WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher extract yields

  1. Higher antibiotic yielding mutants of bacillus subtilis by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.; Shaukat, G.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    When Bacillus Subtilis AECL69 was grown in malt extract-pepetone-molasses-sugar (MPMS) medium, it could produce antibiotic substance(s) with antibacterial and antifungal properties in the culture fluid. The bacterial cells grown in MPMS medium were washed and suspended into distilled water and irradiated with gamma rays in Gammacell 220 at different doses. Higher antibiotic yielding isolates (plus mutants) were obtained from cell pollutions irradiated at 15 Kr. These gamma rays-induced plus mutants showed simultaneous higher production of antibacterial as well as antifungal activity. (author)

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Chunqi Li; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Institute for Energy Utilization

    2004-10-01

    The effect of water treatment at 500 and 600 K on solvent extractions of Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) coals was investigated. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly in the extractions with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent, NMP, or 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). However, the water treatments at 500 K and the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave only a slight increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were performed using ultimate and proximate compositions, Fourier transform infrared analysis, solvent swelling, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The swelling degree in methanol and toluene was increased by the water treatment at 600 K, suggesting that crosslinks become loosened by the treatment. The results of infrared analysis and the extraction temperature dependency of the extraction yields with NMP and 1-MN suggest that the loosening of {pi} - interactions, and of both {pi} - interactions and hydrogen bonds, are responsible for the yield enhancements for PO and UF coals, respectively. However, for IL coal, which exhibited a decrease in oxygen content and the amount of hydrogen-bonded OH, suggesting the occurrence of some chemical reactions, the yield enhancements may be due to the relaxation of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups, such as the breaking of ether bonds. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. The increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Iino; T. Takanohashi; C. Li; N. Kashimura; K. Masaki; T. Shishido; I. Saito; H. Kumagai [Institute for Energy Utilization, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    We have reported that the water treatments of bituminous coals at 600 K for 1 h increased their extraction yields greatly (Energy Fuels, 2005, 18, 1414). In this paper the effect of coal rank on the extraction yields enhancement by the water treatment has been investigated using four Argonne Premium coals, i.e., Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), Illinois No.6 (IL), and Beulah Zap (BZ) coals with C % (daf) in the range 67 - 90%. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly with a 1:1 carbon disulfide / N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone mixed solvent (CS2 / NMP) at room temperature. While, the water treatments at 500 K or the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave little increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were carried out from ultimate and proximate compositions, FT-IR spectrum, solvent swelling, NMR relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The effect of extraction temperature on the extraction yield enhancement was also investigated using polar NMP or non-polar 1-MN solvent. From these results it is concluded that for high coal rank coals the loosening of non-covalent bonds is responsible for the extraction yields enhancement by the water treatment. The loosening non-covalent bonds may be {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic rings for PO, and both {pi}-{pi} interactions and hydrogen bonds for UF. While, for lower rank IL and BZ, which showed decrease in O% and hydrogen-bonded OH, the yield enhancements may be due to the loosening of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Structure-process-yield interrelations in nanocrystalline cellulose extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, W.Y.; Hu, T.Q. [FPInnovations, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Paprican Div.

    2010-06-15

    An understanding of the effect of hydrolysis conditions on yields of extracted water-insoluble cellulose materials is needed in order to understand the full potential of the extracted materials and the extent of their applications. This study provided a detailed analysis of the extraction of highly crystalline water-insoluble cellulose nanomaterials from commercial bleached kraft pulps using a sulfuric acid hydrolysis process. The process-yield-structure interrelations of the extracted materials were evaluated. The reproducibility of the hydrolysis process was evaluated, and methods of optimizing the yield of the extracted nanomaterials were explored. A Ruland-Rietveld analysis was used to resolve X-ray diffraction patterns and characterize crystallite size, crystalline and amorphous areas, and to determine the crystallinity of the extracted materials. The study showed that sulfation determines the yield of the materials and imparts the unique solid-state characteristics of the nanomaterials. The nanomaterials possessed iridescent patterns typical of chiral nematic materials. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. Higher biomolecules yield in phytoplankton under copper exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline Carmo; Echeveste, Pedro; Lombardi, Ana Teresa

    2018-05-30

    Copper is an important metal for industry, and its toxic threshold in natural ecosystems has increased since the industrial revolution. As an essential nutrient, it is required in minute amounts, being toxic in slightly increased concentrations, causing great biochemical transformation in microalgae. This study aimed at investigating the physiology of Scenedesmus quadricauda, a cosmopolitan species, exposed to copper concentrations including those that trigger intracellular biochemical modifications. The Cu exposure concentrations tested ranged from 0.1 to 25 µM, thus including environmentally important levels. Microalgae cultures were kept under controlled environmental conditions and monitored daily for cell density, in vivo chlorophyll a, and photosynthetic quantum yield (Φ M ). After 24 h growth, free Cu 2+ ions were determined, and after 96 h, cellular Cu concentration, total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and cell volume were determined. The results showed that both free Cu 2+ ions and cellular Cu increased with Cu increase in culture medium. Microalgae cell abundance and in vivo chlorophyll a were mostly affected at 2.5 µM Cu exposure (3.8 pg Cu cell -1 ) and above. Approximately 31% decrease of photosynthetic quantum yield was obtained at the highest Cu exposure concentration (25 µM; 25 pg Cu cell -1 ) in comparison with the control. However, at environmentally relevant copper concentrations (0.5 µM Cu; 0.4 pg Cu cell -1 ) cell volume increased in comparison with the control. Considering biomolecules accumulation per unit cell volume, the highest carbohydrates and proteins yield was obtained at 1.0 µM Cu (1.1 pg Cu cell -1 ), while for lipids higher Cu was necessary (2.5 µM Cu; 3.8 pg Cu cell -1 ). This study is a contribution to the understanding of the effects of environmentally significant copper concentrations in the physiology of S. quadricauda, as well as to biotechnological approach to increase biomolecule yield in

  7. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction time was required for maximum yield at room temperature and a solvent/feed ratio of 1:1 (w/w). For fresh water (FW), nonstressed, nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans, 13.1 wt % of lipid extraction yield (based on dry algae mass) was achieved, which could be improved to 61.3 wt % for FW stressed algae after four extractions, illustrating that a combination of stressing the algae and applying the solvent N-ethylbutylamine in multiple stages of extraction results in almost 5 times higher yield and is very promising for further development of energy-efficient lipid extraction technology targeting nonbroken wet microalgae. PMID:28781427

  8. Natural colorants: Pigment stability and extraction yield enhancement via utilization of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamwonglumlert, Luxsika; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2017-10-13

    Natural colorants from plant-based materials have gained increasing popularity due to health consciousness of consumers. Among the many steps involved in the production of natural colorants, pigment extraction is one of the most important. Soxhlet extraction, maceration, and hydrodistillation are conventional methods that have been widely used in industry and laboratory for such a purpose. Recently, various non-conventional methods, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed-electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction have emerged as alternatives to conventional methods due to the advantages of the former in terms of smaller solvent consumption, shorter extraction time, and more environment-friendliness. Prior to the extraction step, pretreatment of plant materials to enhance the stability of natural pigments is another important step that must be carefully taken care of. In this paper, a comprehensive review of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods for chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, and anthocyanins, which are major classes of plant pigments, is provided by using pigment stability and extraction yield as assessment criteria.

  9. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves.

  10. New method to enhance the extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica using a novel ultrasonic extraction system by determining optimum ultrasonic frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianqing; Qu, Baida; Liu, Da; Zheng, Naiqin

    2015-11-01

    A new method has been proposed for enhancing extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica, in which a novel ultrasonic extraction system has been developed to perform the determination of optimum ultrasonic frequency by a two-step procedure. This study has systematically investigated the influence of a continuous frequency range of 20-92 kHz on rutin yields. The effects of different operating conditions on rutin yields have also been studied in detail such as solvent concentration, solvent to solid ratio, ultrasound power, temperature and particle size. A higher extraction yield was obtained at the ultrasonic frequency of 60-62 kHz which was little affected under other extraction conditions. Comparative studies between existing methods and the present method were done to verify the effectiveness of this method. Results indicated that the new extraction method gave a higher extraction yield compared with existing ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and soxhlet extraction (SE). Thus, the potential use of this method may be promising for extraction of natural materials on an industrial scale in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Extractability, plant yield and toxicity thresholds for boron in compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinton, W.F.; Evans, E.; Blewett, C. [Woods End Labs Inc., Mt. Vernon, ME (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Boron (B) is a trace element essential to crop growth in small soil concentrations (0.2-1.5ppm), yet may produce plant toxicity symptoms readily as the amount in the soil solution increases over 2ppm. Our study examined commercial compost made with coal fly-ash used to prepare growing media for cultivars of varying sensitivity (corn, beans, cucumber, peas). We examined total vs. extractable boron content and relate final visual symptoms of B-toxicity to yields and tissue concentrations. Visual toxicity effects included tip burn (corn), leaf mottling and necrosis (beans and peas) and leaf mottling and cupping (cucumbers). Fly ash added to compost increased hot-water soluble (HWS) B in proportion to rate and in dependence on pH, with 30% and 10% of total-B expressed as HWS-B at a media pH of 6 and 7.5, respectively. Biomass for bean and cucumber was significantly reduced by 45 to 55%, respectively, by addition of 33% fly-ash compost to growing media (28ppm total-B) while plant tissue-B increased by 6- to 4-fold, respectively. Economic yield depressions in compost media are evident for all crops and appeared at levels of HWS-B in compost media exceeding 5 ppm. The study underscores the need for careful management of exogenous factors that may be present in composts and suggests detailed understanding of media-pH and cultivar preferences may be required in preparation of growing media in order to reduce potential negative growth effects.

  12. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M; Petruczynik, A; Dragan, A; Wianowska, D; Dawidowicz, A L

    2004-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the extraction and analysis of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. have been determined. The following extraction methods were used: exhaustive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonication at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed systems, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases the yields of furanocoumarins were highest using the ASE method. The effects of extracting solvent, temperature and time of extraction using this method were investigated. The highest yield of furanocoumarins by ASE was obtained with methanol at 100-130 degrees C for 10 min. The extraction yields of furanocoumarins from plant material by ultrasonication at 60 degrees C and microwave-assisted solvent extraction in an open system were comparable to the extraction yields obtained in the time- and solvent-consuming exhaustive process involving the Soxhlet apparatus.

  14. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT.

  15. Effect of acid treatment on thermal extraction yield in ashless coal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunqi Li; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Yoshida; Ikuo Saito; Hideki Aoki; Kiyoshi Mashimo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan). Institute for Energy Utilization

    2004-04-01

    Coals of different ranks were acid-treated in aqueous methoxyethoxy acetic acid (MEAA), acetic acid (AA), and HCl. The acid-treated coals were extracted with polar N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and nonpolar 1-methylnaphthalene (1MN) solvents at temperatures from 200 to 360{sup o}C for 10 60 min. The thermal extraction yields with NMP for some acid-treated low-rank coals increased greatly; for example, the extraction yield for Wyodak coal (%C; 75.0%) increased from 58.4% for the raw coal to 82.9% for coal treated in 1.0 M MEAA. Conversely, the extraction yields changed minimally for all the acid-treated coals extracted in 1-MN. The type and concentration of acid affected the extraction yield when NMP was used as the extraction solvent. With increasing MEAA concentration from 0.01 to 0.1 M, the extraction yield for Wyodak coal increased from 66.3 to 81.4%, and subsequently did not change clearly with concentration. Similar changes in the extraction yield with acid concentration were also observed with AA and HCl. The de-ashing ratio for coals acid-treated in MEAA, AA, and HCl also increased greatly with concentration from 0.01 to 0.1 M, which corresponded to the change in the thermal extraction yield in NMP. For the acid-treated coals, high extraction yields were obtained at lower extraction temperatures and shorter extraction times than for the raw coal. The mechanisms for the acid treatment and thermal extraction are discussed. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Influence of the extraction mode on the yield of some furanocoumarins from Pastinaca sativa fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Petruczynik, Anna; Dragan, Anna; Wianowska, Dorota; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Sowa, Ireneusz

    2004-02-05

    Analysis of plant material is an important task in chemotaxonomical investigations, in search of plants with pharmacological activity or in standardisation of plant drugs. The choice of optimal conditions for the analysis of plant material and effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from Pastinaca sativa fruits were examined. The following extraction methods were used in experiments: exhaustive extraction in Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonification (USAE) at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed system (MASE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases, the yield of furanocoumarins was highest by use of ASE method as well as by ultrasonification at 60 degrees C.

  17. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  18. Effect of extraction temperature on the yield and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical properties of the extracted oil at the two temperatures of 55oC and 65oC are as follows: Saponification value of 156.61 and 199.62; acid value of 12.53 and 14.40; iodine value (mg iodine/100g) of 55.23 and 52.36; peroxide value of 8.55 and 7.59 and free fatty acid (mg KOH/g) of 6.26 and 7.20 respectively.

  19. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving extraction efficiency of the third integer resonant extraction using higher order multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tomizawa, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-03-09

    The new accelerator complex at J-PARC will operate with both high energy and very high intensity proton beams. With a design slow extraction efficiency of greater than 99% this facility will still be depositing significant beam power onto accelerator components [2]. To achieve even higher efficiencies requires some new ideas. The design of the extraction system and the accelerator lattice structure leaves little room for improvement using conventional techniques. In this report we will present one method for improving the slow extraction efficiency at J-PARC by adding duodecapoles or octupoles to the slow extraction system. We will review the theory of resonant extraction, describe simulation methods, and present the results of detailed simulations. From our investigations we find that we can improve extraction efficiency and thereby reduce the level of residual activation in the accelerator components and surrounding shielding.

  1. Influence of different extraction methods on the yield and linalool content of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhiane, Mário S; Rissato, Sandra R; Chierice, Gilberto O; Almeida, Marcos V; Silva, Letícia C

    2006-09-15

    This work has been developed using a sylvestral fruit tree, native to the Brazilian forest, the Eugenia uniflora L., one of the Mirtaceae family. The main goal of the analytical study was focused on extraction methods themselves. The method development pointed to the Clevenger extraction as the best yield in relation to SFE and Soxhlet. The SFE method presented a good yield but showed a big amount of components in the final extract, demonstrating low selectivity. The essential oil extracted was analyzed by GC/FID showing a large range of polarity and boiling point compounds, where linalool, a widely used compound, was identified. Furthermore, an analytical solid phase extraction method was used to clean it up and obtain separated classes of compounds that were fractionated and studied by GC/FID and GC/MS.

  2. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  3. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  4. Post-weaning feed efficiency decreased in progeny of higher milk yielding beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; McFarlane, Z D; Cope, E R

    2018-02-01

    Current trends in the beef industry focus on selecting production traits with the purpose of maximizing calf weaning weight; however, such traits may ultimately decrease overall post-weaning productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of actual milk yield in mature beef cows on their offspring's dry matter intake (DMI), BW, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) during a ~75-day backgrounding feeding trial. A period of 24-h milk production was measured with a modified weigh-suckle-weigh technique using a milking machine. After milking, cows were retrospectively classified as one of three milk yield groups: Lower (6.57±1.21 kg), Moderate (9.02±0.60 kg) or Higher (11.97±1.46 kg). Calves from Moderate and Higher milk yielding dams had greater (Pfeeding phase; however, day 75 BW were not different (P=0.36) between Lower and Moderate calves. Body weight gain was greater (P=0.05) for Lower and Moderate calves from the day 0 BW to day 35 BW compared with Higher calves. Overall DMI was lower (P=0.03) in offspring from Lower and Moderate cows compared with their Higher milking counterparts. With the decreased DMI, FCR was lower (P=0.03) from day 0 to day 35 in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams. In addition, overall FCR was lower (P=0.02) in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams compared with calves from Higher milk yielding dams. However, calving of Lower milk yielding dams had an increased (P=0.04) efficiency from a negative RFI value compared with calves from Moderate and Higher milking dams. Results from this study suggest that increased milk production in beef cows decreases feed efficiency during a 75-day post-weaning, backgrounding period of progeny.

  5. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Comparison of different methods for extraction from Tetraclinis articulata: yield, chemical composition and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzi, Nejia; Bouajila, Jalloul; Camy, Séverine; Romdhane, Mehrez; Condoret, Jean-Stéphane

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, three techniques of extraction: hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (conventional 'Soxhlet' technique) and an innovative technique, i.e., the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), were applied to ground Tetraclinis articulata leaves and compared for extraction duration, extraction yield, and chemical composition of the extracts as well as their antioxidant activities. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using two methods: ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•). The yield obtained using HD, SFE, hexane and ethanol Soxhlet extractions were found to be 0.6, 1.6, 40.4 and 21.2-27.4 g/kg respectively. An original result of this study is that the best antioxidant activity was obtained with an SFE extract (41 mg/L). The SFE method offers some noteworthy advantages over traditional alternatives, such as shorter extraction times, low environmental impact, and a clean, non-thermally-degraded final product. Also, a good correlation between the phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity was observed with extracts obtained by SFE at 9 MPa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of heating temperature on cytotoxicity and α-mangostin yield: Mangosteen pericarp juice and mangosteen extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Hasanah, Fitria; Krisanti, Elsa A.

    2018-03-01

    The pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) contains bioactive xanthones, with α-mangostin being the major component, has been known to possess antitumor, antiviral, and other pharmacological activities. In this study, the effect of elevated temperature during the preparation step of fresh mangosteen pericarp juice and mangosteen extract, on their α-mangostin yield and cytotoxicities was investigated. The cytotoxicity activity of fresh juice and mangosteen extract was investigated using the brine shrimp test. Heating the fresh pericarp mangosteen in water at 65°C for 30 minutes prior to blending produced a juice with higher α-mangostin yield and cytotoxicity compared to the traditional way of blending the juice at room temperature. Increasing α-mangostin yield of 9%-w/w due to heating was also observed when mangosteen extract was heated at 65°C, consistent with the increased cytotoxicity in terms of LC50 value. It is concluded that the effect of temperature on α-mangostin yield was in line with the temperature effect on cytotoxicity activity in all samples of pericarp juice and mangosteen extract in ethyl acetate fraction.

  8. Preparative yield and properties of humic acids obtained by sequential alkaline extractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Konstantinov, A. I.; Perminova, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The preparative yield, composition, and structure of humic acids obtained by sequential alkaline extractions from two soils (a soddy-podzolic soil under forest and a typical chernozem in treatment with permanent black fallow of a long-term experiment since 1964) have been studied. The preparative yield of humic acids from the first extraction is 0.40 and 0.94% for the soddy-podzolic soil (Retisols) and the chernozem, respectively. The preparative yield from the second extraction is lower by several times, and the yield from the third extraction is lower by an order of magnitude. The study of the obtained preparations by elemental analysis, gel-permeation chromatography, and 13C NMR spectroscopy has shown insignificant changes in the elemental, molecular-weight, and structural-group composition of humic acids among the extractions. It has been supposed that this is related to the soil features: typical climatic factors for the formation of soil subtype in the case of soddy-podzolic soil and the land use in the long-term experiment in the case of typical chernozem. It has been concluded that that a single extraction is sufficient for the separation of humic acids and the preparation of a representative sample.

  9. Optimizing rate of nitrogen application for higher growth and yield of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Asim, A.; Ahmad, W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the nitrogen rates in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for obtaining higher grain yield, a split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was conducted in the research field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2006-07. Among treatments nitrogen levels (N0= 0, N/sub 1/= 50, N2= 100, N3= 150 kg ha/sup -1/) in main while wheat cultivars (V1= Punjnad-I, V/sub 2/= Fareed-2006, V3=Uqab-2000) were allocated in sub plots during the course of growing season. Traits as plant height, fertile tillers, spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight, straw yield, grain yield and harvest index (HI) were significantly (P=0.05) affected by treatment combinations. Maximum grain yield was obtained by V3 (Uqab-2000) cultivar when treated with N3 (150 kg ha/sup -1/) fertilizer level. Also, results showed that with increasing nitrogen rates, wheat yield increases significantly up to a level of significance (P=0.05). Increasing nitrogen levels led to significantly increase in plant height (101.81 cm), spike bearing tillers (495.77), grains spike/sup -1/ (61.45), straw yield (8.60 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (36.17%) of V3 (Uqab-2000). In all traits except germination count, V3 (Uqab-2000) was found to be superior. (author)

  10. Improvement of lipid yield from microalgae Spirulina platensis using ultrasound assisted osmotic shock extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetya, NP; Hadiyanto, H.

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp. has been identified as potential source of natural food supplement and food colorant. The high water content of microalgae (70-90%) causes an obstacle in biomass dehydration which requires large amounts of energy, eventually damaging the lipid in the microalgae. Therefore, the lipid must be extracted by using a suitable method which complies to wet biomass conditions. One of the methods is applying osmotic shock. This study was aimed to investigate the influence of osmotic agent (NaCl) concentration (10-30%) and extraction time (20-50 min) on yield of lipid and also to determine the optimal conditions in the extraction process through response surface methodology. The extraction was conducted at a temperature of 40°C under ultrasound frequency of 40 kHz. The result showed that the optimum yield lipid obtained was 6.39% in 16.98% NaCl concentration for 36 minutes 10 seconds.

  11. Influence of calcium carbonate on extraction yield and quality of extra virgin oil from olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Coratina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeo, G; Silletti, R; Summo, C; Paradiso, V M; Pasqualone, A; Caponio, F

    2016-10-15

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of calcium carbonate (1%, 2%, and 4% of addition) at two different particle sizes (2.7μm and 5.7μm), added at the beginning of the malaxation phase, on both the extraction yield and the quality of oil obtained from Coratina olives at different ripening index. The results showed that calcium carbonate significantly increased the extraction yield of olive oil, more than affecting chemical indices. In particular, for less ripened olives, 1-2% of larger particle size calcium carbonate addiction determined a significant increase of the extraction effectiveness, ranging from 4.0 to 4.9%, while more ripened olives required higher amounts of coadjuvant (2-4% when using the larger particle size and 4% when using the smaller one), with a significant increase of the extraction yield up to 5%. Moreover, an increase of pungent perception was observed in some cases when adding calcium carbonate to more ripened olives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kyung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun-Jin [Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  13. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhanguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome, and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared genomic DNA. A variety of DNA preparation methods and commercial kits are available. However, they are either low throughput, low yield, or costly. Here, we describe a method for high throughput genomic DNA isolation from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] leaves and dry seeds with high yield, high quality, and affordable cost. Results We developed a high throughput DNA isolation method by combining a high yield CTAB extraction method with an improved cleanup procedure based on MagAttract kit. The method yielded large quantity and high quality DNA from both lyophilized sorghum leaves and dry seeds. The DNA yield was improved by nearly 30 fold with 4 times less consumption of MagAttract beads. The method can also be used in other plant species, including cotton leaves and pine needles. Conclusion A high throughput system for DNA extraction from sorghum leaves and seeds was developed and validated. The main advantages of the method are low cost, high yield, high quality, and high throughput. One person can process two 96-well plates in a working day at a cost of $0.10 per sample of magnetic beads plus other consumables that other methods will also need.

  14. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Ying; Schuur, Boelo; Brilman, Derk W.F.

    2017-01-01

    (Graph Presented) The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction

  15. Comparative role of neem seed extract, moringa leaf extract and imidacloprid in the management of wheat aphids in relation to yield losses in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Farhan Mahmood; Razaq, Muhammad; Ali, Abid; Han, Peng; Chen, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Wheat being staple food of Pakistan is constantly attacked by major wheat aphid species, Schizaphis graminum (R.), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.). Due to concern on synthetic chemical use in wheat, it is imperative to search for alternative environment- and human- friendly control measures such as botanical pesticides. In the present study, we evaluated the comparative role of neem seed extract (NSE), moringa leaf extract (MLE) and imidacloprid (I) in the management of the aphid as well as the yield losses parameters in late planted wheat fields. Imidacloprid reduced significantly aphids infestation compared to the other treatments, hence resulting in higher yield, particularly when applied with MLE. The percentages of yield increase in I+MLE treated plots over the control were 19.15-81.89% for grains per spike, 5.33-37.62% for thousand grain weight and 27.59-61.12% for yield kg/ha. NSE was the second most effective control measure in suppressing aphid population, but the yield protected by NSE treatment over the control was comparable to that by imidacloprid. Population densities of coccinellids and syrphids in the plots treated with NSE-2 were higher than those treated with imidacloprid in two out of three experiments during 2013-14. Low predator density in imidacloprid-treated plots was attributed to the lower availability of prey aphids. The efficacy of NSE against aphids varied depending on degree of synchronization among the application timing, the activity of aphids, crop variety and environmental conditions. Despite that, we suggested NSE to be a promising alternative botanical insecticide compared to the most commonly recommended imidiacloprid. Further studies should consider the side effects of biopesticides on non-target organisms in order to provide better management practices in the field.

  16. The effect of the operation conditions and the extraction techniques on the yield, kinetics and composition of methanol extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal operational extraction conditions were determined by investigating the influence of the methanol concentration, solvomodule and temperature of the maceration extraction on the yield and kinetics of total extractive matter, chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Hieracium pilosella L. Based on the results of Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction kinetics investigations of the total extractive matter and the components under the optimal maceration operation conditions it was found that the highest yields of the extractive matter and investigated bioactive components extracted from the dry plant material were obtained by using the Soxhlet extraction method. The contents of chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside in the extracts were determined by HPLC method. Chlorogenic acid is the component with the highest share in all the extracts.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of ginger (Zingiber Officinale Var. Amarum) : Global yield and composition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Sulaswatty, Anny; Agustian, Egi; Salahuddin, Aditama, Deska Prayoga Fauzi

    2017-11-01

    An experiment to observe the effect of temperature and time process in ginger rhizome-Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) using CO2 as the solvent has been conducted. The ginger rhizome (Zingiber Officinale Var. Amarum) was washed, drained, sliced, sun-dried, and then stored in a sealed bag prior to usage. The temperature and time process variables are each 35, 40, 45°C and 2, 4, 6 hours respectively with the pressure variable are 3500, 4000, and 4500 psi. It is found that the highest yield (2.9%) was achieved using temperature of 40°C and pressure of 4500 psiwith the process time of 4 hours. However, using the curve-fitting method, it is suggested to use 42°C as the temperature and 5 hours, 7 minutes, and 30 seconds (5.125 Hours) as the time process to obtain the highest yield. The temperature changes will affect both solvent and vapor pressure of diluted compounds of the ginger which will influence the global yield and the composition of the extract. The three major components of the extract are curcumene, zingiberene, and β - sesquipellandrene,

  18. Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2015-01-15

    The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2 kV/cm; 11.25 kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integral centrifuges for olive oil extraction, at the third millenium threshold. Transformation yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, Alfonso

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available A new-two, phase "decanter" (able to centrifuge the oily pastes without previous addition of hot water was compared with a three-phase one, processing homogeneous lots of three olive varieties (Coratina, Nebbio and Grossa di Cassano at an industrial level. The results showed that the integral centrifuge frequently yielded higher oil outputs. Furthermore, as the vegetation water was not separated from the husk, the amount liquid effluent produced was much lower (about 10 Kg/q olives, on average. This goes towards solving the age-old and very difficult problems connected with the production of this highly polluting outflow. However, the olive cake obtained semi-liquid (with about 55-60% of moisture, making the industrial recovery of the residual oil difficult and expensive. Furthermore, the solid by-product was characterized by higher percentage values of the oil amount, higher values of the pulp/stone ratio, as well as the greater weight produced. The effluent produced in small quantities, besides being more concentrated and thus richer in fat, dry residue, phenols and o-diphenols. The COD and turbidity values were also higher. Finally, as will be referred to in detail in the second part of this work, the oils obtained were of a far higher quality, mainly for their lower oxidizability and better organoleptic characteristic, so that they are wholly comparable to those extracted by pressing or filtering. In addition, the significant reduction of processing costs, as well as the lower consumption of hot water and electrical energy, must also be emphasized.

    El nuevo "decanter", a dos fases (capaz de centrifugar la pasta oleosa sin la dilución previa con agua caliente ha sido confrontado con el de a tres fases, elaborando, a nivel industrial, partidas homogéneas de tres variedades de aceitunas (Coratina, Nebbio y Grossa di Cassano. Los resultados de investigación han puesto de manifiesto que las centrifugadoras integrales permiten obtener

  20. The effect of the extraction techniques on the kinetics, yield and antioxidative activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanojević, Ljiljana P.; Stanković, Mihajlo Z.; Veljković, Vlada; Cakić, Milorad D.; Nikolić, Vesna D.; Ilić, Dušica P.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of three extraction techniques (Reflux maceration, Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction) on the kinetics, yield and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Hieracium pilosella L. was investigated. The antioxidant activity of the extracts on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the total flavonoids content was measured by spectrophotometric...

  1. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  2. Influence of the extraction mode on the yield of hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside from Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Emanuela; Collina, Simona; Rossi, Daniela; Bazzoni, Deborah; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Bracco, Francesco; Azzolina, Ornella

    2008-01-01

    The extract of Crataegus monogyna shows sedative, hypotensive, vasodilator and cardio-tonic actions. Although several papers dealing with the extraction of metabolites from Crataegus have been published, the plant productivity in terms of bioactive compounds is not easily understandable as yet. To investigate the influence of the extraction mode on the yield of bioactive compounds from Crataegus monogyna Jacq. in order to evaluate plant productivity. Samples were prepared by extraction of powdered material obtained from top branches, flowers and leaves. Soxhlet extraction, maceration and ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction at different experimental conditions were investigated for the exhaustive extraction of hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside. The phytocomponents were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV/PAD, comparing HPLC retention times and UV spectra of individual peaks with those of the standards analysed under the same conditions. An easy-to-use HPLC isocratic method suitable for the quantification of hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside in raw plant extracts was developed. The optimised HPLC methodology was applied to evaluate different extraction procedures. The ultrasound and microwave-assisted extraction protocols showed higher extraction efficiency than the others. In particular, the optimised microwave protocol gave rise to the highest extraction efficiency with high reproducibility. A microwave protocol combined with isocratic HPLC analysis is proposed for the rapid screening of plant materials collected in different environmental conditions in order to evaluate the productivity of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and to find out the best ecological conditions to cultivate hawthorn in Northern Italy.

  3. A physical design of extracting/accelerating system for a neutron tube with yields of 1.5 X 1010 n/s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjie; Li Zhongmin; Dong Aiping; Tian Shengjun

    2000-01-01

    A new screened type of extracting/accelerating system that accelerates ion beam up to 1.1 mA and 180 kV based on the requirements of high-yield neutron tube is described. The optimization of structure has been realized and a neutron yield of more than 1.5 x 10 10 n/s has reached. The long-term practices prove this physical design is rational and lays a foundation for developing neutron tubes with still higher yield

  4. Pretreatment of cottonseed flakes with proteases and an amylase for higher oil yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanein, Minar M.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of enzymatic pretreatment of cottonseed flakes on oil extractability was studied. The enzymes investigated included bacterial protease (Bp, papain (Pa, savinase (S, termamyl (T, pectinase (Pe and cellulase (C. The variables studied during the enzymatic hydrolysis experiments were: enzyme concentration, moisture: cottonseed flakes ratio, and time of hydrolysis. Enzymatic hydrolysis experiments were first carried out with a single enzyme, then with enzyme mixtures formulated according to the results of single enzyme treatments. Results were evaluated based on the relative increase in oil extractability, and some oil characteristics in comparison with untreated cottonseed flakes (control. Pretreatment with enzyme mixtures resulted in a relative increase in oil extractability that was higher than single enzyme pretreatment and the control. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (at 5% level between the control and all enzymatically treated oils as well as among different enzymatically treated oils. The relative increase in oil extractability due to pretreatment with enzyme mixtures were in the following order: S: Pe: Bp>S: P>S: C: Pe>S: Bp>S:T>S: C >S: Pa with values 44.9%, 38.9%, 37.1%, 34.9%, 30.1%, 28.9%, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment of cottonseed flakes resulted in oils with fatty acid composition, acid value, iodine value and peroxide values that were generally comparable to the control.En este trabajo se estudió el efecto del pretratamiento con enzimas sobre la extractabilidad del aceite en hojuelas de semilla de algodón. Las enzimas que se investigaron fueron proteasa bacteriana (Bp, papaína (Pa, savinasa (S, temamil (T, pectinasa (Pe y celulasa (C. Las variables estudiadas durante los experimentos de hidrólisis enzimática fueron: concentración de la enzima, ratio humedad:cantidad de hojuelas y tiempo de hidrólisis. Estos experimentos se realizaron primeramente con una sola enzima y posteriormente con

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joog-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-11-15

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, {alpha}-pinene, camphene, {alpha}-limonene, {beta}-eudesmol, {alpha}-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as {beta}-eudesmol, {alpha}-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joog-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2007-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, α-pinene, camphene, α-limonene, β-eudesmol, α-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation

  7. Time of harvest affects the yield of soluble polysaccharides extracted enzymatically from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Helle Christine; Sørensen, Ole Bandsholm; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    properties as bifidogenic prebiotic fibers. The potato starch processing campaign is based on processing of fresh potatoes (in Denmark the campaign lasts from September to December). This study examines the effect of time of harvest and processing during the campaign on the yield of enzymatically solubilized...... fibers; this outcome may be the result of an inherent effect of the higher maturity of the potatoes late in the campaign....

  8. A new biocompatible microemulsion increases extraction yield and bioavailability of Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Niu, Xin; Feng, Qian-Jin; Yang, Xue-Zhi; Wang, Dan-Wei; Zhao, Tong; Li, Lei; DU, Hong

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and prepare a biocompatible microemulsion of Andrographis paniculata (BMAP) containing both fat-soluble and water-soluble constituents. We determined the contents of active constituents of BMAP and evaluated its bioavailability. The biocompatible microemulsion (BM), containing lecithin and bile salts, was optimized in the present study, showing a good physical stability. The mean droplet size was 19.12 nm, and the average polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.153. The contents of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide in BMAP, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were higher than that in ethanol extraction. The pharmacokinetic results of BMAP showed that the AUC0-7 and AUC0→∞ values of BMAP were 2.267 and 27.156 μg·mL(-1)·h(-1), respectively, and were about 1.41-fold and 6.30-fold greater than that of ethanol extraction, respectively. These results demonstrated that the bioavailability of and rographolide extracted by BMAP was significantly higher than that extracted by ethanol. In conclusion, the BMAP preparation displayed ann improved dose form for future clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved rapeseed oil extraction yield and quality via cold separation of ethanol miscella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citeau Morgane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the extraction of vegetable oils, the idea of using ethanol as a solvent, allowing solvent recycling without distillation, can be attested as early as 1948 (Beckel, yet it is now seldom envisaged. The development of organic farming and a growing demand for a more natural diet prompted us to revisit this approach, which takes advantage of the relatively low affinity of ethanol for lipids to produce pure crude oils and meal with higher protein content. This method is based on the change of oil solubility in ethanol with temperature. Rapeseed oil extraction was carried out by hot pressurized ethanol (subcritical extraction condition. Oil was then recovered by cooling the miscella and demixing of two phases, an oil-rich phase and a solvent-rich phase. This study, after verifying the kinetics of extraction, focused on the optimization of the demixing temperature based on the amount and quality of recovered oil. The results show that ethanol extraction followed by cold demixing of the miscella makes it possible to obtain a high quality oil, free of free fatty acids and phospholipids.

  10. Allelopathic sorghum water extract helps to improve yield of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.; Khan, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Allelopathy provides eco-friendly environment in managing weeds by reducing the use of synthetic herbicides that cause environmental pollution and herbicide resistance problems. Therefore, weeds have been controlling by plant derived organic compounds as an alternative of inorganic herbicides since the last two decades. In this study, sorghum aqueous extracts were applied individually as well as accumulatively with reduced levels of Dual Gold at the rate (S-Metolachlor) as foliar sprays in sunflower at 50, 70 and 90 DAS. For comparison, standard level of S-Metolachlor was also applied as foliar sprays along with weedy check. The highest reduction of total weed density (93.7%) was recorded by three sprays of sorghum aqueous extracts at rate of 15 L/ha mixed with 1/3rd S-Metolachlor at 1.6 L/ha as foliar applications. This reduction rate was statistically similar to one that was obtained by standard level of S-Metolachlor (1.6 L/ha). The highest achene yield was achieved by applying three foliar sprays of aqueous sorghum extracts along with reduced doses of S-Metolachlor, which was almost similar to full recommended dose of S-Metolachlor. These findings demonstrate that allelopathy offers environment friendly and economical opportunity for weed control in sunflower reducing the dependence and cost of herbicides. (author)

  11. Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as affected by prior autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senphan, Theeraphol; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2012-09-15

    Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) subjected to autolysis at 60°C for different times (0, 30, 60, 90 120 and 150 min) were investigated. Extraction yield increased from 7.4% to 8.8% as autolysis time increased from 0 to 150 min. Coincidental increase in total carotenoid content was obtained with increasing autolysis time (pautolysis time increased (pautolysis (p>0.05), but subsequently increased up to 150 min. (pautolysis were observed. Lipids extracted contained docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6(n-3)) as the most abundant fatty acid, followed by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5(n-3)). Therefore, prior autolysis at 60°C for 60 min increased the extraction yield without negative effect on lipid quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extracts obtained using various techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Mara E M; Leal, Patrícia F; Carvalho, João E; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-10-22

    Turmeric extracts were obtained from two lots of raw material (M and S) using various techniques: hydrodistillation, low pressure solvent extraction, Soxhlet, and supercritical extraction using carbon dioxide and cosolvents. The solvents and cosolvents tested were ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, and their mixture in equal proportions. The composition of the extracts was determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and UV. The largest yield (27%, weight) was obtained in the Soxhlet extraction (turmeric (S), ethanol = 1:100); the lowest yield was detected in the hydrodistillation process (2.1%). For the supercritical extraction, the best cosolvent was a mixture of ethanol and isopropyl alcohol. Sixty percent of the light fraction of the extracts consisted of ar-turmerone, (Z)-gamma-atlantone, and (E)-gamma-atlantone, except for the Soxhlet extracts (1:100, ethanol), for which only ar-turmeronol and (Z)-alpha-atlantone were detected. The maximum amount of curcuminoids (8.43%) was obtained using Soxhlet extraction (ethanol/isopropyl alcohol). The Soxhlet and low pressure extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities.

  13. Effects of extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Dong, Fengying; Liu, Xiaocui; Lv, Qian; YingYang; Liu, Fei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Tiantian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-04-20

    This study was to investigate the effects of different extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii) mycelia. Five extraction methods were used to extract crude polysaccharides (CPS), which include room-temperature water extraction (RWE), hot-water extraction (HWE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and cellulase-assisted extraction (CAE). Then Sephadex G-100 was used for purification of CPS. As a result, the antitumor activities of CPS and PPS on S180 cells were evaluated. Five CPS and purified polysaccharides (PPS) were obtained. The yield of CPS by microwave-assisted extraction (CPSMAE) was the highest and its anti-tumor activity was the best and its macromolecular polysaccharide (3000-1000kDa) ratio was the largest. The PPS had the same monosaccharide composition, but their obvious difference was in the antitumor activity and the physicochemical characteristics, such as intrinsic viscosity, specific rotation, scanning electron microscopy and circular dichroism spectra. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Postoperative ocular higher-order aberrations and contrast sensitivity: femtosecond lenticule extraction versus pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Deborah K L; Tay, Wan Ting; Chan, Cordelia; Tan, Donald T H; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate and compare changes in contrast sensitivity and ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) after femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore. Retrospective case series. Patients had femtosecond lenticule extraction (Group 1) or pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction (Group 2) between March 2010 and December 2011. The main outcome measures were manifest refraction, HOAs, and contrast sensitivity 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Fifty-two consecutive patients (102 eyes) were recruited, 21 patients (42 eyes) in Group 1 and the 31 patients (60 eyes) in Group 2. The uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities were significantly better in Group 2 than in Group 1 at 12 months (P = .032). There was no significant increase in 3rd- or 4th-order aberrations at 1 year and no significant difference between the 2 groups preoperatively or postoperatively. At 1 year, there was a significant increase in mesopic contrast sensitivity in Group 2 at 1.5 cycles per degree (cpd) (P = .008) that was not found in Group 1, and photopic contrast sensitivity at 6.0 cpd was higher in Group 2 (P = .027). These results indicate that refractive lenticule extraction is safe and effective with no significant induction of HOAs or deterioration in contrast sensitivity at 1 year. Induction of HOAs was not significantly different between both variants of refractive lenticule extraction. However, there was significant improvement in photopic contrast sensitivity after pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction, which persisted through 1 year. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A higher yielding mutant of black gram with improved nodule formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Dry seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo (L) Hopper) var. T 9 with 12.2% moisture content were irradiated at 10, 20 and 30 krad of gamma rays. This was followed by combined treatment of one set in each dose with freshly prepared 0. 25% EMS in phosphate buffer at 7.0 pH at 30± deg. C for 6 hours. In M 2 population of 20 krad two mutants with pentafoliate instead of trifoliate leaves were found. This character was true breeding in M 3 M 6 generation. Crosses revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of this character. The proposed gene symbol is p5. This mutant has normal maturity period and the plant height is the same as T 9 (ca. 50 cm). Preliminary yield trials indicate superiority of the mutant line over control. The mutant line also shows a significant improvement in number and weight of root nodules, potentially improving green manuring value. Improvement of root nodulation in mungbean mutants was reported before by others

  16. A higher yielding mutant of black gram with improved nodule formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R K; Raghuvanshi, S S [Plant Genetic Unit, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow (India)

    1987-07-01

    Dry seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo (L) Hopper) var. T{sub 9} with 12.2% moisture content were irradiated at 10, 20 and 30 krad of gamma rays. This was followed by combined treatment of one set in each dose with freshly prepared 0. 25% EMS in phosphate buffer at 7.0 pH at 30{+-} deg. C for 6 hours. In M{sub 2} population of 20 krad two mutants with pentafoliate instead of trifoliate leaves were found. This character was true breeding in M{sub 3} M{sub 6} generation. Crosses revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of this character. The proposed gene symbol is p5. This mutant has normal maturity period and the plant height is the same as T{sub 9} (ca. 50 cm). Preliminary yield trials indicate superiority of the mutant line over control. The mutant line also shows a significant improvement in number and weight of root nodules, potentially improving green manuring value. Improvement of root nodulation in mungbean mutants was reported before by others.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the extraction yield, antioxidant, and antityrosinase activities of pistachio green hull extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Ali; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory of non-irradiated and irradiated pistachio green hull (PGH) extracts were investigated. After irradiation of PGH by different doses of gamma ray (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy), their phenolic compounds were extracted by water. Antioxidant activities of extracts were examined by DPPH• and FRAP methods. The results showed that irradiation not only do not have negative effects on antioxidant activity but also it can increase the amount of total phenolic compounds of water extract in comparison with non-irradiated sample. Water extract of irradiated PGH at the dose of 30 kGy, showed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH° test with EC50 equal to 289.0 ± 1.2 μg/ml. Irradiated (30 kGy) and non-irradiated water extracts had the highest antityrosinase activities with IC50 of 10.8 ± 1.1 and 11.9 ± 1.2 μg phenolic/ml, respectively. In addition, it was found that the water extract of irradiated PGH can prevent enzymatic browning in sliced raw potatoes. According to the antityrosinase potential of PGH extract, it may be suggested as an antibrowning agent in some foodstuffs or cosmetic products.

  18. Allelopathy of weed extracts on yield and its components in four cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MOHADESI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Weeds are enemies to the crop plants and have harmful effects on agricultural crops due to several factors such as competition for space, light and nutrients. Allelopathic effects of weed extracts were studied on grain yield and yield components of rice. The experiment was carried out in the Rice Research Institute of Chaparsar, in 2006- 2007, in Tonekabon, Iran (latitude 36°54’ N, longitude 50° 40’E, level -20 m altitude, split plot on basis of randomized completely block design (RCBD with 4 replications. Results showed highly significant differences suggesting substantial to moderate phenotypic variability in most parameters evaluated except number of empty grain and 1000 -grain weight. Also, most yield of single plant obtained from umbrella sedge extract (28.5 g. It seems that umbrella sedge had least minerals in water; it could be affected positively on important factors such as yield of single plant compared to other treatments. Correlation coefficient analysis revealed significant and negative correlation between number of empty grain and yield of single plant (r=-0.42***. It’s implies that grain yield magnitude of Nemat cultivar exhibiting the least number of empty grain. Although yield of single plant was not affected neither by plant height nor number of tiller. In addition, irrigation water due to existence of high mineral and chemical pesticides in upstream of station farms severely was reduced yield. Also, results of this research showed that weed extracts haven’t very allelopathic effect on rice and in end of growing season, that’s better, plant leftover return and remain in field.

  19. Extracting Tenebrio molitor protein while preventing browning: effect of pH and NaCl on protein yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, L.; Boekel, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of insects as an alternative protein source for food applications was investigated by studying the effect of pH and NaCl on extraction yield of water-soluble proteins from Tenebrio molitor, while preventing browning due to polyphenol oxidation. Minimum protein solubility (29.6%) was at

  20. Enhancement of yield, nutritional and nutraceutical properties of two common bean cultivars following the application of seaweed extract (Ecklonia maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kocira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, application of Ecklonia maxima extract (Kelpak SL – a water soluble concentrate was optimized and its impact on yield, nutraceutical and nutritional potential of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (var. Aura and Toska was measured. The study was carried out in 2012 and 2013 in Poland. During the growing season, 0.2% and 0.4% solution of Kelpak SL was applied by single and double spraying of plants. These four treatments with Kelpak SL were compared with the control, where no biostimulator was applied. Kelpak SL treatments stimulated the yield of both cultivars studied. The application of E. maxima extract had no effect on the content of starch, free sugars or proteins in seeds of either of the tested cultivars. The highest level of phenolics was found for double sprayed Toska plants. All the tested variants of Kelpak SL application significantly increased the content of anthocyanins in the seeds. Also, both the reducing power and antiradical ability of Aura seeds were elevated in all the studied treatments. E. maxima extract is a natural, environmentally friendly and safe preparation increasing the yield and nutraceutical quality of beans without any negative effect on their nutritional quality. Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, Ecklonia maxima, Kelpak SL, Nutrients, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Yield

  1. Effects of processing parameters on the caffeine extraction yield during decaffeination of black tea using pilot-scale supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgaz, Saziye; Sat, Ihsan Gungor; Polat, Atilla

    2018-04-01

    In this pilot-scale study supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO 2 ) extraction technique was used for decaffeination of black tea. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO 2 flow rate (1, 2, 3 L/min) and modifier quantity (0, 2.5, 5 mol%) were selected as extraction parameters. Three-level and five-factor response surface methodology experimental design with a Box-Behnken type was employed to generate 46 different processing conditions. 100% of caffeine from black tea was removed under two different extraction conditions; one of which was consist of 375 bar pressure, 62.5 °C temperature, 300 min extraction time, 2 L/min CO 2 flow rate and 5 mol% modifier concentration and the other was composed of same temperature, pressure and extraction time conditions with 3 L/min CO 2 flow rate and 2.5 mol% modifier concentration. Results showed that extraction time, pressure, CO 2 flow rate and modifier quantity had great impact on decaffeination yield.

  2. Critical parameters in cost-effective alkaline extraction for high protein yield from leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves are potential resources for feed or food, but their applications are limited due to a high proportion of insoluble protein and inefficient processing. To overcome these problems, parameters of alkaline extraction were evaluated using green tea residue (GTR). Protein extraction could be

  3. Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Acer Truncatum Leaves for Maximal Phenolic Yield and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingguang; Yin, Peipei; Fan, Hang; Xue, Qiang; Li, Ke; Li, Xiang; Sun, Liwei; Liu, Yujun

    2017-02-04

    This study is the first to report the use of response surface methodology to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of Acer truncatum leaves extracts (ATLs) obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The phenolic composition in ATLs extracted under the optimized conditions were characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Solvent and extraction time were selected based on preliminary experiments, and a four-factors-three-levels central composite design was conducted to optimize solvent concentration ( X ₁), material-to-liquid ratio ( X ₂), ultrasonic temperature ( X ₃) and power ( X ₄) for an optimal total phenol yield ( Y ₁) and DPPH• antioxidant activity ( Y ₂). The results showed that the optimal combination was ethanol:water ( v : v ) 66.21%, material-to-liquid ratio 1:15.31 g/mL, ultrasonic bath temperature 60 °C, power 267.30 W, and time 30 min with three extractions, giving a maximal total phenol yield of 7593.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g d.w. and a maximal DPPH• antioxidant activity of 74,241.61 μmol Trolox equivalent/100 g d.w. Furthermore, 22 phenolics were first identified in ATL extract obtained under the optimized conditions, indicating that gallates, gallotannins, quercetin, myricetin and chlorogenic acid derivatives were the main phenolic components in ATL. What's more, a gallotannins pathway existing in ATL from gallic acid to penta- O -galloylglucoside was proposed. All these results provide practical information aiming at full utilization of phenolics in ATL, together with fundamental knowledge for further research.

  4. Extracting DNA from 'jaws': High yield and quality from archived tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) skeletal material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Morgan, J. A T; Maher, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). Protocols were compared for DNA yield and quality using a qPCR approach. For jaw swarf, all methods provided relatively high DNA yield and quality, while large differences in yield between protocols were observed for vertebrae. Similar results were obtained from samples...... observed, likely reflecting different preparation and storage methods for the trophies. Trial sequencing of DNA capture genomic libraries using 20 000 baits revealed that a significant proportion of captured sequences were derived from tiger sharks. This study demonstrates that archived shark jaws...

  5. Yield and quality of pectins extractable from the peels of thai mango cultivars depending on fruit ripeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisakulwat, Suparat; Nagel, Andreas; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Carle, Reinhold; Neidhart, Sybille

    2008-11-26

    Pectins, recovered from the peels of four mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cultivars by mimicking industrial techniques, were evaluated in terms of yield, composition, macromolecular properties, and technofunctional quality. Freeze-dried peels of mature-green fruits, after major mesocarp softening, and at full ripeness were extracted using hot acid. The pectins were precipitated in propan-2-ol and their crude yields quantified as alcohol-insoluble substance. Like apple pomace, the dried peels provided hardly acetylated (DAc implied by arabinose/galactose ratios of 8-15 and 33-56 mol/100 mol, respectively. Limited galacturonic acid contents made the mango peel pectins less valuable than commercial apple pectins with regard to gelling capacity and thickening properties. Whereas starch and matrix glycan fragments almost completely degraded during ripening, depolymerization of pectins and galactans was insignificant. Technofunctional properties, modulated by extraction at different pH values, were ascribed to structural differences influencing macromolecular entanglements.

  6. Extracting scattering phase shifts in higher partial waves from lattice QCD calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luu, Thomas; Savage, Martin J.

    2011-06-01

    Lüscher’s method is routinely used to determine meson-meson, meson-baryon, and baryon-baryon s-wave scattering amplitudes below inelastic thresholds from lattice QCD calculations—presently at unphysical light-quark masses. In this work we review the formalism and develop the requisite expressions to extract phase shifts describing meson-meson scattering in partial waves with angular momentum l≤6 and l=9. The implications of the underlying cubic symmetry, and strategies for extracting the phase shifts from lattice QCD calculations, are presented, along with a discussion of the signal-to-noise problem that afflicts the higher partial waves.

  7. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil and non-food (bio fuel applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  8. Enhancement of yield, nutritional and nutraceutical properties of two common bean cultivars following the application of seaweed extract (Ecklonia maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocira, Anna; Świeca, Michał; Kocira, Sławomir; Złotek, Urszula; Jakubczyk, Anna

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, application of Ecklonia maxima extract (Kelpak SL - a water soluble concentrate) was optimized and its impact on yield, nutraceutical and nutritional potential of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (var. Aura and Toska) was measured. The study was carried out in 2012 and 2013 in Poland. During the growing season, 0.2% and 0.4% solution of Kelpak SL was applied by single and double spraying of plants. These four treatments with Kelpak SL were compared with the control, where no biostimulator was applied. Kelpak SL treatments stimulated the yield of both cultivars studied. The application of E. maxima extract had no effect on the content of starch, free sugars or proteins in seeds of either of the tested cultivars. The highest level of phenolics was found for double sprayed Toska plants. All the tested variants of Kelpak SL application significantly increased the content of anthocyanins in the seeds. Also, both the reducing power and antiradical ability of Aura seeds were elevated in all the studied treatments. E. maxima extract is a natural, environmentally friendly and safe preparation increasing the yield and nutraceutical quality of beans without any negative effect on their nutritional quality.

  9. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel.

  10. Sample preservation, transport and processing strategies for honeybee RNA extraction: Influence on RNA yield, quality, target quantification and data normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Eva; Locke, Barbara; Semberg, Emilia; Laugen, Ane T; Miranda, Joachim R de

    2017-08-01

    Viral infections in managed honey bees are numerous, and most of them are caused by viruses with an RNA genome. Since RNA degrades rapidly, appropriate sample management and RNA extraction methods are imperative to get high quality RNA for downstream assays. This study evaluated the effect of various sampling-transport scenarios (combinations of temperature, RNA stabilizers, and duration) of transport on six RNA quality parameters; yield, purity, integrity, cDNA synthesis efficiency, target detection and quantification. The use of water and extraction buffer were also compared for a primary bee tissue homogenate prior to RNA extraction. The strategy least affected by time was preservation of samples at -80°C. All other regimens turned out to be poor alternatives unless the samples were frozen or processed within 24h. Chemical stabilizers have the greatest impact on RNA quality and adding an extra homogenization step (a QIAshredder™ homogenizer) to the extraction protocol significantly improves the RNA yield and chemical purity. This study confirms that RIN values (RNA Integrity Number), should be used cautiously with bee RNA. Using water for the primary homogenate has no negative effect on RNA quality as long as this step is no longer than 15min. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dry matter yield, chemical composition and estimated extractable protein of legume and grass species during the spring growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solati, Zeinab; Jørgensen, Uffe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate and Protein System across six harvests during the spring growth. RESULTS The estimated extractable protein [g kg−1 dry matter (DM)] defined as the easily available fractions B1+B2 was significantly higher in white clover and lucerne at all harvests while, if the more cell wall attached fraction B3...... for protein production purpose in a biorefinery due to its high extractable protein content per kg DM. In order to maximise the protein production capacity, harvest should take place during early growth due to a decline in protein extractability with maturity. The final economy of the concept will depend...

  12. Robust rooftop extraction from visible band images using higher order CRF

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Er

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust framework for building extraction in visible band images. We first get an initial classification of the pixels based on an unsupervised presegmentation. Then, we develop a novel conditional random field (CRF) formulation to achieve accurate rooftops extraction, which incorporates pixel-level information and segment-level information for the identification of rooftops. Comparing with the commonly used CRF model, a higher order potential defined on segment is added in our model, by exploiting region consistency and shape feature at segment level. Our experiments show that the proposed higher order CRF model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods both at pixel and object levels on rooftops with complex structures and sizes in challenging environments. © 1980-2012 IEEE.

  13. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm...

  14. Effects of extraction period on yield of rice straw compost humic acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humic acids (HA) are widely used in agriculture because of their capability as chelator, organic matter, soil improver and growth promoter. However, their isolation differs in terms of origin or source because of wetting and solubilization factors. This study was conducted to determine extraction period for HA from composted ...

  15. [Yield of starch extraction from plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Pilot plant study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Gorosquera, Emigdia; García-Suárez, Francisco J; Flores-Huicochea, Emmanuel; Núñez-Santiago, María C; González-Soto, Rosalia A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2004-01-01

    In México, the banana (Musa paradisiaca) is cooked (boiling or deep frying) before being eaten, but the consumption is not very popular and a big quantity of the product is lost after harvesting. The unripe plantain has a high level of starch and due to this the use of banana can be diversified as raw material for starch isolation. The objective of this work was to study the starch yield at pilot plant scale. Experiments at laboratory scale were carried out using the pulp with citric acid to 0,3 % (antioxidant), in order to evaluate the different unitary operations of the process. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the pulp that can be isolated, were between 76 and 86 %, and the values at pilot plant scale were between 63 and 71 %, in different lots of banana fruit. Starch yield values were similar among the diverse lots, showing that the process is reproducible. The lower values of starch recovery at pilot plant scale are due to the loss during sieving operations; however, the amount of starch recovery is good.

  16. Perovskite solar cells with CuSCN hole extraction layers yield stabilized efficiencies greater than 20%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Neha; Dar, M. Ibrahim; Hinderhofer, Alexander; Pellet, Norman; Schreiber, Frank; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with efficiencies greater than 20% have been realized only with expensive organic hole-transporting materials. We demonstrate PSCs that achieve stabilized efficiencies exceeding 20% with copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) as the hole extraction layer. A fast solvent removal method enabled the creation of compact, highly conformal CuSCN layers that facilitate rapid carrier extraction and collection. The PSCs showed high thermal stability under long-term heating, although their operational stability was poor. This instability originated from potential-induced degradation of the CuSCN/Au contact. The addition of a conductive reduced graphene oxide spacer layer between CuSCN and gold allowed PSCs to retain >95% of their initial efficiency after aging at a maximum power point for 1000 hours under full solar intensity at 60°C. Under both continuous full-sun illumination and thermal stress, CuSCN-based devices surpassed the stability of spiro-OMeTAD-based PSCs.

  17. Optimization of oil yield from Hevea brasiliensis seeds through ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction via response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Val Irvin F. Mabayo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for oil has been increasing vastly over time, and the source of this has slowly been diminishing. The use of non-food feedstock is seen as a promising alternative source for the production of bio-based fuel. In this study, rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seeds were utilized as biomass in bio-oil production considering that these are non-edible and considered wastes in rubber tree plantations. In the oil extraction process, the rubber seed kernels were oven dried at 100 °C for 24 h, powdered and then dried further at 105 °C for 4 h. After characterization, optimization study was done using Design Expert 7.0 software through central composite design of the response surface methodology. Ultrasonication technology was employed in the oil extraction process which significantly reduced the reaction time needed for extraction to 15 min compared the conventional extraction method of at least 8 h. An optimum rubber seed oil (RSO yield of 30.3 ± 0.3% was obtained using 15 g biomass, 5:1 n-hexane to biomass (mL g−1 ratio, 50 μm resonance amplitude and 60 ± 5 °C temperature at 15 min reaction time. The oil yield at optimum condition was found to have 0.89 g mL−1 density at room temperature, 26.7 cSt kinematic viscosity at 40 °C and high heating value of 39.2 MJ kg−1. The Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation spectroscopy analysis of the RSO, at optimum condition, showed the presence of carboxylic acid and ester carbonyl functional groups which are good indicators as a potential source of biodiesel. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Oil extraction, Optimization, Response surface methodology, Rubber seed oil, Ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction

  18. Simultaneous treatment (cell disruption and lipid extraction) of wet microalgae using hydrodynamic cavitation for enhancing the lipid yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2015-06-01

    Simultaneous treatment (combining with cell disruption and lipid extraction) using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was applied to Nannochloropsis salina to demonstrate a simple and integrated way to produce oil from wet microalgae. A high lipid yield from the HC (25.9-99.0%) was observed compared with autoclave (16.2-66.5%) and ultrasonication (5.4-26.9%) in terms of the specific energy input (500-10,000 kJ/kg). The optimal conditions for the simultaneous treatment were established using a statistical approach. The efficiency of the simultaneous method was also demonstrated by comparing each separate treatment. The maximum lipid yield (predicted: 45.9% and experimental: 45.5%) was obtained using 0.89% sulfuric acid with a cavitation number of 1.17 for a reaction time of 25.05 min via response surface methodology. Considering its comparable extractability, energy-efficiency, and potential for scale-up, HC may be a promising method to achieve industrial-scale microalgae operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of B{yields}K{sup *}{sub J}({yields}K{pi}){mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} in the higher kaon resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, Cai-Dian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, BJ (China); Wang, Wei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    We study the resonant contributions in the process anti B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} with the K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} invariant mass square m{sup 2}{sub K{pi}} element of [1, 5] GeV{sup 2}. Width effects of the involved strange mesons, K{sup *}(1410), K{sup *}{sub 0}(1430), K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430), K{sup *}(1680), K{sup *}{sub 3}(1780) and K{sup *}{sub 4}(2045), are incorporated. In terms of the helicity amplitudes, we derive a compact form for the full angular distributions, through which the branching ratios, forward-backward asymmetries and polarizations are attained. We propose that the uncertainties in the B {yields} K{sup *}{sub J} form factors can be pinned down by the measurements of a set of SU(3)-related processes. Using results from the large energy limit, we derive the dependence of branching fractions on the m{sub K{pi}}, and find that the K{sup *}{sub 2} resonance has a clear signature, in particular, in the transverse polarizations. (orig.)

  20. Evaluating the impact of extraction and cleanup parameters on the yield of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, Eija; Peraemaeki, Paavo; Jalonen, Jorma [University of Oulu, Department of Chemistry (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    Interlaboratory comparisons for the analysis of mineral oil in polluted soil using the GC-FID method indicate that extraction and cleanup conditions have significant effects on the analytical results. In this investigation a ruggedness test was performed on the extraction and cleanup method for the determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. A two-level Plackett-Burman design was utilized to study the effect of 11 different method parameters on the extraction recovery of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil. Both qualitative and quantitative factors were investigated. The results indicate that total petroleum hydrocarbons can be relatively reliably monitored through strict implementation of the ISO and CEN draft standards. However, variation in certain method parameters readily affects the validity of the results. The most critical factors affecting TPH recovery were the solvent and co-solvent used for extraction, the extraction time, adsorbent and its weight and sample TPH concentration. Because adaptation of the draft standards especially with respect to these factors easily leads to TPH recoveries higher than 200% or lower than 70%, the validity of the adapted method should always be verified. A proper estimate of the expanded uncertainty should also be appended to TPH results, because only then can the reliability of the results be guaranteed and further justification is gained to support the end-use of the data. This also supports the credibility of the analytical services and prevents the data end-users from drawing misleading conclusions concerning the environmental risks and potential remediation requirements. (orig.)

  1. Walnut and almond oil screw-press extraction at industrial scale: Effects of process parameters on oil yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Martínez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Walnut and almond kernels are highly nutritious mainly due to their high oil contents. In this study, 32 factorial experimental designs were used to optimize processes for oil extraction by screw-pressing at industrial scale. Experimental designs included seed moisture content (SMC, and restriction die (RD as the main processing parameters. Theoretical models were scanned against experimental data in order to optimize oil extraction conditions. The response variables analyzed were oil yield (OY, fine solid content (FC in oil, and oil quality parameters. Fitted models for OY indicated maximum predicted values similar to the highest experimental values. Walnut oil extractions showed a maximum OY (84.5 ± 2.3 % at 7.21% SMC, and 10 mm RD. For almond kernels, maximum OY (71.9 ± 3.5% was obtained at 9.42% SMC, and 12 mm RD. Chemical quality parameters from both oils were in the ranges stated in Codex (FAO/WHO standards for virgin (non-refined oils.

  2. Walnut and almond oil screw-press extraction at industrial scale: Effects of process parameters on oil yield and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, M. L.; Bordón, M.G.; Bodoira, R. M.; Penci, M.C.; Ribotta, P.D.; Maestri, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Walnut and almond kernels are highly nutritious mainly due to their high oil contents. In this study, 32 factorial experimental designs were used to optimize processes for oil extraction by screw-pressing at industrial scale. Experimental designs included seed moisture content (SMC), and restriction die (RD) as the main processing parameters. Theoretical models were scanned against experimental data in order to optimize oil extraction conditions. The response variables analyzed were oil yield (OY), fine solid content (FC) in oil, and oil quality parameters. Fitted models for OY indicated maximum predicted values similar to the highest experimental values. Walnut oil extractions showed a maximum OY (84.5 ± 2.3 %) at 7.21% SMC, and 10 mm RD. For almond kernels, maximum OY (71.9 ± 3.5%) was obtained at 9.42% SMC, and 12 mm RD. Chemical quality parameters from both oils were in the ranges stated in Codex (FAO/WHO) standards for virgin (non-refined) oils. [es

  3. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Multivariate Calibration to Predict the Yield of Sesame Oil Produced by Traditional Aqueous Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Dong Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesame oil produced by the traditional aqueous extraction process (TAEP has been recognized by its pleasant flavor and high nutrition value. This paper developed a rapid and nondestructive method to predict the sesame oil yield by TAEP using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy. A collection of 145 sesame seed samples was measured by NIR spectroscopy and the relationship between the TAEP oil yield and the spectra was modeled by least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM. Smoothing, taking second derivatives (D2, and standard normal variate (SNV transformation were performed to remove the unwanted variations in the raw spectra. The results indicated that D2-LS-SVM (4000–9000 cm−1 obtained the most accurate calibration model with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 1.15 (%, w/w. Moreover, the RMSEP was not significantly influenced by different initial values of LS-SVM parameters. The calibration model could be helpful to search for sesame seeds with higher TAEP oil yields.

  4. Comparison on extraction yield of sennoside A and sennoside B from senna (Cassia angustifolia) using conventional and non conventional extraction techniques and their quantification using a validated HPLC-PDA detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanani, Tushar; Singh, Raghuraj; Reddy, Nagaraja; Trivedi, A; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2017-05-01

    Senna is an important medicinal plant and is used in many Ayurvedic formulations. Dianthraquinone glucosides are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and pods of senna. The extraction efficiency in terms of yield and composition of the extract of senna prepared using both conventional (cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing) and non conventional (ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction as well as supercritical fluid extraction) techniques were compared in the present study. Also a rapid reverse phase HPLC-PDA detection method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sennoside A and sennoside B in the different extracts of senna leaves. Ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction techniques were more effective in terms of yield and composition of the extracts compared to cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing methods of extraction.

  5. Collagen type I from bovine bone. Effect of animal age, bone anatomy and drying methodology on extraction yield, self-assembly, thermal behaviour and electrokinetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Sayd, Thierry; Chambon, Christophe; Anton, Marc; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2017-04-01

    Natural collagen is easily available from animal tissues such as bones. Main limitations reported in the use of natural collagen are heterogeneity and loss of integrity during recovery. However, its natural complexity, functionality and bioactivity still remain to be achieved through synthetic and recombinant ways. Variability of physicochemical properties of collagen extracted from bovine bone by acetic acid was then investigated taking into account endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous: bovine's bones age (4 and 7 years) and anatomy (femur and tibia); exogenous: thermal treatments (spray-drying and lyophilisation). Scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopy (EDS, FTIR, UV/Vis and CD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), centesimal composition, mass spectrometry, amino acids and zeta-potential analysis were used for the purpose. Age correlated negatively with yield of recovery and positively with minerals and proteoglycans content. Comparing the anatomy, higher yields were found for tibias, and higher stability of tibias collagen in solution was noticed. Whatever the age and the anatomy, collagens were able to renature and to self-assemble into tri-dimensional structures. Nonetheless thermal stability and kinetics of renaturation were different. Variability of natural collagen with bone age and anatomy, and drying methodology, may be a crucial advantage to conceive tailor-made applications in either the biological or technical sector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Do new production concepts and a new management of employment relations, yield higher employee performance and low job strain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.; Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs) and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In

  7. Thermal decomposition of expanded polystyrene in a pebble bed reactor to get higher liquid fraction yield at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.S.; Gopinath, S.; Razdan, P.; Delattre, C.; Nirmala, G.S.; Natarajan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Expanded polystyrene is one of the polymers produced in large quantities due to its versatile application in different fields. This polymer is one of the most intractable components in municipal solid waste. Disposal of polymeric material by pyrolysis or catalytic cracking yields valuable hydrocarbon fuels or monomers. Literature reports different types of reactors and arrangements that have uniform temperatures during pyrolysis and catalytic cracking. The present study focuses on reducing the temperature to maximize the quantity of styrene monomer in the liquid product. A bench scale reactor has been developed to recover the styrene monomer and other valuable chemicals. Experiments were carried under partial oxidation and vacuum conditions in the temperature range of 300-500 deg. C. In the pyrolysis optimization studies, the best atmospheric condition was determined to be vacuum, the pyrolysis temperature should be 500 deg. C, yield of liquid product obtained was 91.7% and yield of styrene obtained was 85.5%. In the characterization studies, distillation and IR spectroscopy experiments were carried out. The remaining of the liquid product comprises of benzene, ethyl benzene, and styrene dimers and trimers

  8. OPTIMASI RENDEMEN EKSTRAKSI LESITIN DARI MINYAK KEDELAI VARIETAS ANJASMORO DENGAN WATER DEGUMMING [Yield Optimization of Lecithin Extraction of Anjasmoro Variety Soybean Oil by Water Degumming

    OpenAIRE

    Teti Estiasih1)*; Kgs. Ahmadi2); Erliana Ginting3); Deny Kurniawati1)

    2013-01-01

    Lecithin is one of natural emulsifiers widely used in food industries. The main source of lecithin is soybean and it is obtained during water degumming in soybean oil purification. This research was aimed to optimize the yield of lecithin during water degumming of Anjasmoro variety soybean oil by response surface methodology. The factors optimized were added water (%), temperature (ºC), and extraction time (minute). The relationship between lecithin yield and the parameters was quadratic. The...

  9. Intensification of marrubiin concentration by optimization of microwave-assisted (low CO2 yielding) extraction process for Marrubium vulgare using central composite design and antioxidant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vineet; Nanda, Arun

    2017-12-01

    Marrubium vulgare Linn (Lamiaceae) was generally extracted by conventional methods with low yield of marrubiin; these processes were not considered environment friendly. This study extracts the whole plant of M. vulgare by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and optimizes the effect of various extraction parameters on the marrubiin yield by using Central Composite Design (CCD). The selected medicinal plant was extracted using ethanol: water (1:1) as solvent by MAE. The plant material was also extracted using a Soxhlet and the various extracts were analyzed by HPTLC to quantify the marrubiin concentration. The optimized conditions for the microwave-assisted extraction of selected medicinal plant was microwave power of 539 W, irradiation time of 373 s and solvent to drug ratio, 32 mL per g of the drug. The marrubiin concentration in MAE almost doubled relative to the traditional method (0.69 ± 0.08 to 1.35 ± 0.04%). The IC 50 for DPPH was reduced to 66.28 ± 0.6 μg/mL as compared to conventional extract (84.14 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The scanning electron micrographs of the treated and untreated drug samples further support the results. The CCD can be successfully applied to optimize the extraction parameters (MAE) for M. vulgare. Moreover, in terms of environmental impact, the MAE technique could be assumed as a 'Green approach' because the MAE approach for extraction of plant released only 92.3 g of CO 2 as compared to 3207.6 g CO 2 using the Soxhlet method of extraction.

  10. Wound healing activity of an aqueous extract of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Asheesh; Kirar, Vandana; Keshri, Gaurav Kr; Gola, Shefali; Yadav, Anju; Negi, Prem Singh; Misra, Kshipra

    2014-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) is popular because of its health-promoting properties. The effects of G. lucidum extract on cancer, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatitis have been reported by many researchers. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the healing efficacy of an aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum from the Indian Himalayan region on dermal excision wound in experimental rats. The extract used in the study was found to be rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. The healing efficacy was comparatively assessed with a reference povidone-iodine ointment. The G. lucidum extract showed significant enhanced healing activity, evidenced by an increase in wound contraction, collagen accumulation (hydroxyproline), hexosamine, and total protein contents. Histopathological findings further supported the biochemical indices. The results suggest that aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum possesses significant wound-healing activity.

  11. Targhee Russet: A high yielding dual purpose, long russet potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content and resistance to tuber soft rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targhee Russet is a dark-skinned russet potato variety with tubers slightly longer than Russet Burbank. It produces higher total and marketable yields than does Russet Burbank at most of the sites it was tested in the western United States. Tuber dormancy is about 58 days shorter than Russet Burba...

  12. Low Carbon Rice Farming Practices in the Mekong Delta Yield Significantly Higher Profits and Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Tinh, T. K.; Tin, H. Q.; Thu Ha, T.; Pha, D. N.; Cui, T. Q.; Tin, N. H.; Son, N. N.; Thanh, H. H.; Kien, H. T.; Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Vietnam Low-Carbon Rice Project (VLCRP) seeks to significantly reduce GHG emissions from rice cultivation, an activity responsible for more than 30% of Vietnam's overall GHG emissions, while improving livelihoods for the rice farmer community by decreasing costs and enhancing yield as well as providing supplemental farmer income through the sale of carbon credits. The Mekong Delta makes up 12% of Vietnam's land area, but produces more than 50% of the country's rice, including more than 90% of the rice for export. Rice cultivation is the main source of income for 80% of farmers in the Mekong Delta. VLCRP was launched in late 2012 in the Mekong Delta in two major rice production provinces, Kien Giang and An Giang. To date, VLCRP has completed 11 crop seasons (in Kien Giang and An Giang combined), training over 400 farmer households in applying VLCRP's package of practices (known as 1 Must - 6 Reductions) and building technical capacity to its key stakeholders and rice farmer community leaders. By adopting the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices (including reduced seeding density, reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, and alternative wetting and drying water management), rice farmers reduce their input costs while maintaining or improving yields, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. The VLCRP package of practices also deliver other environmental and social co-benefits, such as reduced water pollution, improved habitat for fishery resources and reduced health risks for farmers through the reduction of agri-chemicals. VLCRP farmers use significantly less inputs (50% reduction in seed, 30% reduction in fertilizer, 40-50% reduction in water) while improving yields 5-10%, leading to an increase in profit from 10% to as high as 60% per hectare. Preliminary results indicate that the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices have led to approximately 40-65% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to 4 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in An Giang and 35 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in Kien

  13. Robust rooftop extraction from visible band images using higher order CRF

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Er; Femiani, John; Xu, Shibiao; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust framework for building extraction in visible band images. We first get an initial classification of the pixels based on an unsupervised presegmentation. Then, we develop a novel conditional random field (CRF

  14. Supplementary effects of higher levels of various disaccharides on processing yield, quality properties and sensory attributes of Chinese - style pork jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Lin, Hsien-Tang

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the supplementary effect of higher concentrations of various disaccharides on processing yield, major physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of Chinese-style pork jerky (CSPJ). CSPJ samples were prepared by marinating sliced ham (4 mm) with three dissaccharides, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose, at 0%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24%. Subsequently, the CSPJ samples were dried and roasted. The moisture content, water activity, crude protein, moisture-to-protein ratio, pH, processing yield, shear force, color, and sensory attributes of the CSPJ samples were evaluated. The quality characteristics of CSPJ samples prepared with sucrose were more acceptable. By contrast, CSPJ samples prepared with lactose showed the lowest scores. However, the processing yield and moisture content were the highest for CSPJ samples prepared with lactose, which may be associated with improved benefits for cost reduction. Furthermore, sucrose and lactose supplementation resulted in contrasting quality characteristics; for example, CSPJ samples with sucrose and maltose supplementation had higher sensory scores for color than samples with lactose supplementation. Additionally, most quality characteristics of CSPJ samples with sucrose supplementation contrasted with those of the samples with lactose supplementation; for example, the samples with sucrose supplementation had higher scores for sensory attributes than those with lactose supplementation. Sucrose supplementation up to 21% to 24% was associated with the highest overall acceptability scores (5.19 to 5.80), enhanced quality characteristics, increased processing yield, and reduced production cost.

  15. Supplementary effects of higher levels of various disaccharides on processing yield, quality properties and sensory attributes of Chinese - style pork jerky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the supplementary effect of higher concentrations of various disaccharides on processing yield, major physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of Chinese-style pork jerky (CSPJ. Methods CSPJ samples were prepared by marinating sliced ham (4 mm with three dissaccharides, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose, at 0%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24%. Subsequently, the CSPJ samples were dried and roasted. The moisture content, water activity, crude protein, moisture-to-protein ratio, pH, processing yield, shear force, color, and sensory attributes of the CSPJ samples were evaluated. Results The quality characteristics of CSPJ samples prepared with sucrose were more acceptable. By contrast, CSPJ samples prepared with lactose showed the lowest scores. However, the processing yield and moisture content were the highest for CSPJ samples prepared with lactose, which may be associated with improved benefits for cost reduction. Furthermore, sucrose and lactose supplementation resulted in contrasting quality characteristics; for example, CSPJ samples with sucrose and maltose supplementation had higher sensory scores for color than samples with lactose supplementation. Additionally, most quality characteristics of CSPJ samples with sucrose supplementation contrasted with those of the samples with lactose supplementation; for example, the samples with sucrose supplementation had higher scores for sensory attributes than those with lactose supplementation. Conclusion Sucrose supplementation up to 21% to 24% was associated with the highest overall acceptability scores (5.19 to 5.80, enhanced quality characteristics, increased processing yield, and reduced production cost.

  16. Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaozhao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Bian, Yinbing; Xu, Zhangyi

    2016-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom, and its dried sclerotia has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. However, long-term asexual reproduction of the breeding system in W. cocos results in a current universal degeneration of cultivated strains. To develop a W. cocos breeding program that will benefit commercial cultivation, we previously developed an optimum method for indoor induction of W. cocos fruiting bodies and clarified the nature of preponderant binuclear sexual basidiospores. In this paper, we first show that the majority of W. cocos single-spore isolates cannot form sclerotium in field cultivation. We then investigated the possibility of breeding new strains by crossbreeding. Three types of mating reactions were observed in both intra-strain pairings and inter-strain pairings, and a total of fifty-five hybrids were selected by antagonistic testing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Field cultivation of hybrids demonstrated that some hybrids can form sclerotium via two cultivated methods. Two new high-yield strains were identified. This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos.

  17. Do New Production Concepts and a new Management of Employment Relations, yield higher Employee Performance and lower Job Strain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolus Kraan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In the past decades, in reaction to dysfunctions of Tayloristic and professional bureaucratic production concepts and employment relations, several new forms of employment relations and NPCs, appeared. Examples are the Socio-technical NPC and customized employment relations. In this study both this NPC and customized employment relations - i.c. customized performance targets - demonstrate positive associations with employee performance. According to Socio-technical theory the design of employment relations is relatively unimportant, as human resources are mobilised primarily by the production concept. Our results for this NPC show the legitimacy of this assumption, because its high employee performance is irrespective of the employment relation instruments. On the contrary, in the other NPCs and in professional bureaucracies, the (employment relation instruments of respectively an increased period needed for learning the job, and customized performance targets can compensate for the lower employee performance in these production concepts. The results do not show increased job strain, due to new production concepts, or new employment relations. production concepts, employment relations, labour productivity, socio-technical theory

  18. Effect of gamma-irradiation on rice seed DNA. Pt. 1. Yield and molecular size of DNA extracted from irradiated rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Konishi, Akihiro; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the DNA of hulled rice seeds was investigated. The cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method was preferred for the extraction of DNA from rice seeds because of its high quality and good yield. The yield of DNA that was determined by gel electrophoresis, decreased as the irradiation dose increased from 1 kGy. DNA extracted from rice seeds irradiated with a 30 kGy dose showed a molecular size of less than 20 kb, while that from unirradiated rice showed more than 100 kb in electrophoretic profiles. It can be assumed that the decrease in yield was mainly induced by the crosslinking between protein and DNA, and the reduction in molecular size was induced by double-strand breaks. (J.P.N.)

  19. Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2016-07-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extracted compounds exhibited reducing power and scavenging activity against 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant capacities varied with the used chemical reagents and exhibited dose-dependent effects. Extracts from anhydrous ethanol, chloroform and acetone were capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The anhydrous ethanol extracts were observed to have significant levels of antioxidant compounds since they had a strong reducing power, high scavenging rates against DPPH and superoxide anion-free radicals (>90%), and high inhibition rates on lipid peroxidation (>60%). The present study will provide reference data for the antioxidant applications of H. erinaceus in pharmaceutical use and disease prevention.

  20. Genomic selection in mink yield higher accuracies with a Bayesian approach allowing for heterogeneous variance than a GBLUP model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Trine Michelle; Su, Guosheng; Cai, Zexi

    2018-01-01

    by sequencing. Four live grading traits and four traits on dried pelts for size and quality were analysed. GWAS analysis detected significant SNPs for all the traits. The single-trait Bayesian model resulted in higher accuracies for the genomic predictions than the single-trait GBLUP model, especially......The accuracy of genomic prediction for mink was compared for single-trait and multiple-trait GBLUP models and Bayesian models that allowed for heterogeneous (co)variance structure over the genome. The mink population consisted of 2,103 brown minks genotyped with the method of genotyping...... for the traits measured on dried pelts. We expected the multiple-trait models to be superior to the single trait models since the multiple-trait model can make use of information when traits are correlated. However, we did not find a general improvement in accuracies with the multiple-trait models compared...

  1. A natively paired antibody library yields drug leads with higher sensitivity and specificity than a randomly paired antibody library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Adam S; Bedinger, Daniel; Adams, Matthew S; Asensio, Michael A; Edgar, Robert C; Leong, Renee; Leong, Jackson; Mizrahi, Rena A; Spindler, Matthew J; Bandi, Srinivasa Rao; Huang, Haichun; Tawde, Pallavi; Brams, Peter; Johnson, David S

    2018-04-01

    Deep sequencing and single-chain variable fragment (scFv) yeast display methods are becoming more popular for discovery of therapeutic antibody candidates in mouse B cell repertoires. In this study, we compare a deep sequencing and scFv display method that retains native heavy and light chain pairing with a related method that randomly pairs heavy and light chain. We performed the studies in a humanized mouse, using interleukin 21 receptor (IL-21R) as a test immunogen. We identified 44 high-affinity binder scFv with the native pairing method and 100 high-affinity binder scFv with the random pairing method. 30% of the natively paired scFv binders were also discovered with the randomly paired method, and 13% of the randomly paired binders were also discovered with the natively paired method. Additionally, 33% of the scFv binders discovered only in the randomly paired library were initially present in the natively paired pre-sort library. Thus, a significant proportion of "randomly paired" scFv were actually natively paired. We synthesized and produced 46 of the candidates as full-length antibodies and subjected them to a panel of binding assays to characterize their therapeutic potential. 87% of the antibodies were verified as binding IL-21R by at least one assay. We found that antibodies with native light chains were more likely to bind IL-21R than antibodies with non-native light chains, suggesting a higher false positive rate for antibodies from the randomly paired library. Additionally, the randomly paired method failed to identify nearly half of the true natively paired binders, suggesting a higher false negative rate. We conclude that natively paired libraries have critical advantages in sensitivity and specificity for antibody discovery programs.

  2. Extraction, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Activities of Crude Polysaccharides from the Wood Ear Medicinal Mushroom Auricularia auricula-judae (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ming; Lin, Yang; Luo, Yin-long; Liang, Han-hua; Sun, Pei-long

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude polysaccharides of culinary-medicinal mushroom Auricularia auricular-judae were extracted by hot water extraction and alcohol precipitation, and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were investigated. An optimum extraction condition was obtained at a ratio of liquid to solid 70 mL/g, temperature 90°C, time 4 h and extraction number 4. Accordingly, the best yield of crude polysaccharides was 6.89% with 76.12% in purity. Some bacteria and fungi were used for antimicrobial studies. It was found that crude A. auricula-judae had great antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but no activities on the others. The inhibitory diameters of antimicrobial zones for the two were 5.55 ± 0.182 and 9.84 ± 0.076 mm, respectively. Moreover, crude A. auricula-judae had significant antioxidant activities in scavenging free radicals, reducing power assays, and Fe2+ chelating ability assay. Results revealed that crude A. auricula-judae has a great potential as antimicrobial and antioxidant, and it can be a supplementary food for human health.

  3. Effect of garlic extract on selected pests and yield of bell pepper, Capsicum Anuum L. (var. Capistrano)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions in the findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. To assess garlic, Allium sativum L., extract efficacy against pests...

  4. Potential of liquid extracts of Sargassum wightii on growth, biochemical and yield parameters of cluster bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vijayanand

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The presence of micro and macro nutrients, vitamins, growth hormones and other constituents in the seaweed extract might be very much useful to the crops but their level should be appropriate to enhance growth and productivity. It may be concluded that liquid seaweed extracts could serve as cost effective eco-friendly product for sustainable agriculture.

  5. Development of a New Binary Solvent System Using Ionic Liquids as Additives to Improve Rotenone Extraction Yield from Malaysia Derris sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetty Shafiqa Othman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotenone is one of the prominent insecticidal isoflavonoid compounds which can be isolated from the extract of Derris sp. plant. Despite being an effective compound in exterminating pests in a minute concentration, procuring a significant amount of rotenone in the extracts for commercialized biopesticides purposes is a challenge to be attained. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the best ionic liquid (IL which gives the highest yield of rotenone. The normal soaking extraction (NSE method was carried out for 24 hrs using five different types of binary solvent systems comprising a combination of acetone and five respective ionic liquids (ILs of (1 [BMIM] Cl; (2 [BMIM] OAc; (3 [BMIM] NTf2; (4 [BMIM] OTf; and (5 [BMPy] Cl. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w, and its concentration (mg/mL in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC and TLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems (P<0.05. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 2.69 ± 0.21% (w/w (4.04 ± 0.34 mg/mL at 14 hrs of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the ILs with a selective organic solvent has been proven to increase a significant amount of bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  6. Pyrolysis of Lantana camara and Mimosa pigra: Influences of temperature, other process parameters and incondensable gas evolution on char yield and higher heating value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundike, Jhonnah; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann F

    2017-11-01

    Pyrolysis of invasive non-indigenous plants, Lantana camara (LC) and Mimosa pigra (MP) was conducted at milligram-scale for optimisation of temperature, heating rate and hold time on char yield and higher heating value (HHV). The impact of scaling-up to gram-scale was also studied, with chromatography used to correlate gas composition with HHV evolution. Statistically significant effects of temperature on char yield and HHV were obtained, while heating rate and hold time effects were insignificant. Milligram-scale maximised HHVs were 30.03MJkg -1 (525°C) and 31.01MJkg -1 (580°C) for LC and MP, respectively. Higher char yields and HHVs for MP were attributed to increased lignin content. Scaling-up promoted secondary char formation thereby increasing HHVs, 30.82MJkg -1 for LC and 31.61MJkg -1 for MP. Incondensable gas analysis showed that temperature increase beyond preferred values caused dehydrogenation that decreased HHV. Similarly, CO evolution profile explained differences in optimal HHV temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The predictive value of parameters of clinical presentations for sperm yield in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia receiving microdissection testicular sperm extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsuan Ku

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Clinical presentations or phenotypes can be used as predictive factors for successful sperm retrieval during mTESE in patients with NOA. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and cases with UDT history have a higher chance of sperm retrieval. Initial testicular needle biopsy, if available, can provide valuable information about chances of sperm retrieval. Hypospermatogenesis predicts high sperm yield rate, and LMA can have best upgrade results of sperm yield after mTESE.

  8. Effect of drying and co-matrix addition on the yield and quality of supercritical CO₂ extracted pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello S; D'Amico, Leone; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    In this work a process for obtaining high vitamin E and carotenoid yields by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) is described. The results show that the use of a vacuum oven-dried [residual moisture (∼8%)] and milled (70 mesh sieve) pumpkin flesh matrix increased SC-CO₂ extraction yields of total vitamin E and carotenoids of ∼12.0- and ∼8.5-fold, respectively, with respect to the use of a freeze-dried and milled flesh matrix. The addition of milled (35 mesh) pumpkin seeds as co-matrix (1:1, w/w) allowed a further ∼1.6-fold increase in carotenoid yield, besides to a valuable enrichment of the extracted oil in vitamin E (274 mg/100 g oil) and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These findings encourage further studies in order to scale up the process for possible industrial production of high quality bioactive ingredients from pumpkin useful in functional food or cosmeceutical formulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sources of pre-analytical variations in yield of DNA extracted from blood samples: analysis of 50,000 DNA samples in EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Caboux

    Full Text Available The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88% performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies.

  10. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne

    2013-01-01

    disease, the tillering, the number of panicles and the yield increase in rice were evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. In vitro, the growth of both fungi was completely inhibited by the EO of C. citrinus and C. citratus at 4,520 mu g/ml and 452 mu g/ml, respectively. For solvent extracts...... in the non-treated and treated samples with a low incidence (0-4 of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, the combined use of the essential oil of C. citrinus as a seed treatment and spraying the plants with 2 % ethanol followed by 2 % (w/v) aqueous extracts of C. citrinus or C. citratus increased the emergence......, we concluded that the EO and solvent extracts of C. citrinus and C. citratus have potential as control agents against brown spot and other seed-borne fungal diseases in rice under both conventional and organic farming....

  11. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  12. Deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles enabled by exploiting higher intrinsic quantum yield through use of millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haichun; Xu, Can T.; Dumlupinar, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    We have accomplished deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles at 800 nm, using millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power. This is achieved by carefully choosing the pulse parameters, derived from time-resolved rate-equation analysis, which result in higher intrinsic...... quantum yield that is utilized by upconverting nanoparticles for generating this near infrared upconversion emission. The pulsed excitation approach thus promises previously unreachable imaging depths and shorter data acquisition times compared with continuous wave excitation, while simultaneously keeping...... therapy and remote activation of biomolecules in deep tissues....

  13. Effects of enzymatic extraction on anthocyanins yield of saffron tepals (Crocos sativus along with its color properties and structural stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lotfi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous solution of Pectinex (containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and pectinase at 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7%, and 10% concentrations and 40°C was used to extract anthocyanins (Acys of saffron tepals at 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 min reaction times and compared with ethanol solvent under similar conditions. The Acys of the Pectinex solution reached 6.7 mg/g of tepal powder (∼40% more than the ethanol method when the enzyme concentrations and extraction times were, respectively, 5% and 60 min. The Acys of aqueous enzymes had three times slower degradation rates and 50% more attractive chroma color than the ones recovered by ethanol solution after 3 h of extraction time. Additionally, the Acys of the ethanol solution lost its content sharply (>45% and its chroma changed quickly (due to the browning and polymerization. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed that Acys extracted with mixed enzymes had about 80% more cyanidin 3-glucosides and 20% less pelargonidin 3,5-glucosides than with the ethanol method. Most probably, the high content of cyanidin 3-glycosides in enzyme-extracted Acys of saffron tepals was the key factor for its high stability.

  14. Comparison, artificial neural network modeling and genetic algorithm optimization of the resinoid and potassium yields from white lady’s bedstraw (Galium mollugo L. by conventional, reflux and ultrasound-assisted aqueous-ethanolic extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Petar S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the yields of resinoid and potassium obtained from aerial parts of white lady’s bedstraw (Galium mollugo L. by maceration, reflux extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction using aqueous ethanol solutions as solvents. The main goal was to define the influence of the extraction technique and the ethanol concentration on the resinoid and potassium yields. The resinoid and potassium yields were determined by the solvent evaporation from the liquid extracts to constant weight and the AAS emission method, respectively. The dependence of resinoid and potassium yields on the ethanol concentration was described by linear and quadratic polynomial models, respectively. The best potassium extraction selectivity of 0.077 g K/g of dry extract was achieved by maceration at the ethanol concentrations of 10 g/100 g. The artificial neural network (ANN was successfully applied to estimate the resinoid and potassium yields based on the ethanol concentration in the extracting solvent and the time duration for all three extraction techniques employed. The response surface methodology was also used to present the dependence of ANN results on the operating factors. The extraction process was optimized using the ANN model coupled with genetic algorithm. The maximum predicted resinoid and potassium yields of 30.4 and 1.67 g/100 g of dry plant were obtained by the ultrasonic extraction (80 min using the 10 g/100 g aqueous ethanol solution.

  15. Fast pyrolysis of corn stover using ZnCl2: Effect of washing treatment on the furfural yield and solvent extraction of furfural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Choi, Gyung-Goo; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2015-01-01

    To produce a bio-oil having a high concentration of furfural, corn stover was fast-pyrolyzed using ZnCl 2 in a fluidized bed reactor at 330–430 °C. The effects of various parameters such as reaction temperature, water- and acid-washing prior to pyrolysis, and ZnCl 2 content on the product and furfural yields were investigated. Moreover, solvent extraction was conducted using toluene at different mass ratios of bio-oil/toluene to recover furfural from the obtained bio-oil. The maximum yield of bio-oil was 59 wt%. The bio-oil mainly comprised acetic acid, α-hydroxyketones, and furfural. The maximum furfural yield was 11.5 wt% when the feed material was water-washed, impregnated with 18.5 wt% ZnCl 2 , and pyrolyzed. Although acid-washing removed alkali and alkaline earth metals much more efficiently than water-washing, water-washing was better than acid-washing for the furfural production. Toluene extraction was very effective to recover furfural from bio-oil. The maximum recovery rate (82%) was achieved at a bio-oil/toluene ratio of 1:4. - Highlights: • Corn stover pretreated and impregnated with ZnCl 2 was successfully pyrolyzed. • Furfural was recovered from bio-oil by extraction using toluene. • Water-washing was better than acid-washing for the furfural production. • The highest furfural yield was 11.5 wt% of the product. • The highest furfural recovery rate was 82%

  16. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  17. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4 + permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4 + conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4 +). The NH4 + uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4 + transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4 + uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4 + assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4 + permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4 + content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4 + fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4 + contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4 + levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions. PMID:24420570

  18. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  19. Novel bitter melon extracts highly yielded from supercritical extraction reduce the adiposity through the enhanced lipid metabolism in mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia is a species of edible plant known for its medicinal value towards diabetes and obesity. Due to the various compositions of bitter melon extracts (BME, the comprehensive knowledge concerning their anti-obesity effects was insufficient. Here we first introduced supercritical extraction to BME's preparation, (supercritical extraction is a relatively advanced extraction method with a better efficiency and selectivity and expected to be extensively used in future applications and the resultants were subjected to HPLC analysis, validating the presence of 42.60% of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA, cis9, trans11, trans13-18:3 and 13.17% of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis9, trans11-18:2. The BMSO (bitter melon seed oil was then administered to the HFD mice, an obesity model established by feeding C57BL/6J mice a high fat diet. Consequently, due to the BMSO's supplementation, the HFD mice showed a significantly decreased body-weight, Lee's index, fat index and adipose size, whereas the liver weight stayed unchanged. Meanwhile, the serum FFA (free fatty acids levels returned to normal at the dosage of 10 g/kg, and the elevated serum leptin levels were also recovered by BMSO's supplementation with moderate and high dose. These findings suggested that BMSO restored the balance between lipid intake and metabolism, which was probably mediated by leptin's variation. In summary, a detailed anti-obesity effect was described with regard to a potent CFA's (conjugated fatty acid combination offered by BME. A potential mechanism underlying BME's beneficial effects was proposed, paving the way for the better use of BME's pharmaceutical function to serve the obesity's treatment.

  20. The effect of NaOH catalyst concentration and extraction time on the yield and properties of Citrullus vulgaris seed oil as a potential biodiesel feed stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Efavi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, oil was extracted from Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon seeds for potential feedstock in biodiesel production. The results showed that, the oil content from Citrullus vulgaris seeds oil during extraction reached an average yield of 50%. Biodiesel was produced via transesterification using NaOH as catalyst. The effect of NaOH on the yield of the biodiesel was investigated at three different concentrations; 0.13, 0.15 and 0.18 g and oil to methanol ratio of 5:1 under different reaction times; 90, 120 and 150 min at 60 °C. The yield of biodiesel from NaOH concentration of 0.13 g was found to be 70% as compared to those of concentrations, 0.15 g and 0.18 g which were 53% and 49% respectively.Gas chromatography was used to identify the methyl ester groups present in the biodiesel and the results revealed both concentration and time-dependent increase in oil yield. The physicochemical properties of the watermelon seed oil such as flash point (141.3 ± 0.4–143.4 ± 0.2, density (0.86 ± 0.04–0.91 ± 0.01 g/cm3, kinematic viscosity (30.50 ± 0.1–31.20 ± 0.04 mm2/s and acid value (mg KOH/g are similar to conventional vegetable oils. This work therefore, highlights the potential utility of water melon seeds for biodiesel production. Keywords: Citrullus vulgaris, Gas chromatography, Catalyst

  1. Influence of instantaneous controlled pressure drop extraction conditions on composition and oil yield from Maritime Pine (Pinus Pinaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Rezzoug , Sid-Ahmed; Janocka , Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Experiments to extract the essential oil from maritime pine (pinus pinaster) were carried out using the instantaneous controlled pressure drop process: "Détente Instantanée Contrôlée" (D.I.C). This process involves subjecting the maritime pine needles for a short period of time to a steam pressure varying from 2 to 5 bar (120 to 150 °C) during a fixed processing time, followed by an instantaneous decompression towards a vacuum (about 50 mbar). In this contribution, we ...

  2. A combined simple bubbling method with high performance liquid chromatography purification strategy, higher radiochemical yield and purity and faster preparation of carbon-11-raclopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huacheng; Ning, Yanli; Zhang, Bucheng; Lou, Cen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-11-raclopride (¹¹C-R) is a positron-emitting radiotracer successfully used for the study of cognitive control and widely applied in PET imaging. A simple automated preparation of ¹¹C-R by using the reaction of carbon-(11)-methyl triflate (¹¹C-MeOTF) or ¹¹C-methyl iodide (¹¹C-MeI) with demethylraclopride is described. Specifically we used a simple setup applied an additional "U" reaction vessel for ¹¹C-MeOTf compared with ¹¹C-MeI and assessed the influence of several solvents and of the amount of the percussor for ¹¹C-methylation of demethylraclopride by the bubbling method. The reversal of retention order between product and its precursor has been achieved for ¹¹C-R, enabling collection of the purified ¹¹C-R by using the HPLC column after shorter retention time. By the improved radiosynthesis and purification strategy, ¹¹C-R could be prepared with higher radiochemical yield than that of the previous studies. The yield for ¹¹C-MeOTf was 76% and for ¹¹C-CH3I >26% and with better radiochemical purity (>99% based on both ¹¹C-MeOTf and ¹¹C-MeI) as compared to the previously obtained purity of ¹¹C-R using HPLC method with acetonitrile as a part of mobile phase. Furthermore, by using ethanol as the organic modifier, residual solvent analysis prior to human injection could be avoided and ¹¹C-R could be injected directly following simple dilution and sterile filtration. Improved radiosynthesis and HPLC purification in combination with ethanol containing eluent, extremely shortened the time for preparation of ¹¹C-R, gave a higher radiochemical yield and purity for ¹¹C-R and can be used for multiple and faster synthesis of ¹¹C-R and probably for other ¹¹C-labeled radiopharmaceuticals.

  3. Model-Based Evaluation of Higher Doses of Rifampin Using a Semimechanistic Model Incorporating Autoinduction and Saturation of Hepatic Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirehwa, Maxwell T; Rustomjee, Roxana; Mthiyane, Thuli; Onyebujoh, Philip; Smith, Peter; McIlleron, Helen; Denti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Rifampin is a key sterilizing drug in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It induces its own metabolism, but neither the onset nor the extent of autoinduction has been adequately described. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends a rifampin dose of 8 to 12 mg/kg of body weight, which is believed to be suboptimal, and higher doses may potentially improve treatment outcomes. However, a nonlinear increase in exposure may be observed because of saturation of hepatic extraction and hence this should be taken into consideration when a dose increase is implemented. Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) data from 61 HIV-TB-coinfected patients in South Africa were collected at four visits, on days 1, 8, 15, and 29, after initiation of treatment. Data were analyzed by population nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Rifampin PKs were best described by using a transit compartment absorption and a well-stirred liver model with saturation of hepatic extraction, including a first-pass effect. Autoinduction was characterized by using an exponential-maturation model: hepatic clearance almost doubled from the baseline to steady state, with a half-life of around 4.5 days. The model predicts that increases in the dose of rifampin result in more-than-linear drug exposure increases as measured by the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve. Simulations with doses of up to 35 mg/kg produced results closely in line with those of clinical trials. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Effect of Different Levels of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Yield, Harvest Index and Extract Percentage of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Laleh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hemp is a dioecious and annual plant. The most important use to this plant is in the food, drug, and natural fibers. Proper fertilizer management for a medicinal plant species is important for increasing its yield and maintaining the quality of active principles. Sustainable farming is on the basis of natural fertilizer application with the aim of decreasing chemical fertilizers. Various studies show that application of animal manure with chemical fertilizers (as N, P and … have positive effects on soil structure, microbial population, soil fertility, growth and yield of plant with the aim of protecting the environment. Therefore, the present study was under taken to evaluate the effect of organic amendments enriched with chemical fertilizers of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield and extract of hemp. Materials and Methods To study the effect of different levels of animal manure and chemical fertilizers, a split factorial experiment, based on complete randomized blocks design with three replications was conducted at the research Farm of Faculty of agriculture, University of Birjand, during the growing season 2014-2015. Experimental factors were animal manure (0, 10, 20 and 30 t. ha-1well rotted farmyard manure as the main plot, and factorial application of three levels of N (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1 as Urea with two levels of P (0 and 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 as triple and P was superphosphate as sub-plot. Animal manure, P and half of the N fertilizer were applied before planting and the other half of N were applied by top dressing. Hemp were planted 5 may on rows 60 cm apart, with 30 cm distance between each hemp on row, at the depth of 3-4 cm. Measured traits included leaf, stem and seed weights, stem height and diameter, 1000 seed weight, and leaves extract percentage per square meter in sub-plot for female plants of hemp. Also percentage of female plants calculated per sub-plot. Finally, all variables were analyzed by SAS software (V. 9

  5. Effects of sample drying and storage, and choice of extraction solvent and analysis method on the yield of birch leaf hydrolyzable tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2003-06-01

    In this study, I investigated the effects of different methods of sample drying and storage, and the choice of extraction solvent and analysis method on the concentrations of 14 individual hydrolyzable tannins (HTs), and insoluble ellagitannins in birch (Betula pubescens) leaves. Freeze- and vacuum-drying of birch leaves were found to provide more reliable results than air- or oven-drying. Storage of leaves at -20 degrees C for 3 months before freeze-drying did not cause major changes in tannin content, although levels of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloylglucose and isostrictinin were altered. Storage of dried leaf material at -20 degrees C is preferred because 1 year storage of freeze-dried leaves at 4 degrees C and at room temperature decreased the concentration of the pedunculagin derivative, one of the main ellagitannins of birch. Furthermore, storage at room temperature increased the levels of isostrictinin and 2,3-(S)-HHDP-glucose, indicating possible HT catabolism. Of the extraction solvents tested, aqueous acetone was superior to pure acetone, or aqueous or pure methanol. The addition of 0.1% ascorbic acid into 70% acetone significantly increased the yield of ellagitannins. presumably by preventing their oxidation. By comparing the conventional rhodanine assay and the HPLC-ESI-MS assay for quantification of leaf galloylglucoses, the former tends to underestimate total concentrations of galloylglucoses in birch leaf extract. On the basis of the outcomes of all the method and solvent comparisons, their suitability for qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant HTs is discussed, emphasizing that each plant species, with its presumably unique HT composition, is likely to have a unique combination of ideal conditions for tissue preservation and extraction.

  6. Some compositional and health indicators of milk quality of dairy cows with higher milk yield at including of selected corn species into feeding ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pozdíšek

    2008-01-01

    influenced. More important differences were in total dry matter, 12.09 (K < 12.23 (P1 or 12.40 % (P2. While for wheat was not for triticale was similar effect observed in crude protein (CP of milk (3.08 (K or 3.05 (P1 < 3.23 % (P2. Similar trend was also confirmed in casein (CAS; 2.43 or 2.44 < 2.55 %; from P < 0.05 to P < 0.001 for CP and CAS. There were insignificant differences between groups for casein number, pH acidity, electrical conductivity, Mg and Cu (P > 0.05. Milk specific weight was lowest in P1 (P < 0.01, but this indicator is practically less important. More expressive differences were in somatic cell count (SCC in geometric mean 249 (P2 > 76 (K or 72 103/ml (P1. Because of quite typical high SCC variability in tri­ti­ca­le P2 group (in opposite to this low variability in K and P1 groups it could be caused by chance in animal selection for groups and all values met the standard demand for extra quality of milk. Therefore, it is not necessary to over estimate this result. Milk urea as metabolical indicator was higher in wheat group, significantly (P < 0.05 versus triticale group (23.39 (P1 > 20.80 (K and 20.50 mg / 100ml (P2, but all values lay in respected physiological range (from 20 to 30 mg / 100ml. In the Ca case it was significantly higher (P < 0.05 versus wheat in triticale milk group by 5.7 and 4.0 % (1306 (P2 > 1231 (K or 1253 (P1 mg / kg. This increase could be interested in terms of milk nutritive value, but not for routine milk payment. The levels of P and Fe in milk were higher in K versus experimental groups (P < 0.05. It is less interesting in terms of economy or nutrition. In general milk was a little different according to differences in corn portions of cow feeding rations and corn variant replacement. In terms of experiment the concrete corn replacement in concentrate portion of feeding ration could not have an essential impact on milk quality and it si possible to agree with such conception. However, the milk quality and yield

  7. Methods for suspension culture, protoplast extraction, and transformation of high-biomass yielding perennial grass Arundo donax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigna, Gaia; Dhillon, Taniya; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Yuan, Joshua S; Gorman, Connor; Morandini, Piero; Lenaghan, Scott C; Stewart, C Neal

    2016-12-01

    Arundo donax L. is a promising biofuel feedstock in the Mediterranean region. Despite considerable interest in its genetic improvement, Arundo tissue culture and transformation remains arduous. The authors developed methodologies for cell- and tissue culture and genetic engineering in Arundo. A media screen was conducted, and a suspension culture was established using callus induced from stem axillary bud explants. DBAP medium, containing 9 µM 2,4-D and 4.4 µM BAP, was found to be the most effective medium among those tested for inducing cell suspension cultures, which resulted in a five-fold increase in tissue mass over 14 days. In contrast, CIM medium containing 13 µM 2,4-D, resulted in just a 1.4-fold increase in mass over the same period. Optimized suspension cultures were superior to previously-described solidified medium-based callus culture methods for tissue mass increase. Suspension cultures proved to be very effective for subsequent protoplast isolation. Protoplast electroporation resulted in a 3.3 ± 1.5% transformation efficiency. A dual fluorescent reporter gene vector enabled the direct comparison of the CAMV 35S promoter with the switchgrass ubi2 promoter in single cells of Arundo. The switchgrass ubi2 promoter resulted in noticeably higher reporter gene expression compared with that conferred by the 35S promoter in Arundo. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  9. Storing of Extracts in Polypropylene Microcentrifuge Tubes Yields Contaminant Peak During Ultra-flow Liquid Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Parthraj R; Hegde, Harsha; Pai, Sandeep R

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to understand the effect of storage in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials during ultra-flow liquid chromatographic (UFLC) analysis. One ml of methanol was placed in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes (PP material, Autoclavable) and glass vials (Borosilicate) separately for 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 40, and 80 days intervals stored at -4°C. Contaminant peak was detected in methanol stored in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes using UFLC analysis. The contaminant peak detected was prominent, sharp detectable at 9.176 ± 0.138 min on a Waters 250-4.6 mm, 4 μ, Nova-Pak C18 column with mobile phase consisting of methanol:water (70:30). It was evident from the study that long-term storage of biological samples prepared using methanol in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes produce contaminant peak. Further, this may mislead in future reporting an unnatural compound by researchers. Long-term storage of biological samples prepared using methanol in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes produce contaminant peakContamination peak with higher area under the curve (609993) was obtained in ultra-flow liquid chromatographic run for methanol stored in PP microcentrifuge tubesContamination peak was detected at retention time 9.113 min with a lambda max of 220.38 nm and 300 mAU intensity on the given chromatographic conditionsGlass vials serve better option over PP microcentrifuge tubes for storing biological samples. Abbreviations used: UFLC: Ultra Flow Liquid Chromatography; LC: Liquid Chromatography; MS: Mass spectrometry; AUC: Area Under Curve.

  10. Immunomodulating and Antiprotozoal Effects of Different Extracts of the Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Coccidiosis in Broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Akhtar, Masood; Iqbal, Zafar; Shahid, Muhammad; Awais, Mian Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The culinary-medicinal oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, procured from local sources, was processed for hot water and methanolic extraction. Extracts obtained were subjected to proximate analysis to determine the amount of crude protein, crude fiber, ash, ether, and nitrogen-free extracts. These extracts were evaluated for immunomodulating and antiprotozoal effects against coccidiosis in a broiler. Cellular immune investigation revealed significantly higher (P 0.05) findings were observed in investigations of lymphoid organs. Antiprotozoal studies revealed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) percentage of protection against coccidiosis in groups administered P. ostreatus extracts when compared with controls. Moreover, lesion scoring and oocysts per gram of droppings observed in the control group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with those in groups administered hot water and methanolic extracts of P. ostreatus. Results concluded that hot water and methanolic extracts of P. ostreatus had strong immune-enhancing activities. Further, these extracts also had excellent antiprotozoal activities against coccidiosis in a broiler.

  11. Accelerated Solvent Extraction: An Innovative Sample Extraction Technique for Natural Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Azfar Hanif Abd Aziz; Rosniza Razali

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is one of the novel techniques that have been developed for the extraction of phytochemicals from plants in order to shorten the extraction time, decrease the solvent consumption, increase the extraction yield and enhance the quality of extracts. This technique combines elevated temperatures and pressure with liquid solvents. This paper gives a brief overview of accelerated solvent extraction technique for sample preparation and its application to the extraction of natural products. Through practical examples, the effects of operational parameters such as temperature, volume of solvent used, extraction time and extraction yields on the performance of ASE are discussed. It is demonstrated that ASE technique allows reduced solvent consumption and shorter extraction time, while the extraction yields are even higher than those obtained with conventional methods. (author)

  12. Meta-analysis of the application effects of a biostimulant based on extracts of yeast and amino acids on off-season corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The tests were performed with a biostimulant (GAAP containing yeast extract and amino acids. The yield data of the off-season corn for meta-analysis were collected from 41 trials conducted in the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, and Goiás during the 2013/2014 crop season. The tests consisted of eight treatments, with four replicates per treatment, and were conducted on 3.6 × 6.0 m plots. The treatments consisted of application of biostimulant at 2.0 L ha-1 at different times and the control (no biostimulant. The time of application corresponded to the growth stages, V8, VT, R1, (V8 + VT, (V8 + R1, (VT + R1, and (V8 + VT + R1. The influence of biostimulant application was quantified as the difference in yield, expressed as kilogram per hectare (kg ha-1, between treatments and the control (effect measurements. Meta-analysis was used to study the effects of the treatments and to calculate the probability of yield increase with product use. The meta-analysis was performed using the software R. The random effects model was used for meta-analysis because of the high heterogeneity among the studies. Next, the mixed effect model was applied to explain the high heterogeneity, considering the following subgroups: the number of applications, the timing of applications, the presence of water stress, and the region where the tests were conducted. The probability of yield increase was calculated at the levels of 2, 5, and 10 bags, each of 60 kg ha-1. The meta-analysis results for the variable "General" and the subgroups were significantly positive (p < 0.0001, with a meta-analytic estimate of 342.1 kg ha-1 and the confidence interval for 95% probability ranging between 301.2 kg ha-1 and 383.0 kg ha-1. The probability for yield greater than zero or equal to 2, 5, and 10 bags of 60 kg ha-1 in subgroup "three applications" was 91.7%, 85.4%, 71.0%, and 38.9%, respectively. These same values were estimated at 91.7%, 85.4%, 71.0%, and 39

  13. Increased [CO2] does not compensate for negative effects on yield caused by higher temperature and [O3] in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    in existing genotypes is vital. In this study, the responses in yield and biomass production of four different cultivars of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were tested under five different combinations of increased [CO2] (700 ppm), temperature (+5 °C) and [O3] (+40 ppb). Especially the multifactor treatments...

  14. Immunomodulatory activities of different solvent extracts from Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et S. Imai) singer (higher basidiomycetes) on normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai

    2012-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activities of different solvent extracts from the culinary-medicinal mushroom Tricholoma matsutake were studied in vivo in normal mice. The extracts were prepared using different solvents in an order of increasing polarity. The immunomodulatory activities were investigated by measuring the thymus and spleen index, phagocytic rate of macrophage phagocytosis, delayed-type hypersensitivity, plaque-forming cell, and proliferation of splenocytes. Results demonstrated that water extract (WE) and n-butyl alcohol extract (BAE) of T. matsutake could enhance the immunity of mice significantly compared with the control group. Main components of WE and BAE were polysaccharides, proteins, and flavonoids; we presume that these may be the main immunomodulating and immuno-enhancing agents in T. matsutake.

  15. Survival Rate of Delayed Implants Placed in Healed Extraction Sockets is Significantly Higher Than That of Immediate Implants Placed in Fresh Extraction Sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antetomaso, Jordan; Kumar, Satish

    2018-03-01

    Immediate implant placement into fresh extraction sockets versus delayed implants into healed sockets: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mello CC, Lemos CAA, Verri FR, Dos Santos DM, Goiato MC, Pellizzer EP. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017; 46(9):1162-77. None TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Extraction of Crude Chitinase from Higher Plants and their Chitin-Hydrolysis Activities; Kotosyokubutu yurai kichinaze no chusyutu to kichin bunkai kassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, K.; Harada, K.; Shibata, M.; Maeda, R. [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-07-10

    To prepare a purified chitinase from higher plants, firstly, crude enzymes were extracted from six higher plants, namely, radish seeds, sunflower seeds, watermelon seeds, bamboo leaves, orange skin, and persimmon skin. Using these crude enzymes, pH dependencies of hydrolysis reaction of colloidal chitin are investigated. For radish seeds and bamboo leaves, which have relatively high activities, the kinetics of enzymatic reaction are studies. It is clear that these reactions obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Influence of seaweed extract as an organic fertilizer on the growth and yield of Arachis hypogea L. and their elemental composition using SEM–Energy Dispersive Spectroscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ganapathy Selvam

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: It is suggested that there are considerable gains to be made in increasing yield and stabilizing the yield in environments characterized by terminal requirement for organic and by shortening crop duration nutrient management appear promising.

  18. Evaluation of a Biostimulant (Pepton Based in Enzymatic Hydrolyzed Animal Protein in Comparison to Seaweed Extracts on Root Development, Vegetative Growth, Flowering, and Yield of Gold Cherry Tomatoes Grown under Low Stress Ambient Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Polo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of different application rates of an enzyme hydrolyzed animal protein biostimulant (Pepton compared to a standard application rate of a biostimulant derived from seaweed extract (Acadian on plant growth parameters and yield of gold cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Biostimulant treatments were applied starting at 15 days after transplant and every 2 weeks thereafter for a total of 5 applications. One treatment group received no biostimulant (Control. Three treatment groups (Pepton-2, Pepton-3, Pepton-4 received Pepton at different application rates equivalent to 2, 3, or 4 kg/ha applied by foliar (first 2 applications and by irrigation (last 3 applications. Another treatment group (Acadian received Acadian at 1.5 L/ha by irrigation for all five applications. All groups received the regular fertilizer application for this crop at transplantation, flowering, and fruiting periods. There were four plots per treatment group. Each plot had a surface area of 21 m2 that consisted of two rows that were 7 m long and 1.5 m wide. Plant height, stem diameter, distance from head to bouquet flowering, fruit set distance between the entire cluster and cluster flowering fruit set, leaf length, and number of leaves per plant was recorded for 20 plants (5 plants per plot at 56 and 61 days after the first application. Root length and diameter of cherry tomatoes were determined at harvest from 20 randomly selected plants. Harvesting yield per plot was registered and production per hectare was calculated. Both biostimulants improved (P < 0.05 all vegetative parameters compared with the control group. There was a positive linear (P < 0.001 effect of Pepton application rate for all parameters. The calculated yield was 7.8 and 1 Ton/ha greater that represent 27 and 2.9% higher production for Pepton applied at 4 kg/ha compared to the control and to Acadian, respectively. In conclusion, Pepton was

  19. Influence of malaxation time of olive paste on oil extraction yields and chemical and organoleptic characteristics of virgin olive oil obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serraiocco, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were carried out to ascertain the influence of malaxation time of olive paste on extraction yields and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving. Results show that malaxation time has to be no less than 45 minutes to have a satisfactory oil extraction yield. Furthermore, it was ascertained that the malaxation time, protracted up to 90 minutes, does not have influence upon qualitative and organoleptic characteristics of oils. Only the total phenols content of oils changed significantly when the malaxation time of olive paste increased from 15 to 90 minutes. However, in this research has been demonstrated that in some cases the total phenols content of oils increased during the first 30-45 minutes of malaxation and after it diminished. This is due to the variation of total phenols content of vegetable water that in the first time increased and after diminished very quickly. Because of the partition equilibrium law, the total phenols content of oil changed in the same way. Finally, results show that the composition of volatile substances of head-space of oils did not change increasing the malaxation time of olive paste obtained from good quality olive fruits.Se realizaron pruebas experimentales para verificar la influencia del tiempo de batido sobre los rendimientos en aceite y sobre las características de la calidad de los aceites obtenidos con un decanter centrifugo con ahorro de agua. Los resultados conseguidos indicaron que el tiempo de batido no debe ser inferior a 45 minutos para poder obtener rendimientos en aceite satisfactorios. Además, se pudo verificar que la operación de batido, aun siendo prolongada a 90 minutos, no influencia significativamente en las características cualitativas y organolépticas de los aceites. Solo el contenido de fenoles totales en los aceites disminuyó cuando el tiempo de batido fue incrementado de 15 a 90 minutos. Sin embargo, se

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation and comparison of different extraction methods on sesquiterpene lactone yields from the medicinal plant Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed Ibrahim, Abir M.; Martinez-Swatson, Karen A.; Benkaci-Ali, Farid

    2017-01-01

    methods Quantification of the compounds of interest was done using an HPLC. The antioxidant activity extracts was determined using the two free radical scavenging assays: the 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). Results...... the combined effect of microwave assisted extraction and gamma irradiation on the highly bioactive compounds found in extracts of Algerian T. garganica, samples from different locations in Algeria were prepared by extraction from dried leaf and root samples of dried plant material, using different extraction......: It was found that location and extraction method had significant impact on the phytochemical composition of extracts. Gamma irradiation was found to have no effect on the phytochemical composition of the plant extracts or on their antioxidant properties. Conclusion: The study has shown that microwave assisted...

  1. RENDEMEN DAN KOMPOSISI PROKSIMAT GELATIN KULIT IKAN BELUT DAN LELE PADA KEADAAN SEGAR DAN KERING (YIELD AND PROXIMATE OF GELATIN EXTRACTED FROM FRESH AND DRY SWAMP ELL AND CATFISH SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafni Rahmawati

    2017-02-01

    material preparation (fresh and dry fish skin soaked in aquadest for 4 hours. Fish skin extracted using 0,05 M acetic acid for      10 hours, washed in water and then extracted using aquadest at 80OC for 2 hours to get gelatin liquid, the liquid was filtrated. Filtrat was dried in cabinet dryer at 55OC for 48 hours to get gelatin layers, and then blended to get gelatin granule. The results were gelatin yield from dry fish skin lower than fresh fish skin. Gelatin protein from dry fish skin more higher than fresh skin. Influence of fish skin drying was decrease gelatin ash and fat, but gelatin moisture wasn’t influenced. Gelatin from fresh skin swamp ell was the best gelatin with moisture 9,91%, ash 3,07%, protein 91,61%, lipid 0,82%.

  2. A comparison of accelerated solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinchao; Shao, Xueguang

    2005-11-01

    The performance of accelerated solvent extraction in the analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco samples was investigated and compared with those of Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonically assisted extraction with respect to yield, extraction time, reproducibility and solvent consumption. The results indicate that although the highest yield was achieved by Soxhlet extraction, ASE appears to be a promising alternative to classical methods since it is faster and uses less solvent, especially when applied to the investigation of large batch tobacco samples. However, Soxhlet extraction is still the preferred method for analyzing sterols since it gives a higher extraction efficiency than other methods.

  3. Quantitative analysis of higher hydrocarbons in natural gas using coupled solid-phase extraction / supercritiacal fluid extraction with on-line GC analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Meulen-Kuijk, van der L.; Smit, A.L.C.; Sandra, P.; Devos, G.

    1993-01-01

    Characterisation of natural gas with respect to the hydrocarbon content is a challenging analytical problem due to the extremely low concentrations and the complexity of the matrix. In this publication a method is described for fully on-line preconcentration and analysis of n-nonane and higher

  4. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Membrane extraction instead of solvent extraction - what does it give

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.

    1989-01-01

    Membrane extraction, i.e. separation in double-emulsion systems, is analyzed theoretically as a three-phase distribution process. Its efficiency is evaluated from the point of view of chemical equilibria and diffusion transport kinetics. The main advantages of membrane extraction as compared with solvent extraction are in higher yields (for preconcentration) and higher capacity for recovery of solutes. A pertraction factor and multiplication factor were defined. They are convenient parameters for numerical characterization of solute distribution, system capacity, process economics, and separation kinetics (both at a linear and non-linear extraction isotherm). 17 refs.; 4 figs

  6. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  7. KINETICS OF ULTRASOUND ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF WEDELOLACTONE FROM Eclipta alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Charpe

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultrasound assisted extraction of wedelolactone, a major coumestan present in Eclipta alba, is investigated in the present work.Various process parameters such as type of solvent, power, solvent to solid ratio and extraction temperature, which affect the extraction yield, are optimized. In the ultrasound-assisted extraction with final optimized conditions, i.e., methanol as solvent, 170 W power, 60:1 solvent to solid ratio, 50 °C temperature and 60% duty cycle, amaximum extraction yieldof 0.62 mg/g is obtained in 45 minutes. The kinetic model (Peleg's model has been used for the prediction of the yield of wedelolactone in the extract at a given time for all experimental conditions. The values of predicted yields show good agreement with the experimental data for all parameters, i.e., power, solvent to solid ratio and temperature. The extraction of wedelolactone from Eclipta alba is also carried out by conventional extraction methods, i.e., Soxhlet and batch extraction. Ultrasound-assisted extraction gives higher extraction yield in less time as compared to batch extraction (0.41 mg/g in 90 min and Soxhlet extraction(0.7 mg/g in 360 min. The ultrasound-assisted extraction of wedelolactone from Eclipta alba is an effective way of extraction with the advantages of lower time and higher extraction.

  8. Treatment of different parts of corn stover for high yield and lower polydispersity lignin extraction with high-boiling alkaline solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengyao; Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Yan, Tingxuan; Khan, Asad Ullah; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Xu, Xia; Cui, Ping; Xu, Jian

    2018-02-01

    The influence of different parts of corn stover on lignin extraction was investigated. Five kinds of lignin were isolated by the high boiling point solvent extraction from the whole corn stover and four different parts including leaf, husk, bark and pith. The optimal condition was obtained: 6.25 g/L NaOH, 140 °C, 1 h and 60% (v/v) 1,4-butanediol. The extracted lignins were then characterized. FT-IR analysis revealed that all of the lignins were typically herbaceous. The lignin extracted from husk contained more S unit. Gel permeation chromatography analysis showed that it was necessary to separate corn stover into different parts to obtain low polydispersity lignin. The SEM and FT-IR analysis proved that the lignin dissolution was related to the tightness structure presenting a positive correlation with hydrogen bond index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Azacitidine-lenalidomide (ViLen) combination yields a high response rate in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)-ViLen-01 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Moshe; Filanovsky, Kalman; Ofran, Yishai; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Raanani, Pia; Braester, Andrei; Goldschmidt, Neta; Kirgner, Ilya; Herishanu, Yair; Perri, Chava; Ellis, Martin; Oster, Howard S

    2016-10-01

    Azacitidine treatment is effective in higher risk MDS (HR-MDS), with less than 50 % response, lasting 2 years. Aza and lenalidomide (Len) have a potential synergistic effect. ViLen-01 phase IIa trial includes 6-month induction (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, Len 10 mg/day, days 6-21, every 28 days), 6-month consolidation (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, every 28 days), and 12-month maintenance (Len 10 mg/day, days 1-21, every 28 days). Response was evaluated according to IWG criteria. Totally, 25 patients enrolled, with an average of 76.3 years old (60-87), and 88 % with major comorbidities. Thirteen patients completed induction, 7 proceeded for consolidation, and 2 for maintenance. The overall response rate (ORR) was 72 % (18/25), with 6 (24 %) for CR, 3 (12 %) for marrow CR, and 9 (36 %) for hematologic improvement (HI). The 7 non-responding patients were on the study 3 days to 4.1 months. At 6 months, 4 of 6 evaluable patients achieved complete cytogenetic response and 2 with del (5q) at diagnosis. Adverse events (AEs) were as expected in these patients: grades III-IV, mainly hematologic-thrombocytopenia (20 patients) and neutropenia (13 patients). The common non-hematologic AEs were infections (14 patients), nausea (7), vomiting (7), diarrhea (7), and skin reactions (5). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12 ± 1.36 months, with median overall survival (OS) of 12 ± 1.7 months. Quality of life (FACT questionnaire) data were available for 12 patients with a tendency towards improved QoL. This trial with elderly HR-MDS patients with an expected poor prognosis demonstrates a high (72 %) response rate and a reasonable expected safety profile but a relatively short PFS and OS.

  10. Homogenate extraction of crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes and evaluation of the antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leqin KE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crude polysaccharides of Lentinus edodes were extracted using homogenate method. Factors affecting the yield of crude polysaccharides were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology. The homogenate extraction method was compared with traditional heating extraction method. The antioxidant activity of crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes was evaluated. Results showed that, the optimal conditions of homogenate extraction were as follows: solvent pH, 10; liquid-solid ratio, 30: 1 (mL: g, extraction time, 66 s; number of extraction, 1. Under these conditions, the yield of crude polysaccharides was (13.2 ± 0.9%, which was 29.82% higher than that of traditional heating extraction. Crude polysaccharides of Lentinus edodes had good DPPH scavenging activity. Compared with the traditional heating extraction, the homogenate extraction had notable advantages including good extraction yield, short extraction time and low extraction temperature. It is an efficient way to extract crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes.

  11. Microbial growth yield estimates from thermodynamics and its importance for degradation of pesticides and formation of biogenic non-extractable residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Andreas Libonati; Kästner, M.; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    NER. Formation of microbial mass can be estimated from the microbial growth yield, but experimental data is rare. Instead, we suggest using prediction methods for the theoretical yield based on thermodynamics. Recently, we presented the Microbial Turnover to Biomass (MTB) method that needs a minimum...... and using the released CO2 as a measure for microbial activity, we predicted a range for the formation of biogenic NER. For the majority of the pesticides, a considerable fraction of the NER was estimated to be biogenic. This novel approach provides a theoretical foundation applicable to the evaluation...

  12. Monolithic reactor : Higher yield, less energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzer, M.T.; Moulijn, J.A.; Kapteijn, F.; Mols, B.

    2004-01-01

    The production of margarine, the desulphurisation of crude oil, and the manufacture of synthetic diesel fuel, these are only three of the many industrial processes in which a three-phase reactor is used. Traditionally, this type of reactor is rather ill-defined. Success with a lab scale set-up is no

  13. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Constituents in a Population of Adult Cigarette Smokers in the U.S. Who Spontaneously Switched to Cigarettes with Lower or Higher Machine Measured ‘Tar’ Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad-Kah RS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in exposure to cigarette smoke and smoking behavior were assessed in adult smokers participating in a multi-center, cross-sectional study who spontaneously switched to > 3 mg lower or higher machine measured ‘tar’ yield. Of 2,542 consenting smokers only 23 down-switchers (DWNSW and 68 up-switchers (UPSW met study eligibility criteria. Biomarkers of exposure (BOE to selected smoke constituents were measured. Large variability was observed in the BOEs (e.g. CV% for nicotine equivalents (nicotine and five of its metabolites, NE per day ranged from 59% to 78%. On average, DWNSW smoked two more cigarettes/day (+ 9% that had ~ 5.9 mg lower ‘tar’ yield. Mean NE/day were 12.0 ± 6.2 mg/day compared to 13.9 ± 8.2 mg/day after down switching. Slightly lower levels of NE/cigarette (-8%, total NNAL/day and per cigarette were observed (-18% and -23% in the DWNSW's. UPSW smoked two fewer cigarettes/day (-13% with higher ‘tar’ yield (~ 8.4 mg higher ‘tar’. NE/day was 12.5 ± 9.7 vs. 12.8 ± 9.0 mg/day. Total NNAL values per day and per cigarette were lower (-24% and -17%. Due to the large variability and insufficient power to detect significant differences in exposure based on post-hoc power calculations, no definitive conclusions can be drawn from this study. These results suggest that it might not be feasible to conduct a definitive assessment of changes in exposure among spontaneous switchers.

  14. Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods in Terms of Yield, Purity, Long-Term Storage, and Downstream Manipulation with Brewer's Yeast Chromosomal DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, J.; Matoulková, D.; Němec, M.; Jelínková, Markéta; Felsberg, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-5 ISSN 0361-0470 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Brewer's yeast * Isolation of DNA * Phenol/chloroform extraction Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2014

  15. Optimizing Radiometric Processing and Feature Extraction of Drone Based Hyperspectral Frame Format Imagery for Estimation of Yield Quantity and Quality of a Grass Sward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsi, R.; Viljanen, N.; Oliveira, R.; Kaivosoja, J.; Niemeläinen, O.; Hakala, T.; Markelin, L.; Nezami, S.; Suomalainen, J.; Honkavaara, E.

    2018-04-01

    Light-weight 2D format hyperspectral imagers operable from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become common in various remote sensing tasks in recent years. Using these technologies, the area of interest is covered by multiple overlapping hypercubes, in other words multiview hyperspectral photogrammetric imagery, and each object point appears in many, even tens of individual hypercubes. The common practice is to calculate hyperspectral orthomosaics utilizing only the most nadir areas of the images. However, the redundancy of the data gives potential for much more versatile and thorough feature extraction. We investigated various options of extracting spectral features in the grass sward quantity evaluation task. In addition to the various sets of spectral features, we used photogrammetry-based ultra-high density point clouds to extract features describing the canopy 3D structure. Machine learning technique based on the Random Forest algorithm was used to estimate the fresh biomass. Results showed high accuracies for all investigated features sets. The estimation results using multiview data provided approximately 10 % better results than the most nadir orthophotos. The utilization of the photogrammetric 3D features improved estimation accuracy by approximately 40 % compared to approaches where only spectral features were applied. The best estimation RMSE of 239 kg/ha (6.0 %) was obtained with multiview anisotropy corrected data set and the 3D features.

  16. Evaluation of Soxhlet extraction, accelerated solvent extraction and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and fish samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pu; Zhang Qinghua; Wang Yawei; Wang Thanh; Li Xiaomin; Ding Lei; Jiang Guibin

    2010-01-01

    Three commonly applied extraction techniques for persistent organic chemicals, Soxhlet extraction (SE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), were applied on soil and fish samples in order to evaluate their performances. For both PCBs and PBDEs, the two more recent developed techniques (ASE and MAE) were in general capable of producing comparable extraction results as the classical SE, and even higher extraction recoveries were obtained for some PCB congeners with large octanol-water partitioning coefficients (K ow ). This relatively uniform extraction results from ASE and MAE indicated that elevated temperature and pressure are favorable to the efficient extraction of PCBs from the solid matrices. For PBDEs, difference between the results from MAE and ASE (or SE) suggests that the MAE extraction condition needs to be carefully optimized according to the characteristics of the matrix and analyte to avoid degradation of higher brominated BDE congeners and improve the extraction yields.

  17. Evaluation of Soxhlet extraction, accelerated solvent extraction and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and fish samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Pu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Qinghua, E-mail: qhzhang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Yawei; Wang Thanh; Li Xiaomin; Ding Lei; Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-03-17

    Three commonly applied extraction techniques for persistent organic chemicals, Soxhlet extraction (SE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), were applied on soil and fish samples in order to evaluate their performances. For both PCBs and PBDEs, the two more recent developed techniques (ASE and MAE) were in general capable of producing comparable extraction results as the classical SE, and even higher extraction recoveries were obtained for some PCB congeners with large octanol-water partitioning coefficients (K{sub ow}). This relatively uniform extraction results from ASE and MAE indicated that elevated temperature and pressure are favorable to the efficient extraction of PCBs from the solid matrices. For PBDEs, difference between the results from MAE and ASE (or SE) suggests that the MAE extraction condition needs to be carefully optimized according to the characteristics of the matrix and analyte to avoid degradation of higher brominated BDE congeners and improve the extraction yields.

  18. Effect of pressurized hot water extraction on antioxidants from grape pomace before and after enological fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Salinas, José R; Bulnes, Pedro; Zúñiga, María Carolina; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís; Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Agosin, Eduardo; Pérez-Correa, José R

    2013-07-17

    Grape pomace was extracted with pressurized hot water at laboratory scale before and after fermentation to explore the effects of fermentation and extraction temperature (50-200 °C) and time (5 and 30 min) on total extracted antioxidant levels and activity and to determine the content and recovery efficiency of main grape polyphenols, anthocyanins, and tannins. Fermented pomace yielded more total antioxidants (TAs), antioxidant activity, and tannins, than unfermented pomace but fewer anthocyanins. Elevating the extraction temperature increased TA extraction and antioxidant activity. Maximum anthocyanin extraction yields were achieved at 100 °C and at 150 °C for tannins and tannin-anthocyanin adducts. Using higher temperatures and longer extraction times resulted in a sharp decrease of polyphenol extraction yield. Relevant proanthocyanidin amounts were extracted only at 50 and 100 °C. Finally, TA recovery and activity were not directly related to the main polyphenol content when performing pressurized hot water grape pomace extraction.

  19. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Moroccan Opuntia ficus-indica flowers obtained by different extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Benayad, Z.; Martínez Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Es-Safi, N. E

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. The objectives of this study were to compare the phenolic extraction efficiency of four extraction procedures, to explore the extract phenolic profile by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS and to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of cactus flowers from Morocco. accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 80% acetone in water at 80. °C gave rise to extracts with higher yields of total polyphenols, procyanidins and flavonoids. The qualitative analysis of the phenolic com...

  1. Higher production of C-phycocyanin by nitrogen-free (diazotrophic) cultivation of Nostoc sp. NK and simplified extraction by dark-cold shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Kyeong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik; Ahn, Chi-Yong

    2017-03-01

    Nostoc sp. NK (KCTC 12772BP) was isolated and cultivated in a BG11 medium and a nitrate-free BG11 medium (BG11 0 ). To enhance C-phycocyanin (C-PC) content in the cells, different fluorescent lamps (white, plant, and red) were used as light sources for complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). The maximum biomass productivity was 0.42g/L/d and 0.32g/L/d under BG11 and BG11 0 conditions, respectively. The maximum C-PC contents were 8.4% (w/w) under white lamps, 13.6% (w/w) under plant lamps, and 18% (w/w) under BG11 0 and the red light condition. The maximum C-PC productivity was 57.4mg/L/d in BG11 0 under the red lamp condition. These results indicate that a higher C-PC content could be obtained under a diazotrophic condition and a CCA reaction. The C-PC could be released naturally from cells without any extraction processes, when Nostoc sp. NK was cultivated in the BG11 0 medium with CO 2 aeration and put in dark conditions at 5°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving IUE High Dispersion Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Patricia J.; VanSteenberg, M. E.; Massa, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a different method to extract high dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra from the New Spectral Image Processing System (NEWSIPS) geometrically and photometrically corrected (SI HI) images of the echellogram. The new algorithm corrects many of the deficiencies that exist in the NEWSIPS high dispersion (SIHI) spectra . Specifically, it does a much better job of accounting for the overlap of the higher echelle orders, it eliminates a significant time dependency in the extracted spectra (which can be traced to the background model used in the NEWSIPS extractions), and it can extract spectra from echellogram images that are more highly distorted than the NEWSIPS extraction routines can handle. Together, these improvements yield a set of IUE high dispersion spectra whose scientific integrity is sign ificantly better than the NEWSIPS products. This work has been supported by NASA ADP grants.

  3. Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bascuñán-Godoy Luisa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae from Andes Mountains and Maritime Antarctic grow under contrasting photoinhibitory conditions, reaching differential cold tolerance upon cold acclimation. Photoinhibition depends on the extent of photodamage and recovery capability. We propose that cold acclimation increases resistance to low-temperature-induced photoinhibition, limiting photodamage and promoting recovery under cold. Therefore, the Antarctic ecotype (cold hardiest should be less photoinhibited and have better recovery from low-temperature-induced photoinhibition than the Andean ecotype. Both ecotypes were exposed to cold induced photoinhibitory treatment (PhT. Photoinhibition and recovery of photosystem II (PSII was followed by fluorescence, CO2 exchange, and immunoblotting analyses. Results The same reduction (25% in maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm was observed in both cold-acclimated (CA and non-acclimated (NA plants under PhT. A full recovery was observed in CA plants of both ecotypes under dark conditions, but CA Antarctic plants recover faster than the Andean ecotype. Under PhT, CA plants maintain their quantum yield of PSII, while NA plants reduced it strongly (50% and 73% for Andean and Antarctic plants respectively. Cold acclimation induced the maintenance of PsaA and Cyt b6/f and reduced a 41% the excitation pressure in Antarctic plants, exhibiting the lowest level under PhT. xCold acclimation decreased significantly NPQs in both ecotypes, and reduced chlorophylls and D1 degradation in Andean plants under PhT. NA and CA plants were able to fully restore their normal photosynthesis, while CA Antarctic plants reached 50% higher photosynthetic rates after recovery, which was associated to electron fluxes maintenance under photoinhibitory conditions. Conclusions Cold acclimation has a greater importance on the recovery process than on limiting photodamage. Cold acclimation determined the

  4. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of the Oyster Culinary Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) and Identification of a New Antimicrobial Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Ahmed M; Wu, Fang-Sheng; El Shikh, Hussien H

    2015-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible mushroom that also has high medicinal values. In this study, P. ostreatus was tested for its ability to inhibit the growth of fungi and bacteria. The freeze-dried fruiting body, broth from submerged culture, and mycelial biomass of P. ostreatus were extracted using alcohols and water as solvents. The extracts were then tested for their antimicrobial activity against the growth of fungi and bacteria. It was observed that the water extract from fruiting bodies had the strongest effect in inhibiting the growth of most fungi. The most sensitive test microfungi to the inhibition were Candida albicans, Cryptococcus humicola, and Trichosporon cutaneum, and the most sensitive test bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli. Water extracts from culture broth or mycelial biomass were moderately inhibitive to the growth of fungi and bacteria. The alcohol-based solvents from all samples had much less antimicrobial activity against most test microorganisms. An antimicrobial compound was purified from the water extracts of fruiting bodies with Sephadex G 100 column chromatography and characterized by infrared absorption spectrum (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopic analysis. We have identified this compound to be 3-(2-aminopheny1thio)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid. This purified compound had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 30 µg/mL and 20 µg/mL against the growth of fungi and bacteria, respectively.

  6. Comparative analysis of environmental DNA extraction and purification methods from different humic acid rich soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lakay, FM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different soil DNA isolation and four purification strategies were compared on different soil samples with variable rates of success. Bead beating extraction gave significantly higher DNA yields than microwave-based and liquid nitrogen...

  7. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanloo, Kourosh Hasanzadeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Teguh Widodo, Riyanto; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%-61.85%) and oleic acid (1.64%-18.97%). Thymoquinone (0.72%-21.03%) was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly ( P essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique.

  8. On yield gaps and yield gains in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gou, Fang; Yin, Wen; Hong, Yu; Werf, van der Wopke; Chai, Qiang; Heerink, Nico; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat-maize relay intercropping has been widely used by farmers in northwest China, and based on field experiments agronomists report it has a higher productivity than sole crops. However, the yields from farmers’ fields have not been investigated yet. Yield gap analysis provides a framework to

  9. Quality Parameters of Curcuma Longa L. Extracts by Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (UAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaibunnisa Abdul Haiyee; Siti Hafsah Mohd Shah; Khudzir Ismail; Nooraain Hashim; Wan Iryani Wan Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric is one of the prominently use herbal plants due to its diverse beneficial effects especially in Indian medicine. The rhizome part of the turmeric contains valuable compounds which have been said to owe its antimicrobial effects, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and enhance wound healing. Due to its short-life span and perishable properties, the conversion of the rhizome into turmeric extract is desirable. Several methods have been used for extraction such as Soxhlet extraction and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). However, these techniques are tedious, laborious, time consuming and involves the usage of toxic organic solvent, of which safeness of the end product is doubtful. In this study, a rapid, reliable and green extraction method of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) were used. SFE without modifier has resulted in 0.0006 mg/ 100 g of curcuminoids concentration and 5.62 % of yield (dry weight basis). UAE using ethanol was able to produce significantly the highest yield (6.40 %, dry weight basis) and the highest curcuminoids concentration (0.1020 mg/ 100 g). However, SFE was able to produce extract that contain significantly higher major volatile compounds; tumerone, ar-turmerone and curlone. Therefore, this study proves that both extraction methods were able to produce high quality turmeric extract. (author)

  10. Extraction and Refinement Strategy for Detection of Autism in 18-Month-Olds: A Guarantee of Higher Sensitivity and Specificity in the Process of Mass Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hideo; Shimizu, Yasuo; Nitto, Yukari; Imai, Miho; Ozawa, Takeshi; Iwasa, Mitsuaki; Shiga, Keiko; Hira, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    Background: For early detection of autism, it is difficult to maintain an efficient level of sensitivity and specificity based on observational data from a single screening. The Extraction and Refinement (E&R) Strategy utilizes a public children's health surveillance program to produce maximum efficacy in early detection of autism. In the…

  11. Evaluation of vacuum microwave-assisted extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jia-Yue; Li, Gong-Ke

    2009-12-18

    In the present work, vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE) was to perform microwave-assisted extraction in vacuum. Two well-known antioxidants, vitamin C from guava and green pepper, and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) from soybean and tea leaves, which were easy to be oxidized, were chosen as representative target compounds for the evaluation of VMAE. The extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in VMAE and those in MAE performed in atmosphere (air-MAE) were compared and the effects of extraction time, extraction temperature and sample matrix were studied. Moreover, the effects of the oxygen and subpressure invacuo were also discussed via performed MAE in N(2) atmosphere (N(2)-MAE). The extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in VMAE were higher than that in air-MAE, 35% increments of vitamin C from green pepper, 22% increments of alpha-tocopherol and 47% increments of gamma-tocopherol from tea leaves were obtained, respectively. The comparable increased extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in N(2)-MAE to that in air-MAE confirmed that oxygen in system was the crucial factor for the oxidation of vitamin C and vitamin E, VMAE was beneficial for the extraction of these oxygen-sensitive compounds. In addition, the subpressure invacuo in the VMAE system also showed positive affect on the extraction yields. On the basis of preventing oxidation and improving extraction efficiency of target compounds because of less oxygen and subpressure invacuo in the extraction system, VMAE has good potential for the extraction of oxygen-sensitive and thermosensitive compounds from plant samples.

  12. Determination of the antioxidant capacity of two seagrass species according to the extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kethia L. González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a wide variety of methods for obtaining of plant extracts that enable a good yield of bioactive metabolites. For several years, extractive techniques have been perfected for obtaining natural extracts with powerful pharmacological properties. Aims: To determine the influence of various extraction methods (infusion, decoction, microwave, maceration with heat and agitation, and constant heat and agitation on the content of solids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of marine angiosperms Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König (Hyrocharitacea and Syringodium filiforme kützing (Cymodoceaceae. Methods: The soluble solids content was determined by the gravimetric method; total phenolic content, using Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Results: Results showed the effectiveness of extraction by decoction for T. testudinum and by microwave for S. filiforme, among the methods that use water as the extraction solvent. In the case those that use the hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent extraction, maceration with agitation and heat extraction showed the higher yields of soluble solids and total polyphenols, as well as a higher antioxidant activity for both species. Conclusions: Results showed the effectiveness of extraction by decoction for T. testudinum and by microwave for S. filiforme, among the methods that use water as extraction solvent. In the case those that use hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent extraction, maceration with agitation and heat extraction showed the higher yields of soluble solids and total polyphenols, as well as a higher antioxidant activity for both species.

  13. [Analysis of triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum by microwave-assisted continuous extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-fang; An, Jing; Jiang, Ye

    2015-04-01

    For further improving the extraction efficiency of microwave extraction, a microwave-assisted contijuous extraction (MACE) device has been designed and utilized. By contrasting with the traditional methods, the characteristics and extraction efficiency of MACE has also been studied. The method was validated by the analysis of the triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum. The extraction conditions of MACE were: using 95% ethanol as solvent, microwave power 200 W and radiation time 14.5 min (5 cycles). The extraction results were subsequently compared with traditional heat reflux extraction ( HRE) , soxhlet extraction (SE), ultrasonic extraction ( UE) as well as the conventional microwave extraction (ME). For triterpenoids, the two methods based on the microwaves (ME and MACE) were in general capable of finishing the extraction in 10, 14.5 min, respectively, while other methods should consume 60 min and even more than 100 min. Additionally, ME can produce comparable extraction results as the classical HRE and higher extraction yield than both SE and UE, however, notably lower extraction yield than MASE. More importantly, the purity of the crud extract by MACE is far better than the other methods. MACE can effectively combine the advantages of microwave extraction and soxhlet extraction, thus enabling a more complete extraction of the analytes of TCMs in comparison with ME. And therefore makes the analytic result more accurate. It provides a novel, high efficient, rapid and reliable pretreatment technique for the analysis of TCMs, and it could potentially be extended to ingredient preparation or extracting techniques of TCMs.

  14. High intensity pulsed electric field as an innovative technique for extraction of bioactive compounds-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang-Gong; He, Lang; Xi, Jun

    2017-09-02

    How to extract bioactive compounds safely and efficiently is one of the problems for the food and pharmaceutical industry. In recent years, several novel extraction techniques have been proposed. To pursue a more efficient method for industrial production, high intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) extraction technique has been developed. HIPEF extraction technique, which is based on the conventional pulsed electric field (PEF), provided higher electric field intensity and a special continuous extraction system, and it has confirmed less extraction time, higher extraction yield, and mild processing temperature. So this innovative technique is promising for application of industrial production. This review was devoted to introducing the recent achievement of HIPEF extraction technique, including novel HIPEF continuous extraction system, principles and mechanisms; the critical process factors influencing its performance applications; and comparison of HIPEF extraction with other extraction techniques. In the end, the defects and future trends of HIPEF extraction were also discussed.

  15. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Loi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16 % higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  16. Solid-Liquid Extraction Kinetics of Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC from Red Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Lin Chua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Red dates are one of the most famous herbal plants in making traditional Chinese medicine. They contain large amount of bioactive compounds. The objectives of this research were to optimise the crude extract yield and total phenolic compounds (TPC yield from red dates using response surface methodology (RSM and model the extraction kinetics of TPC yield from red dates. Date fruits were dried in an oven under temperatures 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C until a constant weight was obtained. The optimum drying temperature was 60°C as it gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield. Besides that, single factor experiments were used to determine the optimum range of four extraction parameters which were: liquid-solid ratio (10-30 ml/g; ultrasonic power (70-90%; extraction temperature (50-70°C; and extraction time (40-60min. The optimum range of the four parameters were further optimised using the Box-Behken Design (BBD of RSM. The extraction conditions that gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield were chosen. The optimum value for liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and extraction time were 30ml/g, 70%, 60°C and 60 min respectively. The two equations generated from RSM were reliable and can be used to predict the crude extract yield and TPC yield. The higher the extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time and lower ultrasonic power, the higher the crude extract and TPC yield. Finally, the results of TPC yield versus time based on the optimum extraction parameters from RSM optimisation were fitted into three extraction kinetic models (Peleg’s model, Page’s model and Ponomaryov’s model. It was found that the most suitable kinetic model to represent the extraction process of TPC from red dates was Page’s model due to its coefficient of determination (R2 was the closest to unity, 0.9663 while its root mean square error (RMSE was the closest to zero, 0.001534.

  17. Structural characteristics of pumpkin pectin extracted by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Byeong-Hoo; Lee, Heungsook; Lee, Suyong; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu; Fishman, Marshall L; Chau, Hoa K; Savary, Brett J; Hotchkiss, Arland T

    2012-11-01

    To improve extraction yield of pumpkin pectin, microwave heating was adopted in this study. Using hot acid extraction, pumpkin pectin yield decreased from 5.7% to 1.0% as pH increased from pH 1.0 to 2.0. At pH 2.5, no pectin was recovered from pumpkin flesh powder. After a pretreatment at pH 1.0 and 25 °C for 1 h, pumpkin powder was microwave-extracted at 120 °C for 3 min resulting in 10.5% of pectin yield. However, premicrowave treatment at 60 °C for 20 min did not improve extraction yield. When microwave heating at 80 °C for 10 min was applied after premicrowave treatment, final pectin yield increased to 11.3%. When pH was adjusted to 2.0, the yield dropped to 7.7% under the same extraction conditions. Molecular shape and properties as well as chemical composition of pumpkin pectin were significantly affected depending on extraction methods. Galacturonic acid content (51% to 58%) of pumpkin pectin was lower than that detected in commercial acid-extracted citrus pectin, while higher content of neutral sugars and acetyl esters existed in pumpkin pectin structure. Molecular weight (M(w) ) and intrinsic viscosity (η(w) ) determined for microwave-extracted pumpkin pectins were substantially lower than acid-extracted pectin, whereas polydispersity was greater. However, microwave-extracted pectin at pH 2.0 had more than 5 times greater M(w) than did the pectin extracted at pH 1.0. The η(w) of microwave-extracted pectin produced at pH 2.0 was almost twice that of other microwave-extracted pectins, which were comparable to that of acid-extracted pectin. These results indicate that extraction yield of pumpkin pectin would be improved by microwave extraction and different pectin structure and properties can be obtained compared to acid extraction. Pumpkin is a promising alternative source for pectin material. Pumpkin pectin has a unique chemical structure and physical properties, presumably providing different functional properties compared to conventional commercial

  18. Swelling kinetics of several residues from Shenhua coal extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Mei-xia; Shui, Heng-fu; Wang, Zhi-cai [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    In order to understand the mechanism of swelling and the relation between swelling behavior and solvent extraction, the swelling kinetics of residues from Shenhua coal extracted by CS{sub 2}/NMP with different mixing ratios were studied in different solvents. The result shows that the swelling rates of extraction residues increase along with swelling temperature. The swelling rate in polar solvent NMP is much higher than that in non-polar solvent THN. Solvent extraction has a great effect on the swelling of extraction residues. The swelling activation energy of extraction residues increases and the swelling rate decreases with the increase of extraction yield. The swelling activation energies of extraction residues in NMP and THN are less than 10 kJ/mol, suggesting that the swelling process is controlled by solvent molecular diffusion in coal structure. 22 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Higher-order theories of gravity: diagnosis, extraction and reformulation via non-metric extra degrees of freedom-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Letizia, Marco; Liberati, Stefano; Di Casola, Eolo

    2018-03-01

    Modifications of Einstein's theory of gravitation have been extensively considered in the past years, in connection to both cosmology and quantum gravity. Higher-curvature and higher-derivative gravity theories constitute the main examples of such modifications. These theories exhibit, in general, more degrees of freedom than those found in standard general relativity; counting, identifying, and retrieving the description/representation of such dynamical variables is currently an open problem, and a decidedly nontrivial one. In this work we review, via both formal arguments and custom-made examples, the most relevant methods to unveil the gravitational degrees of freedom of a given model, discussing the merits, subtleties and pitfalls of the various approaches.

  20. Higher-order theories of gravity: diagnosis, extraction and reformulation via non-metric extra degrees of freedom—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Letizia, Marco; Liberati, Stefano; Di Casola, Eolo

    2018-03-01

    Modifications of Einstein’s theory of gravitation have been extensively considered in the past years, in connection to both cosmology and quantum gravity. Higher-curvature and higher-derivative gravity theories constitute the main examples of such modifications. These theories exhibit, in general, more degrees of freedom than those found in standard general relativity; counting, identifying, and retrieving the description/representation of such dynamical variables is currently an open problem, and a decidedly nontrivial one. In this work we review, via both formal arguments and custom-made examples, the most relevant methods to unveil the gravitational degrees of freedom of a given model, discussing the merits, subtleties and pitfalls of the various approaches.

  1. Higher twists and αs(MZ) extractions from the NNLO QCD analysis of the CCFR data for the xF3 structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataev, A.L; Parente, G.; Sidorov, A.V.

    1999-05-01

    The more detailed next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD analysis of the experimental data of the CCFR collaboration for the xF 3 structure function is performed. The factorization scale uncertainties are analyzed. The theoretical ambiguities of the results of our NNLO fits are estimated by means of the Pade resummation technique. The NNLO and the N 3 LO α s (Q 2 ) MS-matching conditions are used. In the process of the fits we are taking into account the twist-4 1/Q 2 -terms. We found that the amplitude of the x-shape of the twist-4 factor is consequently decreasing at the NLO and NNLO, though some remaining twist-4 structure seems to retain at the NNLO in the case when only statistical uncertainties are taken into account. The question of the stability of these results to the application of the [0/2] Pade resummation technique is considered. Our NNLO results for α s (M z ) values, extracted from the CCFR xF 3 data, are α s (M z ) = 0.118 ± 0.002(stat) ± 0.005(syst) ± 0.003(theory) provided the twist-4 contributions are fixed through the infrared renormalon model and α s (M z ) 0.121 -0.010 +0.007 (stat)±0.005(syst)±0.003(theory) provided the twist-4 terms are considered as the free parameters. (author)

  2. Extraction of aucubin from seeds of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Hu, Jiangyu; Ouyang, Hui; Li, Yanan; Shi, Hui; Ma, Chengjin; Zhang, Yongkang

    2009-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used as solvent for the extraction of aucubin from the seeds of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. The co-solvent composition was tested and extraction conditions were optimized. Results showed that the best co-solvent was a water-ethanol mixture (1 + 3, v/v), and the highest yield was obtained when the extraction was performed under 26 MPa at extraction and separation temperatures of 55 and 30 degrees C for 120 min, using 6 mL co-solvent/g material at a CO2 flow rate of 20 L/h. In a comparison of the supercritical CO2 and Soxhlet extraction methods, the Soxhlet method needed 3 h to extract 10 g material, whereas the supercritical CO2 extraction technique needed only 2 h to extract 100 g material, thus showing a high extraction capability. The supercritical CO2 extraction produced a higher yield, with a lower cost for the extraction. Owing to the advantages of low extraction temperature, high yield, and ease of separating the product from the solvent, supercritical CO2 extraction is likely to be developed into an ideal technique for the extraction of aucubin, a compound with thermal instability, from the seeds of this plant.

  3. Producing ashless coal extracts by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgur Sonmez; Elife Sultan Giray [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Chemistry

    2011-06-15

    To produce ashless coal extracts, three Turkish coals were extracted with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), NMP/ethylenediamine (EDA) (17/1, vol/vol) mixture and NMP/tetralin (9/1, vol/vol) mixture through thermal extraction and microwave extraction. Solvent extraction by microwave irradiation (MI) was found to be more effective than that by thermal extraction. Extraction yield of coals in NMP enhanced by addition of a little EDA, but tetralin addition showed variances according to extraction method used. While tetralin addition caused a decrease in the thermal extraction yield, it increased the yield of the extraction by MI. Following the extraction, the solid extracts were produced with ash content ranging from 0.11% to 1.1%. Ash content of solid extract obtained from microwave extraction are less than ash contents of solid extracts obtained from thermal extraction. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  5. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantz M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f and Th(p,f have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  6. Amphetamines analysis in wastewaters - method performance of solid phase extraction - higher performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry techniques (SPE-HPLC MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Aliru Olajide; Ajao, Usman L

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many articles have reported different levels and distribution of amphetamine hitherto detected in biological fluids now appreciably found in aquatic environment at ng/L levels. Identification and measurement of amphetamine and its metabolites in surface and sewage waters using higher performance liquid chromatographic methodologies in the literatures now on current trend have provided information that are of scientific interest and effectively replaced immunological methods which only suggest the presence of these substances. Active research on both distribution and impacts of this important drug of abuse and related metabolites in the wastewaters are on-going. PMID:27857670

  7. Microwave-assisted extraction of rutin and quercetin from the stalks of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yang, Yi; Su, Ping; Guo, Zhenku

    2009-01-01

    Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) has been used as one of traditional Chinese medicines for several thousand years. Conventional methods for the extraction of rutin and quercetin from E. alatus, including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction and heat reflux extraction are characterised by long extraction times and consumption of large amounts of solvents. To develop a simple and rapid method for the extraction of rutin and quercetin from the stalks of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. MAE experiments were performed with a multimode microwave extraction system. The experimental variables that affect the MAE process, such as the concentration of ethanol solution, extractant volume, microwave power and extraction time were optimised. Yields were determined by HPLC. The results were compared with that obtained by classical Soxhlet and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). From the optimised conditions for MAE of rutin and quercetin it can be concluded that the solvent is 50% ethanol (v/v) solution, the extractant volume is 40 mL, microwave power is 170 W and irradiation time is 6 min. Compared with Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic extraction, microwave extraction is a rapid method with a higher yield and lower solvent consumption. The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants.

  8. Comparison of mentha extracts obtained by different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.

  9. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  10. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  11. Flash Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of Oil from Elaeagnus mollis Diels Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lina; Wang, Lin; Ding, Qingzhen; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2017-04-03

    A flash extraction method was used to isolate Elaeagnus mollis oil (EMO). The optimal extraction parameters, sample/solvent ratio and extraction temperature, were determined to be 1:10 (g/mL) and 40°C, respectively. Especially, the extraction yield reached 49.30% when the extraction time was as short as 2 min. No obvious difference was observed in fatty acid composition, iodine value, saponification number, total phenolic content and tocopherol content between flash-extracted EMO and Soxhlet-extracted EMO, but their physicochemical values were lower than those of cold-pressed EMO. Cold-pressed EMO had higher oxidation stability, DPPH (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities than flash-extracted EMO and Soxlet extracted EMO. The flash extraction is demonstrated to be an alternative, efficient method for the vegetable oil production.

  12. Improvement of Soybean Oil Solvent Extraction through Enzymatic Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Grasso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate multienzyme hydrolysis as a pretreatment option to improve soybean oil solvent extraction and its eventual adaptation to conventional processes. Enzymatic action causes the degradation of the cell structures that contain oil. Improvements in terms of extraction, yield, and extraction rate are expected to be achieved. Soybean flakes and collets were used as materials and hexane was used as a solvent. Temperature, pH, and incubation time were optimized and diffusion coefficients were estimated for each solid. Extractions were carried out in a column, oil content was determined according to time, and a mathematical model was developed to describe the system. The optimum conditions obtained were pH 5.4, 38°C, and 9.7 h, and pH 5.8, 44°C, and 5.8h of treatment for flakes and collets, respectively. Hydrolyzed solids exhibited a higher yield. Diffusion coefficients were estimated between 10-11 and 10-10. The highest diffusion coefficient was obtained for hydrolyzed collets. 0.73 g oil/mL and 0.7 g oil/mL were obtained at 240 s in a column for collets and flakes, respectively. Hydrolyzed solids exhibited a higher yield. The enzymatic incubation accelerates the extraction rate and allows for higher yield. The proposed model proved to be appropriate.

  13. High temperature solvent extraction of oil shale and bituminous coal using binary solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G.K.E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A high volatile bituminous coal from the Saar Basin and an oil shale from the Messel deposit, both Germany, were extracted with binary solvent mixtures using the Advanced Solvent Extraction method (ASE). Extraction temperature and pressure were kept at 100 C, respectively 150 C, and 20,7 MPa. After the heating phase (5 min) static extractions were performed with mixtures (v:v, 1:3) of methanol with toluene, respectively trichloromethane, for further 5 min. Extract yields were the same or on a higher level compared to those from classical soxhlet extractions (3 days) using the same solvents at 60 C. Comparing the results from ASE with those from supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) the extract yields were similar. Increasing the temperature in ASE releases more soluble organic matter from geological samples, because compounds with higher molecular weight and especially more polar substances were solubilized. But also an enhanced extraction efficiency resulted for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons which are used as biomarkers in Organic Geochemistry. Application of thermochemolysis with tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) on the extraction residues shows clearly that at higher extraction temperatures minor amounts of free fatty acids or their methyl esters (original or produced by ASE) were trapped inside the pore systems of the oil shale or the bituminous coal. ASE offers a rapid and very efficient extraction method for geological samples reducing analysis time and costs for solvents. (orig.)

  14. Effect of pulsed electric field treatments on permeabilization and extraction of pigments from Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, Elisa; Condón-Abanto, Santiago; Álvarez, Ignacio; Raso, Javier

    2014-12-01

    The effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatments of different intensities on the electroporation of the cytoplasmatic membrane of Chlorella vulgaris, and on the extraction of carotenoids and chlorophylls were investigated. Staining the cells with propidium iodide before and after the PEF treatment revealed the existence of reversible and irreversible electroporation. Application of PEF treatments in the range of 20-25 kV cm(-1) caused most of the population of C. vulgaris to be irreversibly electroporated even at short treatment times (5 pulses of 3 µs). However, at lower electric field strengths (10 kV cm(-1)), cells that were reversibly electroporated were observed even after 50 pulses of 3 µs. The electroporation of C. vulgaris cells by PEF higher than 15 kV cm(-1) and duration is higher than 15 µs increased significantly the extraction yield of intracellular components of C. vulgaris. The application of a 20 kV cm(-1) for 75 μs increased the extraction yield just after the PEF treatment of the carotenoids, and chlorophylls a and b 0.5, 0.7, and 0.8 times, respectively. However, further increments in electric field strength and treatment time did not cause significant increments in the extraction yield. The extraction of carotenoids from PEF-treated C. vulgaris cells after 1 h of the application of the treatment significantly increased the extraction yield in comparison to the yield obtained from the cells extracted just after the PEF treatment. After PEF treatment at 20 kV cm(-1) for 75 µs, extraction yield for carotenoids, and chlorophylls a and b increased 1.2, 1.6, and 2.1 times, respectively. A high correlation was observed between irreversible electroporation and percentage of yield increase when the extraction was conducted after 1 h of the application of PEF treatment (R: 0.93), but not when the extraction was conducted just after PEF treatment (R: 0.67).

  15. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  16. Comparative analysis of protocols for DNA extraction from soybean caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, J; Valmorbida, I; da Costa, I F D; Guedes, J V C

    2016-04-07

    Genomic DNA extraction is crucial for molecular research, including diagnostic and genome characterization of different organisms. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze protocols of DNA extraction based on cell lysis by sarcosyl, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, and to determine the most efficient method applicable to soybean caterpillars. DNA was extracted from specimens of Chrysodeixis includens and Spodoptera eridania using the aforementioned three methods. DNA quantification was performed using spectrophotometry and high molecular weight DNA ladders. The purity of the extracted DNA was determined by calculating the A260/A280 ratio. Cost and time for each DNA extraction method were estimated and analyzed statistically. The amount of DNA extracted by these three methods was sufficient for PCR amplification. The sarcosyl method yielded DNA of higher purity, because it generated a clearer pellet without viscosity, and yielded high quality amplification products of the COI gene I. The sarcosyl method showed lower cost per extraction and did not differ from the other methods with respect to preparation times. Cell lysis by sarcosyl represents the best method for DNA extraction in terms of yield, quality, and cost effectiveness.

  17. Optimization of Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Three Major Acetophenones from Cynanchum bungei Using a Box-Behnken Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Li-Chun; Sun, Yin-Shi; Lei, Feng-Jie; Wang, Zi; Gui, Xiong-Bin; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    In this work, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of three acetophenones (4-hydroxyacetophenone, baishouwubenzophenone, and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone) from Cynanchum bungei (ACB) were investigated. The optimal conditions for extraction of ACB were obtained using a Box-Behnken design, consisting of 17 experimental points, as follows: Ethanol (100%) as the extraction solvent at a temperature of 120 °C and an extraction pressure of 1500 psi, using one extraction cycle with a static extraction time of 17 min. The extracted samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using an UV detector. Under this optimal condition, the experimental values agreed with the predicted values by analysis of variance. The ACB extraction yield with optimal PLE was higher than that obtained by soxhlet extraction and heat-reflux extraction methods. The results suggest that the PLE method provides a good alternative for acetophenone extraction. PMID:23203079

  18. Optimization of Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Three Major Acetophenones from Cynanchum bungei Using a Box-Behnken Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE of three acetophenones (4-hydroxyacetophenone, baishouwubenzophenone, and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone from Cynanchum bungei (ACB were investigated. The optimal conditions for extraction of ACB were obtained using a Box-Behnken design, consisting of 17 experimental points, as follows: Ethanol (100% as the extraction solvent at a temperature of 120 °C and an extraction pressure of 1500 psi, using one extraction cycle with a static extraction time of 17 min. The extracted samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using an UV detector. Under this optimal condition, the experimental values agreed with the predicted values by analysis of variance. The ACB extraction yield with optimal PLE was higher than that obtained by soxhlet extraction and heat-reflux extraction methods. The results suggest that the PLE method provides a good alternative for acetophenone extraction.

  19. Separation of digoxin by luiquid-luiquid extraction from extracts of foxglove secondary glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Vesna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the extraction of digoxin (Dgx from chloroform and trichloroethylene extracts of the secondary glycosides of fermented foxglove (Digitalis lanata Ehrh. foliage by liquid-liquid extraction. The extraction degree (ED of Dgx achieved by maceration and percolation using 10% vol. aqueous ethanol solutions were higher than 95%. Using trichlorethylene and chloroform, the ED of Dgx of about 100% and 96%, respectively from the liquid ethanolic extracts (macerate or percolate were achieved by the four-cycle extraction. Fifteen separating funnels were employed for the liquid-liquid extraction. Three different four-component two-phase systems (ethanol:water - chloroform:ethyl acetate, ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene and ethanol:water - trichloroethylene:ethyl acetate were tested as an extracting solvent to get the final product having more than 98% of Dgx. The initial amount of the chloroform or trichloroethylene extract in the light phase was varied between 5 and 25 g/L, while the volume ratio of light and heavy phases was in the range of 1:1 to 1:2. The best Dgx yield of 98% was achieved with the system ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene 35:15:20:30 at the volume ratio of the phases of 1:1.1 and at the initial amount of the extract of 15 g/L. Purity of the separated digoxin was 99.8 %. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-34012

  20. Microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinlua, A., E-mail: geochemresearch@yahoo.com [Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Jochmann, M.A.; Laaks, J.; Ewert, A.; Schmidt, T.C. [Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, University Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstr, 5, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2011-04-08

    The extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock using nonionic surfactants with the assistance of microwave was investigated and the conditions for maximum yield were determined. The results showed that the extraction temperatures and kinetic rates have significant effects on extraction yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The optimum temperature for microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock was 105 deg. C. The optimum extraction time for the aliphatic hydrocarbons was at 50 min. Concentration of the nonionic surfactant solution and irradiation power had significant effect on the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The yields of the analytes were much higher using microwave assisted nonionic surfactant extraction than with Soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of the n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons for GC-MS analysis from the extractant nonionic surfactant solution by in-tube extraction (ITEX 2) with a TENAX TA adsorbent were found to be efficient. The results show that microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction (MANSE) is a good and efficient green analytical preparatory technique for geochemical evaluation of petroleum source rock.

  1. Microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinlua, A.; Jochmann, M.A.; Laaks, J.; Ewert, A.; Schmidt, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock using nonionic surfactants with the assistance of microwave was investigated and the conditions for maximum yield were determined. The results showed that the extraction temperatures and kinetic rates have significant effects on extraction yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The optimum temperature for microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock was 105 deg. C. The optimum extraction time for the aliphatic hydrocarbons was at 50 min. Concentration of the nonionic surfactant solution and irradiation power had significant effect on the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The yields of the analytes were much higher using microwave assisted nonionic surfactant extraction than with Soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of the n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons for GC-MS analysis from the extractant nonionic surfactant solution by in-tube extraction (ITEX 2) with a TENAX TA adsorbent were found to be efficient. The results show that microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction (MANSE) is a good and efficient green analytical preparatory technique for geochemical evaluation of petroleum source rock.

  2. A novel method to augment extraction of mangiferin by application of microwave on three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-06-01

    This work reports a novel approach where three phase partitioning (TPP) was combined with microwave for extraction of mangiferin from leaves of Mangifera indica . Soxhlet extraction was used as reference method, which yielded 57 mg/g in 5 h. Under optimal conditions such as microwave irradiation time 5 min, ammonium sulphate concentration 40% w/v, power 272 W, solute to solvent ratio 1:20, slurry to t -butanol ratio 1:1, soaking time 5 min and duty cycle 50%, the mangiferin yield obtained was 54 mg/g by microwave assisted three phase partitioning extraction (MTPP). Thus extraction method developed resulted into higher extraction yield in a shorter span, thereby making it an interesting alternative prior to down-stream processing.

  3. A novel method to augment extraction of mangiferin by application of microwave on three phase partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali M. Kulkarni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a novel approach where three phase partitioning (TPP was combined with microwave for extraction of mangiferin from leaves of Mangifera indica. Soxhlet extraction was used as reference method, which yielded 57 mg/g in 5 h. Under optimal conditions such as microwave irradiation time 5 min, ammonium sulphate concentration 40% w/v, power 272 W, solute to solvent ratio 1:20, slurry to t-butanol ratio 1:1, soaking time 5 min and duty cycle 50%, the mangiferin yield obtained was 54 mg/g by microwave assisted three phase partitioning extraction (MTPP. Thus extraction method developed resulted into higher extraction yield in a shorter span, thereby making it an interesting alternative prior to down-stream processing.

  4. High-efficient extraction of principal medicinal components from fresh Phellodendron bark (cortex phellodendri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqin Xu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There are three key medicinal components (phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine in the extracts of Phellodendron bark, as one of the fundamental herbs of traditional Chinese medicine. Different extraction methods and solvent combinations were investigated to obtain the optimal technologies for high-efficient extraction of these medicinal components. Results: The results showed that combined solvents have higher extracting effect of phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine than single solvent, and the effect of ultrasonic extraction is distinctly better than those of distillation and soxhlet extraction. Conclusion: The hydrochloric acid/methanol-ultrasonic extraction has the best effect for three medicinal components of fresh Phellodendron bark, providing an extraction yield of 103.12 mg/g berberine, 24.41 mg/g phellodendrine, 1.25 mg/g palmatine. Keywords: Phellodendron, Cortex phellodendri, Extraction methods, Medicinal components

  5. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  6. Local yield stress statistics in model amorphous solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Armand; Lerbinger, Matthias; Hernandez-Garcia, Anier; García-García, Reinaldo; Falk, Michael L.; Vandembroucq, Damien; Patinet, Sylvain

    2018-03-01

    We develop and extend a method presented by Patinet, Vandembroucq, and Falk [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 045501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.045501] to compute the local yield stresses at the atomic scale in model two-dimensional Lennard-Jones glasses produced via differing quench protocols. This technique allows us to sample the plastic rearrangements in a nonperturbative manner for different loading directions on a well-controlled length scale. Plastic activity upon shearing correlates strongly with the locations of low yield stresses in the quenched states. This correlation is higher in more structurally relaxed systems. The distribution of local yield stresses is also shown to strongly depend on the quench protocol: the more relaxed the glass, the higher the local plastic thresholds. Analysis of the magnitude of local plastic relaxations reveals that stress drops follow exponential distributions, justifying the hypothesis of an average characteristic amplitude often conjectured in mesoscopic or continuum models. The amplitude of the local plastic rearrangements increases on average with the yield stress, regardless of the system preparation. The local yield stress varies with the shear orientation tested and strongly correlates with the plastic rearrangement locations when the system is sheared correspondingly. It is thus argued that plastic rearrangements are the consequence of shear transformation zones encoded in the glass structure that possess weak slip planes along different orientations. Finally, we justify the length scale employed in this work and extract the yield threshold statistics as a function of the size of the probing zones. This method makes it possible to derive physically grounded models of plasticity for amorphous materials by directly revealing the relevant details of the shear transformation zones that mediate this process.

  7. Extraction methods of Amaranthus sp. grain oil isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulj, Jelena; Brlek, Tea; Pezo, Lato; Brkljača, Jovana; Popović, Sanja; Zeković, Zoran; Bodroža Solarov, Marija

    2016-08-01

    Amaranthus sp. is a fast-growing crop with well-known beneficial nutritional values (rich in protein, fat, dietary fiber, ash, and minerals, especially calcium and sodium, and containing a higher amount of lysine than conventional cereals). Amaranthus sp. is an underexploited plant source of squalene, a compound of high importance in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. This paper has examined the effects of the different extraction methods (Soxhlet, supercritical fluid and accelerated solvent extraction) on the oil and squalene yield of three genotypes of Amaranthus sp. grain. The highest yield of the extracted oil (78.1 g kg(-1) ) and squalene (4.7 g kg(-1) ) in grain was obtained by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) in genotype 16. Post hoc Tukey's HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between observed samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used for assessing the effect of different genotypes and extraction methods on oil and squalene yield, and also the fatty acid composition profile. Using coupled PCA and CA of observed samples, possible directions for improving the quality of product can be realized. The results of this study indicate that it is very important to choose both the right genotype and the right method of extraction for optimal oil and squalene yield. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Molecular and functional properties of gelatin from the skin of unicorn leatherjacket as affected by extracting temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewruang, Phanngam; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2013-06-01

    Gelatins extracted from the skin of unicorn leatherjacket at different temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75°C) in the presence and the absence of soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 units/g pretreated skin) for 12h were characterised. In general, the addition of SBTI resulted in the lower yield, regardless of extraction temperature. Higher yield was obtained when higher extraction temperature was used (Punicorn leatherjacket at temperature sufficiently high could render the gelatin with less degradation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  10. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  11. Comparison of RNA extraction methods in Thai aromatic coconut water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many researches have reported that nucleic acid in coconut water is in free form and at very low yields which makes it difficult to process in molecular studies. Our research attempted to compare two extraction methods to obtain a higher yield of total RNA in aromatic coconut water and monitor its change at various fruit stages. The first method used ethanol and sodium acetate as reagents; the second method used lithium chloride. We found that extraction using only lithium chloride gave a higher total RNA yield than the method using ethanol to precipitate nucleic acid. In addition, the total RNA from both methods could be used in amplification of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (Badh2 genes, which is involved in coconut aroma biosynthesis, and could be used to perform further study as we expected. From the molecular study, the nucleic acid found in coconut water increased with fruit age.

  12. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  13. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahramanloo KH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kourosh Hasanzadeh Ghahramanloo,1 Behnam Kamalidehghan,2 Hamid Akbari Javar,3 Riyanto Teguh Widodo,1 Keivan Majidzadeh,4 Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Medical Genetics Department, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS, 4Breast Cancer Research Center (BCRC Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Tehran, Iran Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%–61.85% and oleic acid (1.64%–18.97%. Thymoquinone (0.72%–21.03% was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that achieved by the solvent extraction technique. The present study showed that SFE can be used as a more efficient technique for extraction of N. Sativa L. essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique. Keywords: Nigella sativa L., essential oil extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, solvent extraction, fatty acid composition, thymoquinone, linoleic acid

  14. Intensification of extraction of curcumin from Curcuma amada using ultrasound assisted approach: Effect of different operating parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsath, S R; Sable, S S; Gaikwad, S G; Sonawane, S H; Saini, D R; Gogate, P R

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, a dietary phytochemical, has been extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma amada using ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and the results compared with the conventional extraction approach to establish the process intensification benefits. The effect of operating parameters such as type of solvent, extraction time, extraction temperature, solid to solvent ratio, particle size and ultrasonic power on the extraction yield have been investigated in details for the approach UAE. The maximum extraction yield as 72% was obtained in 1h under optimized conditions of 35°C temperature, solid to solvent ratio of 1:25, particle size of 0.09mm, ultrasonic power of 250W and ultrasound frequency of 22kHz with ethanol as the solvent. The obtained yield was significantly higher as compared to the batch extraction where only about 62% yield was achieved in 8h of treatment. Peleg's model was used to describe the kinetics of UAE and the model showed a good agreement with the experimental results. Overall, ultrasound has been established to be a green process for extraction of curcumin with benefits of reduction in time as compared to batch extraction and the operating temperature as compared to Soxhlet extraction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Cordia verbenacea extracts obtained by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielin, Eliane M Z; Salvador, Ana A; Riehl, Carlos A S; Smânia, Artur; Smânia, Elza F A; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2009-12-01

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of extracts from Cordia verbenacea DC (Borraginaceae), a traditional medicinal plant that grows widely along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The extracts were obtained using different extraction techniques: high-pressure operations and low-pressure methods. The high-pressure technique was applied to obtain C. verbenacea extracts using pure CO(2) and CO(2) with co-solvent at pressures up to 30MPa and temperatures of 30, 40 and 50 degrees C. Organic solvents such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetone and dichloromethane were used to obtain extracts by low-pressure processes. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was also subjected to screening against four strains of bacteria using the agar dilution method. The extraction yields were up to 5.0% w/w and up to 8.6% w/w for supercritical fluid extraction with pure CO(2) and with ethyl acetate as co-solvent, respectively, while the low-pressure extraction indicates yields up to 24.0% w/w in the soxhlet extraction using water and aqueous mixture with 50% ethanol as solvents. The inhibitory activity of the extracts in gram-positive bacteria was significantly higher than in gram-negative. The quantification and the identification of the extracts recovered were accomplished using GC/MS analysis. The most important components identified in the extract were artemetin, beta-sitosterol, alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, among others.

  16. Satellite-based studies of maize yield spatial variations and their causes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Maize production in China has been expanding significantly in the past two decades, but yield has become relatively stagnant in the past few years, and needs to be improved to meet increasing demand. Multiple studies found that the gap between potential and actual yield of maize is as large as 40% to 60% of yield potential. Although a few major causes of yield gap have been qualitatively identified with surveys, there has not been spatial analysis aimed at quantifying relative importance of specific biophysical and socio-economic causes, information which would be useful for targeting interventions. This study analyzes the causes of yield variation at field and village level in Quzhou county of North China Plain (NCP). We combine remote sensing and crop modeling to estimate yields in 2009-2012, and identify fields that are consistently high or low yielding. To establish the relationship between yield and potential factors, we gather data on those factors through a household survey. We select targeted survey fields such that not only both extremes of yield distribution but also all soil texture categories in the county is covered. Our survey assesses management and biophysical factors as well as social factors such as farmers' access to agronomic knowledge, which is approximated by distance to the closest demonstration plot or 'Science and technology backyard'. Our survey covers 10 townships, 53 villages and 180 fields. Three to ten farmers are surveyed depending on the amount of variation present among sub pixels of each field. According to survey results, we extract the amount of variation within as well as between villages and or soil type. The higher within village or within field variation, the higher importance of management factors. Factors such as soil type and access to knowledge are more represented by between village variation. Through regression and analysis of variance, we gain more quantitative and thorough understanding of causes to yield variation at

  17. Novel Approaches to Extraction Methods in Recovery of Capsaicin from Habanero Pepper (CNPH 15.192).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Frederico S; Borges, Leonardo L; Ribeiro, Claudia S C; Reifschneider, Francisco J B; Conceição, Edemilson C

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare three capsaicin extraction methods: Shoxlet, Ultrasound-assisted Extraction (UAE), and Shaker-assisted Extraction (SAE) from Habanero pepper, CNPH 15.192. The different parameters evaluated were alcohol degree, time extraction, and solid-solvent ratio using response surface methodology (RSM). The three parameters found significant ( p Soxhlet increased the extraction in 10-25%; however, long extraction times (45 minutes) degraded 2% capsaicin. The extraction of capsaicin was influenced by extraction method and by the operating conditions chosen. The optimized conditions provided savings of time, solvent, and herbal material. Prudent choice of the extraction method is essential to ensure optimal yield of extract, thereby making the study relevant and the knowledge gained useful for further exploitation and application of this resource. Habanero pepper , line CNPH 15.192, possess capsaicin in higher levels when compared with others speciesHigher levels of ethanolic strength are more suitable to obtain a higher levels of capsaicinBox-Behnken design indicates to be useful to explore the best conditions of ultrasound assisted extraction of capsaicin. Abbreviations used: Nomenclature UAE: Ultrasound-assisted Extraction; SAE: Shaker-assisted Extraction.

  18. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  19. Measurements of beryllium sputtering yields at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Stamp, M. F.; Krieger, K.; Brezinsek, S.

    2011-08-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium first wall in ITER will depend on erosion and redeposition processes. The physical sputtering yields for beryllium (both deuterium on beryllium (Be) and Be on Be) are of crucial importance since they drive the erosion process. Literature values of experimental sputtering yields show an order of magnitude variation so predictive modelling of ITER wall lifetimes has large uncertainty. We have reviewed the old beryllium yield experiments on JET and used current beryllium atomic data to produce revised beryllium sputtering yields. These experimental measurements have been compared with a simple physical sputtering model based on TRIM.SP beryllium yield data. Fair agreement is seen for beryllium yields from a clean beryllium limiter. However the yield on a beryllium divertor tile (with C/Be co-deposits) shows poor agreement at low electron temperatures indicating that the effect of the higher sputtering threshold for beryllium carbide is important.

  20. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  1. Production yields of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchioni, E.; Ennahar, S.

    2009-01-01

    2-alkycyclobutanones are formed by irradiation exclusively, and are considered as unique radiolytic product (URP). Because of the URP character of the 2-alkycyclobutanones, these compounds are good marker of irradiation treatment. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) developed an analytical method (EN 1785) for detection of 2-alkycyclobutanones having a detection limit of 0.2 pmol, limiting the application to foodstuffs treated for microbial disinfection (doses > 0.5 kGy), with fat content higher than 1.0 g %. The use of this EN 1785 and the supercritical extraction analytical methods allowed the determination of the production yields of 2-alkycyclobutanones in broad range of foodstuffs. The obtained production yields were between 0.20 and 12.21 nmol/mmol fatty acid/kGy), and showed strong dependency from he nature of the food matrix. The amount 2-alkycyclobutanones intake from irradiated foodstuffs by consumer calculated based on production yields determined in this work show, that the doses used in toxicological studies were much higher, than that are consumed by human through eating irradiated foods. (author)

  2. Production yields of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchioni, E.; Ennahar, S. [Universite de Strasbourg, Illkirch (France). Faculte de Pharmacie. Lab. de Chimie Analytique et Sciences de l' Aliment], e-mail: marchion@unistra.fr, e-mail: ennahar@unistra.fr; Horvatovich, P. [University of Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Pharmacy. Analytical Biochemistry], e-mail: p.l.horvatovich@rug.nl; Ndiaye, B. [Centre Hospitalier National de Fann, Dakar (Senegal)], e-mail: ibamath@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    2-alkycyclobutanones are formed by irradiation exclusively, and are considered as unique radiolytic product (URP). Because of the URP character of the 2-alkycyclobutanones, these compounds are good marker of irradiation treatment. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) developed an analytical method (EN 1785) for detection of 2-alkycyclobutanones having a detection limit of 0.2 pmol, limiting the application to foodstuffs treated for microbial disinfection (doses > 0.5 kGy), with fat content higher than 1.0 g %. The use of this EN 1785 and the supercritical extraction analytical methods allowed the determination of the production yields of 2-alkycyclobutanones in broad range of foodstuffs. The obtained production yields were between 0.20 and 12.21 nmol/mmol fatty acid/kGy), and showed strong dependency from he nature of the food matrix. The amount 2-alkycyclobutanones intake from irradiated foodstuffs by consumer calculated based on production yields determined in this work show, that the doses used in toxicological studies were much higher, than that are consumed by human through eating irradiated foods. (author)

  3. High-efficient extraction of principal medicinal components from fresh Phellodendron bark (cortex phellodendri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Keqin; He, Gongxiu; Qin, Jieming; Cheng, Xuexiang; He, Hanjie; Zhang, Dangquan; Peng, Wanxi

    2018-05-01

    There are three key medicinal components (phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine) in the extracts of Phellodendron bark, as one of the fundamental herbs of traditional Chinese medicine. Different extraction methods and solvent combinations were investigated to obtain the optimal technologies for high-efficient extraction of these medicinal components. The results showed that combined solvents have higher extracting effect of phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine than single solvent, and the effect of ultrasonic extraction is distinctly better than those of distillation and soxhlet extraction. The hydrochloric acid/methanol-ultrasonic extraction has the best effect for three medicinal components of fresh Phellodendron bark, providing an extraction yield of 103.12 mg/g berberine, 24.41 mg/g phellodendrine, 1.25 mg/g palmatine.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Mangiferin from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tang-Bin; Xia, En-Qin; He, Tai-Ping; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen

    2014-01-27

    Mangiferin is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and analgesic effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 44% ethanol, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 38:1, and extraction for 19.2 min at 60 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 58.46 ± 1.27 mg/g. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of mango leaves, and also indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of mangiferin from plant materials.

  5. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2012-10-08

    In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  6. Variation in activity of pepsin extracted from buffalo stomach mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S.; Javed, A.; Miraj, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2013-01-01

    Pepsin was extracted from the buffalo's mucosa in an acidic medium by incubating at 40 degree C for 48 h and dried in an air blanket at 50 degree C. Conditions for the maximum yield M pepsin were optimized. Changes in pH, temperature and incubation time affect the yield of pepsin, It has been noted that the time of the year in which extractions were made under optimized conditions was an important factor which affected the yield as well as activity of pepsin. Studies showed that maximum yield 11.5% was in February 2009 and minimum 10.3% in May 2009. It was further studied that the activity of the pepsin extracted in February was higher i.e 110 U/mg as compared to the activity of the enzyme extracted during the month of May which was 102.6 U/mg. The purpose of the study was to consider the conditions of the slaughter houses to attain maximum yield of pepsin with maximum activity. (author)

  7. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  8. Comparison of four kinds of extraction techniques and kinetics of microwave-assisted extraction of vanillin from Vanilla planifolia Andrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhizhe; Gu, Fenglin; Xu, Fei; Wang, Qinghuang

    2014-04-15

    Vanillin yield, microscopic structure, antioxidant activity and overall odour of vanilla extracts obtained by different treatments were investigated. MAE showed the strongest extraction power, shortest time and highest antioxidant activity. Maceration gave higher vanillin yields than UAE and PAE, similar antioxidant activity with UAE, but longer times than UAE and PAE. Overall odour intensity of different vanilla extracts obtained by UAE, PAE and MAE were similar, while higher than maceration extracts. Then, powered vanilla bean with a sample/solvent ratio of 4 g/100 mL was selected as the optimum condition for MAE. Next, compared with other three equations, two-site kinetic equation with lowest RMSD and highest R²(adj) was shown to be more suitable in describing the kinetics of vanillin extraction. By fitting the parameters C(eq), k₁, k₂, and f, a kinetics model was constructed to describe vanillin extraction in terms of irradiation power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microwave-assisted extraction of Nigella sativa L. essential oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Abdol-Samad; Rismanchi, Marjan; Shahdoostkhany, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    It has been previously reported that the essential oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds and its major active component, thymoquinone (TQ), possess a broad variety of biological activities and therapeutic properties. In this work, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of the essential oil from Nigella sativa L. seeds and its antioxidant activity were studied. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to evaluate the effects of extraction time, irradiation power and moisture content on extraction yield and TQ content. Optimal parameters obtained by CCD and RSM were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 450 W, and moisture content 50%. The extraction yield and TQ content of the essential oil were 0.33 and 20% under the optimum conditions, respectively. In contrast, extraction yield and TQ amount of oil obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) were 0.23 and 3.71%, respectively. The main constituents of the essential oil extracted by MAE and HD were p -cymene, TQ, α-thujene and longifolene, comprising more than 60% of total peak area. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, and compared with traditional antioxidants. The results showed that MAE method was a viable alternative to HD for the essential oil extraction from N. sativa seeds due to the excellent extraction efficiency, higher thymoquinone content, and stronger antioxidant activity.

  10. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  11. Design space development for the extraction process of Danhong injection using a Monte Carlo simulation method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs. Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs. Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10,000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes.

  12. Determination of betulinic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Achyranthes aspera L. using RP-UFLC-DAD analysis and evaluation of various parameters for their optimum yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sandeep R; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Harsha V; Joshi, Rajesh K; Kholkute, Sanjiva D

    2016-03-01

    Achyranthes aspera L. is a well known herb commonly used in traditional system of Indian medicine to treat various disorders, such as cough, dysentery, gonorrhea, piles, kidney stone, pneumonia, renal dropsy, skin eruptions, snake bite, etc. Here, we used RP-UFLC-DAD method for determining triterpenoids betulinic acid (BA), oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) from A. aspera. Optimum yield of these compounds were studied and evaluated using parameters viz., method of extraction, time of extraction, age of plant and plant parts (leaves, stem and roots). Linear relationships in RP-UFLC-DAD analysis were obtained in the range 0.05-100 µg/mL with 0.035, 0.042 and 0.033 µg/mL LOD for BA, OA and UA, respectively. Of the variables tested, extraction method and parts used significantly affected content yield. Continuous shaking extraction (CSE) at ambient temperature gave better extraction efficiency than exposure to ultra sonic extraction (USE) or microwave assisted extraction (MAE) methods. The highest content of BA, OA and UA were determined individually in leaf, stem and root extracts with CSE. Collective yield of these triterpenoids were higher in leaf part exposed to 15 min USE method. To best of our knowledge, the study newly reports UA from A. aspera and the same was confirmed using ATR-FT-IR studies. This study explains the distribution pattern of these major triterpenoids and optimum extraction parameters in detail.

  13. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  14. Use of nuclear techniques for mutation and selection of fungi for high protein yield utilizing carbon from inexpensive agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgopulos, S.

    1976-12-01

    The report briefly describes work carried out on the following subjects: Determination of protein in fungal strains (including Fusarium and Aspergillus niger); induction and selection of mutants (Aspergillus niger) giving higher yields of biomass and/or higher protein content; ability of fungi (Candida tropicalis) to utilize water extracts of carob bean pods; growth of Fusarium monoliforme at the expense of carob sugars; the use of alternate oxidase-negative mutants (of Ustilago maydis), for better utilization of substrates for growth (electron transport pathways in reoxidation of reduced coenzymes); kinetics of batch and continuous cultivation of Fusarium moniliforme (cultivated on aqueous carob extracts)

  15. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  16. Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2007-05-01

    Efforts to increase H(2) yields from fermentative H(2) production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H(2) yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low pH, short solids retention time) can replace heat treatment. Gas sparging increases H(2) yields compared to un-sparged reactors, but no relationship exists between the sparging rate and H(2) yield. Lower sparging rates may improve the H(2) yield with less energy input and product dilution. The reasons why sparging improves H(2) yields are unknown, but recent measurements of dissolved H(2) concentrations during sparging suggest the assumption of decreased inhibition of the H(2)-producing enzymes is unlikely. Significant disagreement exists over the effect of organic loading rate (OLR); some studies show relatively higher OLRs improve H(2) yield while others show the opposite. Discovering the reasons for higher H(2) yields during dissolved gas removal and changes in OLR will help improve H(2) yields.

  17. Extraction and characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) albumin and globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L H; Hung, T V; Bennett, L

    2008-06-01

    Albumin and globulin fractions of 1 Desi and 2 Kabuli varieties of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) were extracted with water and salt solutions (K(2)SO(4) and NaCl). The extractable yields and particularly the albumin-globulin ratio varied greatly with the extraction medium and chickpea variety. Depending on the procedure employed, albumin could be extracted as a major fraction of chickpea proteins. Higher levels of essential amino acids and sulfur containing amino acids were found in albumins than in globulins of all chickpeas investigated. The common structural characteristics of both Kabuli and Desi chickpea albumins and globulins were clearly identified by densitometric profiles of their sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel patterns. Albumins contained subunits with higher molecular weights than those of globulins. The in vitro digestibility of the chickpea proteins by papain, pepsin, chymotrypsin, and trypsin indicated that globulins were more susceptible to proteolytic hydrolysis.

  18. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n -hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  19. Evaluation of lipid extractability after flash hydrolysis of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymouri, Ali; Adams, Kameron J.; Dong, Tao; Kumar, Sandeep

    2018-07-01

    Microalgae is identified as a promising feedstock for producing renewable liquid transportation fuels; however, lipids extraction from microalgae for downstream processing to biofuels is one of the important challenges for algal based biorefineries. This work aims at evaluating the potential of applying flash hydrolysis (FH) as a chemical-free technique to increase the lipids extractability of algal biomass as well as its integration with the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae to enhance the biocrude yields and characteristics for fuel production. To this aim, the FH process was performed on three different algal species (Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Chlorella vulgaris) at 280 degrees C and 10 s of residence time. Following FH, in addition to the nutrients rich hydrolysate, approximately, 40 wt% of solids containing almost all (>90 wt%) the lipids termed as biofuels intermediates (BI), were recovered. Kinetics study on lipids extractability from the BI and their lipid profile analyses were conducted for each algal species. The results showed that the FH process had significantly enhanced the lipids extractability. For all three algae species, lipid yields from BI were higher than that of the raw algae. Lipid yields of Chlorella vulgaris in the first 15 min were more than five times higher (52.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.7 +/- 0.9 wt%) than that of raw algae during n-hexane based solvent extraction. The kinetics of lipids extractability followed a zero-order reaction rate for all wet raw microalgae and the BI of Scenedesmus sp., while the BI recovered from the other two algal species were determined as a second-order reaction. Comparison of fatty acids profiles indicated the contribution of the FH process in saturating fatty acids. Subsequent to lipids extraction, a conventional hydrothermal liquefaction was performed at 350 degrees C and 1 h to compare the biocrude yields from raw versus BI of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. The results showed that the

  20. Extraction and identification of bioactive compounds from agarwood leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N. Y.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Idham, Z.; Ruslan, M. S. H.; Aziz, A. H. A.; Irwansyah, N.

    2016-11-01

    Agarwood commonly known as gaharu, aloeswood or eaglewood have been used as traditional medicine for centuries and its essential oil also being used as perfumery ingredients and aroma enhancers in food products. However, there is least study on the agarwood leaves though it contains large number of biomolecules component that show diverse pharmacological activity. Previous study showed that the extracted compounds from the leaves possess activities like anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor and anti-helminthic. The main objectives of this research were to determine bioactive compounds in agarwood leaves; leaves extract and oil yield obtained from maceration and soxhlet extraction methods respectively. The maceration process was performed at different operating temperature of 25°C, 50°C and 75°C and different retention time at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Meanwhile, various solvents were used to extract the oil from agarwood leaves using soxhlet method which are hexane, water, isopropanol and ethanol. The extracted oil from agarwood leaves by soxhlet extraction was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the highest extract of 1.53% was obtained when increase the temperature to 75 °C and longest retention time of 120 minutes gave the highest oil yield of 2.10 % by using maceration. This is because at higher temperature enhances the solubility solute and diffusivity coefficient, thus increase the extract yield while longer retention time allow the reaction between solvent and solute occurred more rapidly giving higher extract. Furthermore, the soxhlet extraction using n-hexane as the solvent gave the highest oil yield as compared to other solvent due to the non-polar properties of n-hexane increase the efficiency of oil which is also non-polar to soluble in the solvent. In addition, the results also reported that the oil extracted from agarwood leaves contains bioactive compounds which are phytol, squalene, n-hexadecanoic acid and

  1. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  2. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of different polarities stem crude extracts by different extraction methods of Adenium obesum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To select best extraction method for the isolated antioxidant compounds from the stems of Adenium obesum. Methods: Two methods used for the extraction are Soxhlet and maceration methods. Methanol solvent was used for both extraction method. The methanol crude extract was defatted with water and extracted successively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol solvents. The antioxidant potential for all crude extracts were determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The percentage of extraction yield by Soxhlet method is higher compared to maceration method. The antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by Soxhlet extractor method was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in hexane crude extracts and found in the order of ethyl acetate>butanol>water>chloroform>methanol>hexane. However, the antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by maceration method was highest in butanol and lowest in hexane followed in the order of butanol>methanol>chloroform>water>ethyl acetate>hexane. Conclusions: The results showed that isolate antioxidant compounds effected on the extraction method and condition of extraction.

  3. Extraction and In Vitro Antimalarial Activity Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Anggraini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phycocyanin is biopigment found only in a conductor such as Spirulina platensis. Phycocyanin from Nostoc can inhibit Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 8.4 μg/mL so that phycocyanin from S. platensis also can inhibit P. falciparum like Nostoc. The aim of this study was to determine the best method for phycocyanin extraction using three solvents. They were phosphate buffer, water, and aseton. Spirulina were cultured in the conditions intensity of light 3000 Lux, salinity 15 ppt, dark-light 8-16 hours. The response parameters of this study were C-phycocyanin (C-PC content, yield, and protein content. Yield biomass of Spirulina which cultivated using toplest was higher than the aquarium. The best solvent for phycocyanin extraction was a phosphate buffer with C-PC content, yield, and protein content 8 mg/mL, 202.26 mg/g, and 1.88%.

  4. Comparison of Some Extraction Methods for Isolation of Catechins and Caffeine from Turkish Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi DEMİR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective extraction of anticancer and antioxidant principles from Turkish green tea were main purpose of this work. The pre-optimized experimental condition for liquid extraction was employed for comparative appraisal.  Not only extraction methods also nature of the green tea samples (fresh, dried or frozen and quantitative yields related to collection periods were investigated.  After extraction of the green tea with various techniques the extract was partitioned with chloroform to remove caffeine, after that the extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate to obtain catechin mixture. Quantification of individual catechins was carried out by HPLC and analysis results proved that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG was main catechin specie present in all extracts. The results indicate that hot water extraction (at 80 0C provides higher catechin yield when compared to other methods. The highest extract yields were obtained with dried leaves collected in second collection period. The crude catechin mixture contains high amount of EGCG and might be used as raw material for production of plant remedies at industrial scale.

  5. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  6. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  7. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuting; Xu, Zhenbo; Zheng, Baodong; Martin Lo, Y

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) was evaluated using a variety of solvents. Petroleum ether was the most effective for oil extraction, followed by n-hexane, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, acetone, and isopropanol. Several variables, such as ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time, and the ratio of solvent volume and seed weight (S/S ratio) were studied for optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). The highest oil yield, 25.11% (w/w), was obtained using petroleum ether under optimal conditions for ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time, and S/S ratio at 140 W, 40 °C, 36 min, and 10 ml/g, respectively. The PSO yield extracted by UAE was significantly higher than by using Soxhlet extraction (SE; 20.50%) and supercriti cal fluid extraction (SFE; 15.72%). The fatty acid compositions were significantly different among the PSO extracted by Soxhlet extraction, SFE, and UAE, with punicic acid (>65%) being the most dominant using UAE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Current lipid extraction methods are significantly enhanced adding a water treatment step in Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaojie; Zhao, Xinhe; Turcotte, François; Deschênes, Jean-Sébastien; Tremblay, Réjean; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2017-02-11

    Microalgae have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids of high interest for the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and energy (e.g. biodiesel) industries. However, current lipid extraction methods show efficiency limitation and until now, extraction protocols have not been fully optimized for specific lipid compounds. The present study thus presents a novel lipid extraction method, consisting in the addition of a water treatment of biomass between the two-stage solvent extraction steps of current extraction methods. The resulting modified method not only enhances lipid extraction efficiency, but also yields a higher triacylglycerols (TAG) ratio, which is highly desirable for biodiesel production. Modification of four existing methods using acetone, chloroform/methanol (Chl/Met), chloroform/methanol/H 2 O (Chl/Met/H 2 O) and dichloromethane/methanol (Dic/Met) showed respective lipid extraction yield enhancement of 72.3, 35.8, 60.3 and 60.9%. The modified acetone method resulted in the highest extraction yield, with 68.9 ± 0.2% DW total lipids. Extraction of TAG was particularly improved with the water treatment, especially for the Chl/Met/H 2 O and Dic/Met methods. The acetone method with the water treatment led to the highest extraction level of TAG with 73.7 ± 7.3 µg/mg DW, which is 130.8 ± 10.6% higher than the maximum value obtained for the four classical methods (31.9 ± 4.6 µg/mg DW). Interestingly, the water treatment preferentially improved the extraction of intracellular fractions, i.e. TAG, sterols, and free fatty acids, compared to the lipid fractions of the cell membranes, which are constituted of phospholipids (PL), acetone mobile polar lipids and hydrocarbons. Finally, from the 32 fatty acids analyzed for both neutral lipids (NL) and polar lipids (PL) fractions, it is clear that the water treatment greatly improves NL-to-PL ratio for the four standard methods assessed. Water treatment of biomass after the first solvent extraction step

  9. Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bicchi, Carlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Binello, Arianna; Tomao, Valerie; Chemat, Farid

    2011-06-01

    Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using classic Soxhlet as well as under power ultrasound (US), microwaves (MWs; closed vessel) and MW-integrated Soxhlet. Supercritical CO₂ was also employed and compared to the other techniques in term of yield, extraction time, fatty acid profiles and organoleptic properties. All these non-conventional techniques are fast, effective and safe. A sensory evaluation test showed the presence of off-flavours in oil samples extracted by Soxhlet and US, an indicator of partial degradation.

  10. Crude ethanolic extract from spent coffee grounds: Volatile and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Julio C; Arruda, Neusa P; Freitas, Suely P

    2017-11-01

    Espresso capsule consumption and spent coffee ground (SCG) generation have increased, and the present study was undertaken to evaluate the volatile profile (VP), the antioxidant activity (AA) and the sun protection factor (SPF) of the Crude ethanolic extract obtained from the SCG in capsules. The extract yield was superior to the ether yield because a higher unsaponifiable matter (U.M.) amount was recovered by ethanol. The obtained VP (70 compounds) was typical of roasted coffee oil. Furthermore, chemometric analysis using principal components (PCA) discriminated the extracts and grouped the replicates for each sample, which showed the repeatability of the extraction process. The AA ranged from 18.4 to 23.6 (mg extract mg DPPH -1 ) and the SPF from 2.27 to 2.76. The combination of the coffee VP, AA and SPF gave the espresso SCG's crude ethanolicextract, desirable properties that can be used in cosmetic and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microwave-assisted extraction of lipid from fish waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M. A.; Omar, R.; Ethaib, S.; Siti Mazlina, M. K.; Awang Biak, D. R.; Nor Aisyah, R.

    2017-06-01

    Processing fish waste for extraction of value added products such as protein, lipid, gelatin, amino acids, collagen and oil has become one of the most intriguing researches due to its valuable properties. In this study the extraction of lipid from sardine fish waste was carried out using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and compared with Soxhlets and Hara and Radin methods. A mixture of two organic solvents isopropanol/hexane and distilled water were used for MAE and Hara and Radin methods. Meanwhile, Soxhlet method utilized only hexane as solvent. The results show that the higher yield of lipid 80.5 mg/g was achieved using distilled water in MAE method at 10 min extraction time. Soxhlet extraction method only produced 46.6 mg/g of lipid after 4 hours of extraction time. Lowest yield of lipid was found at 15.8 mg/g using Hara and Radin method. Based on aforementioned results, it can be concluded MAE method is superior compared to the Soxhlet and Hara and Radin methods which make it an attractive route to extract lipid from fish waste.

  12. Extraction of Tb(III with N,N,N’,N’-tetrabutylmalonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU RONGQI

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The study on the extraction and separation of rare earths with new extractants is important in rare earth hydrometallurgy and nuclear fuel reprocessing. In this work, a new synthesis method of N,N,N’,N’-tetrabutylmalonamide (TBMA is described with a yield higher than 80 %. The extraction behavior of TBMA employing n-hexane-20 % n-octanol, benzene and toluene as diluents toward Tb(III was investigated. The effect of the concentrations of nitric acid, lithium nitrate and extractant as well as the temperature on the extraction distribution ratio was studied in different diluents. The stoichiometry of the extracted species of Tb(III conforms to Tb(NO33·3TBMA. An attempt was made to determine the structure of the extracted species from IR and mol conductance data.

  13. Biological Activity of Tannins from Acacia mangium Bark Extracted by Different Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium bark is abundant byproduct of wood industry in Indonesia. It is underutilized and mainly used as fire wood for the wood industry. The bark contains high level of tannin but the tannin has not been extracted or produced commercially. Tannin isolate can be used for several purposes such as tanning agent for leather, adhesive for plywood or particle board, etc. In ruminant, tannin can be detrimental but can also be beneficial. This experiment was aimed of getting the highest yield of tannin extract with the highest biological activity in rumen fermentation. Nine different solvents at different temperatures were used to extract tannin from A. mangium bark. The extracts were analyzed for their tannin contents and biological activities. Tannin content was analyzed using folin ciocalteau and butanol-HCl methods. Biological activity was described as a percentage of an increase in gas production in the in vitro rumen-buffer fermentation, with and without addition of PEG. The results show that Na2SO3 solution extracted more tannin than other solutions and the higher the concentration of Na2SO3 solution, the higher the yield of tannin extract. The solution of 6% sodium sulphite gave the highest yield of tannin extract (31.2% of original bark sample and the highest concentration of tannin (18.26% but produced a negative effect on in vitro fermentation (% increase of gas production = 2.70%. Extraction with 50% acetone gave a high yield of extract (22.28% of original bark which contained 12.98% of tannin and showed the highest biological response (% increase of gas production = 216%. In conclusion, sodium sulphite solution is not recommended for tannin extraction if the tannin will be used as feed additive in ruminant feed; on the other hand, the aqueous acetone (50% acetone solution is a better choice to be used.

  14. Extraction Kinetics and Molecular Size Fractionation of Humic Substances From Two Brazilian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Deborah Pinheiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the extraction behaviour of humic substances (HS from an Oxisol and a Mollisol from South Brazil, by using 0.1 and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH and 0.15 mol L-1 neutral pyrophosphate solutions, respectively, was systematically studied. The kinetics and efficiency of HS extraction were evaluated by means of UV/Vis spectroscopy. The isolated humic acids (HA and fulvic acids (FA were size-classified by multistage ultrafiltration (six fractions in the molecular weight range of 1 to 100 kDa. The obtained data show that the HS extraction yield depended not only on the extractant, but also on the soil type. Within 3 h approximately 90% of the soluble HS could be extracted following complex extraction kinetics by both methods and none or little structural modification was verified as observed from their stable extinction ratio E350/E550. In the Mollisol the pyrophosphate extraction was more effective, suggesting that a great part of HS occurred as macromolecules bonded to clay minerals and aggregated between themselves through cationic bridges. In the Oxisol a higher HS yield was verified with the alkaline method, presumably due to HS fixation onto the oxide surface by H-bonds and/or surface complexation reactions. In general, HS extracted by the pyrophosphate procedure showed higher molecular weights than those extracted by NaOH.

  15. Yield, yield components and dry matter digestibility of alfalfa experimental populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most important forage crop grown in the temperate regions. It is cultivated for production of vegetative aerial mass used fresh or as hay, and recently as haylage and silage. In many centres worldwide, efforts are made to breed and create new alfalfa cultivars with both higher yields and of higher nutritional value. The aim of this paper was to determine yield and digestibility of 12 experimental populations of alfalfa, and to compare their results to the yields of well-known domestic alfalfa commercial cultivars. The results show significant differences in yield of green forage and dry matter among alfalfa populations, as well as in yield components, height, proportion of leaves in yield and growth rate (tab. 1, 2 and 3. Differences between in vitro digestible dry matter (% and yields of in vitro digestible dry matter (t ha-1 were also significant (tab. 5 and 6. Yield and quality of experimental populations were at the same level or higher than of control cultivars. Synthetic SINUSA exceeded the control cutivars (NS Mediana ZMS V and Banat VS in yield and quality of dry matter. .

  16. Extraction optimization and characterization of gelatine from fish dry skin of Spanish mackerel (Scomberromorus commersoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningrum, I.; Pranoto, Y.; Hadiwiyoto, S.

    2018-04-01

    This work was to optimized gelatin extraction from dry skin of Spanish mackerel (Scomberromorus commersoni) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The aim of this study was to determine the optimal condition of temperature and time for extraction process and properties of the gelatin extracted from dry mackerel skin. The optimal condition for extraction was 59.71°C for 4.25 hours. Results showed that predicted yield by RSM was 13.69% and predicted gel strength was 291.93 Bloom, whereas the actual experiment for yield and gel strength were 13.03% and 291.33 Bloom, respectively. The gelatin extracted from dried skin were analyzed for their proximate composition, yield, gel strength, viscosity, color, and amino acid composition. The results of dried skin gelatin properties compared to the commercial gelatin. Gelatin extracted from the dried skin gave content lower moisture, ash and protein content but higher fat compared to commercial gelatin. This study also shows that the gelatin extracted from the dried skin gave higher gel strength and pH but the lower amino acid composition compared to commercial gelatin.

  17. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  18. Extraction and Isolation of Antineoplastic Pristimerin from Mortonia greggii (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Manzano, Luis Alberto; Barba-Dávila, Bertha A; Gutierrez-Uribe, Janet A; Escalante-Vázquez, Edgardo J; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to identify, extract and isolate pristimerin in leaves, stems and roots of the Mexican plant Mortonia greggii (Celastraceae). The principal objective was to determine the best laboratory experimental conditions for the extraction and isolation of this powerful natural anticancer agent from the root tissue. Six experimental factors in solid-liquid pristimerin extraction were analyzed: solvent systems, number of extractions, ratio of plant weight (g)/solvent volume (mL) used, time of extraction, temperature and agitation. A mathematical model was generated for pristimerin purity and yield. Ethanol, first extraction, 0.5 ratio of plant weight/solvent volume (g/mL), 0.5 h, 200 rpm and 49.7°C were optimal conditions for the extraction of this phytochemical. The degree of purification of pristimerin root extract was studied by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) using Sephadex LH-20 reaching fractions with purification indexes (PI) greater than 2 and recoveries of 28.3%. When fractions with purification indices higher than 1 and less than 2 were accumulated, the recovery of pristimerin increased by about 73.6%. By combining the optimum extracts and SEC purification protocols, an enriched fraction containing 245.6 mg pristimerin was obtained from 100 g of root bark, representing about 14.4%, w/w, pristimerin from the total solids presented in the fraction.

  19. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  20. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  1. Comparison study of anti-microbial activity between crude extract of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qi Chuah

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Crude extract of K. alvarezii has zero inhibition in bacteria growth whereas A. paniculata exerted higher inhibition towards Gram-positive bacteria. The bioactive compounds contained by A. paniculata can be evaluated in order to yield a better vision towards the mode of action.

  2. Turbo-extraction of glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana using a fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, leaf extract has recently called the attention of food industry as a proposal for natural sweetener. The sweet flavor is attributed to the glycosides, in especial stevioside and rebaudioside A, which are the plant main chemical markers. The aim of the work reported here was to optimize the turbo-extraction of stevia leaves using water, ethanol 70% and 90% (w/w as green solvents. A 25-2 factorial design was applied to study the linear effects of the drug size, solvent to drug ratio, temperature, time and also the turbolysis speed on the extraction of glycosides. The glycosides exhaustive extraction showed that ethanol 70% gave better results and was used for turbo-extraction. The stevioside and rebaudioside A contents were quantified by a validated method by high performance liquid chromatographic with photodiode array detector. The contents of stevioside and rebaudioside A in fluid extract increased with the drug size, but decreased at high shearing speeds and solvent to drug ratio, while their yields decreased at higher temperature and were not affected by turbo speed. An increase in solvent to drug ratio reduced significantly the glycosides percent in dried extract. Optimal solution for S. rebaudiana leaves turbo-extraction was determined by desirability functions. The optimal extraction condition corresponded to drug size of 780 µm, solvent to drug ratio of 10, extraction time of 18 min; temperature of 23 ºC and turbo speed of 20,000 rpm, resulting in yields of 4.98% and 2.70%, for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. These yields are comparable to the ones recently published for dynamic maceration, but with the advantage of shorter extraction times. This work demonstrates that turbolysis is promising for S. rebaudiana glycosides extraction and stimulate new research on the purification of these extracts, which may become an interesting source of income for developing

  3. Use of solvent mixtures for total lipid extraction of Chlorella vulgaris and gas chromatography FAME analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Kheibari, Narges; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Majid

    2017-09-01

    Lipid extraction is the bottleneck step for algae-based biodiesel production. Herein, 12 solvent mixture systems (mixtures of three non-polar and two polar organic solvents) were examined to evaluate their effects on the total lipid yield from Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). Moreover, the extraction yields of three solvent systems with maximum extraction efficiency of esterifiable lipids were determined by acidic transesterification and GC-FID analysis. Three solvent systems, which resulted in a higher extraction yield, were further subjected to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. The total lipid extraction yields (based on dry biomass) were (38.57 ± 1.51), (25.33 ± 0.58), and (25.17 ± 1.14) %, for chloroform-methanol (1:2) (C1M2), hexane-methanol (1:2) (H1M2), and chloroform-methanol (2:1) (C2M1), respectively. The extraction efficiency of C1M2 was approximately 1.5 times higher than H1M2 and C2M1, whereas the FAME profile of extracted lipids by H1M2 and C1M2 were almost identical. Moreover, the esterifiable lipid extraction yields of (18.14 ± 2.60), (16.66 ± 0.35), and (13.22 ± 0.31) % (based on dry biomass) were obtained for C1M2, H1M2, and C2M1 solvent mixture systems, respectively. The biodiesel fuel properties produced from C. vulgaris were empirically predicted and compared to that of the EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 standard specifications.

  4. Physicochemical and phytochemical properties of cold and hot water extraction from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

    2011-04-01

    Hibiscus cold (25 °C) and hot (90 °C) water extracts were prepared in various time-temperature combinations to determine equivalent extraction conditions regarding their physicochemical and phytochemical properties. Equivalent anthocyanins concentration was obtained at 25 °C for 240 min and 90 °C for 16 min. Total phenolics were better extracted with hot water that also resulted in a higher antioxidant capacity in these extracts. Similar polyphenolic profiles were observed between fresh and dried hibiscus extracts. Hibiscus acid and 2 derivatives were found in all extracts. Hydroxybenzoic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins constituted the polyphenolic compounds identified in hibiscus extracts. Two major anthocyanins were found in both cold and hot extracts: delphynidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside. In general, both cold and hot extractions yielded similar phytochemical properties; however, under cold extraction, color degradation was significantly lower and extraction times were 15-fold longer. Hibiscus beverages are prepared from fresh or dried calyces by a hot extraction and pasteurized, which can change organoleptic, nutritional, and color attributes. Nonthermal technologies such as dense phase carbon dioxide may maintain their fresh-like color, flavor, and nutrients. This research compares the physicochemical and phytochemical changes resulting from a cold and hot extraction of fresh and dried hibiscus calyces and adds to the knowledge of work done on color, quality attributes, and antioxidant capacity of unique tropical products. In addition, the research shows how these changes could lead to alternative nonthermal processes for hibiscus.

  5. Optimizing pressurized liquid extraction of microbial lipids using the response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescut, J; Severac, E; Molina-Jouve, C; Uribelarrea, J-L

    2011-01-21

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the determination of optimum extraction parameters to reach maximum lipid extraction yield with yeast. Total lipids were extracted from oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The effects of extraction parameters on lipid extraction yield were studied by employing a second-order central composite design. The optimal condition was obtained as three cycles of 15 min at 100°C with a ratio of 144 g of hydromatrix per 100 g of dry cell weight. Different analysis methods were used to compare the optimized PLE method with two conventional methods (Soxhlet and modification of Bligh and Dyer methods) under efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility criteria thanks to gravimetric analysis, GC with flame ionization detector, High Performance Liquid Chromatography linked to Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD) and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. For each sample, the lipid extraction yield with optimized PLE was higher than those obtained with referenced methods (Soxhlet and Bligh and Dyer methods with, respectively, a recovery of 78% and 85% compared to PLE method). Moreover, the use of PLE led to major advantages such as an analysis time reduction by a factor of 10 and solvent quantity reduction by 70%, compared with traditional extraction methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extending the analytical window for water-soluble organic matter in sediments by aqueous Soxhlet extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frauke; Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine sediments is a complex mixture of thousands of individual constituents that participate in biogeochemical reactions and serve as substrates for benthic microbes. Knowledge of the molecular composition of DOM is a prerequisite for a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical processes in sediments. In this study, interstitial water DOM was extracted with Rhizon samplers from a sediment core from the Black Sea and compared to the corresponding water-extractable organic matter fraction (Soxhlet extraction, which mobilizes labile particulate organic matter and DOM. After solid phase extraction (SPE) of DOM, samples were analyzed for the molecular composition by Fourier Transform Ion-Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. The average SPE extraction yield of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in interstitial water was 63%, whereas less than 30% of the DOC in Soxhlet-extracted organic matter was recovered. Nevertheless, Soxhlet extraction yielded up to 4.35% of the total sedimentary organic carbon, which is more than 30-times the organic carbon content of the interstitial water. While interstitial water DOM consisted primarily of carbon-, hydrogen- and oxygen-bearing compounds, Soxhlet extracts yielded more complex FT-ICR mass spectra with more peaks and higher abundances of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds. The molecular composition of both sample types was affected by the geochemical conditions in the sediment; elevated concentrations of HS- promoted the early diagenetic sulfurization of organic matter. The Soxhlet extracts from shallow sediment contained specific three- and four-nitrogen-bearing molecular formulas that were also detected in bacterial cell extracts and presumably represent proteinaceous molecules. These compounds decreased with increasing sediment depth while one- and two-nitrogen-bearing molecules increased, resulting in a higher

  7. Effects of hot water pre-extraction on surface properties of bagasse soda pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Ashori, Alireza; Hamzeh, Yahya; Faria, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the effects of hot water pre-extraction of depithed bagasse on the soda pulping and surface properties were studied. The conditions of hot water pre-extraction were: maximum temperature 170 °C, heat-up time 90 min, time at maximum temperature 10 min, and solid to liquor ratio (S:L) 1:8. Consequently, the pre-extracted and un-extracted bagasse chips were subjected to soda pulping at 160 °C for 1h with 11, 14 and 17% active alkali charge and an S:L of 1:5. The results showed that the hot water pre-extraction increased bagasse surface texture porosity by hemicellulose degradation. Therefore, the delignification was faster for pulping of pre-extracted samples. At a certain charge of alkali, pre-extracted samples showed higher screened yield and lower Kappa number. For instance, at 17% alkali charge, pre-extracted bagasse gave 11.3% higher pulp yield compared with the un-extracted ones. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results showed that the hot water pre-extraction changed the active sites on the bagasse surface, decreasing the dispersive energy and the basicity character, and affected the particle morphology. The pulping process decreased the hydrophobicity and the basicity of the bagasse surface. The surfaces of un-extracted and pre-extracted bagasse pulps had similar properties but different morphology. The pulps present higher surface area and permeability with more reactive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Are extracted materials truly representative of original samples? Impact of C18 extraction on CDOM optical and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO. Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4.C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission and quantum yield of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  9. Are extracted materials truly representative of original samples? Impact of C18 extraction on CDOM optical and chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Andrea; Del Vecchio, Rossana; Zhang, Yi; Subramaniam, Ajit; Blough, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO). Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission and quantum yield) of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure) of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  10. Are Extracted Materials Truly Representative of Original Samples? Impact of C18 Extraction on CDOM Optical and Chemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Andrea A; Del Vecchio, Rossana; Zhang, Yi; Subramaniam, Ajit; Blough, Neil V

    2016-01-01

    Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction (SPE) is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO). Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission, and quantum yield) of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure) of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  11. Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction and HPLC identification of wedelolactone from Wedelia calendulacea by orthogonal array design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajit A; Sachin, Bhusari S; Wakte, Pravin S; Shinde, Devanand B

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a complete study of the influence of operational parameters of the supercritical carbon dioxide assisted extraction (SC CO2E) on yield of wedelolactone from Wedelia calendulacea Less., and to find an optimal combination of factors that maximize the wedelolactone yield. In order to determine the optimal combination of the four factors viz. operating pressure, temperature, modifier concentration and extraction time, a Taguchi experimental design approach was used: four variables (three levels) in L9 orthogonal array. Wedelolactone content was determined using validated HPLC methodology. Optimum extraction conditions were found to be as follows: extraction pressure, 25 MPa; temperature, 40 °C; modifier concentration, 10% and extraction time, 90 min. Optimum extraction conditions demonstrated wedelolactone yield of 8.01 ± 0.34 mg/100 g W. calendulacea Less. Pressure, temperature and time showed significant (p yield. The supercritical carbon dioxide extraction showed higher selectivity than the conventional Soxhlet assisted extraction method.

  12. Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction and HPLC identification of wedelolactone from Wedelia calendulacea by orthogonal array design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit A. Patil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to provide a complete study of the influence of operational parameters of the supercritical carbon dioxide assisted extraction (SC CO2E on yield of wedelolactone from Wedelia calendulacea Less., and to find an optimal combination of factors that maximize the wedelolactone yield. In order to determine the optimal combination of the four factors viz. operating pressure, temperature, modifier concentration and extraction time, a Taguchi experimental design approach was used: four variables (three levels in L9 orthogonal array. Wedelolactone content was determined using validated HPLC methodology. Optimum extraction conditions were found to be as follows: extraction pressure, 25 MPa; temperature, 40 °C; modifier concentration, 10% and extraction time, 90 min. Optimum extraction conditions demonstrated wedelolactone yield of 8.01 ± 0.34 mg/100 g W. calendulacea Less. Pressure, temperature and time showed significant (p < 0.05 effect on the wedelolactone yield. The supercritical carbon dioxide extraction showed higher selectivity than the conventional Soxhlet assisted extraction method.

  13. Pellet pestle homogenization of agarose gel slices at 45 degrees C for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, B T; Kaufman, K M; Harley, J B; Scofield, R H

    2001-09-15

    A simple method for extracting DNA from agarose gel slices is described. The extraction is rapid and does not involve harsh chemicals or sophisticated equipment. The method involves homogenization of the excised gel slice (in Tris-EDTA buffer), containing the DNA fragment of interest, at 45 degrees C in a microcentrifuge tube with a Kontes pellet pestle for 1 min. The "homogenate" is then centrifuged for 30 s and the supernatant is saved. The "homogenized" agarose is extracted one more time and the supernatant obtained is combined with the previous supernatant. The DNA extracted using this method lent itself to restriction enzyme analysis, ligation, transformation, and expression of functional protein in bacteria. This method was found to be applicable with 0.8, 1.0, and 2.0% agarose gels. DNA fragments varying from 23 to 0.4 kb were extracted using this procedure and a yield ranging from 40 to 90% was obtained. The yield was higher for fragments 2.0 kb and higher (70-90%). This range of efficiency was maintained when the starting material was kept between 10 and 300 ng. The heat step was found to be critical since homogenization at room temperature failed to yield any DNA. Extracting DNA with our method elicited an increased yield (up to twofold) compared with that extracted with a commercial kit. Also, the number of transformants obtained using the DNA extracted with our method was at least twice that obtained using the DNA extracted with the commercial kit. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Homogenization-assisted cavitation hybrid rotation extraction and macroporous resin enrichment of dihydroquercetin from Larix gmelinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yu; Wang, Yinhang; Li, Wei; Ma, Chunhui; Liu, Shouxin

    2017-12-01

    Cavitation hybrid rotation, which was and is still looked upon as an unavoidable nuisance in the flow systems, for extraction processing intensification of active chemical compounds from natural products. In this study, a homogenization-assisted cavitation hybrid rotation extraction method was applied to extract dihydroquercetin (DHQ) from larch (Larix gmelinii) wood root. The extraction parameters were optimized in single factor experiments with the DHQ extraction yields as the response values. The optimum conditions were as follows: number of extractions, three; ethanol volume fraction for the extraction, 60%; liquid-solid ratio for homogenization, 10mL/g; homogenization time, 8min; liquid-solid ratio for cavitation extraction, 9mL/g, and cavitation extraction time, 35min. Under these conditions, the DHQ content in extract was 4.50±0.02mg/g, and the extraction efficiency was higher than those of traditional techniques. Cavitation can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by increasing the mass transfer rates and possible rupture of cell wall due to formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. After the extraction process, macroporous resin column chromatography was used to concentrate and purify the DHQ. Three resins were selected from fifteen macroporous resins for further investigation of their performance. Among these resins, AB-8 resin exhibited relatively better adsorption capacities and desorption ratios for DHQ. The ethanol volume fraction of the solutions for sample loading and desorption, and flow rates for loading and desorption were optimized for the macroporous resin column chromatography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Net energy yield from production of conventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael; Krumdieck, Susan; Bodger, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Historic profitability of bringing oil to market was profound, but most easy oil has been developed. Higher cost resources, such as tar sands and deep off-shore, are considered the best prospects for the future. Economic modelling is currently used to explore future price scenarios commensurate with delivering fuel to market. Energy policy requires modelling scenarios capturing the complexity of resource and extraction aspects as well as the economic profitability of different resources. Energy-return-on-investment (EROI) expresses the profitability of bringing energy products to the market. Net energy yield (NEY) is related to the EROI. NEY is the amount of energy less expenditures necessary to deliver a fuel to the market. This paper proposes a pattern for EROI of oil production, based on historic oil development trends. Methodology and data for EROI is not agreed upon. The proposed EROI function is explored in relation to the available data and used to attenuate the International Energy Agency (IEA) world oil production scenarios to understand the implications of future declining EROI on net energy yield. The results suggest that strategies for management and mitigation of deleterious effects of a peak in oil production are more urgent than might be suggested by analyses focussing only on gross production. - Highlights: → Brief introduction to methodological issues concerning net energy analysis. → Description of EROI function over the whole production cycle of an energy resource. → Calibration of this function to EROI data from historic oil production. → Application to determine the net energy yield from current global oil production. → Calculation of net energy yield from IEA projections of future oil production.

  16. Status of fission yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeck, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Fission yield measurement and yield compilation activities in the major laboratories of the world are reviewed. In addition to a general review of the effort of each laboratory, a brief summary of yield measurement activities by fissioning nuclide is presented. A new fast reactor fission yield measurement program being conducted in the US is described

  17. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Almakarem Amal S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt

  18. Drying Kinetics and Optimisation of Pectin Extraction from Banana Peels via Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Lin Chua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels which are the waste in abundance, are used to extract valuable pectin. The gelling ability of the pectin has gained attention in food and pharmaceutical industries. This research aims to select the best drying kinetic model for banana peels and also optimize the pectin extraction process using Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD. Determination of pectin gelling mechanism using degree of esterification (DE is also focused in this research. In this study, oven drying with temperature 50°C was chosen as the best drying temperature due to highest extraction yield. Furthermore, Page-Two-term model was selected as the best model to describe the drying kinetics of banana peels due to highest R2 value (0.9991 and lowest RMSE value (0.001. The optimal extraction conditions given by BBD were 75°C extraction temperature, 23 min extraction time and 1:33.3 g/ml solid-liquid ratio. Likewise, the DE for both pectins extracted using unoptimised and optimised conditions were 71.92±1.38% and 76.1±2.07% respectively. Both of the pectins were classified as high-methoxyl pectins. The pectin with higher DE also indicated that the rate of gel formation is higher. The results showed that the pectin yield and gelling time has successfully improved after optimised the pectin extraction process.

  19. Influence of gamma rays on the yield of Linum usitatissimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghouse, A.K.M.; Abidi, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of various acute doses of gamma-rays has been studied in an oil yielding Indian variety, Neelum of Linum usitatissimum. It has been found that gamma irradiation brings about an increase in the yield of the crop at lower doses upto 75 krads, while the higher ones like 125 and 150 krads reduce the yield to half. (auth.)

  20. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity.

  1. Synthetic Brassica napus L.: Development and Studies on Morphological Characters, Yield Attributes, and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Malek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Cross with B. rapa as a female parent was only successful. Among three colchicine treatments (0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%, 0.15% gave the highest success (86% of chromosome doubling in the hybrids (AC; 2=19. Synthetic B. napus (AACC, 2=38 was identified with bigger petals, fertile pollens and seed setting. Synthetic B. napus had increased growth over parents and exhibited wider ranges with higher coefficients of variations than parents for morphological and yield contributing characters, and yield per plant. Siliqua length as well as beak length in synthetic B. napus was longer than those of the parents. Number of seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant in synthetic B. napus were higher than those of the parents. Although flowering time in synthetic B. napus was earlier than both parents, however the days to maturity was little higher over early maturing B. rapa parent. The synthesized B. napus has great potential to produce higher seed yield. Further screening and evaluation is needed for selection of desirable genotypes having improved yield contributing characters and higher seed yield.

  2. Evaluation of the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (fennel) fruits extracted by three different extraction methods by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Faiza M; Saleh, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Azim, Nahla S; Shams, Khaled A; Ismail, Shams I; Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Saleh, Ibrahim A

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodistillation (HD) and steam-distillation, or solvent extraction methods of essential oils have some disadvantages like thermal decomposition of extracts, its contamination with solvent or solvent residues and the pollution of residual vegetal material with solvent which can be also an environmental problem. Thus, new green techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction and microwave assisted techniques, are potential solutions to overcome these disadvantages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare subsp. Piperitum fruits extracted by three different extraction methods viz. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and hydro-distillation (HD) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that both MAE and SFE enhanced the extraction efficiency of the interested components. MAE gave the highest yield of oil as well as higher percentage of Fenchone (28%), whereas SFE gave the highest percentage of anethol (72%). Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) not only enhanced the essential oil extraction but also saved time, reduced the solvents use and produced, ecologically, green technologies.

  3. The influence of the hot water extract from shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (higher Basidiomycetes) on the food intake, life span, and age-related locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjuskova, Natalya; Azena, Elena; Serstnova, Ksenija; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is among the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in the world and is a well-studied source of nutrients and biologically active compounds. We have studied the influence of the dietary supplement of the polysaccharides containing a hot water extract of the mushroom L. edodes on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in terms of food intake, body weight, life span, and age-related locomotor activity. L. edodes extract, when added to the D. melanogaster feeding substrate at a 0.003-0.030% concentration (calculated for the dry weight of the polysaccharide fraction) did not influence food intake or body weight of the flies. It increased the life span and locomotor activities of male flies but was associated with early mortality and decreased locomotor activity of female flies. We conclude that the observed anti-aging effects of L. edodes extracts in the male D. melanogaster are not the result of dietary restriction. We propose that D. melanogaster is a suitable model organism for researching the molecular basis of the anti-aging effect of the shiitake mushroom extracts and sex linkage of these effects.

  4. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  5. Techno-economical evaluation of protein extraction for microalgae biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Y. W.; Sanders, J. P. M.; Bruins, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Due to scarcity of fossil feedstocks, there is an increasing demand for biobased fuels. Microalgae are considered as promising biobased feedstocks. However, microalgae based fuels are not yet produced at large scale at present. Applying biorefinery, not only for oil, but also for other components, such as carbohydrates and protein, may lead to the sustainable and economical microalgae-based fuels. This paper discusses two relatively mild conditions for microalgal protein extraction, based on alkali and enzymes. Green microalgae (Chlorella fusca) with and without prior lipid removal were used as feedstocks. Under mild conditions, more protein could be extracted using proteases, with the highest yields for microalgae meal (without lipids). The data on protein extraction yields were used to calculate the costs for producing 1 ton of microalgal protein. The processing cost for the alkaline method was € 2448 /ton protein. Enzymatic method performed better from an economic point of view with € 1367 /ton protein on processing costs. However, this is still far from industrially feasible. For both extraction methods, biomass cost per ton of produced product were high. A higher protein extraction yield can partially solve this problem, lowering processing cost to €620 and 1180 /ton protein product, using alkali and enzyme, respectively. Although alkaline method has lower processing cost, optimization appears to be better achievable using enzymes. If the enzymatic method can be optimized by lowering the amount of alkali added, leading to processing cost of € 633/ton protein product. Higher revenue can be generated when the residue after protein extraction can be sold as fuel, or better as a highly digestible feed for cattle.

  6. Simulating the potential yield and yield gaps of sugar beet due to water and nitrogen limitations in Khorasan province using SUCROS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Deihimfard

    2015-12-01

    has not been considered in the simulations is qualitative traits of sugar beet (such as sugar content, Alkaloids, molasses sugar, sodium and potassium in storage organ, etc. particularly under different levels of nitrogen applications. Although increasing nitrogen application would be resulted in higher yield and lower yield gaps, supplied nitrogen more than crop demand could be accumulated in storage organs and reduce white sugar yield. For instance, every 15 kg additional application of nitrogen reduced sugar content by 0.1 percent and reduced extraction coefficient of sugar. It is also worth noting that the current version of SUCROSBEET model is not capable to simulate qualitative traits of sugar beet and a few subroutines are needed to add to the model for future investigations. Conclusion The results indicated that although there is high yield potential for sugar beet in Khorasan province, water productivity would not be reasonable. In addition, yield gap in sugar beet cropping systems which reflects the actual yield gap in irrigated environments is essentially due to non-adoption of improved crop management practices and could be reduced if proper interventions are made.

  7. Extraction and characterisation of pomace pectin from gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliarti, Oni; Goh, Kelvin K T; Matia-Merino, Lara; Mawson, John; Brennan, Charles

    2015-11-15

    Gold kiwifruit pomace extracted using citric acid, water and enzyme (Celluclast 1.5L) were studied in terms of pectin yield, protein, ash, non-starch polysaccharide, galacturonic acid (GalA), neutral sugar composition, molar mass (Mw), viscosity and degree of branching. Water-extracted pectin was considered closest to its native form. Enzyme extracted pectin showed the highest yield (∼ 4.5%w/w) as compared with the acid and water extraction methods (∼ 3.6-3.8%w/w). Pectin obtained from different extraction methods showed different degree of branching. The Mw and root mean square (RMS) radius varied with the extraction methods with values of 8.4 × 10(5) g/mol and 92 nm, 8.5 × 10(5)g/mol and 102 nm, 6.7 × 10(5) g/mol and 52 nm for acid, water and enzymatic extraction methods, respectively. Similar trend was observed for pectin viscosity, with water-extracted pectin giving a slightly higher viscosity followed by acid and enzyme-extracted pectin. This study showed that gold kiwifruit pomace pectin has potential application in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid and efficient extraction of genomic DNA from different phytopathogenic fungi using DNAzol reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Rong; Schnieder, F; Abd-Elsalam, K A; Verreet, J A

    2005-01-01

    A modified procedure using the commercial DNAzol reagent was successfully applied to extract genomic DNA from 25 fungal species. The DNA yield varied from 306 to 1,927 microg g(-1) dry mycelia and the A(260)/A(280) ratio from 1.59 to 1.93. Compared with the method of J.L. Cenis (Nucleic Acids Res. 1992, 20: 2380) this procedure generated a higher DNA yield from 17 species and a higher A(260)/A(280) ratio from 23 species. But for four species, Cenis (1992) method was more suitable. No inhibitor of polymerase chain reaction was evident for the DNA extracted by the modified procedure, whereas some inhibitors remained in DNA of eight species extracted by the previous method.

  9. Comparative Neuropharmacological Activities Methanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative neuropharmacological efficacy of the leaf and root 70 % methanol extract of Cissus cornifolia was studied in mice. The extractive values of the leaf and root methanol extract was found to be 31.5 g with yield of 12.6 %(w/w) and 37.8 g with the yield of 15.12 %(w/w) respectively. The acute toxicity (LD50) values ...

  10. Solid-Liquid Separation Properties of Thermoregulated Dicationic Ionic Liquid as Extractant of Dyes from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lv

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two thermoregulated dicationic ionic liquids were synthesized and applied for effective extraction of the common dye malachite green oxalate (MG. The extraction parameters such as amount of ionic liquids, pH of water phase, extraction time, cooling time, and centrifugal time on the extraction efficiency were investigated systematically. It revealed that the dye has been successfully extracted into the ionic liquids, with high extraction efficiency higher than 98%, and recovery of 98.2%–100.8%, respectively. Furthermore, these ionic liquids can be recycled easily after elution. The reusable yields were 87.1% and 88.7%. The extraction of the dye into the thermoregulated ionic liquid provides a method of minimizing pollution of waste water potentially.

  11. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining soil fertility is one of the major problems causing yield reduction of barley ... (VC) with inorganic NP on growth, yield and yield components of food barley. ... The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with ...

  12. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shehee, Thomas C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non-solvent-extraction

  13. High-resolution mapping of yield curve shape and evolution for high porosity sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, J. D.; Faulkner, D.; Wheeler, J.; Leclere, H.

    2017-12-01

    The onset of permanent inelastic deformation for porous rock is typically defined by a yield curve plotted in P-Q space, where P is the effective mean stress and Q is the differential stress. Sandstones usually have broadly elliptical shaped yield curves, with the low pressure side of the ellipse associated with localized brittle faulting (dilation) and the high pressure side with distributed ductile deformation (compaction). However recent works have shown that these curves might not be perfectly elliptical and that significant evolution in shape occurs with continued deformation. We therefore use a novel stress-probing methodology to map in high-resolution the yield curve shape for Boise and Idaho Gray sandstones (36-38% porosity) and also investigate curve evolution with increasing deformation. The data reveal yield curves with a much flatter geometry than previously recorded for porous sandstone and that the compactive side of the curve is partly comprised of a near vertical limb. The yield curve evolution is found to be strongly dependent on the nature of inelastic strain. Samples that were compacted under a deviatoric load, with a component of inelastic shear strain, were found to have yield curves with peaks that are approximately 50% higher than similar porosity samples that were hydrostatically compacted (i.e. purely volumetric strain). The difference in yield curve evolution along the different loading paths is attributed to mechanical anisotropy that develops during deviatoric loading by the closure of preferentially orientated fractures. Increased shear strain also leads to the formation of a plateau at the peak of the yield curve as samples deform along the deviatoric loading path. These results have important implications for understanding how the strength of porous rock evolves along different stress paths, including during fluid extraction from hydrocarbon reservoirs where the stress state is rarely isotropic.

  14. Walnut and almond oil screw-press extraction at industrial scale: Effects of process parameters on oil yield and quality; Extracción de aceite de nuez y almendra a escala industrial: efecto de parámetros del proceso sobre el rendimiento y la calidad del aceite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, M. L.; Bordón, M.G.; Bodoira, R. M.; Penci, M.C.; Ribotta, P.D.; Maestri, D.M.

    2017-07-01

    Walnut and almond kernels are highly nutritious mainly due to their high oil contents. In this study, 32 factorial experimental designs were used to optimize processes for oil extraction by screw-pressing at industrial scale. Experimental designs included seed moisture content (SMC), and restriction die (RD) as the main processing parameters. Theoretical models were scanned against experimental data in order to optimize oil extraction conditions. The response variables analyzed were oil yield (OY), fine solid content (FC) in oil, and oil quality parameters. Fitted models for OY indicated maximum predicted values similar to the highest experimental values. Walnut oil extractions showed a maximum OY (84.5 ± 2.3 %) at 7.21% SMC, and 10 mm RD. For almond kernels, maximum OY (71.9 ± 3.5%) was obtained at 9.42% SMC, and 12 mm RD. Chemical quality parameters from both oils were in the ranges stated in Codex (FAO/WHO) standards for virgin (non-refined) oils. [Spanish] La nuez y almendra son frutos sumamente nutritivos debido a su alto contenido de aceite. Mediante un diseño experimental de tipo factorial 32 se optimizó el proceso de extracción de estos aceites con prensa de tornillo a escala industrial. Las variables de proceso analizadas fueron el contenido de humedad de la semilla (CHS) y el diámetro de reducción (DR). Los modelos ajustados para rendimiento de aceite (RA) indicaron valores máximos predichos similares a los valores experimentales. Las extracciones de aceite de nuez mostraron un RA máximo (84,5 ± 2,3%) a 7,21% CHS, y 10 mm DR. Para almendra, se obtuvo un máximo de RA (71,9 ± 3,5%) con 9,42% de CHS y 12 mm de DR. Los parámetros de calidad química de ambos aceites se encontraban en los rangos establecidos en las normas del Codex (FAO / OMS) para aceites vírgenes (no refinados).

  15. Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Mars analog soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Aaron C; Fisher, Anita M; Fors-Francis, Kisa; Sherrit, Stewart

    2018-01-18

    For decades, the Martian regolith has stymied robotic mission efforts to catalog the organic molecules present. Perchlorate salts, found widely throughout Mars, are the main culprit as they breakdown and react with organics liberated from the regolith during pyrolysis, the primary extraction technique attempted to date on Mars. This work further develops subcritical water extraction (SCWE) as a technique for extraction of amino acids on future missions. The effect of SCWE temperature (185, 200, and 215°C) and duration of extraction (10-120 min) on the total amount and distribution of amino acids recovered was explored for three Mars analog soils (JSC Mars-1A simulant, an Atacama desert soil, and an Antarctic Dry Valleys soil) and bovine serum albumin (as a control solution of known amino acid content). Total amounts of amino acids extracted increased with both time and temperature; however, the distribution shifted notably due to the destruction of the amino acids with charged or polar side chains at the higher temperatures. The pure bovine serum albumin solution and JSC Mars 1A also showed lower yields than the Atacama and Antarctic extractions suggesting that SCWE may be less effective at hydrolyzing large or aggregated proteins. Changing solvent from water to a dilute (10 mM) HCl solution allowed total extraction efficiencies comparable to the higher temperature/time combinations while using the lowest temperature/time (185°C/20 min). The dilute HCl extractions also did not lead to the shift in amino acid distribution observed at the higher temperatures. Additionally, adding sodium perchlorate salt to the extraction did not interfere with recoveries. Native magnetite in the JSC Mars-1A may have been responsible for destruction of glycine, as evidenced by its uncharacteristic decrease as the temperature/time of extraction increased. This work shows that SCWE can extract high yields of native amino acids out of Mars analog soils with minimal disruption of the

  16. Comparison study of moisture content, colour properties and essential oil compounds extracted by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction between stem and leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogun citratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Shazlin; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Haiyee, Zaibunnisa Abdul

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the properties of moisture content, colour and essential oil compounds between stem and leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogun citratus). The essential oil was extracted using two different methods which are hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). There was no significant difference of moisture content between stem and leaves of lemongrass. The lightness (L) and yellowness (+b) values of the stems were significantly higher (pleaves. The highest yield of essential oil was obtained by extraction using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) in leaves (˜ 0.7%) by treatment at 1700psi and 50°C. The main compound of extracted essential oil was citral (geranial and neral).

  17. Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, David

    2005-11-01

    )], mean maximum August temperature, mean minimum February temperature, soil water surplus between April and September, and occurrence of autumn (fall) hurricanes, were built into a model to simulate adjusted yield values. The CCV model simulates the yield value with an rmse of 5.1 t ha-1. The mean of the adjusted yield data over the study period was 60.4 t ha-1, with values for the highest and lowest years being 73.1 and 50.6 t ha-1, respectively, and a standard deviation of 5.9 t ha-1. Presumably because of the almost constant high water table and soil water availability, higher precipitation totals, which are inversely related to radiation and temperature, tend to have a negative effect on the yields. Past trends in the values of critical climatic variables and general projections of future climate suggest that, with respect to the climatic environment and as long as land drainage is continued and maintained, future levels of sugarcane yield will rise in Louisiana.

  18. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendall, J.S.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  19. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  20. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan; Li, Huang; Zhang, Yuqin; Zheng, Haiyin; Chen, Ruilan; Chen, Lidian

    2012-12-03

    An ionic liquids (IL)-based microwave-assisted approach for extraction and determination of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. was proposed for the first time. Several ILs with different cations and anions and the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) conditions, including sample particle size, extraction time and liquid-solid ratio, were investigated. Two M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim] Br) solution with 0.80 M HCl was selected as the optimal solvent. Meanwhile the optimized conditions a ratio of liquid to material of 30:1, and the extraction for 10 min at 70 °C. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (CHRE) and the regular MAE, IL-MAE exhibited a higher extraction yield and shorter extraction time (from 1.5 h to 10 min). The optimized extraction samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS. IL extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.)Benth consisted mainly of flavonoids, among which myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, β-sitosterol, triacontane and hexacontane were identified. The study indicated that IL-MAE was an efficient and rapid method with simple sample preparation. LC-MS/MS was also used to determine the chemical composition of the ethyl acetate/MAE extract of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth, and it maybe become a rapid method to determine the composition of new plant extracts.

  1. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical Co2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjaneyulu, B.; Satyannarayana, S.; Kanjilal, S.; Siddaiah, V.; Prasanna Rani, K.N.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (Co2) extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar), temperature (50–70 °C) and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1). The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1) extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1). Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1) was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1). The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil. [es

  2. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anjaneyulu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar, temperature (50–70 °C and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1. The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1 extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1 was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1. The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil.

  3. Subcritical Butane Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil and Its Deacidification by Molecular Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and deacidification are important stages for wheat germ oil (WGO production. Crude WGO was extracted using subcritical butane extraction (SBE and compared with traditional solvent extraction (SE and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE based on the yield, chemical index and fatty acid profile. Furthermore, the effects of the molecular distillation temperature on the quality of WGO were also investigated in this study. Results indicated that WGO extracted by SBE has a higher yield of 9.10% and better quality; at the same time, its fatty acid composition has no significant difference compared with that of SE and SCE. The molecular distillation experiment showed that the acid value, peroxide value and p-anisidine value of WGO were reduced with the increase of the evaporation temperatures, and the contents of the active constituents of tocopherol, polyphenols and phytosterols are simultaneously decreased. Generally, the distillation temperature of 150 °C is an appropriate condition for WGO deacidification with the higher deacidification efficiency of 77.78% and the higher retention rate of active constituents.

  4. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwan Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein as well as increasing the extraction yield.

  5. RNA preservation agents and nucleic acid extraction method bias perceived bacterial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann McCarthy

    Full Text Available Bias is a pervasive problem when characterizing microbial communities. An important source is the difference in lysis efficiencies of different populations, which vary depending on the extraction protocol used. To avoid such biases impacting comparisons between gene and transcript abundances in the environment, the use of one protocol that simultaneously extracts both types of nucleic acids from microbial community samples has gained popularity. However, knowledge regarding tradeoffs to combined nucleic acid extraction protocols is limited, particularly regarding yield and biases in the observed community composition. Here, we evaluated a commercially available protocol for simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA, which we adapted for freshwater microbial community samples that were collected on filters. DNA and RNA yields were comparable to other commonly used, but independent DNA and RNA extraction protocols. RNA protection agents benefited RNA quality, but decreased DNA yields significantly. Choice of extraction protocol influenced the perceived bacterial community composition, with strong method-dependent biases observed for specific phyla such as the Verrucomicrobia. The combined DNA/RNA extraction protocol detected significantly higher levels of Verrucomicrobia than the other protocols, and those higher numbers were confirmed by microscopic analysis. Use of RNA protection agents as well as independent sequencing runs caused a significant shift in community composition as well, albeit smaller than the shift caused by using different extraction protocols. Despite methodological biases, sample origin was the strongest determinant of community composition. However, when the abundance of specific phylogenetic groups is of interest, researchers need to be aware of the biases their methods introduce. This is particularly relevant if different methods are used for DNA and RNA extraction, in addition to using RNA protection agents only for RNA

  6. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Cannabinoids from Cannabis Sativa L. Optimized by Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Charu; Máthé, Katalin; Hofmann, Tamás; Csóka, Levente

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from Cannabis sativa L. such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and cannabinoids. The influence of 3 independent factors (time, input power, and methanol concentration) was evaluated on the extraction of total phenols (TPC), flavonoids (TF), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and the overall yield. A face-centered central composite design was used for statistical modelling of the response data, followed by regression and analysis of variance in order to determine the significance of the model and factors. Both the solvent composition and the time significantly affected the extraction while the sonication power had no significant impact on the responses. The response predictions obtained at optimum extraction conditions of 15 min time, 130 W power, and 80% methanol were 314.822 mg GAE/g DW of TPC, 28.173 mg QE/g DW of TF, 18.79 mM AAE/g DW of FRAP, and 10.86% of yield. A good correlation was observed between the predicted and experimental values of the responses, which validated the mathematical model. On comparing the ultrasonic process with the control extraction, noticeably higher values were obtained for each of the responses. Additionally, ultrasound considerably improved the extraction of cannabinoids present in Cannabis. Low frequency ultrasound was employed to extract bioactive compounds from the inflorescence part of Cannabis. The responses evaluated were-total phenols, flavonoids, ferric reducing assay and yield. The solvent composition and time significantly influenced the extraction process. Appreciably higher extraction of cannabinoids was achieved on sonication against control. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, where collection of needle tissues is extremely difficult has been standardized. The extracted DNA was comparable to that obtained from the needle tissue in terms of yield and purity. The yield of extracted DNA ranged ...

  8. Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine using room temperature ionic liquid in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Chenglong; Jia, Yongzhong; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Hong; Jing, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a new system for Li recovery from salt lake brine by extraction using an ionic liquid. • Cation exchange was proposed to be the mechanism of extraction followed in ionic liquid. • This ionic liquid system shown considerable extraction ability for lithium and the single extraction efficiency of lithium reached 87.28% under the optimal conditions. - Abstract: Lithium is known as the energy metal and it is a key raw material for preparing lithium isotopes which have important applications in nuclear energy source. In this work, a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4 mim][PF 6 ]), was used as an alternative solvent to study liquid/liquid extraction of lithium from salt lake brine. In this system, the ionic liquid, NaClO 4 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were used as extraction medium, co-extraction reagent and extractant respectively. The effects of solution pH value, phase ratio, ClO 4 − amount and other factors on lithium extraction efficiency had been investigated. Optimal extraction conditions of this system include the ratio of TBP/IL at 4/1 (v/v), O/A at 2:1, n(ClO 4 − )/n(Li + ) at 2:1, the equilibration time of 10 min and unadjusted pH. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of lithium was 87.28% which was much higher than the conventional extraction system. Total extraction efficiency of 99.12% was obtained by triple-stage countercurrent extraction. Study on the mechanism revealed that the use of ionic liquid increased the extraction yield of lithium through cation exchange in this system. Preliminary results indicated that the use of [C 4 mim][PF 6 ] as an alternate solvent to replace traditional organic solvents (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction was very promising

  9. EKSTRAKSI DAN ANALISIS FITOSTEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM [Extraction and analysis of Phytosterol from wheat germ (Triticum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah K Darusman3

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytosterol may reduce the absorption of cholesterol, and used for preventing atherosclerosis. It is limited in soybean, but potentially abundant in wheat germ. Research on the utilization of wheat germ sterol had not been reported so far. Many aspects of germ sterol extraction from wheat germ and its characteristics were still unknown. In this research, the best extraction method, kinds and content of phytosterol from wheat germ were investigated.This research consisted of two steps: (1 extraction of phytosterol directly form whole germ and ground germ using hexane, and indirect extraction through germ oil using hexane and mixed solvent of hexane and ethanol, and direct extraction from ground germ using ethanol; (2 analysis of the type and content of phytosterol in the crude extract through the following steps: preparation of crude extract, fractionation, and analysis.Results showed that indirect extraction through germ oil was considered as the best method which yielded 1.37% of phytosterol. The highest yield was obtained when extracted using a mixed solvent of hexane – ethanol 82:18. However, the odor of ethanol and hexane (gasoline like odor was still detected. The solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 resulted better odor of the extract. Extraction of sterol using ethanol yielded 18.39% of sterol when the ratio of germ to ethanol at 1:10 (w/v was applied.Results of quantitative analysis on the main component of crude extract of wheat germ sterol showed that the total content of sterol extracted with mixed solvent was higher than those extracted with ethanol. The ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:1 (v/v gave higher content of total sterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, whereas higher content of -sitosterol was produced at the solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 (v/v.

  10. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Flavonoids from Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Peel and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-Zhe; Shao, Ping; Liu, Jian-Hua; Ru, Qiao-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of flavonoids from pomelo peel were a temperature of 80 °C, a pressure of 39 MPa and a static extraction time of 49 min in the presence of 85% ethanol as modifier. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 2.37%, which matched positively with the value predicted by the model. Furthermore, flavonoids obtained by SC-CO2 extraction showed a higher scavenging activity on hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction (CSE). Therefore, SC-CO2 extraction can be considered as a suitable technique for the obtainment of flavonoids from pomelo peel. PMID:23202938

  11. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Flavonoids from Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Peel and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Mei Ru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of flavonoids from pomelo peel were a temperature of 80 °C, a pressure of 39 MPa and a static extraction time of 49 min in the presence of 85% ethanol as modifier. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 2.37%, which matched positively with the value predicted by the model. Furthermore, flavonoids obtained by SC-CO2 extraction showed a higher scavenging activity on hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction (CSE. Therefore, SC-CO2 extraction can be considered as a suitable technique for the obtainment of flavonoids from pomelo peel.

  12. Quality and Yield of Cannabis Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastorp, Grith; Lindholst, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. 180 seizures containing 667 different samples of cannabis products from 5 police districts in Jutland were examined from 2008 to the present. The samples were divided into the groups: hashish, marihuana (leaves and buds) and whole plants (indoors and outdoors). Cannabis seized from indoor...... cultivation was examined in order to determine THC content and yield. The results are used by the Danish Police Attorney to estimate expected yields in cases with unripe cannabis plants. The results indicate that the THC content found in locally grown marihuana is slightly higher than in hashish. However...

  13. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A [Structure and Activity of Normal and Pathological Biomolecules-INSERM/UEVE U829, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf [3.Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Aubert, Pascal [Nanometric Media Laboratory, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, ParisTech, BP 87, F-91000 Evry (France); Gaffet, Eric [Nanomaterials Research Group-UMR 5060, CNRS, UTBM, Site de Sevenans, F-90010 Belfort (France)], E-mail: jpb.cnrs@free.fr, E-mail: pcurmi@univ-evry.fr, E-mail: f.jelezko@physik.uni-stuttgart.de

    2009-06-10

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  14. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  15. Chemical Profiling of Acalypha Indica Obtained from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Surangkana Chaichoowong; Jan Bernd Bol; Pornprapa Bol; Thomas Gamse; Malinee Sriariyanun

    2017-01-01

    Acalypha indica is a weed that grows in South-East Asia. It contains several valuable compounds that can be used for curing various diseases such as rheumatism, skin infection and blood dysentery. Here, the extraction of A. indica using Soxhlet extraction with two different solvents and supercritical CO2 extraction (SCE) with two different temperatures (40 and 60°C) was performed. In Soxhlet extraction, ethanol solvent provided the highest extraction yield of 34.36%. For SCE, the increased te...

  16. Extraction and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Coumarin in Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Mikania glomerata Spreng: ("guaco" Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeghini Renata M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for preparation of hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" (Mikania glomerata Spreng. leaves were compared: maceration, maceration under sonication, infusion and supercritical fluid extraction. Evaluation of these methods showed that maceration under sonication had the best results, when considering the ratio extraction yield/extraction time. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure for the determination of coumarin in these hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" leaves is described. The HPLC method is shown to be sensitive and reproducible.

  17. Effect of nitrogen and water deficit type on the yield gap between the potential and attainable wheat yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China plain, the most important winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production area in China. Analyzing the yield gap between the potential yield and the attainable yield can quantify the potential for increasing wheat production and exploring the limiting factors to yield gap in the high-yielding farming region of North China Plain. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT model was used to identify methods to increase the grain yield and decrease the gap. In order to explore the impact of N and cultivars on wheat yield in the different drought types, the climate conditions during 1981 to 2011 growing seasons was categorized into low, moderate, and severe water deficit classes according to the anomaly percentage of the water deficit rate during the entire wheat growing season. There are differences (P < 0.0001 in the variations of the potential yields among three cultivars over 30 yr. For all three water deficit types, the more recent cultivars Jimai22 and Shijiazhuang8 had higher yields compared to the older 'Jinan17'. As the N fertilizer rate increased, the yield gap decreased more substantially during the low water deficit years because of the significant increase in attainable yield. Overall, the yield gaps were smaller with less water stress. Replacement of cultivars and appropriate N fertilizer application based on the forecasted drought types can narrow the yield gap effectively.

  18. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK DAUN SALAM (Syzgium Polyanta DAN DAUN PANDAN (Pandanus Amaryllifolius [Antibacterial Activity Of (Syzygium Polyanta And Amaryllifolius Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murhadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study antibacterial activities of syzgium polyanta (“Salam” and Pandanus amaryllifolius (“Pandan” leaf extracts and the effect of wet heating (1000, up to 60 min on their antibacterial activities against staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtillis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Salam and pandan leaves powder was extracted using hot water (700C, 2 h, ethanol, ethanol/ethylacetate (1:1, v/v, and ethlacetate bt soxhlet (3x8 h separately. Each residue was further extracted using the same solvent by shaker (250 rpm, 24 h. finally filtrates were mixed and evaporated to produce the extract. Salam leaf ethanol extract (yield 11.50% showed highest antibacterial activity especially towards P. aeruginosa (diameter of inhibitor 6.5 mm/mg and B. subtilis (6.3 mm/mg. Pandan leaf erhanol/ethylacetate extract (yield 15.61 % also showed antibacterial activity towards P. aeruginosa (4.25 mm/mg and B. subtilis (3.2 mm/mg. In general, salam leaf extracts showed higher antibacterial activity than pandan leaf extracts. Pandan and salam leaf water extracts had no antibacterial activity. Escerichia coli was more resistant to the extracts compared Staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial activity of salam leaf ethylacetate extract decreased 6.55%, lower than that of pandan leaf ethylacetate extract (18.48% after heating 1000C for 10up to 60 min.

  19. Extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)

  20. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves by multiresponse surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at studying the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) by multi-response surface methodology (RSM) to test their efficiency towards the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves. The extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TF), DPPH scavenging method and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay were considered as response variables while effects of extraction time, percentage of ethanol, and temperature were studied. Extraction time of 20 min, 42% ethanol and 158°C were the MAE optimum conditions for achieving extraction yield of 26 ± 2%, EC50 15 ± 2 μg/mL, 16 ± 1 Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 5.2 ± 0.5 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 86 ± 4 mg GAE/g dry leaf. Regarding PLE, the optimum conditions that allowed extraction yield of 56 ± 2%, EC50 21 ± 3 μg/mL, 12 ± 2 mmol Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 6.5 ± 0.2 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 59 ± 6 mg GAE/g dry leaf were 128°C, 35% of ethanol, and 20 min. PLE enabled the extraction of phenolic compounds with a higher number of hydroxyl-type substituents such as kaempferol diglycoside and its acetyl derivatives and those that are sensitive to high temperatures (glucosinolates or amino acids) while MAE allowed better recoveries of kaempferol, quercetin, and their glucosides derivatives. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Extraction and characterization of galactomannan extracted from Prosopis juliflora seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Delane da C.; Cunha, Arcelina P.; Oliveira, Williara Q. de; Gallao, Maria Izabel; Azeredo, Henriette M. C de

    2015-01-01

    Different seeds are rich in polysaccharides, which are widely used in research and in industry. The objective was to extract galactomannan from mesquite seeds (Prosopis juliflora) and evaluate their chemical properties for future application in edible films. To test the feasibility of using the polysaccharide, the yield was obtained and the material analyzed by Thermal Analysis (TGA-Thermogravimetric Analysis and Calorimetry Differential Scanning-DSC), Spectroscopy Infrared Region Fourier Transform (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). According to the results, the galactomannan was equivalent with the polysaccharides extracted from other sources except for the low yield (6.6%). (author)

  2. 70-79 Effects of Crop Rotation and NP Fertilizer Rate on Grain Yield a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amendment enabled maize yields and soil fertility to be maintained at a higher level. Multiple ... Higher grain yield and high net return of maize were realized following Niger seed, ...... Generation, Transfer and Gap Analysis Workshop. Nekemt ...

  3. Enhancement of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in cabbage (Brassica oleraceae following application of commercial seaweed extracts of the brown seaweed, (Ascophyllum nodosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Lola-Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassica crops are rich is phytochemical compounds and frequent consumption of these vegetables has been associated with a lower risk in cancer, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. The effect of three commercial extracts of the brown seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, on phytochemical content and yield in cabbage plants was tested under field conditions in two consecutive crops. Total phenolic content was higher in all seaweed treated plants, with the highest increase recorded with AlgaeGreenTM (3.5 l ha-1 with a 2 fold increase relative to the control. The other commercial seaweed extract, XT achieved a lower increases of 1.3 fold (3.5 l ha-1. Similar increases were recorded in total flavonoid content. No statistically significant increases in yield were recorded with any of the seaweed extracts tested. The results suggest that seaweed extracts stimulated an increased accumulation of phytochemicals in cabbage but had no significant effect in yield under these experimental conditions.

  4. Yield stress independent column buckling curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Tudor‐Cristian; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    of the yield stress is to some inadequate degree taken into account in the Eurocode by specifying that steel grades of S460 and higher all belong to a common set of “raised” buckling curves. This is not satisfying as it can be shown theoretically that the current Eurocode formulation misses an epsilon factor......Using GMNIA and shell finite element modelling of steel columns it is ascertained that the buckling curves for given imperfections and residual stresses are not only dependent on the relative slenderness ratio and the cross section shape but also on the magnitude of the yield stress. The influence...... in the definition of the normalised imperfection magnitudes. By introducing this factor it seems that the GMNIA analysis and knowledge of the independency of residual stress levels on the yield stress can be brought together and give results showing consistency between numerical modelling and a simple modified...

  5. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Lee

    2017-07-01

    Results and Conclusion: The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  6. Recovery of Steroidal Alkaloids from Potato Peels Using Pressurized Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. Hossain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A higher yield of glycoalkaloids was recovered from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction (1.92 mg/g dried potato peels compared to conventional solid–liquid extraction (0.981 mg/g dried potato peels. Response surface methodology deduced the optimal temperature and extracting solvent (methanol for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE of glycoalkaloids as 80 °C in 89% methanol. Using these two optimum PLE conditions, levels of individual steroidal alkaloids obtained were of 597, 873, 374 and 75 µg/g dried potato peel for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Corresponding values for solid liquid extraction were 59%, 46%, 40% and 52% lower for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively.

  7. Flavonoids extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S., E-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais (NPPN). Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2010-07-01

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). Relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using 70% ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phytochemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  8. Flavonoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different techniques and solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal], e-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.com; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2009-01-15

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). The relative concentration of rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves, respectively) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phyto chemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  9. Flavonoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different techniques and solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S.; Kuster, Ricardo M.

    2009-01-01

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). The relative concentration of rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g -1 dried leaves, respectively) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g -1 dried leaves) methods using ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phyto chemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  10. Flavonoids extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S.; Kuster, Ricardo M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). Relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g -1 dried leaves) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g -1 dried leaves) methods using 70% ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phytochemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  11. Nanofiltration for concentration of roasted coffee extract: From bench to pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Quyen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc

    2017-09-01

    This paper focused on the application of nanofiltration (NF) for concentration of the roasted coffee extract in instant coffee processing. Three kinds of NF membranes were screened for separation capacity of total dry solid (TDS), polyphenols (PPs) and caffeine in roasted coffee extract and NF99 membrane showed the good performance for the NF of the extract. The crossflow NF with NF99 membrane at pilot scale was investigated for technical assessment of concentration of roasted coffee extract. Maximum theoretical concentration was estimated as 6.06. Recovery yields of TDS, PPs and caffeine were higher than 70% at 4.4 of concentration factor. The content of TDS in accumulative permeate was lower than 2.0 g/L. The fouling of NF was also solved by the suitable cleaning procedure with recovery index being 97.7%. Results of research indicate that it is feasible to apply NF for concentration of the roasted coffee extract in instant coffee production.

  12. Analysis of two drying methods on the yield and activity of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from Halymenia sp. (Rhodophyceae=Análise de dois métodos de secagem sobre o rendimento e atividade de polissacarídeos sulfatados extraídos da rodofícea Halymenia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Maria Barros Benevides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs have attracted growing interest for various biotechnological applications. We evaluated the efficiency of two methods of drying SPs (M I and II extracted from Halymenia sp Rhodophyceae in order to compare the yield, purification and anticoagulant activity. The total SPs (TSPs were first extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate (pH 5.0 containing cysteine and EDTA (5 mM. The TSPs obtained were dried in an oven (M I or lyophilized (M II and then examined by ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose using the NaCl gradient technique. The fractions were analyzed by 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis and the in vitro anticoagulant activity was evaluated by the activated partial thromboplastin time test using normal human plasma and compared to heparin (HEP (193.00 IU mg-1. There was a difference in TSP yield of 19.05% and similar chromatographic SP profiles. Electrophoresis revealed fractions with distinct resolutions. The fractions eluted with 0.75 M of salt (M I and II were the most active, measuring 27.40 and 72.66 IU mg-1, respectively, when compared to HEP. Therefore, obtaining SP with anticoagulant activity from Halymenia sp. is more efficient by freeze-drying.Os polissacarídeos sulfatados (PS têm despertado interesse crescente para diversas aplicações em biotecnologia. Avaliou-se a eficiência de duas metodologias de secagem de PSs (M I e II extraídos da rodofícea Halymenia sp. a fim de se comparar o rendimento, a purificação e a atividade anticoagulante. Inicialmente, os PS totais (PSTs foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína e EDTA (5 mM. Os PSTs foram secados em estufa (M I ou liofilizados (M II, seguido por cromatografia de troca iônica (DEAE-celulose utilizando um gradiente de NaCl. As frações foram analisadas por eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5% e a atividade anticoagulante “in vitro” avaliada por meio do teste do tempo de

  13. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  15. Modeling and prediction of extraction profile for microwave-assisted extraction based on absorbed microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung-Hung; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng

    2013-09-01

    A modeling technique based on absorbed microwave energy was proposed to model microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves. By adapting suitable extraction model at the basis of microwave energy absorbed during extraction, the model can be developed to predict extraction profile of MAE at various microwave irradiation power (100-600 W) and solvent loading (100-300 ml). Verification with experimental data confirmed that the prediction was accurate in capturing the extraction profile of MAE (R-square value greater than 0.87). Besides, the predicted yields from the model showed good agreement with the experimental results with less than 10% deviation observed. Furthermore, suitable extraction times to ensure high extraction yield at various MAE conditions can be estimated based on absorbed microwave energy. The estimation is feasible as more than 85% of active compounds can be extracted when compared with the conventional extraction technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two-part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validation of the developed OSATS scale for vac...

  17. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  18. Heterofacial alkylation of alkylenediamines by higher alkyl halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.A.; Kryshko, G.M.; Sokal'skaya, L.I.; Zhukova, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the physiochemical properties of alkylenediamines substituted by lower alkyls, showed that they possess increased complex-forming ability with respect to salts of different metals as titanium, niobium, zirconium, molybdenum, and zinc. To create a simpler method of synthesis of higher tetraaklyalkylalklyenediamines, based on the use of the accessible domestic raw material, the authors investigated the reaction of alkylenediamines with various alkyl halides. It was established that the best reagents can be obtained using alkyl bromides. It is concluded that the procedure of alkylation of alkylenediamines by higher alkyl halides in the presence of water developed permits the production of terraalkylalkylenediamines in one step with good yield and with purity acceptable for use as extraction reagents

  19. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Estimate of expected genetic advance in seed yield plant-1 ranged between. 25.90-48.40%. ..... values in fruit and seed yield characters have been reported in culinary melon, ... and Khund, A. 2004. Extent of heterosis and heritability in some.

  20. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial budget analysis also indicates that applications of 46 kg. N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 are ..... (1994) indicated that where the grain yield response is negative, yield reduction is primarily caused by a .... An Economic Training. Manual.

  1. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... peasant farmers in Nigeria. With the increased ... did not significantly (p=0.05) increase the fruit yield nor the seed yield. Key words: NPK fertilizer, Fruit ..... SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, ...

  2. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests

  3. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Wajsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min, higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality.

  4. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petigny, Loïc; Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Wajsman, Joël; Chemat, Farid

    2013-03-12

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min), higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality.

  5. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction to obtain mycosterols from Agaricus bisporus L. by response surface methodology and comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Sandrina A; Diz, Patrícia; Prieto, M A; Barros, Lillian; Rodrigues, Alírio; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-15

    Ergosterol, a molecule with high commercial value, is the most abundant mycosterol in Agaricus bisporus L. To replace common conventional extraction techniques (e.g. Soxhlet), the present study reports the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for ergosterol. After preliminary tests, the results showed that solvents, time and ultrasound power altered the extraction efficiency. Using response surface methodology, models were developed to investigate the favourable experimental conditions that maximize the extraction efficiency. All statistical criteria demonstrated the validity of the proposed models. Overall, ultrasound-assisted extraction with ethanol at 375 W during 15 min proved to be as efficient as the Soxhlet extraction, yielding 671.5 ± 0.5mg ergosterol/100 g dw. However, with n-hexane extracts with higher purity (mg ergosterol/g extract) were obtained. Finally, it was proposed for the removal of the saponification step, which simplifies the extraction process and makes it more feasible for its industrial transference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Elimination of interference of 129-iodine by its adsorption at extraction separation of 99-technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkova, M.; Tkac, P.; Kopunec, R.

    2001-01-01

    Three types of macro-amount of anions SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , OH - in the presence of I- were chosen in this work for comparison of competition with TcO 4 - anions in extraction reaction with Ph 4 As + , where weak, medium and strong competition can be expected respectively. Ph 4 AsCl in chloroform was used as organic phase. The influence of solid AgI or AgCl on Tc extraction was also studied in this extraction systems. The extraction of technetium after four-multiplied extraction from chosen solutions was studied. This procedure was applied in the process of Tc extraction from solutions of reprocessing plant. Various concentrations of K 2 CrO 4 and UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 in water phase on Tc extraction was investigate, too. The influence of I - ( 131 I) in the process of extraction separation of technetium was studied. The iodine removal was taken out from the solution by its adsorption on insoluble AgI or AgCl phase. The yields for 99m Tc were higher than 95% in organic phase and for 131 I higher than 80% in AgI or AgCl. It is possible to note, that this procedure can be also applied for 99 Tc and 129 I separation and estimation. The results of the extraction are presented in the form of graphical plots of technetium distribution ratio (D Tc , log D Tc ) or extraction yield (E Tc %) against concentration of investigate component in aqueous phase. (authors)

  7. Prediction of Pectin Yield and Quality by FTIR and Carbohydrate Microarray Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Dominiak, Malgorzata Maria; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    and carbohydrate microarray analysis were performed directly on the crude lime peel extracts during the time course of the extractions. Multivariate analysis of the data was carried out to predict final pectin yields. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was found applicable for determining the optimal...... extraction time for the enzymatic and acidic extraction processes, respectively. The combined results of FTIR and carbohydrate microarray analysis suggested major differences in the crude pectin extracts obtained by enzymatic and acid extraction, respectively. Enzymatically extracted pectin, thus, showed......, and that FTIR and carbohydrate microarray analysis have potential to be developed into online process analysis tools for prediction of pectin extraction yields and pectin features from measurements on crude pectin extracts....

  8. Supercritical CO2 extraction of raw propolis and its dry ethanolic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Paviani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Three types of propolis extract were prepared and analyzed with respect to their global extraction yields and with respect to the concentration of the following markers: 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid; 3-prenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid; 4-hydroxycinnamic acid and 4-methoxy-3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone. The extract EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis was obtained by the conventional method from raw propolis using ethanol as solvent. The extracts (SFE were obtained by supercritical solvent extraction from the raw propolis using supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2, with and without the addition of ethanol as a co-solvent. The fractionated supercritical extracts (FSCE were obtained by fractionation (extract and raffinate of the dry EEP with sc-CO2. EEP yields of 39.5% were obtained and maximum global extraction yields were 7.3% for SFE with no co-solvent, 51% for SFE with 15% ethanol and 18% for the FSCE extract fraction. The concentrations of the markers in the different extracts differed as a function of the operational parameters, indicating that the addition of co-solvent and the selectivity of sc-CO2 could be manipulated so as to obtain extracts with the yields and concentrations of interest.

  9. Ultraviolet light assisted extraction of flavonoids and allantoin from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Symphytum officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan S.M. Al-Nimer

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: UV-radiation enhances the yields of active ingredient, of comfrey extracted with methanol whereas improves the flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin levels of comfrey extracted by the aqueous infusion method. UV-radiation reduces the levels of flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin when the comfrey extracted by alcohols [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 280-283

  10. Preparation of DNA from cytological material: effects of fixation, staining, and mounting medium on DNA yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmek, Annika; Zendehrokh, Nooreldin; Tomaszewska, Malgorzata; Edsjö, Anders

    2013-07-01

    Personalized oncology requires molecular analysis of tumor cells. Several studies have demonstrated that cytological material is suitable for DNA analysis, but to the authors' knowledge there are no systematic studies comparing how the yield and quality of extracted DNA is affected by the various techniques used for the preparation of cytological material. DNA yield and quality were compared using cultured human lung cancer cells subjected to different preparation techniques used in routine cytology, including fixation, mounting medium, and staining. The results were compared with the outcome of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genotyping of 66 clinical cytological samples using the same DNA preparation protocol. All tested protocol combinations resulted in fragment lengths of at least 388 base pairs. The mounting agent EcoMount resulted in higher yields than traditional xylene-based medium. Spray and ethanol fixation resulted in both a higher yield and better DNA quality than air drying. In liquid-based cytology (LBC) methods, CytoLyt solution resulted in a 5-fold higher yield than CytoRich Red. Papanicolaou staining provided twice the yield of hematoxylin and eosin staining in both liquid-based preparations. Genotyping outcome and quality control values from the clinical EGFR genotyping demonstrated a sufficient amount and amplifiability of DNA in both spray-fixed and air-dried cytological samples. Reliable clinical genotyping can be performed using all tested methods. However, in the cell line experiments, spray- or ethanol-fixed, Papanicolaou-stained slides provided the best results in terms of yield and fragment length. In LBC, the DNA recovery efficiency of the preserving medium may differ considerably, which should be taken into consideration when introducing LBC. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2013;121:344-353. © 2013 American Cancer Society. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  11. Impacts of Ridge-Furrow Planting on Salt Stress and Cotton Yield under Drip Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitao Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat (F, mini-ditch (MD, and ridge-furrow (RF are three conventional cotton planting patterns that are usually adopted around the world, yet soil and crop responses to these three patterns are poorly studied, as is their suitability for increasing yield for coastal areas in Eastern China. The effects of three planting methods on water and salt dynamics as well as on growth and lint yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. were investigated in a saline field in Bohai Rim, China, to select the best planting pattern for cultivating coastal saline fields of Eastern China. Soil moisture in the root zone with RF was 11.9% and 12.1% higher than with F and MD, whereas the electrical conductivity of a saturated soil extract (ECe in the root zone with RF was 18.0% and 13.8% lower than with MD and F, respectively, during the growth period, which indicated that RF could efficiently collect rainfall and leach salt in the root zone. After drip irrigation, the infiltration and salt-leaching depth with RF were both deeper than that with F and MD. The stand establishment of MD was the highest (80.3% due to the greenhouse effect from film mulching, and was 12.8% and 4.6% higher than that with F and RF, respectively. Growth indicators and lint yield demonstrated that RF was superior to F and MD because of the higher soil moisture and lower ECe. The lint yield was significantly higher in RF, suggesting that RF can be an optimal planting pattern for agricultural reclamation in similar saline-alkaline areas around the world.

  12. Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of heat and mass transfer of different microwave-assisted extraction methods of essential oil from Citrus limon (Lisbon variety) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Moayyedi, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    Dried and fresh peels of Citrus limon were subjected to microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), respectively. A comparison was made between MAHD and SFME with the conventional hydrodistillation (HD) method in terms of extraction kinetic, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity. Higher yield results from higher extraction rates by microwaves and could be due to a synergy of two transfer phenomena: mass and heat acting in the same way. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis did not indicate any noticeable differences between the constituents of essential oils obtained by MAHD and SFME, in comparison with HD. Antioxidant analysis of the extracted essential oils indicated that microwave irradiation did not have adverse effects on the radical scavenging activity of the extracted essential oils. The results of this study suggest that MAHD and SFME can be termed as green technologies because of their less energy requirements per ml of essential oil extraction.

  14. Comparisons between conventional, ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted methods for extraction of anthraquinones from Heterophyllaea pustulata Hook f. (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera Vázquez, M F; Comini, L R; Martini, R E; Núñez Montoya, S C; Bottini, S; Cabrera, J L

    2014-03-01

    This work reports a comparative study about extraction methods used to obtain anthraquinones (AQs) from stems and leaves of Heterophyllae pustulata Hook (Rubiáceae). One of the conventional procedures used to extract these metabolites from a vegetable matrix is by successive Soxhlet extractions with solvents of increasing polarity: starting with hexane to eliminate chlorophylls and fatty components, following by benzene and finally ethyl acetate. However, this technique shows a low extraction yield of total AQs, and consumes large quantities of solvent and time. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) have been investigated as alternative methods to extract these compounds, using the same sequence of solvents. It was found that UAE increases the extraction yield of total AQs and reduces the time and amount of solvent used. Nevertheless, the combination UAE with benzene, plus MAE with ethyl acetate at a constant power of 900 W showed the best results. A higher yield of total AQs was obtained in less time and using the same amount of solvent that UAE. The optimal conditions for this latter procedure were UAE with benzene at 50 °C during 60 min, followed by MAE at 900 W during 15 min using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  16. Comparison of two silica-based extraction methods for DNA isolation from bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Nagy, Marion

    2016-09-01

    One of the most demanding DNA extractions is from bones and teeth due to the robustness of the material and the relatively low DNA content. The greatest challenge is due to the manifold nature of the material, which is defined by various factors, including age, storage, environmental conditions, and contamination with inhibitors. However, most published protocols do not distinguish between different types or qualities of bone material, but are described as being generally applicable. Our laboratory works with two different extraction methods based on silica membranes or the use of silica beads. We compared the amplification success of the two methods from bone samples with different qualities and in the presence of inhibitors. We found that the DNA extraction using the silica membrane method results an in higher DNA yield but also in a higher risk of co-extracting impurities, which can act as inhibitors. In contrast the silica beads method shows decreased co-extraction of inhibitors but also less DNA yield. Related to our own experiences it has to be considered that each bone material should be reviewed independently regarding the analysis and extraction method. Therefore, the most ambitious task is determining the quality of the bone material, which requires substantial experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of artemisinin extraction from artemisia annua l. With supercritical carbon dioxide + ethanol using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Ozan Nazim; Cahyadi, Jessica; Guigard, Selma E; Saldaña, Marleny D A

    2018-05-13

    Malaria is a high priority life-threatening public health concern in developing countries, and therefore there is a growing interest to obtain artemisinin for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy products. In this study, artemisinin was extracted from the Artemisia annua L. plant using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) modified with ethanol. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to investigate and optimize the extraction conditions of pressure (9.9-30 MPa), temperature (33-67°C), and co-solvent (ethanol, 0-12.6 wt.%). Optimum SC-CO 2 extraction conditions were found to be 30 MPa and 33°C. Under optimized conditions, the predicted artemisinin yield was 1.09% whereas the experimental value was 0.71±0.07%. Soxhlet extraction with hexane resulted in higher artemisinin yields and there was no significant difference in the purity of the extracts obtained with SC-CO 2 and Soxhlet extractions. Results indicated that SC-CO 2 and SC-CO 2 +ethanol extraction is a promising alternative for the extraction of artemisinin to eliminate the use of organic solvents, such as hexane and produce extracts that can be used for the production of antimalarial products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Ohmic-Assisted Decoction on Bioactive Components Extracted from Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. Leaves: Comparison with Conventional Decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Khajehei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. leaves are a potentially rich source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. In this study, the effect of the extraction method (ohmic-assisted decoction (OH-DE and decoction (DE, yacon cultivar (red and white, and leaf age (young and old on the quality/quantity of extracted phytochemicals were investigated. Extraction yield, energy consumption, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were determined. Additionally, HPLC-DAD was used to identify the major individual phenolic and flavonoid compounds of yacon leaves. The results showed that a three-way interaction of process-variables (extraction method×yacon cultivar×age of leaves influenced the extraction yield, TPC, TFC, ABTS, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, and FRAP, significantly (p < 0.05. However, energy consumption of the extraction process was only affected by method of extraction (p < 0.05 and was halved when OH-DE was applied as compared to DE alone. Additionally, the phytochemical quality of extracts was either improved or comparable when OH-DE was used for extraction. Also, it was shown that yacon leaves contained considerable amounts of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferrulic acid, myricetin, p-coumaric acid, and rutin, while leaves of the red cultivar had higher contents of each compound compared to leaves of the white cultivar.

  19. Cellulase-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Rhizoma imperata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Long-Fa

    2014-08-08

    In this study, the cellulase-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from Rhizoma imperata were investigated. To improve the yield of R. Imperata polysaccharides (RPs), the extraction conditions were optimized as follows: time, 69.48 min; temperature, 45.36°C; pH, 4.58; cellulase amount, 1,200 U/g. Under these optimum conditions, the yield of RPs reached 0.67% (w/w), and was higher than that of the traditionally aqueous extraction method. The sugar content in the RPs product reached up to 93.25% (w/w). The RPs product has high antioxidant activity including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity at the concentration of 100mg/mL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enzymatic Extraction of Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Coffee Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Favela-Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids are classified as hydroxycinnamic acids, presenting anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this work, enzymatic extraction has been studied in order to extract high value-added products like hydroxycinnamic acids from coffee pulp. A commercial pectinase and enzyme extract produced by Rhizomucor pusillus strain 23aIV in solid-state fermentation using olive oil or coffee pulp (CP as an inducer of the feruloyl esterase activity were evaluated separately and mixed. The total content (covalently linked and free of ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids was 5276 mg per kg of coffee pulp. Distribution was as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 58.7, caffeic acid 37.6, ferulic acid 2.1 and p-coumaric acid 1.5. Most of the hydroxycinnamic acids were covalently bound to the cell wall (in %: p-coumaric acid 97.2, caffeic acid 94.4, chlorogenic acid 76.9 and ferulic acid 73.4. The content of covalently linked hydroxycinnamic acid was used to calculate the enzyme extraction yield. The maximum carbon dioxide rate for the solid-state fermentation using olive oil as an inducer was higher and it was reached in a short cultivation time. Nevertheless, the feruloyl esterase (FAE activity (units per mg of protein obtained in the fermentation using CP as an inducer was 31.8 % higher in comparison with that obtained in the fermentation using olive oil as the inducer. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the composition of both esterified and free ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids in coffee pulp. The highest yield of extraction of hydroxycinnamic acids was obtained by mixing the produced enzyme extract using coffee pulp as an inducer and a commercial pectinase. Extraction yields were as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 54.4, ferulic acid 19.8, p-coumaric acid 7.2 and caffeic acid 2.3. An important increase in the added value of coffee pulp was mainly

  1. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  2. Heavy metal concentration in forage grasses and extractability from some acid mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A and M University, Normal (United States). Department of Plant and Soil Science)

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted on several forage grasses, bermudagrass ([ital Cynodon dactylon]), creeping red fescue ([ital Festuca rubra]), Kentucky 31-tall fescue ([ital Festuca arundinacea]), oat ([ital Avena sativa]), orchardgrass ([ital Dactylis glomerata]), perennial ryegrass ([ital Lolium perenne]), sorghum ([ital Sorghum bicolor]), triticale (X. [ital triticosecale Wittmack]), and winter wheat ([ital Triticum aestivum]) grown on three Alabama acid mine spoils to study heavy metal accumulation, dry matter yield and spoil metal extractability by three chemical extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl). Heavy metals removed by these extractants were correlated with their accumulation by several forage grasses. Among the forages tested, creeping red fescue did not survive the stressful conditions of any of the spoils, while orchard grass and Kentucky 31-tall fescue did not grow in Mulberry spoil. Sorghum followed by bermudagrass generally produced the highest dry matter yield. However, the high yielding bermudagrass was most effective in accumulating high tissue levels of Mn and Zn from all spoils (compared to the other grasses) but did not remove Ni. On the average, higher levels of metals were extracted from spoils in the order of 0.1 M HCl[gt] Mehlich 1[gt] DTPA. However, DTPA extracted all the metals from spoils while Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract detectable levels of Ni. All of the extractants were quite effective in determining plant available Zn from the spoils. For the other metals, the effective determination of plant availability depended on the crop, the extractant, and the metal in concert. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Microwave-Assisted Extraction for Microalgae: From Biofuels to Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Vijay Kapoore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The commercial reality of bioactive compounds and oil production from microalgal species is constrained by the high cost of production. Downstream processing, which includes harvesting and extraction, can account for 70–80% of the total cost of production. Consequently, from an economic perspective extraction technologies need to be improved. Microalgal cells are difficult to disrupt due to polymers within their cell wall such as algaenan and sporopollenin. Consequently, solvents and disruption devices are required to obtain products of interest from within the cells. Conventional techniques used for cell disruption and extraction are expensive and are often hindered by low efficiencies. Microwave-assisted extraction offers a possibility for extraction of biochemical components including lipids, pigments, carbohydrates, vitamins and proteins, individually and as part of a biorefinery. Microwave technology has advanced since its use in the 1970s. It can cut down working times and result in higher yields and purity of products. In this review, the ability and challenges in using microwave technology are discussed for the extraction of bioactive products individually and as part of a biorefinery approach.

  4. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though...... the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per...... reproductive tiller), the utilization of the potential (e.g. seed set, seed weight) and the realization of the seed yield potential, defined as the number of florets forming a saleable seed. The realization of the seed yield potential is affected by seed retention, seed weight and other traits associated...

  5. Process intensification for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds: Supercritical reactive extraction process parameters study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigation of supercritical reactive extraction process for biodiesel production. ► Focus is given on optimizing methyl esters yield for Jatropha curcas L. seeds. ► Influence of process parameters to the reaction are discussed thoroughly. ► Comparison between the novel reaction with conventional process are studied. ► High methyl esters yield can be obtained without pre-extraction and catalyst. -- Abstract: In a bid to increase the cost competitiveness of biodiesel production against mineral diesel, process intensification has been studied for numerous biodiesel processing technologies. Subsequently, reactive extraction or in situ transesterification is actively being explored in which the solid oil-bearing seeds are used as the reactant directly with short-chain alcohol. This eliminates separate oil extraction process and combines both extraction and transesterification in a single unit. Supercritical reactive extraction takes one step further by substituting the role of catalyst with supercritical conditions to achieve higher yield and shorter processing time. In this work, supercritical reactive extraction with methanol was carried out in a high-pressure batch reactor to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from Jatropha curcas L. seeds. Material and process parameters including space loading, solvent to seed ratio, co-solvent (n-hexane) to seed ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and mixing intensity were varied one at a time and optimized based on two responses i.e. extraction efficiency, M extract and FAME yield, F y . The optimum responses for supercritical reactive extraction obtained were 104.17% w/w and 99.67% w/w (relative to 100% lipid extraction with n-hexane) for M extract and F y respectively under the following conditions: 54.0 ml/g space loading, 5.0 ml/g methanol to seeds ratio, 300 °C, 9.5 MPa (Mega Pascal), 30 min reaction time and without n-hexane as co-solvent or any agitation source. This proved that

  6. A comparison of five extraction methods for extracellular polymeric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two physical methods (centrifugation and ultrasonication) and 3 chemical methods (extraction with EDTA, extraction with formaldehyde, and extraction with formaldehyde plus NaOH) for extraction of EPS from alga-bacteria biofilm were assessed. Pretreatment with ultrasound at low intensity doubled the EPS yield without ...

  7. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of three different extraction methods on oil yield, physicochemical properties and bioactive ingredients of radish seeds. Methods: Radish seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane extraction (SPE).

  8. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO 2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO 2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO 2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  9. Conventional and accelerated-solvent extractions of green tea (camellia sinensis) for metabolomics-based chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Joshua J; Wallace, Emily D; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2017-10-25

    Metabolomics has emerged as an important analytical technique for multiple applications. The value of information obtained from metabolomics analysis depends on the degree to which the entire metabolome is present and the reliability of sample treatment to ensure reproducibility across the study. The purpose of this study was to compare methods of preparing complex botanical extract samples prior to metabolomics profiling. Two extraction methodologies, accelerated solvent extraction and a conventional solvent maceration, were compared using commercial green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae)] products as a test case. The accelerated solvent protocol was first evaluated to ascertain critical factors influencing extraction using a D-optimal experimental design study. The accelerated solvent and conventional extraction methods yielded similar metabolite profiles for the green tea samples studied. The accelerated solvent extraction yielded higher total amounts of extracted catechins, was more reproducible, and required less active bench time to prepare the samples. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of accelerated solvent as an efficient methodology for metabolomics studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Compositional and functional difference in cumin (Cuminum cyminum essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation and SCFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supradip Saha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils were obtained from same raw material of cumin seed by extraction with hydrodistillation and super critical fluid extraction (SCFE. For SCFE, supercritical carbon dioxide at 45°C and 100 bar was used as variable for the extraction. The composition of the extracts was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Yield of essential oil was more in the SCFE method. Extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction technique using CO2 was heavier than the hydrodistilled volatile oil. Cumin oil obtained by hydrodistillation contained higher percentage of cuminaldehyde (52.6%, then did oil obtained by SCFE (37.3%, whereas cumin oil obtained by hydrodistillation had the lower percentage of cuminic alcohol (13.3% as compared to 19.3% in SCFE method. However, cuminal (2-caren-10-al content was almost similar in cumin oil obtained by the SCFE and hydrodistillation method (24.5–25.8%. Hydrodistilled volatile oil showed better antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and FRAP assay and more total phenol content. The results indicated that though essential oil yield was more in the SCFE method, antioxidant property was more in conventional hydrodistillation method. SCFE extracted non polar (wax materials compounds along with volatile oil and it was recorded that enhanced aroma of signature compounds of cumin.

  11. Digital PCR for direct quantification of viruses without DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavšič, Jernej; Žel, Jana; Milavec, Mojca

    2016-01-01

    DNA extraction before amplification is considered an essential step for quantification of viral DNA using real-time PCR (qPCR). However, this can directly affect the final measurements due to variable DNA yields and removal of inhibitors, which leads to increased inter-laboratory variability of qPCR measurements and reduced agreement on viral loads. Digital PCR (dPCR) might be an advantageous methodology for the measurement of virus concentrations, as it does not depend on any calibration material and it has higher tolerance to inhibitors. DNA quantification without an extraction step (i.e. direct quantification) was performed here using dPCR and two different human cytomegalovirus whole-virus materials. Two dPCR platforms were used for this direct quantification of the viral DNA, and these were compared with quantification of the extracted viral DNA in terms of yield and variability. Direct quantification of both whole-virus materials present in simple matrices like cell lysate or Tris-HCl buffer provided repeatable measurements of virus concentrations that were probably in closer agreement with the actual viral load than when estimated through quantification of the extracted DNA. Direct dPCR quantification of other viruses, reference materials and clinically relevant matrices is now needed to show the full versatility of this very promising and cost-efficient development in virus quantification.

  12. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  13. Comparable efficiency of different extraction protocols for wheat and rye prolamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Socha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of cereal storage proteins is of interest of many researchers. Their structural or functional properties are usually affected by the way how they are extracted. The efficiency of extraction process depends on the cereal source and working conditions. Here, we described various commonly used extraction protocols differing in the extraction conditions (pre-extraction of albumins/globulins, sequential extraction of individual protein fractions or co-extraction of gluten proteins, heating or non-heating, reducing or non-reducing conditions. The total protein content of all fractions extracted from commercially available wheat and rye flours was measured by the Bradford method. Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE was used to determine the molecular weights of wheat gliadins, rye secalins and high-molecular weight glutelins which are the main triggering factors causing celiac disease. Moreover, we were able to distinguish individual subunits (α/β-, γ-, ω-gliadins and 40k-γ-, 75k-γ-, ω-secalins of wheat/rye prolamins. Generally, modified extraction protocols against classical Osborne procedure were more effective and yields higher protein content in all protein fractions. Bradford measurement led into underestimation of results in three extraction procedures, while all protein fractions were clearly identified on SDS-PAGE gels. Co-extraction of gluten proteins resulted in appearance of both, low-molecular weight fractions (wheat gliadins and rye secalins as well as high-molecular weight glutelins which means that is not necessary to extract gluten proteins separately. The two of three extraction protocols showed high technical reproducibility with coefficient of variation less than 20%. Carefully optimized extraction protocol can be advantageous for further analyses of cereal prolamins.  Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Pinellia rhizoma, Polysaccharides Optimization extraction, Monosaccharide composition,. Antioxidant ..... mean yield of PRP was 2.47 %. Therefore ... Table 3: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the fitted quadratic polynomial model.

  15. Influence of Extractant and Soil Type on Molecular Characteristics of Humic Substances From Two Brazilian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Deborah Pinheiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study it was observed that humic substances (HS extracted with NaOH solution and with Na4P2O7 solution presented different molecular weights, and also that the extracted HS yield by each method varied between an Oxisol and a Mollisol from South Brazil. In the present study, we further investigated the organic matter in these soils by characterizing HS extracted with 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH and with neutral 0.15 mol L-1 Na4P2O7 solutions from the above mentioned samples, using elemental analysis and nuclear magnetic ressonance spectroscopy (liquid state ¹H- and 13C-NMR, and by relating the molecular differences to the extraction method and soil type. HS extracted with pyrophosphate were more humified, showing a higher aromaticity and higher carboxylic content. The NaOH-extracted HS were more aliphatic and contained a higher O-alkyl proportion, which is indicative of a less humified nature than the pyrophosphate-extracted HS.

  16. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASNA IVANOVIĆ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize antioxidant extracts obtained from dried leaves of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L., originating from the southern Balkan Region. The antioxidant fraction was isolated from the plant material by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 fractional extraction under a pressure of 30 MPa and at temperatures of 40 and 100 °C. In the present study, kinetic data and yields of antioxidant extracts obtained from dried leaves of rosemary and sage under different conditions were determined. Electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy assay on the ability of the extracts to scavenge stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals during the Fenton reaction trapped by 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO showed that the investigated extracts had antioxidant activity comparable to that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and commercial rosemary extract. The antioxidant fractions isolated at the higher temperature had higher antioxidant activities. A tentative analysis of the chemical composition of the antioxidant fractions obtained at the higher temperature was accomplished by LC-DAD and LC-MS analytical methods. Abietane-type diterpenoids, flavonoids and fatty acids were identified in the SC-CO2 extract of rosemary and sage.

  17. Wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol: Fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parczewska-Plesnar, B.; Brzozowski, R.; Gwardiak, H.; Białecka-Florjańczyk, E.; Bujnowski, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 with ethanol as entrainer was performed at a temperature of 40 o C under a pressure of 21 MPa. For comparison, a similar extraction without the entrainer was carried out. The extraction yield of wheat germ using supercritical CO2 with ethanol was slightly higher (10.7 wt%) than that of extraction without the entrainer (9.9 wt%). Fractions of SFE extracts were collected separately during the experiments and the composition of fatty acids in each fraction was analyzed. The SFE extracted oils were rich (63.4-71.3%) in the most valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their content in all collected fractions was approximately constant. Similar PUFA contents were found in the reference samples of oils extracted by n-hexane (66.2-67.0%), while the commercial cold-pressed oil contained significantly less PUFA (60.2%). These results show a higher nutritional value of the oil obtained by extraction with supercritical CO2 than cold pressed oil which is generally considered to be very valuable. [es

  18. effect of deficit irrigation on growth and yield of okro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    reduce the demand for irrigation water (Boland et al., 1993). Deficit irrigation is another way in which water use efficiency can be maximized for higher yields per unit of irrigation water. Stegman (1982) reported that the yield of maize, sprinkler irrigated to induce a 30 - 40 percent depletion of available water between.

  19. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Gan et al., 2003). Nitrogen increases yield by influencing a variety of agronomic and quality parameters. In general, there was an increase in plant height and dry matter accumulation per plant in soybean (Manral and Saxena, ...

  20. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. ... since some combine harvester heads are unable to pick ..... as effected by population density and plant distribution.

  1. Bevalac extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill

  2. Satellite-based assessment of grassland yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.; Siegmund, R.; Wagner, M.; Hartmann, S.

    2015-04-01

    Cutting date and frequency are important parameters determining grassland yields in addition to the effects of weather, soil conditions, plant composition and fertilisation. Because accurate and area-wide data of grassland yields are currently not available, cutting frequency can be used to estimate yields. In this project, a method to detect cutting dates via surface changes in radar images is developed. The combination of this method with a grassland yield model will result in more reliable and regional-wide numbers of grassland yields. For the test-phase of the monitoring project, a study area situated southeast of Munich, Germany, was chosen due to its high density of managed grassland. For determining grassland cutting robust amplitude change detection techniques are used evaluating radar amplitude or backscatter statistics before and after the cutting event. CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A data were analysed. All detected cuts were verified according to in-situ measurements recorded in a GIS database. Although the SAR systems had various acquisition geometries, the amount of detected grassland cut was quite similar. Of 154 tested grassland plots, covering in total 436 ha, 116 and 111 cuts were detected using CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A radar data, respectively. Further improvement of radar data processes as well as additional analyses with higher sample number and wider land surface coverage will follow for optimisation of the method and for validation and generalisation of the results of this feasibility study. The automation of this method will than allow for an area-wide and cost efficient cutting date detection service improving grassland yield models.

  3. An investigation on the mechanism of sublimed DHB matrix on molecular ion yields in SIMS imaging of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlatshahi Pour, Masoumeh; Malmberg, Per; Ewing, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    We have characterized the use of sublimation to deposit matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) matrices in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis, i.e. matrix-enhanced SIMS (ME-SIMS), a common surface modification method to enhance sensitivity for larger molecules and to increase the production of intact molecular ions. We use sublimation to apply a thin layer of a conventional MALDI matrix, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), onto rat brain cerebellum tissue to show how this technique can be used to enhance molecular yields in SIMS while still retaining a lateral resolution around 2 μm and also to investigate the mechanism of this enhancement. The results here illustrate that cholesterol, which is a dominant lipid species in the brain, is decreased on the tissue surface after deposition of matrix, particularly in white matter. The decrease of cholesterol is followed by an increased ion yield of several other lipid species. Depth profiling of the sublimed rat brain reveals that the lipid species are de facto extracted by the DHB matrix and concentrated in the top most layers of the sublimed matrix. This extraction/concentration of lipids directly leads to an increase of higher mass lipid ion yield. It is also possible that the decrease of cholesterol decreases the potential suppression of ion yield caused by cholesterol migration to the tissue surface. This result provides us with significant insights into the possible mechanisms involved when using sublimation to deposit this matrix in ME-SIMS.

  4. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the ...

  5. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  6. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  7. A Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Method for the Separation of Polysaccharides and Essential Oil from the Leaves of Taxus chinensis Var. mairei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient microwave-assisted simultaneous distillation and extraction (MA-SDE method has been developed for the separation of polysaccharides and essential oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei. The key operating parameters for MA-SDE were optimized by single factor and central composite design experiments, and the optimal conditions were found to include a particle size of 60–80 mesh, liquid/solid ratio of 22.5 mL/g, extraction time of 17.5 min, microwave power of 547 W, and dichloromethane was used as the extraction solvent of the essential oil. The yields obtained for polysaccharides and essential oil under the optimized conditions were 6.39% ± 0.12% and 0.27% ± 0.03%, respectively. The MA-SDE method was also compared with conventional heat reflux extraction (HRE and hydrodistillation extraction (HDE. The MA-SDE method not only allowed for the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and essential oil, but also completed the task with a much shorter extraction time of 17.5 min (HRE and HDE required 3 and 6 h, respectively. Furthermore, the MA-SDE method gave increased extraction yields for polysaccharides (1.14-fold higher than HRE and essential oil (1.23-fold higher than HDE. Based on these results, this MA-SDE method represents a rapid and efficient technique for the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and essential oil.

  8. EFFECT OF EXTRACTIVES AND CARBONIZATION TEMPERATURE ON ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF WOOD WASTE IN AMAZON RAINFOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordão Cabral Moulin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extractives soluble in hot water, besides final carbonization temperatures, on the gravimetric yield and properties of charcoal for waste of three native forest species from the Amazon region. Waste cuttings of Ipé, Grapia and Maçaranduba species, from the machine processing for joinery of a company in the State of Pará, were used. Carbonization was carried out in an adapted electric furnace with a heating rate of 1.67°C min-1 and final temperatures of 500, 600 and 700°C. The waste was carbonized fresh after extraction in hot water to remove extractives. Gravimetric yields were analyzed, as well as chemical features and high heating value. In the evaluation of the experiment, arranged in a factorial scheme with three factors (species x temperature x material with and without extraction, and Principal Component Analysis used too. The presence of extractives (soluble in hot water from wood waste had little influence on the gravimetric yield and immediate chemical composition of charcoal; however, it showed a greater high heating value and lower contents of hydrogen and nitrogen. The increase in the final carbonization temperature reduced the gravimetric yield in charcoal, the content of volatile materials and hydrogen, with a higher content of fixed carbon, carbon and high heating value. The treatments with the best energy characteristics were obtained from Ipé and Maçaranduba charcoals with extractives produced at 600°C, in addition to Ipê and Maçaranduba charcoals with and without extractives obtained at 700°C.

  9. Yield, Esterification Degree and Molecular Weight Evaluation of Pectins Isolated from Orange and Grapefruit Peels under Different Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Mohamed Yassine; Chabir, Rachida; Benyahia, Hamid; Rodi Kandri, Youssef; Ouazzani Chahdi, Fouad; Touzani, Hanan; Errachidi, Faouzi

    2016-01-01

    Orange (Citrus sinensis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradise) peels were used as a source of pectin, which was extracted under different conditions. The peels are used under two states: fresh and residual (after essential oil extraction). Organic acid (citric acid) and mineral acid (sulfuric acid) were used in the pectin extraction. The aim of this study is the evaluation the effect of extraction conditions on pectin yield, degree of esterification “DE” and on molecular weight “Mw”. Results showed that the pectin yield was higher using the residual peels. Moreover, both peels allow the obtainment of a high methoxyl pectin with DE >50%. The molecular weight was calculated using Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation which describes its relationship with intrinsic viscosity. This later was determined using four equations; Huggins equation, kramer, Schulz-Blaschke and Martin equation. The molecular weight varied from 1.538 x1005 to 2.47x1005 g/mol for grapefruit pectin and from 1.639 x1005 to 2.471 x1005 g/mol for orange pectin. PMID:27644093

  10. Optimizing oil and xanthorrhizol extraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. rhizome by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salea, Rinaldi; Widjojokusumo, Edward; Veriansyah, Bambang; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2014-09-01

    Oil and xanthorrhizol extraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. rhizome by supercritical carbon dioxide was optimized using Taguchi method. The factors considered were pressure, temperature, carbon dioxide flowrate and time at levels ranging between 10-25 MPa, 35-60 °C, 10-25 g/min and 60-240 min respectively. The highest oil yield (8.0 %) was achieved at factor combination of 15 MPa, 50 °C, 20 g/min and 180 min whereas the highest xanthorrhizol content (128.3 mg/g oil) in Curcuma xanthorrhiza oil was achieved at a factor combination of 25 MPa, 50 °C, 15 g/min and 60 min. Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane and percolation with ethanol gave oil yield of 5.88 %, 11.73 % and xanthorrhizol content of 42.6 mg/g oil, 75.5 mg/g oil, respectively. The experimental oil yield and xanthorrhizol content at optimum conditions agreed favourably with values predicted by computational process. The xanthorrizol content extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide was higher than extracted using Soxhlet extraction and percolation process.

  11. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  12. The investigation for attaining the optimal yield of oil shale by integrating high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.T.

    1984-03-01

    This work presents a systemanalytical investigation and shows how far a high temperature reactor can be integrated for achieving the optimal yield of kerogen from oil shale. About 1/3 of the produced components must be burnt out in order to have the required high temperature process heat. The works of IGT show that the hydrogen gasification of oil shale enables not only to reach oil shale of higher quality but also allows to achieve a higher extraction quantity. For this reason a hydro-gasification process has been calculated in this work in which not only hydrogen is used as the gasification medium but also two high temperature reactors are integrated as the source of high temperature heat. (orig.) [de

  13. Effects of irrigation regime and salinity on soil characteristics and yield of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Leogrande

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in Mediterranean conditions to evaluate the effects of different irrigation volumes and water quality on yield performance of tomato crop. The tomato crop was irrigated re-establishing 50 (I1, 75 (I2 and 100% (I3 of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc with two water quality: fresh water with EC 0.9 dS m-1 (FW and saline water with EC 6 dSm-1 (SW. At harvest, total and marketable yield, weight, number, , total soluble solids (TSS and dry matter of fruit were calculated, The results showed no statistical differences among the three different irrigation volumes on tomato yield and quality. The salinity treatment did not affect yield, probably because the soil salinity in the root zone on average remained below the threshold of tomato salt tolerance. Instead, salinity improved fruit quality parameters as dry matter and TSS by 13 and 8 %, respectively. After the first field application of saline water, soil saturated extract cations (SSEC, electrical conductivity of soil paste extract (ECe, sodium absorption ratio (SAR and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP cations increased; the largest increase of cations, in particular of Na, occurred in the top layer. At the end of the experiment, the absolute value of SSEC, ECe and SAR, for all the effects studied, were lower than those recorded in 2007. This behavior was suitable to the reduced volumes of treatments administered in 2009 in respect to the 2007. Furthermore, the higher total rainfall recorded in 2009 increased the leaching and downward movement of salts out of the sampling depth.

  14. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  15. Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Extremely-Late Sown Winter Wheat Cultivars under Two Irrigation Regimes in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available Wheat production is threatened by water shortages and groundwater over-draft in the North China Plain (NCP. In recent years, winter wheat has been increasingly sown extremely late in early to mid-November after harvesting cotton or pepper. To improve water use efficiency (WUE and guide the extremely late sowing practices, a 3-year field experiment was conducted under two irrigation regimes (W1, one-irrigation, 75 mm at jointing; W2, two-irrigation, 75 mm at jointing and 75 mm at anthesis in 3 cultivars differing in spike size (HS4399, small spike; JM22, medium spike; WM8, large spike. Wheat was sown in early to mid-November at a high seeding rate of 800-850 seeds m(-2. Average yields of 7.42 t ha(-1 and WUE of 1.84 kg m(-3 were achieved with an average seasonal evapotranspiration (ET of 404 mm. Compared with W2, wheat under W1 did not have yield penalty in 2 of 3 years, and had 7.9% lower seasonal ET and 7.5% higher WUE. The higher WUE and stable yield under W1 was associated with higher 1000-grain weight (TGW and harvest index (HI. Among the 3 cultivars, JM22 had 5.9%-8.9% higher yield and 4.2%-9.3% higher WUE than WM8 and HS4399. The higher yield in JM22 was attributed mainly to higher HI and TGW due to increased post-anthesis biomass and deeper seasonal soil water extraction. In conclusion, one-irrigation with a medium-sized spike cultivar JM22 could be a useful strategy to maintain yield and high WUE in extremely late-sown winter wheat at a high seeding rate in the NCP.

  16. Extraction of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, M.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear power generation is thought to be very important in Japan. However, known domestic uranium resources in Japan are very rare. So, extraction of uranium from sea water have been carried out since 1962 at Japan Tobacco and Salt Public Corporation. There are a number of results obtained also by Kyoto University, Shikoku Govenment Industrial Research Institute, Tokyo University and others. In order to investigate the technical and economical feasibility of extraction of uranium and other resources from sea water, a research program was started in fiscal 1975, sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry with the budget of about $440,000. In this program, the conceptional design of two types of model plants, the ''column type'' and the ''tidal type'' was drawn on the design bases set up with available information. It was found that there has been several problems waiting solution, but there were no technically fatal problems. Adsorption tests were carried out with adsorbents of more than eleven types, including titanium hydroxide, and it was found that titanium hydroxide made by titanyl surphate and urea had the largest adsorption capacity of uranium among them. Elution experiments were performed only with ammonium carbonate and the efficiency at the temperature of 60 0 C showed three times higher than that of 20 0 C. A few long term column operation was conducted, mainly with the adsorbent of granulated titanium hydroxide for 15-60 days. The maximum yield of uranium throughout the adsorption and elution operation was over 20% and macimum concentration of uranium in eluate was 7 ppm

  17. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on the extraction of coal in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Gaoqiang Wang [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2006-09-15

    The extraction of four Chinese different rank bituminous coals with the carbon disulfide/N-2-pyrrolidinone (CS2/NMP) mixed solvent (1:1 by volume) was carried out in room temperature. It was found that one of middle bituminous raw coal of the four coals gave more than 74% (daf) extraction yield, suggesting an associative structural model for the coal. The four coals were hydrothermal treated under different conditions, and it was found that the extraction yields of the treated coals obviously increased. This will have great significance for coal liquefaction. FTIR measurements show the removal of minerals after the hydrothermal treatment of coals suggesting the dissociation of the coal aggregation structure due to ionic interactions and/or hydrogen bonds broken because of the removal of oxygen and hydroxyl oxygen proceeded through ionic pathways, resulting in the extraction yields of the treated coals increase. However, breaking of {pi}-cation interactions by hydrothermal treatment may be one of possible mechanisms for the enhancement of extraction yield of higher rank of treated coal. The mechanism of hydrothermal treatment of coal was discussed in the paper. 28 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Seed Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida and Its Antioxidant Activity and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ganjloo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150–300 bar, temperature (40–50 °C and dynamic extraction time (60–120 min on crude extraction yield (CEY were studied through response surface methodology (RSM. The SC-CO2 extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9% as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE. It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO2 extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO2 extraction conditions.

  19. Optimisation of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical and Bioactive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasene Keskin Çavdar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate seed oil was extracted in a closed-vessel high-pressure microwave system. The characteristics of the obtained oil, such as fatty acid composition, free fatty acidity, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour, were compared to those of the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction. Response surface methodology was applied to optimise extraction conditions: power (176–300 W, time (5–20 min, particle size (d=0.125–0.800 mm and solvent to sample ratio (2:1, 6:1 and 10:1, by mass. The predicted highest extraction yield (35.19 % was obtained using microwave power of 220 W, particle size in the range of d=0.125–0.450 mm and solvent-to-sample ratio of 10:1 (by mass in 5 min extraction time. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE resulted in higher extraction yield than that of Soxhlet (34.70 % in 8 h or cold (17.50 % in 8 h extraction. The dominant fatty acid of pomegranate seed oil was punicic acid (86 % irrespective of the extraction method. Oil obtained by MASE had bett er physicochemical properties, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction.

  20. Optimisation of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seed Oil and Evaluation 
of Its Physicochemical and Bioactive Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavdar, Hasene Keskin; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Gök, Uğur; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2017-03-01

    Pomegranate seed oil was extracted in a closed-vessel high-pressure microwave system. The characteristics of the obtained oil, such as fatty acid composition, free fatty acidity, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour, were compared to those of the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction. Response surface methodology was applied to optimise extraction conditions: power (176-300 W), time (5-20 min), particle size ( d =0.125-0.800 mm) and solvent to sample ratio (2:1, 6:1 and 10:1, by mass). The predicted highest extraction yield (35.19%) was obtained using microwave power of 220 W, particle size in the range of d =0.125-0.450 mm and solvent-to-sample ratio of 10:1 (by mass) in 5 min extraction time. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) resulted in higher extraction yield than that of Soxhlet (34.70% in 8 h) or cold (17.50% in 8 h) extraction. The dominant fatty acid of pomegranate seed oil was punicic acid (86%) irrespective of the extraction method. Oil obtained by MASE had better physicochemical properties, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction.

  1. An approach of ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction for two coumarins preparation from Cortex fraxini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zaizhi; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2015-10-23

    Ionic liquids/lithium salts solvent system was successfully introduced into the separation technique for the preparation of two coumarins (aesculin and aesculetin) from Cortex fraxini. Ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (ILSMP-UMSE) procedure was developed and optimized for the sufficient extraction of these two analytes. Several variables which can potentially influence the extraction yields, including pretreatment time and temperature, [C4mim]Br concentration, LiAc content, ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (UMSE) time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. Among seven variables, UMSE time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were the statistically significant variables and these three factors were further optimized by Box-Behnken design to predict optimal extraction conditions and find out operability ranges with maximum extraction yields. Under optimum operating conditions, ILSMP-UMSE showed higher extraction yields of two target compounds than those obtained by reference extraction solvents. Method validation studies also evidenced that ILSMP-UMSE is credible for the preparation of two coumarins from Cortex fraxini. This study is indicative of the proposed procedure that has huge application prospects for the preparation of natural products from plant materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biochar boosts tropical but not temperate crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Simon; Abalos, Diego; Prodana, Marija; Catarina Bastos, Ana; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Hungate, Bruce A.; Verheijen, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Applying biochar to soil is thought to have multiple benefits, from helping mitigate climate change [1, 2], to managing waste [3] to conserving soil [4]. Biochar is also widely assumed to boost crop yield [5, 6], but there is controversy regarding the extent and cause of any yield benefit [7]. Here we use a global-scale meta-analysis to show that biochar has, on average, no effect on crop yield in temperate latitudes, yet elicits a 25% average increase in yield in the tropics. In the tropics, biochar increased yield through liming and fertilization, consistent with the low soil pH, low fertility, and low fertilizer inputs typical of arable tropical soils. We also found that, in tropical soils, high-nutrient biochar inputs stimulated yield substantially more than low-nutrient biochar, further supporting the role of nutrient fertilization in the observed yield stimulation. In contrast, arable soils in temperate regions are moderate in pH, higher in fertility, and generally receive higher fertilizer inputs, leaving little room for additional benefits from biochar. Our findings demonstrate that the yield-stimulating effects of biochar are not universal, but may especially benefit agriculture in low-nutrient, acidic soils in the tropics. Biochar management in temperate zones should focus on potential non-yield benefits such as lime and fertilizer cost savings, greenhouse gas emissions control, and other ecosystem services.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted by SC-CO₂ from Seeds of Trachyspermum ammi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aarti; Ahmad, Anees

    2017-07-11

    Bcakground: Extracts obtained from natural sources such as plants are of immense importance for humans. Methods: Therefore this study was conducted to obtain essential oil from the seeds of T. ammi by conventional and non-conventional methods. Hydrodistillation (HD), Solvent Extraction (SE), Ultrasonication (US), and Supercritical Carbon-dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction techniques were used to extract essential oil from the powdered seeds of T. ammi . A quality control method for each extracted oil was developed using HPTLC, FTIR, and GC-MS. The optimization process was carried out using fractional factorial design (FFD) under which three parameters were considered: pressure (150, 175, and 300 bar), temperature (25, 30, and 40 °C), and CO₂ flow rate (5, 10, 15 g/min). Results: The yield of essential oil obtained from the HD, SE, US, and SC-CO₂ methods were 1.20%, 1.82%, 2.30%, and 2.64% v/w , respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods and the IC 50 (Inhibition Concentration) values of the T. ammi oil sample were found to be 36.41 and 20.55 µg mL -1 , respectively. Conclusion: The present paper reported that different extraction methods lead to different yields of essential oils and the choice of a suitable method is extremely important to obtain more preferred compounds. The yield was higher in the SC-CO₂ method and it is a sustainable and green extraction technique. Many important constituents were detected in analytical techniques. Antioxidant activities carried out showed that essential oil extracted from T. ammi seeds possess significant antioxidant activity.

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted by SC-CO2 from Seeds of Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bcakground: Extracts obtained from natural sources such as plants are of immense importance for humans. Methods: Therefore this study was conducted to obtain essential oil from the seeds of T. ammi by conventional and non-conventional methods. Hydrodistillation (HD, Solvent Extraction (SE, Ultrasonication (US, and Supercritical Carbon-dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction techniques were used to extract essential oil from the powdered seeds of T. ammi. A quality control method for each extracted oil was developed using HPTLC, FTIR, and GC-MS. The optimization process was carried out using fractional factorial design (FFD under which three parameters were considered: pressure (150, 175, and 300 bar, temperature (25, 30, and 40 °C, and CO2 flow rate (5, 10, 15 g/min. Results: The yield of essential oil obtained from the HD, SE, US, and SC-CO2 methods were 1.20%, 1.82%, 2.30%, and 2.64% v/w, respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods and the IC50 (Inhibition Concentration values of the T. ammi oil sample were found to be 36.41 and 20.55 µg mL−1, respectively. Conclusion: The present paper reported that different extraction methods lead to different yields of essential oils and the choice of a suitable method is extremely important to obtain more preferred compounds. The yield was higher in the SC-CO2 method and it is a sustainable and green extraction technique. Many important constituents were detected in analytical techniques. Antioxidant activities carried out showed that essential oil extracted from T. ammi seeds possess significant antioxidant activity.

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted by SC-CO2 from Seeds of Trachyspermum ammi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aarti; Ahmad, Anees

    2017-01-01

    Bcakground: Extracts obtained from natural sources such as plants are of immense importance for humans. Methods: Therefore this study was conducted to obtain essential oil from the seeds of T. ammi by conventional and non-conventional methods. Hydrodistillation (HD), Solvent Extraction (SE), Ultrasonication (US), and Supercritical Carbon-dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction techniques were used to extract essential oil from the powdered seeds of T. ammi. A quality control method for each extracted oil was developed using HPTLC, FTIR, and GC-MS. The optimization process was carried out using fractional factorial design (FFD) under which three parameters were considered: pressure (150, 175, and 300 bar), temperature (25, 30, and 40 °C), and CO2 flow rate (5, 10, 15 g/min). Results: The yield of essential oil obtained from the HD, SE, US, and SC-CO2 methods were 1.20%, 1.82%, 2.30%, and 2.64% v/w, respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods and the IC50 (Inhibition Concentration) values of the T. ammi oil sample were found to be 36.41 and 20.55 µg mL−1, respectively. Conclusion: The present paper reported that different extraction methods lead to different yields of essential oils and the choice of a suitable method is extremely important to obtain more preferred compounds. The yield was higher in the SC-CO2 method and it is a sustainable and green extraction technique. Many important constituents were detected in analytical techniques. Antioxidant activities carried out showed that essential oil extracted from T. ammi seeds possess significant antioxidant activity. PMID:28930268

  6. DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Jany, Klaus Dieter

    2011-06-15

    The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels (without treatment), maize flour (mechanical treatment), canned maize (sweet corn), frozen maize (sweet corn), maize starch, extruded maize, popcorn, corn flacks, maize snacks, and bread made from corn flour (mechanical and thermal treatments). The quality and quantity of the DNA extracted from the standards, containing known percentages of GMO material and from the different food products were evaluated. For qualitative detection of the GMO varieties in foods, the GMOScreen 35S/NOS test kit was used, to screen the genetic modification in the samples. The positive samples for the 35S promoter and/or the NOS terminator were identified by the standard methods adopted by EU. All of the used methods extracted yielded good DNA quality. However, we noted that the purest DNA extract were obtained using the DNA extraction kit (Roche) and this generally was the best method for extracting DNA from most of the maize-derived foods. We have noted that the yield of DNA extracted from maize-derived foods was generally lower in the processed products. The results indicated that 17 samples were positive for the presence of 35S promoter, while 34% from the samples were positive for the genetically modified maize line Bt-176. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction of plutonium(IV) by diglycolamide extractants in room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, Dattaprasad R.; Raut, Dhaval R.; Murali, Mallekav S.; Mohapatra, Prasanta K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.

    2017-06-01

    Extraction of Pu(IV) was investigated using solutions of two diglycolamide extractants viz., N,N,N{sup '},N{sup '}-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide (TODGA) and its branched homolog, N,N,N{sup '},N{sup '}-tetra(2-ethylhexyl) diglycolamide (T2EHDGA), dissolved in two imidazolium based room temperature ionic liquids viz., 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide ([C{sub 4}mim][NTf{sub 2}]) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide ([C{sub 8}mim][NTf{sub 2}]) from aqueous nitric acid medium. The extraction kinetics was found to be extremely slow which is reported for the first time for analogous extraction systems and took as long as 30 h to attain equilibrium D{sub Pu} values. In general, TODGA based solvents showed better extraction of Pu(IV) than the T2EHDGA based solvents, one order of magnitude higher, and though both the ionic liquids ultimately yielded comparable D{sub Pu} values, attainment of equilibrium was slower with [C{sub 4}mim][NTf{sub 2}]. The extracted species conformed to 1:1 for TODGA in both the ionic liquids while a mixture of 1:1 and 1:2 species was observed for T2EHDGA at 1 M HNO{sub 3} which changed to 1:1 species at 4 M HNO{sub 3}. The extracted species is proposed to be (Pu(L){sub x}{sup 4+}){sub IL} (where, L is the extractant and x=1 or 2) at lower acidities suggesting a cation exchange mechanism which changes over to (Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} .L){sub IL} at 4 M HNO{sub 3} conforming to a solvation mechanism for all the systems except for T2EHDGA-[C{sub 8}mim][NTf{sub 2}]. UV-VIS spectroscopic studies were carried out to throw light on the nature of the extracted species.

  8. Cold alkaline extraction as a pretreatment for bioethanol production from eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Danila Morais de; Sevastyanova, Olena; Queiroz, José Humberto de; Colodette, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical approach to optimize the process of cold alkaline extraction. • Hemicelluloses and lignin removal from biomasses by cold alkaline extraction. • Higher xylan and lignin removal for straw during pretreatment. • Formation of pseudo-extractives for eucalyptus during pretreatment. • Higher ethanol production for pretreated sugarcane straw. - Abstract: Optimal conditions for the cold alkaline extraction (CAE) pretreatment of eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw are proposed in view of their subsequent bioconversion into ethanol through the semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) process (with presaccharification followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, or SSF). The optimum conditions, which are identified based on an experiment with a factorial central composite design, resulted in the removal of 46%, 52% and 61% of the xylan and 15%, 37% and 45% of the lignin for eucalyptus, bagasse and straw, respectively. The formation of pseudo-extractives was observed during the CAE of eucalyptus. Despite the similar glucose concentration and yield for all biomasses after 12 h of presaccharification, the highest yield (0.065 g_e_t_h_a_n_o_l/g_b_i_o_m_a_s_s), concentrations (5.74 g L"−"1) and volumetric productivity for ethanol (0.57 g L"−"1 h"−"1) were observed for the sugarcane straw. This finding was most likely related to the improved accessibility of cellulose that resulted from the removal of the largest amount of xylan and lignin.

  9. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Zaixiang; Wang Hongxin; Zhu Song; Chen Shangwei; Zhang Ming; Wang Zhouping

    2012-01-01

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid–liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8–17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5 h to 30 s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction of green coffee oil and quantification of diterpenes by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukui, A; Santos Júnior, H M; Oigman, S S; de Souza, R O M A; Bizzo, H R; Rezende, C M

    2014-12-01

    The microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of 13 different green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.) was compared to Soxhlet extraction for oil obtention. The full factorial design applied to the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), related to time and temperature parameters, allowed to develop a powerful fast and smooth methodology (10 min at 45°C) compared to a 4h Soxhlet extraction. The quantification of cafestol and kahweol diterpenes present in the coffee oil was monitored by HPLC/UV and showed satisfactory linearity (R(2)=0.9979), precision (CV 3.7%), recovery (yield calculated on the diterpenes content for sample AT1 (Arabica green coffee) showed a six times higher value compared to the traditional Soxhlet method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Separation and Purification of Sulforaphane from Broccoli by Solid Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Row

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the determination of sulforaphane in broccoli has been developed. The optimal conditions were found to be use of a silica SPE cartridge, and ethyl acetate and dichloromethane as washing and eluting solvents, respectively, which could eliminate interferences originating from the broccoli matrix. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.05 to 200 μg/mL (r = 0.998 for sulforaphane with the relative standard deviations less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of sulforaphane from broccoli were more than 90.8% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1 was 0.02 μg/mL. The SPE method provides a higher yield of sulforaphane from crude extracts compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction.

  12. Investigations on bark extracts of Picea abies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissmann, G

    1981-01-01

    Successive extraction of the bark with solvents of increasing polarity yielded about 60% of soluble material. The alcohol and water extracts contained principally simple polyphenols and their glycosides, tannins, mono-and disaccharides, soluble hemicelluloses and pectins. Hot water extracts are suitable for production of adhesives by reaction with formaldehyde, but their polyphenol content is only 50%. The polyphenols and their glycosides, and glucosides of hydroxystilbenes, were investigated in detail.

  13. Selectivity in extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants (LIX84 and D2E11PA) was described. Stechiometry of metal-organic complexes examined using the method of equimolar ratios resulted in CuR 2 and InR 3 forms of hydrophobic extracting species. A linear correlation was obtained between logarithm of distribution coefficients and chelate agents and pH, respectively. Selectivity is generally higher with higher concentrations of chelate agents in the organic phase, and is decreased with increase of concentration of hydrogen ions in feeding phase. (Original)

  14. Haertel's turbidity test and extraction of conifer needles by benzene as methods for the determination of smoke-induced damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materna, J; Hrncirova, L

    1960-01-01

    The applicability of the Haertel turbidity test to the assessment of smoke damage to conifers is based on the observation that needles from smoke damage to conifers is based on the observation that needles from smoke-damaged areas eliminate less wax than undamaged needles. Of the various organic solvent and extraction methods tested, best results were obtained by a half-hour extraction of the wax from the needle surface with cold benzene. The evaporation residue from this extraction method contained only traces of components from the inside of the needles; microscopic examination of the surface of the needles revealed that all wax was removed from the needle surface fissures. Comparison of wax quantities extracted from needles from smoke-damage areas with those from healthy needles and comparison of wax yields from areas which suffered different degrees of smoke damage confirmed that higher wax yields are obtained from healthy than from smoke-damaged needles. Comparison with results of turbidity tests disclosed that benzene extraction yields decreased with increasing turbidity test values, indicating that increased turbidity of smoke-damaged needles is not caused by wax. In the Haertel test extract, silicon, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, iron, nitrogenous substances, tannin, glycides, and waxes were found. It is as yet unresolved which substances contribute to increased turbidity from smoke damage.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Cratoxylum formosum ssp. formosum leaves using central composite design and evaluation of its protective ability against H2O2-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingngam, Bancha; Monschein, Marlene; Brantner, Adelheid

    2014-09-01

    To optimize the processing parameters for phenolic compounds extracted from Cratoxylum formosum ssp. formosum leaves using an ultrasound-assisted extraction and to evaluate its protective ability against H2O2-induced cell death. The influence of three independent variables including ethanol concentration (%), extraction temperature (°C) and extraction time (min) on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds were optimized using a central composite design-based response surface methodology. The obtained extract was assessed for its antioxidant activity by DPPH(•) and ABTS(•)(+) methods. Cellular protective ability against H2O2-induced cell death was evaluated on HEK293 cells using the MTT assay. The optimal conditions to achieve maximal yields of phenolic compounds were ethanol concentration of 50.33% (v/v), temperature of 65 °C, and extractiontion time of 15 min. The yield of phenolic compounds was (40.00±1.00) mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry powder which matched well with the values predicted from the proposed model. These conditions resulted in a higher efficiency concerning the extraction of phenolics compared to a conventional heat reflux extraction by providing shorter extraction time and reduced energy consumption. 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid identified by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electron spin ionization-mass spectrometry was the major compound in the obtained extract [(41.66±0.07) mg/g plant extract]. The obtained extract showed a strong ability to scavenge both DPPH(•) and ABTS(•)(+) free radicals and exhibited additionally good ability to protect HEK293 cells death against oxidative stress. These results indicate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Cratoxylum formosum ssp. formosum leaves. This phenolic-enriched extract can be used as valuable antioxidant source for health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Effect of coal extracted with NMP on its aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2005-05-01

    Tow-step extraction of Upper Freeport (UF) coal, i.e. exhaustive extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent and subsequent extraction with the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent (1:1 by volume) with or without additive was compared with the direct extraction of UF coal with the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent (1:1 by volume) with or without additive. It was found that there is almost no difference of extraction yields between the two-step extraction and direct extraction with or without additive. The result show that NMP can only give external extraction to extract the outside fractions of coal particles, and this will not cause the new aggregation formed in the coal molecules. The interactions between coal molecule and additive are responsible for the extraction yield enhancement by additive. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Empirical modeling of drying kinetics and microwave assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from Adathoda vasica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithvi Simha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To highlight the shortcomings in conventional methods of extraction, this study investigates the efficacy of Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE toward bioactive compound recovery from pharmaceutically-significant medicinal plants, Adathoda vasica and Cymbopogon citratus. Initially, the microwave (MW drying behavior of the plant leaves was investigated at different sample loadings, MW power and drying time. Kinetics was analyzed through empirical modeling of drying data against 10 conventional thin-layer drying equations that were further improvised through the incorporation of Arrhenius, exponential and linear-type expressions. 81 semi-empirical Midilli equations were derived and subjected to non-linear regression to arrive at the characteristic drying equations. Bioactive compounds recovery from the leaves was examined under various parameters through a comparative approach that studied MAE against Soxhlet extraction. MAE of A. vasica reported similar yields although drastic reduction in extraction time (210 s as against the average time of 10 h in the Soxhlet apparatus. Extract yield for MAE of C. citratus was higher than the conventional process with optimal parameters determined to be 20 g sample load, 1:20 sample/solvent ratio, extraction time of 150 s and 300 W output power. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy were performed to depict changes in internal leaf morphology.

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. T. Barroso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20 MPa at 323.15 K. The volatile compounds were obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction with moderate pressure (9 MPa, whereas the non-volatile compounds were extracted at higher pressure (12 to 20 MPa. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS and the main compounds identified were sabinene, limonene, D-germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. For the non-volatile extracts, the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Moreover, one of the goals of this study was to compare the experimental data with the simulated yields predicted by a mathematical model based on mass transfer. The model used requires three adjustable parameters to predict the experimental extraction yield curves.

  19. Supercritical extraction of lycopene from tomato industrial wastes with ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Beatriz P; Gouveia, Luisa; Matos, Patricia G S; Cristino, Ana F; Palavra, António F; Mendes, Rui L

    2012-07-11

    Supercritical fluid extraction of all-E-lycopene from tomato industrial wastes (mixture of skins and seeds) was carried out in a semi-continuous flow apparatus using ethane as supercritical solvent. The effect of pressure, temperature, feed particle size, solvent superficial velocity and matrix initial composition was evaluated. Moreover, the yield of the extraction was compared with that obtained with other supercritical solvents (supercritical CO₂ and a near critical mixture of ethane and propane). The recovery of all-E-lycopene increased with pressure, decreased with the increase of the particle size in the initial stages of the extraction and was not practically affected by the solvent superficial velocity. The effect of the temperature was more complex. When the temperature increased from 40 to 60 °C the recovery of all-E-lycopene increased from 80 to 90%. However, for a further increase to 80 °C, the recovery remained almost the same, indicating that some E-Z isomerization could have occurred, as well as some degradation of lycopene. The recovery of all-E-lycopene was almost the same for feed samples with different all-E-lycopene content. Furthermore, when a batch with a higher all-E-lycopene content was used, supercritical ethane and a near critical mixture of ethane and propane showed to be better solvents than supercritical CO₂ leading to a faster extraction with a higher recovery of the carotenoid.

  20. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Attributes of Five Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0087, and TIS 2532.OP.1.13) were evaluated for yield and agronomic performance in Imo State University Farm, Owerri. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications. The planting density was 33,000 ...

  1. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and yield component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ranged from 0 to -13% indicating that the hybrids tend to be earlier in maturity than the parents. The mean squares due to GCA for days to maturity, ear diameter, member of kernels per row, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield were significant, indicating the importance of additive genetic variance in controlling these traits.

  2. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  3. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water (at ... November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) laid out in a split ... Simple correlation coefficient ® of different crop parameters and grain yield ... The husk bran and germ are rich sources of ..... heat in 2009/2010 dry season at Fadam a ...

  4. Phycocyanin extraction in Spirulina produced using agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiqurrahmi, N.; Religia, P.; Mulyani, G.; Suryana, D.; Ichsan; Tanjung, F. A.; Arifin, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex synthesized by blue-green microalgae such as Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. This pigment is used mainly as natural colouring in food industry. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of this natural pigment. The price of phycocyanin is a vital factor that dictates its marketability. The cost of culturing the algae, particularly from the substrate used for growth, is one of the main factors that determine the price of phycocyanin. Another important factor is the growth yield of the algae. In our research, agricultural waste such as charcoal produced from rice husk was utilized for the algae cultivation to replace the synthetic chemicals such as urea and triple superphosphate used the mineral medium. The use of this low cost substrate increases the cell concentration by 60 % during 8 days’ cultivation to reach 0.39 g/l. The phycocyanin extraction was performed using water at the different biomass-to-solvent ratio and shaking rates. The phycocyanin concentration and purity (A615/A280) obtained were 1.2 g/l and 0.3. These values are 40 % and 20 % lower than the value obtained from the algae produced using the synthetic chemicals. Further purification produced the extract purity required for food grade. The biomass-solvent ratio does not significantly affect the extract purity; however, the higher shaking rate during extraction reduces the purity. This finding demonstrates the potential of using rice husk as an alternative substrate to cultivate algae for phycocyanin extraction.

  5. Prediction of winter wheat high yield from remote sensing based model: application in United States and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Roger, J. C.; Skakun, S.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and timely crop yield forecasts are critical for making informed agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. In Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) and Franch et al. (2015) we developed an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat yield. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season and the Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. These methods were applied to MODIS CMG data in Ukraine, the US and China with errors around 10%. However, the NDVI is saturated for yield values higher than 4 MT/ha. As a consequence, the model had to be re-calibrated in each country and the validation of the national yields showed low correlation coefficients. In this study we present a new model based on the extrapolation of the pure wheat signal (100% of wheat within the pixel) from MODIS data at 1km resolution and using the Difference Vegetation Index (DVI). The model has been applied to monitor the national yield of winter wheat in the United States and Ukraine from 2001 to 2016.

  6. Status of fission yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Extraction of hemicelluloses from wood in a pulp biorefinery, and subsequent fermentation into ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Jérémy; Chirat, Christine; Lachenal, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hemicellulosic ethanol from softwood hemicelluloses in a pulp mill. • Comparison of acid hydrolysis and autohydrolysis to extract hemicelluloses. • Effects of the extraction process conditions on inhibitors concentrations. • Effects of inhibitors on fermentation. - Abstract: This study deals with the production of ethanol and paper pulp in a kraft pulp mill. The use of an acid hydrolysis or a two-step treatment composed of an autohydrolysis followed by a secondary acid hydrolysis was studied. Acid hydrolysis allowed the extraction of higher quantities of sugars but led also to higher degradations of these sugars into inhibitors of fermentation. The direct fermentation of a hydrolysate resulting from an acid hydrolysis gave excellent yields after 24 h. However, the fermentation of hydrolysates after their concentration proved to be impossible. The study of the impact of the inhibitors on the fermentations showed that organic acids, and more specifically formic acid and acetic acid were greatly involved in the inhibition

  8. Effect of different tillage intensity on yields and yield-forming factors in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Houšť

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study on application of minimum tillage technologies when growing winter wheat. Experiments were performed in the sugar-beet-growing region with loamy chernozem within the period of 2005–2009. Aanalysed and evaluated were effects of different methods of soil processing on yield-forming factors in stands of winter wheat grown after three different preceding crops (i.e. alfalfa, maize for silage and pea. Evaluated were the following four variants of tillage: (1 conventional ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1; (2 ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 2; (3 direct sowing into the untilled soil (Variant 3, and (4 shallow tillage to the depth of 0.10 m (Variant 4.The effect of different tillage intensity on winter wheat yields was statistically non-significant after all forecrops. After alfalfa, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded in Variant 2 (i.e. with ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m and Variant 3 (direct sowing into the untilled soil, respectively. After maize grown for silage, higher yields were obtained in Variant 2 and Variant 1 (conventional ploughing while in Variants 4 and 3 the obtained yields were lower. When growing winter wheat after pea as a preceding crop, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded after direct sowing (Variant 3 and in Variant 1 (i.e. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m, respectively. Results of studies on effect of different tillage technologies on yields of winter wheat crops indicate that under the given pedological and climatic conditions it is possible to apply methods of reduced tillage intensity. However, the choice of the corresponding technology must be performed with regard to the type of preceding crop.

  9. nduced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four sub-fractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Sub-fractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity guided subfraction isolated from total methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. leaves on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four subfractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Subfractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level in the blood were checked. Results: Sub-fraction D showed significant reduction (P<0.05 among four sub-fraction in comparison with standard drug fenofibrate. Conclusions: From the above study it could be concluded that butanol sub-fraction D of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. not only have resulted in significant reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level but also increases the HDL level at a reduced dose level.

  10. Comparing predicted yield and yield stability of willow and Miscanthus across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren; Jaiswal, Deepak; Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    2016-01-01

    was 12.1 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for willow and 10.2 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for Miscanthus. Coefficent of variation as a measure for yield stability was poorest on the sandy soils of northern and western Jutland and the year-to-year variation in yield was greatest on these soils. Willow was predicted to outyield...... Miscanthus on poor, sandy soils whereas Miscanthus was higher yielding on clay-rich soils. The major driver of yield in both crops was variation in soil moisture, with radiation and precipitation exerting less influence. This is the first time these two major feedstocks for northern Europe have been compared....... The semi-mechanistic crop model BioCro was used to simulate the production of both short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and Miscanthus across Denmark. Predictions were made from high spatial resolution soil data and weather records across this area for 1990-2010. The potential average, rain-fed mean yield...

  11. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  12. Resource Extraction in a Political Economy Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszka, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    We analyze resource extraction in a political economy setting by introducing a political leader who optimizes both his own and the society's welfare function. We find that accounting for the private utility of a political elite, its higher discount rate and a different time horizon generally speeds up extraction. The higher than optimal resource extraction is not only relevant in welfare terms, but also regarding possible consequences with respect to climate change. The effect of higher extra...

  13. Use of ethyl lactate to extract bioactive compounds from Cytisus scoparius: Comparison of pressurized liquid extraction and medium scale ambient temperature systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lores, Marta; Pájaro, Marta; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge; García-Jares, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    An important trend in the extraction of chemical compounds is the application of new environmentally friendly, food grade solvents. Ethyl lactate (ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate), produced by fermentation of carbohydrates, is miscible with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds being a potentially good solvent for bioactive compounds. Despite its relatively wide use as a general solvent, the utilization of ethyl lactate as an extraction solvent has only recently been considered. Here, we evaluate the possible use of ethyl lactate to extract phenolic compounds from wild plants belonging to Cytisus scoparius, and we compare the characteristics of the extracts obtained by Pressurized Solvent Extraction (the total phenolics content, the antioxidant activity and the concentration of the major polyphenols) with those of other extracts obtained with methanol. In order to explore the industrial production of the ethyl lactate Cytisus extract, we also evaluate medium scale ambient temperature setups. The whole plant and the different parts (flowers, branches, and seed pods) were evaluated separately as potential sources of polyphenols. All extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for accurate identification of the major polyphenols. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained when using ethyl lactate or methanol. The main bioactives found in the Cytisus extract were the non-flavonoid phenolic compounds caffeic and protocatechuic acids and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; the flavonoids rutin, kaempferol and quercetin; the flavones chrysin, orientin and apigenin; and the alkaloid lupanine. Regarding the comparison of the extraction systems, although the performance of the PLE was much better than that of the ambient-temperature columns, the energy consumption was also much higher. Ethyl lactate has resulted an efficient extraction solvent for polyphenols from C. scoparius, yielding extracts with high levels of plant phenolics and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of these

  14. Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaheed, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Galip, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    In this research, ethanol production from carob pod extract (extract) using Zymomonas mobilis with medium optimized by Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodologies (RSM) was studied. Z. mobilis was recognized as useful for ethanol production from carob pod extract. The effects of initial concentrations of sugar, peptone, and yeast extract as well as agitation rate (rpm), pH, and culture time in nonhydrolyzed carob pod extract were investigated. Significantly affecting variables (P = 0.05) in the model obtained from RSM studies were: weights of bacterial inoculum, initial sugar, peptone, and yeast extract. Acid hydrolysis was useful to complete conversion of sugars to glucose and fructose. Nonhydrolyzed extract showed higher ethanol yield and residual sugar compared with hydrolyzed extract. Ethanol produced (g g(-1) initial sugar, as the response) was not significantly different (P = 0.05) when Z. mobilis performance was compared in hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed extract. The maximum ethanol of 0.34 ± 0.02 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained at 30°C, initial pH 5.2, and 80 rpm, using concentrations (g per 50 mL culture media) of: inoculum bacterial dry weight, 0.017; initial sugar, 5.78; peptone, 0.43; yeast extract, 0.43; and culture time of 36 h.

  15. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  16. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  17. Breeding high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.E.; Wanjari, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    The present communication emphasis the developing of high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutation with disease resistance in these crops. This would help in stabilisation of the higher yield potential

  18. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun K.; Rajkumar, Vincent; Nanda, Pramod K.; Chauhan, Pranav; Pradhan, Soubhagya R.; Biswas, Subhasish

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration) in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm). The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05) total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05) throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability. PMID:27213457

  19. Adaptation Method Bligh & Dyer a Lipid Extraction of Colomb ian Microalgas Biodiesel Production for Third Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Delgado Ángel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the biodiesel production process from microalgae, the cell disruption and lipid extraction stages are important for obtaining triglycerides that can be transesterified to biodiesel and glycerol. In this work, the Bligh & Dyer method was adapted for lipid extraction from native microalgae using organosolv pretreatment or acid hydrolysis as cell disruption mechanism for improve the extraction process. Chloroform-methanol-water are the solvents employed in the Bligh & Dyer extraction method. The microalgae species Botryococcus braunii, Nannocloropsis, Closterium, Guinardia y Amphiprora were employed for the experimental part. Adaptation of the method was found the best extraction conditions, these were: 1:20 biomass/solvent ratio, initial ratio solvents CHCl3:CH3OH:H2O (1:2:0, stirring conditions of 5000 rpm for 14 minutes and centrifuge of 3400 rpm for 15 minutes. The cell disruption mechanisms allowed to obtain extracts with high lipid content after performing the extraction with Bligh & Dyer method, but decreases significantly the total extraction yield. Finally, the fatty acids profiles showed that Botryococcus braunii specie contains higher acylglycerol percentage area suitable for the production of biodiesel.

  20. Subcritical water extraction of phenolic and antioxidant constituents from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erşan, Sevcan; Güçlü Üstündağ, Özlem; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2018-07-01

    Pistachio hulls, important by-products of pistachio processing, were extracted using an environmentally friendly process with subcritical water (SCW) at a pressure of 6.9 MPa in the range of 110 and 190 °C, and a flow rate of 4 ml/min. Detailed HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n analyses allowed the identification of 49 phenolic compounds in the SCW extracts. Total gallotannin yields up to 33 g/kg were reached at 150-170 °C, where gallic acid (22.2 g/kg) and penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (9.77 g/kg) levels were 13.2- and 10.6-fold higher than those in the aqueous methanol extracts. Flavonols were also effectively extracted at 110-150 °C (4.37-5.65 g/kg), while anacardic acid recovery was poor (1.13-2.77 g/kg). Accordingly, high amounts of anacardic acids (up to 50.7 g/kg) were retained in the extraction residue, revealing that SCW extraction allowed selective extraction of gallotannins and flavonols. Antioxidant capacities ranged from 0.68 to 1.20 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g for SCW extracts increasing with temperature up 190 °C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Das

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm. The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05 total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05 throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability.

  2. Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional extraction of mangiferin from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tangbin; Wu, Hongfu; Li, Huawen; Jia, Qing; Song, Gang

    2013-10-01

    Mangiferin is the main bioactive component in mango leaves, which possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and antitumor activities. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, microwave power, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 45% ethanol, liquid-to-solid ratio of 30:1 (mL/g), and extraction time of 123 s under microwave irradiation of 474 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 36.10 ± 0.72 mg/g, significantly higher than that of conventional extraction. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of mango leaves and also indicate that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting mangiferin from plant materials. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Preparation of Orthosiphon stamineus enriched-extracts and evaluation of their free radical scavenging activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Che Nurul Ain Nadirah Che; Latip, Jalifah; Markom, Masturah

    2016-11-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus is one of the important herbal plants used in folk medicine to cure variety of diseases. Three compounds namely rosmarinic acid (RA), sinensetin (SEN) and eupatorin (EUP) were identified as the bioactive markers. However, a standardized extraction method for the preparation of O. stamineus extract enriched with the bioactive compounds was still undiscovered. Thus, this study aims to establish the optimal extraction method that can be used to prepare the enriched extract with anti-oxidant property. Maceration, reflux and Soxhlet were the extraction methods employed, with ethanol, 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol and water were chosen as the solvents. Each extracts were evaluated for their biomarker contents (RA, SEN and EUP) and anti-oxidant capacity using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay respectively. Among the three extraction methods employed, the highest total extraction yield was obtained from reflux (72.73%) followed by Soxhlet (62.51%) and maceration (37.78%). Although all extracts found to contain the three biomarkers via TLC visualization analysis, there was variation in the extracts' anti-oxidant capacity, ranging from 6.17% to 72.97%. The variation was expected to be due to the difference in the quantity of the biomarkers in each extract. Furthermore, the anti-oxidative potency of the RA was found comparable to natural anti-oxidant vitamin C, and higher than the synthetic anti-oxidant butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). These preliminary results may serve as a starting point towards the preparation of standardized bioactive O. stamineus extract.

  4. Partitioning of minor actinides from HLLW using the DIAMEX process. Pt. 1. Demonstration of extraction performances and hydraulic behaviour of the solvent in a continuous process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courson, O.; Lebrun, M.; Malmbeck, R.; Pagliosa, G.; Roemer, K.; Saetmark, B.; Glatz, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The French DIAMEX process shows very promising capabilities in separating minor actinides from HLLW. A counter-current centrifugal extractor experiment has been conducted to investigate the capabilities and possibilities of the DIAMEX process (hydraulic and extraction behaviour), for the separation of lanthanides from a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW), corresponding in concentration to a raffinate from the PUREX process. A ''hot'' batch test, using genuine HLLW, and a continuous counter-current experiment have verified the excellent extraction and hydraulic behaviour, respectively. With only four extraction stages in the cold experiment, lanthanide decontamination factors were higher than 2000, except for europium. Co-extraction of molybdenum and zirconium was efficiently prevented using oxalic acid in the feed solution. The back-extraction was very efficient, yielding in 4 stages more than 99% recovery of lanthanides. Palladium and ruthenium were more difficult to back-extract and for these elements further investigations are needed. (orig.)

  5. Vulnerability of Maize Yields to Droughts in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Epule Epule

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.

  6. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  7. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  8. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  9. Antioxidant Potential of Extracts Obtained from Macro- (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata and Micro-Algae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis Assisted by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Agregán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural antioxidants, which can replace synthetic ones due to their potential implications for health problems in children, have gained significant popularity. Therefore, the antioxidant potential of extracts obtained from three brown macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata and two microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using ultrasound-extraction as an innovative and green approach was evaluated. Methods: Algal extracts were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction using water/ethanol (50:50, v:v as the extraction solvent. The different extracts were compared based on their antioxidant potential, measuring the extraction yield, the total phenolic content (TPC and the antioxidant activity. Results: Extracts from Ascophyllum nodosum (AN and Bifurcaria bifurcata (BB showed the highest antioxidant potential compared to the rest of the samples. In particular, BB extract presented the highest extraction (35.85 g extract/100 g dry weight (DW and total phenolic compounds (TPC (5.74 g phloroglucinol equivalents (PGE/100 g DW yields. Regarding the antioxidant activity, macroalgae showed again higher values than microalgae. BB extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the ORAC, DPPH and FRAP assays, with 556.20, 144.65 and 66.50 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, respectively. In addition, a correlation among the antioxidant activity and the TPC was noted. Conclusions: Within the obtained extracts, macroalgae, and in particular BB, are more suitable to be used as sources of phenolic antioxidants to be included in products for human consumption. The relatively low antioxidant potential, in terms of polyphenols, of the microalgae extracts studied in the present work makes them useless for possible industrial applications compared to macroalgae, although further in vivo studies evaluating the real impact of antioxidants from both macro- and micro-algae at the cellular level should be

  10. Extraction of gelatin from salmon (Salmo salar) fish skin using trypsin-aided process: optimization by Plackett-Burman and response surface methodological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, HuiYin; Dumont, Marie-Josée; Simpson, Benjamin K

    2017-11-01

    Gelatin from salmon ( Salmo salar ) skin with high molecular weight protein chains ( α -chains) was extracted using trypsin-aided process. Response surface methodology was used to optimise the extraction parameters. Yield, hydroxyproline content and protein electrophoretic profile via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of gelatin were used as responses in the optimization study. The optimum conditions were determined as: trypsin concentration at 1.49 U/g; extraction temperature at 45 °C; and extraction time at 6 h 16 min. This response surface optimized model was significant and produced an experimental value (202.04 ± 8.64%) in good agreement with the predicted value (204.19%). Twofold higher yields of gelatin with high molecular weight protein chains were achieved in the optimized process with trypsin treatment when compared to the process without trypsin.

  11. Extraction and quantification of polyphenols from kinnow (Citrus reticulate L. peel using ultrasound and maceration techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad N. Safdar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to extract polyphenols from the peel of kinnow (Citrus reticulate L. by maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE techniques. The antioxidant potential of these polyphenols was evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and superoxide radical scavenging assays; and their antimicrobial activity was assessed against bacterial strains Staphyloccoccus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium. The highest extraction yield was obtained through the solvent ethanol at 80% concentration level, whereas UAE was a more efficient technique and yielded comparatively higher polyphenol contents than maceration. Maximum polyphenols were extracted with 80% methanol [32.48 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract] using UAE, whereas minimum phenolics (8.64 mg GAE/g extract were obtained with 80% ethyl acetate through the maceration technique. Elevated antioxidant activity of kinnow peel extracts was exhibited in three antioxidant assays, where 80% methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity (27.67±1.11mM/100 g for FRAP and the highest scavenging activity, 72.83±0.65% and 64.80±0.91% for DPPH and superoxide anion radical assays, respectively. Strong correlations between total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were recorded. Eleven phenolic compounds—including five phenolic acids and six flavonoids—were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Ferulic acid and hesperidin were the most abundant compounds whereas caffeic acid was the least abundant phenolic compound in kinnow peel extracts. Maximum inhibition zone was recorded against S. aureus (16.00±0.58 mm whereas minimum inhibition zone was noted against S. typhimurium (9.00±1.16 mm. It was concluded that kinnow mandarin peels, being a potential source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, may be used as an ingredient for

  12. Simple, rapid and cost-effective method for high quality nucleic acids extraction from different strains of Botryococcus braunii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hyuk Kim

    Full Text Available This study deals with an effective nucleic acids extraction method from various strains of Botryococcus braunii which possesses an extensive extracellular matrix. A method combining freeze/thaw and bead-beating with heterogeneous diameter of silica/zirconia beads was optimized to isolate DNA and RNA from microalgae, especially from B. braunii. Eukaryotic Microalgal Nucleic Acids Extraction (EMNE method developed in this study showed at least 300 times higher DNA yield in all strains of B. braunii with high integrity and 50 times reduced working volume compared to commercially available DNA extraction kits. High quality RNA was also extracted using this method and more than two times the yield compared to existing methods. Real-time experiments confirmed the quality and quantity of the input DNA and RNA extracted using EMNE method. The method was also applied to other eukaryotic microalgae, such as diatoms, Chlamydomonas sp., Chlorella sp., and Scenedesmus sp. resulting in higher efficiencies. Cost-effectiveness analysis of DNA extraction by various methods revealed that EMNE method was superior to commercial kits and other reported methods by >15%. This method would immensely contribute to area of microalgal genomics.

  13. Forage yield and quality response of annual ryegrass ( Lolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry matter (DM) content, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) were higher in the treatments being irrigated once every two weeks. These results conclude that higher irrigation coupled with high N application significantly improved the dry matter yield, while water ...

  14. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit yield obtained with Ogbomoso local was 45 and 56% higher than what was obtained for Roma VF and Califonia wonder, respectively. In terms of vitamin C content, Roma VF fertilized with 50% NPK + 50% TC gave the highest value which is 23 to 67% higher than values obtained from the other treatment combinations.

  15. Lower bound limit analysis of slabs with nonlinear yield criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars

    2002-01-01

    A finite element formulation of the limit analysis of perfectly plastic slabs is given. An element with linear moment fields for which equilibrium is satisfied exactly is used in connection with an optimization algorithm taking into account the full nonlinearity of the yield criteria. Both load...... and material optimization problems are formulated and by means of the duality theory of linear programming the displacements are extracted from the dual variables. Numerical examples demonstrating the capabilities of the method and the effects of using a more refined representation of the yield criteria...

  16. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  17. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  18. Signal yields of keV electronic recoils and their discrimination from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; di Gangi, P.; di Giovanni, A.; Diglio, S.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grandi, L.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Howlett, J.; Itay, R.; Kaminsky, B.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lombardi, F.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Mahlstedt, J.; Manfredini, A.; Maris, I.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Masson, D.; Mayani, D.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Molinario, A.; Morâ, K.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Pizzella, V.; Piro, M.-C.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Ramírez García, D.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rupp, N.; Saldanha, R.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Shockley, E.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Sivers, M. V.; Stein, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Vargas, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Xenon Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    We report on the response of liquid xenon to low energy electronic recoils below 15 keV from beta decays of tritium at drift fields of 92 V /cm , 154 V /cm and 366 V /cm using the XENON100 detector. A data-to-simulation fitting method based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used to extract the photon yields and recombination fluctuations from the experimental data. The photon yields measured at the two lower fields are in agreement with those from literature; additional measurements at a higher field of 366 V /cm are presented. The electronic and nuclear recoil discrimination as well as its dependence on the drift field and photon detection efficiency are investigated at these low energies. The results provide new measurements in the energy region of interest for dark matter searches using liquid xenon.

  19. Geoelectrical parameter-based multivariate regression borehole yield model for predicting aquifer yield in managing groundwater resource sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Anthony Mogaji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a GIS-based multivariate regression (MVR yield rate prediction model of groundwater resource sustainability in the hard-rock geology terrain of southwestern Nigeria. This model can economically manage the aquifer yield rate potential predictions that are often overlooked in groundwater resources development. The proposed model relates the borehole yield rate inventory of the area to geoelectrically derived parameters. Three sets of borehole yield rate conditioning geoelectrically derived parameters—aquifer unit resistivity (ρ, aquifer unit thickness (D and coefficient of anisotropy (λ—were determined from the acquired and interpreted geophysical data. The extracted borehole yield rate values and the geoelectrically derived parameter values were regressed to develop the MVR relationship model by applying linear regression and GIS techniques. The sensitivity analysis results of the MVR model evaluated at P ⩽ 0.05 for the predictors ρ, D and λ provided values of 2.68 × 10−05, 2 × 10−02 and 2.09 × 10−06, respectively. The accuracy and predictive power tests conducted on the MVR model using the Theil inequality coefficient measurement approach, coupled with the sensitivity analysis results, confirmed the model yield rate estimation and prediction capability. The MVR borehole yield prediction model estimates were processed in a GIS environment to model an aquifer yield potential prediction map of the area. The information on the prediction map can serve as a scientific basis for predicting aquifer yield potential rates relevant in groundwater resources sustainability management. The developed MVR borehole yield rate prediction mode provides a good alternative to other methods used for this purpose.

  20. EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM PETAI LEAVES (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK. USING MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND ASSISTED METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buanasari Buanasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant has an activity to neutralize free radical compound that the body needs to avoid damage cells and tissues. Phenolic is one of the compounds that have an antioxidant activity. The influences of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE conditions on phenolic compounds of Parkia speciosa Hassk. leaves were investigated. The effects of temperature (40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, time (10, 30 and 50 minutes and material-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:13, 1:15 were evaluated based on the yield, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity. The result showed that the highest yield (15.82% was obtained at 1:15 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 50°C of temperature and 50 minutes of extraction time for MAE. The highest yield of UAE is 15.53% that sample was obtained at 1:13 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 60°C of optimal temperature and 30 minutes extraction time. The highest IC50 of UAE method extract was 52.55 ppm, while the extract obtained using MAE method was 50.44 ppm. UAE is more stable at higher temperatures. Time and solvent which was used more efficient than MAE. Extract of petai leaves (Parkia speciosa Hassk. were very potential to be used as a source of natural antioxidants because they have IC50 values from 41.39 to 66.00 ppm. Its antioxidants capacity is ranged from strong to very strong capacity.

  1. Ionic liquids-lithium salts pretreatment followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and vitexin from Phyllostachys edulis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kexin; Chen, Fengli; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-29

    An efficient method for the extraction of vitexin, vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside from Phyllostachys edulis leaves comprises heat treatment using an ionic liquid-lithium salt mixture (using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as the solvent and lithium chloride as the additive), followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction. To obtain higher extraction yields, the effects of the relevant experimental parameters (including heat treatment temperature and time, relative amounts of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and lithium chloride, power and time of the ultrasound irradiation, and the liquid-solid ratio) are evaluated and response surface methodology is used to optimize the significant factors. The morphologies of the treated and untreated P. edulis leaves are studied by scanning electron microscopy. The improved extraction method proposed provides high extraction yield, good repeatability and precision, and has wide potential applications in the analysis of plant samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Plant Density on Sweet and Baby Corn (Hybrid KSC 403 Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bavi

    2016-07-01

    GlM procedure. Means of all treatments were comprised using least significant difference (LSD at 5 % probability level. Results and Discussion The effects of plant density on yield components of baby corn was significant. Increasing the plant densities increased the ear number and percentage of non-standard ears. The Highest yield of ear without husk, standard and non-standard were obtained (2649.5, 766.97, and 3043.9 kg.ha-1, respectively with 13 plants.m-2. In sweet corn, increasing plant density from 7 to 13 plants.m-2, decreased row per ear, grain per row and thousand grain weight. Highest grain yield (1232.5 kg ha-1 and green ear (12607.2 kg ha-1 of sweet corn were obtained with plant density of 9.m-2. Conclusions Analysis of correlation showed that in both baby and sweet corn, there were positive and significant correlations between yield and its components. There was the high number of non-standard ears in all experimental treatments. In sweet corn, the standard ear without husk yield has positive and significant correlation with all traits except the percentage of standard ear and sheathed ear weight. In addition, unsuitable climate conditions during silking stage reduced the yield of sweet corn through the high number of aborted florets. Yield of sweet corn yield showed negative and significant correlation with grain row per ear and grain per row. However, increasing the ear number.m-2 increased yield in higher plant densities up to 9 plant.m-2 density. Generally, the baby corn had high yield with good quality in this region, but, standard ear percent of the baby corn of the hybrid KSC 403 was very low. On the other hand, sweet corn grain yield was low due to high air temperatures during pollination and maturity stages.

  3. Métodos de extração e qualidade da fração lipídica de matérias-primas de origem vegetal e animal Extraction methods and quality of the lipid fraction of vegetable and animal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aelson Aloir Santana Brum

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies of extraction of lipids from chicken breast and oats flakes were evaluated: Soxhlet, Folch et al., Bligh & Dyer and Hara & Radin. For chicken breast, the methods Soxhlet, Folch et al. and Bligh & Dyer presented the highest yields in total lipids. With oat flakes, the methods Soxhlet and Bligh & Dyer presented higher yields than the Hara & Radin and Folch et al. The Soxhlet method affected the quality of the lipid fraction in both samples. Extracted lipid components were separated by thin layer chromatography, the chloroform-methanol based was more efficient to extract the neutral and polar lipids.

  4. Optimization of Ultrasound Extraction of Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus indica Seed Oil Based on Antioxidant Activity and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Ortega-Ortega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the optimal ultrasound conditions (amplitude level and time for the extraction of cactus pear seed oil with the highest antioxidant activity using a closed system. Seed oil was analyzed for yield, antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH, and antimicrobial activity. Conventional extraction methods were assessed for comparison. Amplitude level significantly affected antioxidant activity in linear terms (p < 0.0001 DPPH and p < 0.001 ABTS, resp. so, at lower amplitudes, the higher antioxidant activity was achieved. The optimum ultrasound extraction conditions were of 78% amplitude for 10 min and yielded antioxidant activity values of 66.25 mg AAE/100 g and 289 µmol TE/100 g for ABTS and DPPH, respectively. Compared with conventional extraction methods, ultrasound exhibited lower oil yield and antioxidant activity but had the potential to achieve comparable results if multiple ultrasound extractions are performed in the time needed by conventional methods. Seed oils showed similar antimicrobial activity despite the extraction method and were more effective against Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that ultrasound can be an alternative extraction method of seed oils from fruits such as cactus pear.

  5. Effects of moisture content in cigar tobacco on nicotine extraction. Similarity between soxhlet and focused open-vessel microwave-assisted techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lay-Keow; Hupé, Michel

    2003-09-05

    The effects of tobacco moisture on nicotine yield were investigated in this study. Soxhlet and microwave-assisted techniques were used to extract nicotine from cigar fillers of varying moisture contents (5-20%), using a polar (methanol) and a non-polar (isooctane) solvent. The extracts were analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector. For both extraction techniques, higher nicotine yields were consistently obtained with methanol than with isooctane from the same samples. Solubility of nicotine salts in methanol but not in isooctane is the major cause of this observation. Moreover, pronounced effects of the tobacco moisture content on extraction efficiency were observed with isooctane but not with methanol. For microwave assisted extraction (MAE) with isooctane, nicotine yield increased from 3 to 70% as the moisture level in tobacco was raised from 3 to 13%, and leveled off thereafter. Similar observations were made with Soxhlet extraction. While MAE results were rationalized by the known cell-rupture process, a mechanism based on the interaction between the solvents and the structural components of the plant cells has been proposed to account for the observations made with Soxhlet extraction.

  6. Unsymmetrical phosphate as extractant for the extraction of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaikwad, R.H.; Jayaram, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) was first used as an extractant in 1944, during Manhattan project for the separation of actinides and further explored by Warf in 1949 for the extraction of Ce(IV) from aqueous nitric acid. TBP was further used as an extractant in the Plutonium Uranium Recovery by Extraction (PUREX) process. To meet the stringent requirements of the nuclear industry TBP has been extensively investigated. In spite of its wide applicability, TBP suffers from various disadvantages such as high aqueous solubility, third phase formation, chemical and radiation degradation leading to the formation of undesired products. It also suffers from incomplete decontamination of the actinides from fission products. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems associated with TBP by way of using higher homologues of TBP such as Tri-iso amyl phosphate (TiAP), Tri-secondary butyl phosphate (TsBP), Tri amyl phosphate (TAP). It was found that in some cases the results were considerably better than those obtained with TBP for uranium/thorium extraction. The extraction of nitric acid by TBP and its higher homologues which are symmetrical are well documented. However, no solvent has emerged clearly superior than TBP. Here in we report the extraction of nitric acid with neutral unsymmetrical phosphates and study them as extractants for the extraction of nitric acid. Dibutyl secbutyl phosphate, dibutyl pentyl phosphate and dibutyl heptyl phosphate were synthesised for this purpose and the extraction of nitric acid was studied in n-dodecane. The results indicate that the substitution of one of the alkyl groups of the symmetrical phosphate adjacent to the phosphoryl (P=O) group of the phosphate does not have any pronounced effect on the extraction capacity of nitric acid. (author)

  7. Alternative to conventional extraction of vetiver oil: Microwave hydrodistillation of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, H. S.; Altway, A.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study the extraction of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides) has been carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation. In the extraction of vetiver oil using microwave hydrodistillation method is studied the effect of microwave power, feed to solvent (F/S) ratio and extraction time on the yield of vetiver oil. Besides, in this study can be seen that microwave hydrodistillation method offers important advantages over hydrodistillation, such as shorter extraction time (3 h vs. 24 h for hydrodistillation); better yields (0.49% vs. 0.46% for hydrodistillation); and environmental impact (energy cost is appreciably higher for performing hydrodistillation than that required for extraction using microwave hydrodistillation). Based on the analysis using GC-MS can be seen 19 components on vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation. In addition, GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation method were β-Gurjunene (30.12%), α-Vetivone (20.12%), 4-(1-cyclohexenyl)-2-trimethylsilymethyl-1-buten-3-yne (13.52%) and δ-Selinene (7.27%).

  8. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and preliminary purification of proanthocyanidins and chlorogenic acid from almond (Prunus dulcis) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xue; Zhou, Xin-Yu; Qiang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2014-07-01

    An aqueous solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a green solvent was employed for the first time to develop the ultrasound-assisted extraction of proanthocyanidins (PA) and chlorogenic acid (CA) from almond skin. The optimized extraction parameters were determined based on response surface methodology, and corresponded to an ultrasound power of 120 W, a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20:1 (mL/g), and a PEG concentration of 50% (v/v). Under these optimized conditions, the extraction yields of PAs and CA from almond skin were 32.68 ± 0.22 and 16.01 ± 0.19 mg/g, respectively. Compared with organic solvent extraction, PEG solution extraction produced higher yields. Different macroporous resins were compared for their performance in purifying PAs and CA from almond skin extract. Static adsorption/desorption experimental results demonstrated that AB-8 resin exhibits excellent purification performance at pH 4. Under the optimized dynamic adsorption/desorption conditions on the AB-8 column, the total recovery of purification for PAs and CA was 80.67%. The total content of PAs and CA in the preliminarily purified extract was 89.17% (with respective contents of 60.90 and 28.27%). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Obtaining of the antioxidants by supercritical fluid extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Nada V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important trends in the food industry today is demand for natural antioxidants from plant material. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA are now being replaced by the natural antioxidants because of theirs possible toxicity and as they may act as promoters of carcinogens. The natural antioxidants may show equivalent or higher antioxidant activity than the endogenous or the synthetic antioxidants. Thus, great effort is being devoted to the search for alternative and cheap sources of natural antioxidants, as well as to the development of efficient and selective extraction techniques. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with carbon dioxide is considered to be the most suitable method for producing natural antioxidants for the use in food industry. The supercritical extract does not contain residual organic solvents as in conventional extraction processes, which makes these products suitable for use in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. The recovery of antioxidants from plant sources involves many problematic aspects: choice of an adequate source (in terms of availability, cost, difference in phenolic content with variety and season; selection of the optimal recovery procedure (in terms of yield, simplicity, industrial application, cost; chemical analysis of extracts (for optimization purposes a fast colorimetric method is more preferable than a chromatographic one; evaluation of the antioxidant power (preferably by the different assay methods. The paper presents information about different operational methods for SFE of bioactive compounds from natural sources. It also includes the various reports on the antioxidant activity of the supercritical extracts from Lamiaceae herbs, in comparison with the activity of the synthetic antioxidants and the extracts from Lamiaceae herbs obtained by the conventional methods.

  10. Degradation effects in the extraction of antioxidants from birch bark using water at elevated temperature and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Michelle; Zettersten, Camilla; Nyholm, Leif; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta

    2012-02-24

    Experiments with birch bark samples have been carried to enable a distinction between extraction and degradation effects during pressurised hot water extraction. Two samples, E80 and E180, contained birch bark extracts obtained after extraction at 80 and 180°C for up to 45 min, respectively. Two other samples, P80 and P180, were only extracted for 5 min at the two temperatures and were thereafter filtered and hydrothermally treated at 80 and 180°C, respectively. During the latter treatment, samples were collected at different times to assess the stability of the extracted compounds. An offline DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, as well as a high performance liquid chromatographic separation coupled to an electrochemical detector, were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the processed samples. The results obtained with the different techniques were compared to assess the yield of the extraction and degradation processes. In addition, an online hyphenated system comprising high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode-array; electrochemical; and tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-ECD-MS/MS) was used to study the compositions of the extracts in more detail. The results for the samples processed at 80°C showed that the extraction reached a steady-state already after 5 min, and that the extracted compounds were stable throughout the entire extraction process. Processing at 180°C, on the other hand, gave rise to partly degraded extracts with a multitude of peaks in both the diode array and electrochemical detectors, and a higher antioxidant capacity compared to for the extracts obtained at 80°C. It is concluded that HPLC-DAD-ECD is a more appropriate technique for the determination of antioxidants than the DPPH assay. The mass spectrometric results indicate that one of the extracted antioxidants, catechin, was isomerised to its diastereoisomers; (+)-catechin, (-)-catechin, (+)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin. Copyright

  11. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of total extract, stevioside and rebaudioside-A from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) leaves, using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Kashif; Bae, Seong-Woo; Jo, Yunhee; Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Ameer, Asif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-08-15

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) consists of stevioside and rebaudioside-A (Reb-A). We compared response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling for their estimation and predictive capabilities in building effective models with maximum responses. A 5-level 3-factor central composite design was used to optimize microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to obtain maximum yield of target responses as a function of extraction time (X 1 : 1-5min), ethanol concentration, (X 2 : 0-100%) and microwave power (X 3 : 40-200W). Maximum values of the three output parameters: 7.67% total extract yield, 19.58mg/g stevioside yield, and 15.3mg/g Reb-A yield, were obtained under optimum extraction conditions of 4min X 1 , 75% X 2 , and 160W X 3 . The ANN model demonstrated higher efficiency than did the RSM model. Hence, RSM can demonstrate interaction effects of inherent MAE parameters on target responses, whereas ANN can reliably model the MAE process with better predictive and estimation capabilities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  13. Effects of Land-Applied Ammonia Scrubber Solutions on Yield, Nitrogen Uptake, Soil Test Phosphorus, and Phosphorus Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jerry W; Moore, Philip A; Li, Hong; Ashworth, Amanda J; Miles, Dana M

    2018-03-01

    Ammonia (NH) scrubbers reduce amounts of NH and dust released from animal rearing facilities while generating nitrogen (N)-rich solutions, which may be used as fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various NH scrubber solutions on forage yields, N uptake, soil-test phosphorus (P), and P runoff. A small plot study was conducted using six treatments: (i) an unfertilized control, (ii) potassium bisulfate (KHSO) scrubber solution, (iii) aluminum sulfate [Al(SO) ⋅14HO, alum] scrubber solution, (iv) sodium bisulfate (NaHSO) scrubber solution, (v) sulfuric acid (HSO) scrubber solution, and (vi) ammonium nitrate (NHNO) fertilizer. The scrubber solutions were obtained from ARS Air Scrubbers attached to commercial broiler houses. All N sources were applied at a rate of 112 kg N ha. Plots were harvested approximately every 4 wk and soil-test P measurements were made, then a rainfall simulation study was conducted. Cumulative forage yields were greater ( scrubber solutions than for alum (6.7 Mg ha) or HSO (6.5 Mg ha) scrubber solutions or for NHNO (6.9 Mg ha). All N sources resulted in higher yields than the control (5.1 Mg ha). The additional potassium in the KHSO treatment likely resulted in higher yields. Although Mehlich-III-extractable P was not affected, water-extractable P in soil was lowered by the alum-based scrubber solution, which also resulted in lower P runoff. This study demonstrates that N captured using NH scrubbers is a viable N fertilizer. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Estimation of heterosis in yield and yield attributing traits in single cross hybrids of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prasad Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during winter season from 6th October, 2015 to 5th March 2016 to estimate different heterosis on single cross maize hybrids . Thirteen maize hybrids were tested randomized complete block design with three replications. Hybrid namely RML-98/RL-105 gave the highest standard heterosis (57.5% for grain yield over CP-666 followed by RML-4/NML-2 (32.6%, RML-95/RL-105 (29% and RML-5/RL-105 (20.6%. The hybrid RML-98/RL-105 produced the highest standard heterosis (75.1% for grain yield over Rajkumar followed by RML-4/NML-2(50.2%, RML-95/RL-105(46.6%, RML-5/RL-105 and (35.7%. Mid and better parent heterosis were significantly higher for yield and yield attributes viz. ear length, ear diameter, no of kernel row per ear, no of kernel per row and test weight. The highest positive mid-parent heterosis for grain yield was found in RML-98/RL-105 followed by RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2. For the grain yield the better parent heterosis was the highest in RML-98/RL-105, followed by RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2. These results suggested that maize production can be maximized by cultivating hybrids namely RML-98/RL-105, RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2 .

  15. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are quantified, yield gaps evaluated by crop experts, current yield progress by breeding estimated, and different yield projections compared. Results show decreasing yield growth for wheat and rice, but ...

  16. Fundamental conditions required in extracting an alpha-amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extracts of Cadaba farinosa, Forsk plant are used for their starch-reducing power in most tropic countries to liquefy/sweeten starch gruels. The extraction process is a time consuming osmotic rehydrating process characterized by fluctuating extract yield and consequently, an unstable inherent starch-reducing power.

  17. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    properties and bioactive ingredients of Raphanus sativus seed oil. Methods: Raphanus sativus seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), super-critical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane extraction (SPE). The yield, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and oxidative ...

  18. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Sánchez, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Altarejos, J.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and

  19. Refinement and evaluation of the Massachusetts firm-yield estimator model version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Archfield, Stacey A.; Massey, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The firm yield is the maximum average daily withdrawal that can be extracted from a reservoir without risk of failure during an extended drought period. Previously developed procedures for determining the firm yield of a reservoir were refined and applied to 38 reservoir systems in Massachusetts, including 25 single- and multiple-reservoir systems that were examined during previous studies and 13 additional reservoir systems. Changes to the firm-yield model include refinements to the simulation methods and input data, as well as the addition of several scenario-testing capabilities. The simulation procedure was adapted to run at a daily time step over a 44-year simulation period, and daily streamflow and meteorological data were compiled for all the reservoirs for input to the model. Another change to the model-simulation methods is the adjustment of the scaling factor used in estimating groundwater contributions to the reservoir. The scaling factor is used to convert the daily groundwater-flow rate into a volume by multiplying the rate by the length of reservoir shoreline that is hydrologically connected to the aquifer. Previous firm-yield analyses used a constant scaling factor that was estimated from the reservoir surface area at full pool. The use of a constant scaling factor caused groundwater flows during periods when the reservoir stage was very low to be overestimated. The constant groundwater scaling factor used in previous analyses was replaced with a variable scaling factor that is based on daily reservoir stage. This change reduced instability in the groundwater-flow algorithms and produced more realistic groundwater-flow contributions during periods of low storage. Uncertainty in the firm-yield model arises from many sources, including errors in input data. The sensitivity of the model to uncertainty in streamflow input data and uncertainty in the stage-storage relation was examined. A series of Monte Carlo simulations were performed on 22 reservoirs

  20. Effect of Limited Drip Irrigation Regime on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame under Mediterranean Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiota PAPASTYLIANOU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sesame is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Irrigation is of great importance to sesame production due to its positive effect on growth parameters. Although sesame has good drought tolerance compared with many other crops, it is particularly susceptible to drought damage during the seedling, flowering and seed filling stages and this can lead to yield loss. The aim of this study was to determine the response of sesame landraces to different irrigation applications during the 2015 growing season. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replicates, four main plots (irrigation treatments, designated as 100%, 75% 50% and 0 of the daily crop evapotranspiration and two sub-plots (sesame landraces, Limnos and Evros. Different characteristics such as plant height, number of seeds per capsule, and number of capsules per plant, seed yield, 1000-seed weight and % capsules without seeds, were recorded. The results indicated that all traits except 1000-seed weight were significantly affected by irrigation regimes. Plant height, shattering losses and number of capsules per plant decreased with increasing water shortage. Seed yield and number of seeds per capsule were less affected by irrigation level and showed higher values in the 50% of the daily crop evapotranspiration treatment. Limnos produced higher seed yield and number of seeds per capsule under all irrigation regimes. Evros showed higher plant height and shattering losses than Limnos. The results of this study suggest that sesame landraces can use water efficiently, are locally adapted and associated with traditional farming systems.

  1. Yield and acidity indices of sunflower and soybean oils in function of grain drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the best conditions for drying and storing soybeans and sunflower grains to maintain their quality. In the first experiment, the soybeans were found to have initial moisture contents of 25 and 19% (w.b. at different drying air temperatures (75, 90, 105, and 120°C. In the second step, the soybeans were evaluated after they were stored in paper bags and plastic polyethylene at temperatures of 3, 10 and 23°C for six months. In the third experiment, sunflower grains were tested after exposure to drying air temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C, and under storage conditions of 25°C and 50%, 20°C and 60%, 30°C and 40% RH over six months in paper bags and raffia. Drying the sunflower seeds at 45°C and storing them at 30°C and 40% RH led to higher oil yields and lower acid numbers. The oil that was extracted from the acid number was higher for soybean grains that were dried down from initial concentrations of 25% water at a drying air temperature of 120°C. The air temperature in storage at 3°C favored for yield and reduction of the soybean oil acidity.

  2. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2016-07-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  3. [Study on High-yield Cultivation Measures for Arctii Fructus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-yong; Jiang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Tao; Sun, Ji-ye; Hu, Shang-qin; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-01

    To find out the high yield cultivation measures for Arctii Fructus. Completely randomized block experiment design method was used in the field planting, to analyze the effect of different cultivation way on agronomic characters, phenological phase,quality and quantity of Arctii Fructus. Arctium lappa planted on August 28 had the best results of plant height, thousand seeds weight and yield. The highest yield of Arctii Fructus was got at the density of 1,482 plants/667 m2. Arctiin content was in an increase trend with the planting time delay and planting density increasing. The plant height, thousand seeds weight, yield and arctiin content by split application of fertilizer were significantly higher than that by one-time fertilization. Compared with open field Arctium lappa, plant height, yield, arctiin content and relative water content of plastic film mulching Arctium lappa was higher by 7.74%, 10.87%, 6.38% and 24.20%, respectively. In the topping Arctium lappa, the yield was increased by 11.09%, with 39. 89% less branching number. Early planting time and topping shortened the growth cycle of Arctium lappa plant. The high-yield cultivation measures of Arctii Fructus are: around August 28 to sowing, planting density of 1 482 plants/667 m2, split application of fertilizer for four times, covering film on surface of the soil and topping in bolting.

  4. A preliminary yield trial of some soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratma, Rivaie

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary yield trial of some soybean mutant lines, derived from irradiated Orba variety with dose of 0.40 kGy, were carried out during the wet and dry season in 1979-1982 in Muara and Citayam, Bogor. The result obtained showed that yield potential of mutant lines no. M6/40/10 was higher than that of the control in dry season in 1979 as well as in the wet season of 1979/80 in Muara. Whereas, the yield potential of the mutant lines no. M6/40/8 and no. M6/40/14 were higher t