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Sample records for higher encapsulation efficiency

  1. Encapsulation Efficiency, Oscillatory Rheometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mohammad Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoliposomes are one of the most important polar lipid-based nanocarriers which can be used for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds. In this research, nanoliposomes based on lecithin-polyethylene glycol-gamma oryzanol were prepared by using a modified thermal method. Only one melting peak in DSC curve of gamma oryzanol bearing liposomes was observed which could be attributed to co-crystallization of both compounds. The addition of gamma oryzanol, caused to reduce the melting point of 5% (w/v lecithin-based liposome from 207°C to 163.2°C. At high level of lecithin, increasing of liposome particle size (storage at 4°C for two months was more obvious and particle size increased from 61 and 113 to 283 and 384 nanometers, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of gamma oryzanol increased from 60% to 84.3% with increasing lecithin content. The encapsulation stability of oryzanol in liposome was determined at different concentrations of lecithin 3, 5, 10, 20% (w/v and different storage times (1, 7, 30 and 60 days. In all concentrations, the encapsulation stability slightly decreased during 30 days storage. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed relatively spherical to elliptic particles which indicated to low extent of particles coalescence. The oscillatory rheometry showed that the loss modulus of liposomes were higher than storage modulus and more liquid-like behavior than solid-like behavior. The samples storage at 25°C for one month, showed higher viscoelastic parameters than those having been stored at 4°C which were attributed to higher membrane fluidity at 25°C and their final coalescence.Nanoliposomes are one of the most important polar lipid based nanocarriers which can be used for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds. In this research, nanoliposomes based on lecithin-polyethylene glycol-gamma oryzanol were prepared by using modified thermal method. Only one

  2. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    failure prone capacitors from the power stage. Q-Sync’s simpler electronics also result in higher efficiency because it eliminates the power required by the PCB to perform the obviated power conversions and PWM processes after line synchronous operating speed is reached in the first 5 seconds of operation, after which the PWM circuits drop out and a much less energy intensive “pass through” circuit takes over, allowing the grid-supplied AC power to sustain the motor’s ongoing operation.

  3. Efficient Asymmetric Index Encapsulation Scheme for Anonymous Content Centric Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Content Centric Networking (CCN is an effective communication paradigm that well matches the features of wireless environments. To be considered a viable candidate in the emerging wireless networks, despite the clear benefits of location-independent security, CCN must at least have parity with existing solutions for confidential and anonymous communication. This paper designs a new cryptographic scheme, called Asymmetric Index Encapsulation (AIE, that enables the router to test whether an encapsulated header matches the token without learning anything else about both of them. We suggest using the AIE as the core protocol of anonymous Content Centric Networking. A construction of AIE which strikes a balance between efficiency and security is given. The scheme is proved to be secure based on the DBDH assumption in the random oracle with tight reduction, while the encapsulated header and the token in our system consist of only three elements.

  4. High hydrostatic pressure encapsulation of doxorubicin in ferritin nanocages with enhanced efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Liping; Li, Zenglan; Guo, Fangxia; Li, Xiunan; Luo, Jian; Zhao, Dawei; Liu, Yongdong; Su, Zhiguo

    2017-07-20

    Human ferritin (HFn) nanocaging is becoming an appealing platform for anticancer drugs delivery. However, protein aggregation always occurs during the encapsulation process, resulting in low production efficiency. A new approach using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was explored in this study to overcome the problem of loading doxorubicin (DOX) in HFn. At the pressure of 500MPa and pH 5.5, DOX molecules were found to be encapsulated into HFn. Meanwhile, combining it with an additive of 20mM arginine completely inhibited precipitation and aggregation, resulting in highly monodispersed nanoparticles with almost 100% protein recovery. Furthermore, stepwise decompression and incubation of the complex in atmospheric pressure at pH 7.4 for another period could further increase the DOX encapsulation ratio. The HFn-DOX nanoparticles (NPs) showed similar morphology and structural features to the hollow cage and no notable drug leakage occurred for HFn-DOX NPs when stored at 4°C and pH 7.4 for two weeks. HFn-DOX NPs prepared through HHP also showed significant cytotoxicity in vitro and higher antitumor bioactivity in vivo than naked DOX. Moreover, This HHP encapsulation strategy could economize on DOX that was greatly wasted during the conventional preparation process simply through a desalting column. These results indicated that HHP could offer a feasible approach with high efficiency for the production of HFn-DOX NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Encapsulation of adenovirus serotype 5 in anionic lecithin liposomes using a bead-based immunoprecipitation technique enhances transfection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Natalie; Herrera, Vanessa; Zhang, Lingzhi; Hedjran, Farah; Feuer, Ralph; Blair, Sarah L; Trogler, William C; Reid, Tony R; Kummel, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) constitute a promising class of cancer therapeutics which exploit validated genetic pathways known to be deregulated in many cancers. To overcome an immune response and to enhance its potential use to treat primary and metastatic tumors, a method for liposomal encapsulation of adenovirus has been developed. The encapsulation of adenovirus in non-toxic anionic lecithin-cholesterol-PEG liposomes ranging from 140 to 180 nm in diameter have been prepared by self-assembly around the viral capsid. The encapsulated viruses retain their ability to infect cancer cells. Furthermore, an immunoprecipitation (IP) technique has shown to be a fast and effective method to extract non-encapsulated viruses and homogenize the liposomes remaining in solution. 78% of adenovirus plaque forming units were encapsulated and retained infectivity after IP processing. Additionally, encapsulated viruses have shown enhanced transfection efficiency up to 4 × higher compared to non-encapsulated Ads. Extracting non-encapsulated viruses from solution may prevent an adverse in vivo immune response and may enhance treatment for multiple administrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Encapsulation of Adenovirus Serotype 5 in Anionic Lecithin Liposomes using a Bead-Based Immunoprecipitation Technique Enhances Transfection Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, N.; Herrera, V.; Zhang, L.; Hedjran, F.; Feuer, R.; Blair, S.; Trogler, W.; Reid, T.

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) constitute a promising class of cancer therapeutics which exploit validated genetic pathways known to be deregulated in many cancers. To overcome an immune response and to enhance its potential use to treat primary and metastatic tumors, a method for liposomal encapsulation of adenovirus has been developed. The encapsulation of adenovirus in non-toxic anionic lecithin-cholesterol-PEG liposomes ranging from 140–180nm in diameter have been prepared by self-assembly around the viral capsid. The encapsulated viruses retain their ability to infect cancer cells. Furthermore, an immunoprecipitation (IP) technique has shown to be a fast and effective method to extract non-encapsulated viruses and homogenize the liposomes remaining in solution. 78% of adenovirus plaque forming units were encapsulated and retained infectivity after IP processing. Additionally, encapsulated viruses have shown enhanced transfection efficiency up to 4× higher compared to non-encapsulated Ads. Extracting non-encapsulated viruses from solution may prevent an adverse in vivo immune response and may enhance treatment for multiple administrations. PMID:25154663

  7. Hypericin encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles: phototoxicity and photodynamic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Adriel M; Pizzol, Carine Dal; Monteiro, Fabíola B F; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B; Andrade, Gislaine P; Ribeiro, Anderson O; Perussi, Janice R

    2013-08-05

    The hydrophobicity of some photosensitizers can induce aggregation in biological systems, which consequently reduces photodynamic activity. The conjugation of photosensitizers with nanocarrier systems can potentially be used to overcome this problem. The objective of this study was to prepare and characterise hypericin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Hy-SLN) for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). SLN were prepared using the ultrasonication technique, and their physicochemical properties were characterised. The mean particle size was found to be 153 nm, with a low polydispersity index of 0.28. One of the major advantages of the SLN formulation is its high entrapment efficiency (EE%). Hy-SLN showed greater than 80% EE and a drug loading capacity of 5.22% (w/w). To determine the photodynamic efficiency of Hy before and after encapsulation in SLN, the rate constants for the photodecomposition of two (1)O2 trapping reagents, DPBF and AU, were determined. These rate constants exhibited an increase of 60% and 50% for each method, respectively, which is most likely due to an increase in the lifetime of the triplet state caused by the increase in solubility. Hy-SLN presented a 30% increase in cell uptake and a correlated improvement of 26% in cytotoxicity. Thus, all these advantages suggest that Hy-loaded SLN has potential for use in PDT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of the Encapsulation Efficiency and Size of Liposome on the Oral Bioavailability of Griseofulvin-Loaded Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Gim Ming Ong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the encapsulation efficiency and size of liposome on the oral bioavailability of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes. Griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with desired characteristics were prepared from pro-liposome using various techniques. To study the effect of encapsulation efficiency, three preparations of griseofulvin, namely, griseofulvin aqueous suspension and two griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with different amounts of griseofulvin encapsulated [i.e., F1 (32% and F2(98%], were administered to rats. On the other hand, to study the effect of liposome size, the rats were given three different griseofulvin-loaded liposomes of various sizes, generated via different mechanical dispersion techniques [i.e., FTS (142 nm, MS (357 nm and NS (813 nm], but with essentially similar encapsulation efficiencies (about 93%. Results indicated that the extent of bioavailability of griseofulvin was improved 1.7–2.0 times when given in the form of liposomes (F1 compared to griseofulvin suspension. Besides that, there was an approximately two-fold enhancement of the extent of bioavailability following administration of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with higher encapsulation efficiency (F2, compared to those of F1. Also, the results showed that the extent of bioavailability of liposomal formulations with smaller sizes were higher by approximately three times compared to liposomal formulation of a larger size. Nevertheless, a further size reduction of griseofulvin-loaded liposome (≤400 nm did not promote the uptake or bioavailability of griseofulvin. In conclusion, high drug encapsulation efficiency and small liposome size could enhance the oral bioavailability of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes and therefore these two parameters deserve careful consideration during formulation.

  9. Entrapment of peptidoglycans and adamantyltripeptides into liposomes: an HPLC assay for determination of encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frkanec, Ruza; Travas, Dijana; Krstanović, Marina; Spoljar, Beata Halassy; Ljevaković, Durdica; Vranesić, Branka; Frkanec, Leo; Tomasić, Jelka

    2003-11-01

    The encapsulation of different immunomodulating peptides, the peptidoglycan monomer, its semisynthetic derivatives (Adamant-1-yl)-acetyl-peptidoglycan monomer and Boc-Tyr-peptidoglycan monomer, respectively, and of two diastereoisomers of adamantyltripeptides into the large negatively charged multilamellar liposomes was investigated. The reproducible quantitative method using HPLC was established for the determination of the entrapped compounds. It was shown that the tested compounds could be efficiently incorporated into liposomes using either the film or modified film method. The results confirmed that the peptidoglycans with lipophilic substituents and particularly the adamantyltripeptides were incorporated into liposomes with higher efficiency than the peptidoglycan monomer using either of the described methods. Liposome preparations were stable at 4 degrees C up to seven days as shown by minimal leaking of the entrapped material.

  10. Highly efficient enzyme encapsulation in a protein nanocage: towards enzyme catalysis in a cellular nanocompartment mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonen, Lise; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; van Hest, Jan C. M.

    2016-07-01

    The study of enzyme behavior in small nanocompartments is crucial for the understanding of biocatalytic processes in the cellular environment. We have developed an enzymatic conjugation strategy to attach a model enzyme to the interior of a cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid. It is shown that with this methodology high encapsulation efficiencies can be achieved. Additionally, we demonstrate that the encapsulation does not affect the enzyme performance in terms of a decreased activity or a hampered substrate diffusion. Finally, it is shown that the encapsulated enzymes are protected against proteases. We believe that our strategy can be used to study enzyme kinetics in an environment that approaches physiological conditions.The study of enzyme behavior in small nanocompartments is crucial for the understanding of biocatalytic processes in the cellular environment. We have developed an enzymatic conjugation strategy to attach a model enzyme to the interior of a cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid. It is shown that with this methodology high encapsulation efficiencies can be achieved. Additionally, we demonstrate that the encapsulation does not affect the enzyme performance in terms of a decreased activity or a hampered substrate diffusion. Finally, it is shown that the encapsulated enzymes are protected against proteases. We believe that our strategy can be used to study enzyme kinetics in an environment that approaches physiological conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures for the cloning, expression, and purification of all proteins, as well as supplementary figures and calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04181g

  11. Stabilization void-fill encapsulation high-efficiency particulate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, R.G.; Stewart, W.E.; Phillips, S.J.; Serkowski, M.M.; England, J.L.; Boynton, H.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems that which are contaminated with radionuclides are part of the nuclear fuel processing systems conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and require replacement and safe and efficient disposal for plant safety. Two K-3 HEPA filters were removed from service, placed burial boxes, buried, and safely and efficiently stabilized remotely which reduced radiation exposure to personnel and the environment

  12. Encapsulation of Volatile Citronella Essential Oil by Coacervation: Efficiency and Release Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, M. A.; Subuki, I.; Jai, J.; Raslan, R.; Mustapa, A. N.

    2018-05-01

    The volatile citronella essential oil was encapsulated by simple coacervation and complex coacervation using Arabic gum and gelatin as wall material. Glutaraldehyde was used in the methodology as crosslinking agent. The citronella standard calibration graph obtained with R2 of 0.9523 was used for the accurate determination of encapsulation efficiency and release study. The release kinetic was analysed based on Fick"s law of diffusion for polymeric system and linear graph of Log fraction release over Log time was constructed to determine the release rate constant, k and diffusion coefficient, n. Both coacervation methods in the present study produce encapsulation efficiency around 94%. The produced capsules for both coacervation processes were discussed based on the capsules morphology and release kinetic mechanisms.

  13. Comparison of Different Encapsulating Adhesives to Enhance the Efficiencies and Lifetimes of Polymeric Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Hua; Chen, Chen-Ming; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong; Tang, Rong-Ming; Tsai, Yu Sheng; Chu, Wei-Ping; Liu, Mark O.; Juang, Fuh-Shyang

    2009-04-01

    Polymeric solar cells (PSCs) with a derivative of C60 [[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)], and 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) as active layers have been fabricated. The PSC devices were also packaged with glass and novel UV glues to improve their lifetimes and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). After encapsulation with UV glue I, II, and III, the PCEs of PSCs reached 4, 4.82, and 6%, respectively, and their half-lifetimes increased to 16-18, 26-28, and 90 h, respectively, while the PCEs and half-lifetimes of PSCs without encapsulation were 3.76% and 2.5 h, respectively.

  14. Multifunctional polyoxometalates encapsulated in MIL-100(Fe): highly efficient photocatalysts for selective transformation under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ruowen; Chen, Rui; Jing, Fenfen; Qin, Na; Wu, Ling

    2015-11-07

    H3PMo12O40 molecules have been successfully encapsulated in the cavities of MIL-100(Fe) via a facile hydrothermal method (denoted as HPMo@MIL-100(Fe)). A series of characterization has corroborated the insertion of H3PMo12O40 within the cavities of MIL-100(Fe). The resulting HPMo@MIL-100(Fe) nanocomposites have exhibited much higher photoactivity than the original-MIL-100(Fe) toward the photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols and the reduction of Cr(vi) under visible light irradiation (λ≥ 420 nm). The higher photoactivity of HPMo@MIL-100(Fe) can be attributed to the integrative effect of enhanced light absorption intensity and more efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The host porous structure of MIL-100(Fe) can achieve a uniform composition with H3PMo12O40, which is significantly important for producing highly reactive dispersed H3PMo12O40 molecules and enhancing the photocatalytic activity of HPMo@MIL-100(Fe) nanocomposites. And the immobilized H3PMo12O40 molecules are more convenient for recycling. Importantly, almost no Fe and Mo ions leach from the MIL-100(Fe) during the reaction, which verifies the photostability of the HPMo@MIL-100(Fe). In addition, possible photocatalytic redox reaction mechanisms have been investigated.

  15. Cost Efficiency in Public Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John

    This study used the frontier cost function framework to examine cost efficiency in public higher education. The frontier cost function estimates the minimum predicted cost for producing a given amount of output. Data from the annual Almanac issues of the "Chronicle of Higher Education" were used to calculate state level enrollments at two-year and…

  16. Structure of a Multilayer Nanofilm To Increase the Encapsulation Efficiency of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Uiyoung; Hong, Jinkee

    2018-03-05

    In this study, we established the structure of a multilayer nanofilm that more efficiently encapsulates basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). First, a positively charged layer material was selected from biocompatible polymers such as collagen (Col), poly(beta-amino ester) (Poly2), and chitosan (Chi), while considering the film thickness. We then investigated the change in bFGF encapsulation efficiency when the multilayer structure was changed from a tetralayer to a trilayer. As a result, we obtained a highly improved bFGF encapsulation efficiency in the nanofilm using a positively charged layer formed by a blend of Col and Poly2 and a negatively charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) layer within a trilayered structure. In particular, we found that a significant amount of adsorbed bFGF was desorbed again during the film fabrication process of a tetralayered nanofilm. In the conventional nanofilm, bFGF was regarded as a polycation and formed a multilayer nanofilm that was composed of a tetralayered structure and was represented as (polycation/polyanion/bFGF/polyanion) n where n = number of repeated tetralayers. Here, we suggested that bFGF should not be considered a polycation, rather it should be considered as a small quantity of molecule that exists between the polyanion and polycation layers. In this case, the nanofilm is composed of repeating units of (polycation/polyanion/bFGF/polycation/polyanion), because the amount of adsorbed bFGF is considerably lower than that of other building blocks.

  17. Co-encapsulation of human serum albumin and superparamagnetic iron oxide in PLGA nanoparticles: Part II. Effect of process variables on protein model drug encapsulation efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shubhra, Q. T. H.; Feczkó, T.; Kardos, A. F.; Tóth, J.; Macková, Hana; Horák, Daniel; Dósa, G.; Gyenis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2014), s. 156-165 ISSN 0265-2048 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN401220801 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : encapsulation efficiency * experimental design * human serum albumin Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.585, year: 2014

  18. Retrofitting the 5045 Klystron for Higher Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Aaron; Fazio, Michael; Haase, Andy; Jongewaard, Erik; Kemp, Mark; Neilson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The 5045 klystron has been in production and accelerating particles at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for over 25 years. Although the design has undergone some changes there are still significant opportunities for improvement in performance. Retrofitting the 5045 for higher efficiencies and a more mono-energetic spent beam profile is presented.

  19. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Ip, Alexander H.; Labelle, André J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  20. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Ip, Alexander H.

    2013-12-23

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  1. An encapsulated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a highly efficient vaccine against pneumonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Derbise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plague is still a public health problem in the world and is re-emerging, but no efficient vaccine is available. We previously reported that oral inoculation of a live attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the recent ancestor of Yersinia pestis, provided protection against bubonic plague. However, the strain poorly protected against pneumonic plague, the most deadly and contagious form of the disease, and was not genetically defined. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequenced Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 has been irreversibly attenuated by deletion of genes encoding three essential virulence factors. An encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis was generated by cloning the Y. pestis F1-encoding caf operon and expressing it in the attenuated strain. The new V674pF1 strain produced the F1 capsule in vitro and in vivo. Oral inoculation of V674pF1 allowed the colonization of the gut without lesions to Peyer's patches and the spleen. Vaccination induced both humoral and cellular components of immunity, at the systemic (IgG and Th1 cells and the mucosal levels (IgA and Th17 cells. A single oral dose conferred 100% protection against a lethal pneumonic plague challenge (33×LD(50 of the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92 strain and 94% against a high challenge dose (3,300×LD(50. Both F1 and other Yersinia antigens were recognized and V674pF1 efficiently protected against a F1-negative Y. pestis. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis V674pF1 is an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague, and could be developed for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas to control pneumonic plague transmission and mortality.

  2. Micro-Encapsulation of non-aqueous solvents for energy-efficient carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolaroff, Joshua K; Ye, Congwang; Oakdale, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Baker, Sarah; Nugyen, Du; Smith, William; Aines, Roger

    2016-11-14

    Here, we demonstrate micro-encapsulation of several promising designer solvents: an IL, PCIL, and CO2BOL. We develop custom polymers that cure by UV light in the presence of each solvent while maintaining high CO2 permeability. We use several new process strategies to accommodate the viscosity and phase changes. We then measure and compare the CO2 absorption rate and capacity as well as the multi-cycle performance of the encapsulated solvents. These results are compared with previous work on encapsulated sodium carbonate solution. The prospects for designer solvents to reduce the cost of post-combustion capture and the implications for process design with encapsulated solvents are discussed.

  3. Impact of protein pre-treatment conditions on the iron encapsulation efficiency of whey protein cold-set gel particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Jong, G.A.H. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility for iron fortification of food using protein gel particles in which iron is entrapped using cold-set gelation. The aim is to optimize the iron encapsulation efficiency of whey protein by giving the whey protein different heat treatment prior to gelation with

  4. Efficient encapsulation of antisense oligonucleotides in lipid vesicles using ionizable aminolipids: formation of novel small multilamellar vesicle structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, S C; Klimuk, S K; Harasym, T O; Dos Santos, N; Ansell, S M; Wong, K F; Maurer, N; Stark, H; Cullis, P R; Hope, M J; Scherrer, P

    2001-02-09

    Typical methods used for encapsulating antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and plasmid DNA in lipid vesicles result in very low encapsulation efficiencies or employ cationic lipids that exhibit unfavorable pharmacokinetic and toxicity characteristics when administered intravenously. In this study, we describe and characterize a novel formulation process that utilizes an ionizable aminolipid (1,2-dioleoyl-3-dimethylammonium propane, DODAP) and an ethanol-containing buffer system for encapsulating large quantities (0.15--0.25 g ODN/g lipid) of polyanionic ODN in lipid vesicles. This process requires the presence of up to 40% ethanol (v/v) and initial formulation at acidic pH values where the DODAP is positively charged. In addition, the presence of a poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid was required during the formulation process to prevent aggregation. The 'stabilized antisense-lipid particles' (SALP) formed are stable on adjustment of the external pH to neutral pH values and the formulation process allows encapsulation efficiencies of up to 70%. ODN encapsulation was confirmed by nuclease protection assays and (31)P NMR measurements. Cryo-electron microscopy indicated that the final particles consisted of a mixed population of unilamellar and small multilamellar vesicles (80--140 nm diameter), the relative proportion of which was dependent on the initial ODN to lipid ratio. Finally, SALP exhibited significantly enhanced circulation lifetimes in mice relative to free antisense ODN, cationic lipid/ODN complexes and SALP prepared with quaternary aminolipids. Given the small particle sizes and improved encapsulation efficiency, ODN to lipid ratios, and circulation times of this formulation compared to others, we believe SALP represent a viable candidate for systemic applications involving nucleic acid therapeutics.

  5. Phosphorus Processing—Potentials for Higher Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig Hermann; Fabian Kraus; Ralf Hermann

    2018-01-01

    In the aftermath of the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement (COP21) by virtually all United Nations, producing more with less is imperative. In this context, phosphorus processing, despite its high efficiency compared to other steps in the value chain, needs to be revisited by science and industry. During processing, phosphorus is lost to phosphogypsum, disposed of in stacks globally piling up to 3–4 billion tons and growing by about 200 million ...

  6. Phosphorus Processing—Potentials for Higher Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Hermann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and the Paris Agreement (COP21 by virtually all United Nations, producing more with less is imperative. In this context, phosphorus processing, despite its high efficiency compared to other steps in the value chain, needs to be revisited by science and industry. During processing, phosphorus is lost to phosphogypsum, disposed of in stacks globally piling up to 3–4 billion tons and growing by about 200 million tons per year, or directly discharged to the sea. Eutrophication, acidification, and long-term pollution are the environmental impacts of both practices. Economic and regulatory framework conditions determine whether the industry continues wasting phosphorus, pursues efficiency improvements or stops operations altogether. While reviewing current industrial practice and potentials for increasing processing efficiency with lower impact, the article addresses potentially conflicting goals of low energy and material use as well as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA as a tool for evaluating the relative impacts of improvement strategies. Finally, options by which corporations could pro-actively and credibly demonstrate phosphorus stewardship as well as options by which policy makers could enforce improvement without impairing business locations are discussed.

  7. High loading efficiency and sustained release of siRNA encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles: quality by design optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun, Dongmei; Jensen, Ditte Krohn; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Bunker, Matthew; Whiteside, Paul; Scurr, David; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2011-01-01

    Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) is an attractive polymer for delivery of biopharmaceuticals owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability and outstanding controlled release characteristics. The purpose of this study was to understand and define optimal parameters for preparation of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-loaded PLGA nanoparticles by the double emulsion solvent evaporation method and characterize their properties. The experiments were performed according to a 2(5-1) fractional factorial design based on five independent variables: The volume ratio between the inner water phase and the oil phase, the PLGA concentration, the sonication time, the siRNA load and the amount of acetylated bovine serum albumin (Ac-BSA) in the inner water phase added to stabilize the primary emulsion. The effects on the siRNA encapsulation efficiency and the particle size were investigated. The most important factors for obtaining an encapsulation efficiency as high as 70% were the PLGA concentration and the volume ratio whereas the size was mainly affected by the PLGA concentration. The viscosity of the oil phase was increased at high PLGA concentration, which explains the improved encapsulation by stabilization of the primary emulsion and reduction of siRNA leakage to the outer water phase. Addition of Ac-BSA increased the encapsulation efficiency at low PLGA concentrations. The PLGA matrix protected siRNA against nuclease degradation, provided a burst release of surface-localized siRNA followed by a triphasic sustained release for two months. These results enable careful understanding and definition of optimal process parameters for preparation of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating high amounts of siRNA with immediate and long-term sustained release properties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fast and efficient detection of tuberculosis antigens using liposome encapsulated secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Tiwari

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the newly developed liposome tuberculosis antigen card test detected antigens in our study population with approximately 97.48% sensitivity and 95.79% specificity. This is the first study to report the liposomal encapsulation of culture filtrate proteins from M. tuberculosis for diagnostic application.

  9. Efficiencies of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells using Ferritin-Encapsulated Quantum Dots with Various Staining Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Luis

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have the potential to replace traditional and cost-inefficient crystalline silicon or ruthenium solar cells. This can only be accomplished by optimizing DSSC's energy efficiency. One of the major components in a dye-sensitized solar cell is the porous layer of titanium dioxide. This layer is coated with a molecular dye that absorbs sunlight. The research conducted for this paper focuses on the different methods used to dye the porous TiO2 layer with ferritin-encapsulated quantum dots. Multiple anodes were dyed using a method known as SILAR which involves deposition through alternate immersion in two different solutions. The efficiencies of DSSCs with ferritin-encapsulated lead sulfide dye deposited using SILAR were subsequently compared against the efficiencies produced by cells using the traditional immersion method. It was concluded that both methods resulted in similar efficiencies (? .074%) however, the SILAR method dyed the TiO2 coating significantly faster than the immersion method. On a related note, our experiments concluded that conducting 2 SILAR cycles yields the highest possible efficiency for this particular binding method. National Science Foundation.

  10. Sodium Caseinate-Carrageenan Biopolymeric Nanocomplexes as a Carrier of Vitamin D: Study of Complex Formation, Particles Size and Encapsulation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoshmanzar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The protein-polysaccharide complex-based nanocapsule is one type of polymeric nanocarrier which can be potentially useful for encapsulation of hydrophobic nutraceuticals. In this research, caseinate-carrageenan complex was used for encapsulation of vitamin D. The complex formation between caseinate and carrageenan was carried out by lowering the pH under isoelectric point of protein. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and differential scanning colorimetry (DSC confirmed complex formation between carrageenan, caseinate and vitamin D. The particle size of 1% caseinate particles was in the range of 150-300 nanometer and by addition of vitamin D the particle size increased to 450-750 nanometer. Moreover, carrageenan of all concentrations (at constant concentration of caseinate (1% and pH4.9 resulted in lower particle size below 100 nanometer. The stability of caseinate and its complex formation with carrageenan showed that encapsulation was achieved at 45% efficiency and also vitamin D stability (during 5 days storage was higher in nanocomplex compared to pure caseinate particles (60-63% compared to 53%. The complex formation between caseinate and carrageenan was carried out by pH decreasing under isoelectric point of protein. The FTIR and DSC confirmed complex formation between carrageenan, caseinate and vitamin D. The particle size of caseinate 1% particles were in the range of 150 -300 nanometer and with adding vitamin D, particle size increased to 450-750 nanometer. Moreover, adding carrageenan at all used concentration (at constant concentration of caseinate (1% and pH4.9 resulted in reduced particle size to less than 100 nanometer and vitamin D stability (during 5 days storage was higher (60-63% in nanocomplex compared to pure caseinate particles (53%.The protein-polysaccharide complex based nanocapsule is one type of the polymeric nanocarriers which can potentially be used for encapsulation of hydrophobic nutraceuticals. In

  11. Highly efficient one-step synthesis of carbon encapsulated nanocrystals by the oxidation of metal π-complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyang; Shao, Yingfeng; Xiang, Xin; Zhang, Fuhua; Yan, Shengchang; Li, Wenge

    2017-08-01

    Various carbon encapsulated nanocrystals, including MnS and MnO, Cr2O3, MoO2, Fe7S8 and Fe3O4, and ZrO2, are prepared in one step and in situ by a simple and highly efficient synthesis approach. The nanocrystals have an equiaxed morphology and a median size smaller than 30 nm. Tens and hundreds of these nanocrystals are entirely encapsulated by a wormlike amorphous carbon shell. The formation of a core-shell structure depends on the strongly exothermic reaction of metal π-complexes with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave at below 200 °C. During the oxidation process, the generated significant amounts of heat will destroy the molecular structure of the metal π-complex and cleave the ligands into small carbon fragments, which further transform into an amorphous carbon shell. The central metal atoms are oxidized to metal oxide/sulfide nanocrystals. The formation of a core-shell structure is independent of the numbers of ligands and carbon atoms as well as the metal types, implying that any metal π-complex can serve as a precursor and that various carbon encapsulated nanocrystals can be synthesized by this method.

  12. Improvement of skin whitening agents efficiency through encapsulation: Current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephrem, Elissa; Elaissari, Hamid; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2017-06-30

    Hyperpigmentation is one of the most common skin disorder that affects both men and women of all ethnic groups, caused by several factors, such as UV exposure and skin inflammation. Topical whitening agents were found to be the best and the least aggressive therapy for treating hyperpigmentation compared to instrumental approaches. However, topical treatment faces several obstacles due to the low stability of the whitening agents. Therefore, the encapsulation of these agents was found to be crucial as it enhances their physicochemical stability and increases their concentration at the targeted site via an improved skin permeation, penetration or distribution. In this article, we review the literature aimed to enhance the stability and the targeting of skin whitening agents through their encapsulation in various nano and micro-particulate systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Higher Education and Efficiency in Europe: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency of higher education in equalizing the feasible wages obtained for men and women in the labour market. To do that, It is estimated two stochastic frontiers. The first one measures the effect of higher education inside the group of men and women for six European countries. The results indicate that in Denmark,…

  14. Ibuprofen-in-cyclodextrin-in-W/O/W emulsion - Improving the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency of a model active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattrem, Magnus N; Kristiansen, Kåre A; Aachmann, Finn L; Dille, Morten J; Draget, Kurt I

    2015-06-20

    A challenge in formulating water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions is the uncontrolled release of the encapsulated compound prior to application. Pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals usually have amphipathic nature, which may contribute to leakage of the active ingredient. In the present study, cyclodextrins (CyDs) were used to impart a change in the relative polarity and size of a model compound (ibuprofen) by the formation of inclusion complexes. Various inclusion complexes (2-hydroxypropyl (HP)-β-CyD-, α-CyD- and γ-CyD-ibuprofen) were prepared and presented within W/O/W emulsions, and the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency was investigated. HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen provided the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen in comparison to a W/O/W emulsion with unassociated ibuprofen confined within the inner water phase, with a four-fold increase in the encapsulation efficiency. An improved, although lower, encapsulation efficiency was obtained for the inclusion complex γ-CyD-ibuprofen in comparison to HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, whereas α-CyD-ibuprofen had a similar encapsulation efficiency to that of unassociated ibuprofen. The lower encapsulation efficiency of ibuprofen in combination with α-CyD and γ-CyD was attributed to a lower association constant for the γ-CyD-ibuprofen inclusion complex and the ability of α-CyD to form inclusion complexes with fatty acids. For the W/O/W emulsion prepared with HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen was obtained at hyper- and iso-osmotic conditions and by using an excess molar ratio of CyD to ibuprofen. In the last part of the study, it was suggested that the chemical modification of the HP-β-CyD molecule did not influence the encapsulation of ibuprofen, as a similar encapsulation efficiency was obtained for an inclusion complex prepared with mono-1-glucose-β-CyD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. IMPACT OF ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION FUNDING POLICY ON UNIVERSITY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETAN Georgiana Camelia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of higher education funding policy and university operating efficiency are hot points on the actual public agenda worldwide as the pressures exercised upon the public resources increased, especially in the aftermath of the last economic crisis. Concerned with the improvement of the funding mechanism through which government allocates the public funds in order to meet the national core objectives within the area of higher education, the policy makers adjusted the funding policy by diversifying the criteria used in distributing the funds to public universities. Thus, the aim of this research is to underline both the impact and the consequences the public funding patterns of higher education have on the relative efficiency of public funded higher education institutions, across time. Moreover, the research conducted aims to determine whether the changes occurred within the Romanian public funding methodology of higher education institutions improved the relative efficiency scores of public funded universities, before and after the economic crisis of 2008. Thus, on one hand we have underlined the changes brought to the Romanian public funding mechanism of higher education during the years of 2007, 2009 and 2010 compared to the year of 2006, using the content analysis, and on the other hand we assessed and compared the relative efficiency scores of each selected public funded university using a multiple input - multiple output linear programming model, by employing the Data Envelopment Analysis technique. The findings of the research undertaken emphasized that a more performance oriented funding mechanism improves the efficiency scores of public universities. The results of the research undertaken could be used either by the policy makers within the area of higher education or by the administrative management of public universities in order to correlate the funding with the results obtained and/or the objectives assumed by both the

  16. Efficiency and protective effect of encapsulation of milk immunoglobulin G in multiple emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Tu, Y Y; Chang, H M

    1999-02-01

    Milk immunoglobulin G (IgG), separated with protein G affinity chromatography, and IgG in colostral whey were encapsulated by 0.5% (w/v) of Tween 80, sucrose stearate, or soy protein, which were used as secondary emulsifiers in the water in oil in water type multiple emulsion. The residual contents of separated IgG and IgG in colostral whey, ranging from 58.7 to 49.7% and from 13.2 to 21.3%, respectively, in the inner water phase (water phase surrounded by oil phase) with emulsifiers were determined by ELISA. However, the emulsion stability decreased after 24 h, and the residual IgG content in the inner water phase was lowered. Encapsulation of IgG in the multiple emulsion increased the stability of separated IgG against acid (pH 2.0) and alkali (pH 12.0) by 21-56% and 33-62%, respectively, depending on the emulsifier used. Moreover, multiple emulsion also provided a remarkable protective effect on separated IgG stability against proteases. The residual contents of separated IgG in multiple emulsion, using Tween 80 as secondary emulsifier, incubated for 2 h with pepsin (pH 2.0) and trypsin and chymotrypsin (pH 7.6) (enzyme/substrate = 1/20) were 35.4, 72.5, and 82.3%, whereas those of separated IgG in enzyme solution were only 7.2, 33. 1, and 35.2%, respectively. However, the separated IgG loss during the preparation of multiple emulsion was almost 41-50%.

  17. Effects of Different End-Point Cooking Temperatures on the Efficiency of Encapsulated Phosphates on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Ground Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Aktaş, N

    2015-10-01

    Effects of 0.5% encapsulated (e) phosphates (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) after being cooked to 3 end-point cooking temperatures (EPCT; 71, 74, and 77 °C) were evaluated. The use of STP or eSTP resulted in lower (P cooking loss (CL) compared to encapsulated or unencapsulated forms of HMP and SPP. Increasing EPCT led to a significant increase in CL (P chicken compared to 74 and 71 °C (P chicken samples (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by lowering EPCT. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furková, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of efficiency and ranking of higher education institutions is very popular and important topic of public policy. The assessment of the quality of higher education institutions can stimulate positive changes in higher education. In this study we focus on assessment and ranking of Slovak economic faculties. We try to apply two different quantitative approaches for evaluation Slovak economic faculties - Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA as an econometric approach and PROMETHEE II as multicriteria decision making method. Via SFA we examine faculties’ success from scientific point of view, i.e. their success in area of publications and citations. Next part of analysis deals with assessing of Slovak economic sciences faculties from overall point of view through the multicriteria decision making method. In the analysis we employ panel data covering 11 economic faculties observed over the period of 5 years. Our main aim is to point out other quantitative approaches to efficiency estimation of higher education institutions.

  19. Liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can efficiently replace chicken egg yolk in human semen cryopreservation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalik, Srinivas; Salian, Sujith Raj; Avadhani, Kiran; Menon, Jyothsna; Joshi, Haritima; Hegde, Aswathi Raju; Kumar, Pratap; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa plays a significant role in reproductive medicine and fertility preservation. Chicken egg yolk is used as an extender in cryopreservation of human spermatozoa using glycerol egg yolk citrate (GEYC) buffered medium. Even though 50% survival of spermatozoa is generally achieved with this method, the risk of high levels of endotoxins and transmission pathogens from chicken egg yolk is a matter of concern. In the present study we attempted to establish a chemically defined cryopreservation medium which can replace the chicken egg yolk without affecting sperm survival. Ejaculates from 28 men were cryopreserved with GEYC based freezing medium or liposome encapsulated soy lecithin-cholesterol based freezing medium (LFM). The semen samples were subjected to rapid thawing after 14 days of storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw analysis indicated significantly higher post-thaw motility and sperm survival in spermatozoa cryopreserved with LFM compared to conventional GEYC freezing medium. The soy lecithin and cholesterol at the ratio of 80:20 with sucrose showed the highest percentage of post-thaw motility and survival compared to the other compositions. In conclusion, chemically defined cryopreservation medium with liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can effectively replace the chicken egg yolk from human semen cryopreservation medium without compromising post-thaw outcome.

  20. Energy Efficiency of Higher Education Buildings: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nelson; Pereira, Luísa Dias; Ferreira, João; Conceição, Pedro; da Silva, Patrícia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to propose an energy efficiency plan (with technical and behavioural improvement measures) for a Portuguese higher education building--the Teaching Building of the Faculty of Economics of the University of Coimbra (FEUC). Design/methodology/approach: The study was developed in the context of both the "Green…

  1. Encapsulating Silica/Antimony into Porous Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers with Robust Structure Stability for High-Efficiency Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongkang; Yang, Xuming; Wu, Qizhen; Zhang, Qiaobao; Chen, Huixin; Jing, Hongmei; Wang, Jinkai; Mi, Shao-Bo; Rogach, Andrey L; Niu, Chunming

    2018-04-24

    To address the volume-change-induced pulverization problems of electrode materials, we propose a "silica reinforcement" concept, following which silica-reinforced carbon nanofibers with encapsulated Sb nanoparticles (denoted as SiO 2 /Sb@CNFs) are fabricated via an electrospinning method. In this composite structure, insulating silica fillers not only reinforce the overall structure but also contribute to additional lithium storage capacity; encapsulation of Sb nanoparticles into the carbon-silica matrices efficiently buffers the volume changes during Li-Sb alloying-dealloying processes upon cycling and alleviates the mechanical stress; the porous carbon nanofiber framework allows for fast charge transfer and electrolyte diffusion. These advantageous characteristics synergistically contribute to the superior lithium storage performance of SiO 2 /Sb@CNF electrodes, which demonstrate excellent cycling stability and rate capability, delivering reversible discharge capacities of 700 mA h/g at 200 mA/g, 572 mA h/g at 500 mA/g, and 468 mA h/g at 1000 mA/g each after 400 cycles. Ex situ as well as in situ TEM measurements confirm that the structural integrity of silica-reinforced Sb@CNF electrodes can efficiently withstand the mechanical stress induced by the volume changes. Notably, the SiO 2 /Sb@CNF//LiCoO 2 full cell delivers high reversible capacities of ∼400 mA h/g after 800 cycles at 500 mA/g and ∼336 mA h/g after 500 cycles at 1000 mA/g.

  2. High-efficiency single cell encapsulation and size selective capture of cells in picoliter droplets based on hydrodynamic micro-vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakshakurup, Gopakumar; Lee, Abraham P

    2017-12-05

    Single cell analysis has emerged as a paradigm shift in cell biology to understand the heterogeneity of individual cells in a clone for pathological interrogation. Microfluidic droplet technology is a compelling platform to perform single cell analysis by encapsulating single cells inside picoliter-nanoliter (pL-nL) volume droplets. However, one of the primary challenges for droplet based single cell assays is single cell encapsulation in droplets, currently achieved either randomly, dictated by Poisson statistics, or by hydrodynamic techniques. In this paper, we present an interfacial hydrodynamic technique which initially traps the cells in micro-vortices, and later releases them one-to-one into the droplets, controlled by the width of the outer streamline that separates the vortex from the flow through the streaming passage adjacent to the aqueous-oil interface (d gap ). One-to-one encapsulation is achieved at a d gap equal to the radius of the cell, whereas complete trapping of the cells is realized at a d gap smaller than the radius of the cell. The unique feature of this technique is that it can perform 1. high efficiency single cell encapsulations and 2. size-selective capturing of cells, at low cell loading densities. Here we demonstrate these two capabilities with a 50% single cell encapsulation efficiency and size selective separation of platelets, RBCs and WBCs from a 10× diluted blood sample (WBC capture efficiency at 70%). The results suggest a passive, hydrodynamic micro-vortex based technique capable of performing high-efficiency single cell encapsulation for cell based assays.

  3. High-efficiency liposomal encapsulation of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor leads to improved in vivo toxicity and tumor response profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukthavaram R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rajesh Mukthavaram,1 Pengfei Jiang,1 Rohit Saklecha,1 Dmitri Simberg,3,4 Ila Sri Bharati,1 Natsuko Nomura,1 Ying Chao,1 Sandra Pastorino,1 Sandeep C Pingle,1 Valentina Fogal,1 Wolf Wrasidlo,1,2 Milan Makale,1,2 Santosh Kesari1,21Translational Neuro-Oncology Laboratories, 2Department of Neurosciences, 3Solid Tumor Therapeutics Program, Moores Cancer Center, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 4Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USAAbstract: Staurosporine (STS is a potent pan-kinase inhibitor with marked activity against several chemotherapy-resistant tumor types in vitro. The translational progress of this compound has been hindered by poor pharmacokinetics and toxicity. We sought to determine whether liposomal encapsulation of STS would enhance antitumor efficacy and reduce toxicity, thereby supporting the feasibility of further preclinical development. We developed a novel reverse pH gradient liposomal loading method for STS, with an optimal buffer type and drug-to-lipid ratio. Our approach produced 70% loading efficiency with good retention, and we provide, for the first time, an assessment of the in vivo antitumor activity of STS. A low intravenous dose (0.8 mg/kg inhibited U87 tumors in a murine flank model. Biodistribution showed preferential tumor accumulation, and body weight data, a sensitive index of STS toxicity, was unaffected by liposomal STS, but did decline with the free compound. In vitro experiments revealed that liposomal STS blocked Akt phosphorylation, induced poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, and produced cell death via apoptosis. This study provides a basis to explore further the feasibility of liposomally encapsulated STS, and potentially related compounds for the management of resistant solid tumors.Keywords: liposomes, staurosporine, glioblastoma, biodistribution, efficacy

  4. Enhanced optical-to-THz conversion efficiency of photoconductive antenna using dielectric nano-layer encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek; Rana, Goutam; Bhattacharya, Arkabrata; Singh, Abhishek; Jain, Ravikumar; Bapat, Rudheer D.; Duttagupta, S. P.; Prabhu, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    Photoconductive antennas (PCAs) are among the most conventional devices used for emission as well as detection of terahertz (THz) radiation. However, due to their low optical-to-THz conversion efficiencies, applications of these devices in out-of-laboratory conditions are limited. In this paper, we report several factors of enhancement in THz emission efficiency from conventional PCAs by coating a nano-layer of dielectric (TiO2) on the active area between the electrodes of a semi-insulating GaAs-based device. Extensive experiments were done to show the effect of thicknesses of the TiO2 layer on the THz power enhancement with different applied optical power and bias voltages. Multiphysics simulations were performed to elucidate the underlying physics behind the enhancement of efficiency of the PCA. Additionally, this layer increases the robustness of the electrode gaps of the PCAs with high electrical insulation as well as protect it from external dust particles.

  5. Energy efficiency interventions in UK higher education institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altan, Hasim

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an insight into energy efficiency interventions studies, focusing on issues arising in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) in particular. Based on a review of the context for energy efficiency and carbon reduction programmes in the UK and the trends in higher education sector, existing external and internal policies and initiatives and their relevant issues are extensively discussed. To explore the efficacy of some internal intervention strategies, such as technical, non-technical and management interventions, a survey was conducted among UK higher education institutions between February and April 2008. Consultation responses show that there are a relatively high percentage of institutions (83%) that have embarked on both technical and non-technical initiatives, which is a demonstration to the joined-up approach in such area. Major barriers for intervention studies are also identified, including lack of methodology, non-clarity of energy demand and consumption issues, difficulty in establishing assessment boundaries, problems with regards to indices and their effectiveness and so on. Besides establishing clear targets for carbon reductions within the sector, it is concluded that it is important to develop systems for effectively measuring and evaluating the impact of different policies, regulations and schemes in the future as the first step to explore. - Research Highlights: → The research provides an insight into energy efficiency interventions studies, focusing particularly on issues arising in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). → Based on a review of the context for energy efficiency and carbon reduction programmes in the UK and the trends in higher education sector, existing external and internal policies and initiatives, and their relevant issues are extensively discussed. → To explore the efficacy of some internal intervention strategies, such as technical, non-technical and management interventions, a survey was conducted

  6. ICT energy efficiency in higher education. Continuous measurement and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ter Hofte, H. [Novay, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Power consumption of information and communications technology (ICT) is rising rapidly worldwide. Reducing (the growth in) energy demand helps to achieve sustainability goals in the area of energy resource depletion, energy security, economy, and ecology. Various governments and industry consortia have set out policies and agreements to reduce the (growth in) demand for energy. In the MJA3 agreements in the Netherlands, various organizations, including all 14 universities and 39 universities of applied sciences pledged to achieve 30% increase in energy efficiency in 2020 compared to 2005. In this report, we argue that using the number of kilowatt-hours of final electricity used for ICT per enrolled student per day (kWh/st/d), should be used as the primary metric for ICT energy efficiency in higher education. For other uses of electricity than ICT in higher education, we express electricity use in kilowatthours per person per day (kWh/p/d). Applying continuous monitoring and management of ICT energy is one approach one could take to increase ICT energy efficiency in education. In households, providing direct (i.e. real-time) feedback about energy use typically results in 5-15% energy savings, whereas indirect feedback (provided some time after consumption occurs), results in less energy savings, typically 0-10%. Continuous measurement of ICT electricity use can be done in a variety of ways. In this report, we distinguish and describe four major measurement approaches: (1) In-line meters, which require breaking the electrical circuit to install the meter; (2) clamp-on-meters, which can be wrapped around a wire; (3) add-ons to existing energy meters, which use analog or digital ports of existing energy meters; (4) software-only measurement, which uses existing network interfaces, protocols and APIs. A measurement approach can be used at one or more aggregation levels: at building level (to measure all electrical energy used in a building, e.g. a datacenter); at

  7. Considerations for higher efficiency and productivity in research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Diego A; Moore, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    There are several factors that are known to affect research productivity; some of them imply the need for large financial investments and others are related to work styles. There are some articles that provide suggestions for early career scientists (PhD students and postdocs) but few publications are oriented to professors about scientific leadership. As academic mentoring might be useful at all levels of experience, in this note we suggest several key considerations for higher efficiency and productivity in academic and research activities. More research is needed into the main work style features that differentiate highly productive scientists and research groups, as some of them could be innate and others could be transferable. As funding agencies, universities and research centers invest large amounts of money in order to have a better scientific productivity, a deeper understanding of these factors will be of high academic and societal impact.

  8. A "ship in a bottle" strategy to load a hydrophilic anticancer drug in porous metal organic framework nanoparticles: efficient encapsulation, matrix stabilization, and photodelivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nunzio, Maria Rosaria; Agostoni, Valentina; Cohen, Boiko; Gref, Ruxandra; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2014-01-23

    An essential challenge in the development of nanosized metal organic framework (nanoMOF) materials in biomedicine is to develop a strategy to stabilize their supramolecular structure in biological media while being able to control drug encapsulation and release. We have developed a method to efficiently encapsulate topotecan (TPT, 1), an important cytotoxic drug, in biodegradable nanoMOFs. Once inside the pores, 1 monomers aggregate in a "ship in a bottle" fashion, thus filling practically all of the nanoMOFs' available free volume and stabilizing their crystalline supramolecular structures. Highly efficient results have been found with the human pancreatic cell line PANC1, in contrast with free 1. We also demonstrate that one- and two-photon light irradiation emerges as a highly promising strategy to promote stimuli-dependent 1 release from the nanoMOFs, hence opening new standpoints for further developments in triggered drug delivery.

  9. Efficiency assessment models of higher education institution staff activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Dyusekeyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the necessity of improvement of university staff incentive system under the conditions of competition in the field of higher education, the necessity to develop a separate model for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the department heads. The authors analysed the methods for assessing production function of units. The advantage of the application of the methods to assess the effectiveness of border economic structures in the field of higher education is shown. The choice of the data envelopment analysis method to solve the problem has proved. The model for evaluating of university departments activity on the basis of the DEAmethodology has developed. On the basis of operating in Russia, Kazakhstan and other countries universities staff pay systems the structure of the criteria system for university staff activity evaluation has been designed. For clarification and specification of the departments activity efficiency criteria a strategic map has been developed that allowed us to determine the input and output parameters of the model. DEA-methodology using takes into account a large number of input and output parameters, increases the assessment objectivity by excluding experts, receives interim data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the evaluated object.

  10. Fisetin yeast-based bio-capsules via osmoporation: effects of process variables on the encapsulation efficiency and internalized fisetin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Câmara, Antonio Anchieta; Dupont, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick; Rosenthal, Amauri; Correia, Roberta Targino Pinto; Pedrini, Márcia Regina da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Osmoporation is an innovative method that can be used with food-grade yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as natural encapsulating matrices. This technique overcomes barriers that difficult encapsulation and enables the internalization of fragile bioactive molecules such as fisetin into yeasts. In the present study, we assessed the effects of concentration, osmotic pressure, and temperature on the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and internalized fisetin content (IF). Two different quantification strategies were investigated: direct extraction (DE) without cell washing or freeze-drying steps and indirect extraction (IE) performed after washings with ethanol and freeze-drying. Our results showed that osmoporation improved EE (33 %) and IF (1.199 mg). The best experimental conditions were found by using DE. High-resolution images showed that the yeast cell envelope was preserved during osmoporation at 30 MPa and 84 % of yeast cells remained viable after treatment. Washing cells with organic solvent led to decreased EE (0.65 %) and IF (0.023 mg). This was probably due to either damages caused to yeast cell envelope or fisetin dragged out of cell. Overall, the results demonstrated the adequacy and relevant biotechnological potential of yeasts as encapsulating matrices for hydrophobic compounds. This fresh biotechnological approach has proven to be a promising tool for the production of bioactive-rich food products.

  11. Efficient encapsulation of chloroform with cryptophane-M and the formation of exciplex studied by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanqi; Li, Xueming; Yang, Jianchun; Gao, Fang; Tao, Chuanyi

    2011-03-01

    Efficient encapsulation of small molecules with supermolecules is one of significantly important subjects due to strong application potentials. This article presents the interaction between cryptophane-M and chloroform by fluorescence spectroscopy. The sonicated cryptophane-M solution exhibits light green color in chloroform, and the solid obtained from the evaporation of chloroform also has different color from that of cryptophane-M. In contrast, the sonicated cryptophane-M solutions in other solvents are colorless, and the solid obtained from the evaporation of these solvents has the same color as that of cryptophane-M. Furthermore, the freshly prepared cryptophane-M solution in different solvents is almost colorless, and the solid obtained from the evaporation of these solvents displays the same color as that of cryptophane-M. Although the sonicated cryptophane-M solutions in different solvents have very similar absorption spectra, they exhibit quite different emission spectra in chloroform. In contrast, the freshly-prepared cryptophane-M solutions show similar absorption and emission spectroscopy in various solvents. The variation of the fluorescence spectroscopy in binary solvents with the increasing chloroform ratio suggests that cryptophane-M and chloroform form a 1:1 exciplex, and the binding constant is estimated to be 292.95 M(-1). Although all solvents are able to enter into the cavity of cryptophane-M, only chloroform can stay in the cavity of cryptophane-M for a while, which is mostly due to the strong intermolecular interaction between cryptophane-M and chloroform, and this results in the formation of the exciplex between them. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  12. A simple HPLC method for the determination of halcinonide in lipid nanoparticles: development, validation, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Elize Lopes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Halcinonide is a high-potency topical glucocorticoid used for skin inflammation treatments that presents toxic systemic effects. A simple and quick analytical method to quantify the amount of halcinonide encapsulated into lipid nanoparticles, such as polymeric lipid-core nanoparticles and solid lipid nanoparticles, was developed and validated regarding the drug's encapsulation efficiency and in vitro permeation. The development and validation of the analytical method were carried out using the high performance liquid chromatography with the UV detection at 239 nm. The validation parameters were specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy, limits of detection and quantitation, and robustness. The method presented an isocratic flow rate of 1.0 mL.min-1, a mobile phase methanol:water (85:15 v/v, and a retention time of 4.21 min. The method was validated according to international and national regulations. The halcinonide encapsulation efficiency in nanoparticles was greater than 99% and the in vitro drug permeation study showed that less than 9% of the drug permeated through the membrane, indicating a nanoparticle reservoir effect, which can reduce the halcinonide's toxic systemic effects. These studies demonstrated the applicability of the developed and validated analytical method to quantify halcinonide in lipid nanoparticles.

  13. An evaluation of the efficiency of compartmented alginate fibres encapsulating a rejuvenator as an asphalt pavement healing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabaković, Amir; Karač, Aleksandar; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the potential methods for evaluating a healing system for asphalt pavements. The healing system under investigation involves compartmented calcium-alginate fibres encapsulating an asphalt binder healing agent (rejuvenator). This system presents a novel method of incorporating

  14. MODEL TESTING OF LOW PRESSURE HYDRAULIC TURBINE WITH HIGHER EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Nedbalsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A design of low pressure turbine has been developed and it is covered by an invention patent and a useful model patent. Testing of the hydraulic turbine model has been carried out when it was installed on a vertical shaft. The efficiency was equal to 76–78 % that exceeds efficiency of the known low pressure blade turbines. 

  15. HTR plus modern turbine technology for higher efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Kugeler, K.

    1996-01-01

    The recent efficiency race for natural gas fired power plants with gas-plus steam-turbine-cycle, is shortly reviewed. The question 'can the HTR compete with high efficiencies?' is answered: Yes, it can - in principle. The gas-plus steam-turbine cycle, also called combi-cycle, is proposed to be taken into consideration here. A comparative study on the efficiency potential is made; it yields 54.5% at 1,050 deg. C gas turbine-inlet temperature. The mechanisms of release versus temperature in the HTR are summarized from the safety report of the HTR MODUL. A short reference is made to the experiences from the HTR-Helium Turbine Project HHT, which was performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1968 to 1981. (author). 8 figs,. 1 tab

  16. HTR plus modern turbine technology for higher efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert, H; Kugeler, K [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1996-08-01

    The recent efficiency race for natural gas fired power plants with gas-plus steam-turbine-cycle, is shortly reviewed. The question `can the HTR compete with high efficiencies?` is answered: Yes, it can - in principle. The gas-plus steam-turbine cycle, also called combi-cycle, is proposed to be taken into consideration here. A comparative study on the efficiency potential is made; it yields 54.5% at 1,050 deg. C gas turbine-inlet temperature. The mechanisms of release versus temperature in the HTR are summarized from the safety report of the HTR MODUL. A short reference is made to the experiences from the HTR-Helium Turbine Project HHT, which was performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1968 to 1981. (author). 8 figs,. 1 tab.

  17. Highly Efficient Malolactic Fermentation of Red Wine Using Encapsulated Bacteria in a Robust Biocomposite of Silica-Alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Guillermo; Vila-Crespo, Josefina; Fernández-Fernández, Encarnación; Ruipérez, Violeta; Rodríguez-Nogales, José Manuel

    2017-06-28

    Bacteria encapsulation to develop malolactic fermentation emerges as a biotechnological strategy that provides significant advantages over the use of free cells. Two encapsulation methods have been proposed embedding Oenococcus oeni, (i) interpenetrated polymer networks of silica and Ca-alginate and (ii) Ca-alginate capsules coated with hydrolyzed 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (hAPTES). On the basis of our results, only the first method was suitable for bacteria encapsulation. The optimized silica-alginate capsules exhibited a negligible bacteria release and an increase of 328% and 65% in L-malic acid consumption and mechanical robustness, respectively, compared to untreated alginate capsules. Moreover, studies of capsule stability at different pH and ethanol concentrations in water solutions and in wine indicated a better behavior of silica-alginate capsules than untreated ones. The inclusion of silicates and colloidal silica in alginate capsules containing O. oeni improved markedly their capacity to deplete the levels of L-malic acid in red wines and their mechanical robustness and stability.

  18. Heteropoly acid encapsulated into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for Friedel–Crafts acylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammar, Muhammad; Jiang, Sai; Ji, Shengfu, E-mail: jisf@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    A new strategy has been developed for the encapsulation of the phosphotungstic heteropoly acid (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} denoted as PTA) into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage and the PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts with different PTA content were prepared. The structure of the catalysts was characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, FT-IR, ICP-AES and TG. The catalytic activity and recovery properties of the catalysts for the Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride were evaluated. The results showed that 14.6–31.7 wt% PTA were encapsulated in the ZIF-67 cage. The PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts had good catalytic activity for Friedel-Crafts acylation. The conversion of anisole can reach ~100% and the selectivity of the production can reach ~94% over 26.5 wt% PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalyst under the reaction condition of 120 °C and 6 h. After reaction, the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture by the centrifugation. The recovered catalyst can be reused five times and the selectivity can be kept over 90%. - Graphical abstract: The PTA@ZIF-67 catalysts with different PTA content were prepared by encapsulating the PTA into ZIF-67 cage and the as-synthesized catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity for the Friedel–Craft acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride.

  19. Color-Tunable and High-Efficiency Dye-Encapsulated Metal-Organic Framework Composites Used for Smart White-Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenwei; Zhuang, Yixi; Wang, Le; Lv, Ying; Liu, Jianbin; Zhou, Tian-Liang; Xie, Rong-Jun

    2018-05-25

    Luminescent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (typically dye-encapsulated MOFs) are considered as one kind of interesting downconversion materials for white-light-emitting diodes (LEDs), but their quantum efficiency (QE) is not sufficient and thus needs to be significantly enhanced for practical applications. In this study, we successfully synthesized a series of Rh@bio-MOF-1 (Rh = rhodamine) with an internal QE as high as ∼79% via a solvothermal reaction followed by cation exchanges. The high efficiency of the Rh@bio-MOF-1 composites was attributable to the high intrinsic luminescent efficiency of the selected Rh dyes, the confinement effect in the bio-MOF-1 host, and the uniform particle morphology. The emission maximum could be continuously tuned from 550 to 610 nm by controlling the species and concentration of encapsulated dye molecules, showing great color tunability of the dye-encapsulated MOFs. The emission lifetime of ∼7 ns was 1 or 2 magnitude orders shorter than that of Ce 3+ - or Eu 2+ -doped inorganic phosphors, allowing for visible light communication (VLC). White LEDs, fabricated by using the synthesized Rh@bio-MOF-1 composite and inorganic phosphors of green (Ba,Sr) 2 SiO 4 :Eu 2+ and red CaAlSiN 3 :Eu 2+ , exhibited a high color rendering index of 80-94, a luminous efficacy of 94-156 lm/W, and an excellent stability in color point against drive current. The Rh@bio-MOF-1 composites with tunable colors, short emission lifetime, and high QE are expected to be used for smart white LEDs with multifunctions of both lighting and VLC.

  20. COBRE Research Workshop on Higher Education: Equity and Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Univ., IL.

    This document comprises 8 papers presented at the COBRE Research Workshop on Higher Education. The papers are: (1) "Schooling and Equality from Generation to Generation;" (2) "Time Series Changes in Personal Income Inequality: The United States Experience, 1939 to 1985;" (3) "Education, Income, and Ability;" (4) "Proposals for Financing Higher…

  1. Intracellular ROS protection efficiency and free radical-scavenging activity of quercetin and quercetin-encapsulated liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Sadabady, Rogaie; Eidi, Akram; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Barzegar, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) is a natural bio-flavonoid originating from fruits, vegetables, seeds, berries, and tea. The antioxidant activity of quercetin and its protective effects against cardiovascular disorders, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral activities have been extensively documented; however, the clinical request of quercetin in cancer treatment is significantly limited due to its very poor delivery features. In order to increase the hydrophilicity and drug delivery capability, we encapsulated quercetin into liposomes. Our data indicated that liposomal quercetin can significantly improve the solubility and bioavailability of quercetin and can be used as an effective antioxidant for ROS protection within the polar cytoplasm, and the nano-sized quercetin encapsulated by liposomes enhanced the cellular uptake (cancer cell human MCF_7). Quercetin has many pharmaceutical applications, many of which arise from its potent antioxidant properties. The present research examined the antioxidant activities of quercetin in polar solvents by a comparative study using reduction of ferric iron in aqueous medium, intracellular ROS/toxicity assays, and reducing DPPH assays. Cell viability and ROS assays demonstrated that quercetin was able to penetrate into the polar medium inside the cells and to protect them against the highly toxic and deadly belongings of cumene hydroperoxide. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a liposomal formulation of quercetin can suggestively improve its solubility and bioavailability and can be a possible request in the treatment of tumor. The authors encapsulated quercetin in a liposomal delivery system. They studied the in vitro effects of this compound on proliferation using human MCF-7 carcinoma cells. The activity of liposomal quercetin was equal to or better than that of free quercetin at equimolar concentrations. Our data indicated that liposomal quercetin can significantly improve the

  2. Exploiting Software Tool Towards Easier Use And Higher Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, G. H.; Su, J. T.; Deng, Y. Y.

    2006-08-01

    In developing countries, using data based on instrument made by themselves in maximum extent is very important. It is not only related to maximizing science returns upon prophase investment -- deep accumulations in every aspects but also science output. Based on the idea, we are exploiting a software (called THDP: Tool of Huairou Data Processing). It is used for processing a series of issues, which is met necessary in processing data. This paper discusses its designed purpose, functions, method and specialities. The primary vehicle for general data interpretation is through various techniques of data visualization, techniques of interactive. In the software, we employed Object Oriented approach. It is appropriate to the vehicle. it is imperative that the approach provide not only function, but do so in as convenient a fashion as possible. As result of the software exploiting, it is not only easier to learn data processing for beginner and more convenienter to need further improvement for senior but also increase greatly efficiency in every phrases include analyse, parameter adjusting, result display. Under frame of virtual observatory, for developing countries, we should study more and newer related technologies, which can advance ability and efficiency in science research, like the software we are developing

  3. H5PV2Mo10O40 encapsulated in MIL-101(Cr): facile synthesis and characterization of rationally designed composite materials for efficient decontamination of sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqin; Gao, Qi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhou, Yunshan; Zhong, Yuxu; Ying, Ying; Zhang, Mingcai; Huang, Chunqian; Wang, Yong'an

    2018-04-24

    Currently extensive effort is compulsively expended to decontaminate efficiently banned chemical war agents. In this work, H5PV2Mo10O40 molecules have been encapsulated in mesoporous MIL-101(Cr), which features two types of mesoporous cages (internal diameters of 29 Å and 34 Å) and microporous windows (diameters of 12 Å and 16 Å), leading to the formation of a new composite H5PV2Mo10O40@MIL-101(Cr) through a simple impregnation method. The composite was characterized thoroughly by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, TG/DTA, and textural analysis thereby confirming the encapsulation of the H5PV2Mo10O40 into MIL-101(Cr). The decontamination efficiency of sulfur mustard (4 μL HD in 40 μL of petroleum ether) by 20 mg of the composite is found to be 97.39% in 120 min under ambient conditions. GC-MS analysis on the decontaminated products using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), which has been widely used as a simulant of sulfur mustard, showed that MIL-101(Cr) just decontaminates CEES by adsorption, while CEES can be decontaminated under ambient conditions by a synergetic combination of adsorption of MIL-101(Cr) and subsequent chemical oxidation degradation to nontoxic 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide (CEESO) due to the presence of highly dispersed H5PV2Mo10O40 within the composites.

  4. Zeolite-encapsulated Co(II), Mn(II), Cu(II) and Cr(III) salen complexes as catalysts for efficient selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F. H.; Bi, H.; Huang, D. X.; Zhang, M.; Song, Y. B.

    2018-01-01

    Co(II), Mn(II), Cu(II) and Cr(III) salen type complexes were synthesized in situ in Y zeolite by the reaction of ion-exchanged metal ions with the flexible ligand molecules that had diffused into the cavities. Data of characterization indicates the formation of metal salen complexes in the pores without affecting the zeolite framework structure, the absence of any extraneous species and the geometry of encapsulated complexes. The catalytic activity results show that Cosalcyen Y exhibited higher catalytic activity in the water phase selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol, which could be attributed to their geometry and the steric environment of the metal actives sites.

  5. An efficient higher order family of root finders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Ljiljana D.; Rancic, Lidija; Petkovic, Miodrag S.

    2008-06-01

    A one parameter family of iterative methods for the simultaneous approximation of simple complex zeros of a polynomial, based on a cubically convergent Hansen-Patrick's family, is studied. We show that the convergence of the basic family of the fourth order can be increased to five and six using Newton's and Halley's corrections, respectively. Since these corrections use the already calculated values, the computational efficiency of the accelerated methods is significantly increased. Further acceleration is achieved by applying the Gauss-Seidel approach (single-step mode). One of the most important problems in solving nonlinear equations, the construction of initial conditions which provide both the guaranteed and fast convergence, is considered for the proposed accelerated family. These conditions are computationally verifiable; they depend only on the polynomial coefficients, its degree and initial approximations, which is of practical importance. Some modifications of the considered family, providing the computation of multiple zeros of polynomials and simple zeros of a wide class of analytic functions, are also studied. Numerical examples demonstrate the convergence properties of the presented family of root-finding methods.

  6. Exergy analysis of encapsulation of photochromic dye by spray drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çay, A.; Akçakoca Kumbasar, E. P.; Morsunbul, S.

    2017-10-01

    Application of exergy analysis methodology for encapsulation of photochromic dyes by spray drying was presented. Spray drying system was investigated considering two subsystems, the heater and the dryer sections. Exergy models for each subsystem were proposed and exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiency of each subsystem and the whole system were computed. Energy and exergy efficiency of the system were calculated to be 5.28% and 3.40%, respectively. It was found that 90% of the total exergy inlet was destroyed during encapsulation by spray drying and the exergy destruction of the heater was found to be higher.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of aba-type copolymers for encapsulation of bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Felipe F.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2012-01-01

    The use of biopolymers for the development of oxygen carriers has been extensively investigated. In this work, three different ABA triblock copolymers were synthesized and used to encapsulate purified bovine hemoglobin, using a double emulsion technique. The effect of polymer composition, homogenization velocity, and addition of a surfactant, on the protein entrapment was evaluated. These copolymers, which have a hydrophilic block, achieved higher values of encapsulation efficiency than the corresponding homopolymers. The increase in homogenization strength also promoted an increase in encapsulation efficiency. Capsules formation occurred even in the absence of PVA. (author)

  8. Enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia using mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Basri, Mahiran; Samiun, Wan Sarah; Izadiyan, Zahra; Lim, Chaw Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Aripiprazole is considered as a third-generation antipsychotic drug with excellent therapeutic efficacy in controlling schizophrenia symptoms and was the first atypical anti-psychotic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Formulation of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole was carried out using high shear and high pressure homogenizers. Mixture experimental design was selected to optimize the composition of nanoemulsion. A very small droplet size of emulsion can provide an effective encapsulation for delivery system in the body. The effects of palm kernel oil ester (3-6 wt%), lecithin (2-3 wt%), Tween 80 (0.5-1 wt%), glycerol (1.5-3 wt%), and water (87-93 wt%) on the droplet size of aripiprazole nanoemulsions were investigated. The mathematical model showed that the optimum formulation for preparation of aripiprazole nanoemulsion having the desirable criteria was 3.00% of palm kernel oil ester, 2.00% of lecithin, 1.00% of Tween 80, 2.25% of glycerol, and 91.75% of water. Under optimum formulation, the corresponding predicted response value for droplet size was 64.24 nm, which showed an excellent agreement with the actual value (62.23 nm) with residual standard error <3.2%.

  9. Influence of the Formulation Parameters on the Particle Size and Encapsulation Efficiency of Resveratrol in PLA and PLA-PEG Blend Nanoparticles: A Factorial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Gabriela da Rocha; Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2015-12-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles are colloidal systems that promote protection and modification of physicochemical characteristics of a drug and that also ensure controlled and extended drug release. This paper reports a 2(3) factorial design study to optimize poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(lactide)-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) blend nanoparticles containing resveratrol (RVT) for prolonged release. The independent variables analyzed were solvent composition, surfactant concentration and ratio of aqueous to organic phase (two levels each factor). Mean particle size and RVT encapsulation efficiency were set as the dependent variables. The selected optimized parameters were set as organic phase comprised of a mixture of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, 1% of surfactant polyvinyl alcohol and a 3:1 ratio of aqueous to organic phase, for both PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles. This formulation originated nanoparticles with size of 228 ± 10 nm and 185 ± 70 nm and RVT encapsulation efficiency of 82 ± 10% and 76 ± 7% for PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles, respectively. The in vitro release study showed a biphasic pattern with prolonged RVT release and PEG did not influence the RVT release. The in vitro release data were in favor of Higuchi-diffusion kinetics for both nanoformulations and the Kossmeyer-Peppas coefficient indicated that anomalous transport was the main release mechanism of RVT. PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles produced with single emulsion-solvent evaporation technology were found to be a promising approach for the incorporation of RVT and promoted its controlled release. The factorial design is a tool of great value in choosing formulations with optimized parameters.

  10. Review of encapsulation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.

    1996-09-01

    The use of encapsulation technology to produce a compliant waste form is an outgrowth from existing polymer industry technology and applications. During the past 12 years, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been researching the use of this technology to treat mixed wastes (i.e., containing hazardous and radioactive wastes). The two primary encapsulation techniques are microencapsulation and macroencapsulation. Microencapsulation is the thorough mixing of a binding agent with a powdered waste, such as incinerator ash. Macroencapsulation coats the surface of bulk wastes, such as lead debris. Cement, modified cement, and polyethylene are the binding agents which have been researched the most. Cement and modified cement have been the most commonly used binding agents to date. However, recent research conducted by DOE laboratories have shown that polyethylene is more durable and cost effective than cements. The compressive strength, leachability, resistance to chemical degradation, etc., of polyethylene is significantly greater than that of cement and modified cement. Because higher waste loads can be used with polyethylene encapsulant, the total cost of polyethylene encapsulation is significantly less costly than cement treatment. The only research lacking in the assessment of polyethylene encapsulation treatment for mixed wastes is pilot and full-scale testing with actual waste materials. To date, only simulated wastes have been tested. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site had planned to conduct pilot studies using actual wastes during 1996. This experiment should provide similar results to the previous tests that used simulated wastes. If this hypothesis is validated as anticipated, it will be clear that polyethylene encapsulation should be pursued by DOE to produce compliant waste forms

  11. Enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia using mixture experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fard Masoumi HR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi, Mahiran Basri, Wan Sarah Samiun, Zahra Izadiyan, Chaw Jiang Lim Nanodelivery Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Aripiprazole is considered as a third-generation antipsychotic drug with excellent therapeutic efficacy in controlling schizophrenia symptoms and was the first atypical anti­psychotic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Formulation of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole was carried out using high shear and high pressure homo­genizers. Mixture experimental design was selected to optimize the composition of nanoemulsion. A very small droplet size of emulsion can provide an effective encapsulation for delivery system in the body. The effects of palm kernel oil ester (3–6 wt%, lecithin (2–3 wt%, Tween 80 (0.5–1 wt%, glycerol (1.5–3 wt%, and water (87–93 wt% on the droplet size of aripiprazole nanoemulsions were investigated. The mathematical model showed that the optimum formulation for preparation of aripiprazole nanoemulsion having the desirable criteria was 3.00% of palm kernel oil ester, 2.00% of lecithin, 1.00% of Tween 80, 2.25% of glycerol, and 91.75% of water. Under optimum formulation, the corresponding predicted response value for droplet size was 64.24 nm, which showed an excellent agreement with the actual value (62.23 nm with residual standard error <3.2%. Keywords: schizoaffective disorder, antipsychotic drug, bipolar I disorder, D-optimal mixture design, optimization formulation

  12. Highly efficient solid-state synthesis of carbon-encapsulated ultrafine MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals as high rate lithium-ion battery anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Boyang, E-mail: byliu@shmtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Maritime University, College of Ocean Science and Engineering (China); Shao, Yingfeng, E-mail: shaoyf@lnm.imech.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics (China); Zhang, Yuliang, E-mail: ylzhang@shmtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Fuhua, E-mail: fhzhang@shmtu.edu.cn; Zhong, Ning, E-mail: ningzhong@shmtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Maritime University, College of Ocean Science and Engineering (China); Li, Wenge, E-mail: wgli@shmtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Maritime University, Merchant Marine College (China)

    2016-12-15

    A simple and highly efficient method is developed for the one-step in situ preparation of carbon-encapsulated MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals (MoO{sub 2}@C) with core-shell structure for high-performance lithium-ion battery anode. The synthesis is depending on the solid-state reaction of cyclopentadienylmolybdenum tricarbonyl dimer with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave at 200 °C for 30 min. The large amount of heat generated during the explosive reaction cleaves the cyclopentadiene ligands into small carbon fragments, which form carbon shell after oxidative dehydrogenation coating on the MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals, resulting in the formation of core-shell structure. The MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals have an equiaxial morphology with an ultrafine diameter of 2–8 nm, and the median size is 4.9 nm. Hundreds of MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals are encapsulated together by the worm-like carbon shell, which is amorphous and about 3–5 nm in thickness. The content of MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals in the nanocomposite is about 69.3 wt.%. The MoO{sub 2}@C anode shows stable cyclability and retains a high reversible capacity of 443 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at a current density of 3 A g{sup −1}, owing to the effective protection of carbon shell.

  13. Encapsulation process for diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzsch, Stephan; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2015-07-13

    Encapsulation of grating structures facilitates an improvement of the optical functionality and/or adds mechanical stability to the fragile structure. Here, we introduce novel encapsulation process of nanoscale patterns based on atomic layer deposition and micro structuring. The overall size of the encapsulated structured surface area is only restricted by the size of the available microstructuring and coating devices; thus, overcoming inherent limitations of existing bonding processes concerning cleanliness, roughness, and curvature of the components. Finally, the process is demonstrated for a transmission grating. The encapsulated grating has 97.5% transmission efficiency in the -1st diffraction order for TM-polarized light, and is being limited by the experimental grating parameters as confirmed by rigorous coupled wave analysis.

  14. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness, efficiency and value for money are central concerns for the higher education sector. In England, decisions made by the current Government will effect a radical change in the funding for teaching. Institutions will be managing a reduction in public funding for teaching and the transition to the new system of graduate contributions,…

  15. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  16. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  17. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows...

  18. The economical efficiency of private investments in higher education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maksyutina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the economical efficiency of investments in higher education in modern conditions of Russia. The beginning of the article includes a characteristic of the existing empiric research concerning the efficiency of investments in human capital assets. Further the author of the article introduces the results of pay off calculation of private investments in higher education. The result of the research was that in modern conditions of Russia investments in higher education are exceedingly advantageous. High norms of higher education feedback and short period of pay off of these investments explain the reasons of continuously growing demand for it on the part of the population, especially young people. The article proves that the level of population education in Russia is quite high, however accumulated human capital asset is used insufficiently effective. Many people with higher education are forced to take jobs not requiring higher education.  Sharp shift in educational behavior of Russian people raises new demands to labor market. Graduates of higher educational institutions, appearing on a labor market, form qualitatively different demands towards it. But tempo of Russian economics development today can not provide job positions for all graduates of higher educational institutions. That is why structural change of economics is needed.

  19. POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene microencapsulation physically homogenizes and incorporates mixed waste particles within a molten polymer matrix, forming a solidified final waste form upon cooling. Each individual particle of waste is embedded within the polymer block and is surrounded by a durable, leach-resistant coating. The process has been successfully applied for the treatment of a broad range of mixed wastes, including evaporator concentrate salts, soil, sludges, incinerator ash, off-gas blowdown solutions, decontamination solutions, molten salt oxidation process residuals, ion exchange resins, granular activated carbon, shredded dry active waste, spill clean-up residuals, depleted uranium powders, and failed grout waste forms. For waste streams containing high concentrations of soluble toxic metal contaminants, additives can be used to further reduce leachability, thus improving waste loadings while meeting or exceeding regulatory disposal criteria. In this configuration, contaminants are both chemically stabilized and physically solidified, making the process a true stabilization/solidification (S/S) technology. Unlike conventional hydraulic cement grouts or thermosetting polymers, thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene require no chemical. reaction for solidification. Thus, a stable, solid, final waste form product is assured on cooling. Variations in waste chemistry over time do not affect processing parameters and do not require reformulation of the recipe. Incorporation of waste particles within the polymer matrix serves as an aggregate and improves the mechanical strength and integrity of the waste form. The compressive strength of polyethylene microencapsulated waste forms varies based on the type and quantity of waste encapsulated, but is typically between 7 and 17.2 MPa (1000 and 2500 psi), well above the minimum strength of 0.4 MPa (160 psi) recommended by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for low-level radioactive waste forms in support of 10 CFR 61

  20. CIGS cells with metallized front contact: Longer cells and higher efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Frijters, C.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the benefit of a patterned metallization on top of a transparent conductive oxide in CIGS thin-film solar panels. It was found that cells with a grid have a higher efficiency compared to cells with only a TCO. This was observed for all cell lengths used. Furthermore, metallic

  1. Efficiency, Costs, Rankings and Heterogeneity: The Case of US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Johnes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Among the major trends in the higher education (HE) sector, the development of rankings as a policy and managerial tool is of particular relevance. However, despite the diffusion of these instruments, it is still not clear how they relate with traditional performance measures, like unit costs and efficiency scores. In this paper, we estimate a…

  2. Fast and efficient proteolysis by reusable pepsin-encapsulated magnetic sol-gel material for mass spectrometry-based proteomics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, H Mehmet; Salih, Bekir

    2016-08-01

    Hydrophobic silicon-based material having magnetic properties was fairly synthesized by a classical sol-gel approach. Pepsin enzyme was encapsulated in the sol-gel material and the enzyme activity was evaluated in consequence of the digestion of some common proteins such as α- and β-casein, cytochrome c, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) both in a single protein batch and in the protein mixture. The optimum digestion time of the studied proteins using pepsin-encapsulated magnetic sol-gel material was found to be 20min. To produce the magnetic sol-gel material for convenient and easy proteomics applications, Fe3O4 was doped inside sol-gel material during the gelation step. It was observed that the activity of encapsulated pepsin was not affected by the amount of Fe3O4. Poly(ethylene glycol) was also inserted in sol-gel bulk to obtain suitable roughness and increase the hydrophilicity of the material surface to let protein molecules reach to the sol-gel material easily. The digestion of the protein mixture and non-fat bovine milk was performed with the pepsin-encapsulated magnetic sol-gel material and the digested solutions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS for the protein identification. Reusability of the pepsin-encapsulated sol-gel material was examined and it was determined that they could be used at least 20 times. Finally, IgG digestions with a fast incubation time period were carried out using pepsin-encapsulated sol-gel material for generation of (Fab)2 product to evaluate the kinetic performance of the material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 预聚合条件对密胺树脂相变微胶囊包覆效率的影响%Effects of Prepolymerization Conditions on the Encapsulation Efficiency of Phase Change Microcapsules Based on Melamine-Formaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先锋; 赵涛

    2017-01-01

    通过改变预聚合条件制备了一系列密胺树脂相变微胶囊,采用扫描电镜(SEM)、差示扫描量热仪(DSC)和热重分析仪(T3)对其进行表征.探究了微胶囊包覆效率的计算方法,并结合SEM的测试结果,系统地研究了甲醛与三聚氰胺(F/M)摩尔比、预聚合时间和预聚体质量分数等因素对包覆效率(En)的影响.实验结果表明,采用DSC-TG联用的方法计算得到的En可以更准确地表征相变微胶囊的包覆情况.En随F/M摩尔比的增加和预聚合时间的缩短而增大,随预聚体质量分数的增加先增大后减小.当F/M摩尔比为2.5,预聚合时间为30 min,预聚体质量分数为10%时,所制备微胶囊的En可以达到88.6%.%A series of phase change microcapsules based on melamine-formaldehyde were synthesized under different prepolymerization conditions.The properties of obtained microcapsules were investigated by SEM,differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The calculation of encapsulation efficiency was discussed.Combined with SEM,the effects of parameters including formaldehyde/melamine (F/M) mole ratio,reaction time and mass concentration of prepolymer on the encapsulation efficiency were studied systematically.The experimental results indicate that the encapsulation efficiency(En) based on the results of DSC and TGA can reflect the effects of these parameters more accurately.The encapsulation efficiency shows significant increase with the decrease of reaction time and the increase of F/M mole ratio.And it decreases after obvious increase with the rise of mass concentration.When the F/M mole ratio is 2.5,the reaction time is 30 min and the mass fraction of prepolymer is 10 %,the encapsulation efficiency of fabricated microcapsules can reach up to 88.6 %.

  4. Improving extraction efficiency of the third integer resonant extraction using higher order multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tomizawa, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-03-09

    The new accelerator complex at J-PARC will operate with both high energy and very high intensity proton beams. With a design slow extraction efficiency of greater than 99% this facility will still be depositing significant beam power onto accelerator components [2]. To achieve even higher efficiencies requires some new ideas. The design of the extraction system and the accelerator lattice structure leaves little room for improvement using conventional techniques. In this report we will present one method for improving the slow extraction efficiency at J-PARC by adding duodecapoles or octupoles to the slow extraction system. We will review the theory of resonant extraction, describe simulation methods, and present the results of detailed simulations. From our investigations we find that we can improve extraction efficiency and thereby reduce the level of residual activation in the accelerator components and surrounding shielding.

  5. Can More Environmental Information Disclosure Lead to Higher Eco-Efficiency? Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantuan Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the impact of pollution information transparency index (PITI on eco-efficiency using a novel panel dataset covering 109 key environmental protection prefecture-level cities in China over the period 2008–2015. We apply an extended data envelopment analysis (DEA model, simultaneously incorporating metafrontier, undesirable outputs and super efficiency into slack-based measure (Meta-US-SBM to estimate eco-efficiency. Then, the bootstrap Granger causality approach is utilized to test the unidirectional Granger causal relationship running from PITI to eco-efficiency. Results of DEA model show that there exist significant spatiotemporal disparities of eco-efficiency, on average, the eco-efficiency in eastern region is relative higher than those of central/western region. Estimates of ordinary least square (OLS method, quantile regression, and spatial Durbin model document that the evidence of an inverted-U-shaped relation between PITI and eco-efficiency is supported, and the turning points vary from 0.3370 to 0.4540 with different model specifications. Finally, supplementary analysis of panel threshold model also supports the robust findings. Policy implications are presented based on the empirical results.

  6. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Frederik C. [The Danish Polymer Centre, RISOE National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows for transporting oxygen and water sensitive devices outside a glove box environment after sealing and enables sharing of devices between research groups such that efficiency and stability can be evaluated in different laboratories. (author)

  7. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  8. High throughput single-cell and multiple-cell micro-encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagus, Todd P; Edd, Jon F

    2012-06-15

    signals from bioreactor products. Drops also provide the ability to re-merge drops into larger aqueous samples or with other drops for intercellular signaling studies. The reduction in dilution implies stronger detection signals for higher accuracy measurements as well as the ability to reduce potentially costly sample and reagent volumes. Encapsulation of cells in drops has been utilized to improve detection of protein expression, antibodies, enzymes, and metabolic activity for high throughput screening, and could be used to improve high throughput cytometry. Additional studies present applications in bio-electrospraying of cell containing drops for mass spectrometry and targeted surface cell coatings. Some applications, however, have been limited by the lack of ability to control the number of cells encapsulated in drops. Here we present a method of ordered encapsulation which increases the demonstrated encapsulation efficiencies for one and two cells and may be extrapolated for encapsulation of a larger number of cells. To achieve monodisperse drop generation, microfluidic "flow focusing" enables the creation of controllable-size drops of one fluid (an aqueous cell mixture) within another (a continuous oil phase) by using a nozzle at which the streams converge. For a given nozzle geometry, the drop generation frequency f and drop size can be altered by adjusting oil and aqueous flow rates Q(oil) and Q(aq). As the flow rates increase, the flows may transition from drop generation to unstable jetting of aqueous fluid from the nozzle. When the aqueous solution contains suspended particles, particles become encapsulated and isolated from one another at the nozzle. For drop generation using a randomly distributed aqueous cell suspension, the average fraction of drops D(k) containing k cells is dictated by Poisson statistics, where D(k) = λ(k) exp(-λ)/(k!) and λ is the average number of cells per drop. The fraction of cells which end up in the "correctly" encapsulated

  9. Sustainability in Chinese Higher Educational Institutions’ Social Science Research: A Performance Interface toward Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianmei Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability issues in higher educational institutions’ (HEIs research, especially in the social science field, have attracted increasing levels of attention in higher education administration in recent decades as HEIs are confronted with a growing pressure worldwide to increase the efficiency of their research activities under a limited volume and relatively equitable division of public funding resources. This paper introduces a theoretical analysis framework based on a data envelopment analysis, separating the social science research process into a foundation stage and a construction stage, and then projecting each HEI into certain quadrants to form several clusters according to their overall and stage efficiencies and corresponding Malmquist Productivity Indices. Furthermore, the interfaces are formed in each cluster as feasible potential improvement directions. The empirical results in detail are demonstrated from a data set of Chinese HEIs in Jiangsu Province over the Twelfth Five-Year period as offering a closer approximation to the “China social science research best practice”.

  10. Why do French civil-law countries have higher levels of financial efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2011-01-01

    The dominance of English common-law countries in prospects for financial development in the legal-origins debate has been debunked by recent findings. Using exchange rate regimes and economic/monetary integration oriented hypotheses, this paper proposes an “inflation uncertainty theory” in providing theoretical justification and empirical validity as to why French civil-law countries have higher levels of financial allocation efficiency. Inflation uncertainty, typical of floating exchange rat...

  11. Simultant encapsulation of vitamin C and beta-carotene in sesame (Sesamum indicum l.) liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiyanti, D.; Fawrin, H.; Siahaan, P.

    2018-04-01

    In this study sesame liposomes were used to encapsulate both vitamin C and beta-carotene simultaneously. Liposomes were prepared with addition of cholesterol. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of sesame liposomes for vitamin C in the present of beta-carotene was 77%. The addition of cholesterol increased the encapsulation efficiency. The highest encapsulation efficiency was 89% obtained in liposomes with 10% and 20% cholesterol. Contrary to that, the highest beta-carotene encapsulation efficiency of 78%, was found in the sesame liposomes prepared without the added cholesterol. Results showed that sesame liposomes can be used to encapsulate beta-carotene and vitamin C simultaneously. When beta-carotene and vitamin C were encapsulated concurrently, cholesterol intensified the efficiency of vitamin C encapsulation on the contrary it diminished the efficiency of beta-carotene encapsulation.

  12. Post-weaning feed efficiency decreased in progeny of higher milk yielding beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; McFarlane, Z D; Cope, E R

    2018-02-01

    Current trends in the beef industry focus on selecting production traits with the purpose of maximizing calf weaning weight; however, such traits may ultimately decrease overall post-weaning productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of actual milk yield in mature beef cows on their offspring's dry matter intake (DMI), BW, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) during a ~75-day backgrounding feeding trial. A period of 24-h milk production was measured with a modified weigh-suckle-weigh technique using a milking machine. After milking, cows were retrospectively classified as one of three milk yield groups: Lower (6.57±1.21 kg), Moderate (9.02±0.60 kg) or Higher (11.97±1.46 kg). Calves from Moderate and Higher milk yielding dams had greater (Pfeeding phase; however, day 75 BW were not different (P=0.36) between Lower and Moderate calves. Body weight gain was greater (P=0.05) for Lower and Moderate calves from the day 0 BW to day 35 BW compared with Higher calves. Overall DMI was lower (P=0.03) in offspring from Lower and Moderate cows compared with their Higher milking counterparts. With the decreased DMI, FCR was lower (P=0.03) from day 0 to day 35 in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams. In addition, overall FCR was lower (P=0.02) in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams compared with calves from Higher milk yielding dams. However, calving of Lower milk yielding dams had an increased (P=0.04) efficiency from a negative RFI value compared with calves from Moderate and Higher milking dams. Results from this study suggest that increased milk production in beef cows decreases feed efficiency during a 75-day post-weaning, backgrounding period of progeny.

  13. Aerobic TCE degradation by encapsulated toluene-oxidizing bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Bae, Wookeun; Hwang, Jungmin; Park, Jaewoo

    2010-01-01

    The degradation rates of toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE) by Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus spp. that were encapsulated in polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers were evaluated in comparison with the results of exposure to suspended cultures. PEG monomers were polymerized together with TCE-degrading microorganisms, such that the cells were encapsulated in and protected by the matrices of the PEG polymers. TCE concentrations were varied from 0.1 to 1.5 mg/L. In the suspended cultures of P. putida, the TCE removal rate decreased as the initial TCE concentration increased, revealing TCE toxicity or a limitation of reducing power, or both. When the cells were encapsulated, an initial lag period of about 10-20 h was observed for toluene degradation. Once acclimated, the encapsulated P. putida cultures were more tolerant to TCE at an experimental range of 0.6-1.0 mg/L and gave higher transfer efficiencies (mass TCE transformed/mass toluene utilized). When the TCE concentration was low (e.g., 0.1 mg/L) the removal of TCE per unit mass of cells (specific removal) was significantly lower, probably due to a diffusion limitation into the PEG pellet. Encapsulated Bacillus spp. were able to degrade TCE cometabolically. The encapsulated Bacillus spp. gave significantly higher values than did P. putida in the specific removal and the transfer efficiency, particularly at relatively high TCE concentration of approximately 1.0±0.5 mg/L. The transfer efficiency by encapsulated Bacillus spp. in this study was 0.27 mgTCE/mgToluene, which was one to two orders of magnitude greater than the reported values.

  14. Higher-fidelity yet efficient modeling of radiation energy transport through three-dimensional clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, M.L.; Davis, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate modeling of radiative energy transport through cloudy atmospheres is necessary for both climate modeling with GCMs (Global Climate Models) and remote sensing. Previous modeling efforts have taken advantage of extreme aspect ratios (cells that are very wide horizontally) by assuming a 1-D treatment vertically - the Independent Column Approximation (ICA). Recent attempts to resolve radiation transport through the clouds have drastically changed the aspect ratios of the cells, moving them closer to unity, such that the ICA model is no longer valid. We aim to provide a higher-fidelity atmospheric radiation transport model which increases accuracy while maintaining efficiency. To that end, this paper describes the development of an efficient 3-D-capable radiation code that can be easily integrated into cloud resolving models as an alternative to the resident 1-D model. Applications to test cases from the Intercomparison of 3-D Radiation Codes (I3RC) protocol are shown

  15. Selective Co-Encapsulation Inside an M6 L4 Cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Stefan H A M; Becker, René; Kumpulainen, Tatu; de Bruin, Bas; Sawada, Tomohisa; Kato, Taito; Fujita, Makoto; Reek, Joost N H

    2016-10-17

    There is broad interest in molecular encapsulation as such systems can be utilized to stabilize guests, facilitate reactions inside a cavity, or give rise to energy-transfer processes in a confined space. Detailed understanding of encapsulation events is required to facilitate functional molecular encapsulation. In this contribution, it is demonstrated that Ir and Rh-Cp-type metal complexes can be encapsulated inside a self-assembled M 6 L 4 metallocage only in the presence of an aromatic compound as a second guest. The individual guests are not encapsulated, suggesting that only the pair of guests can fill the void of the cage. Hence, selective co-encapsulation is observed. This principle is demonstrated by co-encapsulation of a variety of combinations of metal complexes and aromatic guests, leading to several ternary complexes. These experiments demonstrate that the efficiency of formation of the ternary complexes depends on the individual components. Moreover, selective exchange of the components is possible, leading to formation of the most favorable complex. Besides the obvious size effect, a charge-transfer interaction may also contribute to this effect. Charge-transfer bands are clearly observed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry. A change in the oxidation potential of the encapsulated electron donor also leads to a shift in the charge-transfer energy bands. As expected, metal complexes with a higher oxidation potential give rise to a higher charge-transfer energy and a larger hypsochromic shift in the UV/Vis spectrum. These subtle energy differences may potentially be used to control the binding and reactivity of the complexes bound in a confined space. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Encapsulation by Janus spheroids

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Liu, Ya; Brett, Genevieve; Gunton, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The micro/nano encapsulation technology has acquired considerable attention in the fields of drug delivery, biomaterial engineering, and materials science. Based on recent advances in chemical particle synthesis, we propose a primitive model of an encapsulation system produced by the self-assembly of Janus oblate spheroids, particles with oblate spheroidal bodies and two hemi-surfaces coded with dissimilar chemical properties. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we investigate the encapsulation sys...

  17. Economic efficiency of e-learning in higher education: An industrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Vilaseca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been yet done to analyse if e-learning is an efficiency way in economic terms to produce higher education, especially because there are not available data in official statistics. Despite of these important constrains, this paper aims to contribute to the study of economic efficiency of e-learning through the analysis of a sample of e-learning universities during a period of time (1997-2002. We have wanted to obtain some empirical evidence to understand if e-learning is a feasible model of providing education for universities and which are the variables that allow for feasibility attainment. The main findings are: 1 that the rise of the number of students enrolled is consistent with increasing labour productivity rates; 2 that cost labour savings are explained by the improvement of universities’ economic efficiency (or total factor productivity; and 3 that improvement of total factor productivity in e-learning production is due to the attainment of scale economies, but also to two organisational innovations: outsourcing processes that leads to the increase of variable costs consistent with decreasing marginal costs, and the sharing of assets’ control and use that allow for a rise in assets rotation.

  18. Encapsulation of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, a light-sensitive UV filter, in lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, L; Habran, N; Henschel, V; Amighi, K

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to encapsulate ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EMC), a commonly used UVB filter, in a solid lipid matrix in order to obtain microparticles and then nanoparticles to reduce its photo-instability under UV light exposure. Glyceryl behenate, rice bran wax and ozokerite were investigated for encapsulating EMC. The suspensions of nanoparticles contained 70% encapsulated EMC (relative to the lipid mass). The absorbance level at 310 nm of suspensions containing nanoparticles was more than twice that of those containing microparticles. So, decreasing the size of particles improved the efficiency of light protection, regardless of the lipid material used. Moreover, free EMC presented a 30% loss of its efficiency after 2 h of irradiation, whereas the three NLC formulations showed a loss of absorbency between 10% and 21%. The in vitro cutaneous penetration test did not show a higher potential penetration for EMC contained in nanosuspensions compared to free EMC.

  19. Factor Analysis on Criteria Affecting Lean Retrofit for Energy Efficient Initiatives in Higher Learning Institution Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidin Nur IzieAdiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Higher Learning Institution (HLI is a global concerns on energy demand due to campus act like a small city. Intensive mode of operation of a building is correlated to the energy utilization. Improvement in the current energy efficiency is crucial effort to minimize the environmental effect through minimisation of energy in operation by retrofitting and upgrade the existing building system or components to be more efficient. Basically, there are three recommended steps for the improvement known as lean initiatives, green technology and clean energy in response to becoming zero energy solutions for building. The deliberation of this paper is aimed to highlight the criteria affecting in retrofitting of existing building in HLI with lean initiatives in order to achieve energy efficiency and reduction of energy comsumption. Attention is devoted to reviewing the lean energy retrofitting initiatives criteria for daylighting (side lighting, daylighting (skylight and glazing. The questionnaire survey was employed and distributed to the architects who has an expertise in green building design. Factor analysis was adopted as a method of analysis by using Principal Component with Varimax Rotation. The result is presented through summarizing the sub-criteria according to its importance with a factor loading 0.50 and above. The result found that majority of the criteria developed achieved the significant factor loading value and in accordance with the protocal of analysis. In conclusion the results from analysis of this paper assists the stakeholders in assessing the significant criteria based on the desired lean energy retrofitting initiatives and also provides a huge contribution for future planning improvement in existing buildings to become an energy efficient building.

  20. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-01

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

  1. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  2. Theoretical and methodological grounds of formation of the efficient system of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raevneva Elena V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in generalisation of the modern theoretical and methodological, methodical and instrumentation provision of building of efficient system of higher education. Analysis of literature on the problems of building educational systems shows that there is a theoretical and methodological and instrumentation level of study of this issue. The article considers a theoretical and methodological level of the study and specifies theories and philosophic schools, concepts, educational paradigms and scientific approaches used during formation of the educational paradigm. The article considers models of education and models and technologies of learning as instrumental provision. In the result of the analysis the article makes a conclusion that the humanistic paradigm, which is based on the competency building approach and which assumes the use of modern (innovation technologies of learning, should be in the foundation of reformation of the system of higher education. The prospect of further studies in this directions is formation of competences of potential specialists (graduates of higher educational establishments with consideration of requirements of employers and market in general.

  3. Beyond Frontiers: Comparing the Efficiency of Higher Education Decision-Making Units across More than One Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Johnes, Geraint

    2009-01-01

    We employ Data Envelopment Analysis to compute the technical efficiency of Italian and English higher education institutions. Our results show that, in relation to the country-specific frontier, institutions in both countries are typically very efficient. However, institutions in England are more efficient than those in Italy when we compare…

  4. Encapsulation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.L.; Boyle, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Toxic waste materials are encapsulated by the method wherein the waste material in liquid or finely divided solid form is uniformly dispersed in a vinyl ester resin or an unsaturated polyester and the resin cured under conditions that the exotherm does not rise above the temperature at which the integrity of the encapsulating material is destroyed

  5. Achieving higher efficiency of production through knowledge management via social capital management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Plchová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows a new approach – how to reach higher efficiency in the production from knowledge management via managing social capital through measurement, motivation and stimulation. The test in a real company on the Toyota system implementation is de-scribed. The active involvement of people is an important part of the Toyota system success. This is obvious in Japan but creates a big problem in Europe. These problems were tested in order to answer the following questions: 1. Is it possible to measure the social system level before the application of the system?, 2. Is it possible to evaluate the necessary level of the social system for successful implementation in advance?, 3. Is it possible to cultivate the social system to the desired level? We try to answer all of these questions adopting the Kopčaj Spiral Management approach. The practical results on an existing company are presented together with managerial recommendations.

  6. Encapsulation of protease from Aspergillus oryzae and lipase from Thermomyces lanuginoseus using alginate and different copolymer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Thi Mong Thu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the application of enzymes in food as a food processing aid and enzyme supplement is of interest and widely used, the enzymes can be easily deactivated or lose their activity due to many causes such as pH and moisture as well as through the introduction of incompatible ingredients during food processing and storage. These problems can be solved by the encapsulation technique, especially in a gel matrix. The influences were studied of the alginate concentration, types of copolymer and their concentrations on the bead size, encapsulation yield (EY, encapsulation efficiency (EE, leakage and the retention of enzyme activity during storage period of encapsulated protease from Aspergillus oryzae and lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus beads. A solution of purified protease or lipase was encapsulated in calcium alginate-chitosan beads (CACB, calcium alginate-xanthan gum beads (CAXB and calcium alginate-maltodextrin beads (CAMB using the extrusion method. Increasing the alginate and copolymer concentrations in the solution increased the bead size, EY, EE and the retention of enzyme activity during the storage period and reduced leakage of both the encapsulated protease and lipase. In addition, different types of copolymer significantly (p ≤ 0.05 affected these properties of both encapsulated enzymes. Furthermore, protease encapsulated using 2.0% alginate and 0.2% chitosan provided the highest EY (81.7% and EE (77.2% with a bead size of 1.85 mm and 8.1% leakage. The retention of encapsulated protease activity and the shelf-life of encapsulated enzyme which was expressed as half-life, the time required for the enzyme activity to decrease by half (thalf life were 75.8% and 27.2 wk, respectively after storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. For lipase, encapsulation using 2.0% alginate and 0.4% xanthan gum provided the highest EY (42.5% and EE (43.9% and the bead size and leakage were 1.81 mm and 6.2%, respectively. The retention of encapsulated

  7. Efficient and Stable CsPbBr3 Quantum-Dot Powders Passivated and Encapsulated with a Mixed Silicon Nitride and Silicon Oxide Inorganic Polymer Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Lee, Soyoung; Song, Jae Kyu; Yang, Heesun; Do, Young Rag

    2018-04-11

    Despite the excellent optical features of fully inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbX 3 ) perovskite quantum dots (PeQDs), their unstable nature has limited their use in various optoelectronic devices. To mitigate the instability issues of PeQDs, we demonstrate the roles of dual-silicon nitride and silicon oxide ligands of the polysilazane (PSZ) inorganic polymer to passivate the surface defects and form a barrier layer coated onto green CsPbBr 3 QDs to maintain the high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and improve the environmental stability. The mixed SiN x /SiN x O y /SiO y passivated and encapsulated CsPbBr 3 /PSZ core/shell composite can be prepared by a simple hydrolysis reaction involving the addition of adding PSZ as a precursor and a slight amount of water into a colloidal CsPbBr 3 QD solution. The degree of the moisture-induced hydrolysis reaction of PSZ can affect the compositional ratio of SiN x , SiN x O y , and SiO y liganded to the surfaces of the CsPbBr 3 QDs to optimize the PLQY and the stability of CsPbBr 3 /PSZ core/shell composite, which shows a high PLQY (∼81.7%) with improved thermal, photo, air, and humidity stability as well under coarse conditions where the performance of CsPbBr 3 QDs typically deteriorate. To evaluate the suitability of the application of the CsPbBr 3 /PSZ powder to down-converted white-light-emitting diodes (DC-WLEDs) as the backlight of a liquid crystal display (LCD), we fabricated an on-package type of tricolor-WLED by mixing the as-synthesized green CsPbBr 3 /PSZ composite powder with red K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ phosphor powder and a poly(methyl methacrylate)-encapsulating binder and coating this mixed paste onto a cup-type blue LED. The fabricated WLED show high luminous efficacy of 138.6 lm/W (EQE = 51.4%) and a wide color gamut of 128% and 111% without and with color filters, respectively, at a correlated color temperature of 6762 K.

  8. Thin film Encapsulations of Flexible Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Fa-Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various encapsulated films for flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs were studied in this work, where gas barrier layers including inorganic Al2O3 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition, organic Parylene C thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and their combination were considered. The transmittance and water vapor transmission rate of the various organic and inorgabic encapsulated films were tested. The effects of the encapsulated films on the luminance and current density of the OLEDs were discussed, and the life time experiments of the OLEDs with these encapsulated films were also conducted. The results showed that the transmittance are acceptable even the PET substrate were coated two Al2O3 and Parylene C layers. The results also indicated the WVTR of the PET substrate improved by coating the barrier layers. In the encapsulation performance, it indicates the OLED with Al2O3 /PET, 1 pair/PET, and 2 pairs/PET presents similarly higher luminance than the other two cases. Although the 1 pair/PET encapsulation behaves a litter better luminance than the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation, the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation has much better life time. The OLED with 2 pairs/PET encapsulation behaves near double life time to the 1 pair encapsulation, and four times to none encapsulation.

  9. Selected Private Higher Educational Institutions in Metro Manila: A DEA Efficiency Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Maria Corazon Gwendolyn N.; Cabana, Emilyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper measures the technical efficiency of 16 selected colleges and universities in Metro Manila, Philippines, using academic data for the SY 2001-2005. Using the data envelopment analysis (DEA), on average, schools posted 0.807 index score and need additional 19.3% efficiency growth to be efficient. Overall, there are top four efficient…

  10. Topotactic Transformation of Metal-Organic Frameworks to Graphene-Encapsulated Transition-Metal Nitrides as Efficient Fenton-like Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuning; Ao, Zhimin; Liu, Jiayi; Sun, Hongqi; Rykov, Alexandre I; Wang, Junhu

    2016-12-27

    Innovation in transition-metal nitride (TMN) preparation is highly desired for realization of various functionalities. Herein, series of graphene-encapsulated TMNs (Fe x Mn 6-x Co 4 -N@C) with well-controlled morphology have been synthesized through topotactic transformation of metal-organic frameworks in an N 2 atmosphere. The as-synthesized Fe x Mn 6-x Co 4 -N@C nanodices were systematically characterized and functionalized as Fenton-like catalysts for catalytic bisphenol A (BPA) oxidation by activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS). The catalytic performance of Fe x Mn 6-x Co 4 -N@C was found to be largely enhanced with increasing Mn content. Theoretical calculations illustrated that the dramatically reduced adsorption energy and facilitated electron transfer for PMS activation catalyzed by Mn 4 N are the main factors for the excellent activity. Both sulfate and hydroxyl radicals were identified during the PMS activation, and the BPA degradation pathway mainly through hydroxylation, oxidation, and decarboxylation was investigated. Based on the systematic characterization of the catalyst before and after the reaction, the overall PMS activation mechanism over Fe x Mn 6-x Co 4 -N@C was proposed. This study details the insights into versatile TMNs for sustainable remediation by activation of PMS.

  11. Encapsulation with structured triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipids provide excellent materials to encapsulate bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical applications. Lipids are renewable, biodegradable, and easily modified to provide additional chemical functionality. The use of structured lipids that have been modified with photoactive properties are ...

  12. Facile synthesis of soybean phospholipid-encapsulated MoS2 nanosheets for efficient in vitro and in vivo photothermal regression of breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Li,1 Yun Gong,2,3 Xiaoqian Zhou,1 Hui Jin,1 Huanhuan Yan,1 Shige Wang,2 Jun Liu11Department of Breast-Thyroid Surgery, Shanghai General Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 3Shanghai Publishing and Printing College, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheet has been extensively explored as a photothermal agent for tumor regression; however, its surface modification remains a great challenge. Herein, as an alternative to surface polyethylene glycol modification (PEGylation, a facile approach based on “thin-film” strategy has been proposed for the first time to produce soybean phospholipid-encapsulated MoS2 (SP-MoS2 nanosheets. By simply vacuum-treating MoS2 nanosheets/soybean phospholipid/chloroform dispersion in a rotary evaporator, SP-MoS2 nanosheet was successfully constructed. Owing to the steric hindrance of polymer chains, the surface-coated soybean phospholipid endowed MoS2 nanosheets with excellent colloidal stability. Without showing detectable in vitro and in vivo hemolysis, coagulation, and cyto-/histotoxicity, the constructed SP-MoS2 nanosheets showed good photothermal conversion performance and photothermal stability. SP-MoS2 nanosheet was shown to be a promising platform for in vitro and in vivo breast tumor photothermal therapy. The produced SP-MoS2 nanosheets featured low cost, simple fabrication, and good in vivo hemo-/histocompatibility and hold promising potential for future clinical tumor therapy.Keywords: soybean phospholipid, MoS2 nanosheets, in vivo, photothermal regression, breast tumor

  13. Encapsulation of iron nanoparticles in alginate biopolymer for trichloroethylene remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezbaruah, Achintya N.; Shanbhogue, Sai Sharanya; Simsek, Senay; Khan, Eakalak

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles (10–90 nm) were encapsulated in biodegradable calcium-alginate capsules for the first time for application in environmental remediation. Encapsulation is expected to offers distinct advances over entrapment. Trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation was 89–91% in 2 h, and the reaction followed pseudo first order kinetics for encapsulated NZVI systems with an observed reaction rate constant (k obs ) of 1.92–3.23 × 10 −2 min −1 and a surface normalized reaction rate constant (k sa ) of 1.02–1.72 × 10 −3 L m −2 min −1 . TCE degradation reaction rates for encapsulated and bare NZVI were similar indicating no adverse affects of encapsulation on degradation kinetics. The shelf-life of encapsulated NZVI was found to be four months with little decrease in TCE removal efficiency.

  14. Encapsulation of lycopene in Chlorella pyrenoidosa: Loading properties and stability improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Chuanfen; Tang, Wenting

    2017-11-15

    Aiming to improve the stability of lycopene and incorporate it into a complex nutraceutical, exogenous lycopene-loaded Chlorella pyrenoidosa cells (CPCs) were developed. The complex had an encapsulation yield of 13.06±0.89% and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.31±3.10%. Fluorescence analyses indicated that lycopene was encapsulated in the CPCs. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analyses were conducted and compared to those of the non-loaded CPCs, lycopene and their physical mixture. These studies demonstrated that lycopene was amorphous in the complex. The degradation kinetics indicated that encapsulation increased the stability of lycopene. The antioxidant activity of lycopene loaded CPCs against DPPH free radicals was higher than that of the unencapsulated lycopene after storage at 25°C for 25d. This study proved the feasibility of encapsulation of lycopene in the CPCs and combined the activities of both materials, which could be employed in the production of novel nutraceuticals to reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of higher energy efficiency standards on housing affordability in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    As a result of changes to provincial and national building and energy costs, the impact of increasing energy efficiency standards on housing affordability has been questioned. Determining housing affordability is a complicated process. This report presented the results of a costing analysis completed for upgrades of EnerGuide 80 levels of energy efficiency in homes in Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta. The elements of residential construction were identified. In order to better understand the cost impact of energy efficiency upgrades on a home, pricing data was obtained. Costing elements that were examined included housing price indexes; construction material price indexes; unionized trade wages; and land value. Specifically, the report presented the new housing price index analysis using material and labour costs. An analysis of energy efficiency improvement was then presented in terms of lifecycle costs (capital costs and life cycle costing results). It was concluded that although the price of labour and materials is increasing, the value of land is the primary driver for rising house prices. The price of housing is strongly correlated to the price of land and not the price of labour or materials. In addition, moving to EnerGuide 80 levels of energy efficiency for housing in Alberta made homes more affordable for homebuyers by lowering their total monthly housing costs. 4 tabs., 3 figs., 3 appendices.

  16. Climbing Mount Efficiency--small steps, not giant leaps towards higher cloning success in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oback, Björn

    2008-07-01

    Despite more than a decade of research efforts, farm animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still frustratingly inefficient. Inefficiency manifests itself at different levels, which are currently not well integrated. At the molecular level, it leads to widespread genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations in cloned embryos. At the organismal level, these genome-wide abnormalities compromise development of cloned foetuses and offspring. Specific molecular defects need to be causally linked to specific cloned phenotypes, in order to design specific treatments to correct them. Cloning efficiency depends on the ability of the nuclear donor cell to be fully reprogrammed into an embryonic state and the ability of the enucleated recipient cell to carry out the reprogramming reactions. It has been postulated that reprogrammability of the somatic donor cell epigenome is influenced by its differentiation status. However, direct comparisons between cells of divergent differentiation status within several somatic lineages have found no conclusive evidence for this. Choosing somatic stem cells as donors has not improved cloning efficiency, indicating that donor cell type may be less critical for cloning success. Different recipient cells, on the other hand, vary in their reprogramming ability. In bovine, using zygotes instead of oocytes has increased cloning success. Other improvements in livestock cloning efficiency include better coordinating donor cell type with cell cycle stage and aggregating cloned embryos. In the future, it will be important to demonstrate if these small increases at every step are cumulative, adding up to an integrated cloning protocol with greatly improved efficiency.

  17. Alternative geometry for cylindrical natural draft cooling tower with higher cooling efficiency under crosswind condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, M.; Ramezanpour, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alternative cross sections for natural draft cooling tower were proposed. • Numerical solution was applied to study thermal and hydraulic performances. • Thermal and hydraulic performances were assessed by comparative parameters. • Cooling tower with elliptical cross section had better thermal performance under crosswind. • It could successfully used at the regions with invariant wind direction. - Abstract: Cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower may significantly decrease under crosswind condition. Therefore, many researchers attempted to improve the cooling efficiency under this condition by using structural or mechanical facilities. In this article, alternative shell geometry with elliptical cross section is proposed for this type of cooling tower instead of usual shell geometry with circular cross section. Thermal performance and cooling efficiency of the two types of cooling towers are numerically investigated. Numerical simulations show that cooling tower with elliptical cross section improves the cooling efficiency compared to the usual type with circular cross section under high-speed wind moving normal to the longitudinal diameter of the elliptical cooling tower

  18. Automation of analytical processes. A tool for higher efficiency and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groll, P.

    1976-01-01

    The analytical laboratory of a radiochemical facility is usually faced with the fact that numerous analyses of a similar type must be routinely carried out. Automation of such routine analytical procedures helps in increasing the efficiency and safety of the work. A review of the requirements for automation and its advantages is given and demonstrated on three examples. (author)

  19. Uptake of encapsulated 99mTc-MIBI into simple or pegylated liposomes in cultured cells and in tumour-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergote, J.; Belhaj-Tayeb, H.; Banisadr, G.; Leger, G.; Briane, D.; Moretti, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Encapsulating 99m Tc-MIBI into liposomes could prolong its circulation half-life in blood without alteration of tracer abilities. In addition, surface coating of liposomes with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) have been shown to be efficient vehicles for antibiotics or 99m Tc-tracers. The uptake of encapsulated 99m Tc-MIBI into liposomes, simple or pegylated, in cancerous cells and its biodistribution were compared to the free 99m Tc-MIBI. The encapsulation of 99m Tc-MIBI into liposomes was obtained using a K + diffusion potential method. Untrapped 99m Tc-MIBI into liposomes preparations 'Small Unilamellar Vesicles' (SUVs) was removed by passing the SUVs through a chromatography column. 99m Tc-MIBI uptake in cells was qualified by measuring radioactivity retained in K562 and MCF7-ras cells incubated with encapsulated or free 99m Tc-MIBI. The biodistribution was explored in tumour-bearing nude mice. The efficiency with which 99m Tc-MIBI was encapsulated in liposomes was 45% - 50% for pegylated or not. In the two cell lines, the accumulation of 99m Tc-MIBI was similar either the tracer was free or encapsulated into liposomes. One hour after injection, the biodistribution showed a higher clearance for free 99m Tc-MIBI than for encapsulated tracer into liposomes. The tumour accumulated in a greater extent the encapsulated form than the free 99m Tc-MIBI. Encapsulated 99m Tc-MIBI into PEG-liposomes would be a promising radiopharmaceutical for tumour imaging in vivo. (author)

  20. Transport of encapsulated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, Ulrika; Dybeck, Peter; Ekendahl, Ann-Mari

    2005-12-01

    The transport system for encapsulated fuel is described, including a preliminary drawing of a transport container. In the report, the encapsulation plant is assumed to be located to Oskarshamn, and the repository to Oskarshamn or Forsmark

  1. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  2. Arbiters of Effectiveness and Efficiency: The Frames and Strategies of Management Consulting Firms in US Higher Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of public colleges and universities in the United States have hired management consulting firms to help develop strategies aimed at increasing institutional effectiveness and efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to explore the frames and strategies of consultants in US public higher education reform efforts. Drawing upon a…

  3. Appraising the Cost Efficiency of Higher Technological and Vocational Education Institutions in Taiwan Using the Metafrontier Cost-Function Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Ku-Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at appraising the cost efficiency and technology of institutions of higher technological and vocational education. Differing from conventional literature, it considers the potential influence of inherent discrepancies in output quality and characteristics of school systems for institutes of technology (ITs) and universities of…

  4. Between Efficiency and Transformation: The Opinion of Deans on the Meaning of Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Barrenetxea-Ayesta, Miren; Cardona-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mijangos-Del Campo, Juan José; Barandiaran-Galdós, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The literature on quality management at higher education institutions has for some time been working on the basis of two issues: a) the diversity of ideas as to what "quality" means, which makes it harder to apply the principles of quality management in this context; and b) the idea that this diversity is in some way a response to the…

  5. Managing the higher risks of low-cost high-efficiency advanced power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.

    1997-01-01

    Independent power producers operate large coal-fired installations and gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) facilities. Combined cycle units are complex and their reliability and availability is greatly influenced by mechanical, instrumentation and control weaknesses. It was suggested that these weaknesses could be avoided by tighter specifications and more rigorous functional testing before acceptance by the owner. For the present, the difficulties of developing reliable, lower installed cost/kw, more efficient GTCC designs, pressure for lower NO x emissions with 'dry' combustors continue to be the most difficult challenges for all GT manufacturers

  6. Higher efficiency with cylinder-bank comprehensive exhaust manifold; Effizienzsteigerung durch Zylinderbank-uebergreifenden Kruemmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, Rainer; Kornherr, Heinz; Pirntke, Frank; Schmidt, Juergen [Friedrich Boysen GmbH und Co. KG, Altensteig (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    In close interdisciplinary cooperation with BMW Group, Boysen has developed an air-gap-insulated exhaust manifold that encompasses both banks of the 4.4 l V8 spark-ignition twin turbo engine of the BMW X5 M and BMW X6 M. The manifold merges the exhaust gas flow from the cylinders of the left-hand and right-hand cylinder banks in opposing pairs, thus optimising gas exchange. Due to improvements in response, torque and power characteristics of the engine, the cylinder-bank comprehensive exhaust manifold helps achieve high fuel efficiency. (orig.)

  7. Does centennial morphodynamic evolution lead to higher channel efficiency in San Pablo Bay, California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wegen, M.; Jaffe, B.E.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Measured bathymetries on 30 year interval over the past 150 years show that San Pablo Bay experienced periods of considerable deposition followed by periods of net erosion. However, the main channel in San Pablo Bay has continuously narrowed. The underlying mechanisms and consequences of this tidal channel evolution are not well understood. The central question of this study is whether tidal channels evolve towards a geometry that leads to more efficient hydraulic conveyance and sediment throughput. We applied a hydrodynamic process-based, numerical model (Delft3D), which was run on 5 San Pablo Bay bathymetries measured between 1856 and 1983. Model results shows increasing energy dissipation levels for lower water flows leading to an approximately 15% lower efficiency in 1983 compared to 1856. During the same period the relative seaward sediment throughput through the San Pablo Bay main channel increased by 10%. A probable explanation is that San Pablo Bay is still affected by the excessive historic sediment supply. Sea level rise and Delta surface water area variations over 150 years have limited effect on the model results. With expected lower sediment concentrations in the watershed and less impact of wind waves due to erosion of the shallow flats, it is possible that energy dissipations levels will decrease again in future decades. Our study suggests that the morphodynamic adaptation time scale to excessive variations in sediment supply to estuaries may be on the order of centuries.

  8. The production of volvox spheres and their potential application in multi-drugs encapsulation and release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teong, Benjamin; Chang, Shwu Jen [Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, College of Medicine, No. 8, Yida Rd., Jiaosu Village, Yanchao District, Kaohsiung City 82445, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Chin Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Dashu District, Kaohsiung City 84001, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Shyh Ming, E-mail: smkuo@isu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, College of Medicine, No. 8, Yida Rd., Jiaosu Village, Yanchao District, Kaohsiung City 82445, Taiwan (China); Manousakas, Ioannis, E-mail: i.manousakas@ieee.org [Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, College of Medicine, No. 8, Yida Rd., Jiaosu Village, Yanchao District, Kaohsiung City 82445, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-01

    Volvox sphere is a bio-mimicking concept of an innovative biomaterial structure of a sphere that contains smaller microspheres which then encapsulate chemicals, drugs and/or cells. The volvox spheres were produced via a high-voltage electrostatic field system, using alginate as the primary material. Encapsulated materials tested in this study include staining dyes, nuclear fast red and trypan blue, and model drugs, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome c (CytC). The external morphology of the volvox spheres was observed via electron microscopy whereas the internal structure of the volvox spheres was observed via an optical microscope with the aid of the staining dyes, since alginate is colorless and transparent. The diameter of the microspheres was about 200 to 300 μm, whereas the diameter of the volvox spheres was about 1500 μm. Volvox spheres were durable, retaining about 95% of their mass after 4 weeks. Factors affecting entrapment efficiency, such as temperature and concentration of the bivalent cross-linker, were compared followed by a 7-day in vitro release study. The encapsulation efficiency of CytC within the microspheres was higher at cold (∼ 4 °C) and warm (∼ 50 °C) temperatures whereas temperature has no obvious effect on the BSA encapsulation. High crosslinking concentration (25% w/v) of calcium chloride has resulted higher entrapment efficiency for BSA but not for CytC. Furthermore, volvox spheres showed a different release pattern of BSA and CytC when compared to microspheres encapsulating BSA and CytC. Despite the fact that the mechanisms behind remain unclear and further investigation is required, this study demonstrates the potential of the volvox spheres for drug delivery. - Highlights: • Volvox spheres contain smaller microspheres which can encapsulate drugs and/or cells. • Alginate is the primary material for the inner and outer spheres. • Encapsulation is affected by the crosslinking, temperature and the selection of drugs.

  9. The production of volvox spheres and their potential application in multi-drugs encapsulation and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teong, Benjamin; Chang, Shwu Jen; Chuang, Chin Wen; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Manousakas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Volvox sphere is a bio-mimicking concept of an innovative biomaterial structure of a sphere that contains smaller microspheres which then encapsulate chemicals, drugs and/or cells. The volvox spheres were produced via a high-voltage electrostatic field system, using alginate as the primary material. Encapsulated materials tested in this study include staining dyes, nuclear fast red and trypan blue, and model drugs, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome c (CytC). The external morphology of the volvox spheres was observed via electron microscopy whereas the internal structure of the volvox spheres was observed via an optical microscope with the aid of the staining dyes, since alginate is colorless and transparent. The diameter of the microspheres was about 200 to 300 μm, whereas the diameter of the volvox spheres was about 1500 μm. Volvox spheres were durable, retaining about 95% of their mass after 4 weeks. Factors affecting entrapment efficiency, such as temperature and concentration of the bivalent cross-linker, were compared followed by a 7-day in vitro release study. The encapsulation efficiency of CytC within the microspheres was higher at cold (∼ 4 °C) and warm (∼ 50 °C) temperatures whereas temperature has no obvious effect on the BSA encapsulation. High crosslinking concentration (25% w/v) of calcium chloride has resulted higher entrapment efficiency for BSA but not for CytC. Furthermore, volvox spheres showed a different release pattern of BSA and CytC when compared to microspheres encapsulating BSA and CytC. Despite the fact that the mechanisms behind remain unclear and further investigation is required, this study demonstrates the potential of the volvox spheres for drug delivery. - Highlights: • Volvox spheres contain smaller microspheres which can encapsulate drugs and/or cells. • Alginate is the primary material for the inner and outer spheres. • Encapsulation is affected by the crosslinking, temperature and the selection of drugs.

  10. An Efficient Higher-Order Quasilinearization Method for Solving Nonlinear BVPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S. Alaidarous

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, we present higher-order quasilinearization methods for the boundary value problems as well as coupled boundary value problems. The construction of higher-order convergent methods depends on a decomposition method which is different from Adomain decomposition method (Motsa and Sibanda, 2013. The reported method is very general and can be extended to desired order of convergence for highly nonlinear differential equations and also computationally superior to proposed iterative method based on Adomain decomposition because our proposed iterative scheme avoids the calculations of Adomain polynomials and achieves the same computational order of convergence as authors have claimed in Motsa and Sibanda, 2013. In order to check the validity and computational performance, the constructed iterative schemes are also successfully applied to bifurcation problems to calculate the values of critical parameters. The numerical performance is also tested for one-dimension Bratu and Frank-Kamenetzkii equations.

  11. Which Are the Determinants of Online Students' Efficiency in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Merino, David; Serradell-Lopez, Enric; González-González, Inés

    International literature shows that the positive effect on students performance from the adoption of innovations in the technology of teaching and learning do not affect all teaching methods and learning styles equally, as it depends on university strategy and policy towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) adoption, students abilities, technology uses in the educational process by teachers and students, or the selection of a methodology that matches with digital uses. This paper provides empirical answers to these questions with data from online students at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC). An empirical model based on structural equations has been defined to explain complex relationships between variables. Our results show that motivation is the main variable affecting online students' performance. It appears as a latent variable influenced by students' perception of efficiency, a driver for indirect positive and significant effect on students' performance from students' ability in ICT uses.

  12. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Enhanced efficiency in the excitation of higher modes for atomic force microscopy and mechanical sensors operated in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penedo, M., E-mail: mapenedo@imm.cnm.csic.es; Hormeño, S.; Fernández-Martínez, I.; Luna, M.; Briones, F. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Raman, A. [Birck Nanotechnology Center and School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47904 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Recent developments in dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy where several eigenmodes are simultaneously excited in liquid media are proving to be an excellent tool in biological studies. Despite its relevance, the search for a reliable, efficient, and strong cantilever excitation method is still in progress. Herein, we present a theoretical modeling and experimental results of different actuation methods compatible with the operation of Atomic Force Microscopy in liquid environments: ideal acoustic, homogeneously distributed force, distributed applied torque (MAC Mode™), photothermal and magnetostrictive excitation. From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that magnetostriction is the strongest and most efficient technique for higher eigenmode excitation when using soft cantilevers in liquid media.

  14. Encapsulation of curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles for antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffersson Krishan Trigo Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Curcumin (CUR has been used as photosensitizer in antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT. However its poor water solubility, instability, and scarce bioavalibility hinder its in vivo application. The aim of this study was to synthesize curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles (NP and to evaluate their antimicrobial photodynamic effect and cytoxicity. CUR in anionic and cationic NP was synthesized using polylactic acid and dextran sulfate by the nanoprecipitation method. For cationic NP, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was added. CUR-NP were characterized by physicochemical properties, photodegradation, encapsulation efficiency and release of curcumin from nanoparticles. CUR-NP was compared with free CUR in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as a photosensitizer for aPDT against planktonic and biofilms (mono-, dual- and triple-species cultures of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The cytotoxicity effect of formulations was evaluated on keratinocytes. Data were analysed by parametric (ANOVA and non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = 0.05. CUR-NP showed alteration in the physicochemical properties along time, photodegradation similar to free curcumin, encapsulation efficiency up to 67%, and 96% of release after 48h. After aPDT planktonic cultures showed reductions from 0.78 log10 to complete eradication, while biofilms showed no antimicrobial effect or reductions up to 4.44 log10. Anionic CUR-NP showed reduced photoinactivation of biofilms. Cationic CUR-NP showed microbicidal effect even in absence of light. Anionic formulations showed no cytotoxic effect compared with free CUR and cationic CUR-NP and NP. The synthesized formulations improved the water solubility of CUR, showed higher antimicrobial photodynamic effect for planktonic cultures than for biofilms, and the encapsulation of CUR in anionic NP reduced the cytotoxicity of 10% DMSO used for free CUR.

  15. Encapsulation of curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles for antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo Gutierrez, Jeffersson Krishan; Zanatta, Gabriela Cristina; Ortega, Ana Laura Mira; Balastegui, Maria Isabella Cuba; Sanitá, Paula Volpato; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Barbugli, Paula Aboud

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has been used as photosensitizer in antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT). However its poor water solubility, instability, and scarce bioavalibility hinder its in vivo application. The aim of this study was to synthesize curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles (NP) and to evaluate their antimicrobial photodynamic effect and cytoxicity. CUR in anionic and cationic NP was synthesized using polylactic acid and dextran sulfate by the nanoprecipitation method. For cationic NP, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was added. CUR-NP were characterized by physicochemical properties, photodegradation, encapsulation efficiency and release of curcumin from nanoparticles. CUR-NP was compared with free CUR in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a photosensitizer for aPDT against planktonic and biofilms (mono-, dual- and triple-species) cultures of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The cytotoxicity effect of formulations was evaluated on keratinocytes. Data were analysed by parametric (ANOVA) and non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests (α = 0.05). CUR-NP showed alteration in the physicochemical properties along time, photodegradation similar to free curcumin, encapsulation efficiency up to 67%, and 96% of release after 48h. After aPDT planktonic cultures showed reductions from 0.78 log10 to complete eradication, while biofilms showed no antimicrobial effect or reductions up to 4.44 log10. Anionic CUR-NP showed reduced photoinactivation of biofilms. Cationic CUR-NP showed microbicidal effect even in absence of light. Anionic formulations showed no cytotoxic effect compared with free CUR and cationic CUR-NP and NP. The synthesized formulations improved the water solubility of CUR, showed higher antimicrobial photodynamic effect for planktonic cultures than for biofilms, and the encapsulation of CUR in anionic NP reduced the cytotoxicity of 10% DMSO used for free CUR. PMID:29107978

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF THE SUPPORTING STRUCTURE OF PLATFORM CAR FOR HIGHER EFFICIENCY OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Lovska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to improve supporting structures of the platform car to increase the efficiency of container transportations. Methodology. In order to achieve the objective, the strength investigations of the universal platform car of the model 13-401 were conducted, strength reserves of the supporting elements were defined, and more optimal profiles of basic longitudinal beams of the frame in terms of the minimum material capacity were proposed. Decision correctness was confirmed by the strength calculation of the platform car supporting structure at basic loading operational modes and fatigue taking into account the research database of 107 cycles. It has been proposed to equip a platform car with swing fitting stops for fastening containers on the frame, which allows transportation of 20ft and 40ft containers. In order to improve container transportation efficiency along international transport corridors running through Ukraine, a platform car of articulated type has been designed on the base of the improved platform car structure. The mathematical simulation of dynamic loads of the platform car with containers (two 1CC containers at operational loading modes has been carried out, the maximum accelerations influencing the support structure have been defined, and their multiple values have been considered in computer simulation of the strength of the platform car of articulated type. Findings. The support structure of the platform car of articulated type on the basis of the standard platform car has been developed. Refined values of dynamic loads influencing supporting structure the platform car of articulated type with containers at operational loading modes have been obtained; the maximum equivalent stresses in the platform car support structure have been defined. Originality and practical value. A mathematical model of displacements for a platform car of articulated type with containers at operational loading modes of

  17. Melting of Pb clusters encapsulated in large fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delogu, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Encapsulation significantly increases the melting point of nanometer-sized Pb particles with respect to the corresponding unsupported ones. Highlights: → Nanometer-sized Pb particles are encapsulated in fullerene cages. → Their thermal behavior is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. → Encapsulated particles undergo a pressure rise as temperature increases. → Encapsulated particles melt at temperatures higher than unsupported ones. - Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to explore the melting behavior of nanometer-sized Pb particles encapsulated in spherical and polyhedral fullerene cages of suitable size. The encapsulated particles, as well as the corresponding unsupported ones for comparison, were submitted to a gradual temperature rise. Encapsulation is shown to severely affect the thermodynamic behavior of Pb particles due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of particles and cages. This determines a volume constraint that induces a rise of pressure inside the fullerene cages, which operate for particles as rigid confinement systems. The result is that surface pre-melting and melting processes occur in encapsulated particles at temperatures higher than in unsupported ones.

  18. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the recalcitrant Vanda Kasem's Delight orchid with higher efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnasekaran, Pavallekoodi; Antony, Jessica Jeyanthi James; Uddain, Jasim; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2014-01-01

    The presented study established Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation using protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) for the production of transgenic Vanda Kasem's Delight Tom Boykin (VKD) orchid. Several parameters such as PLB size, immersion period, level of wounding, Agrobacterium density, cocultivation period, and concentration of acetosyringone were tested and quantified using gusA gene expression to optimize the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of VKD's PLBs. Based on the results, 3-4 mm PLBs wounded by scalpel and immersed for 30 minutes in Agrobacterium suspension of 0.8 unit at A 600 nm produced the highest GUS expression. Furthermore, cocultivating infected PLBs for 4 days in the dark on Vacin and Went cocultivation medium containing 200 μM acetosyringone enhanced the GUS expression. PCR analysis of the putative transformants selected in the presence of 250 mg/L cefotaxime and 30 mg/L geneticin proved the presence of wheatwin1, wheatwin2, and nptII genes.

  20. Increasing the efficiency of sulphur dioxide in wine by using of saturated higher fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Bábíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on stopping of alcoholic fermentation to leave residual sugar and the possibility of sulfur dioxide reduction in wine technology and storage. As a very good opportunity showed mixture of higher saturated fatty acids with a reduced dose of sulfur dioxide. Experiments have confirmed that the concentration of viable yeasts in 1 ml of wine for variants treated with a mixture of fatty acids is significantly lower than in variants treated with sulfur dioxide alone. Then was monitored the influence of fatty acids on stored wine with residual sugar. At this point a dramatically prolongation of interval to secondary fermentation (depreciation of wine in the bottle was confirmed. Finally, attention was paid to influence on the organoleptic characteristics of wine treated this way. In this case, it is possible to consider the recommended concentration of fatty acid below the threshold of susceptibility.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the encapsulation of new antidiabetic sulphonylhydrazone and antitumor N-acylhydrazone derivatives using PLGA nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, F N; Ibiapino, A L; De Figueiredo, L P; De Castro, C E; Giacomelli, F C; Ferreira, F F; Barreiro, E J; Lima, L M; Do Amaral, D N

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated the feasibly of using PLGA nanoparticles to promote the encapsulation of novel anti-diabetic sulphonylhydrazone and antitumor N-acylhydrazone derivatives. The motivation is to further demonstrate the possibility of long-term release of anti-diabetic as well as higher accumulation of the antitumor derivative by using the nanotechnology-based production. The produced nanoparticles were obtained by the nanoprecipitation method, which revealed to be effective in the encapsulation of the bioactive compounds. The determined sizes were in the range of ∼100 nm, which are supposed to be suitable for both potential applications. The preliminary experimental data demonstrated the formation of stable nanosystems and further experiments are underway in order to determine the loading content, encapsulation efficiency and release profile of the hydrophobic bioactive compounds. (paper)

  2. Increasing emitter efficiency in 3.3-kV enhanced trench IGBTs for higher short-circuit capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Rahimo, Munaf

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a 3.3-kV Enhanced Trench IGBT has been designed with a high emitter efficiency, for improving its short-circuit robustness. The carrier distribution profile has been shaped in a way that it is possible to increase the electric field at the surface of the IGBT, and thereby, counteract...... the Kirk Effect onset. This design approach is beneficial for mitigating high-frequency oscillations, typically observed in IGBTs under short-circuit conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed design rule is validated by means of mixed-mode device simulations. Then, two IGBTs have been fabricated...... with different emitter efficiencies and tested under short circuit, validating that the high-frequency oscillations can be mitigated, with higher emitter efficiency IGBT designs....

  3. Towards a higher energy efficiency and lower carbon society the European approach and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Klaus R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural energy sources and their conversion to secondary forms of energy are a crucial base for the development of our society with its continuous change of requirements due to an increase in population and the broadening of the needs in our modern life. As a consequence the consumption of primary energy resources rose drastically worldwide during the last 5 decades in particular in the industrialized regions such as Europe. Parallel in time the increasing awareness of negative effects of fuel dependent pollution on the environment and the introduction of stringent emission control regulations about 3 decades ago initiated extensive development and retrofit activities resulting in the today applied high level state of the art. As an additional challenge the worldwide debate about the potential effects of the emission of the s.c green house gases on the global climate in particular carbon dioxide from the use of predominantly fossil fuels have initiated in the European Union extensive efforts in efficiency improvements of large scale fuel conversion and more recently in the development of processes for CO 2 capture and its subsequent storage. Furthermore the use of the s.c CO 2 neutral fuels such as biomass and organic wastes as well as the non carbonaceous options water wind and solar power are promoted towards a growing role in a future primary energy mix. In addition the majority of the member states of the European Union support the minimization of energetic losses by the provision of incentives for energy savings and for switching to lower energy consuming alternatives. In fact all the above mentioned instruments have to be applied in order to fulfil the long term requirements e. g. a reduction of the greenhouse gas emission by at least 20% by 2020 and further alleviations for the time beyond. The presentation will start with summarizing the development of the demand and supply of energy in Europe during the recent decades. After an outline of the

  4. Stability Comparison of Free and Encapsulated Lactobacilus casei ATCC 393 in Yoghurt for Long Time Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia POP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An innovative method of L. casei ATCC 393 encapsulation has been reported in the present study using pectin combined with alginate. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulation on the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 in yoghurt during long time storage, free or encapsulated in alginate and alginate pectin microspheres, and influence over yoghurt properties, particularly acidification. Over 35 days of storage in yoghurt, the encapsulated probiotic cells proved a higher viability compared with free probiotic cells. An even higher viability and stability was observed for the samples where pectin was used. Pectin acts as prebiotic during encapsulation of L. casei ATCC 393.

  5. Modeling an array of encapsulated germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    A probability model has been presented for understanding the operation of an array of encapsulated germanium detectors generally known as composite detector. The addback mode of operation of a composite detector has been described considering the absorption and scattering of γ-rays. Considering up to triple detector hit events, we have obtained expressions for peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the cluster detector, which consists of seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. Results have been obtained for the miniball detectors comprising of three and four seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. The formalism has been extended to the SPI spectrometer which is a telescope of the INTEGRAL satellite and consists of nineteen hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. This spectrometer comprises of twelve detector modules surrounding the cluster detector. For comparison, we have considered a spectrometer comprising of nine detector modules surrounding the three detector configuration of miniball detector. In the present formalism, the operation of these sophisticated detectors could be described in terms of six probability amplitudes only. Using experimental data on relative efficiency and fold distribution of cluster detector as input, the fold distribution and the peak-to-total, peak-to-background ratios have been calculated for the SPI spectrometer and other composite detectors at 1332 keV. Remarkable agreement between experimental data and results from the present formalism has been observed for the SPI spectrometer.

  6. Antidiabetic Activity from Gallic Acid Encapsulated Nanochitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbowatiningrum; Ngadiwiyana; Ismiyarto; Fachriyah, E.; Eviana, I.; Eldiana, O.; Amaliyah, N.; Sektianingrum, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a health problem in the world because it causes death. One of the phenolic compounds that have antidiabetic activity is gallic acid. However, the use of this compound still provides unsatisfactory results due to its degradation during the absorption process. The solution offered to solve the problem is by encapsulated it within chitosan nanoparticles that serve to protect the bioactive compound from degradation, increases of solubility and delivery of a bioactive compound to the target site by using freeze-drying technique. The result of chitosan nanoparticle’s Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that chitosan nanoparticle’s size is uniform and it is smaller than chitosan. The value of encapsulation efficiency (EE) of gallic acid which encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles is about 50.76%. Inhibition test result showed that gallic acid-chitosan nanoparticles at 50 ppm could inhibite α-glucosidase activity in 28.87% with 54.94 in IC50. So it can be concluded that gallic acid can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it could inhibit α-glucosidase.

  7. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antidiabetic activity from cinnamaldydhe encapsulated by nanochitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbowatingrum; Ngadiwiyana; Fachriyah, E.; Ismiyarto; Ariestiani, B.; Khikmah

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats due to reduced function of insulin. Treatment of diabetes can be done by insulin therapy or hypoglycemic drugs. Hypoglycemic drugs usually contain compounds that can inhibit the action of α-glucosidase enzymes that play a role in breaking carbohydrates into blood sugar. Cinnamaldehyde has α-glucosidase inhibit activity because it has a functional group of alkene that is conjugated with a benzene ring and a carbonyl group. However, the use of this compound still provides unsatisfactory results due to its degradation during the absorption process. The solution offered to solve the problem is by encapsulated it within chitosan nanoparticles that serve to protect the bioactive compound from degradation, increases of solubility and delivery of a bioactive compound to the target site by using freeze-drying technique. The value of encapsulation efficiency (EE) of cinnamaldyhde which encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles is about 74%. Inhibition test result showed that cinnamaldehyde-chitosan nanoparticles at 100 ppm could inhibit α-glucosidase activity in 23.9% with 134,13 in IC50. So it can be concluded that cinnamaldehyde can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it could inhibit α-glucosidase.

  9. Niosomal encapsulation of ethambutol hydrochloride for increasing its efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ridy, Mohammed Shafik; Yehia, Soad Aly; Kassem, Mahfouz Abd-El-Megeid; Mostafa, Dina Mahmoud; Nasr, Essam Amin; Asfour, Marwa Hasanin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide health concern. In 2011, about 8.7 million new cases developed TB and 1.4 million people died from it. Enhancement of ethambutol hydrochloride activity and safety in treatment of TB through niosomal encapsulation. Niosomes were prepared by the thin-film hydration method. They were characterized, investigated for in vitro release, lung disposition and in vivo biological evaluation. Entrapment efficiency of ethambutol hydrochloride ranged from 12.20% to 25.81%. Zeta potential values inferred stability of neutral and negatively charged formulations. In vitro release was biphasic. Lung targeting was increased by niosomal encapsulation. Biological evaluation revealed superiority of niosomal ethambutol hydrochloride over the free drug. Neutral and negatively charged niosomal vesicles are dispersed homogenously unlike positively charged vesicles. Niosomal encapsulation results in controlled drug release. Niosomal formulations targeted more drugs to mice lungs for a prolonged period of time resulting in: decreased root-specific lung weight, bacterial counts in lung homogenates and optimizing pathological effect on guinea pigs lungs, livers and spleens. Encapsulation of ethambutol hydrochloride in niosomal formulations for the treatment of TB provides higher efficacy and safety compared with the free drug.

  10. Selective encapsulation by Janus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: wel208@mrl.ucsb.edu [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ruth, Donovan; Gunton, James D. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Rickman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    We employ Monte Carlo simulation to examine encapsulation in a system comprising Janus oblate spheroids and isotropic spheres. More specifically, the impact of variations in temperature, particle size, inter-particle interaction range, and strength is examined for a system in which the spheroids act as the encapsulating agents and the spheres as the encapsulated guests. In this picture, particle interactions are described by a quasi-square-well patch model. This study highlights the environmental adaptation and selectivity of the encapsulation system to changes in temperature and guest particle size, respectively. Moreover, we identify an important range in parameter space where encapsulation is favored, as summarized by an encapsulation map. Finally, we discuss the generalization of our results to systems having a wide range of particle geometries.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a stable humic-urease complex: application to barley seed encapsulation for improving N uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvila, Beaufray G; Pilar-Izquierdo, María C; Busto, María D; Perez-Mateos, Manuel; Ortega, Natividad

    2016-07-01

    Most N fertilizers added to soil are not efficiently used by plants and are lost to the atmosphere or leached from the soil, causing environmental pollution and increasing cost. Barley seed encapsulation in calcium alginate gels containing free or immobilized urease to enhance plant utilization of soil N was investigated. Urease was immobilized with soil humic acids (HA). A central composite face-centered design was applied to optimize the immobilization process, reaching an immobilization yield of 127%. Soil stability of urease was enhanced after the immobilization. Seed encapsulation with free urease (FU) and humic-urease complex (HUC) resulted in a urease activity retention in the coating layer of 46% and 24%, and in germination rates of 87% and 92%, respectively. Under pot culture conditions, the pots planted with seeds encapsulated with FU and HUC showed higher ammonium N (NH4 (+) -N) (26% and 64%, respectively) than the control soil at 28 days after planting (DAP). Moreover, the seed encapsulation with FU and HUC increased the N uptake 83% and 97%, respectively, at 35 DAP. Seed encapsulation with urease could substantially contribute to enhancing plant N nutrition in the early stages of seedling establishment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Development of test models to quantify encapsulated bioburden in spacecraft polymer materials by cultivation-dependent and molecular methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Anja; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Mahnert, Alexander; Probst, Alexander; Flier, Niwin; Auerbach, Anna; Weber, Christina; Haberer, Klaus; Boeker, Alexander

    Bioburden encapsulated in spacecraft polymers (such as adhesives and coatings) poses a potential risk to scientific exploration of other celestial bodies, but it is not easily detectable. In this study, we developed novel testing strategies to estimate the quantity of intrinsic encapsulated bioburden in polymers used frequently on spaceflight hardware. In particular Scotch-Weld (TM) 2216 B/A (Epoxy adhesive); MAP SG121FD (Silicone coating), Solithane (®) 113 (Urethane resin); ESP 495 (Silicone adhesive); and Dow Corning (®) 93-500 (Silicone encapsulant) were investigated. As extraction of bioburden from polymerized (solid) materials did not prove feasible, a method was devised to extract contaminants from uncured polymer precursors by dilution in organic solvents. Cultivation-dependent analyses showed less than 0.1-2.5 colony forming units (cfu) per cm³ polymer, whereas quantitative PCR with extracted DNA indicated considerably higher values, despite low DNA extraction efficiency. Results obtained by this method reflected the most conservative proxy for encapsulated bioburden. To observe the effect of physical and chemical stress occurring during polymerization on the viability of encapsulated contaminants, Bacillus safensis spores were embedded close to the surface in cured polymer, which facilitated access for different analytical techniques. Staining by AlexaFluor succinimidyl ester 488 (AF488), propidium monoazide (PMA), CTC (5-cyano-2,3-diotolyl tetrazolium chloride) and subsequent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) demonstrated that embedded spores retained integrity, germination and cultivation ability even after polymerization of the adhesive Scotch-Weld™ 2216 B/A.

  13. Photodynamic Efficiency of Porphyrins Encapsulated into Polysilsesquioxanes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rychtáriková, Renata; Šabata, Stanislav; Hetflejš, Jiří; Kuncová, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2012), s. 269-277 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 892; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : porphyrin * immobilization * specific surface area Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2012

  14. Fragrance encapsulation in polymeric matrices by emulsion electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    Camerlo Agathe; Vebert-Nardin Corinne; Rossi René Michel; Popa Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    We present the successful application of emulsion electrospinning for the encapsulation of a model for highly volatile fragrances namely (R) (+) limonene in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibrous matrix. The influence of the emulsion formulation and of its colloidal properties on the fiber morphology as well as on the limonene encapsulation efficiency is described. The release profile of the fragrance from the electrospun nanofibers over a fifteen days range shows that this type of nanofibrous m...

  15. Update on cellular encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate E; Johnson, Robert C; Papas, Klearchos K

    2018-05-06

    There is currently a significant disparity between the number of patients who need lifesaving transplants and the number of donated human organs. Xenotransplantation is a way to address this disparity and attempts to enable the use of xenogeneic tissues have persisted for centuries. While immunologic incompatibilities have presented a persistent impediment to their use, encapsulation may represent a way forward for the use of cell-based xenogeneic therapeutics without the need for immunosuppression. In conjunction with modern innovations such as the use of bioprinting, incorporation of immune modulating molecules into capsule membranes, and genetic engineering, the application of xenogeneic cells to treat disorders ranging from pain to liver failure is becoming increasingly realistic. The present review discusses encapsulation in the context of xenotransplantation, focusing on the current status of clinical trials, persistent issues such as antigen shedding, oxygen availability, and donor selection, and recent developments that may address these limitations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  17. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  18. Micro-Encapsulation of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Jean-Antoine

    Micro-encapsulation is defined as the technology for packaging with the help of protective membranes particles of finely ground solids, droplets of liquids or gaseous materials in small capsules that release their contents at controlled rates over prolonged periods of time under the influences of specific conditions (Boh, 2007). The material encapsulating the core is referred to as coating or shell.

  19. Curcumin Encapsulated in Milk Exosomes Resists Human Digestion and Possesses Enhanced Intestinal Permeability in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisht, Monika; Rani, Payal; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2017-11-01

    Exosomes, the extracellular secretary nano-vesicles, act as carriers of biomolecules to the target cells. They exhibit several attributes of an efficient drug delivery system. Curcumin, despite having numerous bioactive and therapeutic properties, has limited pharmaceutical use due to its poor water solubility, stability, and low systemic bioavailability. Hence, this study aims to enhance the therapeutic potential of curcumin, a model hydrophobic drug, by its encapsulation into milk exosomes. In the present study, we investigated the stability of free curcumin and exosomal curcumin in PBS and in vitro digestive processes. Additionally, their uptake and trans-epithelial transport were studied on Caco-2 cells. Curcumin in milk exosomes had higher stability in PBS, sustained harsh digestive processes, and crossed the intestinal barrier than free curcumin. In conclusion, the encapsulation of curcumin into the exosomes enhances its stability, solubility, and bioavailability. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that milk exosomes act as stable oral drug delivery vehicles.

  20. New trends in encapsulation of liposoluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnet, M; Lethuaut, L; Boury, F

    2010-09-15

    Liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and carotenoids have many benefits on health. They are provided mainly by foods. At pharmacological doses, they can also be used to treat skin diseases, several types of cancer or decrease oxidative stress. These molecules are sensitive to oxidation, thus encapsulation might constitute an appropriate mean to preserve their properties during storage and enhance their physiological potencies. Formulation processes have been adapted for sensitive molecule, limiting their exposure to high temperature, light or oxygen. Each administration pathway, oral, systemic, topical, transdermal and local, requires different particle sizes and release profile. Encapsulation can lead to greater efficiency allowing smaller administration doses thus diminishing potential hypervitaminosis syndrome appearance and side effects. Carrier formulation can be based on vitamin dissolution in lipid media and its stabilization by surfactant mixture, on its entrapment in a matrix or molecular system. Suitability of each type of carrier will be discussed for each pathway. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Encapsulation of Clay Platelets inside Latex Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, D.J.; Ming, W.; Herk, van A.M.; Fernando, R.H.; Sung, Li-Piin

    2009-01-01

    We present our recent attempts in encapsulating clay platelets inside latex particles by emulsion polymerization. Face modification of clay platelets by cationic exchange has been shown to be insufficient for clay encapsulation, leading to armored latex particles. Successful encapsulation of

  2. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesh S Manchanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN is a benign cutaneous or mucosal neural tumor which, usually, presents as a solitary, firm, asymptomatic, papule or nodule showing striking predilection for the face. It occurs commonly in middle age, and there is no sex predilection. Oral PEN are not common, and these lesions must be distinguished from other peripheral nerve sheath tumors such as the neurofibroma, neurilemma (schwannoma, and traumatic neuroma. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of PEN is to avoid the misdiagnosis of neural tumors that may be associated with systemic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B. Here, we present a case of benign PEN of the gingiva in the left anterior mandibular region, laying importance on immunohistochemical staining in diagnosing such lesions.

  3. Encapsulated scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepke, I.L.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation detector crystal is encapsulated in a hermetically sealed housing having a glass window. The window may be mounted in a ring by a compression seal formed during cooling of the ring and window after heating. The window may be chemically bonded to the ring with or without a compression seal. The ring is welded to the housing along thin weld flanges to reduce the amount of weld heat which must be applied. A thin section is provided to resist the flow of welding heat to the seal between the ring and the window thereby forming a thermal barrier. The thin section may be provided by a groove cut partially through the wall of the ring. A layer of PTFE between the tubular body and the crystal minimizes friction created by thermal expansion. Spring washers urge the crystal towards the window. (author)

  4. Liposome-encapsulated chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, B.; Hansen, A. E.; Kjær, A.

    2018-01-01

    Cytotoxic drugs encapsulated into liposomes were originally designed to increase the anticancer response, while minimizing off-target adverse effects. The first liposomal chemotherapeutic drug was approved for use in humans more than 20years ago, and the first publication regarding its use...... to inherent issues with the enhanced permeability and retention effect, the tumour phenomenon which liposomal drugs exploit. This effect seems very heterogeneously distributed in the tumour. Also, it is potentially not as ubiquitously occurring as once thought, and it may prove important to select patients...... not resolve the other challenges that liposomal chemotherapy faces, and more work still needs to be done to determine which veterinary patients may benefit the most from liposomal chemotherapy....

  5. New process encapsulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the various aspects of this study indicate that the encapsulation process is not only capable of reducing the percent of Radon-222 emanation but also reduces the possibility of the leaching of toxic elements. Radon-222 emanation after solidification showed a 93.51% reduction from the slurry. The Gamma Spectral Analyses of short-lived Radon daughters supported the above findings. Leach studies on solidified refinery waste and transformer oils indicate there is a significant reduction in the possibility of toxic substances leaching out of the solidified samples. Further studies are needed to confirm the results of this investigation; however, the present findings indicate that the process could substantially reduce Radon-222 exhalation into the environment from uranium tailings ponds and reduce toxic leachates from hazardous waste materials

  6. Encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into self-assembling protein nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yongkun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are useful tools for biological applications due to their attractive physical and chemical properties. Their applications can be further expanded when they are functionalized with biological molecules. The biological molecules not only provide the interfaces for interactions between nanoparticles and biological environment, but also contribute their biological functions to the nanoparticles. Therefore, we used self-assembling protein nanoparticles (SAPNs to encapsulate gold nanoparticles. The protein nanoparticles are formed upon self-assembly of a protein chain that is composed of a pentameric coiled-coil domain at the N-terminus and trimeric coiled-coil domain at the C-terminus. The self-assembling protein nanoparticles form a central cavity of about 10 nm in size, which is ideal for the encapsulation of gold nanoparticles with similar sizes. Results We have used SAPNs to encapsulate several commercially available gold nanoparticles. The hydrodynamic size and the surface coating of gold nanoparticles are two important factors influencing successful encapsulation by the SAPNs. Gold nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic size of less than 15 nm can successfully be encapsulated. Gold nanoparticles with citrate coating appear to have stronger interactions with the proteins, which can interfere with the formation of regular protein nanoparticles. Upon encapsulation gold nanoparticles with polymer coating interfere less strongly with the ability of the SAPNs to assemble into nanoparticles. Although the central cavity of the SAPNs carries an overall charge, the electrostatic interaction appears to be less critical for the efficient encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into the protein nanoparticles. Conclusions The SAPNs can be used to encapsulate gold nanoparticles. The SAPNs can be further functionalized by engineering functional peptides or proteins to either their N- or C-termini. Therefore encapsulation of gold

  7. A simple encapsulation method for organic optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qian-Qian; An Qiao-Shi; Zhang Fu-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The performances of organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes and polymer solar cells, have rapidly improved in the past decade. The stability of an organic optoelectronic device has become a key problem for further development. In this paper, we report one simple encapsulation method for organic optoelectronic devices with a parafilm, based on ternary polymer solar cells (PSCs). The power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of PSCs with and without encapsulation decrease from 2.93% to 2.17% and from 2.87% to 1.16% after 168-hours of degradation under an ambient environment, respectively. The stability of PSCs could be enhanced by encapsulation with a parafilm. The encapsulation method is a competitive choice for organic optoelectronic devices, owing to its low cost and compatibility with flexible devices. (atomic and molecular physics)

  8. Encapsulation and retention of chelated-copper inside hydrophobic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervella, Pablo; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Needham, David

    2016-01-01

    ) Chelate copper into the octaethyl porphyrin; (3) Encapsulate OEP-Cu in nanoparticles: the encapsulation efficiency of copper into liquid nanoparticles (LNP), solid nanoparticles (SNP) and phospholipid liposomes (PL) was evaluated by UV-Vis and atomic absorption spectroscopy; (4) Retain the encapsulated...... OEP-Cu in the liquid or solid cores of the nanoparticles in the presence of a lipid sink. RESULTS: (1) The size of the nanoparticles was found to be strongly dependent on the Reynolds number and the initial concentration of components for the fast injection technique. At high Reynolds number (2181......), a minimum value for the particle diameter of ∼30nm was measured. (2) Copper was chelated by OEP in a 1:1mol ratio with an association constant of 2.57×10(5)M(-1). (3) The diameter of the nanoparticles was not significantly affected by the presence of OEP or OEP-Cu. The percentage of encapsulation of copper...

  9. Higher energy efficient homes are associated with increased risk of doctor diagnosed asthma in a UK subpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard A; Thornton, Christopher R; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J

    2015-02-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) has one of the highest prevalence of asthma in the world, which represents a significant economic and societal burden. Reduced ventilation resulting from increased energy efficiency measures acts as a modifier for mould contamination and risk of allergic diseases. To our knowledge no previous study has combined detailed asset management property and health data together to assess the impact of household energy efficiency (using the UK Government's Standard Assessment Procedure) on asthma outcomes in an adult population residing in social housing. Postal questionnaires were sent to 3867 social housing properties to collect demographic, health and environmental information on all occupants. Detailed property data, residency periods, indices of multiple deprivation (IMD) and household energy efficiency ratings were also investigated. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals while allowing for clustering of individuals coming from the same location. Eighteen percent of our target social housing population were recruited into our study. Adults had a mean age of 59 (SD±17.3) years and there was a higher percentage of female (59%) and single occupancy (58%) respondents. Housing demographic characteristics were representative of the target homes. A unit increase in household Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) rating was associated with a 2% increased risk of current asthma, with the greatest risk in homes with SAP >71. We assessed exposure to mould and found that the presence of a mouldy/musty odour was associated with a two-fold increased risk of asthma (OR 2.2 95%; CI 1.3-3.8). A unit increase in SAP led to a 4-5% reduction in the risk of visible mould growth and a mouldy/musty odour. In contrast to previous research, we report that residing in energy efficient homes may increase the risk of adult asthma. We report that mould contamination increased the risk of asthma, which is in agreement with existing

  10. Influence of different stabilizers on the encapsulation of desmopressin acetate into PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavessy, Daniel; Günday Türeli, Nazende; Schneider, Marc

    2017-09-01

    To address targeting and bioavailability issues of peptidic drugs like desmopressin, the encapsulation into nanoparticles (NP) has become standard in pharmaceutics. This study investigated the encapsulation of desmopressin into PLGA NP by the use of pharmaceutically common stabilizers as a precursor to future, optional targeting and bioavailability experiments. Polymer dry weights were measured by freeze drying and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Particle sizes (ranging between 105 and 130nm, PDIDoppler-Anemometry (LDA) respectively. Highest loading efficiencies, quantified by RP-HPLC, were achieved with Pluronic F-68 as stabilizer of the inner aqueous phase (1.16±0.07μg desmopressin/mg PLGA) and were significantly higher than coating approaches and approaches without stabilizer (0.74±0.01μg/mg). Optimized nanoformulations are thus in competition with the concentration of commercial non-nanoparticulate desmopressin products. Stability of desmopressin after the process was evaluated by HPLC peak purity analysis (diode array detector) and by mass spectrometry. Desmopressin was shown to remain intact during the whole process; however, despite these very good results the encapsulation efficiency turned out to be a bottle neck and makes the system a challenge for potential applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modified A{sup ++}-standard refrigerator with 30% reduction of energy consumption. Higher efficiency by compressor modification - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, M.; Stahl, S.; Ganz, J.

    2010-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how a modified refrigerator can be given a higher efficiency by modifying the compressor. The modified refrigerator was fitted with a variable-speed compressor. This compressor could be run at much lower speeds so that it was in operation for up to 90% of the time. It was shown that less electricity was consumed the more the compressor ran. The report discusses the aims of the work and presents details on the standard refrigerator used for the tests. The compressor normally used and the variable-speed compressor used in the test are described. Systems for temperature control and data acquisition during the tests are described. The results obtained are examined and the influence of various factors is discussed.

  12. Stabilization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis by Encapsulation in Polyethyleneimine-Mediated Biomimetic Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiandong; Liang, Longhao; Han, Cong; Lin Liu, Rong

    2015-06-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodotorula glutinis was encapsulated within polyethyleneimine-mediated biomimetic silica. The main factors in the preparation of biomimetic silica were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Compared to free PAL (about 2 U), the encapsulated PAL retained more than 43 % of their initial activity after 1 h of incubation time at 60 °C, whereas free PAL lost most of activity in the same conditions. It was clearly indicated that the thermal stability of PAL was improved by encapsulation. Moreover, the encapsulated PAL exhibited the excellent stability of the enzyme against denaturants and storage stability, and pH stability was improved by encapsulation. Operational stability of 7 reaction cycles showed that the encapsulated PAL was stable. Nevertheless, the K m value of encapsulated PAL in biomimetic silica was higher than that of the free PAL due to lower total surface area and increased mass transfer resistance.

  13. OSR encapsulation basis -- 100-KW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for a change in the Operations Safety Requirement (OSR) encapsulated fuel storage requirements in the 105 KW fuel storage basin which will permit the handling and storing of encapsulated fuel in canisters which no longer have a water-free space in the top of the canister. The scope of this report is limited to providing the change from the perspective of the safety envelope (bases) of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Operations Safety Requirements (OSR). It does not change the encapsulation process itself

  14. Performance of Deacetyled Glucomannan as Iron Encapsulation Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Dyah H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation protects iron from degradation or oxidation possibilities due to its encapsulation material. Glucomannan (GM is a neutral polysaccharide consist of D-mannose and D-glucose connected with β-1,4 linkage. Deactylation transforms solubility of glucomannan as well as its gel structure. These properties support for excipient application. The aim of this work was to determine performance of deacetylated glucomannan as iron matrix. Deacetylation was conducted heterogeneously. Deacetylation did not change the backbone of GM. Higher alkali concentration has better ability to encapsulate iron. Extended deacetylation time and alkali concentration affect insignificantly on the performance of encapsulation to protect iron from oxidation. The release of iron from the matrix influences by deacetylation degree.

  15. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  16. Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis; Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman O. Machado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the peritoneum with an unknown aetiology. Also known as abdominal cocoon, the condition occurs when loops of the bowel are encased within the peritoneal cavity by a membrane, leading to intestinal obstruction. Due to its rarity and nonspecific clinical features, it is often misdiagnosed. The condition presents with recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction and can be idiopathic or secondary; the latter is associated with predisposing factors such as peritoneal dialysis or abdominal tuberculosis. In the early stages, patients can be managed conservatively; however, surgical intervention is necessary for those with advanced stage intestinal obstruction. A literature review revealed 118 cases of SEP; the mean age of these patients was 39 years and 68.0% were male. The predominant presentation was abdominal pain (72.0%, distension (44.9% or a mass (30.5%. Almost all of the patients underwent surgical excision (99.2% without postoperative complications (88.1%.

  17. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sushant; Singh, Abhay Narayan; Verma, Anil; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were successfully synthesized using double emulsion (w/o/w) solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of the nanosphere using dynamic light scattering, field emission scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed a spherical-shaped nanosphere in a size range of 812 ± 64 nm with moderate protein encapsulation efficiency of 55.42 ± 3.7 % and high in vitro protein release. Human skin HaCat cells were used for analyzing antioxidative properties of SOD- and CAT-encapsulated PCL nanospheres. Oxidative stress condition in HaCat cells was optimized with exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 1 mM) as external stress factor and verified through reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis using H2DCFDA dye. PCL nanosphere encapsulating SOD and CAT together indicated better antioxidative defense against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human skin HaCat cells in comparison to PCL encapsulating either SOD or CAT alone as well as against direct supplement of SOD and CAT protein solution. Increase in HaCat cells SOD and CAT activities after treatment hints toward uptake of PCL nanosphere into the human skin HaCat cells. The result signifies the role of PCL-encapsulating SOD and CAT nanosphere in alleviating oxidative stress.

  18. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  19. Micelle-encapsulated fullerenes in aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala-Kleme, T., E-mail: timo.ala-kleme@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Maeki, A.; Maeki, R.; Kopperoinen, A.; Heikkinen, M.; Haapakka, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)

    2013-03-15

    Different micellar particles Mi(M{sup +}) (Mi=Triton X-100, Triton N-101 R, Triton CF-10, Brij-35, M{sup +}=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}) have been prepared in different aqueous H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}/MOH background electrolytes. It has been observed that these particles can be used to disperse the highly hydrophobic spherical [60]fullerene (1) and ellipsoidal [70]fullerene (2). This dispersion is realised as either micelle-encapsulated monomers Mi(M{sup +})1{sub m} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub m} or water-soluble micelle-bound aggregates Mi(M{sup +})1{sub agg} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub agg}, where especially the hydration degree and polyoxyethylene (POE) thickness of the micellar particle seems to play a role of vital importance. Further, the encapsulation microenvironment of 1{sub m} was found to depend strongly on the selected monovalent electrolyte cation, i.e., the encapsulated 1{sub m} is accommodated in the more hydrophobic microenvironment the higher the cationic solvation number is. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different micellar particles is used to disperse [60]fullerene and [70]fullerene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fullerene monomers or aggregates are dispersed encaging or bounding by micelles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective facts are hydration degree and polyoxyethylene thickness of micelle.

  20. Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

    2015-12-01

    Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 ℃) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of - 53 ℃ and vacuum of 0.22-0.11 mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150 ℃. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Factors affecting drug encapsulation and stability of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2011-07-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles are polymeric nanoparticles enveloped by lipid layers that combine the highly biocompatible nature of lipids with the structural integrity afforded by polymeric nanoparticles. Recognizing them as attractive drug delivery vehicles, antibiotics are encapsulated in the present work into hybrid nanoparticles intended for lung biofilm infection therapy. Modified emulsification-solvent-evaporation methods using lipid as surfactant are employed to prepare the hybrid nanoparticles. Biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) and phosphatidylcholine are used as the polymer and lipid models, respectively. Three fluoroquinolone antibiotics (i.e. levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin), which vary in their ionicity, lipophilicity, and aqueous solubility, are used. The hybrid nanoparticles are examined in terms of their drug encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, stability, and in vitro drug release profile. Compared to polymeric nanoparticles prepared using non-lipid surfactants, hybrid nanoparticles in general are larger and exhibit higher drug loading, except for the ciprofloxacin-encapsulated nanoparticles. Hybrid nanoparticles, however, are unstable in salt solutions, but the stability can be conferred by adding TPGS into the formulation. Drug-lipid ionic interactions and drug lipophilicity play important roles in the hybrid nanoparticle preparation. First, interactions between oppositely charged lipid and antibiotic (i.e. ciprofloxacin) during preparation cause failed nanoparticle formation. Charge reversal of the lipid facilitated by adding counterionic surfactants (e.g. stearylamine) must be performed before drug encapsulation can take place. Second, drug loading and the release profile are strongly influenced by drug lipophilicity, where more lipophilic drug (i.e. levofloxacin) exhibit a higher drug loading and a sustained release profile attributed to the interaction with the lipid coat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  2. Use of Electrohydrodynamic Processing for Encapsulation of Sensitive Bioactive Compounds and Applications in Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro

    2018-01-01

    or in the gastrointestinal tract. For that purpose, efficient encapsulation of the compounds may be required. Spray drying is one of the most commonly used encapsulation techniques in the food industry, but it uses high temperature, which can lead to decomposition of the bioactive compounds. Recently, alternative...

  3. Encapsulation of phytosterols and phytosterol esters in liposomes made with soy phospholipids by high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan C; Acevedo, Nuria; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2017-11-15

    Phytosterols and phytosterol esters were encapsulated within large unilamellar liposomes prepared with soy phospholipids using a microfluidizer. The average particle diameter of these liposomal vesicles increased with increasing amounts of encapsulated phytosterols, especially with increasing free sterol content. The phytosterol content, liposomal particle size, and phytosterol encapsulation efficiency started to plateau when liposomes were prepared with MOPS buffer dispersions that contained 50 mg ml -1 soy phospholipid and more than 4% phytosterol blend, suggesting the saturation of phytosterol encapsulation. We proposed an encapsulation mechanism of free sterols and phytosterol esters in liposomes, where free sterols were mainly encapsulated within the lumen of these liposomes as crystals, and sterol esters and some free sterols were incorporated within the phospholipid bilayer of the liposomal membrane. The results from this work could provide the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries a practical method to produce loaded liposomes using inexpensive phospholipid mixtures for the delivery of bioactive ingredients.

  4. Development of DBD plasma actuators: The double encapsulated electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Rasool; Zare-Behtash, Hossein; Hale, Craig; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Plasma actuators are electrical devices that generate a wall bounded jet without the use of any moving parts. For aerodynamic applications they can be used as flow control devices to delay separation and augment lift on a wing. The standard plasma actuator consists of a single encapsulated (ground) electrode. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of varying the number and distribution of encapsulated electrodes in the dielectric layer. Utilising a transformer cascade, a variety of input voltages are studied for their effect. In the quiescent environment of a Faraday cage the velocity flow field is recorded using particle image velocimetry. Through understanding of the mechanisms involved in producing the wall jet and the importance of the encapsulated electrode a novel actuator design is proposed. The actuator design distributes the encapsulated electrode throughout the dielectric layer. The experiments have shown that actuators with a shallow initial encapsulated electrode induce velocities greater than the baseline case at the same voltage. Actuators with a deep initial encapsulated electrode are able to induce the highest velocities as they can operate at higher voltages without breakdown of the dielectric.

  5. Effect of natural polymers on the survival of Lactobacillus casei encapsulated in alginate microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fábio J; Omura, Michele H; Cedran, Marina F; Dekker, Robert F H; Barbosa-Dekker, Aneli M; Garcia, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Linseed and okra mucilages, the fungal exopolysaccharide botryosphaeran, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were used to microencapsulate Lactobacillus casei LC-01 and L. casei BGP 93 in sodium alginate microspheres by the extrusion technique in calcium chloride. The addition of carbohydrate biopolymers from linseed, okra and the fungal exocellular (1 → 3)(1 → 6)-β-D-glucan, named botryosphaeran provided higher encapsulation efficiency (EE) (>93% and >86%) for L. casei LC 01 and L. casei BGP 93, respectively. The use of linseed, okra and botryosphaeran improved the stability of probiotics encapsulated in the microspheres during the storage period over 15 d at 5 °C when compared to microspheres formulated with sodium alginate alone as the main encapsulating agent (p ≤ 0.05). In in vitro gastrointestinal simulation tests, the use of FOS combined with linseed mucilage was shown to be more effective in protecting L. casei cells LC-01 and L. casei BGP 93.

  6. Free-Standing Hybrid Graphene Paper Encapsulating Nanostructures for High Cycle-Life Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xinyan; Hao, Qingli; Xia, Xifeng; Lei, Wu; Ouyang, Yu; Ye, Haitao; Mandler, Daniel

    2018-03-09

    The incorporation of spacers between graphene sheets has been investigated as an effective method to improve the electrochemical performance of graphene papers (GPs) for supercapacitors. Here, we report the design of free-standing GP@NiO and GP@Ni hybrid GPs in which NiO nanoclusters and Ni nanoparticles are encapsulated into graphene sheets through electrostatic assembly and subsequent vacuum filtration. The encapsulated NiO nanoclusters and Ni nanoparticles can mitigate the restacking of graphene sheets, providing sufficient spaces for high-speed ion diffusion and electron transport. In addition, the spacers strongly bind to graphene sheets, which can efficiently improve the electrochemical stability. Therefore, at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 , the GP@NiO and GP@Ni electrodes exhibit higher specific capacitances of 306.9 and 246.1 F g -1 than the GP electrode (185.7 F g -1 ). The GP@NiO and GP@Ni electrodes exhibit capacitance retention of 98.7 % and 95.6 % after 10000 cycles, demonstrating an outstanding cycling stability. Additionally, the GP@NiO∥GP@Ni delivers excellent cycling stability (93.7 % after 10 000 cycles) and high energy density. These free-standing encapsulated hybrid GPs have great potential as electrode for high-performance supercapacitors. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of Lipid Composition on In Vitro Release and Skin Deposition of Curcumin Encapsulated Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethi Pamunuwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposomal encapsulation improves numerous physiochemical and biological properties of curcumin. The aim of this work was to impart slow release and skin delivery of curcumin via liposomal encapsulation. Liposomes were made using egg yolk phosphatidylcholine as the staple lipid while incorporating polysorbate 80 and stearylamine to prepare hybrid liposomes and positively charged liposomes, respectively. Negatively charged liposomes exhibited the highest encapsulation efficiencies (87.8±4.3% and loading capacities (3.4±0.2%. The sizes of all formulations were about 250 nm, while stearylamine increased the polydispersity index. Positively charged liposomes showed lower degradation temperatures than negatively charged liposomes by 10–15°C, attributable to the presence of stearylamine. The melting temperatures of positively charged liposomes (40–50°C were much higher than those of negatively charged liposomes (14-15°C, which may have affected release and skin deposition behavior of liposomes. The positively charged liposomes exhibited the slowest release of curcumin in phosphate buffered saline (pH 6.8 and the release profiles of all liposomal formulations conformed to the Gompertz model. The negatively charged liposomes facilitated the highest skin deposition of curcumin as revealed by studies conducted using excised pig ear skin. Concisely, positively and negatively charged liposomes were optimal for slow release and skin deposition of curcumin, respectively.

  8. Towards higher transparency and efficiency in energy taxation. Energy taxation and environmental policy in a small open economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, Goeran

    2002-01-01

    The accrual of energy taxation has led to a complex structure of taxes and charges that are characterized by instability and low efficiency. Other reasons for analyzing the system is the pressure from our contractual responsibilities within the European Union and the raised ambitions in the environmental policy. The report leads to the conclusion that it would be motivated to separate fiscal energy taxation from measures to internalize environmental costs that the market does not register. This separation would make it possible to create a more transparent and rational energy taxation. The fiscal energy taxation ought to be a broad, value-based tax, equal for all energy sources. Value-based means, besides the energy content in kWh, also properties such as conversion and distribution costs. Two alternatives are suggested for the fiscal energy taxation: A separate consumption tax on energy. Such a tax would amount to 48% to produce the same income as the fiscal elements of today's energy taxes. Another alternative would be to include the fiscal energy tax in the value added tax. This would raise the standard VAT level to 30%, if the lower VAT levels are kept unchanged. With this model, consumption of energy would be treated as any other consumption. The environmental policy measures against greenhouse gases should be delt with through a system with international trade with emission quotas for such gases. Measures against other external effects from energy use are not suggested in this report, except for the opinion that economic incentives are preferable to regulations. The initial allocation of quotas ought to be done through an auction, since this method would give lower national costs than the alternatives. The system should cover all greenhouse gases and (almost) all sources which indicates that an upstream solution would be best with low administrative costs. A safety vent should be considered, so that extreme costs for CO 2 -emissions are avoided, if e.g. the

  9. Development of a low-cost biogas filtration system to achieve higher-power efficient AC generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Edison E.; Ardaniel, Ar-Ar S.; Leguid, Jeanlou G.; Loyola, Andrea T.

    2018-02-01

    The paper focuses on the development of a low-cost biogas filtration system for alternating current generator to achieve higher efficiency in terms of power production. A raw biogas energy comprises of 57% combustible element and 43% non-combustible elements containing carbon dioxide (36%), water vapor (5%), hydrogen sulfide (0.5%), nitrogen (1%), oxygen (0 - 2%), and ammonia (0 - 1%). The filtration system composes of six stages: stage 1 is the water scrubber filter intended to remove the carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen sulfide; stage 2 is the silica gel filter intended to reduce the water vapor; stage 3 is the iron sponge filter intended to remove the remaining hydrogen sulfide; stage 4 is the sodium hydroxide solution filter intended to remove the elemental sulfur formed during the interaction of the hydrogen sulfide and the iron sponge and for further removal of carbon dioxide; stage 5 is the silica gel filter intended to further eliminate the water vapor gained in stage 4; and, stage 6 is the activated carbon filter intended to remove the carbon dioxide. The filtration system was able to lower the non-combustible elements by 72% and thus, increasing the combustible element by 54.38%. The unfiltered biogas is capable of generating 16.3 kW while the filtered biogas is capable of generating 18.6 kW. The increased in methane concentration resulted to 14.11% increase in the power output. The outcome resulted to better engine performance in the generation of electricity.

  10. Encapsulated microenergetic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jeffery James; Aines, Roger D.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vandersall, Kevin S.

    2017-02-07

    Providing high energy materials that can be placed in previously created fractures and activating them in place to extend or change an existing fracture system. Also detecting the location of fractures or permeable pathways and a means to assess the extent and efficiency of proppant emplacement.

  11. Encapsulated microenergetic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jeffery James; Aines, Roger D.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vandersall, Kevin S.

    2018-02-20

    Providing high energy materials that can be placed in previously created fractures and activating them in place to extend or change an existing fracture system. Also detecting the location of fractures or permeable pathways and a means to assess the extent and efficiency of proppant emplacement.

  12. Amidase encapsulated O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles for vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K T; Sreelakshmi, M; Nisha, N; Jayakumar, R; Biswas, Raja

    2014-02-01

    This work reports the development of amidase encapsulated O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles (Ami-O-CMC NPs) of 300±50 nm size by ionic cross-linking method. The prepared Ami-O-CMC NPs had an encapsulation efficiency of 55.39%. Haemolysis assay and cytotoxicity studies proved the hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the prepared NPs. The sustained release of Ami from the NPs is expected to prolong its immunogenicity and in turn lead to development of better protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification of encapsulated bioburden in spacecraft polymer materials by cultivation-dependent and molecular methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bauermeister

    Full Text Available Bioburden encapsulated in spacecraft polymers (such as adhesives and coatings poses a potential risk to jeopardize scientific exploration of other celestial bodies. This is particularly critical for spacecraft components intended for hard landing. So far, it remained unclear if polymers are indeed a source of microbial contamination. In addition, data with respect to survival of microbes during the embedding/polymerization process are sparse. In this study we developed testing strategies to quantitatively examine encapsulated bioburden in five different polymers used frequently and in large quantities on spaceflight hardware. As quantitative extraction of the bioburden from polymerized (solid materials did not prove feasible, contaminants were extracted from uncured precursors. Cultivation-based analyses revealed <0.1-2.5 colony forming units (cfu per cm3 polymer, whereas quantitative PCR-based detection of contaminants indicated considerably higher values, despite low DNA extraction efficiency. Results obtained from this approach reflect the most conservative proxy for encapsulated bioburden, as they give the maximum bioburden of the polymers irrespective of any additional physical and chemical stress occurring during polymerization. To address the latter issue, we deployed an embedding model to elucidate and monitor the physiological status of embedded Bacillus safensis spores in a cured polymer. Staining approaches using AlexaFluor succinimidyl ester 488 (AF488, propidium monoazide (PMA, CTC (5-cyano-2,3-diotolyl tetrazolium chloride demonstrated that embedded spores retained integrity, germination and cultivation ability even after polymerization of the adhesive Scotch-Weld 2216 B/A. Using the methods presented here, we were able to estimate the worst case contribution of encapsulated bioburden in different polymers to the bioburden of spacecraft. We demonstrated that spores were not affected by polymerization processes. Besides Planetary

  14. Double perovskites overtaking the single perovskites: A set of new solar harvesting materials with much higher stability and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangsabanik, Jiban; Sugathan, Vipinraj; Yadav, Anuradha; Yella, Aswani; Alam, Aftab

    2018-05-01

    Solar energy plays an important role in substituting the ever declining source of fossil fuel energy. Finding novel materials for solar cell applications is an integral part of photovoltaic research. Hybrid lead halide perovskites are one of, if not the most, well sought material in the photovoltaic research community. Its unique intrinsic properties, flexible synthesis techniques, and device fabrication architecture made the community highly buoyant over the past few years. Yet, there are two fundamental issues that still remain a concern, i.e., the stability in external environment and the toxicity due to Pb. This led to a search for alternative materials. More recently, double perovskite [A2B B'X6 (X =Cl, Br, I)] materials have emerged as a promising choice. Few experimental synthesis and high throughput computational studies have been carried out to check for promising candidates of this class. The main outcome from these studies, however, can essentially be summarized into two categories: (i) either they have an indirect band gap or (ii) a direct but large optical band gap, which is not suitable for solar devices. Here we propose a large set of stable double perovskite materials, Cs2B B 'X6 (X =Cl, Br, I), which show indirect to direct band gap transition via small Pb+2 doping at both B and B'sites. This is done by careful band (orbital) engineering using first-principles calculations. This kind of doping has helped to change the topology of the band structure, triggering an indirect to direct transition that is optically allowed. It also reduces the band gap significantly, bringing it well into the visible region. We also simulated the optical absorption spectra of these systems and found a comparable/higher absorption coefficient and solar efficiency with respect to the state of the art photovoltaic absorber material CH3NH3PbI3 . A number of materials Cs2(B0.75Pb0.25) (B0.75'Pb0.25) X6 (for various combinations of B ,B ', and X ) are found to be promising

  15. Encapsulation and Hemocyte Numbers in Crocidolomia pavonana and Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera Attacked by Parasitoid Eriborus argenteopilosus Cameron (Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMAYANTI BUCHORI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eriborus argenteopilosus is the most important parasitoid attacking cabbage pest Crocidolomia pavonana in Indonesia. Previous studies proved that parasitoid encapsulation was found to be an important factor limiting the effectiveness of the parasitoid in controlling pest population in the field. Since 1998, we have conducted series studies to investigate encapsulation mechanism developed by hosts against parasitoid, responses of parasitoid toward encapsulation ability and to determine factors that may help parasitoid avoid encapsulation. Parasitoid responses were examined on two different hosts C. pavonana and Spodoptera litura. Our findings showed that parasitization level was found to be high both on C. pavonana and S. litura. Encapsulation occurred to be high in all larva stages of C. pavonana, in contrast encapsulation was recorded very low in all larvae stages of S. litura. We recorded that encapsulation in the larval body of C. pavonana was completed in 72 hours and mostly occurred in higher larval stage. Melanization was only recorded in encapsulated parasitoid inside larva body of C. pavonana, not in S. litura. We recorded that encapsulation increased blood cell number of both larvae C. pavonana and S. litura. Encapsulation may affect development of immature parasitoid. Weight of S. litura's pupae containing encapsulated parasitoid was found to be lower in S. litura, but not in C. pavonana. Our investigation also proved that superparasitism may help parasitoid avoid encapsulation.

  16. Antioxidant Effects of Quercetin and Catechin Encapsulated into PLGA Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Pool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric nanoparticles (PLGA have been developed for the encapsulation and controlled release of quercetin and catechin. Nanoparticles were fabricated using a solvent displacement method. Physicochemical properties were measured by light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and ζ-potential, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release profiles were obtained from differential pulse voltammetry experiments. Antioxidant properties of free and encapsulated flavonoids were determined by TBARS, fluorescence spectroscopy and standard chelating activity methods. Relatively small (d≈ 400 nm polymeric nanoparticles were obtained containing quercetin or catechin in a non-crystalline form (EE ≈ 79% and the main interactions between the polymer and each flavonoid were found to consist of hydrogen bonds. In vitro release profiles were pH-dependant, the more acidic pH, the faster release of each flavonoid from the polymeric nanoparticles. The inhibition of the action of free radicals and chelating properties, were also enhanced when quercetin and catechin were encapsulated within PLGA nanoparticles. The information obtained from this study will facilitate the design and fabrication of polymeric nanoparticles as possible oral delivery systems for encapsulation, protection and controlled release of flavonoids aimed to prevent oxidative stress in human body or food products.

  17. Encapsulated Curcumin for Transdermal Administration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a proniosomal carrier system of curcumin for transdermal delivery. Methods: Proniosomes of curcumin were prepared by encapsulation of the drug in a mixture of Span 80, cholesterol and diethyl ether by ether injection method, and then investigated as a transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS).

  18. Device for encapsulating radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthanthiran, K.

    1994-01-01

    A capsule for encapsulating radioactive material for radiation treatment comprising two or more interfitting sleeves, wherein each sleeve comprises a closed bottom portion having a circumferential wall extending therefrom, and an open end located opposite the bottom portion. The sleeves are constructed to fit over one another to thereby establish an effectively sealed capsule container. 3 figs

  19. Reactants encapsulation and Maillard Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades many efforts have been addressed to the control of Maillard Reaction products in different foods with the aim to promote the formation of compounds having the desired color and flavor and to reduce the concentration of several potential toxic molecules. Encapsulation, already

  20. Technology of mammalian cell encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uludag, H; De Vos, P; Tresco, PA

    2000-01-01

    Entrapment of mammalian cells in physical membranes has been practiced since the early 1950s when it was originally introduced as a basic research tool. The method has since been developed based on the promise of its therapeutic usefulness in tissue transplantation. Encapsulation physically isolates

  1. A Comparative Cytotoxic Evaluation of Disulfiram Encapsulated PLGA Nanoparticles on MCF-7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasehee, Hamidreza; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghaffari, Seyed-Hamidollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2017-04-01

    Background: Disulfiram is oral aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) inhibitor that has been used in the treatment of alcoholism. Recent studies show that this drug has anticancer properties; however, its rapid degradation has limited its clinical application. Encapsulation of disulfiram polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) may improve its anticancer activities and protect rapid degradation of the drug. Materials and Methods: A poly (lactide-co-Glycolide) (PLGA) was developed for encapsulation of disulfiram and its delivery into breast cancer cells. Disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The loading and encapsulation efficiency of NPs were determined using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Cell cytotoxicity of free and encapsulated form of disulfiram is also determined using MTT assay. Results: Disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs had uniform size with 165 nm. Drug loading and entrapment efficiency were 5.35 ±0.03% and 58.85±1.01%. The results of MTT assay showed that disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs were more potent in induction of apoptosis compare to free disulfiram. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained in the present study it can be concluded that encapsulation of disulfiram with PLGA can protect its degradation in improve its cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells.

  2. A Matching Activity When Entering Higher Education: Ongoing Guidance for the Students or Efficiency Instrument for the School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorff, Kariene; Faber, Marike; Staman, Laura

    2017-01-01

    In order to lower dropout rates and stimulate student success in higher education, the Dutch government implemented a new law demanding that every higher education institute offer a matching activity to applying students. This article evaluates how students and teachers experience this matching activity. Data were collected in a Dutch university…

  3. Higher energy efficiency in administrative and office buildings. Optimisation of primary energy consumption and economic efficiency; Energieeffiziente Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeude. Hinweise zur primaerenergetischen und wirtschaftlichen Optimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knissel, J.

    1999-12-15

    The study investigates measures to reduce primary energy consumption in administrative and office buildings and their effects in terms of economic efficiency. An exemplary office building is modernised step by step while recording the changes in the primary energy consumption coefficient. [German] In der vorliegenden Studie wird untersucht, wie weit und mit welchen Massnahmen der Primaerenergiebedarf von Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeuden gesenkt werden kann und welche Auswirkungen dies auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit hat. Hierzu wird die energetische Ausfuehrungsqualitaet eines einfachen Beispielgebaeudes schrittweise verbessert und die Veraenderung des Primaerenergiekennwertes ermittelt. (orig.)

  4. The interaction of encapsulated pharmaceutical drugs with a silica matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Everton C; Correa, Gabriel G; Brambilla, Rodrigo; Radtke, Claudio; Baibich, Ione Maluf; dos Santos, João Henrique Z

    2013-03-01

    A series of seven drugs, namely, fluoxetine, gentamicin, lidocaine, morphine, nifedipine, paracetamol and tetracycline, were encapsulated. The encapsulated systems were characterized using a series of complementary techniques: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffusive reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-vis region (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). According to the DRS spectra, most of the encapsulated systems showed a band shift of the maximum absorption when compared with the corresponding bare pharmaceutical. Additionally, after encapsulation, the drugs exhibited infrared band shifts toward higher wavenumbers, which in turn provided insight into potential sites for interaction with the silica framework. The amine group showed a band shift in the spectra of almost all the drugs (except nifedipine and tetracycline). This finding indicates the possibility of a hydrogen bonding interaction between the drug and the silica via electron donation from the amine group to the silica framework. XPS confirmed this interaction between the pharmaceuticals and the silica through the amine group. A correlation was observed between the textural characteristics of the solids and the spectroscopic data, suggesting that the amine groups from the pharmaceuticals were more perturbed upon encapsulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrogels for in situ encapsulation of biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibragimova, Sania; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Szewczykowski, Piotr Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    to chemically initiated hydrogels; however, for all hydrogels the permeability was several-fold higher than the water permeability of conventional reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Lifetimes of freestanding BLM arrays in gel precursor solutions were short compared to arrays formed in buffer. However, polymerizing......Hydrogels are hydrophilic, porous polymer networks that can absorb up to thousands of times their own weight in water. They have many potential applications, one of which is the encapsulation of freestanding black lipid membranes (BLMs) for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications....... We investigated gels for in situ encapsulation of multiple BLMs formed across apertures in a hydrophobic ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) support. The encapsulation gels consisted of networks of poly(ethylene glycol)-dimethacrylate or poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate polymerized using either...

  6. Modification of encapsulation pressure of reverse micelles in liquid ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronald W; Nucci, Nathaniel V; Wand, A Joshua

    2011-09-01

    Encapsulation within reverse micelles dissolved in low viscosity fluids offers a potential solution to the slow tumbling problem presented by large soluble macromolecules to solution NMR spectroscopy. The reduction in effective macromolecular tumbling is directly dependent upon the viscosity of the solvent. Liquid ethane is of sufficiently low viscosity at pressures below 5000 psi to offer a significant advantage. Unfortunately, the viscosity of liquid ethane shows appreciable pressure dependence. Reverse micelle encapsulation in liquid ethane often requires significantly higher pressures, which obviates the potential advantages offered by liquid ethane over liquid propane. Addition of co-surfactants or co-solvents can be used to manipulate the minimum pressure required to obtain stable, well-behaved solutions of reverse micelles prepared in liquid ethane. A library of potential additives is examined and several candidates suitable for use with encapsulated proteins are described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF HIGHER EFFICIENCY IN FUNCTIONING OF ROAD-TRANSPORT COMPLEX IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Solodkaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The road-transport complex objectively reflects the essence of efficient transportation process which is carried out by transport facilities along the highways. The complex  emphasizes an equivalent contribution of transport facilities and highways in a unified transportation process. Efficiency of the state economy rigidly depends on availability of the developed and well-functioning network of highways. Countries with the developed economy which have generally finished creation of national highway networks continue to invest money in public road systems that stimulates development of industrial sectors, agriculture and trade, etc. Their progress and efficient functioning is possible only with the balanced, overall development of the road-transport complex of the country. Functioning of the road-transport complex is inextricable connected with the operation of automotive transport and road infrastructure. Interaction of these two components of the unified economic system is determined by technical characteristics of the automotive transport and transport and operational indices of  the highways. Development of methods for optimum organization of management for functioning of the road complex is considered as an important problem of the national economy while forming market economy mechanisms. Further growth of capital expenditures including  investments will be needed in order to ensure such road conditions that meet the requirements of modern and perspective road traffic. Management of the highway network conditions presupposes a selection of such set of regulatory impacts on road conditions which will allow to minimize expenses in the road-transport complex. Elaboration and realization of the most efficient repair measures serve as such regulatory impact. The purpose is achieved while solving the problem pertaining to minimization of expenses on  transportations in the road-transport complex in the process of the realization of the most

  8. Comparative studies on osmosis based encapsulation of sodium diclofenac in porcine and outdated human erythrocyte ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukara, Katarina; Drvenica, Ivana; Ilić, Vesna; Stančić, Ana; Mišić, Danijela; Vasić, Borislav; Gajić, Radoš; Vučetić, Dušan; Kiekens, Filip; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-12-20

    The objective of our study was to develop controlled drug delivery system based on erythrocyte ghosts for amphiphilic compound sodium diclofenac considering the differences between erythrocytes derived from two readily available materials - porcine slaughterhouse and outdated transfusion human blood. Starting erythrocytes, empty erythrocyte ghosts and diclofenac loaded ghosts were compared in terms of the encapsulation efficiency, drug releasing profiles, size distribution, surface charge, conductivity, surface roughness and morphology. The encapsulation of sodium diclofenac was performed by an osmosis based process - gradual hemolysis. During this process sodium diclofenac exerted mild and delayed antihemolytic effect and increased potassium efflux in porcine but not in outdated human erythrocytes. FTIR spectra revealed lack of any membrane lipid disorder and chemical reaction with sodium diclofenac in encapsulated ghosts. Outdated human erythrocyte ghosts with detected nanoscale damages and reduced ability to shrink had encapsulation efficiency of only 8%. On the other hand, porcine erythrocyte ghosts had encapsulation efficiency of 37% and relatively slow drug release rate. More preserved structure and functional properties of porcine erythrocytes related to their superior encapsulation and release performances, define them as more appropriate for the usage in sodium diclofenac encapsulation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Alcohol on Bead Performance of Encapsulated Iron Using Deacetylated Glucomannan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Dyah H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of encapsulation to protect iron from inhibitor degradation or oxidation depends on many factors including the excipient characteritics. Glucomannan, a neutral heterosaccharide, has a potential for the excipient. To improve the excipient performances, glucomannan is deacetylated to remove the acetyl groups by reacted with Na2CO3. This deacylated glucomannan is subject to bead formation after iron loading. The alcohol solution is commonly used in bead forming as dehydration medium during the encapsulation process. The objective of this work was to study the effect of alcohol on the bead performance of encapsulated iron using deacetylated glucomannan. The bead forming was conducted by dropping the excipient into ethanol and isopropyl alcohol (IPA solution at various concentrations (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90% and two condition temperatures (27-30° and 7-10°C. The encapsulation samples were subject to yield (YE and efficiency of encapsulation (EE. The concentration of alcohol showed a positive impact on the yield and efficiency of encapsulation. Ethanol has a better performance compared with that of IPA regarding yield and efficiency of encapsulation. The optimum of yield bead formation (69.67% and highest EE (66.80% were obtained at 90% ethanol. Temperature of dehydration did not affect the YE and EE significantly.

  10. Design, characterisation and application of alginate-based encapsulated pig liver esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Jan; Gröger, Harald; Patel, Anant V

    2018-06-05

    Encapsulation of hydrolases in biopolymer-based hydrogels often suffers from low activities and encapsulation efficiencies along with high leaching and unsatisfactory recycling properties. Exemplified for the encapsulation of pig liver esterase the coating of alginate and chitosan beads have been studied by creating various biopolymer hydrogel beads. Enzyme activity and encapsulation efficiency were notably enhanced by chitosan coating of alginate beads while leaching remained nearly unchanged. This was caused by the enzymatic reaction acidifying the matrix, which increased enzyme retention through enhanced electrostatic enzyme-alginate interaction but decreased activity through enzyme deactivation. A practical and ready-to-use method for visualising pH in beads during reaction by co-encapsulation of a conventional pH indicator was also found. Our method proves that pH control inside the beads can only be realised by buffering. The resulting beads provided a specific activity of 0.267 μmol ∙ min -1 ∙ mg -1 , effectiveness factor 0.88, encapsulation efficiency of 88%, 5% leaching and good recycling properties. This work will contribute towards better understanding and application of encapsulated hydrolases for enzymatic syntheses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a higher-efficiency tubular cavity receiver for direct steam generation on a dish concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, John; Hughes, Graham; Abbasi, Ehsan; Asselineau, Charles-Alexis; Burgess, Greg; Coventry, Joe; Logie, Will; Venn, Felix; Zapata, José

    2016-05-01

    An integrated model for an axisymmetric helical-coil tubular cavity receiver is presented, incorporating optical ray-tracing for incident solar flux, radiosity analysis for thermal emissions, computational fluid dynamics for external convection, and a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model for internal flow-boiling of water. A receiver efficiency of 98.7% is calculated, for an inlet/outlet temperature range of 60-500 °C, which is the ratio of fluid heating to receiver incident irradiance. The high-efficiency design makes effective use of non-uniform flux in its non-isothermal layout, matching lower temperature regions to areas of lower flux. Full-scale testing of the design will occur in late 2015.

  12. Development and application of VISAR probe with higher signal-collecting efficiency and adjusted depth of field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianheng; Sun Chengwei; Ma Ruchao

    2001-01-01

    The new design of optical fiber VISAR probes has been described. It consists of optical fibers and two lenses, and has simpler structure and lower cost than others. If the size of the image near the end face of collecting fiber is larger than the diameter of the core fiber, the distance between the probe and the target can be decreased. Requirement for the precision in the design is lower in this way, and is easier to build up. At the same time, the signal-collecting efficiency is improved in some degree. During the process of designing the probe, the technique for manufacturing the lens of plexiglass is developed. The lens of plexiglass is used to replace the lens of glass, which can reduce the cost of the probe. The factors affecting the collecting efficiency are analyzed

  13. The Need for a Higher Fuel Efficiency of the Electricity Sector - An Analysis of Opportunities and Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimstra, J.

    2007-07-01

    The electricity sector is the single largest user of primary energy in the world. The issues of fuel prices, security of supply and greenhouse gas emissions are therefore closely connected with electricity generation. The total energy efficiency of the electricity sector is only 32.5% so that quick improvements are required. However, the uncertainty over fuel prices and technology preferences is such that most investors are hesitant. The life of existing, often low-efficiency, power plants is therefore extended. At the same time, the demand for electricity is rapidly increasing and the gap between capacity and demand decreases. This paper intends to bring more clarity into the economic and environmental boundary conditions of power plants. The goal is to find an attractive way for rapid efficiency improvement with an even better system reliability without increasing the costs. The paper discusses fuel price developments and the costs of generating technologies in connection with the typical demand pattern of electricity. Ultimately, it appears that local generation, preferably coupled with cogeneration, can be an important part of the solution. (auth)

  14. Energy conservation in industrial buildings. Higher energy efficiency with smart control systems; Energieeinsparung im Gewerbebau. Hoehere Energieeffizienz durch 'intelligente' Regeltechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Edgar [CentraLine c/o Honeywell GmbH, Schoenaich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    With smart control systems, the energy conservation potential of industrial buildings could be fully utilized. This means, e.g., that classic control algorithms must be replaced by new solutions. New methods will ensure higher energy efficiency with maximum comfort; they will also prolong the service life and the inspection intervals of the technical facilities. (orig.)

  15. Zeolite encapsulation of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.; Lakner, J.F.

    1982-08-01

    Experiments with H 2 have shown that it is possible to encapsulate gases in the structure of certain molecular sieves. This method may offer a better means of temporarily storing and disposing of tritium over some others presently in use. The method may also prove safer, and may enable isotope separation, and removal of 3 He. Initial experiments were performed with H 2 to screen potential candidates for use with tritium

  16. The ratio of nurse consultation and physician efficiency index of senior rheumatologists is significantly higher than junior physicians in rheumatology residency training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; van Bui Hansen, Morten Hai; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the difference between ratios of nurse consultation sought by senior rheumatologists and junior physicians in rheumatology residency training, and also to evaluate physician efficiency index respecting patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data regarding outpatient visits for RA...... patients between November 2013 and 2015 were extracted. The mean interval (day) between consultations, the nurse/physician visits ratio, and physician efficiency index (nurse/physician visits ratio × mean interval) for each senior and junior physicians were calculated. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints....../physician visits ratio (P = .01) and mean efficiency index (P = .04) of senior rheumatologists were significantly higher than that of junior physicians. Regression analysis showed a positive correlation between physician postgraduate experience and physician efficiency index adjusted for DAS28 at baseline...

  17. Funding System of Full-Time Higher Education and Technical Efficiency: Case of the University of Ljubljana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajnikar, Maks; Debevec, Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    The present paper tackles the issue of the higher education funding system in Slovenia. Its main attribute is that institutions are classified into study groups according to their fields of education, and funds granted by the state are based on their weights or study group factors (SGF). Analysis conducted using data envelopment analysis tested…

  18. Carbon Isotope discrimination in acacia auriculiformis - can it be used to select for higher water-use-efficiency in trees?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagu, K.D.; Woo, K.C.; Puangchit, L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Determining the water-use-efficiency of trees in relation lo wood production is problematic due to the sheer size of the plant and the number of years taken to produce the wood. Indirect measures of water-use-efficiency, such as carbon isotope discrimination (Δ), are therefore attractive to tree breeders wishing to select for increased water-use-efficiency. To begin to evaluate the usefulness of Δ as a selection parameter for the tropical tree Acacia auriculiformis we addressed the following questions: 1. Within the tree canopy, how variable is Δ? 2. Is there any genotypic variation in Δ? and 3. Does water availability affect genotypic variation? To address these questions we sampled foliage from pot trials and field trials of A. auriculiformis ranging in age from 3 months lo 8 years in Australia and Thailand. In 16-18m high 8-year-old trees, canopy variation in Δ was large (P>0.01). Foliage Δ values increased down the tree from 22.0 %o at the top to 24.7 %o at the base. The decrease was rapid in the lop 3 m of the canopy thus considerable care must be taken to sampling foliage from the same position in the canopy. Genotype variations in Δ was observed in seedlings and 2 year-old trees (P>0.01) but not in 8 year-old trees (P=0.60). Where genotypic variation were observed the differences between the lowest and highest values were 2.2 - 3.6 %o. Reduced water availability decreased Δ values in both pot and field studies but not in a consistent way across seedlots. Thus it would appear that the Δ of trees grown under favourable conditions does not give an indication of the Δ value which will be obtained under water-limited conditions. This complicates the use of Δ as a screening method. We have clearly shown that genotype variation occurs in A. auriculiformis in both seedlings and young field-grown trees. Considerable care is required when sampling large trees, as variation in Δ within the tree can be as large as between genotypes. The challenge

  19. Accelerated Lifetime Testing of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells Encapsulated by Polyisobutylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Young, Trevor L; Kim, Jincheol; Sheng, Yun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Yifeng; Feng, Zhiqiang; Keevers, Mark J; Hao, Xiaojing; Verlinden, Pierre J; Green, Martin A; Ho-Baillie, Anita W Y

    2017-08-02

    Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have undergone rapid progress. However, unstable performance caused by sensitivity to environmental moisture and high temperature is a major impediment to commercialization of PSCs. In the present work, a low-temperature, glass-glass encapsulation technique using high performance polyisobutylene (PIB) as the moisture barrier is investigated on planar glass/FTO/TiO 2 /FAPbI 3 /PTAA/gold perovskite solar cells. PIB was applied as either an edge seal or blanket layer. Electrical connections to the encapsulated PSCs were provided by either the FTO or Au layers. Results of a "calcium test" demonstrated that a PIB edge-seal effectively prevents moisture ingress. A shelf life test was performed and the PIB-sealed PSC was stable for at least 200 days. Damp heat and thermal cycling tests, in compliance with IEC61215:2016, were used to evaluate different encapsulation methods. Current-voltage measurements were performed regularly under simulated AM1.5G sunlight to monitor changes in PCE. The best results we have achieved to date maintained the initial efficiency after 540 h of damp heat testing and 200 thermal cycles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, these are among the best damp heat and thermal cycle test results for perovskite solar cells published to date. Given the modest performance of the cells (8% averaged from forward and reverse scans) especially with the more challenging FAPbI 3 perovskite material tested in this work, it is envisaged that better stability results can be further achieved when higher performance perovskite solar cells are encapsulated using the PIB packaging techniques developed in this work. We propose that heat rather than moisture was the main cause of our PSC degradation. Furthermore, we propose that preventing the escape of volatile decomposition products from the perovskite solar cell materials is the key for stability. PIB encapsulation is a very promising packaging solution for perovskite

  20. A novel efficient coupled polynomial field interpolation scheme for higher order piezoelectric extension mode beam finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulbhewar, Litesh N; Raveendranath, P

    2014-01-01

    An efficient piezoelectric smart beam finite element based on Reddy’s third-order displacement field and layerwise linear potential is presented here. The present formulation is based on the coupled polynomial field interpolation of variables, unlike conventional piezoelectric beam formulations that use independent polynomials. Governing equations derived using a variational formulation are used to establish the relationship between field variables. The resulting expressions are used to formulate coupled shape functions. Starting with an assumed cubic polynomial for transverse displacement (w) and a linear polynomial for electric potential (φ), coupled polynomials for axial displacement (u) and section rotation (θ) are found. This leads to a coupled quadratic polynomial representation for axial displacement (u) and section rotation (θ). The formulation allows accommodation of extension–bending, shear–bending and electromechanical couplings at the interpolation level itself, in a variationally consistent manner. The proposed interpolation scheme is shown to eliminate the locking effects exhibited by conventional independent polynomial field interpolations and improve the convergence characteristics of HSDT based piezoelectric beam elements. Also, the present coupled formulation uses only three mechanical degrees of freedom per node, one less than the conventional formulations. Results from numerical test problems prove the accuracy and efficiency of the present formulation. (paper)

  1. Achieving 99.9% proton spin-flip efficiency at higher energy with a small rf dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Leonova, M A; Gebel, R; Hinterberger, F; Krisch, A D; Lehrach, A; Lorentz, B; Maier, R; Morozov, V S; Prasuhn, D; Raymond, R S; Schnase, A; Stockhorst, H; Ulbrich, K; Wong, V K; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.224801

    2004-01-01

    We recently used a new ferrite rf dipole to study spin flipping of a 2.1 GeV/c vertically polarized proton beam stored in the COSY Cooler Synchrotron in Julich, Germany. We swept the rf dipole's frequency through an rf-induced spin resonance to flip the beam's polarization direction. After determining the resonance's frequency, we varied the frequency range, frequency ramp time, and number of flips. At the rf dipole's maximum strength and optimum frequency range and ramp time, we measured a spin-flip efficiency of 99.92+or-0.04%. This result, along with a similar 0.49 GeV/c IUCF result, indicates that, due to the Lorentz invariance of an rf dipole's transverse integral Bdl and the weak energy dependence of its spin-resonance strength, an only 35% stronger rf dipole should allow efficient spin flipping in the 100 GeV BNL RHIC Collider or even the 7 TeV CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  2. Optimization of folic acid nano-emulsification and encapsulation by maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadpour, Elham; Maghsoudlou, Yahya; Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Aalami, Mehran

    2016-05-01

    Due to susceptibility of folic acid like many other vitamins to environmental and processing conditions, it is necessary to protect it by highly efficient methods such as micro/nano-encapsulation. Our aim was to prepare and optimize real water in oil nano-emulsions containing folic acid by a low energy (spontaneous) emulsification technique so that the final product could be encapsulated within maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions. A non ionic surfactant (Span 80) was used for making nano-emulsions at three dispersed phase/surfactant ratios of 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0. Folic acid content was 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0mg/mL of dispersed phase by a volume fraction of 5.0, 8.5, and 12%. The final optimum nano-emulsion formulation with 12% dispersed phase, a water to surfactant ratio of 0.9 and folic acid content of 3mg/mL in dispersed phase was encapsulated within maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions. It was found that the emulsification time for preparing nano-emulsions was between 4 to 16 h based on formulation variables. Droplet size decreased at higher surfactant contents and final nano-emulsions had a droplet size<100 nm. Shear viscosity was higher for those formulations containing more surfactant. Our results revealed that spontaneous method could be used successfully for preparing stable W/O nano-emulsions containing folic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Achieving Lower Nitrogen Balance and Higher Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency Reduces Nitrous Oxide Emissions in North America's Maize Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex A. Omonode

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the common, yet unproven, hypothesis that an increase of plant nitrogen (N uptake and/or recovery efficiency (NRE will reduce nitrous oxide (N2O emission during crop production. Understanding the relationships between N2O emissions and crop N uptake and use efficiency parameters can help inform crop N management recommendations for both efficiency and environmental goals. Analyses were conducted to determine which of several commonly used crop N uptake-derived parameters related most strongly to growing season N2O emissions under varying N management practices in North American maize systems. Nitrogen uptake-derived variables included total aboveground N uptake (TNU, grain N uptake (GNU, N recovery efficiency (NRE, net N balance (NNB in relation to GNU [NNB(GNU] and TNU [NNB(TNU], and surplus N (SN. The relationship between N2O and N application rate was sigmoidal with relatively small emissions for N rates <130 kg ha−1, and a sharp increase for N rates from 130 to 220 kg ha−1; on average, N2O increased linearly by about 5 g N per kg of N applied for rates up to 220 kg ha−1. Fairly strong and significant negative relationships existed between N2O and NRE when management focused on N application rate (r2 = 0.52 or rate and timing combinations (r2 = 0.65. For every percentage point increase, N2O decreased by 13 g N ha−1 in response to N rates, and by 20 g N ha−1 for NRE changes in response to rate-by-timing treatments. However, more consistent positive relationships (R2 = 0.73–0.77 existed between N2O and NNB(TNU, NNB(GNU, and SN, regardless of rate and timing of N application; on average N2O emission increased by about 5, 7, and 8 g N, respectively, per kg increase of NNB(GNU, NNB(TNU, and SN. Neither N source nor placement influenced the relationship between N2O and NRE. Overall, our analysis indicated that a careful selection of appropriate N rate applied at the right time can both increase NRE and reduce N

  4. MEGA. Higher energy-efficiency through systematic user information - Final report; MEGA. Mehr Energieeffizienz durch gezielte Anwenderinformationen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, CEESAR - iHomeLab, Horw (Switzerland); Egli, A. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, ISIS, Horw (Switzerland); Gallati, J. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, Wirtschaft, Horw (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    Individuals are empowered to conserve energy and natural resources when provided with motivational and personalized information on its use. By presenting information about the energy consumption from the home's energy meters along with recommended actions, the residential customer becomes aware of how in/efficiently energy is consumed within his home and can decide on how to act to conserve. This information can provide an accurate metric of how effective a conservation action is even to inhabitants that are not yet knowledgeable about or self-motivated by the monetary and ecologic rewards of conserving. This project was designed to build knowledge on technically and economically feasible ways to create an awareness of energy (especially electricity) for the sake of conservation. Specifically, it implements an exemplar prototype of a highly effective energy feedback system that is an interactive, real-time, in-home display. Toward this goal, four system architecture configuration proposals, a set of system requirements, and ideal system features are synthesized; they are based on the results of the research that evaluates effectiveness of existing energy-efficiency and -conservation methods and studies related technologies. Three of the four systems proposed represent energy technologies expected to be available within the next decade. The fourth system proposal is a demonstration prototype designed for implementation in the iHomeLab. This prototype is an open, modular, robust, cross-platform software framework that collects data, processes, and presents it interactively and visually on hardware available in most households. The results of this project both indicate that the creation of such energy feedback systems appear beneficial and also provide guidelines for their design. However, further development of infrastructure and elaboration of design is foreseen as necessary for this system to be suitable for mass deployment. (author)

  5. MEGA. Higher energy-efficiency through systematic user information - Final report; MEGA. Mehr Energieeffizienz durch gezielte Anwenderinformationen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, CEESAR - iHomeLab, Horw (Switzerland); Egli, A. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, ISIS, Horw (Switzerland); Gallati, J. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, Wirtschaft, Horw (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    Individuals are empowered to conserve energy and natural resources when provided with motivational and personalized information on its use. By presenting information about the energy consumption from the home's energy meters along with recommended actions, the residential customer becomes aware of how in/efficiently energy is consumed within his home and can decide on how to act to conserve. This information can provide an accurate metric of how effective a conservation action is even to inhabitants that are not yet knowledgeable about or self-motivated by the monetary and ecologic rewards of conserving. This project was designed to build knowledge on technically and economically feasible ways to create an awareness of energy (especially electricity) for the sake of conservation. Specifically, it implements an exemplar prototype of a highly effective energy feedback system that is an interactive, real-time, in-home display. Toward this goal, four system architecture configuration proposals, a set of system requirements, and ideal system features are synthesized; they are based on the results of the research that evaluates effectiveness of existing energy-efficiency and -conservation methods and studies related technologies. Three of the four systems proposed represent energy technologies expected to be available within the next decade. The fourth system proposal is a demonstration prototype designed for implementation in the iHomeLab. This prototype is an open, modular, robust, cross-platform software framework that collects data, processes, and presents it interactively and visually on hardware available in most households. The results of this project both indicate that the creation of such energy feedback systems appear beneficial and also provide guidelines for their design. However, further development of infrastructure and elaboration of design is foreseen as necessary for this system to be suitable for mass deployment. (author)

  6. Flavor retention of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil spray-dried in modified starches during encapsulation and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranauskiene, R.; Bylaite, Egle; Zukauskaite, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different commercial modified food starch carrier materials on the flavor retention of the essential oil (EO) of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) during spray drying and storage was evaluated. The obtained results revealed that the emulsification and encapsulation efficiencies...... individual compounds were observed. Larger differences in the compositions of surface oils from various encapsulation products were obtained. Flavor components were released at different rates by each of the encapsulated products. The aroma binding capacity of different modified starch matrices to lock EO...... droplets depends on the water activity, and the leakage of aromas from encapsulated powder products during storage increased with increasing water activity....

  7. New aeration systems for higher efficiency in mine water treatment in the Lausitz region; Einsatz neuer Belueftungssysteme zur Effizienzsteigerung bei der Grubenwasserbehandlung in der Lausitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janneck, E.; Glombitza, F. [G.E.O.S. Freiberg Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Freiberg (Germany); Schlee, K.; Arnold, I. [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The article presents experiences and results of the application of new aerator-systems in the mine water treatment. The processes of ferrous iron oxidation and sludge removal became more stable and efficiently by the application of the aerators. For the first time, spiral aerators were used in the Lower Lusatia lignite mining district to clean ferrous iron containing mine water. These devices lead to an enhanced iron oxidation rate under the existing conditions, where the oxygen diffusion is the rate determining step. Furthermore, the application caused increased throughput, optimal lime utilisation and better sludge thickening, which led to a higher efficiency of the mine water treatment. (orig.)

  8. Novel chitosan film embedded with liposome-encapsulated phage for biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haiying; Yuan, Lu; Lin, Lin

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, phages used for the reduction of pathogenic bacteria have fostered many attentions, but they are liable to lost bioactivity in food due to the presence of acidic compounds, enzymes and evaporite materials. To improve the stability of phages, a chitosan edible film containing liposome-encapsulated phage was engineered in the present study. The characteristics of liposome-encapsulated phage and the chitosan film containing liposome-encapsulated phage were investigated. The encapsulation efficiency of phages in liposome reached 57.66±0.12%. Besides, the desirable physical properties of chitosan film were obtained. The chitosan film embedded with liposome-encapsulated phage exhibited high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7, without the impact on the sensory properties of beef. Hence, chitosan film containing liposome-encapsulated phage could be a promising antibacterial packaging for beef preservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The hybrid methylene blue-zeolite system: a higher efficient photo catalyst for photo inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolinska, M.; Cik, G.; Sersen, F.; Caplovicova, M.; Takacova, A.; Kopani, M.

    2015-01-01

    The composite system can be prepared by incorporation of methylene blue into the channels of zeolite and by adsorption on the surface of the crystals. The composite photo sensitizer effectively absorbs the red light (kmax = 648 nm) and upon illumination with light-emitting diode at a fluence rate of 1.02 mW cm-2 generates effectively reactive singlet oxygen in aqueous solution, which was proved by EPR spectroscopy. To test efficiency for inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms, we measured photo killing of bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts Candida albicans. We found out that after the microorganisms have been adsorbed at the surface of such modified zeolite, the photo generated singlet oxygen quickly penetrates their cell walls, bringing about their effective photo inactivation. The growth inhibition reached almost 50 % at 200 and 400 mg modified zeolite in 1 ml of medium in E. coli and C. albicans, respectively. On the other hand, the growth inhibition of S. aureus reached 50 % at far smaller amount of photo catalyst (30 lg per 1 ml of medium). These results demonstrate differences in sensitivities of bacteria and yeast growth. The comparison revealed that concentration required for IC50 was in case of C. albicans several orders of magnitude lower for a zeolite-immobilized dye than it was for a freely dissolved dye. In S. aureus, this concentration was even lower by four orders of magnitude. Thus, our work suggested a new possibility to exploitation of zeolite and methylene blue in the protection of biologically contaminated environment, and in photodynamic therapy.

  10. Measures for improving the adoption of higher efficiency appliances in Indonesian households: An analysis of lifetime use and decision-making in the purchase of electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijaya, Muhammad Ery; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observe human psychosocial variables regarding purchase of electrical appliances. ► Two cities with different cultures are subject of this study – Bandung and Yogyakarta. ► Differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural. ► Ads and store’s staff have the greatest impact on people’s choice of appliances. ► Adoption of higher-efficiency appliances could be implemented based on each culture. - Abstract: One approach to decreasing electricity consumption is to facilitate the replacement of older appliances with new, higher-efficiency. The objectives of this paper are to compare and analyse the replacement of appliances in two cities of Indonesia – Yogyakarta and Bandung – that are characterised by different cultural backgrounds, ethnicities, and decision-making processes in the household purchase of electrical appliances. A questionnaire survey method was employed to obtain information on behavioural economics and human psychosocial variables such as attitudes, beliefs and perceived benefits regarding the replacement and purchase of electrical appliances. The results show that refrigerators in Yogyakarta have a longer lifetime than in Bandung. However, in Bandung, air conditioners, electric fans, rice cookers, and water pumps have a longer lifetime than in Yogyakarta. These differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural differences within the two cities that are reflected in the manner in which people use electrical appliances as well as to their lack of knowledge regarding appliance operation. An analysis of the factors influencing the purchase of appliances indicated that people in Yogyakarta show a greater awareness of the benefits of adopting higher-efficiency appliances than do persons in Bandung. The following suggestions could be implemented to improve the strategy of encouraging the adoption of higher-efficiency appliances: (1) in Yogyakarta, energy labelling could be

  11. Encapsulation methods for organic electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yigal D.; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijian

    2013-06-18

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device encapsulated by alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The encapsulation methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  12. Perspective of metal encapsulation of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual flow sheet is presented for encapsulating solid, stabilized calcine (e.g., supercalcine) in a solid lead alloy, using existing or developing technologies. Unresolved and potential problem areas of the flow sheet are outlined and suggestions are made as how metal encapsulation might be applied to other solid wastes from the fuel cycle. It is concluded that metal encapsulation is a technique applicable to many forms of solid wastes and is likely to meet future waste isolation criteria and regulations

  13. Seasonal Thermal-Energy Storage: A Critical Review on BTES Systems, Modeling, and System Design for Higher System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lanahan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Buildings consume approximately ¾ of the total electricity generated in the United States, contributing significantly to fossil fuel emissions. Sustainable and renewable energy production can reduce fossil fuel use, but necessitates storage for energy reliability in order to compensate for the intermittency of renewable energy generation. Energy storage is critical for success in developing a sustainable energy grid because it facilitates higher renewable energy penetration by mitigating the gap between energy generation and demand. This review analyzes recent case studies—numerical and field experiments—seen by borehole thermal energy storage (BTES in space heating and domestic hot water capacities, coupled with solar thermal energy. System design, model development, and working principle(s are the primary focus of this analysis. A synopsis of the current efforts to effectively model BTES is presented as well. The literature review reveals that: (1 energy storage is most effective when diurnal and seasonal storage are used in conjunction; (2 no established link exists between BTES computational fluid dynamics (CFD models integrated with whole building energy analysis tools, rather than parameter-fit component models; (3 BTES has less geographical limitations than Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES and lower installation cost scale than hot water tanks and (4 BTES is more often used for heating than for cooling applications.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Fe(III-piperazine-derived complexes encapsulated in zeolite Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio E. Berezuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite-encapsulated complexes have been widely applied in hydrocarbon oxidation catalysis. The "ship-in-a-bottle" encapsulation of iron(III complexes containing piperazine and piperazine-derivative ligands in zeolite-Y is described. The flexible ligand methodology was employed and the efficiency and reproducibility of the procedure was investigated. The catalysts were characterized employing several techniques and the results indicate the presence of coordinated and uncoordinated iron(III ions inside and outside the zeolitic cage.

  15. Combined effects of cooled EGR and a higher geometric compression ratio on thermal efficiency improvement of a downsized boosted spark-ignition direct-injection engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Jianye; Xu, Min; Li, Tie; Gao, Yi; Wang, Jiasheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments for the effects of cooled EGR and two compression ratios (CR) on fuel efficiency were conducted. • The mechanism for the observed fuel efficiency behaviors by cooled EGR and high CR was clarified. • Cooled EGR offers more fuel efficiency improvement than elevating CR from 9.3 to 10.9. • Combining 18–25% cooled EGR with 10.9 CR lead to 2.1–3.5% brake thermal efficiency improvements. - Abstract: The downsized boosted spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine has proven to be one of the most promising concepts to improve vehicle fuel economy. However, the boosted engine is typically designed at a lower geometric compression ratio (CR) due to the increased knock tendency in comparison to naturally aspirated engines, limiting the potential of improving fuel economy. On the other hand, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has drawn attention due to the potential to suppress knock and improve fuel economy. Combing the effects of boosting, increased CR and cooled EGR to further improve fuel economy within acceptable knock tolerance has been investigated using a 2.0 L downsized boosted SIDI engine over a wide range of engine operating conditions from 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm at low to high loads. To clarify the mechanism of this complicated effects, the first law of thermodynamics analysis was conducted with the inputs from GT-Power® engine simulation. Experiment results indicate that cooled EGR provides more brake thermal efficiency improvement than increasing geometric CR from 9.3 to 10.9. The benefit of brake thermal efficiency from the higher CR is limited to low load conditions. The attributes for improving brake thermal efficiency by cooled EGR include reduced heat transfer loss, reduced pumping work and increased ratio of specific heats for all the engine operating conditions, as well as higher degree of constant volume heat release only for the knock-limited high load conditions. The combined effects of 18–25% cooled EGR

  16. Numerical Optimization of a Bifacial Bi-Glass Thin-Film a-Si:H Solar Cell for Higher Conversion Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrian, Djaber; Fathi, Mohamed; Kechouane, Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    Bifacial solar cells that maximize the energy output per a square meter have become a new fashion in the field of photovoltaic cells. However, the application of thin-film material on bifacial solar cells, viz., thin-film amorphous hydrogenated silicon ( a- Si:H), is extremely rare. Therefore, this paper presents the optimization and influence of the band gap, thickness and doping on the performance of a glass/glass thin-film a- Si:H ( n- i- p) bifacial solar cell, using a computer-aided simulation tool, Automat for simulation of hetero-structures (AFORS-HET). It is worth mentioning that the thickness and the band gap of the i-layer are the key parameters in achieving higher efficiency and hence it has to be handled carefully during the fabrication process. Furthermore, an efficient thin-film a- Si:H bifacial solar cell requires thinner and heavily doped n and p emitter layers. On the other hand, the band gap of the p-layer showed a dramatic reduction of the efficiency at 2.3 eV. Moreover, a high bifaciality factor of more than 92% is attained, and top efficiency of 10.9% is revealed under p side illumination. These optimizations demonstrate significant enhancements of the recent experimental work on thin-film a- Si:H bifacial solar cells and would also be useful for future experimental investigations on an efficient a- Si:H thin-film bifacial solar cell.

  17. Using ß-cyclodextrin and Arabic Gum as Wall Materials for Encapsulation of Saffron Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Mohsen; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Saffron essential oil has a pleasant aroma and medicinal activities. However, it is sensible into the environmental condition. Therefore, it should be protected against unwanted changes during storage or processing. Encapsulation is introduced as a process by which liable materials are protected from unwanted changes. In the present study, different ratios (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0) of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and arabic gum (GA) were used as wall martial for encapsulation saffron essential oil. In order to calculate of loading capacity (LC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE), and release (RE), safranal was determined as indicator of saffron essential oil using GC. According to the results, the highest LC and EE were related to the mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio. In contrast, the lowest encapsulate hygroscopicity (EH) and RE were observed when only ß-CD was applied as wall material (P≤0.05). Comparing the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of the control and encapsulate of ß-CD/GA (75:25) confirmed encapsulation of saffron essential oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images with high magnifications showed the rhombic structure that partially coated by GA. The mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio can be recommended for saffron essential oil encapsulation.

  18. Encapsulating anthocyanins from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces by ionic gelation: Pigment stability during storage of microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Sílvia C S R; Berling, Carolina L; Germer, Sílvia P M; Alvim, Izabela D; Hubinger, Míriam D

    2018-02-15

    Hibiscus extract (HE) has a strong antioxidant activity and high anthocyanin content; it can be used as a natural pigment, also adding potential health benefits. The objective of this work was the microencapsulation of HE anthocyanin by ionic gelation (IG) using two techniques: dripping-extrusion and atomization, both by means of a double emulsion (HE/rapseed oil/pectin) and a cross-linked solution (CaCl 2 ). Particles (77-83% moisture content) were conditioned in acidified solution at 5, 15 and 25°C, absence of light, and evaluated for anthocyanins and color for 50-days. The median diameter (D 50 ) of the particles ranged from 78 to 1100μm and encapsulation efficiency ranged from 67.9 to 93.9%. The encapsulation caused higher temperature stability compared with the free extract. The half-life (t 1/2 ) values of the particles ranged from 7 (25°C) to 180days (5°C) for anthocyanins and from 25 (25°C) to 462days (5°C) for Chroma value. The IG increased the stability of HE anthocyanin. Both the dripping-extrusion and the atomization have shown to be feasible techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced skin penetration of lidocaine through encapsulation into nanoethosomes and nanostructured lipid carriers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, S; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Adib, Z M; Kouhsoltani, M; Davaran, S; Hamishehkar, H

    2016-05-01

    Lipid based nanoparticles have become a major research object in topical drug delivery to enable drugs to pass the stratum corneum and reach the desired skin layer. The present investigation deals with the encapsulation of lidoacine into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and nanoethosomes for improving its dermal delivery and consequently local anesthetic efficacy. Concurrently these two topical delivery systems were compared. Lidocaine-loaded NLCs and nanoethosomes were characterized by various techniques and used for an in vitro skin penetration study using excised rat skin and Franz diffusion cells. The nanoparticles were tracked in the skin by following the Rhodamine-labled nanocarriers under fluorescent microscopy. Optimized lidocaine-loaded NLCs (size 96 nm, zeta potential -13.7 mV, encapsulation efficiency (EE) % 69.86% and loading capacity (LC) % 10.47%) and nanoethosomes (size 105.4 nm, zeta potential -33.6 mV, EE 40.14% and LC 8.02%) were chosen for a skin drug delivery study. Higher skin drug deposition of NLCs and nanoethosomal formulations compared to lidocaine hydroalcoholic solution represented a better localization of the drug in the skin. NLC formulation showed the lowest entered drug in the receptor phase of Franz diffusion cell in comparison with nanoethosomes and hydroalcoholic solution confirming the highest skin accumulation of drug. Both colloidal systems showed superiority over the drug solution for dermal delivery of lidocaine, however, NLC exhibited more promising characteristics than nanoethosomes regarding drug loading and skin targeted delivery.

  20. Observation and Characterization of Fragile Organometallic Molecules Encapsulated in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermally fragile tris(η5-cyclopentadienylerbium (ErCp3 molecules are encapsulated in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with high yield. We realized the encapsulation of ErCp3 with high filling ratio by using high quality SWCNTs at an optimized temperature under higher vacuum. Structure determination based on high-resolution transmission electron microscope observations together with the image simulations reveals the presence of almost free rotation of each ErCp3 molecule in SWCNTs. The encapsulation is also confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Trivalent character of Er ions (i.e., Er3+ is confirmed by X-ray absorption spectrum.

  1. Antiproliferative effect of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles strongly depends on the metabolic activity type of the cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Zwe-Ling, E-mail: kongzl@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Chang, Jenq-Sheng; Chang, Ke Liang B. [National Taiwan Ocean University, Department of Food Science (China)

    2013-09-15

    Chitosan molecules interact with silica and encapsulate the Antrodia camphorata extract (ACE) polysaccharides to form composite nanoparticles. The nanoparticle suspensions of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica-chitosan and silica nanoparticles approach an average particle size of 210 and 294 nm in solution, respectively. The encapsulation efficiencies of ACE polysaccharides are 66 and 63.5 %, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the formation of near-spherical nanoparticles. ACE polysaccharides solution had better antioxidative capability than ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica or silica-chitosan nanoparticles suspensions. The antioxidant capacity of nanoparticles increases with increasing dissolution time. The antitumor effects of ACE polysaccharides, ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica, or silica-chitosan nanoparticles increased with increasing concentration of nanoparticles. This is the first report demonstrating the potential of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles for cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, this study suggests that antiproliferative effect of nanoparticle-encapsulated bioactive could significantly depend on the metabolic activity type of the cell line.

  2. Antiproliferative effect of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles strongly depends on the metabolic activity type of the cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zwe-Ling; Chang, Jenq-Sheng; Chang, Ke Liang B.

    2013-09-01

    Chitosan molecules interact with silica and encapsulate the Antrodia camphorata extract (ACE) polysaccharides to form composite nanoparticles. The nanoparticle suspensions of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica-chitosan and silica nanoparticles approach an average particle size of 210 and 294 nm in solution, respectively. The encapsulation efficiencies of ACE polysaccharides are 66 and 63.5 %, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the formation of near-spherical nanoparticles. ACE polysaccharides solution had better antioxidative capability than ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica or silica-chitosan nanoparticles suspensions. The antioxidant capacity of nanoparticles increases with increasing dissolution time. The antitumor effects of ACE polysaccharides, ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica, or silica-chitosan nanoparticles increased with increasing concentration of nanoparticles. This is the first report demonstrating the potential of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles for cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, this study suggests that antiproliferative effect of nanoparticle-encapsulated bioactive could significantly depend on the metabolic activity type of the cell line.

  3. Antiproliferative effect of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan–silica nanoparticles strongly depends on the metabolic activity type of the cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Zwe-Ling; Chang, Jenq-Sheng; Chang, Ke Liang B.

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan molecules interact with silica and encapsulate the Antrodia camphorata extract (ACE) polysaccharides to form composite nanoparticles. The nanoparticle suspensions of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica–chitosan and silica nanoparticles approach an average particle size of 210 and 294 nm in solution, respectively. The encapsulation efficiencies of ACE polysaccharides are 66 and 63.5 %, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the formation of near-spherical nanoparticles. ACE polysaccharides solution had better antioxidative capability than ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica or silica–chitosan nanoparticles suspensions. The antioxidant capacity of nanoparticles increases with increasing dissolution time. The antitumor effects of ACE polysaccharides, ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica, or silica–chitosan nanoparticles increased with increasing concentration of nanoparticles. This is the first report demonstrating the potential of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan–silica nanoparticles for cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, this study suggests that antiproliferative effect of nanoparticle-encapsulated bioactive could significantly depend on the metabolic activity type of the cell line

  4. Preliminary investigation of cryopreservation by encapsulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Brassidium Shooting Star, a new commercial ornamental orchid hybrid, were cryopreserved by an encapsulation-dehydration technique. The effects of PLB size, various sucrose concentrations in preculture media and sodium alginate concentration for encapsulation were the main ...

  5. Different encapsulation strategies for implanted electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in implant technology include increasing application of electronic systems in the human body. Hermetic encapsulation of electronic components is necessary, specific implant functions and body environments must be considered. Additional functions such as wireless communication systems require specialized technical solutions for the encapsulation.

  6. Encapsulation of nodal segments of lobelia chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hing Thong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lobelia chinensis served as an important herb in traditional chinese medicine. It is rare in the field and infected by some pathogens. Therefore, encapsulation of axillary buds has been developed for in vitro propagation of L. chinensis. Nodal explants of L. chinensis were used as inclusion materials for encapsulation. Various combinations of calcium chloride and sodium alginate were tested. Encapsulation beads produced by mixing 50 mM calcium chloride and 3.5% sodium alginate supported the optimal in vitro conversion potential. The number of multiple shoots formed by encapsulated nodal segments was not significantly different from the average of shoots produced by non-encapsulated nodal segments. The encapsulated nodal segments regenerated in vitro on different medium. The optimal germination and regeneration medium was Murashige-Skoog medium. Plantlets regenerated from the encapsulated nodal segments were hardened, acclimatized and established well in the field, showing similar morphology with parent plants. This encapsulation technology would serve as an alternative in vitro regeneration system for L. chinensis.

  7. Accelerated thermal aging of rubber modified epoxy encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A program is outlined to enable prediction of physical properties of rubber modified epoxy encapsulants over the life time of the extended life neutron generators. Preliminary results show that the chief aging phenomenon occurring is increased crosslink density of the epoxy matrix. No changes in the rubber phase have been detected. The effect of increased epoxy crosslink density has been higher volume resistivity at 66 0 C, increased tensile strength, and decreased ultimate elongation

  8. Electrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} encapsulated ZnO nanorod aggregates dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin Raj, C.; Karthick, S.N.; Dennyson Savariraj, A.; Hemalatha, K.V.; Park, Song-Ki; Kim, Hee-Je [Pusan National University, Department of Electrical Engineering, San 30, Jangjeong-Dong, Gumjeong-Ku, Busan 609 735 (Korea, Republic of); Prabakar, K., E-mail: prabakar@pusan.ac.kr [Pusan National University, Department of Electrical Engineering, San 30, Jangjeong-Dong, Gumjeong-Ku, Busan 609 735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO nanorod aggregates were synthesized by simple co-precipitation technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} encapsulated ZnO nanorod aggregates photoanode was used for the DSSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} encapsulated ZnO nanorod aggregates shows an enhanced efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electron recombination and transport properties were studied using EIS method. - Abstract: Dye sensitized solar cells based on TiO{sub 2} encapsulated ZnO nanorod (NR) aggregates were fabricated and electrochemical performance was analyzed using impedance spectroscopy as a function of forward bias voltage. Charge transfer properties such as electron life time ({tau}{sub n}), electron diffusion coefficient (D{sub n}) and electron diffusion length (L{sub n}) were calculated in order to ensure the influence of TiO{sub 2} layer over the ZnO NR aggregates. It is found that the short circuit current density (Jsc = 5.8 mA cm{sup -2}), open circuit potential (V{sub oc} = 0.743 V), fill factor (FF = 0.57) and conversion efficiency are significantly improved by the introduction of TiO{sub 2} layer over ZnO photoanode. A power conversion efficiency of about 2.48% has been achieved for TiO{sub 2}/ZnO cell, which is higher than that of bare ZnO NR aggregate based cells (1.73%). The formation of an inherent energy barrier between TiO{sub 2} and ZnO films and the passivation of surface traps on the ZnO film caused by the introduction of TiO{sub 2} layer increase the dye absorption and favor the electron transport which may be responsible for the enhanced performance of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO cell.

  9. Electrochemical properties of TiO2 encapsulated ZnO nanorod aggregates dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justin Raj, C.; Karthick, S.N.; Dennyson Savariraj, A.; Hemalatha, K.V.; Park, Song-Ki; Kim, Hee-Je; Prabakar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanorod aggregates were synthesized by simple co-precipitation technique. ► TiO 2 encapsulated ZnO nanorod aggregates photoanode was used for the DSSC. ► TiO 2 encapsulated ZnO nanorod aggregates shows an enhanced efficiency. ► The electron recombination and transport properties were studied using EIS method. - Abstract: Dye sensitized solar cells based on TiO 2 encapsulated ZnO nanorod (NR) aggregates were fabricated and electrochemical performance was analyzed using impedance spectroscopy as a function of forward bias voltage. Charge transfer properties such as electron life time (τ n ), electron diffusion coefficient (D n ) and electron diffusion length (L n ) were calculated in order to ensure the influence of TiO 2 layer over the ZnO NR aggregates. It is found that the short circuit current density (Jsc = 5.8 mA cm −2 ), open circuit potential (V oc = 0.743 V), fill factor (FF = 0.57) and conversion efficiency are significantly improved by the introduction of TiO 2 layer over ZnO photoanode. A power conversion efficiency of about 2.48% has been achieved for TiO 2 /ZnO cell, which is higher than that of bare ZnO NR aggregate based cells (1.73%). The formation of an inherent energy barrier between TiO 2 and ZnO films and the passivation of surface traps on the ZnO film caused by the introduction of TiO 2 layer increase the dye absorption and favor the electron transport which may be responsible for the enhanced performance of TiO 2 /ZnO cell.

  10. Methanation of CO2 over Zeolite-Encapsulated Nickel Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodarzi, Farnoosh; Kang, Liqun; Wang, Feng Ryan

    2018-01-01

    in an increased metal dispersion and, consequently, a high catalytic activity for CO2 methanation. With a gas hourly space velocity of 60000 ml/g catalyst h-1 and H2/CO2=4, the zeolite-encapsulated Ni nanoparticles result in 60% conversion at 450°C, which corresponds to a site-time yield of around 304 mol CH4/mol......Efficient methanation of CO2 relies on the development of more selective and stable heterogeneous catalysts. Here we present a simple and effective method to encapsulate Ni nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite-1. In this method, the zeolite is modified by selective desilication, which creates intra...

  11. Efficiency of Photosynthesis in a Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium is Comparable to or Higher than that in Chl a-Utilizing Oxygenic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, S. P.; Kiang, N. Y.; Blankenship, R. E.; Gunner, M. R.; Mauzerall, D.

    2011-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina uses chlorophyll d to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis in environments depleted in visible and enhanced in lower-energy, far-red light. However, the extent to which low photon energies limit the efficiency of oxygenic photochemistry in A. marina is not known. Here, we report the first direct measurements of the energy-storage efficiency of the photosynthetic light reactions in A. marina whole cells,and find it is comparable to or higher than that in typical, chlorophyll a-utilizing oxygenic species. This finding indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis is not fundamentally limited at the photon energies employed by A. marina, and therefore is potentially viable in even longer-wavelength light environments.

  12. Limonene encapsulation in freeze dried gellan systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evageliou, Vasiliki; Saliari, Dimitra

    2017-05-15

    The encapsulation of limonene in freeze-dried gellan systems was investigated. Surface and encapsulated limonene content was determined by measurement of the absorbance at 252nm. Gellan matrices were both gels and solutions. For a standard gellan concentration (0.5wt%) gelation was induced by potassium or calcium chloride. Furthermore, gellan solutions of varying concentrations (0.25-1wt%) were also studied. Limonene was added at two different concentrations (1 and 2mL/100g sample). Gellan gels encapsulated greater amounts of limonene than solutions. Among all gellan gels, the KCl gels had the greater encapsulated limonene content. However, when the concentration of limonene was doubled in these KCl gels, the encapsulated limonene decreased. The surface limonene content was significant, especially for gellan solutions. The experimental conditions and not the mechanical properties of the matrices were the dominant factor in the interpretation of the observed results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of Externally Tunable, Hydrogel Encapsulated Quantum Dot Nanospheres in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesree GhoshMitra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Dots (QDs have become an interesting subject of study for labeling and drug delivery in biomedical research due to their unique responses to external stimuli. In this paper, the biological effects of a novel hydrogel based QD nano-structure on E. coli bacteria are presented. The experimental evidence reveals that cadmium telluride (CdTe QDs that are encapsulated inside biocompatible polymeric shells have reduced or negligible toxicity to this model cell system, even when exposed at higher dosages. Furthermore, a preliminary gene expression study indicates that QD-hydrogel nanospheres do not inhibit the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP gene expression. As the biocompatible and externally tunable polymer shells possess the capability to control the QD packing density at nanometer scales, the resulting luminescence efficiency of the nanostructures, besides reducing the cytotoxic potential, may be suitable for various biomedical applications.

  14. Stepwise encapsulation and controlled two-stage release system for cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Li, Qian; Wu, Qingsheng

    2014-01-01

    cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum (cis-DIDP) is a cisplatin-like anticancer drug with higher anticancer activity, but lower stability and price than cisplatin. In this study, a cis-DIDP carrier system based on micro-sized stearic acid was prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The maximum drug loading capacity of cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was 22.03%, and their encapsulation efficiency was 97.24%. In vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline (pH =7.4) at 37.5°C exhibited a unique two-stage process, which could prove beneficial for patients with tumors and malignancies. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay results showed that cis-DIDP released from cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles had better inhibition activity than cis-DIDP that had not been loaded.

  15. Higher photosynthesis, nutrient- and energy-use efficiencies contribute to invasiveness of exotic plants in a nutrient poor habitat in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Chao; Kong, De-Liang; Lu, Xiu-Rong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Wei-Bin; Qu, Bo; Feng, Yu-Long

    2017-08-01

    The roles of photosynthesis-related traits in invasiveness of introduced plant species are still not well elucidated, especially in nutrient-poor habitats. In addition, little effort has been made to determine the physiological causes and consequences of the difference in these traits between invasive and native plants. To address these problems, we compared the differences in 16 leaf functional traits related to light-saturated photosynthetic rate (P max ) between 22 invasive and native plants in a nutrient-poor habitat in northeast China. The invasive plants had significantly higher P max , photosynthetic nitrogen- (PNUE), phosphorus- (PPUE), potassium- (PKUE) and energy-use efficiencies (PEUE) than the co-occurring natives, while leaf nutrient concentrations, construction cost (CC) and specific leaf area were not significantly different between the invasive and native plants. The higher PNUE contributed to higher P max for the invasive plants, which in turn contributed to higher PPUE, PKUE and PEUE. CC changed independently with other traits such as P max , PNUE, PPUE, PKUE and PEUE, showing two trait dimensions, which may facilitate acclimation to multifarious niche dimensions. Our results indicate that the invasive plants have a superior resource-use strategy, i.e. higher photosynthesis under similar resource investments, contributing to invasion success in the barren habitat. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. A HIGHER EFFICIENCY OF CONVERTING GAS TO STARS PUSHES GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6 WELL ABOVE THE STAR-FORMING MAIN SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Rujopakarn, W. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Daddi, E.; Liu, D. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay (France); Rodighiero, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sargent, M. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Renzini, A. [Instituto Nazionale de Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, v.co dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Feruglio, C. [IRAM—Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Kashino, D. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Nagao, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI-96720 (United States); Berta, S.; Lutz, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-84571 Garching (Germany); Béthermin, M. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Koekemoer, A., E-mail: john.silverman@ipmu.jp [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); and others

    2015-10-20

    Local starbursts have a higher efficiency of converting gas into stars, as compared to typical star-forming galaxies at a given stellar mass, possibly indicative of different modes of star formation. With the peak epoch of galaxy formation occurring at z > 1, it remains to be established whether such an efficient mode of star formation is occurring at high redshift. To address this issue, we measure the molecular gas content of seven high-redshift (z ∼ 1.6) starburst galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and IRAM/Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our targets are selected from the sample of Herschel far-infrared-detected galaxies having star formation rates (∼300–800 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) elevated (≳4×) above the star-forming main sequence (MS) and included in the FMOS-COSMOS near-infrared spectroscopic survey of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6 with Subaru. We detect CO emission in all cases at high levels of significance, indicative of high gas fractions (∼30%–50%). Even more compelling, we firmly establish with a clean and systematic selection that starbursts, identified as MS outliers, at high redshift generally have a lower ratio of CO to total infrared luminosity as compared to typical MS star-forming galaxies, although with a smaller offset than expected based on past studies of local starbursts. We put forward a hypothesis that there exists a continuous increase in star formation efficiency with elevation from the MS with galaxy mergers as a possible physical driver. Along with a heightened star formation efficiency, our high-redshift sample is similar in other respects to local starbursts, such as being metal rich and having a higher ionization state of the interstellar medium.

  17. Antiplasmodial Activity and Toxicological Assessment of Curcumin PLGA-Encapsulated Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaikha A. Busari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a polyphenolic pigment isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric, a medicinal plant widely used in the ancient Indian and Chinese medicine. The antiplasmodial activity of curcumin is often hampered by its fast metabolism and poor water solubility, thus its incorporation into a delivery system could circumvent this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity and the toxicity assessment of curcumin incorporated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles. Curcumin was loaded with poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA using solvent evaporation from oil-in-water single emulsion method. The nanoparticles were characterized and evaluated in vivo for antimalarial activities using Peter’s 4-day suppressive protocol in mice model. Hematological and hepatic toxicity assays were performed on whole blood and plasma, respectively. In vivo anti-parasitic test and toxicity assays for free and encapsulated drug were performed at 5 and 10 mg/kg. In vitro cytotoxicity of free and PLGA encapsulated curcumin (Cur-PLGA to RAW 264.7 cell line was also determined at varying concentrations (1000–7.8 μg/mL. The size and entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticulate drug formulated was 291.2 ± 82.1 nm and 21.8 ± 0.4 respectively. The percentage parasite suppression (56.8% at 5 mg/kg was significantly higher than in free drug (40.5% of similar concentration (p < 0.05 but not at 10 mg/kg (49.5% at 4-day post-treatment. There were no significant differences in most of the recorded blood parameters in free curcumin and PLGA encapsulated nanoparticulate form (p > 0.05 except in lymphocytes which were significantly higher in Cur-PLGA compared to the free drug (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in hepatotoxic biomarkers; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentrations in various treatment groups (p > 0.05. At higher concentrations (1000 and 500 μg/mL, Cur

  18. Antiplasmodial Activity and Toxicological Assessment of Curcumin PLGA-Encapsulated Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busari, Zulaikha A.; Dauda, Kabiru A.; Morenikeji, Olajumoke A.; Afolayan, Funmilayo; Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T.; Meena, Jairam; Sahu, Debasis; Panda, Amulya K.

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic pigment isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric), a medicinal plant widely used in the ancient Indian and Chinese medicine. The antiplasmodial activity of curcumin is often hampered by its fast metabolism and poor water solubility, thus its incorporation into a delivery system could circumvent this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity and the toxicity assessment of curcumin incorporated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. Curcumin was loaded with poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using solvent evaporation from oil-in-water single emulsion method. The nanoparticles were characterized and evaluated in vivo for antimalarial activities using Peter’s 4-day suppressive protocol in mice model. Hematological and hepatic toxicity assays were performed on whole blood and plasma, respectively. In vivo anti-parasitic test and toxicity assays for free and encapsulated drug were performed at 5 and 10 mg/kg. In vitro cytotoxicity of free and PLGA encapsulated curcumin (Cur-PLGA) to RAW 264.7 cell line was also determined at varying concentrations (1000–7.8 μg/mL). The size and entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticulate drug formulated was 291.2 ± 82.1 nm and 21.8 ± 0.4 respectively. The percentage parasite suppression (56.8%) at 5 mg/kg was significantly higher than in free drug (40.5%) of similar concentration (p 0.05) except in lymphocytes which were significantly higher in Cur-PLGA compared to the free drug (p 0.05). At higher concentrations (1000 and 500 μg/mL), Cur-PLGA entrapped nanoparticle showed higher toxicity compared with the free drug (p 0.05). The antiplasmodial activity and safety of Cur-PLGA was better at lower concentration. PMID:28932197

  19. Plastic encapsulated, dye sensitised photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, R.J.; Otley, L.C.; Durrant, J.R.; Haque, S.; Xu, C. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Holmes, A.B.; Park, T.; Schulte, N. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The report presents the results of a collaborative project that aimed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a plastic-encapsulated, solid state, dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) with an energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of at least 3%. DSSCs offer a possible 'step change' in photovoltaic technology resulting in lower costs compared with existing technologies. The project involved a series of eight main tasks: the development of first and second generation HTM electrolytes; the development of polymer-supported electrolytes; the development of low temperature electrode coating procedures; dye development; cell assembly and testing; component integration; and overall process development. A wide range of innovative HTMs have been synthesised, including materials incorporating both hole-transporting and ion-chelating functional groups. The ruthenium-based dye, N3, remained the preferred sensitising component. The project has produced a system that can routinely achieve over 5% ECE at 0.1 Sun illumination on 1 cm{sup 2} cells using polymer-supported electrolytes.

  20. Rapid fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations for organic electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kamran; Ali, Junaid [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Mehdi, Syed Murtuza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Choi, Kyung-Hyun, E-mail: amm@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); An, Young Jin [Jeonnam Science and Technology Promotion Center, Yeongam-gun, Jeollanam-do 526-897 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations are being developed through a unique R2R-AALD system. • The encapsulations have resulted in life time enhancement of PVP memristor devices. • The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks. • Encapsulated devices performed efficiently even after bending test for 100 cycles. - Abstract: Organic electronics have earned great reputation in electronic industry yet they suffer technical challenges such as short lifetimes and low reliability because of their susceptibility to water vapor and oxygen which causes their fast degradation. This paper report on the rapid fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations through a unique roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition technology (R2R-AALD) for the life time enhancement of organic poly (4-vinylphenol) (PVP) memristor devices. The devices were then categorized into two sets. One was processed with R2R-AALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations at 50 °C and the other one was kept as un-encapsulated. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results revealed that pin holes and other irregularities in PVP films with average arithmetic roughness (R{sub a}) of 9.66 nm have been effectively covered by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulation having R{sub a} of 0.92 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS spectrum for PVP film showed peaks of C 1s and O 1s at the binding energies of 285 eV and 531 eV, respectively. The respective appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74 eV, 119 eV, and 531 eV, confirms the fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. Electrical current–voltage (I–V) measurements confirmed that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulation has a huge influence on the performance, robustness and life time of memristor devices. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks whereas the un-encapsulated devices could only last for one

  1. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Huang, Wan-Ling; Kau, Sau-Wei; Yang, Yun-Pei; Yang, Chung-Da

    2014-05-14

    Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as pleurocidin (PLE), play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH). In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH) microparticles, 3.21-6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%-83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides), PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%), which was significantly higher (p PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles.

  2. Liposomal encapsulated Zn-DTPA for removing intracellular 169Yb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, M.L.; Cress, E.A.; Byrd, B.L.; Washburn, L.C.; Snyder, F.

    1980-01-01

    Multilamellar liposomes possessing neutral positive or negative charges were tested for their capacity to encapsulate sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and for their selectivity in depositing in specific tissues after being injected into rats. Negative-charged liposomes had the greatest trapping efficiency over a wide range of lipid-to-aqueous phase ratios. In contrast, except for lung, liposomal charge had no significant effect on the tissue distribution of encapsulated EDTA; liver and spleen exhibited the highest uptake with all preparations. The proportion of encapsulated EDTA taken up by the liver decreased as the amount of injected liposomes was increased. Free zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Zn-DTPA) and multilamellar liposomes containing entrapped Zn-DTPA were administered to rats that had been injected with 169 Yb-citrate 24 hr earlier. At doses of 14 mg Zn-DTPA per kg body weight, both free Zn-DPTA and the liposomal-bound Zn-DTPA caused increased removal of 169 Yb from the animals. However, treatment with the liposomal Zn-DTPA caused significantly more of the 169 Yb to be removed than did the free Zn-DTPA treatment by itself. Our data indicate that lipophilic forms of chelators can effectively increase the removal rates of heavy metal contamination in tissues. (author)

  3. Nootkatone encapsulation by cyclodextrins: Effect on water solubility and photostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Miriana; Landy, David; Ruellan, Steven; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Nootkatone (NO) is a sesquiterpenoid volatile flavor, used in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, possessing also insect repellent activity. Its application is limited because of its low aqueous solubility and stability; this could be resolved by encapsulation in cyclodextrins (CDs). This study evaluated the encapsulation of NO by CDs using phase solubility studies, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Solid CD/NO inclusion complex was prepared and characterized for encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity using UV-Visible. Thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis and release studies were performed using multiple headspace extraction. Formation constants (K f ) proved the formation of stable inclusion complexes. NO aqueous solubility, photo- and thermal stability were enhanced and the release could be insured from solid complex in aqueous solution. This suggests that CDs are promising carrier to improve NO properties and, consequently, to enlarge its use in foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing heat capacity of colloidal suspension using nanoscale encapsulated phase-change materials for heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Ding, Shujiang; Wu, Wei; Hu, Jianjun; Voevodin, Andrey A; Gschwender, Lois; Snyder, Ed; Chow, Louis; Su, Ming

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a new method to enhance the heat-transfer property of a single-phase liquid by adding encapsulated phase-change nanoparticles (nano-PCMs), which absorb thermal energy during solid-liquid phase changes. Silica-encapsulated indium nanoparticles and polymer-encapsulated paraffin (wax) nanoparticles have been made using colloid method, and suspended into poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) and water for potential high- and low-temperature applications, respectively. The shells prevent leakage and agglomeration of molten phase-change materials, and enhance the dielectric properties of indium nanoparticles. The heat-transfer coefficients of PAO containing indium nanoparticles (30% by mass) and water containing paraffin nanoparticles (10% by mass) are 1.6 and 1.75 times higher than those of corresponding single-phase fluids. The structural integrity of encapsulation allows repeated use of such nanoparticles for many cycles in high heat generating devices.

  5. Liposomal nanoparticles encapsulating iloprost exhibit enhanced vasodilation in pulmonary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain PP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pritesh P Jain,1 Regina Leber,1,2 Chandran Nagaraj,1 Gerd Leitinger,3 Bernhard Lehofer,4 Horst Olschewski,1,5 Andrea Olschewski,1,6 Ruth Prassl,1,4 Leigh M Marsh11Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, 2Biophysics Division, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, 3Research Unit Electron Microscopic Techniques, Institute of Cell Biology, Histology, and Embryology, 4Institute of Biophysics, 5Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, 6Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, AustriaAbstract: Prostacyclin analogues are standard therapeutic options for vasoconstrictive diseases, including pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Although effective, these treatment strategies are expensive and have several side effects. To improve drug efficiency, we tested liposomal nanoparticles as carrier systems. In this study, we synthesized liposomal nanoparticles tailored for the prostacyclin analogue iloprost and evaluated their pharmacologic efficacy on mouse intrapulmonary arteries, using a wire myograph. The use of cationic lipids, stearylamine, or 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP in liposomes promoted iloprost encapsulation to at least 50%. The addition of cholesterol modestly reduced iloprost encapsulation. The liposomal nanoparticle formulations were tested for toxicity and pharmacologic efficacy in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The liposomes did not affect the viability of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Compared with an equivalent concentration of free iloprost, four out of the six polymer-coated liposomal formulations exhibited significantly enhanced vasodilation of mouse pulmonary arteries. Iloprost that was encapsulated in liposomes containing the polymer polyethylene glycol exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation of arteries. Strikingly, half the concentration of iloprost in liposomes elicited

  6. Encapsulation of curcumin in polyelectrolyte nanocapsules and their neuroprotective activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Jantas, Danuta; Piotrowski, Marek; Staroń, Jakub; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Regulska, Magdalena; Lasoń, Władysław; Warszyński, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Poor water solubility and low bioavailability of lipophilic drugs can be potentially improved with the use of delivery systems. In this study, encapsulation of nanoemulsion droplets was utilized to prepare curcumin nanocarriers. Nanosize droplets containing the drug were encapsulated in polyelectrolyte shells formed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of biocompatible polyelectrolytes: poly-L-lysine (PLL) and poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA). The size of synthesized nanocapsules was around 100 nm. Their biocompatibility and neuroprotective effects were evaluated on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line using cell viability/toxicity assays (MTT reduction, LDH release). Statistically significant toxic effect was clearly observed for PLL coated nanocapsules (reduction in cell viability about 20%-60%), while nanocapsules with PLL/PGA coating did not evoke any detrimental effects on SH-SY5Y cells. Curcumin encapsulated in PLL/PGA showed similar neuroprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell damage, as did 5 μM curcumin pre-dissolved in DMSO (about 16% of protection). Determination of concentration of curcumin in cell lysate confirmed that curcumin in nanocapsules has cell protective effect in lower concentrations (at least 20 times) than when given alone. Intracellular mechanisms of encapsulated curcumin-mediated protection engaged the prevention of the H2O2-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) but did not attenuate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) formation. The obtained results indicate the utility of PLL/PGA shell nanocapsules as a promising, alternative way of curcumin delivery for neuroprotective purposes with improved efficiency and reduced toxicity.

  7. Nutritional management of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: intradialytic parenteral nutrition, nutritional management, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis ... reflection of fluid retention and the underlying inflammatory process, ... The patient appeared weak and frail, with severe generalised muscle ... was recommended on diagnosis of EPS to prevent further peritoneal.

  8. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 5. Encapsulated bleb after initial trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, A L; Van Veldhuisen, P C; Gaasterland, D E; Ederer, F; Sullivan, E K; Cyrlin, M N

    1999-01-01

    To compare the incidence of encapsulated bleb after trabeculectomy in eyes with and without previous argon laser trabeculoplasty and to assess other risk factors for encapsulated bleb development. After medical treatment failure, eyes enrolled in the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) were randomly assigned to sequences of interventions starting with either argon laser trabeculoplasty or trabeculectomy. In the present study we compared the clinical course for 1 year after trabeculectomy in 119 eyes with failed argon laser trabeculoplasty with that of 379 eyes without previous argon laser trabeculoplasty. Data on bleb encapsulation were collected at the time that the encapsulation was diagnosed, and 3 and 6 months later. Of multiple factors examined in the AGIS data for the risk of developing encapsulated bleb, only male gender and high school graduation without further formal education were statistically significant. Encapsulation occurred in 18.5% of eyes with previous argon laser trabeculoplasty failure and 14.5% of eyes without previous argon laser trabeculoplasty (unadjusted relative risk, 1.27; 95% confidence limits = 0.81, 2.00; P = .23). After adjusting for age, gender, educational achievement, prescribed systemic beta-blockers, diabetes, visual field score, and years since glaucoma diagnosis, this difference remains statistically not significant. Four weeks after trabeculectomy, mean intraocular pressure was 7.5 mm Hg higher in eyes with (22.5 mm Hg) than without (15.0 mm Hg) encapsulated bleb; at 1 year after trabeculectomy and the resumption of medical therapy when needed, this excess was reduced to 1.4 mm Hg. This study, as did two previous studies, found male gender to be a risk factor for bleb encapsulation. Four studies, including the present study, have reported a higher rate of encapsulation in eyes with previous argon laser trabeculoplasty; in two of the studies, one of which was the present study, the rate was not statistically

  9. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) micro- and nanospheres: DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Blaine A; Burdick, Jason A; Little, Steve R; Langer, Robert

    2005-11-04

    Poly(ester-anhydride) delivery devices allow flexibility regarding carrier dimensions (micro- versus nanospheres), degradation rate (anhydride versus ester hydrolysis), and surface labeling (through the anhydride functional unit), and were therefore tested for DNA encapsulation and transfection of a macrophage P388D1 cell line. Poly(l-lactic acid-co-sebacic anhydride) and poly(l-lactic acid-co-adipic anhydride) were synthesized through melt condensation, mixed with 25 wt.% poly(beta-amino ester), and formulated with plasmid DNA (encoding firefly luciferase) into micro- and nanospheres using a double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The micro- and nanospheres were then characterized (size, morphology, zeta potential, DNA release) and assayed for DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection over a range of poly(ester-anhydride) copolymer ratios. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) composite microspheres (6-12 microm) and nanospheres (449-1031 nm), generated with copolymers containing between 0 and 25% total polyanhydride content, encapsulated plasmid DNA (>or=20% encapsulation efficiency). Within this polyanhydride range, poly(adipic anhydride) copolymers provided DNA encapsulation at an increased anhydride content (10%, microspheres; 10-25%, nanospheres) compared to poly(sebacic anhydride) copolymers (1%, microspheres and nanospheres) with cellular transfection correlating with the observed DNA encapsulation.

  10. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candido, Paula de Castro Menezes; Werner, Andrea de Freitas; Pereira, Izabela Machado Flores; Matos, Breno Assuncao; Pfeilsticker, Rudolf Moreira; Silva Filho, Raul, E-mail: paulacmcandido@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Felicio Rocho, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, a rare cause of bowel obstruction, was described as a complication associated with peritoneal dialysis which is much feared because of its severity. The authors report a case where radiological findings in association with clinical symptoms have allowed for a noninvasive diagnosis of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, emphasizing the high sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography to demonstrate the characteristic findings of such a condition. (author)

  11. A TLBO based gradient descent learning-functional link higher order ANN: An efficient model for learning from non-linear data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bighnaraj Naik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available All the higher order ANNs (HONNs including functional link ANN (FLANN are sensitive to random initialization of weight and rely on the learning algorithms adopted. Although a selection of efficient learning algorithms for HONNs helps to improve the performance, on the other hand, initialization of weights with optimized weights rather than random weights also play important roles on its efficiency. In this paper, the problem solving approach of the teaching learning based optimization (TLBO along with learning ability of the gradient descent learning (GDL is used to obtain the optimal set of weight of FLANN learning model. TLBO does not require any specific parameters rather it requires only some of the common independent parameters like number of populations, number of iterations and stopping criteria, thereby eliminating the intricacy in selection of algorithmic parameters for adjusting the set of weights of FLANN model. The proposed TLBO-FLANN is implemented in MATLAB and compared with GA-FLANN, PSO-FLANN and HS-FLANN. The TLBO-FLANN is tested on various 5-fold cross validated benchmark data sets from UCI machine learning repository and analyzed under the null-hypothesis by using Friedman test, Holm’s procedure and post hoc ANOVA statistical analysis (Tukey test & Dunnett test.

  12. Encapsulated Islet Transplantation: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Bal, Sumeet; Tuch, Bernard E

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets encapsulated within immuno-protective microcapsules is a strategy that has the potential to overcome graft rejection without the need for toxic immunosuppressive medication. However, despite promising preclinical studies, clinical trials using encapsulated islets have lacked long-term efficacy, and although generally considered clinically safe, have not been encouraging overall. One of the major factors limiting the long-term function of encapsulated islets is the host's immunological reaction to the transplanted graft which is often manifested as pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO). PFO forms a barrier on the capsule surface that prevents the ingress of oxygen and nutrients leading to islet cell starvation, hypoxia and death. The mechanism of PFO formation is still not elucidated fully and studies using a pig model have tried to understand the host immune response to empty alginate microcapsules. In this review, the varied strategies to overcome or reduce PFO are discussed, including alginate purification, altering microcapsule geometry, modifying alginate chemical composition, co-encapsulation with immunomodulatory cells, administration of pharmacological agents, and alternative transplantation sites. Nanoencapsulation technologies, such as conformal and layer-by-layer coating technologies, as well as nanofiber, thin-film nanoporous devices, and silicone based NanoGland devices are also addressed. Finally, this review outlines recent progress in imaging technologies to track encapsulated cells, as well as promising perspectives concerning the production of insulin-producing cells from stem cells for encapsulation.

  13. Encapsulation of docetaxel into PEGylated gold nanoparticles for vectorization to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Alison; Laroche, Audrey; Pinaud, Noël; Salmon, Lionel; Ruiz, Jaime; Robert, Jacques; Astruc, Didier

    2011-11-04

    Encapsulation of docetaxel and its solubilization in water was carried out in PEGylated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as shown by 1H NMR (600 MHz) and UV/Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Vectorization of PEGylated AuNP-encapsulated docetaxel was probed in vitro toward human colon carcinoma (HCT15) and human breast cancer (MCF7) cells. AuNPs alone presented no cytotoxicity toward either MCF7 or HCT15 adenocarcinoma cells. AuNP-docetaxel was found to be 2.5-fold more efficient than docetaxel alone against MCF7 cells, and the IC50 value of AuNP-docetaxel against HCT15 cells was lower than that of free docetaxel; the increased efficiency brought about by AuNP drug encapsulation was ∼1.5-fold. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chun Chuang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, such as pleurocidin (PLE, play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH. In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLG polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles, 3.21–6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%–83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05, nested design long-lasting GAPDH-specific immunity (serum titers and lymphocyte proliferation than PLG-encapsulated rGAPDH (PLG-rGAPDH microparticles. After an experimental challenge of V. harveyi, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05, chi-square test than that induced by PLG-rGAPDH microparticles (67%. In conclusion, PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles.

  15. Properties of Lactobacillus reuteri chitosan-calcium-alginate encapsulation under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ying; Tang, Yi-Ju; King, V An-Erl; Chou, Jen-Wei; Tsen, Jen-Horng

    2015-03-01

    The protective effects of encapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri and the retention of the bacterium's probiotic properties under simulated gastrointestinal conditions were investigated. Viable counts and the remaining probiotic properties of calcium (Ca)-alginate encapsulated (A group), chitosan-Ca-alginate encapsulated (CA group), and unencapsulated, free L. reuteri (F group) were determined. Encapsulation improved the survival of L. reuteri subjected to simulated gastrointestinal conditions, with the greatest protective effect achieved in the CA group. The degree of cell membrane injury increased with increasing bile salt concentrations at constant pH, but the extent of injury was less in the encapsulated than in the free cells. Adherence rates were, in descending order: CA (0.524%)>A (0.360%)>F (0.275%). Lactobacillus reuteri cells retained their antagonistic activity toward Listeria monocytogenes even after incubation of the lactobacilli under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Displacement of the pathogen by cells released from either of the encapsulation matrices was higher than that by free cells. The safety of L. reuteri was demonstrated in an in vitro invasion assay. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  16. Effect of cationic grafted copolymer structure on the encapsulation of bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Nicholas; Topal, Ç. Özge; Hikkaduwa Koralege, Rangika S.; Hartson, Steve; Ranjan, Ashish; Liu, Jing; Pope, Carey; Ramsey, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate a library of poly-L-lysine (PLL)-graft (g)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymers for the ability to encapsulate effectively a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and to characterize the stability and protein function of the resulting nanoparticle. A library of nine grafted copolymers was produced by varying PLL molecular weight and PEG grafting ratio. Electrostatic self-assembly of the protein and the grafted copolymer drove encapsulation. The formation of protein/polymer nanoparticles with a core/shell structure was confirmed using PAGE, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy. Encapsulation of the BSA into nanoparticles was strongly dependent on the copolymer-to-protein mass ratio, PEG grafting ratio, and PLL molecular weight. A copolymer-to-protein mass ratio of 7:1 and higher was generally required for high levels of encapsulation, and under these conditions, no loss of protein activity was observed. Copolymer characteristics also influenced nanoparticle resistance to polyanions and protease degradation. The results indicate that a copolymer of 15–30 kDa PLL, with a PEG grafting ratio of 10:1, is most promising for protein delivery. - Highlights: • A 4–70 kDa range of PLL-g-PEG copolymers was able to encapsulate BSA into NPs. • Encapsulation of BSA by PLL-g-PEG not only retained but increased esterolytic activity. • NPs were stable against protease degradation and polyanion dissociation.

  17. Effect of cationic grafted copolymer structure on the encapsulation of bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Nicholas [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Topal, Ç. Özge [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Hikkaduwa Koralege, Rangika S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Hartson, Steve [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Ranjan, Ashish; Liu, Jing; Pope, Carey [Department of Physiological Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Ramsey, Joshua D., E-mail: josh.ramsey@okstate.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate a library of poly-L-lysine (PLL)-graft (g)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymers for the ability to encapsulate effectively a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and to characterize the stability and protein function of the resulting nanoparticle. A library of nine grafted copolymers was produced by varying PLL molecular weight and PEG grafting ratio. Electrostatic self-assembly of the protein and the grafted copolymer drove encapsulation. The formation of protein/polymer nanoparticles with a core/shell structure was confirmed using PAGE, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy. Encapsulation of the BSA into nanoparticles was strongly dependent on the copolymer-to-protein mass ratio, PEG grafting ratio, and PLL molecular weight. A copolymer-to-protein mass ratio of 7:1 and higher was generally required for high levels of encapsulation, and under these conditions, no loss of protein activity was observed. Copolymer characteristics also influenced nanoparticle resistance to polyanions and protease degradation. The results indicate that a copolymer of 15–30 kDa PLL, with a PEG grafting ratio of 10:1, is most promising for protein delivery. - Highlights: • A 4–70 kDa range of PLL-g-PEG copolymers was able to encapsulate BSA into NPs. • Encapsulation of BSA by PLL-g-PEG not only retained but increased esterolytic activity. • NPs were stable against protease degradation and polyanion dissociation.

  18. Impact of culture conditions on β-carotene encapsulation using Yarrowia lipolytica cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tran Hai; Minh, Ho Thi Thu; Van Nhi, Tran Nguyen; Ngoc, Ta Thi Minh

    2017-09-01

    Yeast cell was reported as an effective natural preformed material for use in encapsulation of hydrophobic compounds. The encapsulation process was normally considered as passive transfer through cellular wall and cellular membrane. Beside solubility of hydrophobic compound in phospholipid membrane or plasmolysis, membrane characteristics of yeast cell which are differed between strains and influenced by culture conditions are main factors involving the accumulation of hydrophobic compound into yeast cell. In this study, the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica was used as micro-container shell to encapsulate a high hydrophobic compound - β-carotene. Yeast cell was cultured under different conditions and wet yeast biomass was incubated with β-carotene which was dissolved in soybean oil overnight. β-carotene accumulation was then extracted and evaluated by UV-VIS spectrometry. Optimization of culture condition was investigated using the Box-Behnken model. β-carotene encapsulation efficiency in Y. lipolytica was showed to be affected by both pH of medium and agitation conditions. The highest β-carotene encapsulation efficiency was optimized at 42.8 μg/g with Y. lipolytica cultured at pH 4.5, medium volume equal to 115 ml and agitation speed at 211 rpm.

  19. Encapsulation in the food industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B F; Kermasha, S; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

    1999-05-01

    Encapsulation involves the incorporation of food ingredients, enzymes, cells or other materials in small capsules. Applications for this technique have increased in the food industry since the encapsulated materials can be protected from moisture, heat or other extreme conditions, thus enhancing their stability and maintaining viability. Encapsulation in foods is also utilized to mask odours or tastes. Various techniques are employed to form the capsules, including spray drying, spray chilling or spray cooling, extrusion coating, fluidized bed coating, liposome entrapment, coacervation, inclusion complexation, centrifugal extrusion and rotational suspension separation. Each of these techniques is discussed in this review. A wide variety of foods is encapsulated--flavouring agents, acids bases, artificial sweeteners, colourants, preservatives, leavening agents, antioxidants, agents with undesirable flavours, odours and nutrients, among others. The use of encapsulation for sweeteners such as aspartame and flavours in chewing gum is well known. Fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials can be employed as encapsulating materials. Various methods exist to release the ingredients from the capsules. Release can be site-specific, stage-specific or signalled by changes in pH, temperature, irradiation or osmotic shock. In the food industry, the most common method is by solvent-activated release. The addition of water to dry beverages or cake mixes is an example. Liposomes have been applied in cheese-making, and its use in the preparation of food emulsions such as spreads, margarine and mayonnaise is a developing area. Most recent developments include the encapsulation of foods in the areas of controlled release, carrier materials, preparation methods and sweetener immobilization. New markets are being developed and current research is underway to reduce the high production costs and lack of food-grade materials.

  20. Viral infection of human progenitor and liver-derived cells encapsulated in three-dimensional PEG-based hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nam-Joon; Elazar, Menashe; Xiong, Anming; Glenn, Jeffrey S [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CCSR Building Room 3115A, 269 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lee, Wonjae [Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Chiao, Eric; Baker, Julie [Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Frank, Curtis W, E-mail: jeffrey.glenn@stanford.ed, E-mail: curt.frank@stanford.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    We have studied the encapsulation of human progenitor cells into 3D PEG hydrogels. Replication-incompetent lentivirus promoter reporter vectors were found to efficiently detect the in vivo expression of human hepatic genes in hydrogel-encapsulated liver progenitor cells. Similarly, hydrogel-encapsulated cells could be efficiently infected with hepatitis C virus, and progeny infectious virus could be recovered from the media supernatants of the hydrogels. Provocatively, the diameters of these virus particles range from {approx}50 to 100 nm, while the calculated mesh size of the 8 k hydrogel is 44.6 +- 1.7 A. To reconcile how viral particles can penetrate the hydrogels to infect the encapsulated cells, we propose that microfractures/defects of the hydrogel result in a functional pore size of up to 20 fold greater than predicted by theoretical mesh calculations. These results suggest a new model of hydrogel structure, and have exciting implications for tissue engineering and hepatitis virus studies. (communication)

  1. Viral infection of human progenitor and liver-derived cells encapsulated in three-dimensional PEG-based hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nam-Joon; Elazar, Menashe; Xiong, Anming; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Lee, Wonjae; Chiao, Eric; Baker, Julie; Frank, Curtis W

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the encapsulation of human progenitor cells into 3D PEG hydrogels. Replication-incompetent lentivirus promoter reporter vectors were found to efficiently detect the in vivo expression of human hepatic genes in hydrogel-encapsulated liver progenitor cells. Similarly, hydrogel-encapsulated cells could be efficiently infected with hepatitis C virus, and progeny infectious virus could be recovered from the media supernatants of the hydrogels. Provocatively, the diameters of these virus particles range from ∼50 to 100 nm, while the calculated mesh size of the 8 k hydrogel is 44.6 ± 1.7 A. To reconcile how viral particles can penetrate the hydrogels to infect the encapsulated cells, we propose that microfractures/defects of the hydrogel result in a functional pore size of up to 20 fold greater than predicted by theoretical mesh calculations. These results suggest a new model of hydrogel structure, and have exciting implications for tissue engineering and hepatitis virus studies. (communication)

  2. Cytokine production induced by non-encapsulated and encapsulated Porphyromonas gingivalis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, A.; Dekker, D.C.; van Pampus, M.G.; Harmsen, H.J.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Abbas, F.; Faas, M.M.

    Objective: Although the exact reason is not known, encapsulated gram-negative Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are more virulent than non-encapsulated strains. Since difference in virulence properties may be due to difference in cytokine production following recognition of the bacteria or their

  3. Photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants for microelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikerikar, Kiran K.

    2000-10-01

    Plastic encapsulated microelectronic devices consist of a silicon chip that is physically attached to a leadframe, electrically interconnected to input-output leads, and molded in a plastic that is in direct contact with the chip, leadframe, and interconnects. The plastic is often referred to as the molding compound, and is used to protect the chip from adverse mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrical environments. Encapsulation of microelectronic devices is typically accomplished using a transfer molding process in which the molding compound is cured by heat. Most transfer molding processes suffer from significant problems arising from the high operating temperatures and pressures required to fill the mold. These aspects of the current process can lead to thermal stresses, incomplete mold filling, and wire sweep. In this research, a new strategy for encapsulating microelectronic devices using photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants (PLEs) has been investigated. The PLEs consist of an epoxy novolac-based vinyl ester resin (˜25 wt.%), fused silica filler (70--74 wt.%), and a photoinitiator, thermal initiator, and silane coupling agent. For these encapsulants, the use of light, rather than heat, to initiate the polymerization allows precise control over when the reaction starts, and therefore completely decouples the mold filling and the cure. The low viscosity of the PLEs allows for low operating pressures and minimizes problems associated with wire sweep. In addition, the in-mold cure time for the PLEs is equivalent to the in-mold cure times of current transfer molding compounds. In this thesis, the thermal and mechanical properties, as well as the viscosity and adhesion of photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants, are reported in order to demonstrate that a UV-curable formulation can have the material properties necessary for microelectronic encapsulation. In addition, the effects of the illumination time, postcure time, fused silica loading, and the inclusion

  4. Encapsulation layer design and scalability in encapsulated vertical 3D RRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Muxi; Fang, Yichen; Wang, Zongwei; Chen, Gong; Pan, Yue; Yang, Xue; Yin, Minghui; Yang, Yuchao; Li, Ming; Cai, Yimao; Huang, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Here we propose a novel encapsulated vertical 3D RRAM structure with each resistive switching cell encapsulated by dielectric layers, contributing to both the reliability improvement of individual cells and thermal disturbance reduction of adjacent cells due to the effective suppression of unwanted oxygen vacancy diffusion. In contrast to the traditional vertical 3D RRAM, encapsulated bar-electrodes are adopted in the proposed structure substituting the previous plane-electrodes, thus encapsulated resistive switching cells can be naturally formed by simply oxidizing the tip of the metal bar-electrodes. In this work, TaO x -based 3D RRAM devices with SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 as encapsulation layers are demonstrated, both showing significant advantages over traditional unencapsulated vertical 3D RRAM. Furthermore, it was found thermal conductivity and oxygen blocking ability are two key parameters of the encapsulation layer design influencing the scalability of vertical 3D RRAM. Experimental and simulation data show that oxygen blocking ability is more critical for encapsulation layers in the relatively large scale, while thermal conductivity becomes dominant as the stacking layers scale to the sub-10 nm regime. Finally, based on the notable impacts of the encapsulation layer on 3D RRAM scaling, an encapsulation material with both excellent oxygen blocking ability and high thermal conductivity such as AlN is suggested to be highly desirable to maximize the advantages of the proposed encapsulated structure. The findings in this work could pave the way for reliable ultrahigh-density storage applications in the big data era. (paper)

  5. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Bhatia, Rimple; Singh, Anup K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  6. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin-encapsulated halloysite nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kai Li,1,* Yongxing Zhang,2,* Mengting Chen,1 Yangyang Hu,1 Weiliang Jiang,1 Li Zhou,1 Sisi Li,1 Min Xu,1 Qinghua Zhao,2 Rong Wan1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: To improve the antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX and provide novel clinical treatment of gastric cancer, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs loaded with DOX were encapsulated by soybean phospholipid (LIP and the formed HNTs/DOX/LIP was systematically characterized via different techniques. The in vitro anticancer activity of HNTs/DOX/LIP was examined using an MTT assay. The antitumor efficacy and biocompatibility were monitored by measuring the tumor volume and assessing the blood routine and serum biochemistry using an ectopic implantation cancer model. The results show that when the concentration of HNTs was 3 mg/mL and the concentration of DOX was 1 mg/mL the optimal DOX loading efficiency was as high as 22.01%±0.43%. In vitro drug release behavior study demonstrated that HNTs/DOX/LIP shows a pH-responsive release property with fast drug release under acidic conditions (pH =5.4. MTT assays and in vivo experimental results revealed that HNTs/DOX/LIP exhibits a significantly higher inhibitory efficacy on the growth of mouse gastric cancer cells than free DOX at the same drug concentration. In addition, the life span of tumor-bearing mice in the HNTs/DOX/LIP-treated group was obviously prolonged compared with the control groups. Moreover, HNTs/DOX/LIP possessed excellent hemocompatibility as shown in the blood and histology studies. These findings indicated that the formed HNTs/DOX/LIP possesses higher antitumor efficacy and may be used as a targeted

  7. Advanced CFD modelling of air and recycled flue gas staging in a waste wood-fired grate boiler for higher combustion efficiency and greater environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajh, Boštjan; Yin, Chungen; Samec, Niko; Hriberšek, Matjaž; Kokalj, Filip; Zadravec, Matej

    2018-07-15

    Grate-fired boilers are commonly used to burn biomass/wastes for heat and power production. In spite of the recent breakthrough in integration of advanced secondary air systems in grate boilers, grate-firing technology needs to be advanced for higher efficiency and lower emissions. In this paper, innovative staging of combustion air and recycled flue gas in a 13 MW th waste wood-fired grate boiler is comprehensively studied based on a numerical model that has been previously validated. In particular, the effects of the jet momentum, position and orientation of the combustion air and recycled flue gas streams on in-furnace mixing, combustion and pollutant emissions from the boiler are examined. It is found that the optimized air and recycled flue gas jets remarkably enhance mixing and heat transfer, result in a more uniform temperature and velocity distribution, extend the residence time of the combustibles in the hot zone and improve burnout in the boiler. Optimizing the air and recycled flue gas jet configuration can reduce carbon monoxide emission from the boiler by up to 86%, from the current 41.0 ppm to 5.7 ppm. The findings of this study can serve as useful guidelines for novel design and optimization of the combustion air supply and flue gas recycling for grate boilers of this type. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hybrid Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan F [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Degnan, Jr, Thomas Francis [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); McCready, Mark J. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Stadtherr, Mark A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Stolaroff, Joshua K [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ye, Congwang [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and Phase Change Ionic Liquids (PCILs) are excellent materials for selective removal of carbon dioxide from dilute post-combustion streams. However, they are typically characterized as having high viscosities, which impairs their effectiveness due to mass transfer limitations, caused by the high viscosities. In this project, we are examining the benefits of encapsulating ILs and PCILs in thin polymeric shells to produce particles of approximately 100 to 600 µm in diameter that can be used in a fluidized bed absorber. The particles are produced by microencapsulation of the ILs and PCILs in CO2-permeable polymer shells. Here we report on the encapsulation of the IL and PCIL materials, thermodynamic testing of the encapsulated materials, mass transfer measurements in both a fluidized bed and a packed bed, determination of the effect of impurities (SO2, NOx and water) on the free and encapsulated IL and PCIL, recyclability of the CO2 uptake, selection and synthesis of kg quantities of the IL and PCIL, identification of scale-up methods for encapsulation and production of a kg quantity of the PCIL, construction and shakedown of the laboratory scale unit to test the encapsulated particles for CO2 capture ability and efficiency, use of our mass transfer model to predict mass transfer and identify optimal properties of the encapsulated particles, and initial testing of the encapsulated particles in the laboratory scale unit. We also show our attempts at developing shell materials that are resistant to water permeation. Overall, we have shown that the selected IL and PCIL can be successfully encapsulated in polymer shells and the methods scaled up to production levels. The IL/PCIL and encapsulated IL/PCIL react irreversibly with SO2 and NOx so the CO2 capture unit would need to be placed after the flue gas desulfurization and NOx reduction units. However

  9. Nondestructive Assay Options for Spent Fuel Encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jansson, Peter [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2014-10-02

    This report describes the role that nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and systems of NDA techniques may have in the context of an encapsulation and deep geological repository. The potential NDA needs of an encapsulation and repository facility include safeguards, heat content, and criticality. Some discussion of the facility needs is given, with the majority of the report concentrating on the capability and characteristics of individual NDA instruments and techniques currently available or under development. Particular emphasis is given to how the NDA techniques can be used to determine the heat production of an assembly, as well as meet the dual safeguards needs of 1) determining the declared parameters of initial enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time and 2) detecting defects (total, partial, and bias). The report concludes with the recommendation of three integrated systems that might meet the combined NDA needs of the encapsulation/repository facility.

  10. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou

    2017-01-01

    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have...... fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness...... of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error...

  11. Encapsulation - how it will be achieved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, P.

    1990-01-01

    The work of the new Encapsulation Plant at British Nuclear Fuel Limited's (BNFL) Sellafield site is described in this article. Intermediate-level radioactive materials are encapsulated in a cement matrix in 500 litre stainless steel drums suitable for storage, transport and disposal. The drums will be stored in an above-ground air-cooled store until UK Nirex Limited have built the planned underground disposal facility. The concept of product specification is explored as it applies to the four stages of nuclear waste management, namely, processing, storage, transport and disposal. By following this approach the encapsulation plant will work within government regulations and the public concerns over safety and environmental issues can be met. U.K

  12. Survival of encapsulated potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum D6SM3 with bioemulsifier derived from spent yeast in simulated gastrointestinal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweena Dikit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of encapsulation with three kinds of emulsifier (Tween 80, gum arabic and bioemulsifier extracted from spent yeast on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum D6SM3 in simulated gastrointestinal tract during storage at 4°C and room temperature was investigated. The survival of all encapsulated cells treated in simulated gastric juice was higher than free cells at both pH 2.5 and 3.0. The viability of the free and encapsulated cells showed a gradual decline throughout the storage period at 4°C. However, the viability rapidly declined at room temperature. In addition, the droplet size distribution of encapsulated cells was compared between those with and without an emulsifier by using the laser diffraction method. The particle size and polydispersity value of encapsulated cells were controlled better in emulsion with emulsifier added. The surface of encapsulated cells with emulsifier exhibited smoother characteristics than those without emulsifier.

  13. Zeolite Encapsulated Nanocrystalline CuO: A Redox Catalyst for the Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vijaikumar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite encapsulated nanocrystalline CuO is synthesized and characterized by powder XRD and HRTEM analyses which clearly show that the particles are less than 15 nm and the nanoparticles are highly dispersed. This nano CuO encapsulated CuY zeolite is used as catalyst in the oxidation of aromatic secondary alcohols. CuY zeolite acts as an efficient support for nano CuO, by stabilizing it and preventing its aggregation. Plausible mechanisms for the formation of the various products are also given.

  14. Integrating Micro- or Nanoscale Encapsulation Technology with Vitreous Cryopreservation: A New Strategy to Improve Biopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y Y; Zhao, G

      BACKGROUND: None-uniform distributions of temperatures, limited freezing and thawing rates, and thermal stresses are three main hindering factors for successful vitreous cryopreservation of mass volume of biosamples. Micro- and nanoscale encapsulation, owning the intrinsic features to avoid those limitations introduced by the traditional approaches, has been opened up a new way for effective and high-efficiency biopreservation. This short review article summarizes recent advances in cell encapsulation technology for biopreservation by manipulating cells and biological agents in micro- or nanoscale volume droplets and microgels, and discusses its promising applications for future vitreous cryopreservation.

  15. Formulation, characterization, and expression of a recombinant MOMP Chlamydia trachomatis DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambridge CD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chino D Cambridge, Shree R Singh, Alain B Waffo, Stacie J Fairley, Vida A DennisCenter for NanoBiotechnology Research (CNBR, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Previous vaccination attempts have employed the recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP of C. trachomatis nonetheless, with limited success, perhaps, due to stability, degradation, and delivery issues. In this study we cloned C. trachomatis recombinant MOMP DNA (DMOMP and encapsulated it in chitosan nanoparticles (DMCNP using the complex coacervation technique. Physiochemical characterizations of DMCNP included transmission and scanning electron microcopy, Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and zeta potential. Encapsulated DMOMP was 167–250 nm, with a uniform spherical shape and homogenous morphology, and an encapsulation efficiency > 90%. A slow release pattern of encapsulated DMOMP, especially in acidic solution, was observed over 7 days. The zeta potential of DMCNP was ~8.80 mV, which indicated that it was highly stable. Toxicity studies of DMCNP (25–400 µg/mL to Cos-7 cells using the MTT assay revealed minimal toxicity over 24–72 hours with >90% viable cells. Ultra-violet visible (UV-vis spectra indicated encapsulated DMOMP protection by chitosan, whereas agarose gel electrophoresis verified its protection from enzymatic degradation. Expression of MOMP protein in DMCNP-transfected Cos-7 cells was demonstrated via Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Significantly, intramuscular injection of BALB/c mice with DMCNP confirmed the delivery of encapsulated DMOMP, and expression of the MOMP gene transcript in thigh muscles and spleens. Our data show that encapsulation of DMOMP in biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles imparts stability and protection from enzymatic digestion, and enhances delivery and

  16. Nanovesicle encapsulation of antimicrobial peptide P34: physicochemical characterization and mode of action on Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Malheiros, Patrícia; Sant'Anna, Voltaire; Micheletto, Yasmine Miguel Serafini; da Silveira, Nadya Pesce; Brandelli, Adriano

    2011-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptide P34, a substance showing antibacterial activity against pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria, was encapsulated in liposomes prepared from partially purified soybean phosphatidylcholine, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by agar diffusion assay using Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 as indicator strain. A concentration of 3,200 AU/mL of P34 was encapsulated in nanovesicles and stocked at 4 °C. No significant difference ( p > 0.05) in the biological activity of free and encapsulated P34 was observed through 24 days. Size and PDI of liposomes, investigated by light scattering analysis, were on average 150 nm and 0.22 respectively. Zeta potential was -27.42 mV. There was no significant change ( p > 0.05) in the physicochemical properties of liposomes during the time of evaluation. The liposomes presented closed spherical morphology as visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mode of action of liposome-encapsulated P34 under L. monocytogenes cells was investigated by TEM. Liposomes appeared to adhere but not fuse with the bacterial cell wall, suggesting that the antimicrobial is released from nanovesicles to act against the microorganism. The effect of free and encapsulated P34 was tested against L. monocytogenes, showing that free bacteriocin inhibited the pathogen more quickly than the encapsulated P34. Liposomes prepared with low-cost lipid showed high encapsulation efficiency for a new antimicrobial peptide and were stable during storage. The mode of action against the pathogen L. monocytogenes was characterized.

  17. Formulation, Characterization and Pulmonary Deposition of Nebulized Celecoxib Encapsulated Nanostructured Lipid Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Ram R.; Chougule, Mahavir; Patel, Apurva R.; Jackson, Tanise; Tata, Prasad NV; Singh, Mandip

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to encapsulate celecoxib (Cxb) in the Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (Cxb-NLC) nanoparticles and evaluate the lung disposition of nanoparticles following nebulization in Balb/c mice. Cxb-NLC nanoparticles were prepared with Cxb, Compritol, Miglyol and sodium taurocholate using high-pressure homogenization. Cxb-NLC nanoparticles were characterized for physical and aerosol properties. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed with A549 cells. The lung deposition and pharmacokinetic parameters of Cxb-NLC and Cxb solution (Cxb-Soln) formulations were determined using Inexpose™ system and Pari LC star jet nebulizer. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of Cxb-NLC formulation were 217 ± 20 nm and > 90%, respectively. The Cxb-NLC released the drug in controlled fashion, and in vitro aersolization of Cxb-NLC formulation showed FPF of 75.6 ± 4.6 %, MMAD of 1.6 ±0.13 μm and GSD of 1.2 ± 0.21. Cxb-NLC showed dose and time dependent cytotoxicity against A549 cells. Nebulization of Cxb-NLC demonstrated 4 fold higher AUCt/D in lung tissues compared to Cxb-Soln. The systemic clearance of Cxb-NLC was slower (0.93 L/h) compared to Cxb-Soln (20.03 L/h). Cxb encapsulated NLC were found to be stable and aerodynamic properties were within the respirable limits. Aerosolization of Cxb-NLC improved the Cxb pulmonary bioavailability compared to solution formulation which will potentially lead to better patient compliance with minimal dosing intervals. PMID:20153385

  18. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  19. Encapsulated social perception of emotional expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smortchkova, Joulia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the detection of emotional expressions is, in its early stages, informationally encapsulated. I clarify and defend such a view via the appeal to data from social perception on the visual processing of faces, bodies, facial and bodily expressions. Encapsulated social perception might exist alongside processes that are cognitively penetrated, and that have to do with recognition and categorization, and play a central evolutionary function in preparing early and rapid responses to the emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Suitability of cement encapsulated ILW for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.

    1989-01-01

    ILW arising during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel is to be encapsulated in cement in nominal 500-litre drums. It is important that the waste package produced can be safely transported to a deep repository. Preliminary assessments of the performances of waste packages during transport for a number of the ILW streams to be generated at Sellafield have been carried out. The results show that the proposed encapsulation process produces a waste package which can be transported to an acceptable standard of safety and which does not prejudice any aspects of transport. (author)

  1. Aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine enhance pulmonary absorption of encapsulated insulin compared with co-administered insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Sumio; Togami, Kohei; Itagaki, Shirou

    2017-11-01

    We have previously shown that aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) enhance the pulmonary absorption of encapsulated insulin. In this study, we aimed to compare insulin encapsulated into the liposomes versus co-administration of empty liposomes and unencapsulated free insulin, where the DPCC liposomes would serve as absorption enhancer. The present study provides the useful information for development of noninvasive treatment of diabetes. Co-administration of empty DPPC liposomes and unencapsulated free insulin was investigated in vivo to assess the potential enhancement in protein pulmonary absorption. Co-administration was compared to DPPC liposomes encapsulating insulin, and free insulin. DPPC liposomes enhanced the pulmonary absorption of unencapsulated free insulin; however, the enhancing effect was lower than that of the DPPC liposomes encapsulating insulin. The mechanism of the pulmonary absorption of unencapsulated free insulin by DPPC liposomes involved the opening of epithelial cell space in alveolar mucosa, and not mucosal cell damage, similar to that of the DPPC liposomes encapsulating insulin. In an in vitro stability test, insulin in the alveolar mucus layer that covers epithelial cells was stable. These findings suggest that, although unencapsulated free insulin spreads throughout the alveolar mucus layer, the concentration of insulin released near the absorption surface is increased by the encapsulation of insulin into DPPC liposomes and the absorption efficiency is also increased. We revealed that the encapsulation of insulin into DPPC liposomes is more effective for pulmonary insulin absorption than co-administration of DPPC liposomes and unencapsulated free insulin.

  2. Polyphenon-E encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles inhibited proliferation and growth of Ehrlich solid tumor in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza I. Othman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited bioavailability of green tea polyphenols hampered their delivery to tumor and hence therapeutic effectiveness. This study investigated the antitumor activity of polyphenon-E (PE encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs in Ehrlich solid tumor in mice. CSNPs-PE, with a particle size of 53–69 nm showed 83% entrapment efficiency and a sustained release of PE in pH = 7.4 at 37 °C. The data demonstrated a higher percentage of released drug in case of less crosslinked formulations. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cells (2.5 × 106/0.2 ml/mouse were injected subcutaneously in the back of mice. Oral administration of CSNPs-PE for 30 days produced a significant decrease in tumor volume (53% and weight (60% compared with free PE and voids CSNPs (72%. Compared with free PE and control, cell cycle revealed G0/G1 arrest associated with decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. In tumor tissue of CSNPs-PE treated mice, compared with free PE, there were; 1 induction of Bax and p53, 2 activation of caspases-3,-8 and -9, and CD95, 3 decrease in Bcl-2 expression of 4 inhibition of VEGF and CD31 expressions in tumor tissue. In conclusion, encapsulation of PE into CSNPs provided a good platform for cancer chemotherapy and raised existing application of different polyphenols for nanochemotherapy/prevention.

  3. Effect of source encapsulation on the energy spectra of sup 192 Ir and sup 137 Cs seed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomason, C [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Medical Physics; Mackie, T R [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Medical Physics Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Human Oncology; Lindstrom, M J [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Biostatistics Center

    1991-04-01

    The effect of source encapsulation on the energy spectra of {sup 192}Ir and {sup 137}Cs seed sources, both with stainless steel and with platinum encapsulation, was determined from results of Monte Carlo simulation. The fractional scatter dose around these sources has also been determined from Monte Carlo simulation. The platinum-encapsulated {sup 192}Ir source exhibited greater attenuation of the primary spectrum, as expected, and, consistent with this greater attenuation, exhibited more scattered radiation. Significantly less scatter was seen with the {sup 137}Cs source than with either {sup 192}Ir source, as is consistent with the higher-energy photons from {sup 137}Cs. (author).

  4. The therapeutic effect of nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion forms of carvacrol on experimental liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Jihan; El-Banna, Mona; Mahmoud, Khaled F; Morsy, Safaa; Abdel Latif, Yasmin; Medhat, Dalia; Refaat, Eman; Farrag, Abdel Razik; El-Daly, Sherien M

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiency of nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol administration on liver injury in thioacetamide (TAA) treated rats. To fulfill our target, we used sixty male albino rats classified into six groups as follow: control, nano-encapsulated carvacrol, nano-emulsion carvacrol, thioacetamide, treated nano-encapsulated carvacrol and treated nano-emulsion carvacrol groups. Blood samples were collected from all groups and the separated serum was used for analysis of the following biochemical parameters; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), S100 B protein, alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and caspase-3. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) and hydroxyproline content were all evaluated in liver tissue homogenate. Histopathological examinations for liver tissues were also performed. Thioacetamide induced hepatic damage in rats as revealed by the significant increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST and produced oxidative stress as displayed by the significant elevation in the levels of hepatic MDA and NO concomitant with a significant decrease in GSH. In addition, thioacetamide significantly increased serum S100B protein, alpha fetoprotein and caspase-3 along with hepatic MCP-1 and hydroxyproline; these results were confirmed by the histopathological investigation. In contrast, nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol were able to ameliorate these negative changes in the thioacetamide injected rats. However, the effect of the nano-encapsulated form of carvacrol was more prominent than the nano-emulsion form. Nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol can ameliorate thioacetamide induced liver injury. These results could be attributed to the potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic activities of carvacrol in addition to the effectiveness of the encapsulation technique that can protect

  5. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-01-01

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification–solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide–polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology. PMID:28952560

  6. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-09-26

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification-solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide-polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology.

  7. Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles encapsulated in PLGA nanofibers for siRNA delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Menglin; Gao, Shan; Dong, Mingdong

    2012-01-01

    Composite nanofibers of biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) encapsulating chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by electrospinning. Acidic/alkaline hydrolysis and a bulk/surface degradation mechanism were investigated in order to achieve an optimized release profile...... for prolonged and efficient gene silencing. Thermo-controlled AFM in situ imaging not only revealed the integrity of the encapsulated chitosan/siRNA polyplex but also shed light on the decreasing Tg of PLGA on the fiber surfaces during release. A triphasic release profile based on bulk erosion was obtained at p......RNA transfection, where the encapsulated chitosan/siRNA NPs exhibited up to 50% EGFP gene silencing activity after 48 h post-transfection on H1299 cells....

  8. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) encapsulated hydroxyapatite microspheres for sustained release of doxycycline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaoyun [School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Pharmacy, Shandong Drug and Food Vocational College, Science and Technology Town, Hightech Industrial Development Zone, Weihai 264210 (China); Xu Hui; Zhao Yanqiu [School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang Shaoning, E-mail: wsn-xh@126.com [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Abe, Hiroya; Naito, Makio [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Liu Yanli [School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang Guoqing [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs were used for the sustained delivery of Doxycycline (Doxy, a broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotic). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustained Doxy release without obvious burst was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of the sustained Doxy release was illustrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustained Doxy release character in vivo was also obtained, the plasma Doxy levels were relatively lower and steady compared to that of the un-encapsulated HAP-MSs. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to prepare a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) encapsulated hydroxyapatite microspheres (HAP-MSs) as injectable depot for sustained delivery of Doxycycline (Doxy). Doxy loaded HAP-MSs (Doxy-HAP-MSs) were encapsulated with PLGA by solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsion-solvent evaporation technique, the effects of the PLGA used (various intrinsic viscosity and LA/GA ratio) and ratio of PLGA/HAP-MSs on the formation of Doxy-HAP-MSs and in vitro release of Doxy were studied. The results showed that sustained drug release without obvious burst was obtained by using PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs as the carrier, also the drug release rate could be tailored by changing the ratio of PLGA/HAP-MSs, or PLGA of various intrinsic viscosities or LA/GA ratio. Lower ratio of PLGA/HAP-MSs corresponded faster Doxy release, e.g. for the microspheres of PLGA/HAP-MSs ratio of 8 and 0.25, the in vitro Doxy release percents at the end of 7days were about 23% and 76%, respectively. Higher hydrophilicity (higher ratio of GA to LA) and lower molecular weight of PLGA corresponded to higher Doxy release rates. For in vivo release study, PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs were subcutaneously injected to the back of mice, and the results showed good correlation between the in vivo and in vitro drug release. Meanwhile, the plasma Doxy levels after subcutaneous administration of PLGA encapsulated Doxy-HAP-MSs were relatively lower and steady

  9. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) encapsulated hydroxyapatite microspheres for sustained release of doxycycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoyun; Xu Hui; Zhao Yanqiu; Wang Shaoning; Abe, Hiroya; Naito, Makio; Liu Yanli; Wang Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs were used for the sustained delivery of Doxycycline (Doxy, a broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotic). ► Sustained Doxy release without obvious burst was observed. ► Mechanism of the sustained Doxy release was illustrated. ► Sustained Doxy release character in vivo was also obtained, the plasma Doxy levels were relatively lower and steady compared to that of the un-encapsulated HAP-MSs. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to prepare a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) encapsulated hydroxyapatite microspheres (HAP-MSs) as injectable depot for sustained delivery of Doxycycline (Doxy). Doxy loaded HAP-MSs (Doxy-HAP-MSs) were encapsulated with PLGA by solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsion-solvent evaporation technique, the effects of the PLGA used (various intrinsic viscosity and LA/GA ratio) and ratio of PLGA/HAP-MSs on the formation of Doxy-HAP-MSs and in vitro release of Doxy were studied. The results showed that sustained drug release without obvious burst was obtained by using PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs as the carrier, also the drug release rate could be tailored by changing the ratio of PLGA/HAP-MSs, or PLGA of various intrinsic viscosities or LA/GA ratio. Lower ratio of PLGA/HAP-MSs corresponded faster Doxy release, e.g. for the microspheres of PLGA/HAP-MSs ratio of 8 and 0.25, the in vitro Doxy release percents at the end of 7days were about 23% and 76%, respectively. Higher hydrophilicity (higher ratio of GA to LA) and lower molecular weight of PLGA corresponded to higher Doxy release rates. For in vivo release study, PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs were subcutaneously injected to the back of mice, and the results showed good correlation between the in vivo and in vitro drug release. Meanwhile, the plasma Doxy levels after subcutaneous administration of PLGA encapsulated Doxy-HAP-MSs were relatively lower and steady compared to that of the un-encapsulated microspheres. In conclusion, PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs may

  10. Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Cui, Hongzhi; Tang, Waiching; Chen, Dazhu; Wen, Haibo

    2016-01-19

    The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB). The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times.

  11. Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times.

  12. Hybrid Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan; Degnan, Thomas; McCready, Mark; Stadtherr, Mark; Stolaroff, Joshuah; Ye, Congwang

    2016-09-30

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and Phase Change Ionic Liquids (PCILs) are excellent materials for selective removal of carbon dioxide from dilute post-combustion streams. However, they are typically characterized as having high viscosities, which impairs their effectiveness due to mass transfer limitations, caused by the high viscosities. In this project, we are examining the benefits of encapsulating ILs and PCILs in thin polymeric shells to produce particles of approximately 100 to 600 μm in diameter that can be used in a fluidized bed absorber. The particles are produced by microencapsulation of the ILs and PCILs in CO2-permeable polymer shells. Here we report on the synthesis of the IL and PCIL materials, measurements of thermophysical properties including CO2 capacity and reprotonation equilibrium and kinetics, encapsulation of the ILs and PCILs, mechanical and thermodynamic testing of the encapsulated materials, development of a rate based model of the absorber, and the design of a laboratory scale unit to test the encapsulated particles for CO2 capture ability and efficiency. We show that the IL/PCIL materials can be successfully encapsulated, that they retain CO2 uptake capacity, and that the uptake rates are increased relative to a stagnant sample of IL liquid or PCIL powder.

  13. Synthesis of Polyamidoamine Dendrimer for Encapsulating Tetramethylscutellarein for Potential Bioactivity Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrack, Daniel M; Mubofu, Egid B; Nyandoro, Stephen S

    2015-11-04

    The biomedical potential of flavonoids is normally restricted by their low water solubility. However, little has been reported on their encapsulation into polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers to improve their biomedical applications. Generation four (G4) PAMAM dendrimer containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid core with acrylic acid and ethylenediamine as repeating units was synthesized by divergent approach and used to encapsulate a flavonoid tetramethylscutellarein (TMScu, 1) to study its solubility and in vitro release for potential bioactivity enhancement. The as-synthesized dendrimer and the dendrimer-TMScu complex were characterized by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The encapsulation of 1 into dendrimer was achieved by a co-precipitation method with the encapsulation efficiency of 77.8% ± 0.69% and a loading capacity of 6.2% ± 0.06%. A phase solubility diagram indicated an increased water solubility of 1 as a function of dendrimer concentration at pH 4.0 and 7.2. In vitro release of 1 from its dendrimer complex indicated high percentage release at pH 4.0. The stability study of the TMScu-dendrimer at 0, 27 and 40 °C showed the formulations to be stable when stored in cool and dark conditions compared to those stored in light and warmer temperatures. Overall, PAMAM dendrimer-G4 is capable of encapsulating 1, increasing its solubility and thus could enhance its bioactivity.

  14. The encapsulation of an amphiphile into polystyrene microspheres of narrow size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellach Michal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Encapsulation of compounds into nano- or microsized organic particles of narrow size distribution is of increasing importance in fields of advanced imaging and diagnostic techniques and drug delivery systems. The main technology currently used for encapsulation of molecules within uniform template particles while retaining their size distribution is based on particle swelling methodology, involving penetration of emulsion droplets into the particles. The swelling method, however, is efficient for encapsulation only of hydrophobic compounds within hydrophobic template particles. In order to be encapsulated, the molecules must favor the hydrophobic phase of an organic/aqueous biphasic system, which is not easily achieved for molecules of amphiphilic character. The following work overcomes this difficulty by presenting a new method for encapsulation of amphiphilic molecules within uniform hydrophobic particles. We use hydrogen bonding of acid and base, combined with a pseudo salting out effect, for the entrapment of the amphiphile in the organic phase of a biphasic system. Following the entrapment in the organic phase, we demonstrated, using fluorescein and (antibiotic tetracycline as model molecules, that the swelling method usually used only for hydrophobes can be expanded and applied to amphiphilic molecules.

  15. Cyclodextrin-insulin complex encapsulated polymethacrylic acid based nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeesh, S; Sharma, Chandra P

    2006-11-15

    Present investigation was aimed at developing an oral insulin delivery system based on hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin-insulin (HPbetaCD-I) complex encapsulated polymethacrylic acid-chitosan-polyether (polyethylene glycol-polypropylene glycol copolymer) (PMCP) nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were prepared by the free radical polymerization of methacrylic acid in presence of chitosan and polyether in a solvent/surfactant free medium. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiment was conducted with particles dispersed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and size distribution curve was observed in the range of 500-800 nm. HPbetaCD was used to prepare non-covalent inclusion complex with insulin and complex was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. HPbetaCD complexed insulin was encapsulated into PMCP nanoparticles by diffusion filling method and their in vitro release profile was evaluated at acidic/alkaline pH. PMCP nanoparticles displayed good insulin encapsulation efficiency and release profile was largely dependent on the pH of the medium. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) study demonstrated that insulin encapsulated inside the particles was biologically active. Trypsin inhibitory effect of PMCP nanoparticles was evaluated using N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE) and casein as substrates. Mucoadhesive studies of PMCP nanoparticles were conducted using freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa and the particles were found fairly adhesive. From the preliminary studies, cyclodextrin complexed insulin encapsulated mucoadhesive nanoparticles appear to be a good candidate for oral insulin delivery.

  16. Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Cui, Hongzhi; Tang, Waiching; Chen, Dazhu; Wen, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB). The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times. PMID:28787859

  17. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors Containing Microparticles for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Benjamin Pieter; Calle, Luz M.

    2015-01-01

    This poster presents the results obtained from experiments designed to evaluate the release properties, as well as the corrosion inhibition effectiveness, of several encapsulated corrosion inhibitors. Microencapsulation has been used in the development of environmentally friendly multifunctional smart coatings. This technique enables the incorporation of autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition and self-healing functionalities into many commercially available coating systems. Select environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic and inorganic pH-sensitive microparticles and their release in basic solutions was studied. The release rate results showed that the encapsulation can be tailored from fast, for immediate corrosion protection, to slow, which will provide continued long-term corrosion protection. The incorporation of several corrosion inhibitor release profiles into a coating provides effective corrosion protection properties. To investigate the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the encapsulated inhibitors, electrochemical techniques were used to obtain corrosion potential, polarization curve and polarization resistance data. These measurements were performed using the free as well as the encapsulated inhibitors singly or in combinations. Results from these electrochemical tests will be compared to those obtained from weight loss and other accelerated corrosion experiments.

  18. Complexation/encapsulation of green tea polyphenols in mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate micro-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbadi, Amal; Jeckelmann, Nicolas; Haefliger, Olivier P; Ouali, Lahoussine

    2011-01-01

    We used a double-jet mixer to encapsulate water-soluble polyphenols, green tea extract (GTE), with calcium-based inorganic materials. The device mixed calcium chloride solutions with a solution of carbonate and phosphate in the presence of a GTE solution, and formed micro-particles which capture the GTE molecules. The micro-particles were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy to determine the encapsulation yield and loading of the different GTE components. We established correlations between (1) the efficiency of the GTE encapsulation and the composition of the mixed anion solutions and (2) the protonation degree of the ions and the molar ratio of calcium cations and carbonate/phosphate anions. An optimal and reproducible GTE loading of about 40% with an encapsulation yield of 65% was observed for a carbonate/phosphate molar composition of 4 : 1. In addition, our experimental results showed that the process is selective and favours the encapsulation of gallated species which form stronger complexes with calcium cations.

  19. Optimisation of preparation conditions and properties of phytosterol liposome-encapsulating nattokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xu-Yan; Kong, Fan-Pi; Yuan, Gang-You; Wei, Fang; Jiang, Mu-Lan; Li, Guang-Ming; Wang, Zhan; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Phytosterol liposomes were prepared using the thin film method and used to encapsulate nattokinase (NK). In order to obtain a high encapsulation efficiency within the liposome, an orthogonal experiment (L9 (3)(4)) was applied to optimise the preparation conditions. The molar ratio of lecithin to phytosterols, NK activity and mass ratio of mannite to lecithin were the main factors that influenced the encapsulation efficiency of the liposomes. Based on the results of a single-factor test, these three factors were chosen for this study. We determined the optimum extraction conditions to be as follows: a molar ratio of lecithin to phytosterol of 2 : 1, NK activity of 2500 U mL⁻¹ and a mass ratio of mannite to lecithin of 3 : 1. Under these optimised conditions, an encapsulation efficiency of 65.25% was achieved, which agreed closely with the predicted result. Moreover, the zeta potential, size distribution and microstructure of the liposomes prepared were measured, and we found that the zeta potential was -51 ± 3 mV and the mean diameter was 194.1 nm. From the results of the scanning electron microscopy, we observed that the phytosterol liposomes were round and regular in shape and showed no aggregation.

  20. Encapsulation of thermal energy storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhau, Jaspreet; Goswami, Dharendra; Jotshi, Chand K.; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2017-09-19

    In one embodiment, a phase change material is encapsulated by forming a phase change material pellet, coating the pellet with flexible material, heating the coated pellet to melt the phase change material, wherein the phase change materials expands and air within the pellet diffuses out through the flexible material, and cooling the coated pellet to solidify the phase change material.

  1. Magic ferritin: A novel chemotherapeutic encapsulation bullet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Ece; Akif Kilic, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The dissociation of apoferritin into subunits at pH 2 followed by its reformation at pH 7.4 in the presence of doxorubicin-HCl gives rise to a solution containing five doxorubicin-HCl molecules trapped within the apoferritin. This is the first report showing that ferritin can encapsulate an anti-cancer drug into its cavity

  2. Bioactive Compounds And Encapsulation Of Yanang ( Tiliacora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, this paper reports the design of the experimental method for optimization of Yanang encapsulation using three independent variables: the ratio of core material (Yanang), to wall material (gum Arabic), gum Arabic concentration and inlet temperature of spray drying on bioactive compounds stability. The stability ...

  3. Secure Hybrid Encryption from Weakened Key Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hofheinz (Dennis); E. Kiltz (Eike); A. Menezes

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe put forward a new paradigm for building hybrid encryption schemes from constrained chosen-ciphertext secure (CCCA) key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) plus authenticated symmetric encryption. Constrained chosen-ciphertext security is a new security notion for KEMs that we propose. It

  4. Anisotropic silica mesostructures for DNA encapsulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The encapsulation of biomolecules in inert meso or nanostructures is an important step towards controlling drug delivery agents. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are of immense importance owing to their high surface area, large pore size, uniform particle size and chemical inertness. Reverse micellar method with ...

  5. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  6. Oxygen Measurements in Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, Joshua Benjamin

    Liposome encapsulated hemoglobins (LEH's) are of current interest as blood substitutes. An analytical methodology for rapid non-invasive measurements of oxygen in artificial oxygen carriers is examined. High resolution optical absorption spectra are calculated by means of a one dimensional diffusion approximation. The encapsulated hemoglobin is prepared from fresh defibrinated bovine blood. Liposomes are prepared from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), cholesterol and dicetylphosphate using a bath sonication method. An integrating sphere spectrophotometer is employed for diffuse optics measurements. Data is collected using an automated data acquisition system employing lock-in -amplifiers. The concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives are evaluated from the corresponding extinction coefficients using a numerical technique of singular value decomposition, and verification of the results is done using Monte Carlo simulations. In situ measurements are required for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives because most encapsulation methods invariably lead to the formation of methemoglobin, a nonfunctional form of hemoglobin. The methods employed in this work lead to high resolution absorption spectra of oxyhemoglobin and other derivatives in red blood cells and liposome encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH). The analysis using singular value decomposition method offers a quantitative means of calculating the fractions of oxyhemoglobin and other hemoglobin derivatives in LEH samples. The analytical methods developed in this work will become even more useful when production of LEH as a blood substitute is scaled up to large volumes.

  7. Nanoprecipitation process: From encapsulation to drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Rivas, Claudia Janeth; Tarhini, Mohamad; Badri, Waisudin; Miladi, Karim; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Nazari, Qand Agha; Galindo Rodríguez, Sergio Arturo; Román, Rocío Álvarez; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2017-10-30

    Drugs encapsulation is a suitable strategy in order to cope with the limitations of conventional dosage forms such as unsuitable bioavailability, stability, taste, and odor. Nanoprecipitation technique has been used in the pharmaceutical and agricultural research as clean alternative for other drug carrier formulations. This technique is based on precipitation mechanism. Polymer precipitation occurs after the addition of a non-solvent to a polymer solution in four steps mechanism: supersaturation, nucleation, growth by condensation, and growth by coagulation that leads to the formation of polymer nanoparticles or aggregates. The scale-up of laboratory-based nanoprecipitation method shows a good reproducibility. In addition, flash nanoprecipitation is a good strategy for industrial scale production of nanoparticles. Nanoprecipitation is usually used for encapsulation of hydrophobic or hydrophilic compounds. Nanoprecipitation was also shown to be a good alternative for the encapsulation of natural compounds. As a whole, process and formulation related parameters in nanoprecipitation technique have critical effect on nanoparticles characteristics. Biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymers have been used for the preparation of nanoparticles intended to in vivo studies. Literature studies have demonstrated the biodistribution of the active loaded nanoparticles in different organs after administration via various routes. In general, in vitro drug release from nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation includes two phases: a first phase of "burst release" which is followed by a second phase of prolonged release. Moreover, many encapsulated active molecules have been commercialized in the pharmaceutical market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Process for encapsulating active agents in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the

  9. Treatment of Diabetes with Encapsulated Islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Spasojevic, Milica; Faas, Marijke M.; Pedraz, JL; Orive, G

    2010-01-01

    Cell encapsulation has been proposed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases since it allows for transplantation of cells in the absence of undesired immunosuppression. The technology has been proposed to be a solution for the treatment of diabetes since it potentially allows a mandatory

  10. Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs) Reliability Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, M.

    2000-01-01

    It is reported by some users and has been demonstrated by others via testing and qualification that the quality and reliability of plastic-encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs) manufactured today are excellent in commercial applications and closely equivalent, and in some cases superior to their hemetic counterparts.

  11. Stability and loading properties of curcumin encapsulated in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Yaser; Sabahi, Hossein; Rahaie, Mahdi

    2016-11-15

    Curcumin (Cur), a polyphenols with pharmacological function, was successfully encapsulated in algae (Alg) cell (Chlorella vulgaris) as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Fluorescence micrographs, TGA, DSC and FTIR spectra suggested the hypothesis inclusion Cur in Nano-empty spaces inside cell wall of Alg. The TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of Alg and Cur at algae/curcumin complex was 3.8% and 33% higher than their free forms at 0-300°C and 300-600°C ranges, respectively. After encapsulation in Alg cells, the photostability of Cur was enhanced by about 2.5-fold. Adsorption isotherm of Cur into Alg was fitted with the Freundlich isotherm. The microcapsules were loaded with Cur up to about 55% w/w which is much higher than other reported bio-carriers. In conclusion, the data proved that Chlorella vulgaris cell can be used as a new stable carrier for Cur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Encapsulation of biomaterials in porous glass-like matrices prepared via an aqueous colloidal sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dean-Mo; Chen, I-Wei

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for the encapsulation of biologically important proteins into transparent, porous silica matrices by an alcohol-free, aqueous, colloidal sol-gel process, and to the biological materials encapsulated thereby. The process is exemplified by studies involving encapsulated cytochrome c, catalase, myoglobin, and hemoglobin, although non-proteinaceous biomaterials, such as active DNA or RNA fragments, cells or even tissues, may also be encapsulated in accordance with the present methods. Conformation, and hence activity of the biomaterial, is successfully retained after encapsulation as demonstrated by optical characterization of the molecules, even after long-term storage. The retained conformation of the biomaterial is strongly correlated to both the rate of gelation and the subsequent drying speed of the encapsulatng matrix. Moreover, in accordance with this process, gelation is accelerated by the use of a higher colloidal solid concentration and a lower synthesis pH than conventional methods, thereby enhancing structural stability and retained conformation of the biomaterials. Thus, the invention also provides a remarkable improvement in retaining the biological activity of the encapsulated biomaterial, as compared with those involved in conventional alkoxide-based processes. It further provides new methods for the quantitative and qualitative detection of test substances that are reactive to, or catalyzed by, the active, encapsulated biological materials.

  13. Radiosensitizing Silica Nanoparticles Encapsulating Docetaxel for Treatment of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Jodi; Castilla-Ojo, Noelle; Sridhar, Srinivas; Kumar, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    The applications of nanoparticles in oncology include enhanced drug delivery, efficient tumor targeting, treatment monitoring, and diagnostics. The "theranostic properties" associated with nanoparticles have shown enhanced delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs with superior imaging capabilities and minimal toxicities. In conventional chemotherapy, only a fraction of the administered drug reaches the tumor site or cancer cells. For successful translation of these formulations, it is imperative to evaluate the design and properties of these nanoparticles. Here, we describe the design of ultra-small silica nanoparticles to encapsulate a radiosensitizing drug for combined chemoradiation therapy. The small size of nanoparticles allows for better dispersion and uptake of the drug within the highly vascularized tumor tissue. Silica nanoparticles are synthesized using an oil-in-water microemulsion method. The microemulsion method provides a robust synthetic route in which the inner hydrophobic core is used to encapsulate chemotherapy drug, docetaxel while the outer hydrophilic region provides dispersibility of the synthesized nanoparticles in an aqueous environment. Docetaxel is commonly used for treatment of resistant or metastatic prostate cancer, and is known to have radiosensitizing properties. Here, we describe a systematic approach for synthesizing these theranostic nanoparticles for application in prostate cancer.

  14. On-chip Magnetic Separation and Cell Encapsulation in Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A.; Byvank, T.; Bharde, A.; Miller, B. L.; Chalmers, J. J.; Sooryakumar, R.; Chang, W.-J.; Bashir, R.

    2012-02-01

    The demand for high-throughput single cell assays is gaining importance because of the heterogeneity of many cell suspensions, even after significant initial sorting. These suspensions may display cell-to-cell variability at the gene expression level that could impact single cell functional genomics, cancer, stem-cell research and drug screening. The on-chip monitoring of individual cells in an isolated environment could prevent cross-contamination, provide high recovery yield and ability to study biological traits at a single cell level These advantages of on-chip biological experiments contrast to conventional methods, which require bulk samples that provide only averaged information on cell metabolism. We report on a device that integrates microfluidic technology with a magnetic tweezers array to combine the functionality of separation and encapsulation of objects such as immunomagnetically labeled cells or magnetic beads into pico-liter droplets on the same chip. The ability to control the separation throughput that is independent of the hydrodynamic droplet generation rate allows the encapsulation efficiency to be optimized. The device can potentially be integrated with on-chip labeling and/or bio-detection to become a powerful single-cell analysis device.

  15. Surface modification of protein enhances encapsulation in chitosan nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyani, Rina D.; Andrade, Mariana; Quester, Katrin; Gaytán, Paul; Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles have a huge potential as nanocarriers for environmental and biomedical purposes. Protein encapsulation in nano-sized chitosan provides protection against inactivation, proteolysis, and other alterations due to environmental conditions, as well as the possibility to be targeted to specific tissues by ligand functionalization. In this work, we demonstrate that the chemical modification of the protein surface enhances the protein loading in chitosan nanocarriers. Encapsulation of green fluorescent protein and the cytochrome P450 was studied. The increase of electrostatic interactions between the free amino groups of chitosan and the increased number of free carboxylic groups in the protein surface enhance the protein loading, protein retention, and, thus, the enzymatic activity of chitosan nanoparticles. The chemical modification of protein surface with malonic acid moieties reduced drastically the protein isoelectric point increasing the protein interaction with the polycationic biomaterial and chitosan. The chemical modification of protein does not alter the morphology of chitosan nanoparticles that showed an average diameter of 18 nm, spheroidal in shape, and smooth surfaced. The strategy of chemical modification of protein surface, shown here, is a simple and efficient technique to enhance the protein loading in chitosan nanoparticles. This technique could be used for other nanoparticles based on polycationic or polyanionic materials. The increase of protein loading improves, doubtless, the performance of protein-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for biotechnological and biomedical applications.

  16. Whey microbeads as a matrix for the encapsulation and immobilisation of riboflavin and peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Graham J; Egan, Thelma; Jacquier, Jean Christophe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Dolores O'Riordan, E

    2014-10-01

    Whey microbeads manufactured using a cold-set gelation process, have been used to encapsulate bioactives. In this study whey microbeads were used to encapsulate riboflavin using 2 methods. Riboflavin was added to the microbead forming solution however diffusional losses of riboflavin occurred during the subsequent bead preparation. To overcome riboflavin loss, a second approach to 'load' whey microbeads by soaking in riboflavin was assessed. Significantly (p⩽0.05) higher concentrations of riboflavin were obtained in 'loaded' microbeads (361 mg/L) compared to riboflavin added to the microbead forming solution (48 mg/L). Riboflavin uptake by the microbeads was shown to be via a partition process. As partitioning is often driven by hydrophobic interactions the uptake of amino acids and peptides of varying hydrophobicities by the microbeads was examined. The % encapsulation increased with increasing molecule hydrophobicity with a maximum of 89% encapsulation. Whey microbeads are well suited to act as sorbents for encapsulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Encapsulation of Alpha-1 antitrypsin in PLGA nanoparticles: In Vitro characterization as an effective aerosol formulation in pulmonary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirooznia Nazanin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha 1- antitrypsin (α1AT belongs to the superfamily of serpins and inhibits different proteases. α1AT protects the lung from cellular inflammatory enzymes. In the absence of α1AT, the degradation of lung tissue results to pulmonary complications. The pulmonary route is a potent noninvasive route for systemic and local delivery. The aerosolized α1AT not only affects locally its main site of action but also avoids remaining in circulation for a long period of time in peripheral blood. Poly (D, L lactide-co glycolide (PLGA is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer approved for sustained controlled release of peptides and proteins. The aim of this work was to prepare a wide range of particle size as a carrier of protein-loaded nanoparticles to deposit in different parts of the respiratory system especially in the deep lung. Various lactide to glycolide ratio of the copolymer was used to obtain different release profile of the drug which covers extended and rapid drug release in one formulation. Results Nonaqueous and double emulsion techniques were applied for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of surface morphology, size distribution, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. To evaluate the nanoparticles cytotoxicity, cell cytotoxicity test was carried out on the Cor L105 human epithelial lung cancer cell line. Nanoparticles were spherical with an average size in the range of 100 nm to 1μ. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be higher when the double emulsion technique was applied. XRD and DSC results indicated that α1AT encapsulated in the nanoparticles existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the polymer matrix. The lactic acid to glycolic acid ratio affects the release profile of α1AT. Hence, PLGA with a 50:50 ratios exhibited the ability to release

  18. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of nanoliposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jun Zheng; Tang, Sook Nai; Chiong, Hoe Siong; Yong, Yoke Keong; Zuraini, Ahmad; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2015-01-01

    Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities. Liposomes have been shown to improve the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated drugs. The present study was conducted to compare the antinociceptive properties between liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac in vivo via different nociceptive assay models. Liposome-encapsulated diclofenac was prepared using the commercialized proliposome method. Antinociceptive effects of liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac were evaluated using formalin test, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, Randall-Selitto paw pressure test, and plantar test. The results of the writhing test showed a significant reduction of abdominal constriction in all treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. The 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac demonstrated the highest antinociceptive effect at 78.97% compared with 55.89% in the free-form group at equivalent dosage. Both liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac produced significant results in the late phase of formalin assay at a dose of 20 mg/kg, with antinociception percentages of 78.84% and 60.71%, respectively. Significant results of antinociception were also observed in both hyperalgesia assays. For Randall-Sellito assay, the highest antinociception effect of 71.38% was achieved with 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac, while the lowest antinociceptive effect of 17.32% was recorded with 0 mg/kg liposome formulation, whereas in the plantar test, the highest antinociceptive effect was achieved at 56.7% with 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac, and the lowest effect was shown with 0 mg/kg liposome formulation of 8.89%. The present study suggests that liposome-encapsulated diclofenac exhibits higher antinociceptive efficacy in a dose-dependent manner in comparison with free-form diclofenac.

  19. β-Glucan as an encapsulating agent: Effect on probiotic survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Asima; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Masoodi, F A

    2016-01-01

    Three strains of probiotics Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus plantarum were encapsulated in β-glucan matrix using emulsion technique. Further the encapsulated cells were studied for their tolerance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and its storage stability. The average encapsulation efficiency of β-glucan-probiotic beads was found to be 74.01%. The surface morphology of β-glucan containing bacteria was studied using SEM. The noteworthy absorptions in the FT-IR spectra between 1300-900 cm(-1) and 2918-2925 cm(-1) corresponds to the presence of bacteria into the glucan matrix. Also, the thermal stability of β-glucan was evaluated using Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The efficiency of β-glucan in protecting the surviability of probiotic cells under simulated gastrointestinal conditions was studied. Results revealed significant (p<0.05) improvement to tolerance when the encapsulated cells were subjected to stresses like low pH, heat treatment, simulated intestinal conditions and storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of dissolving microneedle fabrication parameters on the activity of encapsulated lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraei Lahiji, Shayan; Jang, Yoojung; Ma, Yonghao; Dangol, Manita; Yang, Huisuk; Jang, Mingyu; Jung, Hyungil

    2018-05-30

    Dissolving microneedle (DMN) is referred to a microscale needle that encapsulates drug(s) within a biodegradable polymer matrix and delivers it into the skin in a minimally invasive manner. Although vast majority of studies have emphasized DMN as an efficient drug delivery system, the activity of DMN-encapsulated proteins or antigens can be significantly affected due to a series of thermal, physical and chemical stress factors during DMN fabrication process and storage period. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of DMN fabrication parameters including polymer type, polymer concentration, fabrication and storage temperature, and drying conditions on the activity of the encapsulated therapeutic proteins by employing lysozyme (LYS) as a model protein. Our results indicate that a combination of low temperature fabrication, mild drying condition, specific polymer concentration, and addition of protein stabilizer can maintain the activity of encapsulated LYS up to 99.8 ± 3.8%. Overall, findings of this study highlight the importance of optimizing DMN fabrication parameters and paves way for the commercialization of an efficient delivery system for therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro release study of albendazole-encapsulated nanosize liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Preety; Pandey, Bhumika; Lakhera, P C; Singh, K P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to formulate effective and controlled release albendazole liposomal formulations. Albendazole, a hydrophobic drug used for the treatment of hydatid cysts, was encapsulated in nanosize liposomes. Rapid evaporation method was used for the preparation of albendazole-encapsulated conventional and PEGylated liposomes consisting of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (CH) in the molar ratios of (6:4) and PC:CH: polyethylene glycol (PEG) (5:4:1), respectively. In this study, PEGylated and conventional liposomes containing albendazole were prepared and their characteristics, such as particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release were investigated. The drug encapsulation efficiency of PEGylated and conventional liposomes was 81% and 72%, respectively. The biophysical characterization of both conventional and PEG-coated liposomes were done by transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Efforts were made to study in vitro release of albendazole. The drug release rate showed decrease in albendazole release in descending order: free albendazole, albendazole-loaded conventional liposomes, and least with albendazole-loaded PEG-liposomes. Biologically relevant vesicles were prepared and in vitro release of liposome-entrapped albendazole was determined. PMID:20309396

  2. Acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles and mitigation of biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2017-08-31

    Provided herein is a universally applicable biofouling mitigation technology using acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles that disrupt biofilm or biofilm formation. For example, a method of reducing biofilm formation or removing biofilm in a membrane filtration system is provided in which a feed solution comprising encapsulated microbubbles is provided to the membrane under conditions that allow the encapsulated microbubbles to embed in a biofilm. Sonication of the embedded, encapsulated microbubbles disrupts the biofilm. Thus, provided herein is a membrane filtration system for performing the methods and encapsulated microbubbles specifically selected for binding to extracellular polymeric substances (EFS) in a biofilm.

  3. Preparation of thermosensitive magnetic liposome encapsulated recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for targeted thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hao-Lung [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping, E-mail: jpchen@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Health Industry and Technology, Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Tai-Shan, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML) prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, distearolyphosphatidyl ethanolamine-N-poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, cholesterol and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles by solvent evaporation/sonication and freeze-thaw cycles method. Response surface methodology was proved to be a powerful tool to predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release. Validation experiments verified the accuracy of the model that provides a simple and effective method for fabricating TML with controllable encapsulation efficiency and predictable temperature-sensitive drug release behavior. The prepared samples were characterized for physico-chemical properties by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA could be confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. A thrombolytic drug delivery system using TML could be proposed for magnetic targeted delivery of rtPA to the site of thrombus followed by temperature-triggered controlled drug release in an alternating magnetic field. - Highlights: • rtPA and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNP were encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML). • RSM could predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release from TML. • Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA was confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. • TML-rtPA will be useful as a magnetic targeted nanodrug to improve clinical thrombolytic therapy.

  4. Dual-coating of liposomes as encapsulating matrix of antimicrobial peptides: Development and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Ahmed I.; Martinent, Cynthia; Hammami, Riadh; Fliss, Ismail; Subirade, Muriel

    2017-11-01

    Abstract Antimicrobial peptides have been proposed as a potential biopreservatives in pharmaceutical research and agribusiness. However, many limitations hinder their utilization, such as their vulnerability to proteolytic digestion and their potential interaction with other food ingredients in complex food systems. One approach to overcome such problems is developing formulations entrapping and thereby protecting the antimicrobial peptides. Liposome encapsulation is a strategy that could be implemented to combine protection of the antimicrobial activity of the peptides from proteolytic enzymes and the controlled release of the encapsulated active ingredients. The objective of this study was to develop dual-coated food grade liposome formulations for oral administration of bacteriocins. The formulations were developed from anionic and cationic phospholipids as models of negatively and positively charged liposomes, respectively. Liposomes were prepared by the hydration of lipid films. Subsequently, the liposomes were coated with two layers comprising a biopolymer network (pectin) and whey proteins (WPI) in order to further improve their stability and enable the gradual release of the developed liposomes. Liposomes were characterized for their size, charge, molecular structure, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and release. The results of FTIR, zeta potential, size distribution and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the liposomes were efficiently coated. Ionic interactions were involved in the stabilization of the positively charged liposome formulations. Negatively charge liposome formulations were stabilized through weak interactions. The release study proved the efficiency of dual coating on the protection of liposomes against gastrointestinal digestion. This work is the first to study the encapsulation of antimicrobial peptides in dual-coated liposomes. Furthermore, the work successfully encapsulated MccJ25 in both negative and positive liposome

  5. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  6. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera and Its Effect During Yogur Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adolfo Parra Huertas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The yogurt is milk derivative highly consumed around the world,as well as aloe vera. Both have reports tocontribute to human health. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of the addition of capsules with aloe vera during the incubation of yogurt. Aloeverawas encapsulated in alginate at two different concentrations, 1% and 2%,addingthe capsules from the moment of incubation and comparing the effect of the addition of capsules withthe non-addition of them. For these samples were determined: pH, acidity, syneresis, lactic acid bacteria count, sensory evaluation and proximate analysis. The results indicated that for the three treatments pH values and acid behaved similarly to each characteristic of the yogurt during incubation. The lactic acid bacteria count indicated that treatment with capsules containing 2% sodium alginate had higher counts. Sensorially, three treatments had a favorable acceptability; proximate analysis had favorable values . In conclusion,the tests showed the viability of encapsulated aloe vera in the manufacture of yogurt during incubation time without being affected by the concentration of sodium alginate.

  7. Comparative study of DNA encapsulation into PLGA microparticles using modified double emulsion methods and spray drying techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, C G; Kissel, T

    2005-05-01

    Recently, several research groups have shown the potential of microencapsulated DNA as adjuvant for DNA immunization and in tissue engineering approaches. Among techniques generally used for microencapsulation of hydrophilic drug substances into hydrophobic polymers, modified WOW double emulsion method and spray drying of water-in-oil dispersions take a prominent position. The key parameters for optimized microspheres are particle size, encapsulation efficiency, continuous DNA release and stabilization of DNA against enzymatic and mechanical degradation. This study investigates the possibility to encapsulate DNA avoiding shear forces which readily degrade DNA during this microencapsulation. DNA microparticles were prepared with polyethylenimine (PEI) as a complexation agent for DNA. Polycations are capable of stabilizing DNA against enzymatic, as well as mechanical degradation. Further, complexation was hypothesized to facilitate the encapsulation by reducing the size of the macromolecule. This study additionally evaluated the possibility of encapsulating lyophilized DNA and lyophilized DNA/PEI complexes. For this purpose, the spray drying and double emulsion techniques were compared. The size of the microparticles was characterized by laser diffractometry and the particles were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). DNA encapsulation efficiencies were investigated photometrically after complete hydrolysis of the particles. Finally, the DNA release characteristics from the particles were studied. Particles with a size of <10 microm which represent the threshold for phagocytic uptake could be prepared with these techniques. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 100-35% for low theoretical DNA loadings. DNA complexation with PEI 25?kDa prior to the encapsulation process reduced the initial burst release of DNA for all techniques used. Spray-dried particles without PEI exhibited high burst releases, whereas double emulsion techniques showed continuous

  8. Hybrid chip-on-board LED module with patterned encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Wouter Anthon; Helbing, Rene; Huang, Guan

    2018-02-27

    Different wavelength conversion materials, or different concentrations of a wavelength conversion material are used to encapsulate the light emitting elements of different colors of a hybrid light emitting module. In an embodiment of this invention, second light emitting elements (170) of a particular color are encapsulated with a transparent second encapsulant (120;420;520), while first light emitting elements (160) of a different color are encapsulated with a wavelength conversion first encapsulant (110;410;510). In another embodiment of this invention, a particular second set of second and third light emitting elements (170,580) of different colors is encapsulated with a different encapsulant than another first set of first light emitting elements (160).

  9. A solution phase fabrication of magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xianwen; Zhu Guoxing; Xia Chuanjun; Ye Yin

    2006-01-01

    To avoid high energy consumption, intensive use of hardware and high cost in the manufacture of nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon, a simple, efficient and economical solution-phase method for the fabrication of FeNi at C nanostructures has been explored. The reaction to the magnetic metal at C structures here is conducted at a relatively low temperature (160 deg. C) and this strategy can be transferred to prepare other transition metal at C core-shell nanostructures. The saturation magnetization of metal in metal at C nanostructures is similar to those of the corresponding buck metals. Magnetic metal at C nanostructures with magnetic metal nanoparticles inside and a functionalized carbon surface outside may not only provide the opportunity to tailor the magnetic properties for magnetic storage devices and therapeutics but also make possible the loading of other functional molecules (e.g. enzymes, antigens) for clinic diagnostics, molecular biology, bioengineering, and catalysis

  10. Soluto-capillary convection in micro-encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, P.; Zebib, A.

    2005-01-01

    Spherical shells used as laser targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments are made by micro-encapsulation. In one phase of manufacturing, the spherical shells contain a solvent (fluoro-benzene, FB) and a solute (polystyrene, PAMS) in a water-FB environment. Evaporation of the FB results in the desired hardened plastic hollow spherical shells, 1-2 mm in diameter. Perfect sphericity is demanded for efficient fusion ignition and the observed surface roughness maybe driven by Marangoni instabilities due to surface tension dependence on the FB concentration (buoyant forces are negligible in this micro-scale problem). Here we model this drying process and compute nonlinear, time-dependent, axisymmetric, variable viscosity, infinite Schmidt number soluto-capillary convection in the shells. Comparison with results from linear theory and available experiments are made. (authors)

  11. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy

  12. Encapsulation of high temperature thermoelectric modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, James R.; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Park, Youngsam

    2017-07-11

    A method of encapsulating a thermoelectric device and its associated thermoelectric elements in an inert atmosphere and a thermoelectric device fabricated by such method are described. These thermoelectric devices may be intended for use under conditions which would otherwise promote oxidation of the thermoelectric elements. The capsule is formed by securing a suitably-sized thin-walled strip of oxidation-resistant metal to the ceramic substrates which support the thermoelectric elements. The thin-walled metal strip is positioned to enclose the edges of the thermoelectric device and is secured to the substrates using gap-filling materials. The strip, substrates and gap-filling materials cooperatively encapsulate the thermoelectric elements and exclude oxygen and water vapor from atmospheric air so that the elements may be maintained in an inert, non-oxidizing environment.

  13. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy.

  14. Hanford waste encapsulation: strontium and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.R.

    1976-06-01

    The strontium and cesium fractions separated from high radiation level wastes at Hanford are converted to the solid strontium fluoride and cesium chloride salts, doubly encapsulated, and stored underwater in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). A capsule contains approximately 70,000 Ci of 137 Cs or 70,000 to 140,000 Ci of 90 Sr. Materials for fabrication of process equipment and capsules must withstand a combination of corrosive chemicals, high radiation dosages and frequently, elevated temperatures. The two metals selected for capsules, Hastelloy C-276 for strontium fluoride and 316-L stainless steel for cesium chloride, are adequate for prolonged containment. Additional materials studies are being done both for licensing strontium fluoride as source material and for second generation process equipment

  15. Encapsulated Ball Bearings for Rotary Micro Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    occurrence as well as the overall tribological properties of the bearing mechanism. Firstly, the number of stainless steel balls influences not only the load...stacks.iop.org/JMM/17/S224 Abstract We report on the first encapsulated rotary ball bearing mechanism using silicon microfabrication and stainless steel balls...The method of capturing stainless steel balls within a silicon race to support a silicon rotor both axially and radially is developed for rotary micro

  16. Encapsulating peritonitis: computed tomography and surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadow, Juliana Santos; Fingerhut, Carla Jeronimo Peres; Fernandes, Vinicius de Barros; Coradazzi, Klaus Rizk Stuhr; Silva, Lucas Marciel Soares; Penachim, Thiago Jose, E-mail: vinicius.barros.fernandes@gmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro

    2014-07-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare and frequently severe entity characterized by total or partial involvement of small bowel loops by a membrane of fibrous tissue. The disease presents with nonspecific clinical features of intestinal obstruction, requiring precise imaging diagnosis to guide the treatment. The present report emphasizes the importance of computed tomography in the diagnosis of this condition and its confirmation by surgical correlation. (author)

  17. Ultrasonographic findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Hae Kyung; Moon, Chul; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwon, Kwi Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyangi University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of the patients with sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP). Thirteen patients with surgically confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were involved in this study. Because of intestinal obstruction, all patients had received operations. Among 13 patients, 12 cases had continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 2 months-12 years and 4 months from (mean; 6 years and 10 months), owing to chronic renal failure and one patient had an operation due to variceal bleeding caused by liver cirrhosis. On ultrasonographic examination, all patients showed loculated ascites which were large (n=7) or small (n=6) in amount with multiple separations. The small bowel loops were tethered posteriorly perisaltic movement and covered with the thick membrane. The ultrasonographic of findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were posteriorly tethered small bowels covered with a thick membrane and loculated ascites with multiple septa. Ultrasonographic examination can detect the thin membrane covering the small bowel loops in the early phase of the disease, therefore ultrasonography would be a helpful modality to diagnose SEP early.

  18. Low Hysteresis Carbon Nanotube Transistors Constructed via a General Dry-Laminating Encapsulation Method on Diverse Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Zhongwu; Xu, Zeyang; Wu, Kunjie; Yu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Xiaosong; Meng, Yancheng; Li, Hongwei; Qiu, Song; Jin, Hehua; Li, Liqiang; Li, Qingwen

    2017-04-26

    Electrical hysteresis in carbon nanotube thin-film transistor (CNTTFT) due to surface adsorption of H 2 O/O 2 is a severe obstacle for practical applications. The conventional encapsulation methods based on vacuum-deposited inorganic materials or wet-coated organic materials have some limitations. In this work, we develop a general and highly efficient dry-laminating encapsulation method to reduce the hysteresis of CNTTFTs, which may simultaneously realize the construction and encapsulation of CNTTFT. Furthermore, by virtue of dry procedure and wide compatibility of PMMA, this method is suitable for the construction of CNTTFT on diverse surface including both inorganic and organic dielectric materials. Significantly, the dry-encapsulated CNTTFT exhibits very low or even negligible hysteresis with good repeatability and air stability, which is greatly superior to the nonencapsulated and wet-encapsulated CNTTFT with spin-coated PMMA. The dry-laminating encapsulation strategy, a kind of technological innovation, resolves a significant problem of CNTTFT and therefore will be promising in facile transferring and packaging the CNT films for high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  19. Quality changes and shelf-life extension of ready-to-eat fish patties by adding encapsulated citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Ricard; Claret, Anna; Stamatakis, Antonios; Martínez, Brigitte; Guerrero, Luis

    2017-12-01

    Citric acid is commonly used as a flavoring and preservative in food and beverages. The effect of adding citric acid directly or encapsulated (each at 1 and 2 g kg -1 ) on the quality and shelf-life of ready-to-eat sea bass patties was evaluated during storage at 4 °C in vacuum skin packaging. Microbial growth and total basic volatile nitrogen were maintained at relatively low levels up to 8 weeks of storage. With respect to oxidative stability, the addition of encapsulated citric acid minimized secondary oxidation values more efficiently than its direct addition, regardless of the concentration. This is in agreement with the decreased fishy odor observed in those patties containing encapsulated citric acid. Accordingly, sensory analysis showed that the addition of encapsulated citric acid at 1 g kg -1 resulted in lower scores in fish aroma compared to that of the control. Sourness is dependent on the amount of citric acid added, regardless of the form (direct or encapsulated). The form of citric acid addition, rather than the amount of citric acid added, caused changes in texture. Therefore, the use of encapsulated citric acid represents a suitable strategy that is of great interest in the seafood industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Micro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials: A Review of Encapsulation, Safety and Thermal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been identified as potential candidates for building energy optimization by increasing the thermal mass of buildings. The increased thermal mass results in a drop in the cooling/heating loads, thus decreasing the energy demand in buildings. However, direct incorporation of PCMs into building elements undermines their structural performance, thereby posing a challenge for building integrity. In order to retain/improve building structural performance, as well as improving energy performance, micro-encapsulated PCMs are integrated into building materials. The integration of microencapsulation PCMs into building materials solves the PCM leakage problem and assures a good bond with building materials to achieve better structural performance. The aim of this article is to identify the optimum micro-encapsulation methods and materials for improving the energy, structural and safety performance of buildings. The article reviews the characteristics of micro-encapsulated PCMs relevant to building integration, focusing on safety rating, structural implications, and energy performance. The article uncovers the optimum combinations of the shell (encapsulant and core (PCM materials along with encapsulation methods by evaluating their merits and demerits.

  1. Studies on Benzo-DODA encapsulated polymeric beads for separation of Pu from acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.K.; Panja, S.; Kumar, M.; Ruhela, R.; Tripathi, S.C.; Singh, A.K.; Hubli, R.C.; Bajaj, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel contains a few mg of Pu per litre of waste volume. Therefore, there is a need for selective separation of Pu from above solution as well as other such acidic waste streams. The widely used technology for separation and recovery of metal ions from radioactive wastes is liquid-liquid extraction.Though, such technologies play major role in all the bulk separation processes, they have marked limitations involving the losses of extractant in aqueous phase, third phase problems at higher metal loading, etc. These limitations have necessitated the exploration of advance, more efficient and technically feasible alternatives. In this regard it is thought that solid-liquid based Extractant Encapsulated Polymeric Beads (EEPBs) may solve some of the problems. Benzodioxodiamide (BenzoDODA) is a recently reported extractant for the separation of plutonium from radioactive waste, containing nitric acid. BenzoDODA extractant encapsulated polymeric beads were prepared by phase inversion technique and found to be quite stable as no significant structural deformation or leaching out of the extractant was observed in 4.0 M HNO 3 solution, up to studied equilibration time of 8 days. These beads have been characterized by FT-IR, TGA and SEM techniques to gain insight into their structure and morphology. Morphology and porosity of the beads, as studied by the SEM analysis, indicate that the surface of the beads is quite rough, and has enough porosity. Thermo gravimetric analysis of the synthesized composite beads shows a weight loss of ∼74% during the heating from room temperature to 120℃, due to the loss of water present in the swollen beads. Such high water content also confirms that the beads have enough porosity for efficient exchange of metal ions.The synthesized beads were evaluated, for their ability to absorb Pu from acidic solution. The kinetics measurement showed that about 45 min of

  2. Characterization of Innate Responses Induced by PLGA Encapsulated- and Soluble TLR Ligands In Vitro and In Vivo in Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamiru N Alkie

    Full Text Available Natural or synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands trigger innate responses by interacting with distinct TLRs. TLR ligands can thus serve as vaccine adjuvants or stand-alone antimicrobial agents. One of the limitations of TLR ligands for clinical application is their short half-life and rapid clearance from the body. In the current study, encapsulation of selected TLR ligands in biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide polymer nanoparticles (PLGA NPs was examined in vitro and in vivo as a means to prolong innate responses. MQ-NCSU cells (a chicken macrophage cell line were treated with encapsulated or soluble forms of TLR ligands and the resulting innate responses were evaluated. In most cases, encapsulated forms of TLR ligands (CpG ODN 2007, lipopolysaccharide and Pam3CSK4 induced comparable or higher levels of nitric oxide and cytokine gene expression in macrophages, compared to the soluble forms. Encapsulated CpG ODN, in particular the higher dose, induced significantly higher expression of interferon (IFN-γ and IFN-β until at least 18 hr post-treatment. Cytokine expression by splenocytes was also examined in chickens receiving encapsulated or soluble forms of lipopolysaccharide (a potent inflammatory cytokine inducer in chickens by intramuscular injection. Encapsulated LPS induced more sustained innate responses characterized by higher expression of IFN-γ and IL-1β until up to 96 hr. The ability of TLR ligands encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles to maintain prolonged innate responses indicates that this controlled-release system can extend the use of TLR ligands as vaccine adjuvants or as stand-alone prophylactic agents against pathogens.

  3. Degradation mechanism of AlInGaP light emitting diodes during PMMA encapsulation and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuss, S.

    2007-11-15

    In this thesis we investigate the degradation mechanism of AlInGaP light emitting diodes (LEDs) during encapsulation and operation. The AlInGaP LEDs are encapsulated using an injection moulding tool. The molded part acts as physical housing as well as tailors the radiation pattern. Thus a narrow light beam with a spread angle of {alpha}=10 has been observed. The LED temperature has been measured by the voltage variation of the LED which is caused by the temperature change at a constant current. Thus the thermal load of the LED chips during the encapsulation process is investigated. To verify the temperature measurement a simulation based on the finite element method has been carried out. The experimental and theoretical data are in good agreement. The LED properties are investigated before and after the encapsulation. The results are compared and we found a reduction of the serial resistance and an enhanced luminous efficiency. The peak emission energy remained constant, but a peak broadening of {delta}E=9meV has been observed. A slight polarisation of the emitted light is an indication for a polarization effect of the polymethylmethacrylat (PMMA) housing. Accelerated degradation experiments using high forward currents are performed to estimate the lifetime of the PMMA encapsulated LEDs. A diffusion model is presented to explain the decay in luminous flux versus degradation time and degradation current. We believe that the reduction of quantum efficiency is caused by p-type dopant diffusion into the active layer where it acts as a non-radiative recombination centre. Using this model we determine the lifetime under the recommended drive current of I=20mA. The resulting lifetime is t=1.5.10{sup 6}h using a reduction of 50% in the luminous flux as failure criteria. (orig.)

  4. Functional Design of Dielectric-Metal-Dielectric-Based Thin-Film Encapsulation with Heat Transfer and Flexibility for Flexible Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Seungyeop; Jeon, Yongmin; Kim, Hyuncheol; Chang, Ki Soo; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2017-08-16

    In this study, a new and efficient dielectric-metal-dielectric-based thin-film encapsulation (DMD-TFE) with an inserted Ag thin film is proposed to guarantee the reliability of flexible displays by improving the barrier properties, mechanical flexibility, and heat dissipation, which are considered to be essential requirements for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) encapsulation. The DMD-TFE, which is composed of Al 2 O 3 , Ag, and a silica nanoparticle-embedded sol-gel hybrid nanocomposite, shows a water vapor transmission rate of 8.70 × 10 -6 g/m 2 /day and good mechanical reliability at a bending radius of 30 mm, corresponding to 0.41% strain for 1000 bending cycles. The electrical performance of a thin-film encapsulated phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) was identical to that of a glass-lid encapsulated PHOLED. The operational lifetimes of the thin-film encapsulated and glass-lid encapsulated PHOLEDs are 832 and 754 h, respectively. After 80 days, the thin-film encapsulated PHOLED did not show performance degradation or dark spots on the cell image in a shelf-lifetime test. Finally, the difference in lifetime of the OLED devices in relation to the presence and thickness of a Ag film was analyzed by applying various TFE structures to fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) that could generate high amounts of heat. To demonstrate the difference in heat dissipation effect among the TFE structures, the saturated temperatures of the encapsulated FOLEDs were measured from the back side surface of the glass substrate, and were found to be 67.78, 65.12, 60.44, and 39.67 °C after all encapsulated FOLEDs were operated at an initial luminance of 10 000 cd/m 2 for sufficient heat generation. Furthermore, the operational lifetime tests of the encapsulated FOLED devices showed results that were consistent with the measurements of real-time temperature profiles taken with an infrared camera. A multifunctional hybrid thin-film encapsulation

  5. Phospholipid Fatty Acids as Physiological Indicators of Paracoccus denitrificans Encapsulated in Silica Sol-Gel Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Trögl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA content was determined in samples of Paracoccus denitrificans encapsulated in silica hydrogel films prepared from prepolymerized tetramethoxysilane (TMOS. Immediately after encapsulation the total PLFA concentration was linearly proportional to the optical density (600 nm of the input microbial suspension (R2 = 0.99. After 7 days this relationship remained linear, but with significantly decreased slope, indicating a higher extinction of bacteria in suspensions of input concentration 108 cells/mL and higher. trans-Fatty acids, indicators of cytoplasmatic membrane disturbances, were below the detection limit. The cy/pre ratio (i.e., ratio of cyclopropylated fatty acids (cy17:0 + cy19:0 to their metabolic precursors (16:1ω7 + 18:1ω7, an indicator of the transition of the culture to a stationary growth-phase, decreased depending on co-immobilization of nutrients in the order phosphate buffer > mineral medium > Luria Broth rich medium. The ratio, too, was logarithmically proportional to cell concentration. These results confirm the applicability of total PLFA as an indicator for the determination of living biomass and cy/pre ratio for determination of nutrient limitation of microorganisms encapsulated in sol-gel matrices. This may be of interest for monitoring of sol-gel encapsulated bacteria proposed as optical recognition elements in biosensor construction, as well as other biotechnological applications.

  6. Energy and climate protection management, the key to higher energy efficiency in communities; Energie- und Klimaschutzmanagement. Der Schluessel zu mehr Energieeffizienz in Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    The brochure explains the dena energy and climate protection management concepts and presents tools for long-term reduction of energy consumption in communities. It presents valuable information for better organization of internal processes in community administrations and for the management of energy efficiency measures. The dena energy and climate protection management concept is developed in cooperation with model communities of different sizes since 2010. All interested communities can use this brochure as a guide for initiating effective climate protection measures.

  7. Stepwise encapsulation and controlled two-stage release system for cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yun Chen,1,* Qian Li,1,2,* Qingsheng Wu1 1Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai; 2Shanghai Institute of Quality Inspection and Technical Research, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum (cis-DIDP is a cisplatin-like anticancer drug with higher anticancer activity, but lower stability and price than cisplatin. In this study, a cis-DIDP carrier system based on micro-sized stearic acid was prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The maximum drug loading capacity of cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was 22.03%, and their encapsulation efficiency was 97.24%. In vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline (pH =7.4 at 37.5°C exhibited a unique two-stage process, which could prove beneficial for patients with tumors and malignancies. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results showed that cis-DIDP released from cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles had better inhibition activity than cis-DIDP that had not been loaded. Keywords: stearic acid, emulsion solvent evaporation method, drug delivery, cis-DIDP, in vitro

  8. Influence of charge on encapsulation and release behavior of small molecules in self-assembled layer-by-layer microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapalli, Praveen K; Labala, Suman; Vanamala, Deekshith; Koranglekar, Manali P; Sakimalla, Lakshmi A; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of charge of model small molecules on their encapsulation and release behavior in layer-by-layer microcapsules (LbL-MC). Poly(styrene sulfonate) and poly(ethylene imine) were sequentially adsorbed on calcium carbonate sacrificial templates to prepare LbL-MC. Model molecules with varying charge, anionic - ascorbic acid, cationic - imatinib mesylate (IM) and neutral - 5-fluorouracil were encapsulated in LbL-MC. Free and encapsulated LbL-MC were characterized using zetasizer, FTIR spectroscope and differential scanning calorimeter. The influence of IM-loaded LbL-MC on cell viability was studied in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Furthermore, biodistribution of IM-loaded LbL-MC with and without PEGylation was studied in BALB/c mice. Results showed spherical LbL-MC of 3.0 ± 0.4 μm diameter. Encapsulation efficiency of LbL-MC increased linearly (R(2 )= 0.89-0.99) with the increase in solute concentration. Increase in pH from 2 to 6 increased the encapsulation of charged molecules in LbL-MC. Charged molecules showed greater encapsulation efficiency in LbL-MC compared with neutral molecule. In vitro release kinetics showed Fickian and non-Fickian diffusion of small molecules, depending on the nature of molecular interactions with LbL-MC. At 50 μM concentration, free IM showed significantly (p < 0.05) more cytotoxicity compared with IM-loaded LbL-MC. Biodistribution studies showed that PEGylation of LbL-MC decreased the liver and spleen uptake of IM-encapsulated LbL-MC. In conclusion, LbL-MC can be developed as a potential carrier for small molecules depending on their physical and chemical properties.

  9. Noble gas encapsulation into carbon nanotubes: Predictions from analytical model and DFT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Sree Ganesh; Singh, Devendra; Swathi, R. S., E-mail: swathi@iisertvm.ac.in [School of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram (IISER-TVM), Kerala 695016 (India)

    2014-11-14

    The energetics for the interaction of the noble gas atoms with the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated using an analytical model and density functional theory calculations. Encapsulation of the noble gas atoms, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe into CNTs of various chiralities is studied in detail using an analytical model, developed earlier by Hill and co-workers. The constrained motion of the noble gas atoms along the axes of the CNTs as well as the off-axis motion are discussed. Analyses of the forces, interaction energies, acceptance and suction energies for the encapsulation enable us to predict the optimal CNTs that can encapsulate each of the noble gas atoms. We find that CNTs of radii 2.98 − 4.20 Å (chiral indices, (5,4), (6,4), (9,1), (6,6), and (9,3)) can efficiently encapsulate the He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms, respectively. Endohedral adsorption of all the noble gas atoms is preferred over exohedral adsorption on various CNTs. The results obtained using the analytical model are subsequently compared with the calculations performed with the dispersion-including density functional theory at the M06 − 2X level using a triple-zeta basis set and good qualitative agreement is found. The analytical model is however found to be computationally cheap as the equations can be numerically programmed and the results obtained in comparatively very less time.

  10. Controlling chitosan-based encapsulation for protein and vaccine delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppolu, Bhanu prasanth; Smith, Sean G.; Ravindranathan, Sruthi; Jayanthi, Srinivas; Kumar, Thallapuranam K.S.; Zaharoff, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan-based nano/microencapsulation is under increasing investigation for the delivery of drugs, biologics and vaccines. Despite widespread interest, the literature lacks a defined methodology to control chitosan particle size and drug/protein release kinetics. In this study, the effects of precipitation-coacervation formulation parameters on chitosan particle size, protein encapsulation efficiency and protein release were investigated. Chitosan particle sizes, which ranged from 300 nm to 3 μm, were influenced by chitosan concentration, chitosan molecular weight and addition rate of precipitant salt. The composition of precipitant salt played a significant role in particle formation with upper Hofmeister series salts containing strongly hydrated anions yielding particles with a low polydispersity index (PDI) while weaker anions resulted in aggregated particles with high PDIs. Sonication power had minimal effect on mean particle size, however, it significantly reduced polydispersity. Protein loading efficiencies in chitosan nano/microparticles, which ranged from 14.3% to 99.2%, was inversely related to the hydration strength of precipitant salts, protein molecular weight and directly related to the concentration and molecular weight of chitosan. Protein release rates increased with particle size and were generally inversely related to protein molecular weight. This study demonstrates that chitosan nano/microparticles with high protein loading efficiencies can be engineered with well-defined sizes and controllable release kinetics through manipulation of specific formulation parameters. PMID:24560459

  11. Effect of Photon Radiations in Semi-Rigid Artificial Tissue Sensitized by Protoporphyrin IX Encapsulated with Silica Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhadmeh, Ghaseb N.; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul; Al-Akhras, M.-Ali H.

    2018-02-01

    This study involves the synthesis of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) encapsulated with Silica Nanoparticles (SiNPs) as an application for Photodynamic therapy. Semi-rigid artificial tissues with optical features similar to human tissue were used as sample materials to ascertain the efficacy of PpIX encapsulated with SiNPs. The disparity in optical characteristics (transmittance, reflectance, scattering, and absorption) of tissues treated with encapsulated PpIX and naked PpIX under light exposure (Intensity at 408 nm ~1.19 mW/cm2) was explored. The optimal exposure times required for naked PpIX and SiNPs encapsulated PpIX to engulf Red Blood Cells (RBCs) in the artificial tissue were subsequently measured. Comparative analysis showed that the encapsulated PpIX has a 91.5 % higher efficacy than naked PpIX. The results prove the applicability of PpIX encapsulated with SiNP on artificial tissue and possible use on human tissue.

  12. Effects of micro-encapsulation on morphology and endocrine function of cryopreserved neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, M; Satou, H; Kimura, T; Kobayashi, T; Yamaguchi, A; Nakagawara, G; Iwata, H

    2000-10-27

    For the success of clinical islets transplantation, the development of a long-term storage method is necessary. However, the structure of digested islets is scanty for culture and cryopreservation. In this study, the effect of micro-encapsulation to cryopreserved porcine islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) was investigated. The ICCs prepared from neonatal pigs by collagenase digestion and culture technique were cryopreserved and micro-encapsulated in 5% agarose membranes. After cryopreservation, ICC cultured without encapsulation (group A) and cultured with encapsulation (group B) were assessed by comparison with no cryopreserved ICC (control) both in vitro by static incubation test and in vivo in a xenotransplantation study. Micro-encapsulation was able to maintain the fine morphology and the number of ICCs of group B after 7 days of culture. There were not significant differences in insulin secretion of group B and control on day 1 and 7 of culture (1 day:11+/-0.99, 7 days: 5.30+/-1.08 microU/ICC/hr NS versus control). On day 7 of culture, the retrieval rate of group B (105.2+/-9.8%) is obviously higher compared with group A (63.0+/-6.3%). In the xenotransplatation model, the ICCs of group B showed long survival time (7.9+/-0.4 weeks) and good transplantation effect. Our study suggests that micro-encapsulation is one of the useful method for cryopreserved ICC to maintain the fine morphology and effectively recover the endocrine function.

  13. Encapsulation of azithromycin into polymeric microspheres by reduced pressure-solvent evaporation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujuan; Chang, Si; Du, Guangsheng

    2012-01-01

    Azithromycin loaded microspheres with blends of poly-l-lactide and ploy-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide as matrices were prepared by the atmosphere-solvent evaporation (ASE) and reduced pressure-solvent evaporation (RSE) method. Both the X-ray diffraction spectra and DSC thermographs demonstrated...... characteristics and release profiles of microspheres. In conclusion, the overall improvement of microspheres in appearance, encapsulation efficiency and controlled drug release through the RSE method could be easily fulfilled under optimal preparation conditions....

  14. The Lust for Efficiency: A Downhome Story or The Implications of Zero-Based Budgeting for Institutions of Higher Education as Seen from the State of Georgia's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    Reactions to zero-based budgeting in the State of Georgia as it pertains to institutions of higher education are discussed. Major advantages and disadvantages of zero-based budgeting as reported by budget analysts and selected department heads in state agencies were examined by George Minmier and Roger Hermanson (1976). Zero-based budgeting was…

  15. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulation material system requirements, material selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available are presented. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described. Available encapsulation technology and data are presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. The operational and environmental loads that encapsulation system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that are identified to have the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the flat plate solar array project are described. Available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  16. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 7: Module encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Encapsulation Task was to develop, demonstrate, and qualify photovoltaic (PV) module encapsulation systems that would provide 20 year (later decreased to 30 year) life expectancies in terrestrial environments, and which would be compatible with the cost and performance goals of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project. The scope of the Encapsulation Task included the identification, development, and evaluation of material systems and configurations required to support and protect the optically and electrically active solar cell circuit components in the PV module operating environment. Encapsulation material technologies summarized include the development of low cost ultraviolet protection techniques, stable low cost pottants, soiling resistant coatings, electrical isolation criteria, processes for optimum interface bonding, and analytical and experimental tools for evaluating the long term durability and structural adequacy of encapsulated modules. Field testing, accelerated stress testing, and design studies have demonstrated that encapsulation materials, processes, and configurations are available that meet the FSA cost and performance goals.

  17. Preparation and characterization of PLGA nanospheres encapsulated with Autoclaved Leishmania Major (ALM) and Quillaja Saponin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafaghodi, M.; Tabasi, S. Abolghasem Sajadi; Kharazizdeh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several antigens, adjuvants and delivery systems have been evaluated for induction of protective immune responses against leishmaniasis, but have mostly been inefficient. In this study, poly (d,1-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres as antigen delivery system and Quillaja saponins (QS) as an immunoadjuvant have been used to increase the immune responses against Autoclaved Lieshmania major (ALM). PLGA nanospheres were prepared using a double emulsion (W/O/W) technique. The internal aqueous phase contained ALM and saponin, while the oily phase contained the solution of PLGA in dichloromethane and the external aqueous phase was polyvinylacohol (PVA) 7.5% (W/V) solution. Particulate characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscope and particle size analyzer. The encapsulation efficiency was determined by Lowry method and the release profile of antigen and saponin from nanospheres was evaluated for one week. Nanospheres were spherical in shape having smooth surfaces. Mean diameters for nanospheres loaded with ALM and ALM+QS were 300+-123 nm and 294+-106 nm respectively. Encapsulation efficiencies for ALM and QS were found 71+-14.8% and 55.8+- 23.1% respectively. Evaluation of the release profiles of ALM and QS from nanospheres in one week showed that 44.8 +-0.8% of ALM and 29.5+- 0.21% of QS had been released from naospheres. In conclusion, the prepared nanospheres with desirable size, encapsulation efficiency, and slow rate of release, had acceptable features for future in vivo studies. (author)

  18. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

  19. Thermoresponsive latexes for fragrance encapsulation and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popadyuk, N; Popadyuk, A; Kohut, A; Voronov, A

    2016-04-01

    To synthesize cross-linked latex particles protecting the encapsulated fragrance at ambient temperatures and facilitating the release of cargo at the temperature of the surface of the skin that varies in different regions of the body between 33.5 and 36.9°C. Poly(stearyl acrylate) (PSA), a polymer with long crystallizable alkyl side chains (undergoes order-disorder transitions at 45°C), was chosen as the main component of the polymer particles. As a result, new thermoresponsive polymer particles for fragrance encapsulation were synthesized and characterized, including assessing the performance of particles in triggered release by elevated temperature. To obtain network domains of various crystallinity, stearyl acrylate was copolymerized with dipropylene glycol acrylate caprylate (DGAC) (comonomer) in the presence of a dipropylene glycol diacrylate sebacate (cross-linker) using the miniemulsion process. Comonomers and a cross-linker were mixed directly in a fragrance during polymerization. Fragrance release was evaluated at 25, 31, 35 and 39°C to demonstrate a new material potential in personal/health care skin-related applications. Particles protect the fragrance from evaporation at 25°C. The fragrance release rate gradually increases at 31, 35 and 39°C. Two slopes were found on release plots. The first slope corresponds to a rapid fragrance release. The second slope indicates a subsequent reduction in the release rate. Crystalline-to-amorphous transition of PSA triggers the release of fragrances from cross-linked latex particles at elevated temperatures. The presence of the encapsulated fragrance, as well as the inclusion of amorphous fragments in the polymer network, reduces the particle crystallinity and enhances the release. Release profiles can be tuned by temperature and controlled by the amount of loaded fragrance and the ratio of comonomers in the feed mixture. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Analysis of Double-encapsulated Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Medvedev, Pavel G [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Perez, Danielle Marie [Idaho National Laboratory; Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    In an LWR fuel rod, the cladding encapsulates the fuel, contains fission products, and transfers heat directly to the water coolant. In some situations, it may be advantageous to separate the cladding from the coolant through use of a secondary cladding or capsule. This may be done to increase confidence that the fuel or fission products will not mix with the coolant, to provide a mechanism for controlling the rod temperature, or to place multiple experimental rodlets within a single housing. With an axisymmetric assumption, it is possible to derive closed-form expressions for the temperature profile in a fuel rod using radially-constant thermal conductivity in the fuel. This is true for both a traditional fuel-cladding rod and a double-encapsulated fuel (fuel, cladding, capsule) configuration. Likewise, it is possible to employ a fuel performance code to analyse both a traditional and a double-encapsulated fuel. In the case of the latter, two sets of gap heat transfer conditions must be imposed. In this work, we review the equations associated with radial heat transfer in a cylindrical system, present analytic and computational results for a postulated power and gas mixture history for IFA-744, and describe the analysis of the AFC-2A, 2B metallic fuel alloy experiments at the Advanced Test Reactor, including the effect of a release of fission products into the cladding-capsule gap. The computational results for these two cases were obtained using BISON, a fuel performance code under development at Idaho National Laboratory.

  1. Encapsulation of phase change materials using rice-husk-char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondora, Wayne; Doudin, Khalid; Nowakowski, Daniel J.; Xiao, Bo; Ding, Yulong; Bridgwater, Tony; Yuan, Qingchun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Rice-husk-char particles are successfully used in the encapsulation of phase change materials. • Carbon-based phase change microcapsules aim at using the high thermal conductivity of carbon materials. • Carbon from biomass can be used in low and intermediate heat harvest and storage. • Carbon in biomass is captured and to be used in improving energy efficiency. - Abstract: This paper explored a new approach to prepare phase change microcapsules using carbon-based particles via Pickering emulsions for energy storage applications. Rice-husk-char, a by-product in biofuel production, containing 53.58 wt% of carbon was used as a model carbon-based material to encapsulate hexadecane. As a model phase change material, hexadecane was emulsified in aqueous suspensions of rice-husk-char nanoparticles. Water soluble polymers poly(diallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride) and poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) were used to fix the rice-husk-char nanoparticles on the emulsion droplets through layer-by-layer assembly to enhance the structural stability of the microcapsules. The microcapsules formed are composed of a thin shell encompassing a large core consisting of hexadecane. Thermal gravimetrical and differential scanning calorimeter analyses showed the phase change enthalpy of 80.9 kJ kg"−"1 or 120.0 MJ m"−"3. Design criteria of phase change microcapsules and preparation considerations were discussed in terms of desired applications. This work demonstrated possible utilisations of biomass-originated carbon-based material for thermal energy recovery and storage applications, which can be a new route of carbon capture and utilisation.

  2. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Baj, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant...... capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). ¹H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin...

  3. Encapsulation of electroless copper patterns into diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenov, S.M.; Shafeev, G.A.; Lavrischev, S.V. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The results are reported on encapsulating copper lines into diamond films grown by a DC plasma CVD. The process includes the steps of (i) laser activation of diamond for electroless metal plating, (ii) electroless copper deposition selectively onto the activated surface regions, and (iii) diamond regrowth on the Cu-patterned diamond films. The composition and electrical properties of the encapsulated copper lines were examined, revealing high purity and low electrical resistivity of the encapsulated electroless copper.

  4. Investigations into encapsulation of intermediate level wastes containing organic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.

    1988-01-01

    A product evaluation programme was set up to investigate the properties of a variety of matrix-waste formulations prior to their encapsulation. The waste/matrix forms were defined and characterised and waste pretreatments studied. Potential encapsulation matrices were investigated for their suitability for individual waste streams. The physical, chemical and thermal properties, radiation stability and leaching behaviour of the formulations were studied. Operational and design limits for the encapsulation plant were defined. (U.K.)

  5. Encapsulation Processing and Manufacturing Yield Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation system is presented. This work is part of the materials baseline needed to demonstrate a 30 year module lifetime capability. Process and compound variables are both being studied along with various module materials. Results have shown that EVA should be stored rolled up, and enclosed in a plastic bag to retard loss of peroxide curing agents. The TBEC curing agent has superior shelf life and processing than the earlier Lupersol-101 curing agent. Analytical methods were developed to test for peroxide content, and experimental methodologies were formalized.

  6. Method of encapsulating waste radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, J.A.; Rootham, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    When encapsulating radioactive waste including radioactive liquid having a retardant therein which retards the setting of cements by preventing hydration at cement particles in the mix, the liquid is mixed with ordinary Portland cement and subjected, in a high shear mixer, to long term shear far in excess of that needed to form ordinary grout. The controlled utilization of the retardants plus shear produces a thixotropic paste with extreme moldability which will not bleed, and finally sets more rapidly than can be expected with normal cement mixtures forming a very strong product. (author)

  7. Encapsulation of high temperature molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, James D.; Mathur, Anoop Kumar

    2017-05-16

    The present disclosure relates to a method of encapsulating microcapsules containing relatively high temperature phase change materials and the microcapsules so produced. The microcapsules are coated with an inorganic binder, film former and an inorganic filler. The microcapsules may include a sacrificial layer that is disposed between the particle and the coating. The microcapsules may also include an inner coating layer, sacrificial layer and outer coating layer. The microcapsules are particularly useful for thermal energy storage in connection with, e.g., heat collected from concentrating solar collectors.

  8. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, C.; Al-Zwae, K.; Nair, S.; Cast, J.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP

  9. Process for the encapsulation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.; Hill, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste material, particularly radioactive ion exchange resin in the wet condition, is encapsulated in a polyurethane by dispersing the waste in an aqueous emulsion of an organic polyol, a polyisocyanate and an hydraulic cement and allowing the emulsion to set to form a monolithic block. If desired the emulsion may also contain additional filler e.g. sand or aggregate to increase the density of the final product. Preferred polyurethanes are those made from a polyester polyol and an organic diisocyanate, particularly hexamethylene diisocyanate. (author)

  10. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, C. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cheriangeorge@hotmail.com; Al-Zwae, K. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Nair, S. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Cast, J.E.I. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP.

  11. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Siebel eEnergy ensures higher efficiency at HEW; Siebel eEnergy sorgt bei HEW fuer mehr Effizienz. Vertriebsvertraege und Service managen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, U. [EMEA, Siebel Systems, Ismaning (Germany)

    2003-01-27

    HEW, a leading German energy provider, uses Siebel eEnergy to create a single, comprehensive view of customer information across multiple channels and integrating with the company's back office applications. Siebel eEnergy provides improved management of energy contracts and enables HEW to increase sales efficiency, accelerate the service delivery process, and enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty. (orig.) [German] HEW, eines der fuehrenden deutschen Energieversorgungsunternehmen, nutzt Siebel eEnergy, um ueber verschiedene Kanaele hinweg umfassende Kundenprofile zu erstellen und sie mit den Back-Office-Anwendungen zu integrieren. Siebel eEnergy bietet verbessertes Management der Energieversorgungs-Vertraege und ermoeglicht HEW dadurch, die Effizienz im Vertrieb zu steigern, die Bereitstellung und Lieferung von Energie zu beschleunigen und so Kundenzufriedenheit und Kundentreue zu erhoehen. (orig.)

  13. How private housholds can use environment - higher energy consumption despite efficiency increasement; Wie private Haushalte die Umwelt nutzen - hoeherer Energieverbrauch trotz Effizienzsteigerung. Hintergrundpapier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    Energy saving potentials are not being used satisfactorily to date, especially as regards the use of electricity. No-load losses caused by electrical devices such as television sets and computers amount to some 17 billion kilowatt hours per year for private households alone. This makes 3.3. billion euros in electricity costs. Having an easily accessible mains switch that disconnects electrical devices from the mains can already help to avoid no-load losses. White goods such as fridge-freezers, washing machines or dish washers also offer considerable saving potentials. Efficient technologies could contribute annual savings from this product sector in the order of seven billion kilowatt hours, equivalent to 5.8% of the total electricity consumption of private households.

  14. Injectable Thermoresponsive Hydrogel Formed by Alginate-g-Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) That Releases Doxorubicin-Encapsulated Micelles as a Smart Drug Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Song, Xia; Wen, Yuting; Zhu, Jing-Ling; Li, Jun

    2017-10-18

    In this work, we have synthesized a thermoresponsive copolymer, alginate-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (alginate-g-PNIPAAm) by conjugating PNIPAAm to alginate, where PNIPAAm with different molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distribution was synthesized by atomic transfer radical polymerization. The copolymer dissolved in water or phosphate-buffered saline buffer solution at room temperature and formed self-assembled micelles with low critical micellization concentrations when the temperature increased to above their critical micellization temperatures. At higher concentration, that is, 7.4 wt % in water, the copolymer formed solutions at 25 °C and turned into thermosensitive hydrogels when temperature increased to the body temperature (37 °C). Herein, we hypothesized that the thermoresponsive hydrogels could produce self-assembled micelles with the dissolution of the alginate-g-PNIPAAm hydrogels in a biological fluid or drug release medium. If the drug was hydrophobic, the hydrogel eventually could release and produce drug-encapsulated micelles. In our experiments, we loaded the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) into the alginate-g-PNIPAAm hydrogels and demonstrated that the hydrogels released DOX-encapsulated micelles in a sustained manner. The slowly released DOX-loaded micelles enhanced the cellular uptake of DOX in multidrug resistant AT3B-1 cells, showing the effect of overcoming the drug resistance and achieving better efficiency for killing the cancer cells. Therefore, the injectable thermoresponsive hydrogels formed by alginate-g-PNIPAAm and loaded with DOX turned into a smart drug delivery system, releasing DOX-encapsulated micelles in a sustained manner, showing great potential for overcoming the drug resistance in cancer therapy.

  15. The inhibitory effect of disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs on tumor growth: Different administration routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasehee, Hamidreza; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Ghaffari, Seyed Hamidollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2016-06-01

    The strong anticancer activity of disulfiram is hindered by its rapid degradation in blood system. A novel folate-receptor-targeted poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticle (NP) is developed for encapsulation and delivery of disulfiram into breast cancer tumor using passive (EPR effect) and active (folate receptor) targeting. The anticancer activity of disulfiram and its effect on caspase-3 activity and cell cycle are studied. The administration of encapsulated PLGA NPs using intra-peritoneal, intravenous and intra-tumor routes is investigated using animal model. Disulfiram shows strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 cell line. The activity of caspase-3 inhibited with disulfiram via dose dependent manner while the drug causes cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phase time-dependently. The encapsulated disulfiram shows higher activity in apoptosis induction as compared to free drug. In nontoxic dose of encapsulated disulfiram, the highest and lowest efficacy of NPs in tumor growth inhibition is observed for intravenous injection and intraperitoneal injection. It is suggested that administration of disulfiram by targeted PLGA nanoparticles using intravenous injection would present an alternative therapeutic approach for solid tumor treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Encapsulation and covalent binding of molecular payload in enzymatically activated micellar nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Ido; Harnoy, Assaf J; Tirosh, Einat; Buzhor, Marina; Segal, Merav; Frid, Liat; Shaharabani, Rona; Avinery, Ram; Beck, Roy; Amir, Roey J

    2015-02-18

    The high selectivity and often-observed overexpression of specific disease-associated enzymes make them extremely attractive for triggering the release of hydrophobic drug or probe molecules from stimuli-responsive micellar nanocarriers. Here we utilized highly modular amphiphilic polymeric hybrids, composed of a linear hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) and an esterase-responsive hydrophobic dendron, to prepare and study two diverse strategies for loading of enzyme-responsive micelles. In the first type of micelles, hydrophobic coumarin-derived dyes were encapsulated noncovalently inside the hydrophobic core of the micelle, which was composed of lipophilic enzyme-responsive dendrons. In the second type of micellar nanocarrier the hydrophobic molecular cargo was covalently linked to the end-groups of the dendron through enzyme-cleavable bonds. These amphiphilic hybrids self-assembled into micellar nanocarriers with their cargo covalently encapsulated within the hydrophobic core. Both types of micelles were highly responsive toward the activating enzyme and released their molecular cargo upon enzymatic stimulus. Importantly, while faster release was observed with noncovalent encapsulation, higher loading capacity and slower release rate were achieved with covalent encapsulation. Our results clearly indicate the great potential of enzyme-responsive micellar delivery platforms due to the ability to tune their payload capacities and release rates by adjusting the loading strategy.

  17. PEGylated lipid nanocapsules with improved drug encapsulation and controlled release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervella, Pablo; Alonso-Sande, Maria; Ledo, Francisco; Lucero, Maria L; Alonso, Maria J; Garcia-Fuentes, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Drugs with poor lipid and water solubility are some of the most challenging to formulate in nanocarriers, typically resulting in low encapsulation efficiencies and uncontrolled release profiles. PEGylated nanocapsules (PEG-NC) are known for their amenability to diverse modifications that allow the formation of domains with different physicochemical properties, an interesting feature to address a drug encapsulation problem. We explored this problem by encapsulating in PEG-NC the promising anticancer drug candidate F10320GD1, used herein as a model for compounds with such characteristics. The nanocarriers were prepared from Miglyol(®), lecithin and PEG-sterate through a solvent displacement technique. The resulting system was a homogeneous suspension of particles with size around 200 nm. F10320GD1 encapsulation was found to be very poor (<15%) if PEG-NC were prepared using water as continuous phase; but we were able to improve this value to 85% by fixing the pH of the continuous phase to 9. Interestingly, this modification also improved the controlled release properties and the chemical stability of the formulation during storage. These differences in pharmaceutical properties together with physicochemical data suggest that the pH of the continuous phase used for PEG-NC preparation can modify drug allocation, from the external shell towards the inner lipid core of the nanocapsules. Finally, we tested the bioactivity of the drug-loaded PEG-NC in several tumor cell lines, and also in endothelial cells. The results indicated that drug encapsulation led to an improvement on drug cytotoxicity in tumor cells, but not in non-tumor endothelial cells. Altogether, the data confirms that PEG-NC show adequate delivery properties for F10320GD1, and underlines its possible utility as an anticancer therapy.

  18. A facile method to prepare superparamagnetic iron oxide and hydrophobic drug-encapsulated biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Wei Cheng, Shan-hui Hsu Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs have a wide range of biomedical applications such as in magnetic resonance imaging, targeting, and hyperthermia therapy. Aggregation of SPIO NPs can occur because of the hydrophobic surface and high surface energy of SPIO NPs. Here, we developed a facile method to encapsulate SPIO NPs in amphiphilic biodegradable polymer. Anionic biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles (PU NPs with ~35 nm size and different chemistry were prepared by waterborne processes. SPIO NPs were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. SPIO NPs were then added to the aqueous dispersion of PU NPs, followed by application of high-frequency (~20 kHz ultrasonic vibration for 3 min. This method rendered SPIO-PU hybrid NPs (size ~110 nm suspended in water. SPIO-PU hybrid NPs contained ~50–60 wt% SPIO and retained the superparamagnetic property (evaluated by a magnetometer as well as high contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. SPIO-PU NPs also showed the ability to provide cell hyperthermic treatment. Using the same ultrasonic method, hydrophobic drug (Vitamin K3 [VK3] or (9-(methylaminomethylanthracene [MAMA] could also be encapsulated in PU NPs. The VK3-PU or MAMA-PU hybrid NPs had ~35 nm size and different release profiles for PUs with different chemistry. The encapsulation efficiency for VK3 and MAMA was high (~95% without burst release. The encapsulation mechanism may be attributed to the low glass transition temperature (Tg and good mechanical compliance of PU NPs. The new encapsulation method involving waterborne biodegradable PU NPs is simple, rapid, and effective to produce multimodular NP carriers. Keywords: superparamagnetic iron oxide, polyurethane, drug release, hybrid nanoparticles

  19. Encapsulation of Mg-Zr alloy in metakaolin-based geo-polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooses, Adrien; Steins, Prune; Dannoux-Papin, Adeline; Lambertin, David; Poulesquen, Arnaud; Frizon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to propose a suitable material for the encapsulation of Mg-Zr alloy wastes issued from fuel cladding of the first generation nuclear reactors. Stability over time, good mechanical properties and low gas production are the main requirements that embedding matrices must comply with in order to be suitable for long run storage. One of the main issues encapsulating Mg-Zr alloy in mineral binder is the hydrogen production related to Mg-Zr alloys corrosion and water radiolysis process. In this context, metakaolin geo-polymers offer an interesting outlook: corrosion densities of Mg-Zr alloys are significantly lower than in Portland cement. This work firstly presents the hydrogen production of Mg-Zr alloy embedded in geo-polymers prepared from different the activation solution (NaOH or KOH). The effect of addition of fluorine on the magnesium corrosion in geo-polymer has been investigated too. The results point out that sodium geo-polymer is a suitable binder for Mg-Zr alloy encapsulation with respect to magnesium corrosion resistance. Furthermore the presence of fluorine reduces significantly the hydrogen release. Then, the impact of fluorine on the geo-polymer network formation was studied by rheological, calorimetric and 19 F NMR measurements. No direct effect resulting from the addition of fluorine has been shown on the geo-polymer binder. Secondly, the formulation of the encapsulation matrix has been adjusted to fulfil the expected physical and mechanical properties. Observations, dimensional evolutions and compressive strengths demonstrated that addition of sand to the geo-polymer binder is efficient to meet the storage criteria. Consequently, a matrix formulation compatible with Mg-Zr alloy encapsulation has been proposed. Finally, irradiation tests have been carried out to assess the hydrogen radiolytic yield of the matrix under exposure to γ radiation. (authors)

  20. A facile method to prepare superparamagnetic iron oxide and hydrophobic drug-encapsulated biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuo-Wei; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) have a wide range of biomedical applications such as in magnetic resonance imaging, targeting, and hyperthermia therapy. Aggregation of SPIO NPs can occur because of the hydrophobic surface and high surface energy of SPIO NPs. Here, we developed a facile method to encapsulate SPIO NPs in amphiphilic biodegradable polymer. Anionic biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles (PU NPs) with ~35 nm size and different chemistry were prepared by waterborne processes. SPIO NPs were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. SPIO NPs were then added to the aqueous dispersion of PU NPs, followed by application of high-frequency (~20 kHz) ultrasonic vibration for 3 min. This method rendered SPIO-PU hybrid NPs (size ~110 nm) suspended in water. SPIO-PU hybrid NPs contained ~50-60 wt% SPIO and retained the superparamagnetic property (evaluated by a magnetometer) as well as high contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. SPIO-PU NPs also showed the ability to provide cell hyperthermic treatment. Using the same ultrasonic method, hydrophobic drug (Vitamin K3 [VK3]) or (9-(methylaminomethyl) anthracene [MAMA]) could also be encapsulated in PU NPs. The VK3-PU or MAMA-PU hybrid NPs had ~35 nm size and different release profiles for PUs with different chemistry. The encapsulation efficiency for VK3 and MAMA was high (~95%) without burst release. The encapsulation mechanism may be attributed to the low glass transition temperature (Tg) and good mechanical compliance of PU NPs. The new encapsulation method involving waterborne biodegradable PU NPs is simple, rapid, and effective to produce multimodular NP carriers.

  1. Viscous effects in liquid encapsulated liquid bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Duane T.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical derivation of the surface deflections and the streamfunctions for the flow inside a liquid encapsulated liquid bridge has been derived using an asymptotic expansion about a small capillary number. The model assumes an initially flat and cylindrical interface under the assumption that the densities of both fluids are equal. To simplify the analysis, the top and bottom walls are assumed to be stress-free and the Reynolds number is assumed to be negligible. Flow is generated either by a moving outer wall (shear-driven flow) or by applying a temperature difference across the top and bottom walls (Marangoni-driven flow). The resulting equations show that for the shear-driven flow, as the viscosity ratio increases, the surface deflections increase monotonically. For the Marangoni-driven flow there exist values of the viscosity ratio where the surface deflections reach a minimum and then switch signs. This investigation shows that it may be possible in more realistic systems to use an outer encapsulating liquid of the proper viscosity ratio to stabilize the liquid-liquid interface during float zone crystal growth

  2. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legakis Nikolaos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. Case presentation A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Conclusion Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  3. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafimidis, Costas; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Vernadakis, Spyros; Rallis, George; Giannopoulos, George; Legakis, Nikolaos; Peros, George

    2006-02-13

    Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon) is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  4. Spectral perturbations from silicon diode detector encapsulation and shielding in photon fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Karin; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2010-11-01

    Silicon diodes are widely used as detectors for relative dose measurements in radiotherapy. The common manufacturing practice is to encapsulate the diodes in plastic for protection and to facilitate mounting in scanning devices. Diodes intended for use in photon fields commonly also have a shield of a high atomic number material (usually tungsten) integrated into the encapsulation to selectively absorb low-energy photons to which silicon diodes would otherwise over-response. However, new response models based on cavity theories and spectra calculations have been proposed for direct correction of the readout from unshielded (e.g., "electron") diodes used in photon fields. This raises the question whether it is correct to assume that the spectrum in a water phantom at the location of the detector cavity is not perturbed by the detector encapsulation materials. The aim of this work is to investigate the spectral effects of typical encapsulations, including shielding, used for clinical diodes. The effects of detector encapsulation of an unshielded and a shielded commercial diode on the spectra at the detector cavity location are studied through Monte Carlo simulations with PENELOPE-2005. Variance reduction based on correlated sampling is applied to reduce the CPU time needed for the simulations. The use of correlated sampling is found to be efficient and to not introduce any significant bias to the results. Compared to reference spectra calculated in water, the encapsulation for an unshielded diode is demonstrated to not perturb the spectrum, while a tungsten shielded diode caused not only the desired decrease in low-energy scattered photons but also a large increase of the primary electron fluence. Measurements with a shielded diode in a 6 MV photon beam proved that the shielding does not completely remove the field-size dependence of the detector response caused by the over-response from low-energy photons. Response factors of a properly corrected unshielded diode

  5. Radioprotective activity of curcumin-encapsulated liposomes against genotoxicity caused by Gamma Cobalt-60 irradiation in human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Hiep; Pham, Ngoc-Duy; Dong, Bingxue; Nguyen, Thi-Huynh-Nga; Bui, Chi-Bao; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2017-11-01

    While the radioprotective activity of curcumin against genotoxicity has been well established, its poor oral bioavailability has limited its successful clinical applications. Nanoscale formulations, including liposomes, have been demonstrated to improve curcumin bioavailability. The objective of the present work was (1) to prepare and characterize curcumin-encapsulated liposomes (i.e. size, colloidal stability, encapsulation efficiency, and payload), and (2) subsequently to evaluate their radioprotective activity against genotoxicity in human blood cells caused by Gamma Cobalt-60 irradiation. The curcumin-encapsulated liposomes were prepared by lipid-film hydration method using commercial phosphatidylcholine (i.e. Phospholipon ® 90G). The blood cells were obtained from healthy male donors (n = 3) under an approved ethics protocol. The cell uptake and the radioprotective activity of the curcumin-encapsulated liposomes were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and micronucleus assay, respectively. Nanoscale curcumin-encapsulated liposomes exhibiting good physical characteristics and successful uptake by the human blood cells were successfully prepared. The radioprotective activity of the curcumin-encapsulated liposomes was found to be dependent on the curcumin concentration, where an optimal concentration existed (i.e. 30 μg/mL) independent of the irradiation dose, above which the radioprotective activity had become stagnant (i.e. no more reduction in the micronuclei frequency). The present results established for the first time the radioprotective activity of curcumin-encapsulated liposomes in human blood cells, which coupled by its well-established bioavailability, boded well for its potential application as a nanoscale delivery system of other radioprotective phytochemicals.

  6. Antifouling Thermoplastic Composites with Maleimide Encapsulated in Clay Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ye; Gong, Congcong; Wang, Wencai; Zhang, Liqun; Ivanov, Evgenii; Lvov, Yuri

    2017-09-06

    An antifouling ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) coating with halloysite clay nanotubes loaded with maleimide (TCPM) is prepared. Such antifoulant encapsulation allowed for extended release of TCPM and a long-lasting, efficient protection of the coated surface against marine microorganisms proliferation. Halloysite also induces the composite's anisotropy due to parallel alignment of the nanotubes. The maleimide loaded halloysite incorporated into the polymer matrix allowed for 12-month release of the bacterial inhibitor preventing fouling; it is much longer than the 2-3 month protection when TCPM is directly admixed into EVA. The antifouling properties of the EVA-halloysite nanocomposites were tested by monitoring surface adhesion and proliferation of marine V. natriegens bacteria with SEM. As compared to the composite directly doped with TCPM-antifoulant, there were much less bacteria accumulated on the EVA-halloysite-TCPM coating after a 2-month exposure to seawater. Field tests at South China Sea marine station further confirmed the formulation efficiency. The doping of 28 wt % TCPM loaded halloysite drastically enhanced material antifouling property, which promises wide applications for protective marine coating.

  7. Improving the ablation efficiency of excimer laser systems with higher repetition rates through enhanced debris removal and optimized spot pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Klinner, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the reasons for the required increased radiant exposure for higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers and determine experimentally possible compensations to achieve equivalent ablation profiles maintaining the same single-pulse energies and radiant exposures for laser repetition rates ranging from 430 to 1000 Hz. Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany. Experimental study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated. The pulse laser energy was maintained during all experiments; the effects of the flow of the debris removal, the shot pattern for the correction, and precooling the PMMA plates were evaluated in terms of achieved ablation versus repetition rate. The mean ablation performance ranged from 88% to 100%; the variability between the profile measurements ranged from 1.4% to 6.2%. Increasing the laser repetition rate from 430 Hz to 1000 Hz reduced the mean ablation performance from 98% to 91% and worsened the variability from 1.9% to 4.3%. Increasing the flow of the debris removal, precooling the PMMA plates to -18°C, and adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the variability. Only adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the mean ablation performance. The ablation performance of higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers on PMMA improved with improvements in the debris removal systems and shot pattern. More powerful debris removal systems and smart shot patterns in terms of thermal response improved the performance of these excimer lasers. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-assembly synthesis of 3D graphene-encapsulated hierarchical Fe3O4 nano-flower architecture with high lithium storage capacity and excellent rate capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yating; Huang, Jian; Lin, Liang; Xie, Qingshui; Yan, Mengyu; Qu, Baihua; Wang, Laisen; Mai, Liqiang; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-encapsulated hierarchical metal oxides architectures can efficiently combine the merits of graphene and hierarchical metal oxides, which are deemed as the potential anode material candidates for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries due to the synergistic effect between them. Herein, a cationic surfactant induced self-assembly method is developed to construct 3D Fe3O4@reduction graphene oxide (H-Fe3O4@RGO) hybrid architecture in which hierarchical Fe3O4 nano-flowers (H-Fe3O4) are intimately encapsulated by 3D graphene network. Each H-Fe3O4 particle is constituted of rod-shaped skeletons surrounded by petal-like nano-flakes that are made up of enormous nanoparticles. When tested as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries, a high reversible capacity of 2270 mA h g-1 after 460 cycles is achieved under a current density of 0.5 A g-1. More impressively, even tested at a large current density of 10 A g-1, a decent reversible capacity of 490 mA h g-1 can be retained, which is still higher than the theoretical capacity of traditional graphite anode, demonstrating the remarkable lithium storage properties. The reasons for the excellent electrochemical performance of H-Fe3O4@RGO electrode have been discussed in detail.

  9. Extraction and encapsulation of prodigiosin in chitosan microspheres for targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dozie-Nwachukwu, S.O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Advanced Laboratory, Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO), P.M.B 186, Garki, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Danyuo, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kwara State University, Malete (Nigeria); Obayemi, J.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Odusanya, O.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Advanced Laboratory, Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO), P.M.B 186, Garki, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Malatesta, K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Soboyejo, W.O., E-mail: soboyejo@princeton.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Bowen Hall, 70 Prospect Street, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The encapsulation of drugs in polymeric materials has brought opportunities to the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. These polymeric delivery systems are capable of maximizing the therapeutic activity, as well as reducing the side effects of anti-cancer agents. Prodigiosin, a secondary metabolite extracted from the bacteria, Serratia marcescens, exhibits anti-cancer properties. Prodigiosin-loaded chitosan microspheres were prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion technique, using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The morphologies of the microspheres were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The average sizes of the microspheres were between 40 μm and 60 μm, while the percentage yields ranged from 42 ± 2% to 55.5 ± 3%. The resulting encapsulation efficiencies were between 66.7 ± 3% and 90 ± 4%. The in-vitro drug release from the microspheres was characterized by zeroth order, first order and Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. - Highlights: • Prodigiosin of ~ 92.8% purity was extracted from locally isolated Serratia marcescens. • This approach reduces the cost and ensure availability of drugs for cancer treatment. • High encapsulation efficiency which increased with increasing drug:polymer ratio • The percentage yield was generally poor due to the recovery process. • Prodigiosin greatly reduced the viability of the breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231).

  10. Extraction and encapsulation of prodigiosin in chitosan microspheres for targeted drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozie-Nwachukwu, S.O.; Danyuo, Y.; Obayemi, J.D.; Odusanya, O.S.; Malatesta, K.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    2017-01-01

    The encapsulation of drugs in polymeric materials has brought opportunities to the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. These polymeric delivery systems are capable of maximizing the therapeutic activity, as well as reducing the side effects of anti-cancer agents. Prodigiosin, a secondary metabolite extracted from the bacteria, Serratia marcescens, exhibits anti-cancer properties. Prodigiosin-loaded chitosan microspheres were prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion technique, using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The morphologies of the microspheres were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The average sizes of the microspheres were between 40 μm and 60 μm, while the percentage yields ranged from 42 ± 2% to 55.5 ± 3%. The resulting encapsulation efficiencies were between 66.7 ± 3% and 90 ± 4%. The in-vitro drug release from the microspheres was characterized by zeroth order, first order and Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. - Highlights: • Prodigiosin of ~ 92.8% purity was extracted from locally isolated Serratia marcescens. • This approach reduces the cost and ensure availability of drugs for cancer treatment. • High encapsulation efficiency which increased with increasing drug:polymer ratio • The percentage yield was generally poor due to the recovery process. • Prodigiosin greatly reduced the viability of the breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231).

  11. Estimating service lifetimes of a polymer encapsulant for photovoltaic modules from accelerated testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Pern, F.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this paper, most of the emphasis is on A9918 ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) used commercially as the pottant for encapsulating photovoltaic (PV) modules, in which the efficiencies in field-deployed modules have been reduced by 10-70% in 4-12 years. Yet, projections were made by several different research groups in the 1980s that the EVA lifetime could range from 2-100 years. The authors (1) elucidate the complexity of the encapsulation problem, (2) indicate the performance losses reported for PV systems deployed since 1981, (3) critically assess the service lifetime predictions for EVA as a PV pottant based on studies by others for which they review the inherent errors in their assumptions about the Arrhenius relation, (4) show how degradation of minimodules in laboratory experiments that simulate reality can produce efficiency losses comparable to those in field-degraded PV modules reported in the literature, and (5) outline an acceptable methodology for making a service lifetime prediction of the polymer encapsulant, including the essential need for relating accelerated lifetime testing to real-time testing with a sufficient number of samples.

  12. Considerations for successful transplantation of encapsulated pancreatic islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, P; Hamel, AF; Tatarkiewicz, K

    Encapsulation of pancreatic islets allows for transplantion in the absence of immunosuppression. The technology is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected for the host immune system by an artificial membrane. Encapsulation offers a solution to the shortage of donors in clinical

  13. The interpretation of encapsulating anaphors in Spanish and their functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulating anaphors differ from other types of anaphor by having one or more situations - not an entity - as its referent. The main aim of the article is to propose a hypothesis for how anaphoric encapsulation is resolved. The hypothesis builds on the cognitive linguistic theory of instruction...

  14. Comparisons of alternative sites for the encapsulation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havel, R.

    2000-12-01

    This report discuses the pros and cons of localizing the spent fuel encapsulation plant at the planned Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuel or at CLAB (Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel). After weighing together all aspects (economy, technology, safety, transports, personnel and environment) it is concluded that building the encapsulation plant in direct connection to CLAB is the most advantageous alternative

  15. Characterization studies of lower and non-TDI polyurethane encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.H.

    1993-09-01

    Polyurethane prepolymers containing toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are used within the Nuclear Weapons complex for many adhesive and encapsulation applications. As part of a program for minimizing hazards to workers and the environment, TDI will be eliminated. This report presents evaluation of alternative encapsulants

  16. Mechanical Robustness and Hermeticity Monitoring for MEMS Thin Film Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santagata, F.

    2011-01-01

    Many Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) require encapsulation, to prevent delicate sensor structures being exposed to external perturbations such as dust, humidity, touching, and gas pressure. An upcoming and cost-effective way of encapsulation is zero-level packaging or thin-film

  17. Comparative assessment of plasmid DNA delivery by encapsulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the gene delivery effectiveness of plasmid DNA (pDNA) encapsulated within poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with that adsorbed on PLGA nanoparticles. Methods: PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using solvent-evaporation method. To encapsulate pDNA within the particles, ...

  18. Effect of spray-drying with organic solvents on the encapsulation, release and stability of fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encina, Cristian; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Holgado, Francisca; Giménez, Begoña; Vergara, Cristina; Robert, Paz

    2018-10-15

    Fish-oil (FO) was encapsulated with hydroxypropylcelullose (HPC) by conventional spray-drying with water (FO-water) and solvent spray-drying with ethanol (FO-EtOH), methanol (FO-MeOH) and acetone (FO-Acet) in order to study the effect of the solvent on the encapsulation efficiency (EE), microparticle properties and stability of FO during storage at 40 °C. Results showed that FO-Acet presented the highest EE of FO (92.0%), followed by FO-EtOH (80.4%), FO-MeOH (75.0%) and FO-water (71.1%). A decrease of the dielectric constant increased the EE of FO, promoting triglyceride-polymer interactions instead of oil-in-water emulsion retention. FO release profile in aqueous model was similar for all FO-microparticles, releasing only the surface FO, according to Higuchi model. Oxidative stability of FO significantly improved by spray-drying with MeOH, both in surface and encapsulated oil fractions. In conclusion, encapsulation of FO by solvent spray-drying can be proposed as an alternative technology for encapsulation of hydrophobic molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ANAPHORIC ENCAPSULATION AND PRESUPPOSITION: PERSUASIVE AND STEREOTYPICAL USES OF A COHESIVE STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Pecorari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the presuppositional values of anaphoric encapsulation. We highlight that presupposition is a basic feature of argumentative and persuasive uses of this cohesive strategy, but may also apply to stereotypical instances, where evaluation does not coincide with persuasion. Finally, we analyse examples where a higher-order definite noun phrase does not presuppose the existence of a discourse referent.

  20. Biofriendly bonding processes for nanoporous implantable SU-8 microcapsules for encapsulated cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Krishnamurthy; Kwon, Joonbum; Trivedi, Krutarth; Hu, Walter; Lee, Jeong-Bong; Gimi, Barjor

    2011-01-01

    Mechanically robust, cell encapsulating microdevices fabricated using photolithographic methods can lead to more efficient immunoisolation in comparison to cell encapsulating hydrogels. There is a need to develop adhesive bonding methods which can seal such microdevices under physiologically friendly conditions. We report the bonding of SU-8 based substrates through (i) magnetic self assembly, (ii) using medical grade photocured adhesive and (iii) moisture and photochemical cured polymerization. Magnetic self-assembly, carried out in biofriendly aqueous buffers, provides weak bonding not suitable for long term applications. Moisture cured bonding of covalently modified SU-8 substrates, based on silanol condensation, resulted in weak and inconsistent bonding. Photocured bonding using a medical grade adhesive and of acrylate modified substrates provided stable bonding. Of the methods evaluated, photocured adhesion provided the strongest and most stable adhesion.

  1. Structural-functional integrated concrete with macro-encapsulated inorganic PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Ehsan; Tang, Waiching; Wang, Zhiyu

    2017-09-01

    Over the last few years the application of thermal energy storage system incorporating phase change materials (PCMs) to foster productivity and efficiency of buildings energy has grown rapidly. In this study, a structural-functional integrated concrete was developed using macro-encapsulated PCM-lightweight aggregate (LWA) as partial replacement (25 and 50% by volume) of coarse aggregate in control concrete. The PCM-LWA was prepared by incorporation of an inorganic PCM into porous LWAs through vacuum impregnation. The mechanical and thermal performance of PCM-LWA concrete were studied. The test results revealed that though the compressive strength of concrete with PCM-LWA was lower than the control concrete, but ranged from 22.02 MPa to 42.88 MPa which above the minimum strength requirement for structural application. The thermal performance test indicated that macro-encapsulated PCM-LWA has underwent the phase change transition reducing the indoor temperature.

  2. Structure of liposome encapsulating proteins characterized by X-ray scattering and shell-modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Mitsuhiro; Kimura, Ryota; Takeuchi, Kazuki; Hagiwara, Yoshihiko; Kawai-Hirai, Rika; Ohta, Noboru; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Shimuzu, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Wide-angle X-ray scattering data using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source are presented. Lipid liposomes are promising drug delivery systems because they have superior curative effects owing to their high adaptability to a living body. Lipid liposomes encapsulating proteins were constructed and the structures examined using synchrotron radiation small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SR-SWAXS). The liposomes were prepared by a sequential combination of natural swelling, ultrasonic dispersion, freeze-throw, extrusion and spin-filtration. The liposomes were composed of acidic glycosphingolipid (ganglioside), cholesterol and phospholipids. By using shell-modeling methods, the asymmetric bilayer structure of the liposome and the encapsulation efficiency of proteins were determined. As well as other analytical techniques, SR-SWAXS and shell-modeling methods are shown to be a powerful tool for characterizing in situ structures of lipid liposomes as an important candidate of drug delivery systems

  3. Effect drug loading process on dissolution mechanism of encapsulated amoxicillin trihydrate in hydrogel semi-IPN chitosan methyl cellulose with pore forming agent KHCO3 as a floating drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fithawati, Garnis; Budianto, Emil

    2018-04-01

    Common treatment for Helicobacter pylori by repeated oral consumption of amoxicillin trihydrate is not effective. Amoxicillin trihydrate has a very short residence time in stomach which leads into its ineffectiveness. Residence time of amoxicillin trihydrate can be improved by encapsulating amoxicillin trihydrate into a floating drug delivery system. In this study, amoxicillin trihydrate is encapsulated into hydrogel semi-IPN chitosan methyl cellulose matrix as a floating drug delivery system and then treated with 20% KHCO3 as pore forming agent. Drug loading process used are in-situ loading and post loading. In-situ loading process has higher efficiency percentage and dissolution percentage than post loading process. In-situ loading process resulted 100% efficiency with 92,70% dissolution percentage. Post loading process resulted 98,7% efficiency with 90,42% dissolution percentage. Mechanism of drug dissolution study by kinetics approach showed both in-situ loading process and post loading process are diffusion and degradation process (n=0,4913) and (n=0,4602) respectively. These results are supported by characterization data from optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data from optical microscope showed both loading process resulted in coarser hydrogel surface. Characterization using SEM showed elongated pores in both loading process after dissolution test.

  4. Plantlets from encapsulated shoot buds of Catalpa ovata G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Wysokińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot buds isolated from in vitro shoot cultures of Catalpa ovata G. Don were encapsulated using 3% sodium alginate with sucrose (3% and 50 mM calcium chloride. The morphogenic response of encapsulated buds was affected by such factors, like composition of the media and the presence of growth regulators. The highest frequency of plantlet germination from encapsulated buds (70% within 4 weeks was obtained on Woody Plant medium (WP (Lloyd and McCown 1980 containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA (1 mg/l. The process was substantially inhibited by cold-storage (4oC of encapsulated buds. In this case, the frequency response ranged from 3% to 22% dependent on storage period (28 or 42 days and the presence of the paraffin coat covering the alginate capsules. The plantlets developed from both unstored and stored encapsulated buds of C. ovata were transplanted to soil and grew in pots to phenotypically normal plants.

  5. Electromagnetic properties of conducting polymers encapsulated in an insulating matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esnouf, Stephane

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the electronic properties of conducting polymers encapsulated in zeolite. We studied two kinds of polymers: intrinsic conducting polymers (poly-pyrrole) and pyrolyzed polymers (polyacrylonitrile and poly-furfuryl alcohol). These systems were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance and microwave conductivity measurements. In the first part, we present the preparation and the characterization of encapsulated poly-pyrrole. Conductivity measurements show that the encapsulated material is insulating, certainly because a strong interaction with the zeolite traps the charge carriers. In the second part, we focus on pyrolyzed encapsulated polyacrylonitrile. This system has a metal-like susceptibility at room temperature and a relatively high microwave conductivity. These results demonstrate the formation during the pyrolysis of extended aromatic clusters. Finally, we study pyrolyzed encapsulated poly-furfuryl alcohol. We show that the only effect of the pyrolysis is to fragment the polymers. We also discuss the spin relaxation and the EPR line broadening. (author) [fr

  6. Parenteral immunization of PLA/PLGA nanoparticle encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) from Aeromonas hydrophila: Evaluation of immunostimulatory action in Labeo rohita (rohu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-05-01

    Advanced vaccine research approaches needs to explore on biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) based vaccine carrier that can serve as antigen delivery systems as well as immuno-stimulatory action to induce both innate and adaptive immune response in fish. Immunogenicity of PLA and PLGA NPs encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) antigen of Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated through intra-peritoneal injection in fish, Labeo rohita. Antigen loaded PLA-Omp (223.5 ± 13.19 nm) and PLGA-Omp (166.4 ± 21.23 nm) NPs were prepared using double emulsion method by efficiently encapsulating the antigen reaching the encapsulation efficiency 44 ± 4.58% and 59.33 ± 5.13% respectively. Our formulated PLA Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were in nanometer range (PLA-Omp, it showed considerably slower antigen release in vitro than PLGA-Omp NPs. Other physical properties like zetapotential values and poly dispersity index (PDI) confirmed the stability as well as monodisperse nature of the formulated nanoparticles. The spherical and isolated nature of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were revealed by SEM analysis. Upon immunization of all antigenic formulations (PLA-Omp NP, PLGA-Omp NP, FIA-Omp, PLA NP, PLGA NP, PBS as control), significant higher bacterial agglutination titre and haemolytic activity were observed in case of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp immunized groups than rest groups at both 21 days and 42 days. The specific antibody response was significantly increased and persisted up to 42 days of post immunization by PLA-Omp, PLGA-Omp, FIA-Omp. PLA-Omp NPs showed better immune response (higher bacterial agglutination titre, haemolytic activity, specific antibody titre, higher percent survival upon A. hydrophila challenge) than PLGA-Omp in L. rohita confirming its better efficacy. Comparable antibody response of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp with FIA-Omp treated groups suggested that PLA and PLGA could be replacement for Freund's adjuvant (for stimulating antibody response) to overcome many side effects

  7. Isolation and Identification of an Indigenous Probiotic Lactobacillus Strain: Its Encapsulation with Natural Branched Polysaccharids to Improve Bacterial Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Sadat Foroutan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Probiotics have to reach their site of action in certain numbers in order to exhibit positive health effects. Encapsulation has shown remarkable enhancing effects on probiotic survival in simulated gastric conditions compared to free bacteria. The purpose of this study was identification and evaluation of a potential probiotic strain using encapsulation process by new carriers in order to improve probiotic viability during in vitro simulated conditions.Material and Methods: A native Lactobacillus was isolated from yogurt, identified as Lactobacillus casei PM01 (NCBI registered and analyzed for probiotic properties alongside established probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43556, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. Acid and bile resistance, adhesion to Caco-2 cells and antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Lactobacillus casei PM01 was encapsulated with alginate, chitosan and natural branched polysaccharides (pectin, tragacanth gum and gum Arabic by using extrusion technique. Encapsulation efficiency, acidification activity and viability of entrapped Lactobacillus casei PM01 in simulated gastric pH were determined. Results and Conclusion: Based on the results, all the three strains could be considered as potential probiotics, and are good candidates for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation. The results showed that the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei PM01 was significantly (p≤0.05 increased when it was incubated in simulated gastric pH. It can be concluded that indigenous Lactobacillus casei PM01 in encapsulated form is introduced as an efficient probiotic strain for using in dairy products.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  8. Method of producing zeolite encapsulated nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention therefore relates to a method for producing zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype encapsulated metal nanoparticles, the method comprises the steps of: 1) Adding one or more metal precursors to a silica or alumina source; 2) Reducing the one or more metal precursors to form metal...... nanoparticles on the surface of the silica or alumina source; 3) Passing a gaseous hydrocarbon, alkyl alcohol or alkyl ether over the silica or alumina supported metal nanoparticles to form a carbon template coated zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype precursor composition; 4a) Adding a structure directing agent...... to the carbon template coated zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype precursor composition thereby creating a zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype gel composition; 4b) Crystallising the zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype gel composition by subjecting said composition to a hydrothermal treatment; 5) Removing the carbon...

  9. Leach characterization of cement encapsulated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Scheetz, B.E.; Wakeley, L.D.; Barnes, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    Matrix encapsulation of defense nuclear waste as well as intermediate-level commercial wastes within a low-temperature cementitious composite were investigated. The cements for this study included both as-received and modified calcium silicate and calcium aluminate cements. Specimens were prepared following conventional formulation techniques designed to produce dense monoliths, followed by curing at 60 0 C. An alternative preparation procedure is contrasted in which the specimens were ''warm'' pressed in a uniaxial press at 150 0 C at 50,000 psi for 0.5 h. Specimens of the waste/cement composites were leached in deionized water following three different procedures which span a wide range of temperatures and solution saturation conditions. Aluminate and compositionally adjusted silicate cements exhibited a better retentivity for Cs and Sr than did the as-received silicate cement. 15 refs

  10. Boron nitride encapsulated graphene infrared emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Zossimova, E.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Lawton, L. M.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from devices containing a large area multilayer graphene layer, encapsulated using hexagonal boron nitride, have been investigated. The devices were run continuously in air for over 1000 h, with the emission spectrum covering the absorption bands of many important gases. An approximate solution to the heat equation was used to simulate the measured emission profile across the devices yielding an estimated value of the characteristic length, which defines the exponential rise/fall of the temperature profile across the device, of 40 μm. This is much larger than values obtained in smaller exfoliated graphene devices and reflects the device geometry, and the increase in lateral heat conduction within the devices due to the multilayer graphene and boron nitride layers.

  11. Boron nitride encapsulated graphene infrared emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, H. R.; Zossimova, E.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Lawton, L. M.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R., E-mail: g.r.nash@exeter.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-28

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from devices containing a large area multilayer graphene layer, encapsulated using hexagonal boron nitride, have been investigated. The devices were run continuously in air for over 1000 h, with the emission spectrum covering the absorption bands of many important gases. An approximate solution to the heat equation was used to simulate the measured emission profile across the devices yielding an estimated value of the characteristic length, which defines the exponential rise/fall of the temperature profile across the device, of 40 μm. This is much larger than values obtained in smaller exfoliated graphene devices and reflects the device geometry, and the increase in lateral heat conduction within the devices due to the multilayer graphene and boron nitride layers.

  12. Encapsulated magnetite particles for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Landfester, K

    2003-01-01

    The process of miniemulsification allows the generation of small, homogeneous, and stable droplets containing monomer or polymer precursors and magnetite which are then transferred by polymer reactions to the final polymer latexes, keeping their particular identity without serious exchange kinetics involved. It is shown that the miniemulsion process can excellently be used for the formulation of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles which can further be used for biomedical applications. The use of high shear, appropriate surfactants, and the addition of a hydrophobe in order to suppress the influence of Ostwald ripening are key factors for the formation of the small and stable droplets in miniemulsion and will be discussed. Two different approaches based on miniemulsion processes for the encapsulation of magnetite into polymer particles will be presented in detail.

  13. Effect of antioxidant properties of lecithin emulsifier on oxidative stability of encapsulated bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanjie; Tikekar, Rohan V; Nitin, N

    2013-06-25

    Oxidation of encapsulated bioactive compounds in emulsions is one of the key challenges that limit shelf life of emulsion containing products. Oxidation in these emulsions is triggered by permeation of free radicals generated at the emulsion interface. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of antioxidant properties of common emulsifiers (lecithin and Tween 20) in reducing permeation of free radicals across the emulsion interface. Radical permeation rates were correlated with oxidative stability of a model bioactive compound (curcumin) encapsulated in these emulsions. Rate of permeation of peroxyl radicals from the aqueous phase to the oil phase of emulsion was inversely proportional to the antioxidant properties of emulsifiers. The rate of radical permeation was significantly higher (plecithin compared to native lecithin that showed higher antioxidant activity. Free radical permeation rate correlated with stability of curcumin in emulsions and was significantly higher (plecithin stabilized emulsions as compared to Tween 20 emulsions. Overall, this study demonstrates that antioxidant activity of emulsifiers significantly influences permeation of free radicals across the emulsion interface and the rate of oxidation of bioactive encapsulant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Encapsulation and Nano-Encapsulation of Papain Active Sites to Enhance Radiolityc Stability and Decrease Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugão, A. B.; Varca, G. H.C.; Mathor, M. B.; Santos Lopes, P.; Rogero, M. S.S.; Rogero, J.R., E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Papain is used as an ingredient in various enzymatic debridement preparations. Those paste-like preparations are based on water solution and usually are sterilized by radiation. As a consequence, there is a major decrease in papain activity. Papain containing preparations are used in chronic wounds treatment in order to clean and remove the necrotic tissue. However FDA (2008) is taking an action against such products due to severe adverse events reported in patients submitted to papain treatments. Thus, the main goal of this proposal is to develop encapsulated papain containing membranes based on hydrogels and silicone rubber in an attempt to achieve a controllable distribution of size and delivery profile, a toxicity reduction and provide stability towards radiation processing through molecular encapsulation with β-cyclodextrin, which may also provide protection to the enzyme against radiation induced radiolysis. (author)

  15. Encapsulation and Nano-Encapsulation of Papain Active Sites to Enhance Radiolityc Stability and Decrease Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugão, A.B.; Varca, G.H.C.; Mathor, M.B.; Santos Lopes, P.; Rogero, M.S.S.; Rogero, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Papain is used as an ingredient in various enzymatic debridement preparations. Those paste-like preparations are based on water solution and usually are sterilized by radiation. As a consequence, there is a major decrease in papain activity. Papain containing preparations are used in chronic wounds treatment in order to clean and remove the necrotic tissue. However FDA (2008) is taking an action against such products due to severe adverse events reported in patients submitted to papain treatments. Thus, the main goal of this proposal is to develop encapsulated papain containing membranes based on hydrogels and silicone rubber in an attempt to achieve a controllable distribution of size and delivery profile, a toxicity reduction and provide stability towards radiation processing through molecular encapsulation with β-cyclodextrin, which may also provide protection to the enzyme against radiation induced radiolysis. (author)

  16. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  17. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-12-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We encapsulated 1000 rat islets and implanted them subcutaneously (SQ) into diabetic biobreeding (BB) rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats, defined as two or more consecutive days of blood glucose>350 mg/dl. Rats were monitored for weight and blood glucose. Untreated BB rats rapidly lost weight and were euthanized at >20% weight loss that occurred between 4 and 10 days from implantation. For period of 30-40 days following islet implantation weights of treated rats remained steady or increased. Rapid weight loss occurred after surgical removal of devices that contained insulin positive islets. STZ-treated rats that received encapsulated islets showed steady weight gain for up to 130 days, whereas untreated control rats showed steady weight loss that achieved >20% at around 55 days. Although islet implants did not normalize blood glucose, treated rats were apparently healthy and groomed normally. Autologous or allogeneic islets were equally effective in providing treatment. TheraCyte devices can sustain islets, protect allogeneic cells from immune attack and provide treatment for diabetic-mediated weight loss in both BB rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  18. Enhancement of Curcumin Bioavailability by Encapsulation in Sophorolipid-Coated Nanoparticles: An in Vitro and in Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shengfeng; Li, Ziling; Zou, Liqiang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; McClements, David Julian

    2018-02-14

    There is great interest in developing colloidal delivery systems to enhance the water solubility and oral bioavailability of curcumin, which is a hydrophobic nutraceutical claimed to have several health benefits. In this study, a natural emulsifier was used to form sophorolipid-coated curcumin nanoparticles. The curcumin was loaded into sophorolipid micelles using a pH-driven mechanism based on the decrease in curcumin solubility at lower pH values. The sophorolipid-coated curcumin nanoparticles formed using this mechanism were relatively small (61 nm) and negatively charged (-41 mV). The nanoparticles also had a relatively high encapsulation efficiency (82%) and loading capacity (14%) for curcumin, which was present in an amorphous state. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that the curcumin nanoparticles had an appreciably higher bioavailability than that of free curcumin crystals (2.7-3.6-fold), which was mainly attributed to their higher bioaccessibility. These results may facilitate the development of natural colloidal systems that enhance the oral bioavailability and bioactivity of curcumin in food, dietary supplements, and pharmaceutical products.

  19. Nano-encapsulation of fish oil in nano-liposomes and its application in fortification of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzade, Tahere; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Akhavan, Sahar; Hadavi, Roxana

    2017-02-01

    Fish oils have many dietary benefits, but due to their strong odors and rapid deterioration, their application in food formulations is limited. For these reasons, nano-liposome was used to nano-encapsulate fish oil in this study and encapsulated fish oil was utilized in fortifying yogurt. Physicochemical properties of produced yogurt including pH, acidity, syneresis, fatty acid composition, peroxide value as well as sensory tests were investigated during three weeks storage at 4°C. Nano-liposome encapsulation resulted in a significant reduction in acidity, syneresis and peroxide value. The results of gas chromatography analyses revealed that after 21days storage, yogurt fortified with nano-encapsulated fish oil had a higher DHA and EPA contents than yogurt containing free fish oil. Overall, the results of this study indicates that adding nano-encapsulated fish oil into yogurt gave closer characteristics to control sample in terms of sensory characteristics than yogurt fortified with free fish oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tracking hypoxic signaling within encapsulated cell aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Matthew L; Sahai, Suchit; Blanchette, James O

    2011-12-16

    In Diabetes mellitus type 1, autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β-cells results in loss of insulin production and potentially lethal hyperglycemia. As an alternative treatment option to exogenous insulin injection, transplantation of functional pancreatic tissue has been explored. This approach offers the promise of a more natural, long-term restoration of normoglycemia. Protection of the donor tissue from the host's immune system is required to prevent rejection and encapsulation is a method used to help achieve this aim. Biologically-derived materials, such as alginate and agarose, have been the traditional choice for capsule construction but may induce inflammation or fibrotic overgrowth which can impede nutrient and oxygen transport. Alternatively, synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels are non-degrading, easily functionalized, available at high purity, have controllable pore size, and are extremely biocompatible. As an additional benefit, PEG hydrogels may be formed rapidly in a simple photo-crosslinking reaction that does not require application of non-physiological temperatures. Such a procedure is described here. In the crosslinking reaction, UV degradation of the photoinitiator, 1-[4-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)-phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propane-1-one (Irgacure 2959), produces free radicals which attack the vinyl carbon-carbon double bonds of dimethacrylated PEG (PEGDM) inducing crosslinking at the chain ends. Crosslinking can be achieved within 10 minutes. PEG hydrogels constructed in such a manner have been shown to favorably support cells, and the low photoinitiator concentration and brief exposure to UV irradiation is not detrimental to viability and function of the encapsulated tissue. While we methacrylate our PEG with the method described below, PEGDM can also be directly purchased from vendors such as Sigma. An inherent consequence of encapsulation is isolation of the cells from a vascular network. Supply of nutrients, notably oxygen

  1. Diamond encapsulated photovoltaics for transdermal power delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnood, A; Fox, K E; Apollo, N V; Lohrmann, A; Garrett, D J; Nayagam, D A X; Karle, T; Stacey, A; Abberton, K M; Morrison, W A; Blakers, A; Prawer, S

    2016-03-15

    A safe, compact and robust means of wireless energy transfer across the skin barrier is a key requirement for implantable electronic devices. One possible approach is photovoltaic (PV) energy delivery using optical illumination at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths, to which the skin is highly transparent. In the work presented here, a subcutaneously implantable silicon PV cell, operated in conjunction with an external NIR laser diode, is developed as a power delivery system. The biocompatibility and long-term biostability of the implantable PV is ensured through the use of an hermetic container, comprising a transparent diamond capsule and platinum wire feedthroughs. A wavelength of 980 nm is identified as the optimum operating point based on the PV cell's external quantum efficiency, the skin's transmission spectrum, and the wavelength dependent safe exposure limit of the skin. In bench-top experiments using an external illumination intensity of 0.7 W/cm(2), a peak output power of 2.7 mW is delivered to the implant with an active PV cell dimension of 1.5 × 1.5 × 0.06 mm(3). This corresponds to a volumetric power output density of ~20 mW/mm(3), significantly higher than power densities achievable using inductively coupled coil-based approaches used in other medical implant systems. This approach paves the way for further ministration of bionic implants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Encapsulated Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization for Improved Storage Fluids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.; Pradhan, S.; Kang, J.; Curtis, C.; Blake, D.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are typically composed of 50--500 atoms and exhibit properties that are significantly different from the properties of larger, macroscale particles that have the same composition. The addition of these particles to traditional fluids may improve the fluids' thermophysical properties. As an example, the addition of a nanoparticle or set of nanoparticles to a storage fluid may double its heat capacity. This increase in heat capacity would allow a sensible thermal energy storage system to store the same amount of thermal energy in half the amount of storage fluid. The benefit is lower costs for the storage fluid and the storage tanks, resulting in lower-cost electricity. The goal of this long-term research is to create a new class of fluids that enable concentrating solar power plants to operate with greater efficiency and lower electricity costs. Initial research on this topic developed molecular dynamic models that predicted the energy states and transition temperatures for these particles. Recent research has extended the modeling work, along with initiating the synthesis and characterization of bare metal nanoparticles and metal nanoparticles that are encapsulated with inert silica coatings. These particles possess properties that make them excellent candidates for enhancing the heat capacity of storage fluids.

  3. Steel Bar corrosion monitoring based on encapsulated piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Tang, Tianyou

    2018-05-01

    The durability of reinforced concrete has a great impact on the structural bearing capacity, while the corrosion of steel bars is the main reason for the degradation of structural durability. In this paper, a new type of encapsulated cement based piezoelectric sensor is developed and its working performance is verified. The consistency of the finite element simulation and the experimental results shows the feasibility of monitoring the corrosion of steel bars using encapsulated piezoelectric sensors. The research results show that the corrosion conditions of the steel bars can be determined by the relative amplitude of the measured signal through the encapsulated piezoelectric sensor.

  4. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) singly encapsulated cesium chloride capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Three nonstandard Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium chloride capsules are being shipped from WESF (225B building) to the 324 building. They would normally be shipped in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask under its US Department of Energy (DOE) license (DOE 1996), but these capsules are nonstandard: one has a damaged or defective weld in the outer layer of encapsulation, and two have the outer encapsulation removed. The 3 capsules, along with 13 other capsules, will be overpacked in the 324 building to meet the requirements for storage in WESF's pool

  5. Biomass boilers: towards a higher efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline; Signoret, Stephane; Mary, Olivier; Dejeu, Mathieu; Tachet, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of the situation and perspectives of biomass fuelled boilers in France. As outlined in an interview, professionals are supported by ADEME and the Heat Fund (Fonds Chaleur) for a continuous development of wood-energy in order to reach national objectives for renewable energies by 2020. The next article discusses issues related to wood supply, with some concerns regarding forest exploitation, and needs to find new management ways and to use other sources than forests. The technical status and perspectives of smoke condensation in wood-fuelled boilers are discussed. The example of a malt-house near Issoudun fuelled by biomass since 2013 is presented. Other examples concern a small town of Burgundy which developed and is still improving a heat network, a wood-fuelled heat network in Saint-Denis, and a biomass wood-fuelled heat production plant for the Toulouse University hospital. Graphs indicate evolutions of prices for different wood-based fuel products. The last article outlines the role of forests and the importance of their protection in the struggle against climate change, and discusses problems faced to support this preservation and its financing

  6. Electroporation of micro-droplet encapsulated HeLa cells in oil phase

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Kang

    2010-08-27

    Electroporation (EP) is a method widely used to introduce foreign genes, drugs or dyes into cells by permeabilizing the plasma membrane with an external electric field. A variety of microfluidic EP devices have been reported so far. However, further integration of prior and posterior EP processes turns out to be very complicated, mainly due to the difficulty of developing an efficient method for precise manipulation of cells in microfluidics. In this study, by means of a T-junction structure within a delicate microfluidic device, we encapsulated HeLa cells in micro-droplet of poration medium in oil phase before EP, which has two advantages: (i) precise control of cell-encapsulating droplets in oil phase is much easier than the control of cell populations or individuals in aqueous buffers; (ii) this can minimize the electrochemical reactions on the electrodes. Finally, we successfully introduced fluorescent dyes into the micro-droplet encapsulated HeLa cells in oil phase. Our results reflected a novel way to realize the integrated biomicrofluidic system for EP. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Characterisation of electrospun gelatine nanofibres encapsulated with Moringa oleifera bioactive extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Norziah M; Torkamani, Amir E; Azarian, Mohammad H; Mahmood, Kamil Wa; Ngalim, Siti Hawa

    2017-08-01

    Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves have been used as a folk herbal medicine across many cultures since ancient times. This is most probably due to presence of phytochemicals possessing antioxidant properties, which could retard oxidative stress, and their degenerative effect. The current study deals with nanoencapsulation of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf ethanolic extract within fish sourced gelatine matrix using electrospinning technique. The total phenolic and flavonoid content, radical scavenging (IC 50 ) and metal reducing properties were 67.0 ± 2.5 mg GAE g -1 sample 32.0 ± 0.5 mg QE g -1 extract, 0.08 ± 0.01 mg mL -1 and 510 ± 10 µmol eq Fe(II) g -1 extract, respectively. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of the fibre mats confirmed successful nanoencapsulation of MO extract within defect free nanofibres via electrospinning process. The percentage encapsulation efficiency (EE) was between 80% and 85%. Furthermore, thermal stability of encapsulated fibres, especially at 3% and 5% of core loading content, was significantly improved. Toxicological analysis revealed that the extract in its original and encapsulated form was safe for oral consumption. Overall, the present study showed the potential of ambient temperature electrospinning process as a safe nanoencapsulation method, where MO extract retained its antioxidative capacities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Depleted ion exchange resins encapsulation with mobile unit: equipment and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.; Faisantieu, D.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1981, STMI has been operating mobile units in EDF's PWR nuclear power plants, for spent resins encapsulation with polymer thermosetting matrices. Three mobile units are now in operation: COMET 1 and COMET 2, supplied by STMI, using polymerized styrene with proper additives as encapsulating material, and PRECED 1, on PEC-Engineering design, based on a DOW Chemical solidification process. On march 1986, more than 30 operations have been performed on EDF's PWR plants. More than 5000 liners containing encapsulated depleted ion exchange resins have been produced, while processing about 500 m 3 (i.e. 17.000 ft 3 ) of resins. During this period, those mobile units have shown their reliability and their efficiency. The produced processed waste, which have been accepted by ANDRA at the La Manche Storage Site (SSM) must meet the Fundamental Safety Rules (RFS) edicted by the Central Bureau for Nuclear Facilities Safety (SCSIN) of the French Department of Industry. The operations are carried out with excellent safety and radioprotection safety conditions, and following a very detailed Q.A. program [fr

  9. Recent progress on thin-film encapsulation technologies for organic electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Duan; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Zheng; Tao, Ye; Liu, Yun-Fei

    2016-03-01

    Among the advanced electronic devices, flexible organic electronic devices with rapid development are the most promising technologies to customers and industries. Organic thin films accommodate low-cost fabrication and can exploit diverse molecules in inexpensive plastic light emitting diodes, plastic solar cells, and even plastic lasers. These properties may ultimately enable organic materials for practical applications in industry. However, the stability of organic electronic devices still remains a big challenge, because of the difficulty in fabricating commercial products with flexibility. These organic materials can be protected using substrates and barriers such as glass and metal; however, this results in a rigid device and does not satisfy the applications demanding flexible devices. Plastic substrates and transparent flexible encapsulation barriers are other possible alternatives; however, these offer little protection to oxygen and water, thus rapidly degrading the devices. Thin-film encapsulation (TFE) technology is most effective in preventing water vapor and oxygen permeation into the flexible devices. Because of these (and other) reasons, there has been an intense interest in developing transparent barrier materials with much lower permeabilities, and their market is expected to reach over 550 million by 2025. In this study, the degradation mechanism of organic electronic devices is reviewed. To increase the stability of devices in air, several TFE technologies were applied to provide efficient barrier performance. In this review, the degradation mechanism of organic electronic devices, permeation rate measurement, traditional encapsulation technologies, and TFE technologies are presented.

  10. Electroporation of micro-droplet encapsulated HeLa cells in oil phase

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Kang; Zhang, Mengying; Chen, Shuyu; Wang, Limu; Chang, Donald Choy; Wen, Weijia

    2010-01-01

    Electroporation (EP) is a method widely used to introduce foreign genes, drugs or dyes into cells by permeabilizing the plasma membrane with an external electric field. A variety of microfluidic EP devices have been reported so far. However, further integration of prior and posterior EP processes turns out to be very complicated, mainly due to the difficulty of developing an efficient method for precise manipulation of cells in microfluidics. In this study, by means of a T-junction structure within a delicate microfluidic device, we encapsulated HeLa cells in micro-droplet of poration medium in oil phase before EP, which has two advantages: (i) precise control of cell-encapsulating droplets in oil phase is much easier than the control of cell populations or individuals in aqueous buffers; (ii) this can minimize the electrochemical reactions on the electrodes. Finally, we successfully introduced fluorescent dyes into the micro-droplet encapsulated HeLa cells in oil phase. Our results reflected a novel way to realize the integrated biomicrofluidic system for EP. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of nanoliposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac in rats and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh JZ

    2014-12-01

    was achieved at 56.7% with 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac, and the lowest effect was shown with 0 mg/kg liposome formulation of 8.89%. The present study suggests that liposome-encapsulated diclofenac exhibits higher antinociceptive efficacy in a dose-dependent manner in comparison with free-form diclofenac. Keywords: diclofenac, liposome, nanoencapsulation, efficacy, antinociceptive

  12. Real-time assessment of encapsulated neonatal porcine islets prior to clinical xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Law, Lee; Shome, Avik; Muzina, Marija; Elliott, Robert B; Mueller, Kate R; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Papas, Klearchos K

    2012-01-01

    Porcine islet transplantation is emerging as an attractive option for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes, with the possibility of providing islets of higher and more consistent quality and in larger volumes than available from human pancreata. The use of encapsulated neonatal porcine islets (ENPI) is appealing because it can address islet supply limitations while reducing the need for anti-rejection therapy. Pre-transplant characterization of ENPI viability and potency is an essential component of the production process. We applied the validated assay for oxygen consumption rate normalized for DNA content (OCR/DNA) to characterize ENPI viability. ENPI of low viscosity and high m alginate were prepared according to standard methods and characterized at various culture time points up to 5 weeks. The OCR/DNA (nmol/min·mgDNA ± SEM) of ENPI (235 ± 10, n = 9) was comparable to that of free NPI (255 ± 14, n = 13). After encapsulation, NPI OCR/DNA was sustained over a culture period of up to 5 weeks. The average OCR/DNA of ENPI cultured longer than 9 days was higher than that of freshly encapsulated NPI. This is the first characterization of ENPI by a validated and more sensitive method for product viability. The NPI encapsulation process does not compromise viability as measured by OCR/DNA, and ENPI can be cultured for up to 5 weeks with maintenance of viability. ENPI meet or exceed current adult porcine islet product release criteria (established at the University of Minnesota) for preclinical xenotransplantation in terms of OCR/DNA. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Meyer, H.-D., St. John, E.P., Chankseliani, M. & Uribe, L. (Eds.. (2013. Fairness in Access to Higher Education in a Global Perspective: Reconciling Excellence, Efficiency, and Justice. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewis Elisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fairness in Access to Higher Education in a Global Perspective: Reconciling Excellence, Efficiency, and Justice is an edited volume that aims to address the central question of how and why we can promote policies for fair access to higher education (HE. It takes a fairly common view of equity, exploring fair access in terms of racial, socio-economic and rural/urban background. The chapters on China and Georgia also consider fairness in the context of political favouritism and nepotism. The book’s primary focus is on access to HE, in other words, academic preparation, selection of students and affordability of HE. To a lesser extent, the book also explores the question of how to sustain participation in and completion of HE among disadvantaged groups.

  14. Photochemical approach to high-barrier films for the encapsulation of flexible laminary electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, L., E-mail: lutz.prager@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Helmstedt, U. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Herrnberger, H. [Solarion AG, Pereser Höhe 1, Breitscheidstraße 45, 04442 Zwenkau (Germany); Kahle, O. [Fraunhofer-Einrichtung für Polymermaterialien und Composite PYCO, Kantstraße 55, 14513 Teltow (Germany); Kita, F. [AZ Electronic Materials Germany GmbH, Rheingaustraße 190-196, 65203 Wiesbaden (Germany); Münch, M. [Solarion AG, Pereser Höhe 1, Breitscheidstraße 45, 04442 Zwenkau (Germany); Pender, A.; Prager, A.; Gerlach, J.W. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Stasiak, M. [Fraunhofer-Einrichtung für Polymermaterialien und Composite PYCO, Kantstraße 55, 14513 Teltow (Germany)

    2014-11-03

    Based on results of preceding research and development, thin gas barriers were made by wet application of perhydropolysilazane solution onto polymer films and its subsequent photo-initiated conversion to dense silica layers applying vacuum ultraviolet irradiation. Compared to the state of the art, these layers were sufficiently improved and characterized by spectroscopic methods, by scanning electron microscopy and by gas permeation measurements. Water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) below 10{sup −2} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} were achieved. In this way, single barrier films were developed and produced on a pilot plant from roll to roll, 250 mm wide, at speeds up to 10 m min{sup −1}. Two films were laminated using adhesives curable with ultraviolet (UV) light and evaluated by peel tests, gas permeation measurement and climate testing. It could be shown that the described high-barrier laminates which exhibit WVTR ≈ 5 × 10{sup −4} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}, determined by the calcium mirror method, are suitable for encapsulation of flexible thin-film photovoltaic modules. Durability of the encapsulated modules could be verified in several climate tests including damp-heat, thermo-cycle (heating, freezing, wetting) and UV exposures which are equivalent to more than 20 years of endurance at outdoor conditions in temperate climate. In the frame of further research and technical development it seems to be possible to design a cost efficient industrial scale process for the production of encapsulation films for photovoltaic applications. - Highlights: • Dense silica barrier layers were developed by a photochemical approach. • Polymer based barrier films were laminated yielding flexible high-barrier films. • Using these laminates photovoltaic test modules were encapsulated and tested. • A durability of more than 20 years at outdoor conditions could be proved.

  15. Improved Hepatoprotective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Astaxanthin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Chiu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity is significantly associated with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is well known for its potent antioxidant capacity. However, its drawbacks of poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability have limited its utility. Liposome encapsulation is considered as an effective alternative use for the improvement of bioavailability of the hydrophobic compound. We hypothesized that AST encapsulated within liposomes (LA apparently shows improved stability and transportability compared to that of free AST. To investigate whether LA administration can efficiently prevent the LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = six per group were orally administered liposome-encapsulated AST at 2, 5 or 10 mg/kg-day (LA-2, LA-5, and LA-10 for seven days and then were LPS-challenged (i.p., 5 mg/kg. The LA-10 administered group, but not the other groups, exhibited a significant amelioration of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (CRE, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, IL-6, and hepatic nuclear NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, suggesting that LA at a 10 mg/kg-day dosage renders hepatoprotective effects. Moreover, the protective effects were even superior to that of positive control N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200 mg/kg-day. Histopathologically, NAC, free AST, LA-2 and LA-5 partially, but LA-10 completely, alleviated the acute inflammatory status. These results indicate that hydrophobic AST after being properly encapsulated by liposomes improves bioavailability and can also function as potential drug delivery system in treating hepatotoxicity.

  16. Molecular glasses for nuclear waste encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropp, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a molecular glass based upon a polymerized phosphate of aluminum (PAP), indium or gallium overcomes all of the prior objections to use of glass as a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) encapsulation agent. This HLW glass product could not be made to devitrify, dissolved all of the oxides found in calcine, including the difficultly soluble ones, did not form microcrystallites in the melt or subsequent glass-casting, and possessed a hydrolytic etching rate to boiling water even lower than that of HLW-ZBS glass. A precursor compound, M(H 2 PO 4 ) 3 , is prepared, where M is a trivalent metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, indium and gallium. The impurity level is carefully controlled so as not to exceed 300 ppm total. The precursor crystals may be washed to remove excess phosphoric acid as desired. HLW is added to the crystals and the mixture is then heated at a controlled heating rate to induce solid state polymerization and to form a melt at 1350 degrees C in which the HLW oxides dissolve rapidly

  17. Acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles and mitigation of biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan; Fortunato, Luca; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    Provided herein is a universally applicable biofouling mitigation technology using acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles that disrupt biofilm or biofilm formation. For example, a method of reducing biofilm formation or removing biofilm in a

  18. Waste encapsulation and storage facility function analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and a function hierarchy chart that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF)

  19. Methodology for Evaluating Encapsulated Beneficial Uses of Coal Combustion Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary purpose of this document is to present an evaluation methodology developed by the EPA for making determinations about environmental releases from encapsulated products containing coal combustion residuals.

  20. High Resolution NMR Studies of Encapsulated Proteins In Liquid Ethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronald W.; Lefebvre, Brian G.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Many of the difficulties presented by large, aggregation-prone, and membrane proteins to modern solution NMR spectroscopy can be alleviated by actively seeking to increase the effective rate of molecular reorientation. An emerging approach involves encapsulating the protein of interest within the protective shell of a reverse micelle, and dissolving the resulting particle in a low viscosity fluid, such as the short chain alkanes. Here we present the encapsulation of proteins with high structural fidelity within reverse micelles dissolved in liquid ethane. The addition of appropriate co-surfactants can significantly reduce the pressure required for successful encapsulation. At these reduced pressures, the viscosity of the ethane solution is low enough to provide sufficiently rapid molecular reorientation to significantly lengthen the spin-spin NMR relaxation times of the encapsulated protein. PMID:16028922

  1. K Basins fuel encapsulation and storage hazard categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.

    1994-12-01

    This document establishes the initial hazard categorization for K-Basin fuel encapsulation and storage in the 100 K Area of the Hanford site. The Hazard Categorization for K-Basins addresses the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K-Basins and their supporting facilities. The Hazard Categorization covers the hazards associated with normal K-Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. The criteria categorizes a facility based on total curies per radionuclide located in the facility. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 display the results in section 5.0. In accordance with DOE-STD-1027 and the analysis provided in section 5.0, the K East Basin fuel encapsulation and storage activity and the K West Basin storage are classified as a open-quotes Category 2close quotes Facility

  2. Encapsulating probiotics with an interpolymer complex in supercritical carbon dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moolman, FS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional encapsulation methods in fortified foods and drug delivery applications present difficulties for ‘actives’, such as probiotics, sensitive to exposure to water, solvents, heat or oxygen, where ‘active’ refers to a material, chemical...

  3. A quantitative method for photovoltaic encapsulation system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A., III; Minning, C. P.; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the design of encapsulation systems for flat plate photovoltaic modules requires the fulfillment of conflicting design requirements. An investigation was conducted with the objective to find an approach which will make it possible to determine a system with optimum characteristics. The results of the thermal, optical, structural, and electrical isolation analyses performed in the investigation indicate the major factors in the design of terrestrial photovoltaic modules. For defect-free materials, minimum encapsulation thicknesses are determined primarily by structural considerations. Cell temperature is not strongly affected by encapsulant thickness or thermal conductivity. The emissivity of module surfaces exerts a significant influence on cell temperature. Encapsulants should be elastomeric, and ribs are required on substrate modules. Aluminum is unsuitable as a substrate material. Antireflection coating is required on cell surfaces.

  4. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: experience of a tertiary referral center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2010-05-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is arguably the most serious complication of chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy with extremely high mortality rates. We aimed to establish the rates of EPS and factors associated with its development in a single center.

  5. The improved stability of enzyme encapsulated in biomimetic titania particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yanjun; Sun Qianyun; Jiang Zhongyi; Zhang Lei; Li Jian; Li Lin; Sun Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel biomimetic approach for the entrapment of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) within titania nanoparticles to improve its stability. Protamine was as the template and catalyst for the condensation of titanium (IV) bis(ammonium lactato) dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) into titania nanoparticles in which YADH was trapped. The as-prepared titania/protamine/YADH composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The mechanism of YADH encapsulation was tentatively proposed from a series of experimental results. The preliminary investigation showed that encapsulated YADH could retain most of its initial activity. Compared to free YADH, encapsulated YADH exhibited significantly improved thermal, pH and recycling stability. After 5 weeks storage, no substantial loss of catalytic activity for encapsulated YADH was observed

  6. Modeling Encapsulated Microbubble Dynamics at High Pressure Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Jan F.; Bose, Sanjeeb; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Encapsulated microbubbles are commonly used in ultrasound contrast imaging and are of growing interest in therapeutic applications where local cavitation creates temporary perforations in cell membranes allowing for enhanced drug delivery. Clinically used microbubbles are encapsulated by a shell commonly consisting of protein, polymer, or phospholipid; the response of these bubbles to externally imposed ultrasound waves is sensitive to the compressibility of the encapsulating shell. Existing models approximate the shell compressibility via an effective surface tension (Marmottant et al. 2005). We present simulations of microbubbles subjected to high amplitude ultrasound waves (on the order of 106 Pa) and compare the results with the experimental measurements of Helfield et al. (2016). Analysis of critical points (corresponding to maximum and minimum expansion) in the governing Rayleigh-Plesset equation is used to make estimates of the parameters used to characterize the effective surface tension of the encapsulating shell. Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  7. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana C; Baj, Vanessa; Beeren, Sophie R; Chronakis, Ioannis S

    2017-10-17

    Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). ¹H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin within phospholipid fibers. Release studies in aqueous media revealed that the phenolic bioactives were released mainly due to swelling of the phospholipid fiber matrix over time. The above studies confirm the efficacy of electrospun phospholipid microfibers as encapsulation and antioxidant systems.

  8. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhamalsadat Shekarforoush

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC and the total phenolic content (TPC of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient and pressures (vacuum, ambient. 1H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin within phospholipid fibers. Release studies in aqueous media revealed that the phenolic bioactives were released mainly due to swelling of the phospholipid fiber matrix over time. The above studies confirm the efficacy of electrospun phospholipid microfibers as encapsulation and antioxidant systems.

  9. Introducing lattice strain to graphene encapsulated in hBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Hikari; Hiraide, Rineka; Ootuka, Youiti; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kanda, Akinobu

    Due to the characteristic lattice structure, lattice strain in graphene produces an effective gauge field. Theories tell that by controlling spatial variation of lattice strain, one can tailor the electronic state and transport properties of graphene. For example, under uniaxial local strain, graphene exhibits a transport gap at low energies, which is attractive for a graphene application to field effect devices. Here, we develop a method for encapsulating a strained graphene film in hexagonal boron-nitride (hBN). It is known that the graphene carrier mobility is significantly improved by the encapsulation of graphene in hBN, which has never been applied to strained graphene. We encapsulate graphene in hBN using the van der Waals assembly method. Strain is induced by sandwiching a graphene film between patterned hBN sheets. Spatial variation of strain is confirmed with micro Raman spectroscopy. Transport measurement of encapsulated strained graphene is in progress.

  10. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  11. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  12. Lead macro-encapsulation conceptual and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Macro-encapsulation, the regulatory treatment for radioactively contaminated lead (mixed) waste has been conceptually and experimentally evaluated for practical application. Epoxy encapsulants molded around lead billets have proven to be exceptionally rugged, easily applied, have high radiation and chemical stability, and minimize required process equipment and production of secondary wastes. This technology can now be considered developed, and can be applied as discussed in this report

  13. Application of Electrostatic Extrusion – Flavour Encapsulation and Controlled Release

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlovic, Verica; Rajic, Nevenka; Djonlagic, Jasna; Obradovic, Bojana; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study was the development of flavour alginate formulations aimed for thermally processed foods. Ethyl vanilline was used as the model flavour compound. Electrostatic extrusion was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanilline in alginate gel microbeads. The obtained microbeads with approx. 10 % w/w of ethyl vanilline encapsulated in about 2 % w/w alginate were uniformly sized spheres of about 450 ?m. Chemical characterization by H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the algi...

  14. Protein encapsulation via porous CaCO3 microparticles templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodkin, Dmitry V; Larionova, Natalia I; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2004-01-01

    Porous microparticles of calcium carbonate with an average diameter of 4.75 microm were prepared and used for protein encapsulation in polymer-filled microcapsules by means of electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly (ELbL). Loading of macromolecules in porous CaCO3 particles is affected by their molecular weight due to diffusion-limited permeation inside the particles and also by the affinity to the carbonate surface. Adsorption of various proteins and dextran was examined as a function of pH and was found to be dependent both on the charge of the microparticles and macromolecules. The electrostatic effect was shown to govern this interaction. This paper discusses the factors which can influence the adsorption capacity of proteins. A new way of protein encapsulation in polyelectrolyte microcapsules is proposed exploiting the porous, biocompatible, and decomposable microparticles from CaCO3. It consists of protein adsorption in the pores of the microparticles followed by ELbL of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and further core dissolution. This resulted in formation of polyelectrolyte-filled capsules with protein incorporated in interpenetrating polyelectrolyte network. The properties of CaCO3 microparticles and capsules prepared were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, microelectrophoresis, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Lactalbumin was encapsulated by means of the proposed technique yielding a content of 0.6 pg protein per microcapsule. Horseradish peroxidase saves 37% of activity after encapsulation. However, the thermostability of the enzyme was improved by encapsulation. The results demonstrate that porous CaCO3 microparticles can be applied as microtemplates for encapsulation of proteins into polyelectrolyte capsules at neutral pH as an optimal medium for a variety of bioactive material, which can also be encapsulated by the proposed method. Microcapsules filled with encapsulated material may find applications in the field of

  15. Dysprosium Acetylacetonato Single-Molecule Magnet Encapsulated in Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Nakanishi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dy single-molecule magnets (SMMs, which have several potential uses in a variety of applications, such as quantum computing, were encapsulated in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs by using a capillary method. Encapsulation was confirmed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In alternating current magnetic measurements, the magnetic susceptibilities of the Dy acetylacetonato complexes showed clear frequency dependence even inside the MWCNTs, meaning that this hybrid can be used as magnetic materials in devices.

  16. Utilization of macro encapsulated phase change materials for the development of thermal energy storage and structural lightweight aggregate concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, Shazim Ali; Cui, H.Z.; Zhang, Hang; Xing, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Compressive strength of LWAC with Paraffin–LWA was higher than 15 MPa. • Shrinkage strain with Paraffin–LWA reduced by 41.8%. • For outdoor testing, temperature at room center with Paraffin–LWA reduced by 2.9 °C. • Recovery period with Paraffin–LWA was less than average life span of building. • A reduction of 465 kg CO 2 -eq/year or 12.91 kg CO 2 -eq/year/m 2 was achieved. - Abstract: Structural–functional integrated materials are one of directions of rapid development for saving-energy materials. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are latent thermal storage materials possessing a large amount of heat energy stored during its phase change stage. Porous lightweight aggregate (LWA) can serve as the carrier for PCM. In this research, a structural concrete with function of indoor temperature control were prepared by using macro encapsulated PCM–LWA. The indoor and outdoor tests were performed to determine the thermal performance of the lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) containing macro encapsulated Paraffin–LWA. The compressive strength and shrinkage strain of LWAC with macro encapsulated PCM–LWA were evaluated. Finally, the economic and environmental aspects of application of macro encapsulated Paraffin–LWA in a typical floor area of public housing rental flat in Hong Kong were assessed. From indoor thermal performance test, it was found that LWAC incorporated with macro encapsulated Paraffin–LWA has a function of reducing the energy consumption by decreasing the indoor temperature; flatten the fluctuation of indoor temperature and shifting the loads away from the peak periods. Moreover, from outdoor thermal performance test, it was found that the performance of macro encapsulated Paraffin–LWA in adjusting the room temperature was optimized when there was a remarkable temperature difference between the day and night. Test results showed that the compressive strengths of LWAC incorporating macro encapsulated Paraffin

  17. Air encapsulation. I. Measurement in a field soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Hillel, D.

    1986-01-01

    Encapsulated air is an important component of shallow water table fluctuations. Their objective was to measure the quantity and persistence of encapsulated air in a field setting. Using sprinkling rates of either 3.5 x 10 -6 or 3.8 x 10 -5 m s -1 , they brought the water table in a field soil from a depth of 1.5 m to the surface on several occasions. Moisture contents during and after sprinkling were monitored with a neutron probe. Twice following sprinkling, the water table was maintained at the surface for more than 20 d, during which time they continued to monitor moisture contents. With the water table at the surface, differences between the porosity and the measured moisture content were attributed to encapsulated air. Encapsulated air contents ranged from 1.1 to 6.3% of the bulk soil volume, depending on the rate of sprinkling, soil depth, and initial soil moisture content. During ponding, encapsulated air persisted at the 0.3-m depth for up to 28 d. The results indicate that encapsulated air is measurable in a field situation and that its quantity and persistence should be considered in analyzing the results of similar field experiments. 16 references

  18. Encapsulation and delivery of food ingredients using starch based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Critical factors affecting cell encapsulation in superporous hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Esha S; Tang, Mary Y; Gemeinhart, Richard A; Ross, Amy E

    2012-01-01

    We recently showed that superporous hydrogel (SPH) scaffolds promote long-term stem cell viability and cell driven mineralization when cells were seeded within the pores of pre-fabricated SPH scaffolds. The possibility of cell encapsulation within the SPH matrix during its fabrication was further explored in this study. The impact of each chemical component used in SPH fabrication and each step of the fabrication process on cell viability was systematically examined. Ammonium persulfate, an initiator, and sodium bicarbonate, the gas-generating compound, were the two components having significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells at the concentrations necessary for SPH fabrication. Cell survival rates were 55.7% ± 19.3% and 88.8% ± 9.4% after 10 min exposure to ammonium persulfate and sodium bicarbonate solutions, respectively. In addition, solution pH change via the addition of sodium bicarbonate had significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells with cell survival of only 50.3% ± 2.5%. Despite toxicity of chemical components and the SPH fabrication method, cells still exhibited significant overall survival rates within SPHs of 81.2% ± 6.8% and 67.0% ± 0.9%, respectively, 48 and 72 h after encapsulation. This method of cell encapsulation holds promise for use in vitro and in vivo as a scaffold material for both hydrogel matrix encapsulation and cell seeding within the pores. (paper)

  20. Semiconducting, Magnetic or Superconducting Nanoparticles encapsulated in Carbon Shells by RAPET method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Gedanken

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, solvent-free, environmentally friendly, RAPET (Reactions under Autogenic Pressure at Elevated Temperaturesynthetic approach is discussed for the fabrication of core-shell nanostructures. The semiconducting, magnetic orsuperconducting nanoparticles are encapsulated in a carbon shell. RAPET is a one-step, thermal decomposition reaction ofchemical compound (s followed by the formation of core-shell nanoparticles in a closed stainless steel reactor. Therepresentative examples are discussed, where a variety of nanomaterials are trapped in situ in a carbon shell that offersfascinating properties.

  1. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Francisco, A. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Roberts, S. G. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas.

  2. Chiral metal-organic frameworks bearing free carboxylic acids for organocatalyst encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xi, Xiaobing; Ye, Chengcheng; Gong, Tengfei; Yang, Zhiwei; Cui, Yong

    2014-12-08

    Two chiral carboxylic acid functionalized micro- and mesoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are constructed by the stepwise assembly of triple-stranded heptametallic helicates with six carboxylic acid groups. The mesoporous MOF with permanent porosity functions as a host for encapsulation of an enantiopure organic amine catalyst by combining carboxylic acids and chiral amines in situ through acid-base interactions. The organocatalyst-loaded framework is shown to be an efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the asymmetric direct aldol reactions with significantly enhanced stereoselectivity in relative to the homogeneous organocatalyst. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Matrix-encapsulated waste forms: application to idealized systems, commercial and SRP/INEL wastes, hydrated radiophases and encapsulant phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, R.; Vance, E.R.; McCarthy, G.J.; White, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the encapsulation strategy as applied to microscopic-scale encapsulation in ceramics composed of micron-sized grains of possibly more leachable radiophases intimately surrounded by micron-sized grains of more insoluble phases. The encapsulation approach should be valid, almost axiomatic, for defense waste. However, there are still problems to be investigated experimentally. These are (a) because of the dilution, it is difficult to confirm the geometry of the radionuclide-bearing phases relative to that of the matrix: one almost has to use the inverse approach by making leach measurements, (b) deciding between using the highly reactive oxyhydroxide sludges themselves or sintered calcine to be coated, (c) verification of the insolubility of the encapsulant phases in a variety of groundwaters, and (d) the production of ceramics of near-zero porosity, using hot-isostatic pressing, or incorporation in either silicate or phosphate cements

  4. Effect of Glycerol, as Cryoprotectant in the Encapsulation and Freeze Drying of Microspheres Containing Probiotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is reported that probiotics provide several health benefits as they help in maintaining a good balance and composition of intestinal flora, and increase the resistance against invasion of pathogens. Ensuring adequate dosages of probiotics at the time of consumption is a challenge, because several factors during processing and storage affect the viability of probiotic organisms. Major emphasis has been given to protect the microorganisms with the help of encapsulation technique, by addition of different protectants. In this study, probiotic cells (Bifidobacterium lactis 300B were entrapped in alginate/pullulan microspheres. In the encapsulation formula glycerol was used as cryoprotectant in the freeze drying process for long time storage. It was observed that the survival of Bifidobacterium lactis 300B when encapsulated without cryoprotectant was higher than the formula with glycerol in the fresh obtained microspheres. The addition of glycerol was in order to reduce the deep freezing and freeze drying damages. In the chosen formulations, glycerol did not proved protection for the entrapped probiotic cells in the freeze drying process, for which the use of glycerol as cryoprotectant for alginate/pullulan Bifidobacterium lactis 300B entrapment is not recommended.

  5. Novel Solid Encapsulation of Ethylene Gas Using Amorphous α-Cyclodextrin and the Release Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Binh T; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2016-05-04

    This research investigated the encapsulation of ethylene gas into amorphous α-cyclodextrins (α-CDs) at low (LM) and high (HM) moisture contents at 1.0-1.5 MPa for 24-120 h and its controlled release characteristics at 11.2-52.9% relative humidity (RH) for 1-168 h. The inclusion complexes (ICs) were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CP-MAS (13)C NMR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ethylene concentrations in the ICs were from 0.45 to 0.87 mol of ethylene/mol CD and from 0.42 to 0.54 mol of ethylene/mol CD for LM and HM α-CDs, respectively. Ethylene gas released from the encapsulated powder at higher rates with increasing RH. An analysis of release kinetics using Avrami's equation showed that the LM and HM amorphous α-CDs were not associated with significant differences in release constant k and parameter n for any given RH condition. NMR spectra showed the presence of the characteristic carbon-carbon double bond of ethylene gas in the encapsulated α-CD powder.

  6. Thermoluminescent signal fading of encapsulated lif: Mg,Ti detectors in PTFE-Teflon registered trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasho Nikolovski, Sasho; Nikolovska, Lidija; Velevska, Marija; Velev, Velko

    2010-01-01

    Fading is a process when the latent information of a detector is unintentionally lost mainly due to the thermal influence. Thermoluminescent (TL) detectors have different sensitivities as far as the fading effect. Encapsulated TL detectors mounted within shielded filter holders are used during the personal monitoring of occupationally exposed persons in R. Macedonia. PTFE-Teflon registered trademark polymer is an example of encapsulation material that has a temperature resistance and it allows the luminescence signal to pass through. Since the encapsulated TL detectors cannot be submitted to annealing treatment in an oven, another fading reduction method is needed. The TL evaluation method suggested in this work is based on a specific glow-curve region. Irradiations were conducted using 90Sr/90Y source. Post-irradiation fade investigations were conducted for evaluation periods that varied up to 4 months. Two areas of the TL glow-curve were selected with the WimRems software. They correspond to the high and the low fading emission peaks (the lower temperature peaks display a greater degree of thermal fading than the higher temperature peaks). Post-irradiation fade is a contributing factor that affects the response of a thermoluminescent (TL) phosphor as a function of time. PTFE - Polytetrafluoroethylene most well known by the DuPont brand name Teflon registered trademark. (Author)

  7. Pravastatin Improves Glucose Regulation and Biocompatibility of Agarose Encapsulated Porcine Islets following Transplantation into Pancreatectomized Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence S. Gazda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The encapsulation of porcine islets is an attractive methodology for the treatment of Type I diabetes. In the current study, the use of pravastatin as a mild anti-inflammatory agent was investigated in pancreatectomized diabetic canines transplanted with porcine islets encapsulated in agarose-agarose macrobeads and given 80 mg/day of pravastatin (n=3 while control animals did not receive pravastatin (n=3. Control animals reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 18, 19, and 32. Pravastatin-treated animals reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 22, 27, and 50. Two animals from each group received a second macrobead implant: control animals remained insulin-free for 15 and 21 days (AUC = 3003 and 5078 mg/dL/24 hr days 1 to 15 and reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 62 and 131. Pravastatin treated animals remained insulin-free for 21 and 34 days (AUC = 1559 and 1903 mg/dL/24 hr days 1 to 15 and reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 38 and 192. Total incidence (83.3% versus 64.3% and total severity (22.7 versus 18.3 of inflammation on tissue surfaces were higher in the control group at necropsy. These findings support pravastatin therapy in conjunction with the transplantation of encapsulated xenogeneic islets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation for production of nattokinase functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuetuan; Luo, Mingfang; Xie, Yuchun; Yang, Liangrong; Li, Haojian; Xu, Lin; Liu, Huizhou

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a novel and integrated preparation technology for nattokinase functional food, including strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation. To rapidly screen a nattokinase-productive strain, PCR-based screening method was combined with fibrinolytic activity-based method, and a high productive strain, Bacillus subtilis LSSE-22, was isolated from Chinese soybean paste. Reduction of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) concentration may contribute to separation of nattokinase and reduction of late-onset anaphylaxis risk. Chickpeas were confirmed as the favorable substrate for enhancement of nattokinase production and reduction of γ-PGA yield. Using cracked chickpeas, the nattokinase activity reached 356.25 ± 17.18 FU/g (dry weight), which is much higher than previous reports. To further reduce γ-PGA concentration, ethanol fractional extraction and precipitation were applied for separation of nattokinase. By extraction with 50 % and precipitation with 75 % ethanol solution, 4,000.58 ± 192.98 FU/g of nattokinase powders were obtained, and the activity recovery reached 89 ± 1 %, while γ-PGA recovery was reduced to 21 ± 2 %. To improve the nattokinase stability at acidic pH condition, the nattokinase powders were encapsulated, and then coated with methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer. After encapsulation, the nattokinase was protected from being denatured under various acid conditions, and pH-responsible controlled release at simulated intestinal fluid was realized.

  9. Enhanced efficiency of a fluorescing nanoparticle with a silver shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Wallace C H; Chen Xuewen [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); He Sailing [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, Zhejiang University, Zhijingang campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China)], E-mail: chchoy@eee.hku.hk

    2009-09-01

    Spontaneous emission (SE) rate and the fluorescence efficiency of a bare fluorescing nanoparticle (NP) and the NP with a silver nanoshell are analyzed rigorously by using a classical electromagnetic approach with the consideration of the nonlocal effect of the silver nano-shell. The dependences of the SE rate and the fluorescence efficiency on the core-shell structure are carefully studied and the physical interpretations of the results are addressed. The results show that the SE rate of a bare NP is much slower than that in the infinite medium by almost an order of magnitude and consequently the fluorescence efficiency is usually low. However, by encapsulating the NP with a silver shell, highly efficient fluorescence can be achieved as a result of a large Purcell enhancement and high out-coupling efficiency (OQE) for a well-designed core-shell structure. We also show that a higher SE rate may not offer a larger fluorescence efficiency since the fluorescence efficiency not only depends on the internal quantum yield but also the OQE.

  10. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  11. Effect of drug loading method against drug dissolution mechanism of encapsulated amoxicillin trihydrate in matrix of semi-IPN chitosan-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) hydrogel with KHCO3 as pore forming agent in floating drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimantari, Khansa; Budianto, Emil

    2018-04-01

    Helicobacterpylori infection can be treated using trihydrate amoxicillin. However, this treatment is not effective enough, as the conventional dosage treatment has a relatively short retention time in the human stomach. In the present study, the amoxicillin trihydrate drug will be encapsulated into a semi-IPN K-PNVP hydrogel matrix with 7,5% KHCO3 as a pore-forming agent. The encapsulated drug is tested with in vitro method to see the efficiency of its encapsulation and dissolution. The hydrogel in situ loading produces an encapsulation efficiency value. The values of the encapsulation efficiency are 95% and 98%, while post loading hydrogel yields an encapsulation efficiency value is 77% and the dissolution is 84%. The study of drug dissolution mechanism was done by using mathematical equation model to know its kinetics and its mechanism of dissolution. The post loading hydrogel was done by using thefirst-order model, while hydrogel in situ loading used Higuchi model. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model shows that post loading hydrogel dissolution mechanism is a mixture of diffusion and erosion, and in situ loading hydrogel in the form of diffusion. It is supported by the results of hydrogel characterization, before and after dissolution test with an optical microscope. The results of the optical microscope show that the hydrogel surface before and after the dissolution tested for both methods shows the change becomes rougher.

  12. Encapsulation of albumin in self-assembled layer-by-layer microcapsules: comparison of co-precipitation and adsorption techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labala, Suman; Mandapalli, Praveen Kumar; Bhatnagar, Shubhmita; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to prepare and characterize polymeric self-assembled layer-by-layer microcapsules (LbL-MC) to deliver a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). The aim is to compare the BSA encapsulation in LbL-MC using co-precipitation and adsorption methods. In co-precipitation method, BSA was co-precipitated with growing calcium carbonate particles to form a core template. Later, poly(styrene sulfonate) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) were sequentially adsorbed onto the CaCO3 templates. In adsorption method, preformed LbL-MC were incubated with BSA and encapsulation efficiency is optimized for pH and salt concentration. Free and BSA-encapsulated LbL-MC were characterized using Zetasizer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimeter. Later, in vitro release studies were performed using dialysis membrane method at pH 4, 7.4 and 9. Results from Zetasizer and SEM showed free LbL-MC with an average size and zeta-potential of 2.0 ± 0.6 μm and 8.1 ± 1.9 mV, respectively. Zeta-potential of BSA-loaded LbL-MC was (-)7.4 ± 0.7 mV and (-)5.7 ± 1.0 mV for co-precipitation and adsorption methods, respectively. In adsorption method, BSA encapsulation in LbL-MC was found to be greater at pH 6.0 and 0.2 M NaCl. Co-precipitation method provided four-fold greater encapsulation efficiency (%) of BSA in LbL-MC compared with adsorption method. At pH 4, the BSA release from LbL-MC was extended up to 120 h. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that BSA encapsulated in LBL-MC through co-precipitation is stable toward trypsin treatment. In conclusion, co-precipitation method provided greater encapsulation of BSA in LbL-MC. Furthermore, LbL-MC can be developed as carriers for pH-controlled protein delivery.

  13. Folic acid-targeted disulfide-based cross-linking micelle for enhanced drug encapsulation stability and site-specific drug delivery against tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yumin Zhang,1,* Junhui Zhou,2,* Cuihong Yang,1 Weiwei Wang,3 Liping Chu,1 Fan Huang,1 Qiang Liu,1 Liandong Deng,2 Deling Kong,3 Jianfeng Liu,1 Jinjian Liu1 1Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, 2Department of Polymer Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, 3Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biomaterial Research, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally in this work Abstract: Although the shortcomings of small molecular antitumor drugs were efficiently improved by being entrapped into nanosized vehicles, premature drug release and insufficient tumor targeting demand innovative approaches that boost the stability and tumor responsiveness of drug-loaded nanocarriers. Here, we show the use of the core cross-linking method to generate a micelle with enhanced drug encapsulation ability and sensitivity of drug release in tumor. This kind of micelle could increase curcumin (Cur delivery to HeLa cells in vitro and improve tumor accumulation in vivo. We designed and synthesized the core cross-linked micelle (CCM with polyethylene glycol and folic acid-polyethylene glycol as the hydrophilic units, pyridyldisulfide as the cross-linkable and hydrophobic unit, and disulfide bond as the cross-linker. CCM showed spherical shape with a diameter of 91.2 nm by the characterization of dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. Attributed to the core cross-linking, drug-loaded CCM displayed higher Nile Red or Cur-encapsulated stability and better sensitivity to glutathione than noncross-linked micelle (NCM. Cellular uptake and in vitro antitumor studies proved the enhanced endocytosis and better cytotoxicity of CCM-Cur against

  14. Graphene layer encapsulated metal nanoparticles as a new type of non-precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Zhong, Lijie; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2016-01-01

    Cheap and efficient non-precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction have been a focus of research in the field of low-temperature fuel cells. This review is devoted to a brief summary of the recent work on a new type of catalysts, i.e., the graphene layer encapsulated metal nanoparticles....... The discussion is focused on the synthesis, structure, mechanism, performance, and further research....

  15. Fabrication of hemispherical liquid encapsulated structures based on droplet molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Hiroki; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-12-01

    We have developed and demonstrated a method for forming spherical structures of a thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane encapsulating a liquid. Liquid encapsulation can enhance the performance of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices by providing deformability and improved dielectric properties. Parylene deposition and wafer bonding are applied to encapsulate liquid into a MEMS device. In parylene deposition, a parylene membrane is directly formed onto a liquid droplet. However, since the parylene membrane is stiff, the membrane is fragile. Although wafer bonding can encapsulate liquid between two substrates, the surface of the fabricated structure is normally flat. We propose a new liquid encapsulation method by dispensing liquid droplets. At first, a 20 μl PDMS droplet is dispensed on ethylene glycol. A 70 μl glycerin droplet is dispensed into a PDMS casting solution layer. The droplet forms a layer on heated ethylene glycol. Glycerin and ethylene glycol are chosen for their high boiling points. Additionally, a glycerin droplet is dispensed on the layer and surrounded by a thin PDMS casting solution film. The film is baked for 1 h at 75 °C. As the result, a structure encapsulating a liquid in a flexible PDMS membrane is obtained. We investigate the effects of the volume, surface tension, and guide thickness on the shape of the formed structures. We also evaluated the effect of the structure diameter on miniaturization. The structure can be adapted for various functions by changing the encapsulated liquid. We fabricated a stiffness-tunable structure by dispensing a magnetorheoligical fluid droplet with a stiffness that can be changed by an external magnetic field. We also confirmed that the proposed structure can produce stiffness differences that are distinguishable by humans.

  16. Polymer encapsulated dopaminergic cell lines as "alternative neural grafts".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, C B; Greene, L A; Tresco, P A; Winn, S R; Aebischer, P

    1990-01-01

    Our preliminary findings (Jaeger et al., 1988; Aebischer et al., 1989; Tresco et al., 1989) and the studies in progress show that encapsulated dopaminergic cell lines survive enclosure within a semi-permeable membrane. The encapsulated cells remained viable for extended time periods when maintained in vitro. Moreover, encapsulated PC12 and T28 cells have the potential to survive following their implantation into the forebrain of rats. Cell lines are essentially "immortal" because they continue to divide indefinitely. This property allows perpetual "self-renewal" of a given cell population. However, the capacity of continuous uncontrolled cell division may also lead to tumor formation. This in fact is the case for unencapsulated PC12 cell implants placed into the brain of young Sprague Dawley rats (Jaeger, 1985). Cell line encapsulation has the potential to prevent tumor growth (Jaeger et al., 1988). Survival for 6 months in vitro suggests that encapsulation does not preclude long-term maintenance of an homogeneous cell line like PC12 cells. The presence of mitotic figures in the capsules further supports the likelihood of propagation and self renewal of the encapsulated population. Another significant property of cell lines is that they consist of a single, genetically homogeneous cell type. They do not require specific synaptic interactions for their survival. In the case of PC12 and T28 lines, the cells synthesize and release neurotransmitters. Our data show that PC12 and T28 cells continue to release dopamine spontaneously and to express specific transmitters and enzymes following encapsulation. Thus, cell lines such as these may constitute relatively simple "neural implants" exerting their function via humoral release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Encapsulation of ionic electroactive polymers: reducing the interaction with environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakson, P.; Aabloo, A.; Tamm, T.

    2016-04-01

    Ionic electro-active polymer (iEAP) actuators are composite materials that change their mechanical properties in response to external electrical stimulus. The interest in these devices is mainly driven by their capability to generate biomimetic movements, and their potential use in soft robotics. The driving voltage of an iEAP-actuator (0.5… 3 V) is at least an order of magnitude lower than that needed for other types of electroactive polymers. To apply iEAP-actuators in potential real-world applications, the capability of operating in different environments (open air, different solvents) must be available. In their natural form, the iEAP-actuators are capable of interacting with the surrounding environment (evaporation of solvent from the electrolyte solution, ion or solvent exchange, humidity effects), therefore, for prevention of unpredictable behavior of the actuator and the contamination of the environment, encapsulation of the actuator is needed. The environmental contamination aspect of the encapsulation material is substantial when selecting an applicable encapsulant. The suitable encapsulant should form thin films, be light in weight, elastic, fit tightly, low cost, and easily reproducible. The main goal of the present study is to identify and evaluate the best potential encapsulation techniques for iEAPactuators. Various techniques like thin film on liquid coating, dip coating, hot pressing, hot rolling; and several materials like polydimethylsiloxane, polyurethane, nitrocellulose, paraffin-composite-films were investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of the combinations of the above mentioned techniques and materials are discussed. Successfully encapsulated iEAP-actuators gained durability and were stably operable for long periods of time under ambient conditions. The encapsulation process also increased the stability of the iEAP-actuator by minimizing the environment effects. This makes controlling iEAP-actuators more straight-forward and

  18. A formulation to encapsulate nootkatone for tick control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behle, Robert W; Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Bharadwaj, Anuja; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-11-01

    Nootkatone is a component of grapefruit oil that is toxic to the disease-vectoring tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, but unfortunately causes phytotoxicity to treated plants and has a short residual activity due to volatility. We prepared a lignin-encapsulated nootkatone formulation to compare with a previously used emulsifiable formulation for volatility, plant phytotoxicity, and toxicity to unfed nymphs of I. scapularis. Volatility of nootkatone was measured directly by trapping nootkatone vapor in a closed system and indirectly by measuring nootkatone residue on treated filter paper after exposure to simulated sunlight (Xenon). After 24 h in the closed system, traps collected only 15% of the nootkatone applied as the encapsulated formulation compared with 40% applied as the emulsifiable formulation. After a 1-h light exposure, the encapsulated formulation retained 92% of the nootkatone concentration compared with only 26% retained by the emulsifiable formulation. For plant phytotoxicity, cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., leaves treated with the encapsulated formulation expressed less necrosis, retaining greater leaf weight compared with leaves treated with the emusifiable formulation. The nootkatone in the emulsifiable formulation was absorbed by cabbage and oat, Avena sativa L., plants (41 and 60% recovered 2 h after application, respectively), as opposed to 100% recovery from the plants treated with encapsulated nootkatone. Using a treated vial technique, encapsulated nootkatone was significantly more toxic to I. scapularis nymphs (LC50 = 20 ng/cm2) compared with toxicity of the emulsifiable formulation (LC50 = 35 ng/cm2). Thus, the encapsulation of nootkatone improved toxicity for tick control, reduced nootkatone volatility, and reduced plant phytotoxicity.

  19. Self-powered Imbibing Microfluidic Pump by Liquid Encapsulation: SIMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Tadej; Park, Younggeun; Vencelj, Matjaž; Jenko, Monika; Lee, Luke P

    2014-11-21

    Reliable, autonomous, internally self-powered microfluidic pumps are in critical demand for rapid point-of-care (POC) devices, integrated molecular-diagnostic platforms, and drug delivery systems. Here we report on a Self-powered Imbibing Microfluidic Pump by Liquid Encapsulation (SIMPLE), which is disposable, autonomous, easy to use and fabricate, robust, and cost efficient, as a solution for self-powered microfluidic POC devices. The imbibition pump introduces the working liquid which is sucked into a porous material (paper) upon activation. The suction of the working liquid creates a reduced pressure in the analytical channel and induces the sequential sample flow into the microfluidic circuits. It requires no external power or control and can be simply activated by a fingertip press. The flow rate can be programmed by defining the shape of utilized porous material: by using three different paper shapes with circular section angles 20°, 40° and 60°, three different volume flow rates of 0.07 μL s(-1), 0.12 μL s(-1) and 0.17 μL s(-1) are demonstrated at 200 μm × 600 μm channel cross-section. We established the SIMPLE pumping of 17 μL of sample; however, the sample volume can be increased to several hundreds of μL. To demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of SIMPLE, we used a simple, robust and cheap foil-laminating fabrication technique. The SIMPLE can be integrated into hydrophilic or hydrophobic materials-based microfluidic POC devices. Since it is also applicable to large-scale manufacturing processes, we anticipate that a new chapter of a cost effective, disposable, autonomous POC diagnostic chip is addressed with this technical innovation.

  20. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…