodin's K-theory and Borel's regulator map. He describes its properties and generalizations and studies the relation between the higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion and other torsions used in K-theory: Whitehead torsion and Ray-Singer torsion. He also presents methods of computing higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion, illustrates them with numerous examples, and describes various applications of higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion, particularly for the study of homology of mapping class groups. Packed with up-to-date information, the book provides a unique research and reference tool for specialists working in algebraic topology and K-theory.

  19. Learning at work in Higher Vocational Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Littke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Higher vocational training (HVE is a new form of post-secondary education that was introduced in 2009 in Sweden. The aim for HVE is to address the demands of a highly skilled Swedish workforce. Compared to other forms of adult and higher education it is less institutionalized and, based on Swedish standards, gives great opportunities for the provider to decide regarding the contents and design. The purpose of this study was to analyze a the quality of the course, Learning at Work (LIA, and (b to develop instruments and indicators to explore the quality of the student learning in working life as part of HVE. The design of research instruments was based on hypotheses to uncover the background, the learning process and effect parameters In LIA offered at 12 different HVE sites in Sweden within the areas of health care, computer science, technology and business administration. The survey data of forty-two students and thirty-six workplace supervisors were analyzed. The results of the study show that the quality of the learning at work (LIA varies considerably between different programs and different students. In most programs, it has a significant development potential. A well-functioning LIA is characterized by adequate learning content, an open work climate between colleagues, accuracy and dedication, frequent supervisor feedback, and regular communication between the Program Director and the supervisors. It is important that the educational provider requires workplaces with capacity to offer the students relevant and qualified work content. LIA should offer qualified work content providing knowledge of breadth and depth. Knowledge gained from school-based training should be challenged and must achieve curriculum goals. An important finding is the lack of definitions and criteria for quality, and the risk of quality differences between educational providers. Another significant problem identified in the study is the unclear division of

  20. Technical note - the incorporation of ash content into gas content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creech, M.; Mahoney, M. [Powercoal Pty. Ltd., Budgewoi, NSW (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    For gas content analysis in recent years, it has been standard procedure to report results on a `dry ash free` (daf) basis, under the assumption that gas only adsorbs onto coaly material. In order to test the relationship between ash and gas content, samples of various rock types were taken from two drillholes in the Newcastle Coalfield. The results of this study confirmed the correlation between gas content and ash, providing an accurate means of relating gas contents for all carbonaceous rock types. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K; Schoemaker, Marieke H; van Tol, Eric A F; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B

    2016-06-01

    Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. HM hindmilk samples were collected at ages 4-8 weeks from 614 mothers participating in a representative birth cohort, with repeated infancy anthropometry. HM triglyceride (fat), lipid analytes and lactose (carbohydrate) were measured by (1) H-NMR, and protein content by the Dumas method. TCC and %macronutrients were determined. In 614 HM samples, fat content was as follows: [median(IQR)]: 2.6 (1.7-3.6) g/100 mL, carbohydrate: 8.6 (8.2-8.8) g/100 mL, protein: 1.2 (1.1-1.2) g/100 mL; TCC: 61.8 (53.7-71.3) kcal/100 mL. HM of mothers exclusively breast feeding vs. mixed feeding was more calorific with higher %fat, lower %carbohydrate and lower %protein. Higher HM TCC was associated with lower 12-months body mass index (BMI)/adiposity, and lower 3-12 months gains in weight/BMI. HM %fat was inversely related to 3-12 months gains in weight, BMI and adiposity, whereas %carbohydrate was positively related to these measures. HM %protein was positively related to 12-months BMI. HM analysis showed wide variation in %macronutrients. Although data on milk intakes were unavailable, our findings suggest functional relevance of HM milk composition to infant growth. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  2. Examination of lead content in school children's teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaga, M; Omori, K; Tozawa, T; Abe, K

    1972-11-01

    The results of examination on the relationship between air pollution by lead in auto exhaust and lead content of teeth of schoolchildren living in highly polluted, moderately polluted, and nonpolluted areas in Kanagawa Prefecture in 1968 are reported. The specimens were milk teeth which have fallen out and teeth in caries which were pulled out. The 177 specimens were brushed well, washed with distilled water and dried to be wet-calcined. Because of no difference of lead content between boys and girls teeth, the examination was carried on combined specimens. The findings were: (1) lead content was significantly higher in teeth of children in heavily and moderately polluted areas than in those in nonpolluted areas; (2) the lead content by area and by age showed lower values in older children in highly and nonpolluted areas. In general, the lead content of teeth was higher in children living in more polluted areas suggesting the effect of environmental pollution.

  3. Survey of Biology Capstone Courses in American and Canadian Higher Education: Requirement, Content, and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Capstone experiences have high educational impact with various approaches available for biology. However, no information exists regarding the pervasiveness of capstone courses in Canadian and American biology programs. This study surveyed the prevalence and character of biology capstone courses in the USA and Canada. The survey included a majority…

  4. Chemistry: content, context and choices : towards students' higher order problem solving in upper secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Broman, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is often claimed to be difficult, irrelevant, and uninteresting to school students. Even students who enjoy doing science often have problems seeing themselves as being scientists. This thesis explores and challenges the negative perception of chemistry by investigating upper secondary students’ views on the subject. Based on students’ ideas for improving chemistry education to make the subject more interesting and meaningful, new learning approaches rooted in context-based learning...

  5. The Place of Content and Pedagogy in Shaping Sustainability Learning Outcomes in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Keren; Tal, Tali

    2018-01-01

    This research investigates the ways in which undergraduate courses dealing with the environment address sustainable development (SD), and contribute to the development of sustainability learning outcomes (SLO). The participants in the study were 13 instructors, and 360 students who were enrolled in 13 courses that addressed the environment in a…

  6. List of Article Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Section

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  7. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.75-81 75-81 Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Suryo Purwono, Arief Budiman   Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.83-89 83-89 Kusmiyati Kusmiyati, Agus Sulistiyono   Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.91-97 91-97 I.K.G. Wirawan, I.N.G. Wardana,        Rudy Soenoko, Slamet Wahyudi   Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3. 3.2.99-105 99-105 Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa, Haimanot Gebrehiwot Moges, Ramesh Babu, Daniel Bisrat   Economic feasibility of large scale PV water pumping applications utilizing real field data for a case study in Jordan DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.107-117 107-117 Ibrahim Odeh   Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.119-123 119-123 Md. Hamidul Islam, Md. Mosharraf Hossain,Md. Abdul Momin   Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.125-131 125-131 Debasish Padhee, Hifjur Raheman   The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143 133-143 Widya Fatriasari, Wasrin Syafii, Nyoman J Wistara, Khaswar Syamsu, Bambang Prasetya   Influence of the Determination Methods of K and C Parameters on the Ability of Weibull Distribution to Suitably Estimate Wind Potential and Electric Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.145-154 145-154 Ruben M. Mouangue, Myrin Y. Kazet, Alexis Kuitche, Jean-Marie Ndjaka    

  8. Higher insulin sensitivity in vegans is not associated with higher mitochondrial density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojda, J; Patková, J; Jaček, M; Potočková, J; Trnka, J; Kraml, P; Anděl, M

    2013-12-01

    Vegans have a lower incidence of insulin resistance (IR)-associated diseases and a higher insulin sensitivity (IS) compared with omnivores. The aim of this study was to examine whether the higher IS in vegans relates to markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and to intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content. Eleven vegans and 10 matched (race, age, sex, body mass index, physical activity and energy intake) omnivorous controls were enrolled in a case-control study. Anthropometry, bioimpedance (BIA), ultrasound measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat layer, parameters of glucose and lipid homeostasis, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and muscle biopsies were performed. Citrate synthase (CS) activity, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and IMCL content were assessed in skeletal muscle samples. Both groups were comparable in anthropometric and BIA parameters, physical activity and protein-energy intake. Vegans had significantly higher glucose disposal (M-value, vegans 8.11±1.51 vs controls 6.31±1.57 mg/kg/min, 95% confidence interval: 0.402 to 3.212, P=0.014), slightly lower IMCL content (vegans 13.91 (7.8 to 44.0) vs controls 17.36 (12.4 to 78.5) mg/g of muscle, 95% confidence interval: -7.594 to 24.550, P=0.193) and slightly higher relative muscle mtDNA amount (vegans 1.36±0.31 vs controls 1.13±0.36, 95% confidence interval:-0.078 to 0.537, P=0.135). No significant differences were found in CS activity (vegans 18.43±5.05 vs controls 18.16±5.41 μmol/g/min, 95% confidence interval: -4.503 to 5.050, P=0.906). Vegans have a higher IS, but comparable mitochondrial density and IMCL content with omnivores. This suggests that a decrease in whole-body glucose disposal may precede muscle lipid accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction in IR development.

  9. Standards-based Content Resources: A Prerequisite for Content Integration and Content Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galinski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to show how standards-based approaches for content standardization, content management, content related services and tools as well as the respective certification systems not only guarantee reliable content integration and content interoperability, but also are of particular benefit to people with special needs in eAccessibility/eInclusion. Method: document MoU/MG/05 N0221 ''Semantic Interoperability and the need for a coherent policy for a framework of distributed, possibly federated repositories for all kinds of content items on a world-wide scale''2, which was adopted in 2005, was a first step towards the formulation of global interoperability requirements for structured content. These requirements -based on advanced terminological principles- were taken up in EU-projects such as IN-SAFETY (INfrastructure and SAFETY and OASIS (Open architecture for Accessible Services Integration and Standardization. Results: Content integration and content interoperability are key concepts in connection with the emergence of state-of-the-art distributed and federated databases/repositories of structured content. Given the fact that linguistic content items are increasingly combined with or embedded in non-linguistic content items (and vice versa, a systemic and generic approach to data modelling and content management has become the order of the day. Fulfilling the requirements of capability for multilinguality and multimodality, based on open standards makes software and database design fit for eAccessibility/eInclusion from the outset. It also makes structured content capable for global content integration and content interoperability, because it enhances its potential for being re-used and re-purposed in totally different eApplications. Such content as well as the methods, tools and services applied can be subject to new kinds of certification schemes which also should be based on standards. Conclusions: Content must be totally reliable in some

  10. An intelligent content discovery technique for health portal content management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Daswin; Burstein, Frada

    2014-04-23

    Continuous content management of health information portals is a feature vital for its sustainability and widespread acceptance. Knowledge and experience of a domain expert is essential for content management in the health domain. The rate of generation of online health resources is exponential and thereby manual examination for relevance to a specific topic and audience is a formidable challenge for domain experts. Intelligent content discovery for effective content management is a less researched topic. An existing expert-endorsed content repository can provide the necessary leverage to automatically identify relevant resources and evaluate qualitative metrics. This paper reports on the design research towards an intelligent technique for automated content discovery and ranking for health information portals. The proposed technique aims to improve efficiency of the current mostly manual process of portal content management by utilising an existing expert-endorsed content repository as a supporting base and a benchmark to evaluate the suitability of new content A model for content management was established based on a field study of potential users. The proposed technique is integral to this content management model and executes in several phases (ie, query construction, content search, text analytics and fuzzy multi-criteria ranking). The construction of multi-dimensional search queries with input from Wordnet, the use of multi-word and single-word terms as representative semantics for text analytics and the use of fuzzy multi-criteria ranking for subjective evaluation of quality metrics are original contributions reported in this paper. The feasibility of the proposed technique was examined with experiments conducted on an actual health information portal, the BCKOnline portal. Both intermediary and final results generated by the technique are presented in the paper and these help to establish benefits of the technique and its contribution towards effective

  11. Content analysis in information flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grusho, Alexander A. [Institute of Informatics Problems of Federal Research Center “Computer Science and Control” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Grusho, Nick A.; Timonina, Elena E. [Institute of Informatics Problems of Federal Research Center “Computer Science and Control” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    The paper deals with architecture of content recognition system. To analyze the problem the stochastic model of content recognition in information flows was built. We proved that under certain conditions it is possible to solve correctly a part of the problem with probability 1, viewing a finite section of the information flow. That means that good architecture consists of two steps. The first step determines correctly certain subsets of contents, while the second step may demand much more time for true decision.

  12. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  13. Teaching Creatively in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana; Zhou, Chunfang

    The topic of this booklet is a synthesis of relevant research in the field of creativity in higher education, with focus on creative teaching methods. By means of literature review and research findings this booklet describes a wide range of contexts and effects on student learning and develop­me......­ment, together with teacher motivation and overall satisfaction. This booklet meets the need for renewal and creation in higher education, in order to address the challenges of the future, focusing on the benefits of teaching crea­tively at higher education.......The topic of this booklet is a synthesis of relevant research in the field of creativity in higher education, with focus on creative teaching methods. By means of literature review and research findings this booklet describes a wide range of contexts and effects on student learning and develop...

  14. Categorification and higher representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The emergent mathematical philosophy of categorification is reshaping our view of modern mathematics by uncovering a hidden layer of structure in mathematics, revealing richer and more robust structures capable of describing more complex phenomena. Categorified representation theory, or higher representation theory, aims to understand a new level of structure present in representation theory. Rather than studying actions of algebras on vector spaces where algebra elements act by linear endomorphisms of the vector space, higher representation theory describes the structure present when algebras act on categories, with algebra elements acting by functors. The new level of structure in higher representation theory arises by studying the natural transformations between functors. This enhanced perspective brings into play a powerful new set of tools that deepens our understanding of traditional representation theory. This volume exhibits some of the current trends in higher representation theory and the diverse te...

  15. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  16. Scientific collaboratories in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Li, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Scientific collaboratories hold the promise of providing students access to specialized scientific instruments, data and experts, enabling learning opportunities perhaps otherwise not available. However, evaluation of scientific collaboratories in higher education has lagged behind...

  17. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  18. Quality Management in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with quality management theory as an important part of management science. The primary objective of this work is an identification, formulation and analysis of such managerial issues in quality of higher education, which either are not known, or whose resolution is not considered fully sufficient. The thesis contains a bibliography of more than 200 related scientific works and presents selected issues of quality management in higher education, such as quality perception or it...

  19. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  20. Authentic Assessment and Pedagogical Strategies in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Yuen Fook; Gurnam Kaur Sidhu

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Researchers have noted that there is a mismatch between curriculum content and assessment practices in higher education. At the moment, the focus is still on the assessment of learning and not much on assessment for learning. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the implementation of authentic assessment in higher education in Malaysia. Approach: The study employed a qualitative research method and involved the use of instruments such as interviews, document analy...

  1. IMPACT OF BIOSLUDGE APPLICATION ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of decomposed substrate after continual biogas production is one of the possible ways how to use alternative energy sources with following monitoring of its complex influence on the hygienic state of soil with the emphasis on heavy metal input. The substances from bilge and drain sediments from water panels, also biosludge gained by continual co-fermentation of animal excrements belong to these compounds. The biosludge application is connected with possible risk of cadmium and lead, also other risky elements input into the soil. The analyses of applicated sludge prove that the determined heavy metals contents are compared with limitary value. These facts - hygienic state of soil, pH influence this limitary value and biosludge is suitable for soil application. The total heavy metals content in soil is related to the increased cadmium, nickel, chromium and cobalt contents. The analyses of heavy metals contents in sunflower seeds show that the grown yield does not comply with the legislative norms from the stand point of heavy metals content due to high zinc and nickel contents. Copper, cadmium, lead, chromium contents fulfil limitary values, for cobalt content the value is not mentioned in Codex Alimentarius. The nickel value in the control variant seeds is 2.2 times higher than the highest acceptable amount, then in variant where the sludge was applicated the nickel content was increased by 1.6 times. In the case of zinc there was increasing content in individual variants 4.7, or 4.8 times. The direct connection with the higher accumulation of zinc and nickel in soil by the influence of biosludge application is not definitely surveyed, the increased heavy metals contents in sunflower were primarily caused by their increased contents in soils.

  2. Sodium content on processed foods for snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Mariana Vieira dos Santos; Oliveira, Renata Carvalho de; Gonzalez-Chica, David Alejandro; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa

    2016-04-01

    To assess the Na content reported on the labels of processed foods sold in Brazil that are usually consumed as snacks by children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study that assessed Na content and serving size reporting on processed food labels. A supermarket that is part of a large chain in Brazil. All foods available for sale at the study's location and reported in the literature as snacks present in the diets of Brazilian children and adolescents. Of the 2945 processed foods, 87 % complied with the reference serving sizes, although variability in reporting was observed in most of the food subgroups. In addition, 21 % of the processed foods had high Na levels (>600 mg/100 g) and 35 % had medium Na levels (>120 and ≤600 mg/100 g). The meats, oils, fats and seeds groups as well as the prepared dishes had higher percentages of foods classified as high Na (81 %, 58 % and 53 %, respectively). Most of the processed foods had high or medium Na content. We emphasize the importance of revising Brazilian nutrition labelling legislation to standardize reference serving sizes to avoid variation. Besides, we point out the potential for reducing Na levels in most processed foods, as evidenced by the variability in Na content within subgroups. Finally, we have identified the need to develop a method to classify Na levels in processed foods with specific parameters for children and adolescents.

  3. Tablets for Learning in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    Based on a small-scale literature review this paper identifies the top 10 affordances of post PC tablets (sometimes referred to as ‘tablet computers’) for higher education in settings where the technology is used for learning. The review shows that the predominant affordances of the technology...... are related to its ability to support engaging, inclusive, and/or collaborative learning, to provide flexibility in place, and to include multimedia and interactive content in teaching practice. However, performing the review also revealed that the notion of tablets for learning is equivocal. As a consequence......, the concepts of tabletcasts and tabletcasting are introduced as one possible framing for future research on tablets as an educational technology....

  4. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Selection of progenitors for increase in oil content in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low genetic diversity brings limitation to breeding, because genetically similar genotypes share alleles in common, causing little complementarity and low vigor due to the low levels of heterozygosity in crosses. The objective of this work was to analyze the oil content and genetic diversity of soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill based on QTL regions of this trait for choice of progenitors for increase in oil content. Twenty-two genotypes with wide variation in oil content, including cultivars with high oil contents, were cultivated in different Brazilian conditions and the oil content of the grains was quantified by infrared spectrometry. Microsatellite markers selected based on QTL regions for oil content in soybean were analyzed to estimate the genetic diversity. In these studies, a wide variation in oil content (17.28-23.01% and a reasonable diversity among the genotypes were observed, being PI181544 the most divergent genotype, followed by Suprema. The genotypes PI371610/Suprema and Suprema/CD01RR8384 showed genetic distance and higher oil contents in the grains, while the cultivars Suprema and CD01RR8384 had the highest oil contents and proved to be little genetically related. These genotypes are promising progenitors for selection of high oil content in soybean.

  6. Content and ratings of mature-rated video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Tepichin, Karen; Haninger, Kevin

    2006-04-01

    To quantify the depiction of violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in video games rated M (for "mature") and to measure agreement between the content observed and the rating information provided to consumers on the game box by the Entertainment Software Rating Board. We created a database of M-rated video game titles, selected a random sample, recorded at least 1 hour of game play, quantitatively assessed the content, performed statistical analyses to describe the content, and compared our observations with the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors and results of our prior studies. Harvard University, Boston, Mass. Authors and 1 hired game player. M-rated video games. Percentages of game play depicting violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; use of profanity in dialogue, song lyrics, or gestures. Although the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors for violence and blood provide a good indication of such content in the game, we identified 45 observations of content that could warrant a content descriptor in 29 games (81%) that lacked these content descriptors. M-rated video games are significantly more likely to contain blood, profanity, and substances; depict more severe injuries to human and nonhuman characters; and have a higher rate of human deaths than video games rated T (for "teen"). Parents and physicians should recognize that popular M-rated video games contain a wide range of unlabeled content and may expose children and adolescents to messages that may negatively influence their perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors.

  7. A Systematic Review of English Medium Instruction in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaro, Ernesto; Curle, Samantha; Pun, Jack; An, Jiangshan; Dearden, Julie

    2018-01-01

    After outlining why a systematic review of research in English medium instruction (EMI) in higher education (HE) is urgently required, we briefly situate the rapidly growing EMI phenomenon in the broader field of research in which content and language have been considered and compare HE research outputs with those from other phases of education.…

  8. Facilitating Innovations in Higher Education in Transition Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginova, Olga; Belyansky, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse innovations in education from the point of view of product content and markets selected. Emerging market economies face a number of problems many of which are closely linked to and dependent upon the effectiveness of higher professional education. External environment changes, such as the formation…

  9. Canonical quantum theory of gravitational field with higher derivatives, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Shoichiro; Kimura, Tadahiko

    1983-01-01

    A formulation which is invariant under an additional BRS transformation with nilpotency of order two is presented for the canonical theory of the renormalizable quantum gravity with higher derivatives. The canonical quantization is carried out and various equal time (anti-) commutation relations are derived. The asymptotic fields are reanalyzed. The physical particle contents are just the same as those obtained in previous papers. (author)

  10. Using Collaboration for Curriculum Change in Accounting Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Beth Marie

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, descriptive case study researched the collaborative curriculum development process in accounting higher education. This study was needed because accounting education, as a professional program, needs to be continually reviewed and updated in order to keep abreast of changes in the business field. This content is developed through…

  11. Understanding Content-and-Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Marx, M.J.; de Rijke, M.; Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Trotman, A.; Lalmas, M.; Fuhr, N.

    2005-01-01

    Document-centric XML is a mixture of text and structure. +With the increased availability of document-centric XML content comes a need for query facilities in which both structural constraints and constraints on the content of the documents can be expressed. This has generated considerable interest

  12. Uranium content of Philippine coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Rosa, A.M.; Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.S.; Bulos, A.M.; Bucoy, B.M.; De la Cruz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium content of coal samples from seven areas in the Philippines, i.e. Cebu, Semirara, Bislig, Albay, Samar, Malangas and Polilio Is. was found to contain trace quantities of uranium. The mean value of 0.401 ppm U is lower than reported mean uranium contents for coal from other countries. (ELC)

  13. Evolution of broadcast content distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses opportunities for broadcasters that arise with the advent of broadband networks, both fixed and mobile. It discusses how the traditional way of distributing audio-visual content over broadcasting networks has been complemented by the usage of broadband networks. The author shows how this also gives the possibility to offer new types of interactive or so-called nonlinear services. The book illustrates how change in distribution technology is accelerating the need for broadcasters around the world to adapt their content distribution strategy and how it will impact the portfolios of content they offer. Outlines the shift in broadcast content distribution paradigms and related strategic issues Provides an overview of the new broadcasting ecosystem encompassing new types of content, user habits, expectations, and devices Discusses complementary usage of different distribution technologies and platforms.

  14. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  15. Content-based intermedia synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Young; Sampath-Kumar, Srihari; Rangan, P. Venkat

    1995-03-01

    Inter-media synchronization methods developed until now have been based on syntactic timestamping of video frames and audio samples. These methods are not fully appropriate for the synchronization of multimedia objects which may have to be accessed individually by their contents, e.g. content-base data retrieval. We propose a content-based multimedia synchronization scheme in which a media stream is viewed as hierarchial composition of smaller objects which are logically structured based on the contents, and the synchronization is achieved by deriving temporal relations among logical units of media object. content-based synchronization offers several advantages such as, elimination of the need for time stamping, freedom from limitations of jitter, synchronization of independently captured media objects in video editing, and compensation for inherent asynchronies in capture times of video and audio.

  16. Investigation of natural radionuclide contents in soil in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Sanming; Liu Ruye

    1992-01-01

    The survey of natural radionuclide contents in soil in China (1983-1990) is a part of investigation of environmental natural radioactivity level on China. The results of the investigation area as follows: (1) The average content of natural radionuclides 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K(area weighted) and its standard deviation for single measurement is 39.5 and 34.4,36.5 and 22.0, 49.1 and 27.6, 580.0 and 202.0 Bq.kg -1 ,respectively.(2) The content of natural radionuclides is apparently correlated to the types of soil-forming rock. The analysis results from 1552 soil samples of soil-forming rock show that: the content of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for magmatic rock type is the highest, 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th of metamorphic rock type higher, sedimentary rock type the lowest. However, the content of 40 K of sedimentary rock type is more higher, magmatic rock type the lowest. In magmatic rock type, the content of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th of granite and acidic magmatic rock type, and the content of 40 K of acidic and alkaline magmatic rock type are higher. (3) The analysis results from 9613 various types of soil samples show that for crimson soil of ferralsol wind soil of rock soil-forming order at northern part is lower. For frigid dessert soil of alpine soil order, alpine dessert soil, and the burozem, dark burozem and drab soil of alfisol order and semialfisol order, the content of 40 K is shown to be higher, and it is lower for latosol of ferralsol order, crimson soil, yellow soil and various lime soil. (4) The geographical distribution of the natural radionuclide content in soil appears apparently regional

  17. FACEBOOK COMMUNICATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Maria AVRAM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The social networks have been growing steadily in recent years. Facebook, one of the most popular social networks, is a modern means of communication and socialization that has taken lately more ground in higher education becoming an important academic tool in the communication process. Many universities have their own Facebook page, being used by both students and teachers, and creating Facebook groups increasingly facilitates communication with students. Thus, this paper aims to identify the importance that Facebook holds in the academic communication process and highlights the implications it has in higher education. The results reveal that this type of communication has gained more ground in academia creating real social communities, and students use it more and more for collaboration in various activities involved in the higher education system, but also for socializing and information.

  18. Issues in Moroccan Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Lazrak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, education has always been the springboard for socio-economic development of nations. Undoubtedly, education proved to be the catalyst of change and the front wagon that drives with it all the other wagons pertaining to other dynamic sectors. In effect, the role of education can be seen to provide pupils with the curriculum and hidden curriculum skills alike; teaching skills that will prepare them physically, mentally and socially for the world of work in later life. In Morocco, the country spends over 26% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP on education. Unfortunately, though this number is important, Moroccan education (primary, secondary and higher education alike still suffers from the mismatch between the state expenditures on education and the general product in reality. In this article, an attempt is made to touch on some relevant issues pertaining to higher education with special reference to Morocco. First, it provides some tentative definitions, mission and functions of university and higher education. Second, it gives a historical sketch of the major reforms that took place in Morocco as well as the major changes pertaining to these reforms respectively. Third, it provides a general overview of the history of higher education in Morocco, it also tackles an issue related to governance in higher education which is cost sharing. Fourth, it delves into the history of English Language Teaching (ELT, lists some characteristics of the English Departments in Morocco. Fifth, it discusses the issue of private vs. public higher education. Last, but not least, it tackles the issue of Brain Drain.

  19. A course of higher mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Vladimir Ivanovich; Lohwater, A J

    1964-01-01

    A Course of Higher Mathematics, I: Elementary Calculus is a five-volume course of higher mathematics used by mathematicians, physicists, and engineers in the U.S.S.R. This volume deals with calculus and principles of mathematical analysis including topics on functions of single and multiple variables. The functional relationships, theory of limits, and the concept of differentiation, whether as theories and applications, are discussed. This book also examines the applications of differential calculus to geometry. For example, the equations to determine the differential of arc or the parameter

  20. ERP for Romanian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Also most of the big ERP providers provide solutions for higher education, including SAP AG, Oracle, JD Eduards, Peoplesoft, universities preferr other specialized applications which better fit their specific needs. This paper presents the advantages of an integrated solution for higher education and analyzes the solutions offered for this sector by the Romanian ERP market. The conlusion is more like an invitation to discussion about possible solutions to the present Romanian university situation: low budgets, changing regulations, isolated, self-developed applications.

  1. Mergers in European Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Teixeira, Pedro N.; Biscaia, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, mergers have been widely used in higher education (HE) to achieve a variety of purposes, ranging from problems of institutional fragmentation to the lack of financial and academic viability, and low institutional efficiency and quality. However, despite a large stream of HE...... literature addressing those issues, there has been little attention to the link between funding-related problems and merger processes. Moreover, there is very little comparative research among different higher education systems experiencing those processes. In this paper, we map and characterize the recent...

  2. Optimal Admission to Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper constructs higher education admission rules that maximise graduation rates and thus increase the skill level of the work force. An application shows that students with a low level in mathematics in secondary school ought to find it easier to be admitted to an economics programme than...... to law or psychology programmes, even though economics is the most difficult programme from which to graduate without a strong background in mathematics. Indirect gains from optimal admission include the potential of making whole cohorts of students more able to graduate with a higher education degree....

  3. A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    of paraconsistent logics in knowledge-based systems, logical semantics of natural language, etc. Higher order logics have the advantages of being expressive and with several automated theorem provers available. Also the type system can be helpful. We present a concise description of a paraconsistent higher order...... of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...

  4. Flourine content of plants and animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, F; Kunita, H

    1973-06-01

    The fluoride content in the air can be measured by plant indicators, either by the extent of plant damage or by the cumulative fluoride content in the plant. The latter seems to be more effective when dealing with fluorine in the air, since a considerable amount of F accumulation in the plant sometimes does not manifest itself in damage. Leaves of gladioli are often used as indicators, but experiments have shown that the leaves of wild iris and flags are just as susceptible to F in the air. The pine and cedar needles and tulip and orange leaves are also sensitive indicators. The measurements of soluble fluorine in the air were taken for the past 5 years by the lime treated filter paper method and a dust meter in seven polluted areas, and the cumulative F content in the leaves of iris in these areas were compared with iris leaves in control areas. By the characteristic translocation of F, the tips and edges of leaves had much higher F content than other parts of the same plant. Approximately 1/3 of the measurements in those parts could be considered as a pollution index. The leaves taken from the most polluted areas showed approximately 80 times over the leaves from control areas in dry weight. Even 1/3 of the actual measurements was 100 ppm in dry weight, 30 ppm in raw weight. The produce in air polluted areas has 5-10 ppm F content in polished rice and green vegetables. If the daily consumption of rice is 308 g/capita, 3.08 mg of F is taken daily into the human body.

  5. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  6. Assessing Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to expose information educators to various aspects of cyberbullying for the purpose of policy development in an environment of higher education. The preponderance of nation-wide research on cyberbullying is concentrated on adolescents; such efforts in college campuses are limited to individual endeavors. Cyberbullying research on…

  7. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove

  8. Higher Education and European Regionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Speculates about the relationship between two fundamental social changes occurring in Europe: the development of a mass higher education system and the slow decay of the old states that were inherited from the 19th century, eroded from below by various movements for national and regional autonomy, and eroded from above by the growing power and…

  9. Information technologies in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, F.

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the use of Information Technologies in modern Higher Education. The author describes possible means of its application in the process of teaching English for students of Language Departments. Diverse online resources, advanced methods, progressive approaches are integral parts of modern teaching learning process in contemporary world and essential in strengthening language awareness and professional skills.

  10. OSHA: Implications for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Presented in this document are several articles concerning recommendations about the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) and its implications for higher education. It is time for an educated look at facilities and programs and the beginning of plans which, in the long run, will bring colleges and universities into compliance with…

  11. Project Management in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

  12. Wave equations in higher dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Shi-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Higher dimensional theories have attracted much attention because they make it possible to reduce much of physics in a concise, elegant fashion that unifies the two great theories of the 20th century: Quantum Theory and Relativity. This book provides an elementary description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions at an advanced level so as to put all current mathematical and physical concepts and techniques at the reader’s disposal. A comprehensive description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions and their broad range of applications in quantum mechanics is provided, which complements the traditional coverage found in the existing quantum mechanics textbooks and gives scientists a fresh outlook on quantum systems in all branches of physics. In Parts I and II the basic properties of the SO(n) group are reviewed and basic theories and techniques related to wave equations in higher dimensions are introduced. Parts III and IV cover important quantum systems in the framework of non-relativisti...

  13. The Opening of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkin, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    In a 1974 report presented to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Martin Trow laid out a framework for understanding large-scale, worldwide changes in higher education. Trow's essay also pointed to the problems that "arise out of the transition from one phase to another in a broad pattern of development of higher…

  14. Higher Education Evaluation in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; von Hippel, Aiga; Tippelt, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance in the area of higher education has become a central issue among both politicians and scientists. University evaluations which refer to both research and teaching are an important element of quality assurance. The present contribution starts out by determining the different components of quality at universities according to…

  15. Disability Studies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    As a topic of study, disability is not new at institutions of higher education. Psychological and intellectual disabilities have been of interest in psychiatry and psychology at least since the late 1800s and early 1900s. The post-World War II era, in particular, witnessed the rapid expansion of academic programs in special education, vocational…

  16. Optimal admission to higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    that documents the relevance of theory and illustrates how to apply optimal admission procedures. Indirect gains from optimal admission procedures include the potential for increasing entire cohorts of students' probability of graduating with a higher education degree, thereby increasing the skill level...

  17. Topologically Massive Higher Spin Gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, A.; Lal, S.; Saha, A.; Sahoo, B.

    2011-01-01

    We look at the generalisation of topologically massive gravity (TMG) to higher spins, specifically spin-3. We find a special "chiral" point for the spin-three, analogous to the spin-two example, which actually coincides with the usual spin-two chiral point. But in contrast to usual TMG, there is the

  18. Stakeholder Relationships in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a stakeholder map to describe the most important stakeholders and the process of stakeholder relationships in higher education. According to the perspective of the balanced scorecard, the classification of stakeholders integrates stakeholders into strategic management. Stakeholder maps are essential in…

  19. Today's Higher Education IT Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The professionals making up the current higher education IT workforce have been asked to adjust to a culture of increased IT consumerization, more sourcing options, broader interest in IT's transformative potential, and decreased resources. Disruptions that include the bring-your-own-everything era, cloud computing, new management practices,…

  20. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…