WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher efficiency active

  1. Efficiency assessment models of higher education institution staff activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Dyusekeyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the necessity of improvement of university staff incentive system under the conditions of competition in the field of higher education, the necessity to develop a separate model for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the department heads. The authors analysed the methods for assessing production function of units. The advantage of the application of the methods to assess the effectiveness of border economic structures in the field of higher education is shown. The choice of the data envelopment analysis method to solve the problem has proved. The model for evaluating of university departments activity on the basis of the DEAmethodology has developed. On the basis of operating in Russia, Kazakhstan and other countries universities staff pay systems the structure of the criteria system for university staff activity evaluation has been designed. For clarification and specification of the departments activity efficiency criteria a strategic map has been developed that allowed us to determine the input and output parameters of the model. DEA-methodology using takes into account a large number of input and output parameters, increases the assessment objectivity by excluding experts, receives interim data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the evaluated object.

  2. Considerations for higher efficiency and productivity in research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Diego A; Moore, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    There are several factors that are known to affect research productivity; some of them imply the need for large financial investments and others are related to work styles. There are some articles that provide suggestions for early career scientists (PhD students and postdocs) but few publications are oriented to professors about scientific leadership. As academic mentoring might be useful at all levels of experience, in this note we suggest several key considerations for higher efficiency and productivity in academic and research activities. More research is needed into the main work style features that differentiate highly productive scientists and research groups, as some of them could be innate and others could be transferable. As funding agencies, universities and research centers invest large amounts of money in order to have a better scientific productivity, a deeper understanding of these factors will be of high academic and societal impact.

  3. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    failure prone capacitors from the power stage. Q-Sync’s simpler electronics also result in higher efficiency because it eliminates the power required by the PCB to perform the obviated power conversions and PWM processes after line synchronous operating speed is reached in the first 5 seconds of operation, after which the PWM circuits drop out and a much less energy intensive “pass through” circuit takes over, allowing the grid-supplied AC power to sustain the motor’s ongoing operation.

  4. A Matching Activity When Entering Higher Education: Ongoing Guidance for the Students or Efficiency Instrument for the School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorff, Kariene; Faber, Marike; Staman, Laura

    2017-01-01

    In order to lower dropout rates and stimulate student success in higher education, the Dutch government implemented a new law demanding that every higher education institute offer a matching activity to applying students. This article evaluates how students and teachers experience this matching activity. Data were collected in a Dutch university…

  5. Cost Efficiency in Public Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John

    This study used the frontier cost function framework to examine cost efficiency in public higher education. The frontier cost function estimates the minimum predicted cost for producing a given amount of output. Data from the annual Almanac issues of the "Chronicle of Higher Education" were used to calculate state level enrollments at two-year and…

  6. Retrofitting the 5045 Klystron for Higher Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Aaron; Fazio, Michael; Haase, Andy; Jongewaard, Erik; Kemp, Mark; Neilson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The 5045 klystron has been in production and accelerating particles at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for over 25 years. Although the design has undergone some changes there are still significant opportunities for improvement in performance. Retrofitting the 5045 for higher efficiencies and a more mono-energetic spent beam profile is presented.

  7. Phosphorus Processing—Potentials for Higher Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Hermann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and the Paris Agreement (COP21 by virtually all United Nations, producing more with less is imperative. In this context, phosphorus processing, despite its high efficiency compared to other steps in the value chain, needs to be revisited by science and industry. During processing, phosphorus is lost to phosphogypsum, disposed of in stacks globally piling up to 3–4 billion tons and growing by about 200 million tons per year, or directly discharged to the sea. Eutrophication, acidification, and long-term pollution are the environmental impacts of both practices. Economic and regulatory framework conditions determine whether the industry continues wasting phosphorus, pursues efficiency improvements or stops operations altogether. While reviewing current industrial practice and potentials for increasing processing efficiency with lower impact, the article addresses potentially conflicting goals of low energy and material use as well as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA as a tool for evaluating the relative impacts of improvement strategies. Finally, options by which corporations could pro-actively and credibly demonstrate phosphorus stewardship as well as options by which policy makers could enforce improvement without impairing business locations are discussed.

  8. Phosphorus Processing—Potentials for Higher Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig Hermann; Fabian Kraus; Ralf Hermann

    2018-01-01

    In the aftermath of the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement (COP21) by virtually all United Nations, producing more with less is imperative. In this context, phosphorus processing, despite its high efficiency compared to other steps in the value chain, needs to be revisited by science and industry. During processing, phosphorus is lost to phosphogypsum, disposed of in stacks globally piling up to 3–4 billion tons and growing by about 200 million ...

  9. Higher Education and Efficiency in Europe: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency of higher education in equalizing the feasible wages obtained for men and women in the labour market. To do that, It is estimated two stochastic frontiers. The first one measures the effect of higher education inside the group of men and women for six European countries. The results indicate that in Denmark,…

  10. IMPACT OF ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION FUNDING POLICY ON UNIVERSITY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETAN Georgiana Camelia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of higher education funding policy and university operating efficiency are hot points on the actual public agenda worldwide as the pressures exercised upon the public resources increased, especially in the aftermath of the last economic crisis. Concerned with the improvement of the funding mechanism through which government allocates the public funds in order to meet the national core objectives within the area of higher education, the policy makers adjusted the funding policy by diversifying the criteria used in distributing the funds to public universities. Thus, the aim of this research is to underline both the impact and the consequences the public funding patterns of higher education have on the relative efficiency of public funded higher education institutions, across time. Moreover, the research conducted aims to determine whether the changes occurred within the Romanian public funding methodology of higher education institutions improved the relative efficiency scores of public funded universities, before and after the economic crisis of 2008. Thus, on one hand we have underlined the changes brought to the Romanian public funding mechanism of higher education during the years of 2007, 2009 and 2010 compared to the year of 2006, using the content analysis, and on the other hand we assessed and compared the relative efficiency scores of each selected public funded university using a multiple input - multiple output linear programming model, by employing the Data Envelopment Analysis technique. The findings of the research undertaken emphasized that a more performance oriented funding mechanism improves the efficiency scores of public universities. The results of the research undertaken could be used either by the policy makers within the area of higher education or by the administrative management of public universities in order to correlate the funding with the results obtained and/or the objectives assumed by both the

  11. ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furková, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of efficiency and ranking of higher education institutions is very popular and important topic of public policy. The assessment of the quality of higher education institutions can stimulate positive changes in higher education. In this study we focus on assessment and ranking of Slovak economic faculties. We try to apply two different quantitative approaches for evaluation Slovak economic faculties - Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA as an econometric approach and PROMETHEE II as multicriteria decision making method. Via SFA we examine faculties’ success from scientific point of view, i.e. their success in area of publications and citations. Next part of analysis deals with assessing of Slovak economic sciences faculties from overall point of view through the multicriteria decision making method. In the analysis we employ panel data covering 11 economic faculties observed over the period of 5 years. Our main aim is to point out other quantitative approaches to efficiency estimation of higher education institutions.

  12. Energy Efficiency of Higher Education Buildings: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nelson; Pereira, Luísa Dias; Ferreira, João; Conceição, Pedro; da Silva, Patrícia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to propose an energy efficiency plan (with technical and behavioural improvement measures) for a Portuguese higher education building--the Teaching Building of the Faculty of Economics of the University of Coimbra (FEUC). Design/methodology/approach: The study was developed in the context of both the "Green…

  13. IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM ACTIVITIES OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Sultalieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the article is the improvement of quality assessment system of higher education institutions in the aspect of management. The problems of quality improvement are revealed and classified. The analysis of criteria assessment sets used to define the efficiency of higher education institutions activity is carried out. The components of quality of higher education institutions activity are specified. The structural model of quality assessment system of higher education institutions activity is offered. The analysis of macro environment of a university based on the method of strategic management is carried out, i.e. PEST analysis. As a result of the research a new model of macro criteria model of quality assessment system of higher education institutions, characterizing quality management as an approach to university efficiency is offered, moreover, this system can define the level of its competitiveness in the aspect of quality management. 

  14. Energy efficiency interventions in UK higher education institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altan, Hasim

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an insight into energy efficiency interventions studies, focusing on issues arising in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) in particular. Based on a review of the context for energy efficiency and carbon reduction programmes in the UK and the trends in higher education sector, existing external and internal policies and initiatives and their relevant issues are extensively discussed. To explore the efficacy of some internal intervention strategies, such as technical, non-technical and management interventions, a survey was conducted among UK higher education institutions between February and April 2008. Consultation responses show that there are a relatively high percentage of institutions (83%) that have embarked on both technical and non-technical initiatives, which is a demonstration to the joined-up approach in such area. Major barriers for intervention studies are also identified, including lack of methodology, non-clarity of energy demand and consumption issues, difficulty in establishing assessment boundaries, problems with regards to indices and their effectiveness and so on. Besides establishing clear targets for carbon reductions within the sector, it is concluded that it is important to develop systems for effectively measuring and evaluating the impact of different policies, regulations and schemes in the future as the first step to explore. - Research Highlights: → The research provides an insight into energy efficiency interventions studies, focusing particularly on issues arising in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). → Based on a review of the context for energy efficiency and carbon reduction programmes in the UK and the trends in higher education sector, existing external and internal policies and initiatives, and their relevant issues are extensively discussed. → To explore the efficacy of some internal intervention strategies, such as technical, non-technical and management interventions, a survey was conducted

  15. Marketing activities of higher education institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Varađanin Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Public sector marketing is a modern-day scientific discipline which is getting more and more attention. Institutions of higher education provide a specific kind of services to their users, which makes these institutions a part of the public sector. Due to dynamic changes in the environment, the demands and needs of higher education institution's users change, which makes it necessary to monitor these changes through certain marketing activities and adjust to them in order to satisfy the users...

  16. ICT energy efficiency in higher education. Continuous measurement and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ter Hofte, H. [Novay, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Power consumption of information and communications technology (ICT) is rising rapidly worldwide. Reducing (the growth in) energy demand helps to achieve sustainability goals in the area of energy resource depletion, energy security, economy, and ecology. Various governments and industry consortia have set out policies and agreements to reduce the (growth in) demand for energy. In the MJA3 agreements in the Netherlands, various organizations, including all 14 universities and 39 universities of applied sciences pledged to achieve 30% increase in energy efficiency in 2020 compared to 2005. In this report, we argue that using the number of kilowatt-hours of final electricity used for ICT per enrolled student per day (kWh/st/d), should be used as the primary metric for ICT energy efficiency in higher education. For other uses of electricity than ICT in higher education, we express electricity use in kilowatthours per person per day (kWh/p/d). Applying continuous monitoring and management of ICT energy is one approach one could take to increase ICT energy efficiency in education. In households, providing direct (i.e. real-time) feedback about energy use typically results in 5-15% energy savings, whereas indirect feedback (provided some time after consumption occurs), results in less energy savings, typically 0-10%. Continuous measurement of ICT electricity use can be done in a variety of ways. In this report, we distinguish and describe four major measurement approaches: (1) In-line meters, which require breaking the electrical circuit to install the meter; (2) clamp-on-meters, which can be wrapped around a wire; (3) add-ons to existing energy meters, which use analog or digital ports of existing energy meters; (4) software-only measurement, which uses existing network interfaces, protocols and APIs. A measurement approach can be used at one or more aggregation levels: at building level (to measure all electrical energy used in a building, e.g. a datacenter); at

  17. Marketing activities of higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varađanin Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public sector marketing is a modern-day scientific discipline which is getting more and more attention. Institutions of higher education provide a specific kind of services to their users, which makes these institutions a part of the public sector. Due to dynamic changes in the environment, the demands and needs of higher education institution's users change, which makes it necessary to monitor these changes through certain marketing activities and adjust to them in order to satisfy the users' needs. Each higher education institution sets its own goals which, broadly speaking, are to meet their own needs, the needs of students and the society as a whole. Therefore, when formulating a strategy for achieving the objectives of higher education institutions, it is necessary to have timely information from the environment. The modern approach to business puts forward the service users' needs. When it comes to institutions of higher education, the users are primarily students, who thus get the most attention. Keeping this in mind, we have conducted a research among students in order to identify the choice factors influencing their higher education institution selection process. The results obtained should provide guidelines for creating an adequate marketing mix in order to gain competitive advantage on the market for higher education. In the research descriptive and comparative methods were used. In the practical part of the research, survey technique was applied by means of a non-standardized questionnaire. The research results imply that the analysis of the factors influencing the process of selecting the higher education institution enables the creation of an adequate combination of instruments in a marketing mix which can then be used as an instrument for gaining competitive advantage.

  18. Combining activity and economic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    “hot” concepts in Danish long-term care is (everyday-) rehabilitation of the frail elderly, which several municipalities have tried out in pilot projects and otherwise introduced over the last couple of years. The paper draws upon qualitative interviews with administrative leaders and local politicians...... kind of all-in-one solution everyone is profiting of: The older people would profit from a higher quality of living, that enables a more active and self-determined life. The municipalities (i.e. the public system) would be saving money, because the frail older people would need less care services...

  19. MODEL TESTING OF LOW PRESSURE HYDRAULIC TURBINE WITH HIGHER EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Nedbalsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A design of low pressure turbine has been developed and it is covered by an invention patent and a useful model patent. Testing of the hydraulic turbine model has been carried out when it was installed on a vertical shaft. The efficiency was equal to 76–78 % that exceeds efficiency of the known low pressure blade turbines. 

  20. HTR plus modern turbine technology for higher efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Kugeler, K.

    1996-01-01

    The recent efficiency race for natural gas fired power plants with gas-plus steam-turbine-cycle, is shortly reviewed. The question 'can the HTR compete with high efficiencies?' is answered: Yes, it can - in principle. The gas-plus steam-turbine cycle, also called combi-cycle, is proposed to be taken into consideration here. A comparative study on the efficiency potential is made; it yields 54.5% at 1,050 deg. C gas turbine-inlet temperature. The mechanisms of release versus temperature in the HTR are summarized from the safety report of the HTR MODUL. A short reference is made to the experiences from the HTR-Helium Turbine Project HHT, which was performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1968 to 1981. (author). 8 figs,. 1 tab

  1. HTR plus modern turbine technology for higher efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert, H; Kugeler, K [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1996-08-01

    The recent efficiency race for natural gas fired power plants with gas-plus steam-turbine-cycle, is shortly reviewed. The question `can the HTR compete with high efficiencies?` is answered: Yes, it can - in principle. The gas-plus steam-turbine cycle, also called combi-cycle, is proposed to be taken into consideration here. A comparative study on the efficiency potential is made; it yields 54.5% at 1,050 deg. C gas turbine-inlet temperature. The mechanisms of release versus temperature in the HTR are summarized from the safety report of the HTR MODUL. A short reference is made to the experiences from the HTR-Helium Turbine Project HHT, which was performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1968 to 1981. (author). 8 figs,. 1 tab.

  2. Improving extraction efficiency of the third integer resonant extraction using higher order multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tomizawa, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-03-09

    The new accelerator complex at J-PARC will operate with both high energy and very high intensity proton beams. With a design slow extraction efficiency of greater than 99% this facility will still be depositing significant beam power onto accelerator components [2]. To achieve even higher efficiencies requires some new ideas. The design of the extraction system and the accelerator lattice structure leaves little room for improvement using conventional techniques. In this report we will present one method for improving the slow extraction efficiency at J-PARC by adding duodecapoles or octupoles to the slow extraction system. We will review the theory of resonant extraction, describe simulation methods, and present the results of detailed simulations. From our investigations we find that we can improve extraction efficiency and thereby reduce the level of residual activation in the accelerator components and surrounding shielding.

  3. COBRE Research Workshop on Higher Education: Equity and Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Univ., IL.

    This document comprises 8 papers presented at the COBRE Research Workshop on Higher Education. The papers are: (1) "Schooling and Equality from Generation to Generation;" (2) "Time Series Changes in Personal Income Inequality: The United States Experience, 1939 to 1985;" (3) "Education, Income, and Ability;" (4) "Proposals for Financing Higher…

  4. Exploiting Software Tool Towards Easier Use And Higher Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, G. H.; Su, J. T.; Deng, Y. Y.

    2006-08-01

    In developing countries, using data based on instrument made by themselves in maximum extent is very important. It is not only related to maximizing science returns upon prophase investment -- deep accumulations in every aspects but also science output. Based on the idea, we are exploiting a software (called THDP: Tool of Huairou Data Processing). It is used for processing a series of issues, which is met necessary in processing data. This paper discusses its designed purpose, functions, method and specialities. The primary vehicle for general data interpretation is through various techniques of data visualization, techniques of interactive. In the software, we employed Object Oriented approach. It is appropriate to the vehicle. it is imperative that the approach provide not only function, but do so in as convenient a fashion as possible. As result of the software exploiting, it is not only easier to learn data processing for beginner and more convenienter to need further improvement for senior but also increase greatly efficiency in every phrases include analyse, parameter adjusting, result display. Under frame of virtual observatory, for developing countries, we should study more and newer related technologies, which can advance ability and efficiency in science research, like the software we are developing

  5. An efficient higher order family of root finders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Ljiljana D.; Rancic, Lidija; Petkovic, Miodrag S.

    2008-06-01

    A one parameter family of iterative methods for the simultaneous approximation of simple complex zeros of a polynomial, based on a cubically convergent Hansen-Patrick's family, is studied. We show that the convergence of the basic family of the fourth order can be increased to five and six using Newton's and Halley's corrections, respectively. Since these corrections use the already calculated values, the computational efficiency of the accelerated methods is significantly increased. Further acceleration is achieved by applying the Gauss-Seidel approach (single-step mode). One of the most important problems in solving nonlinear equations, the construction of initial conditions which provide both the guaranteed and fast convergence, is considered for the proposed accelerated family. These conditions are computationally verifiable; they depend only on the polynomial coefficients, its degree and initial approximations, which is of practical importance. Some modifications of the considered family, providing the computation of multiple zeros of polynomials and simple zeros of a wide class of analytic functions, are also studied. Numerical examples demonstrate the convergence properties of the presented family of root-finding methods.

  6. Sustainability in Chinese Higher Educational Institutions’ Social Science Research: A Performance Interface toward Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianmei Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability issues in higher educational institutions’ (HEIs research, especially in the social science field, have attracted increasing levels of attention in higher education administration in recent decades as HEIs are confronted with a growing pressure worldwide to increase the efficiency of their research activities under a limited volume and relatively equitable division of public funding resources. This paper introduces a theoretical analysis framework based on a data envelopment analysis, separating the social science research process into a foundation stage and a construction stage, and then projecting each HEI into certain quadrants to form several clusters according to their overall and stage efficiencies and corresponding Malmquist Productivity Indices. Furthermore, the interfaces are formed in each cluster as feasible potential improvement directions. The empirical results in detail are demonstrated from a data set of Chinese HEIs in Jiangsu Province over the Twelfth Five-Year period as offering a closer approximation to the “China social science research best practice”.

  7. Towards Efficient Search for Activity Trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Kai; Shang, Shuo; Yuan, Jing

    2013-01-01

    , recent proliferation in location-based web applications (e.g., Foursquare, Facebook) has given rise to large amounts of trajectories associated with activity information, called activity trajectory. In this paper, we study the problem of efficient similarity search on activity trajectory database. Given...

  8. Achieving higher efficiency of production through knowledge management via social capital management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Plchová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows a new approach – how to reach higher efficiency in the production from knowledge management via managing social capital through measurement, motivation and stimulation. The test in a real company on the Toyota system implementation is de-scribed. The active involvement of people is an important part of the Toyota system success. This is obvious in Japan but creates a big problem in Europe. These problems were tested in order to answer the following questions: 1. Is it possible to measure the social system level before the application of the system?, 2. Is it possible to evaluate the necessary level of the social system for successful implementation in advance?, 3. Is it possible to cultivate the social system to the desired level? We try to answer all of these questions adopting the Kopčaj Spiral Management approach. The practical results on an existing company are presented together with managerial recommendations.

  9. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness, efficiency and value for money are central concerns for the higher education sector. In England, decisions made by the current Government will effect a radical change in the funding for teaching. Institutions will be managing a reduction in public funding for teaching and the transition to the new system of graduate contributions,…

  10. Efficient sensor selection for active information fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongmian; Ji, Qiang

    2010-06-01

    In our previous paper, we formalized an active information fusion framework based on dynamic Bayesian networks to provide active information fusion. This paper focuses on a central issue of active information fusion, i.e., the efficient identification of a subset of sensors that are most decision relevant and cost effective. Determining the most informative and cost-effective sensors requires an evaluation of all the possible subsets of sensors, which is computationally intractable, particularly when information-theoretic criterion such as mutual information is used. To overcome this challenge, we propose a new quantitative measure for sensor synergy based on which a sensor synergy graph is constructed. Using the sensor synergy graph, we first introduce an alternative measure to multisensor mutual information for characterizing the sensor information gain. We then propose an approximated nonmyopic sensor selection method that can efficiently and near-optimally select a subset of sensors for active fusion. The simulation study demonstrates both the performance and the efficiency of the proposed sensor selection method.

  11. Implementation of ICT in Higher Education as Interacting Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of ICT in higher education is not a trivial process. It is however a process leading to a number of challenges and problems. The paper develops a theoretical model of the implementation of ICT in higher education based on activity theory and on a case study in a Danish university...... activity and an educational activity. Based on the model and case study the paper suggest a framework of challenges that must be met for an implementation to succeed....

  12. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  13. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  14. Achieving Efficient Spectrum Usage in Passive and Active Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaiyi

    Increasing demand for supporting more wireless services with higher performance and reliability within the frequency bands that are most conducive to operating cost-effective cellular and mobile broadband is aggravating current electromagnetic spectrum congestion. This situation motivates technology and management innovation to increase the efficiency of spectral use. If primary-secondary spectrum sharing can be shown possible without compromising (or while even improving) performance in an existing application, opportunities for efficiency may be realizable by making the freed spectrum available for commercial use. While both active and passive sensing systems are vitally important for many public good applications, opportunities for increasing the efficiency of spectrum use can be shown to exist for both systems. This dissertation explores methods and technologies for remote sensing systems that enhance spectral efficiency and enable dynamic spectrum access both within and outside traditionally allocated bands.

  15. Activity-Based Costing Systems for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Dennis H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines traditional costing models utilized in higher education and pinpoints shortcomings related to proper identification of costs. Describes activity-based costing systems as a superior alternative for cost identification, measurement, and allocation. (MLF)

  16. The antimicrobial efficiency of silver activated sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Đolić, Maja B.; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N.; Štrbac, Svetlana B.; Rakočević, Zlatko Lj.; Veljović, Đorđe N.; Dimitrijević, Suzana I.; Rajaković, Ljubinka V.

    2015-01-01

    aqueous phase and microbial cell removal caused by the Ag + -ions from the solid phase (activated surface sites). The results indicated that disinfection process significantly depended on the microbial-activated sites interactions on the modified surface. The chemical state of the activating agent had crucial impact to the inhibition rate. The characterization of the native and modified sorbents was performed by X-ray diffraction technique, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The concentration of adsorbed and released ions was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial efficiency of activated sorbents was related not only to the concentration of the activating agent, but moreover on the surface characteristics of the material, which affects the distribution and the accessibility of the activating agent.

  17. Assessment of participation in higher education team working activities

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Andrés, María Angeles; García-Casas, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Since among the competences which are most valued by engineering corporations are the ability to make decisions, the capacity for teamwork, one’s initiative and the capacity for solving problems together with an efficient communication, an experience based on active learning and team-working in which participants had to put them into practice was carried out. Before starting the experience with an active learning strategy, students had to decide on what they understood by participation i...

  18. The economical efficiency of private investments in higher education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maksyutina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the economical efficiency of investments in higher education in modern conditions of Russia. The beginning of the article includes a characteristic of the existing empiric research concerning the efficiency of investments in human capital assets. Further the author of the article introduces the results of pay off calculation of private investments in higher education. The result of the research was that in modern conditions of Russia investments in higher education are exceedingly advantageous. High norms of higher education feedback and short period of pay off of these investments explain the reasons of continuously growing demand for it on the part of the population, especially young people. The article proves that the level of population education in Russia is quite high, however accumulated human capital asset is used insufficiently effective. Many people with higher education are forced to take jobs not requiring higher education.  Sharp shift in educational behavior of Russian people raises new demands to labor market. Graduates of higher educational institutions, appearing on a labor market, form qualitatively different demands towards it. But tempo of Russian economics development today can not provide job positions for all graduates of higher educational institutions. That is why structural change of economics is needed.

  19. CIGS cells with metallized front contact: Longer cells and higher efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Frijters, C.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the benefit of a patterned metallization on top of a transparent conductive oxide in CIGS thin-film solar panels. It was found that cells with a grid have a higher efficiency compared to cells with only a TCO. This was observed for all cell lengths used. Furthermore, metallic

  20. Efficiency, Costs, Rankings and Heterogeneity: The Case of US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Johnes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Among the major trends in the higher education (HE) sector, the development of rankings as a policy and managerial tool is of particular relevance. However, despite the diffusion of these instruments, it is still not clear how they relate with traditional performance measures, like unit costs and efficiency scores. In this paper, we estimate a…

  1. Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public Transit Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into transit- and non–transit-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between transit users and nonusers, between less and more frequent transit users, and between transit and nontransit days for transit users. Results. Transit users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–transit-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent transit users had more walking time than least frequent transit users. Higher physical activity levels for transit users were observed only on transit days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with transit use. Conclusions. Because transit use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in transit access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142

  2. Can More Environmental Information Disclosure Lead to Higher Eco-Efficiency? Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantuan Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the impact of pollution information transparency index (PITI on eco-efficiency using a novel panel dataset covering 109 key environmental protection prefecture-level cities in China over the period 2008–2015. We apply an extended data envelopment analysis (DEA model, simultaneously incorporating metafrontier, undesirable outputs and super efficiency into slack-based measure (Meta-US-SBM to estimate eco-efficiency. Then, the bootstrap Granger causality approach is utilized to test the unidirectional Granger causal relationship running from PITI to eco-efficiency. Results of DEA model show that there exist significant spatiotemporal disparities of eco-efficiency, on average, the eco-efficiency in eastern region is relative higher than those of central/western region. Estimates of ordinary least square (OLS method, quantile regression, and spatial Durbin model document that the evidence of an inverted-U-shaped relation between PITI and eco-efficiency is supported, and the turning points vary from 0.3370 to 0.4540 with different model specifications. Finally, supplementary analysis of panel threshold model also supports the robust findings. Policy implications are presented based on the empirical results.

  3. Higher-order force moments of active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasouri, Babak; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2018-04-01

    Active particles moving through fluids generate disturbance flows due to their activity. For simplicity, the induced flow field is often modeled by the leading terms in a far-field approximation of the Stokes equations, whose coefficients are the force, torque, and stresslet (zeroth- and first-order force moments) of the active particle. This level of approximation is quite useful, but may also fail to predict more complex behaviors that are observed experimentally. In this study, to provide a better approximation, we evaluate the contribution of the second-order force moments to the flow field and, by reciprocal theorem, present explicit formulas for the stresslet dipole, rotlet dipole, and potential dipole for an arbitrarily shaped active particle. As examples of this method, we derive modified Faxén laws for active spherical particles and resolve higher-order moments for active rod-like particles.

  4. Employability and work-related learning activities in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnell, Marie; Kolmos, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on how academic staff perceive their roles and responsibilities regarding work-related learning, and how they approach and implement work-related learning activities in curricula across academic environments in higher education. The study is based on case studies...

  5. Higher-order chaotic oscillator using active bessel filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Bumelien, Skaidra

    2010-01-01

    A higher-order oscillator, including a nonlinear unit and an 8th-order low-pass active Bessel filter is described. The Bessel unit plays the role of "three-in-one": a delay line, an amplifier and a filter. Results of hardware experiments and numerical simulation are presented. Depending...

  6. Why do French civil-law countries have higher levels of financial efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2011-01-01

    The dominance of English common-law countries in prospects for financial development in the legal-origins debate has been debunked by recent findings. Using exchange rate regimes and economic/monetary integration oriented hypotheses, this paper proposes an “inflation uncertainty theory” in providing theoretical justification and empirical validity as to why French civil-law countries have higher levels of financial allocation efficiency. Inflation uncertainty, typical of floating exchange rat...

  7. Regulation of higher-activity NARM wastes by EPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrowski, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing standards for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). As part of this Standard, EPA is including regulations for the disposal of naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material (NARM) wastes not covered under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The regulations will cover only higher-activity NARM wastes, defined as NARM waste with specific activity exceeding two nanocuries per gram. The proposed regulations will specify that NARM wastes exceeding the above limits, except for specific exempted items, must be disposed of in regulated radioactive waste disposal facilities. The proposed EPA regulations for NARM wastes will be discussed, as well as the costs and benefits of the regulation, how it will be implemented by EPA, and the rationale for covering only higher-activity NARM wastes exceeding two nanocuries per gram

  8. Post-weaning feed efficiency decreased in progeny of higher milk yielding beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; McFarlane, Z D; Cope, E R

    2018-02-01

    Current trends in the beef industry focus on selecting production traits with the purpose of maximizing calf weaning weight; however, such traits may ultimately decrease overall post-weaning productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of actual milk yield in mature beef cows on their offspring's dry matter intake (DMI), BW, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) during a ~75-day backgrounding feeding trial. A period of 24-h milk production was measured with a modified weigh-suckle-weigh technique using a milking machine. After milking, cows were retrospectively classified as one of three milk yield groups: Lower (6.57±1.21 kg), Moderate (9.02±0.60 kg) or Higher (11.97±1.46 kg). Calves from Moderate and Higher milk yielding dams had greater (Pfeeding phase; however, day 75 BW were not different (P=0.36) between Lower and Moderate calves. Body weight gain was greater (P=0.05) for Lower and Moderate calves from the day 0 BW to day 35 BW compared with Higher calves. Overall DMI was lower (P=0.03) in offspring from Lower and Moderate cows compared with their Higher milking counterparts. With the decreased DMI, FCR was lower (P=0.03) from day 0 to day 35 in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams. In addition, overall FCR was lower (P=0.02) in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams compared with calves from Higher milk yielding dams. However, calving of Lower milk yielding dams had an increased (P=0.04) efficiency from a negative RFI value compared with calves from Moderate and Higher milking dams. Results from this study suggest that increased milk production in beef cows decreases feed efficiency during a 75-day post-weaning, backgrounding period of progeny.

  9. Higher-fidelity yet efficient modeling of radiation energy transport through three-dimensional clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, M.L.; Davis, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate modeling of radiative energy transport through cloudy atmospheres is necessary for both climate modeling with GCMs (Global Climate Models) and remote sensing. Previous modeling efforts have taken advantage of extreme aspect ratios (cells that are very wide horizontally) by assuming a 1-D treatment vertically - the Independent Column Approximation (ICA). Recent attempts to resolve radiation transport through the clouds have drastically changed the aspect ratios of the cells, moving them closer to unity, such that the ICA model is no longer valid. We aim to provide a higher-fidelity atmospheric radiation transport model which increases accuracy while maintaining efficiency. To that end, this paper describes the development of an efficient 3-D-capable radiation code that can be easily integrated into cloud resolving models as an alternative to the resident 1-D model. Applications to test cases from the Intercomparison of 3-D Radiation Codes (I3RC) protocol are shown

  10. Economic efficiency of e-learning in higher education: An industrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Vilaseca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been yet done to analyse if e-learning is an efficiency way in economic terms to produce higher education, especially because there are not available data in official statistics. Despite of these important constrains, this paper aims to contribute to the study of economic efficiency of e-learning through the analysis of a sample of e-learning universities during a period of time (1997-2002. We have wanted to obtain some empirical evidence to understand if e-learning is a feasible model of providing education for universities and which are the variables that allow for feasibility attainment. The main findings are: 1 that the rise of the number of students enrolled is consistent with increasing labour productivity rates; 2 that cost labour savings are explained by the improvement of universities’ economic efficiency (or total factor productivity; and 3 that improvement of total factor productivity in e-learning production is due to the attainment of scale economies, but also to two organisational innovations: outsourcing processes that leads to the increase of variable costs consistent with decreasing marginal costs, and the sharing of assets’ control and use that allow for a rise in assets rotation.

  11. Selection of index complex for the NPP operator activity efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnik, A I; Chertorizhskij, E A

    1984-01-01

    Preconditions for choice of NPP operator activity efficiency index are determined. Results of the choice are given and a method for determination of generalized and particular parameters by means of which NPP operator activity efficiency can be estimated is considered. An algorithm of diagnosis of reason for unsuccess of operator activity based on assessment of psychological factors of complicacy is suggested.

  12. Factor Analysis on Criteria Affecting Lean Retrofit for Energy Efficient Initiatives in Higher Learning Institution Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidin Nur IzieAdiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Higher Learning Institution (HLI is a global concerns on energy demand due to campus act like a small city. Intensive mode of operation of a building is correlated to the energy utilization. Improvement in the current energy efficiency is crucial effort to minimize the environmental effect through minimisation of energy in operation by retrofitting and upgrade the existing building system or components to be more efficient. Basically, there are three recommended steps for the improvement known as lean initiatives, green technology and clean energy in response to becoming zero energy solutions for building. The deliberation of this paper is aimed to highlight the criteria affecting in retrofitting of existing building in HLI with lean initiatives in order to achieve energy efficiency and reduction of energy comsumption. Attention is devoted to reviewing the lean energy retrofitting initiatives criteria for daylighting (side lighting, daylighting (skylight and glazing. The questionnaire survey was employed and distributed to the architects who has an expertise in green building design. Factor analysis was adopted as a method of analysis by using Principal Component with Varimax Rotation. The result is presented through summarizing the sub-criteria according to its importance with a factor loading 0.50 and above. The result found that majority of the criteria developed achieved the significant factor loading value and in accordance with the protocal of analysis. In conclusion the results from analysis of this paper assists the stakeholders in assessing the significant criteria based on the desired lean energy retrofitting initiatives and also provides a huge contribution for future planning improvement in existing buildings to become an energy efficient building.

  13. Method of oocyte activation affects cloning efficiency in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Kristin M; Li, Rongfeng; Spate, Lee D; Wax, David M; Rieke, August; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Sutovsky, Miriam; Green, Jonathan A; Sutovsky, Peter; Prather, Randall S

    2009-05-01

    The following experiments compared the efficiency of three fusion/activation protocols following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with porcine somatic cells transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the chicken beta-actin/rabbit beta-globin hybrid promoter (pCAGG-EGFP). The three protocols included electrical fusion/activation (NT1), electrical fusion/activation followed by treatment with a reversible proteasomal inhibitor MG132 (NT2) and electrical fusion in low Ca(2+) followed by chemical activation with thimerosal/dithiothreitol (NT3). Data were collected at Days 6, 12, 14, 30, and 114 of gestation. Fusion rates, blastocyst-stage mean cell numbers, recovery rates, and pregnancy rates were calculated and compared between protocols. Fusion rates were significantly higher for NT1 and NT2 compared to NT3 (P NT1 (71.4%, n = 28; P 0.05). All fusion/activation treatments produced live, pCAGG-EGFP positive piglets from SCNT. Treatment with MG132 after fusion/activation of reconstructed porcine embryos was the most effective method when comparing the overall pregnancy rates. The beneficial effect of NT2 protocol may be due to the stimulation of proteasomes that infiltrate donor cell nucleus shortly after nuclear transfer. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Efficient oxygen electrocatalysis on special active sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halck, Niels Bendtsen

    throughout this thesis to understand these local structure effects and their influence on surface reactions. The concept of these special active sites is used to explain how oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts can have activities beyond the limits of what was previously thought possible. The concept...... stored in these bonds in an eco-friendly fashion in fuel cells. This thesis explores catalysts for oxygen electrocatalysis and how carefully designed local structures on catalysts surfaces termed special active sites can influence the activity. Density functional theory has been used as a method...... is used to explain the increase in activity observed for the OER catalyst ruthenium dioxide when it is mixed with nickel or cobalt. Manganese and cobalt oxides when in the vicinity of gold also display an increase in OER activity which can be explained by locally created special active sites. Density...

  15. Theoretical and methodological grounds of formation of the efficient system of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raevneva Elena V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in generalisation of the modern theoretical and methodological, methodical and instrumentation provision of building of efficient system of higher education. Analysis of literature on the problems of building educational systems shows that there is a theoretical and methodological and instrumentation level of study of this issue. The article considers a theoretical and methodological level of the study and specifies theories and philosophic schools, concepts, educational paradigms and scientific approaches used during formation of the educational paradigm. The article considers models of education and models and technologies of learning as instrumental provision. In the result of the analysis the article makes a conclusion that the humanistic paradigm, which is based on the competency building approach and which assumes the use of modern (innovation technologies of learning, should be in the foundation of reformation of the system of higher education. The prospect of further studies in this directions is formation of competences of potential specialists (graduates of higher educational establishments with consideration of requirements of employers and market in general.

  16. Beyond Frontiers: Comparing the Efficiency of Higher Education Decision-Making Units across More than One Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Johnes, Geraint

    2009-01-01

    We employ Data Envelopment Analysis to compute the technical efficiency of Italian and English higher education institutions. Our results show that, in relation to the country-specific frontier, institutions in both countries are typically very efficient. However, institutions in England are more efficient than those in Italy when we compare…

  17. The effect of merger and consolidation activities on the efficiency of electricity distribution regions in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelen, Aydın

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the efficiency performances of Turkish electricity distribution companies throughout 2002 and 2009 in the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) framework. Our more specific goal is to measure how the efficiency performances of the electricity distribution regions were affected by the mergers between distribution regions occurred in 2005. The results demonstrate that efficiencies of the companies serving to mostly the residential customers are higher than those of other companies. However, the positive impact of residential customers on the efficiencies decreased significantly following the mergers between electricity distribution companies. In contrast, the positive impact of higher customer density on efficiency also decreased, but insignificantly following the restructuring activities in the market in 2005. Our study also witnesses that the positive impact of the mergers on the efficiencies decreases as the proportion of sales to residential customers in regions increases. In contrast, the restructuring activities of 2005 increased equally the efficiencies of the companies serving in the regions with higher and lower customer densities. - Highlights: • We analyze efficiency performances of Turkish electricity distribution companies. • The efficiencies of companies serving to mostly residential customers are higher. • Positive impact of residential customers on the efficiencies dropped after mergers. • Positive impact of customer density also decreased, but insignificantly. • Positive impact of mergers on efficiency decreases as sales to residents increase

  18. ENZIME ACTIVITY OF HIGHER BASIDIOMYCETES MUSHROOM GRIFOLA FRONDOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Бухало

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was a revelation and evaluation of spectrum and activity of hydrolytic enzymes of higher basidiomycetes  Grifola frondosa in a surface and submerged culture. 8 strains of  Gf. frondosa,  mushrooms from culture collection of mushrooms at the M.G. Kholodny Institute of  Вotany National  Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine were object of investigation. Researches were conducted by standard microbiological, biochemical and biotechnological methods. All strains  on agar mediums were shown the  following enzymes: amylase, caseinase, polygalacturonase, pectattranselyminase, glucosidase, urease,  xylanase, lipase  and endoglucanase. The demonstration of oxidizing enzymes of laccase and tyrosinase  depended on a culture and did not depend on composition of medium. The estimation of presence and level of activity of hydrolytic enzymes at submerged cultivation indicate primary influence of components of complex nourishing medium on enzyme activity of Gr. frondosa. Strains biochemical features show up in the case of  oxidizing enzymes on agar mediums and for endo-1,4-β-glucanase on liquid mediums with glucose and molasses.

  19. GAME--Gym Activities for Mind's Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Ferreira, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    GAME results from the exhaustion of doing the same activities, dealing with unmotivated students and not getting the desired results academically. Thus, I initiated a process of research and training in areas such as Positive Psychology, Neurosciences and Neurolinguistic Programming, which allowed to design an Evidence-Based Intervention. Students…

  20. Scholarly Activities in Hospitality and Tourism Higher Education among Private Higher Institutions in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Edmund

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the notion of scholarship and develop research and scholarship strategies among Private Higher Institutions delivering Tourism and Hospitality degree programs in Australia. In doing so, this paper confronts the traditional view of research publications as the only form of scholarship by traditional…

  1. Selected Private Higher Educational Institutions in Metro Manila: A DEA Efficiency Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Maria Corazon Gwendolyn N.; Cabana, Emilyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper measures the technical efficiency of 16 selected colleges and universities in Metro Manila, Philippines, using academic data for the SY 2001-2005. Using the data envelopment analysis (DEA), on average, schools posted 0.807 index score and need additional 19.3% efficiency growth to be efficient. Overall, there are top four efficient…

  2. Scholarly activities in hospitality and tourism higher education among private higher institutions in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Goh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the notion of scholarship and develop research and scholarship strategies among Private Higher Institutions delivering Tourism and Hospitality degree programs in Australia. In doing so, this paper confronts the traditional view of research publications as the only form of scholarship by traditional universities. This paper argues that the purpose of scholarship should be focused towards improving a teacher’s teaching and learning process. These new knowledge need not be limited through peer reviewed journals only, but can be achieved through less formal means of communication such as fieldtrips to industry and attending conferences. This paper utilizes the six Scholarship key points as defined on P. 19 of the National Protocols for Higher Education Approval Processes in Australia by MCEETYA  to investigate methods to capture scholarship beyond traditional research publications. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i2.108

  3. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline

  4. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straker, L.M.; Fenner, A.A.; Howie, E.K.; Feltz, D.L.; Gray, C.M.; Lu, A.S.; Mueller, F.F.; Simons, M.; Barnett, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline

  5. TBAL: Technology-Based Active Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilay, Yaron; Ghilay, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In many institutions of higher education worldwide, faculty members manage lessons based on information transfer whereas their students become passive listeners. According to international research, passive learning has disadvantages mainly because students do not engage in the lesson. The study introduces a new model for higher education called…

  6. Towards a higher energy efficiency and lower carbon society the European approach and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Klaus R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural energy sources and their conversion to secondary forms of energy are a crucial base for the development of our society with its continuous change of requirements due to an increase in population and the broadening of the needs in our modern life. As a consequence the consumption of primary energy resources rose drastically worldwide during the last 5 decades in particular in the industrialized regions such as Europe. Parallel in time the increasing awareness of negative effects of fuel dependent pollution on the environment and the introduction of stringent emission control regulations about 3 decades ago initiated extensive development and retrofit activities resulting in the today applied high level state of the art. As an additional challenge the worldwide debate about the potential effects of the emission of the s.c green house gases on the global climate in particular carbon dioxide from the use of predominantly fossil fuels have initiated in the European Union extensive efforts in efficiency improvements of large scale fuel conversion and more recently in the development of processes for CO 2 capture and its subsequent storage. Furthermore the use of the s.c CO 2 neutral fuels such as biomass and organic wastes as well as the non carbonaceous options water wind and solar power are promoted towards a growing role in a future primary energy mix. In addition the majority of the member states of the European Union support the minimization of energetic losses by the provision of incentives for energy savings and for switching to lower energy consuming alternatives. In fact all the above mentioned instruments have to be applied in order to fulfil the long term requirements e. g. a reduction of the greenhouse gas emission by at least 20% by 2020 and further alleviations for the time beyond. The presentation will start with summarizing the development of the demand and supply of energy in Europe during the recent decades. After an outline of the

  7. Self-Evaluation of the Scientific Activity of a Higher Educational Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayevnyeva Olena V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of self-evaluation of the scientific activity of a higher educational institution (HEI as a component of its overall ranking evaluation. On the basis of a potentially effective approach to studying this problem, there proposed a system of indicators for evaluating the scientific activity of a HEI, which makes it possible to determine the potential of its scientific activity in terms of staff and resource provision, and the efficiency — in terms of quality of the training of scientific staff (students, graduate students, young scientists, etc., financial results of scientific activity and publication activity. To obtain an integral ranking score of the scientific activity of a HEI, the use of the taxonomic method is justified, the necessity of applying weight coefficients of the significance of primary indicators is determined. The approbation of the approach was carried out on the basis of the data of S. Kuznets KhNEU for the period of 2013-2016, which made it possible to obtain not only point estimates of the integral indicator of the scientific activity of an HEI but also determine the trends in its changes and identify their reasons. The proposed approach to the self-evaluation of the scientific activity of a HEI allows its administration to develop effective management solutions to increase the level of scientific activity of its scientific and pedagogical, and scientific staff, which will provide additional competitive advantages in the national and world educational space.

  8. Evaluating Teaching Development Activities in Higher Education: A Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneale, Pauline; Winter, Jennie; Turner, Rebecca; Spowart, Lucy; Hughes, Jane; McKenna, Colleen; Muneer, Reema

    2016-01-01

    This toolkit is developed as a resource for providers of teaching-related continuing professional development (CPD) in higher education (HE). It focuses on capturing the longer-term value and impact of CPD for teachers and learners, and moving away from immediate satisfaction measures. It is informed by the literature on evaluating higher…

  9. Impact of higher energy efficiency standards on housing affordability in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    As a result of changes to provincial and national building and energy costs, the impact of increasing energy efficiency standards on housing affordability has been questioned. Determining housing affordability is a complicated process. This report presented the results of a costing analysis completed for upgrades of EnerGuide 80 levels of energy efficiency in homes in Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta. The elements of residential construction were identified. In order to better understand the cost impact of energy efficiency upgrades on a home, pricing data was obtained. Costing elements that were examined included housing price indexes; construction material price indexes; unionized trade wages; and land value. Specifically, the report presented the new housing price index analysis using material and labour costs. An analysis of energy efficiency improvement was then presented in terms of lifecycle costs (capital costs and life cycle costing results). It was concluded that although the price of labour and materials is increasing, the value of land is the primary driver for rising house prices. The price of housing is strongly correlated to the price of land and not the price of labour or materials. In addition, moving to EnerGuide 80 levels of energy efficiency for housing in Alberta made homes more affordable for homebuyers by lowering their total monthly housing costs. 4 tabs., 3 figs., 3 appendices.

  10. High efficiency of CO2-activated graphite felt as electrode for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chung; Chen, Jian-Yu; Kabtamu, Daniel Manaye; Lin, Guan-Yi; Hsu, Ning-Yih; Chou, Yi-Sin; Wei, Hwa-Jou; Wang, Chen-Hao

    2017-10-01

    A simple method for preparing CO2-activated graphite felt as an electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was employed by the direct treatment in a CO2 atmosphere at a high temperature for a short period. The CO2-activated graphite felt demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity and reversibility. The VRFB using the CO2-activated graphite felts in the electrodes has coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiencies of 94.52%, 88.97%, and 84.15%, respectively, which is much higher than VRFBs using the electrodes of untreated graphite felt and N2-activated graphite felt. The efficiency enhancement was attributed to the higher number of oxygen-containing functional groups on the graphite felt that are formed during the CO2-activation, leading to improving the electrochemical behaviour of the resultant VRFB.

  11. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Wilkins, D.W.; Keltch, B.; Saradji, B.; Salamy, S.P.

    1988-04-01

    This report is the second volume of the Recovery Efficiency Test Phase I Report of Activities. Volume 1 covered selection, well planning, drilling, coring, logging and completion operations. This volume reports on well testing activities, reclamation activities on the drilling site and access roads, and the results of physical and mechanical properties tests on the oriented core material obtained from a horizontal section of the well. 3 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of higher brain activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui He; Wang Yunjiu; Chen Runsheng; Tang Xiaowei.

    1996-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs) exhibit small differences in the magnetic resonance signal intensity in positions corresponding to focal areas of brain activation. These signal are caused by variation in the oxygenation state of the venous vasculature. Using this non-invasive and dynamic method, it is possible to localize functional brain activation, in vivo, in normal individuals, with an accuracy of millimeters and a temporal resolution of seconds. Though a series of technical difficulties remain, fMRI is increasingly becoming a key method for visualizing the working brain, and uncovering the topographical organization of the human brain, and understanding the relationship between brain and the mind

  13. Polysaccharies of higher fungi: Biological role, structure and antioxidative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.S.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Vrvic, M.M.; Jakovljevic, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging bio-logical properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypo-lipidemic, immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application

  14. Climbing Mount Efficiency--small steps, not giant leaps towards higher cloning success in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oback, Björn

    2008-07-01

    Despite more than a decade of research efforts, farm animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still frustratingly inefficient. Inefficiency manifests itself at different levels, which are currently not well integrated. At the molecular level, it leads to widespread genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations in cloned embryos. At the organismal level, these genome-wide abnormalities compromise development of cloned foetuses and offspring. Specific molecular defects need to be causally linked to specific cloned phenotypes, in order to design specific treatments to correct them. Cloning efficiency depends on the ability of the nuclear donor cell to be fully reprogrammed into an embryonic state and the ability of the enucleated recipient cell to carry out the reprogramming reactions. It has been postulated that reprogrammability of the somatic donor cell epigenome is influenced by its differentiation status. However, direct comparisons between cells of divergent differentiation status within several somatic lineages have found no conclusive evidence for this. Choosing somatic stem cells as donors has not improved cloning efficiency, indicating that donor cell type may be less critical for cloning success. Different recipient cells, on the other hand, vary in their reprogramming ability. In bovine, using zygotes instead of oocytes has increased cloning success. Other improvements in livestock cloning efficiency include better coordinating donor cell type with cell cycle stage and aggregating cloned embryos. In the future, it will be important to demonstrate if these small increases at every step are cumulative, adding up to an integrated cloning protocol with greatly improved efficiency.

  15. Alternative geometry for cylindrical natural draft cooling tower with higher cooling efficiency under crosswind condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, M.; Ramezanpour, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alternative cross sections for natural draft cooling tower were proposed. • Numerical solution was applied to study thermal and hydraulic performances. • Thermal and hydraulic performances were assessed by comparative parameters. • Cooling tower with elliptical cross section had better thermal performance under crosswind. • It could successfully used at the regions with invariant wind direction. - Abstract: Cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower may significantly decrease under crosswind condition. Therefore, many researchers attempted to improve the cooling efficiency under this condition by using structural or mechanical facilities. In this article, alternative shell geometry with elliptical cross section is proposed for this type of cooling tower instead of usual shell geometry with circular cross section. Thermal performance and cooling efficiency of the two types of cooling towers are numerically investigated. Numerical simulations show that cooling tower with elliptical cross section improves the cooling efficiency compared to the usual type with circular cross section under high-speed wind moving normal to the longitudinal diameter of the elliptical cooling tower

  16. Automation of analytical processes. A tool for higher efficiency and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groll, P.

    1976-01-01

    The analytical laboratory of a radiochemical facility is usually faced with the fact that numerous analyses of a similar type must be routinely carried out. Automation of such routine analytical procedures helps in increasing the efficiency and safety of the work. A review of the requirements for automation and its advantages is given and demonstrated on three examples. (author)

  17. The ratio of nurse consultation and physician efficiency index of senior rheumatologists is significantly higher than junior physicians in rheumatology residency training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; van Bui Hansen, Morten Hai; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the difference between ratios of nurse consultation sought by senior rheumatologists and junior physicians in rheumatology residency training, and also to evaluate physician efficiency index respecting patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data regarding outpatient visits for RA...... patients between November 2013 and 2015 were extracted. The mean interval (day) between consultations, the nurse/physician visits ratio, and physician efficiency index (nurse/physician visits ratio × mean interval) for each senior and junior physicians were calculated. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints....../physician visits ratio (P = .01) and mean efficiency index (P = .04) of senior rheumatologists were significantly higher than that of junior physicians. Regression analysis showed a positive correlation between physician postgraduate experience and physician efficiency index adjusted for DAS28 at baseline...

  18. Arbiters of Effectiveness and Efficiency: The Frames and Strategies of Management Consulting Firms in US Higher Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of public colleges and universities in the United States have hired management consulting firms to help develop strategies aimed at increasing institutional effectiveness and efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to explore the frames and strategies of consultants in US public higher education reform efforts. Drawing upon a…

  19. Appraising the Cost Efficiency of Higher Technological and Vocational Education Institutions in Taiwan Using the Metafrontier Cost-Function Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Ku-Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at appraising the cost efficiency and technology of institutions of higher technological and vocational education. Differing from conventional literature, it considers the potential influence of inherent discrepancies in output quality and characteristics of school systems for institutes of technology (ITs) and universities of…

  20. NREL Explains the Higher Cellulolytic Activity of a Vital Microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of a new mode of action by C. thermocellum to convert biomass to biofuels is significant because the bacterium is already recognized as one of the most effective in the biosphere. Researchers found that, in addition to using common cellulase degradation mechanisms attached to cells, C. thermocellum also uses a new category of cell-free scaffolded enzymes. The new discovery will influence the strategies used to improve the cellulolytic activity of biomass degrading microbes going forward. Better understanding of this bacterium could lead to cheaper production of ethanol and drop-in fuels. Also, this discovery demonstrates that nature's biomass conversion behaviors are not fully understood and remain as opportunities for future microbial/enzyme engineering efforts.

  1. Clinical research in dermatology: resources and activities associated with a higher scientific productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Descalzo, Miguel A; García-Doval, Ignacio

    2018-03-06

    Clinical research papers and their derived metrics can be useful to assess the scientific production of medical and research centers. Diverse factors are probably associated to differences in scientific production. But there are scarce studies analyzing them. Resources are limited and have to be distributed efficiently. The objective of this study is to explore what resources and activities are potentially associated with a higher scientific productivity. A bibliometric study was performed to obtain information about scientific productivity. Papers included had to meet criteria to be considered clinical research in dermatology, additionally had to be published between the years 2005-2014, had to be included in Pubmed or Embase and had to include a Spanish center of dermatology as the correspondence address. Information about research resources and activities of the year 2015 was gathered by means of an online survey sent to the authors identified in the bibliometric study. The search strategy returned 8617 papers and only 1104 of them (12.81%) met the inclusion criteria. 63 out of 113 centers responded to the survey (55.75%). Factors associated with a higher scientific productivity were: the size of the resident program, the amount of time specifically dedicated to research, a lower clinical workload, and the number of clinical trials performed in the last year. We have demonstrated that some factors are associated with a higher scientific productivity. Residency program, more research staff, clinical workload redistribution and research motivation/initiatives are key strategies that could improve scientific productivity of a center.

  2. Higher Physical Activity is Associated with Increased Attentional Network Connectivity in the Healthy Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Ha Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential alterations in structural network properties related to physical activity (PA in healthy elderly. We recruited 76 elderly individuals with normal cognition from Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. All participants underwent the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and 3.0T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Participants were subdivided into quartiles according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores, which represents the amount of PA. Through graph theory based analyses, we compared global and local network topologies according to PA quartile. The higher PA group demonstrated better performance in speed processing compared to the lower PA group. Regional nodal strength also significantly increased in the higher PA group, which involved the bilateral middle frontal, bilateral inferior parietal, right medial orbitofrontal, right superior and middle temporal gyri. These results were further replicated when the highest and the lowest quartile groups were compared in terms of regional nodal strengths and local efficiency. Our findings that the regional nodal strengths associated with the attentional network were increased in the higher PA group suggest the preventive effects of PA on age-related cognitive decline, especially in attention.

  3. Exploring the efficiency potential for an active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Haffenden Bahl, Christian Robert

    2016-01-01

    A novel rotary state of the art active magnetic regenerator refrigeration prototype was used in an experimental investigation with special focus on efficiency. Based on an applied cooling load, measured shaft power, and pumping power applied to the active magnetic regenerator, a maximum second-la...... and replacing the packed spheres with a theoretical parallel plate regenerator. Furthermore, significant potential efficiency improvements through optimized regenerator geometries are estimated and discussed......., especially for the pressure drop, significant improvements can be made to the machine. However, a large part of the losses may be attributed to regenerator irreversibilities. Considering these unchanged, an estimated upper limit to the second-law efficiency of 30% is given by eliminating parasitic losses...

  4. Conversion Efficiency of Photosynthetically Active Radiation Into Acacia mearnsii Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Eloy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this experiment was to determine the conversion efficiency of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation into biomass of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. seedlings. A forest species, plastic tubes (90 cm3, and 11 evaluation periods (up to 180 days after emergence were used in this study. The leaf area index (LAI, total dry biomass (BIO, global solar radiation (GSR, cumulative intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PARic, and conversion efficiency of radiation (εb were determined using a pyranometer (LI200X, LICOR. The value of εb in BIO seedlings of Acacia mearnsii was 7.76 g MJ-1. LAI was directly related to the efficiency of PARic, and this influenced the development, production potential and accumulation of BIO. The value of GSR flow was 11.81 MJ m-2 day-1, while the value inside the greenhouse was 6.26 MJ m-2 day-1.

  5. Between Efficiency and Transformation: The Opinion of Deans on the Meaning of Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Barrenetxea-Ayesta, Miren; Cardona-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mijangos-Del Campo, Juan José; Barandiaran-Galdós, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The literature on quality management at higher education institutions has for some time been working on the basis of two issues: a) the diversity of ideas as to what "quality" means, which makes it harder to apply the principles of quality management in this context; and b) the idea that this diversity is in some way a response to the…

  6. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity.

  7. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Ashley A.; Howie, Erin K.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Gray, Cindy M.; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian “Floyd”; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human–computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  8. Managing the higher risks of low-cost high-efficiency advanced power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.

    1997-01-01

    Independent power producers operate large coal-fired installations and gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) facilities. Combined cycle units are complex and their reliability and availability is greatly influenced by mechanical, instrumentation and control weaknesses. It was suggested that these weaknesses could be avoided by tighter specifications and more rigorous functional testing before acceptance by the owner. For the present, the difficulties of developing reliable, lower installed cost/kw, more efficient GTCC designs, pressure for lower NO x emissions with 'dry' combustors continue to be the most difficult challenges for all GT manufacturers

  9. Higher efficiency with cylinder-bank comprehensive exhaust manifold; Effizienzsteigerung durch Zylinderbank-uebergreifenden Kruemmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, Rainer; Kornherr, Heinz; Pirntke, Frank; Schmidt, Juergen [Friedrich Boysen GmbH und Co. KG, Altensteig (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    In close interdisciplinary cooperation with BMW Group, Boysen has developed an air-gap-insulated exhaust manifold that encompasses both banks of the 4.4 l V8 spark-ignition twin turbo engine of the BMW X5 M and BMW X6 M. The manifold merges the exhaust gas flow from the cylinders of the left-hand and right-hand cylinder banks in opposing pairs, thus optimising gas exchange. Due to improvements in response, torque and power characteristics of the engine, the cylinder-bank comprehensive exhaust manifold helps achieve high fuel efficiency. (orig.)

  10. Brazilian savanna fruits contain higher bioactive compounds content and higher antioxidant activity relative to the conventional red delicious apple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Machado de Almeida Siqueira

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds content and the antioxidant activity (AA of twelve fruits native to the Cerrado were compared with the Red Delicious apple by means of the antiradical efficiency (using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil assay/DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and the β-carotene/linoleic system. The antiradical efficiency (AE and the kinetic parameters (Efficient concentration/EC50 and time needed to reach the steady state to EC50 concentration/TEC50 of the DPPH curve were also evaluated for comparison with the Trolox equivalent (TE values. A strong, significant and positive correlation was observed between the TE and AE values, whereas a weak and negative correlation was observed between TE and EC50, suggesting that the values of AE and TE are more useful for the determination of antiradical activity in fruits than the widely used EC50. The total phenolic content found in the fruits corresponded positively to their antioxidant activity. The high content of bioactive compounds (flavanols, anthocyanins or vitamin C relative to the apple values found in araticum, cagaita, cajuzinho, jurubeba, lobeira, magaba and tucum corresponded to the high antioxidant activity of these fruits. Flavanols and anthocyanins may be the main bioactive components in these Cerrado fruits. The daily consumption of at least seven of the twelve Cerrado fruits studied, particularly, araticum, cagaita, lobeira and tucum, may confer protection against oxidative stress, and thus, they may prevent chronic diseases and premature aging. The findings of this study should stimulate demand, consumption and cultivation of Cerrado fruits and result in sustainable development of the region where this biome dominates.

  11. Does centennial morphodynamic evolution lead to higher channel efficiency in San Pablo Bay, California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wegen, M.; Jaffe, B.E.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Measured bathymetries on 30 year interval over the past 150 years show that San Pablo Bay experienced periods of considerable deposition followed by periods of net erosion. However, the main channel in San Pablo Bay has continuously narrowed. The underlying mechanisms and consequences of this tidal channel evolution are not well understood. The central question of this study is whether tidal channels evolve towards a geometry that leads to more efficient hydraulic conveyance and sediment throughput. We applied a hydrodynamic process-based, numerical model (Delft3D), which was run on 5 San Pablo Bay bathymetries measured between 1856 and 1983. Model results shows increasing energy dissipation levels for lower water flows leading to an approximately 15% lower efficiency in 1983 compared to 1856. During the same period the relative seaward sediment throughput through the San Pablo Bay main channel increased by 10%. A probable explanation is that San Pablo Bay is still affected by the excessive historic sediment supply. Sea level rise and Delta surface water area variations over 150 years have limited effect on the model results. With expected lower sediment concentrations in the watershed and less impact of wind waves due to erosion of the shallow flats, it is possible that energy dissipations levels will decrease again in future decades. Our study suggests that the morphodynamic adaptation time scale to excessive variations in sediment supply to estuaries may be on the order of centuries.

  12. Muscle activity and masticatory efficiency with bilateral extension base removable partial dentures with different cusp angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K

    2018-03-01

    Whether masticatory efficiency and electromyographic activity are influenced by type of artificial teeth and food is unclear. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the influence of extension base removable partial dentures (RPDs) with different cusp angles: anatomic (33 degrees), semianatomic (20 degrees), and nonanatomic (0 degrees) teeth on masticatory efficiency and muscle activity during the mastication of test foods with different textures. Twelve participants with RPDs were selected to perform masticatory efficiency and electromyographic tests. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were used to record the activities of the masseter and temporalis muscles during the mastication of different types of test foods. The maximal voltage and duration were measured on the integrated EMG signal in each muscle during food mastication, and the mean reading of both sides was then recorded. Analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test were used to perform statistical analyses (α=.05). The masticatory efficiency of RPDs with nonanatomic teeth was significantly inferior to that of RPDs with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P.05). Also, muscle activity (according to EMG) with RPDs with NA teeth was significantly higher than that with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P<.05). RPDs with NA teeth were associated with higher EMG muscle activity and reduced masticatory efficiency than anatomic or semianatomic teeth. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Efficient Higher-Order Quasilinearization Method for Solving Nonlinear BVPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S. Alaidarous

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, we present higher-order quasilinearization methods for the boundary value problems as well as coupled boundary value problems. The construction of higher-order convergent methods depends on a decomposition method which is different from Adomain decomposition method (Motsa and Sibanda, 2013. The reported method is very general and can be extended to desired order of convergence for highly nonlinear differential equations and also computationally superior to proposed iterative method based on Adomain decomposition because our proposed iterative scheme avoids the calculations of Adomain polynomials and achieves the same computational order of convergence as authors have claimed in Motsa and Sibanda, 2013. In order to check the validity and computational performance, the constructed iterative schemes are also successfully applied to bifurcation problems to calculate the values of critical parameters. The numerical performance is also tested for one-dimension Bratu and Frank-Kamenetzkii equations.

  14. Which Are the Determinants of Online Students' Efficiency in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Merino, David; Serradell-Lopez, Enric; González-González, Inés

    International literature shows that the positive effect on students performance from the adoption of innovations in the technology of teaching and learning do not affect all teaching methods and learning styles equally, as it depends on university strategy and policy towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) adoption, students abilities, technology uses in the educational process by teachers and students, or the selection of a methodology that matches with digital uses. This paper provides empirical answers to these questions with data from online students at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC). An empirical model based on structural equations has been defined to explain complex relationships between variables. Our results show that motivation is the main variable affecting online students' performance. It appears as a latent variable influenced by students' perception of efficiency, a driver for indirect positive and significant effect on students' performance from students' ability in ICT uses.

  15. A Novel Energy-Efficient Approach for Human Activity Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingxiang; Wu, Dihong; Ruan, Xiaoyang; Weng, Shaolin; Peng, Ao; Tang, Biyu; Lu, Hai; Shi, Haibin; Zheng, Huiru

    2017-09-08

    In this paper, we propose a novel energy-efficient approach for mobile activity recognition system (ARS) to detect human activities. The proposed energy-efficient ARS, using low sampling rates, can achieve high recognition accuracy and low energy consumption. A novel classifier that integrates hierarchical support vector machine and context-based classification (HSVMCC) is presented to achieve a high accuracy of activity recognition when the sampling rate is less than the activity frequency, i.e., the Nyquist sampling theorem is not satisfied. We tested the proposed energy-efficient approach with the data collected from 20 volunteers (14 males and six females) and the average recognition accuracy of around 96.0% was achieved. Results show that using a low sampling rate of 1Hz can save 17.3% and 59.6% of energy compared with the sampling rates of 5 Hz and 50 Hz. The proposed low sampling rate approach can greatly reduce the power consumption while maintaining high activity recognition accuracy. The composition of power consumption in online ARS is also investigated in this paper.

  16. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. Enhanced efficiency in the excitation of higher modes for atomic force microscopy and mechanical sensors operated in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penedo, M., E-mail: mapenedo@imm.cnm.csic.es; Hormeño, S.; Fernández-Martínez, I.; Luna, M.; Briones, F. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Raman, A. [Birck Nanotechnology Center and School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47904 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Recent developments in dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy where several eigenmodes are simultaneously excited in liquid media are proving to be an excellent tool in biological studies. Despite its relevance, the search for a reliable, efficient, and strong cantilever excitation method is still in progress. Herein, we present a theoretical modeling and experimental results of different actuation methods compatible with the operation of Atomic Force Microscopy in liquid environments: ideal acoustic, homogeneously distributed force, distributed applied torque (MAC Mode™), photothermal and magnetostrictive excitation. From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that magnetostriction is the strongest and most efficient technique for higher eigenmode excitation when using soft cantilevers in liquid media.

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF THE SUPPORTING STRUCTURE OF PLATFORM CAR FOR HIGHER EFFICIENCY OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Lovska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to improve supporting structures of the platform car to increase the efficiency of container transportations. Methodology. In order to achieve the objective, the strength investigations of the universal platform car of the model 13-401 were conducted, strength reserves of the supporting elements were defined, and more optimal profiles of basic longitudinal beams of the frame in terms of the minimum material capacity were proposed. Decision correctness was confirmed by the strength calculation of the platform car supporting structure at basic loading operational modes and fatigue taking into account the research database of 107 cycles. It has been proposed to equip a platform car with swing fitting stops for fastening containers on the frame, which allows transportation of 20ft and 40ft containers. In order to improve container transportation efficiency along international transport corridors running through Ukraine, a platform car of articulated type has been designed on the base of the improved platform car structure. The mathematical simulation of dynamic loads of the platform car with containers (two 1CC containers at operational loading modes has been carried out, the maximum accelerations influencing the support structure have been defined, and their multiple values have been considered in computer simulation of the strength of the platform car of articulated type. Findings. The support structure of the platform car of articulated type on the basis of the standard platform car has been developed. Refined values of dynamic loads influencing supporting structure the platform car of articulated type with containers at operational loading modes have been obtained; the maximum equivalent stresses in the platform car support structure have been defined. Originality and practical value. A mathematical model of displacements for a platform car of articulated type with containers at operational loading modes of

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the recalcitrant Vanda Kasem's Delight orchid with higher efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnasekaran, Pavallekoodi; Antony, Jessica Jeyanthi James; Uddain, Jasim; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2014-01-01

    The presented study established Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation using protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) for the production of transgenic Vanda Kasem's Delight Tom Boykin (VKD) orchid. Several parameters such as PLB size, immersion period, level of wounding, Agrobacterium density, cocultivation period, and concentration of acetosyringone were tested and quantified using gusA gene expression to optimize the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of VKD's PLBs. Based on the results, 3-4 mm PLBs wounded by scalpel and immersed for 30 minutes in Agrobacterium suspension of 0.8 unit at A 600 nm produced the highest GUS expression. Furthermore, cocultivating infected PLBs for 4 days in the dark on Vacin and Went cocultivation medium containing 200 μM acetosyringone enhanced the GUS expression. PCR analysis of the putative transformants selected in the presence of 250 mg/L cefotaxime and 30 mg/L geneticin proved the presence of wheatwin1, wheatwin2, and nptII genes.

  20. Increasing the efficiency of sulphur dioxide in wine by using of saturated higher fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Bábíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on stopping of alcoholic fermentation to leave residual sugar and the possibility of sulfur dioxide reduction in wine technology and storage. As a very good opportunity showed mixture of higher saturated fatty acids with a reduced dose of sulfur dioxide. Experiments have confirmed that the concentration of viable yeasts in 1 ml of wine for variants treated with a mixture of fatty acids is significantly lower than in variants treated with sulfur dioxide alone. Then was monitored the influence of fatty acids on stored wine with residual sugar. At this point a dramatically prolongation of interval to secondary fermentation (depreciation of wine in the bottle was confirmed. Finally, attention was paid to influence on the organoleptic characteristics of wine treated this way. In this case, it is possible to consider the recommended concentration of fatty acid below the threshold of susceptibility.

  1. Increasing emitter efficiency in 3.3-kV enhanced trench IGBTs for higher short-circuit capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Rahimo, Munaf

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a 3.3-kV Enhanced Trench IGBT has been designed with a high emitter efficiency, for improving its short-circuit robustness. The carrier distribution profile has been shaped in a way that it is possible to increase the electric field at the surface of the IGBT, and thereby, counteract...... the Kirk Effect onset. This design approach is beneficial for mitigating high-frequency oscillations, typically observed in IGBTs under short-circuit conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed design rule is validated by means of mixed-mode device simulations. Then, two IGBTs have been fabricated...... with different emitter efficiencies and tested under short circuit, validating that the high-frequency oscillations can be mitigated, with higher emitter efficiency IGBT designs....

  2. Active link selection for efficient semi-supervised community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Jin, Di; Wang, Xiao; Cao, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    Several semi-supervised community detection algorithms have been proposed recently to improve the performance of traditional topology-based methods. However, most of them focus on how to integrate supervised information with topology information; few of them pay attention to which information is critical for performance improvement. This leads to large amounts of demand for supervised information, which is expensive or difficult to obtain in most fields. For this problem we propose an active link selection framework, that is we actively select the most uncertain and informative links for human labeling for the efficient utilization of the supervised information. We also disconnect the most likely inter-community edges to further improve the efficiency. Our main idea is that, by connecting uncertain nodes to their community hubs and disconnecting the inter-community edges, one can sharpen the block structure of adjacency matrix more efficiently than randomly labeling links as the existing methods did. Experiments on both synthetic and real networks demonstrate that our new approach significantly outperforms the existing methods in terms of the efficiency of using supervised information. It needs ~13% of the supervised information to achieve a performance similar to that of the original semi-supervised approaches. PMID:25761385

  3. Development of a low-cost biogas filtration system to achieve higher-power efficient AC generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Edison E.; Ardaniel, Ar-Ar S.; Leguid, Jeanlou G.; Loyola, Andrea T.

    2018-02-01

    The paper focuses on the development of a low-cost biogas filtration system for alternating current generator to achieve higher efficiency in terms of power production. A raw biogas energy comprises of 57% combustible element and 43% non-combustible elements containing carbon dioxide (36%), water vapor (5%), hydrogen sulfide (0.5%), nitrogen (1%), oxygen (0 - 2%), and ammonia (0 - 1%). The filtration system composes of six stages: stage 1 is the water scrubber filter intended to remove the carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen sulfide; stage 2 is the silica gel filter intended to reduce the water vapor; stage 3 is the iron sponge filter intended to remove the remaining hydrogen sulfide; stage 4 is the sodium hydroxide solution filter intended to remove the elemental sulfur formed during the interaction of the hydrogen sulfide and the iron sponge and for further removal of carbon dioxide; stage 5 is the silica gel filter intended to further eliminate the water vapor gained in stage 4; and, stage 6 is the activated carbon filter intended to remove the carbon dioxide. The filtration system was able to lower the non-combustible elements by 72% and thus, increasing the combustible element by 54.38%. The unfiltered biogas is capable of generating 16.3 kW while the filtered biogas is capable of generating 18.6 kW. The increased in methane concentration resulted to 14.11% increase in the power output. The outcome resulted to better engine performance in the generation of electricity.

  4. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  5. Sparse Contextual Activation for Efficient Visual Re-Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Song; Bai, Xiang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an extremely efficient algorithm for visual re-ranking. By considering the original pairwise distance in the contextual space, we develop a feature vector called sparse contextual activation (SCA) that encodes the local distribution of an image. Hence, re-ranking task can be simply accomplished by vector comparison under the generalized Jaccard metric, which has its theoretical meaning in the fuzzy set theory. In order to improve the time efficiency of re-ranking procedure, inverted index is successfully introduced to speed up the computation of generalized Jaccard metric. As a result, the average time cost of re-ranking for a certain query can be controlled within 1 ms. Furthermore, inspired by query expansion, we also develop an additional method called local consistency enhancement on the proposed SCA to improve the retrieval performance in an unsupervised manner. On the other hand, the retrieval performance using a single feature may not be satisfactory enough, which inspires us to fuse multiple complementary features for accurate retrieval. Based on SCA, a robust feature fusion algorithm is exploited that also preserves the characteristic of high time efficiency. We assess our proposed method in various visual re-ranking tasks. Experimental results on Princeton shape benchmark (3D object), WM-SRHEC07 (3D competition), YAEL data set B (face), MPEG-7 data set (shape), and Ukbench data set (image) manifest the effectiveness and efficiency of SCA.

  6. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  7. Optimization of Multi-layer Active Magnetic Regenerator towards Compact and Efficient Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic refrigerators can theoretically be more efficient than current vapor compression systems and use no vapor refrigerants with global warming potential. The core component, the active magnetic regenerator (AMR) operates based on the magnetocaloric effect of magnetic materials and the heat r....... In addition, simulations are carried out to investigate the potential of applying nanofluid in future magnetic refrigerators.......Magnetic refrigerators can theoretically be more efficient than current vapor compression systems and use no vapor refrigerants with global warming potential. The core component, the active magnetic regenerator (AMR) operates based on the magnetocaloric effect of magnetic materials and the heat...... their Curie temperature. Simulations are implemented to investigate how to layer the FOPT materials for obtaining higher cooling capacity. Moreover, based on entropy generation minimization, optimization of the regenerator geometry and related operating parameters is presented for improving the AMR efficiency...

  8. Approximate determination of efficiency for activity measurements of cylindrical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbig, W [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Bothe, M [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Some calibration samples are necessary with the same geometrical parameters but of different materials, containing known activities A homogeniously distributed. Their densities are measured, their mass absorption coefficients may be unknown. These calibration samples are positioned in the counting geometry, for instance directly on the detector. The efficiency function {epsilon}(E) for each sample is gained by measuring the gamma spectra and evaluating all usable gamma energy peaks. From these {epsilon}(E) the common valid {epsilon}{sub geom}(E) will be deduced. For this purpose the functions {epsilon}{sub mu}(E) for these samples have to be established. (orig.)

  9. CNTs-Modified Nb3O7F Hybrid Nanocrystal towards Faster Carrier Migration, Lower Bandgap and Higher Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Li, Zhen; Yan, Aihua; Zhao, Hui; Liang, Huagen; Gao, Qingyu; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2017-01-06

    Novel semiconductor photocatalysts have been the research focus and received much attention in recent years. The key issues for novel semiconductor photocatalysts are to effectively harvest solar energy and enhance the separation efficiency of the electron-hole pairs. In this work, novel Nb 3 O 7 F/CNTs hybrid nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity have been successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal plus etching technique. The important finding is that appropriate pH values lead to the formation of Nb 3 O 7 F nanocrystal directly. A general strategy to introdue interaction between Nb 3 O 7 F and CNTs markedly enhances the photocatalytic activity of Nb 3 O 7 F. Comparatively, Nb 3 O 7 F/CNTs nanocomposites exhibit higher photodegradation efficiency and faster photodegradation rate in the solution of methylene blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation. The higher photocatalytic activity may be attributed to more exposed active sites, higher carrier migration and narrower bandgap because of good synergistic effect. The results here may inspire more engineering, new design and facile fabrication of novel photocatalysts with highly photocatalytic activity.

  10. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance – Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Andersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    % of expected learning within one school year (P breakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three...

  11. Activity-Based Management System Implementation in Higher Education Institution: Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Azizi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how activity-based costing (ABC) technique can be applied in the context of higher education institutions. It also discusses the obstacles and challenges to the successful implementation of activity-based management (ABM) in the higher education environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper…

  12. Higher energy efficient homes are associated with increased risk of doctor diagnosed asthma in a UK subpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard A; Thornton, Christopher R; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J

    2015-02-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) has one of the highest prevalence of asthma in the world, which represents a significant economic and societal burden. Reduced ventilation resulting from increased energy efficiency measures acts as a modifier for mould contamination and risk of allergic diseases. To our knowledge no previous study has combined detailed asset management property and health data together to assess the impact of household energy efficiency (using the UK Government's Standard Assessment Procedure) on asthma outcomes in an adult population residing in social housing. Postal questionnaires were sent to 3867 social housing properties to collect demographic, health and environmental information on all occupants. Detailed property data, residency periods, indices of multiple deprivation (IMD) and household energy efficiency ratings were also investigated. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals while allowing for clustering of individuals coming from the same location. Eighteen percent of our target social housing population were recruited into our study. Adults had a mean age of 59 (SD±17.3) years and there was a higher percentage of female (59%) and single occupancy (58%) respondents. Housing demographic characteristics were representative of the target homes. A unit increase in household Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) rating was associated with a 2% increased risk of current asthma, with the greatest risk in homes with SAP >71. We assessed exposure to mould and found that the presence of a mouldy/musty odour was associated with a two-fold increased risk of asthma (OR 2.2 95%; CI 1.3-3.8). A unit increase in SAP led to a 4-5% reduction in the risk of visible mould growth and a mouldy/musty odour. In contrast to previous research, we report that residing in energy efficient homes may increase the risk of adult asthma. We report that mould contamination increased the risk of asthma, which is in agreement with existing

  13. USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATIONAL EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES IN HIGHER TOURIST INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia O. Matviyiv-Lozynska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with extracurricular educational activities in higher educational establishment of tourism profile with information technologies usage. It is known that extracurricular activities of higher educational establishment has an impact on the professional activities of future specialists in the tourism industry, as is in the process of extracurricular activities students can put into practice the obtained knowledge and skills. The task of teachers is to build a learning process, in particular activities outside classrooms as its component, so that the students were interested in it. In the modern world of tourism prosperity it is very difficult to do without the usage of multimedia technologies (internet, media, etc.

  14. Production and efficiency of organic compost generated by millipede activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Sousa Antunes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The putrefactive activity of organisms such as diplopods in the edaphic macrof auna can be leveraged to promote the transformation of agricultural and urban waste into a low-cost substrate for the production of vegetable seedlings. This research aimed to evaluate: (1 the quantity of Gervais millipedes ( Trigoniulus corallinus needed to produce an acceptable quantity of organic compost; (2 the main physical and chemical characteristics of different compost types; and (3 compost efficiency in the production of lettuce seedlings. The first experiment lasted 90 days and was conducted using 6.5L of Gliricidia, 6.5L of Flemingia, 13.5L of grass cuttings, 4.5L of cardboard, 4.5L of coconut husk, and 4.5L of corncob. Treatments consisting of 0, 0.10, 0.30, 0.50, and 0.90L of millipedes were applied. This experiment compared millicompost and vermicompost, using four repetitions. After 23 days, the heights of grown lettuce plants and the weights of the fresh and dry mass of above ground lettuce and of the roots were assessed. A millipede volume of 0.1L proved to be sufficient for the production of an acceptable volume of organic compost. However, the addition of greater volumes leads to increased calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous content. Millicompost has similar physicochemical characteristics those of vermicompost, and both are equally efficient as a substrate for the production of lettuce seedlings.

  15. Energy efficiency and human activity: Past trends, future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.; Howarth, R.B.; Steiner, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book, sponsored by the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI), presents a detailed analysis of changes in world energy use over the past twenty years. It considers the future prospects of energy demand, and discusses ways of restraining growth in consumption in order to meet environmental and economic development goals. Based on a decade of research by the authors and their colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in collaboration with the SEI, it presents information on energy use and the forces shaping it in the industrial, developing, and formerly planned economies. Looking separately at industry, passenger travel, freight transport, and the residential and service sectors, the authors describe the impact on energy use of growth in activity, structural change, and change in energy intensities, and discuss the role of energy prices and energy conservation policies in the industrial countries and the former Soviet Union. The book presents an overview of the potential for improving energy efficiency, and discusses the policies that could help realize the potential. While calling for strong action by governments and the private sector, the authors stress the importance of considering the full range of factors that will shape realization of the energy efficiency potential around the world

  16. Modified A{sup ++}-standard refrigerator with 30% reduction of energy consumption. Higher efficiency by compressor modification - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, M.; Stahl, S.; Ganz, J.

    2010-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how a modified refrigerator can be given a higher efficiency by modifying the compressor. The modified refrigerator was fitted with a variable-speed compressor. This compressor could be run at much lower speeds so that it was in operation for up to 90% of the time. It was shown that less electricity was consumed the more the compressor ran. The report discusses the aims of the work and presents details on the standard refrigerator used for the tests. The compressor normally used and the variable-speed compressor used in the test are described. Systems for temperature control and data acquisition during the tests are described. The results obtained are examined and the influence of various factors is discussed.

  17. Efficient modeling for pulsed activation in inertial fusion energy reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, J.; Yuste, P.; Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    First structural wall material (FSW) materials in inertial fusion energy (IFE) power reactors will be irradiated under typical repetition rates of 1-10 Hz, for an operation time as long as the total reactor lifetime. The main objective of the present work is to determine whether a continuous-pulsed (CP) approach can be an efficient method in modeling the pulsed activation process for operating conditions of FSW materials. The accuracy and practicability of this method was investigated both analytically and (for reaction/decay chains of two and three nuclides) by computational simulation. It was found that CP modeling is an accurate and practical method for calculating the neutron-activation of FSW materials. Its use is recommended instead of the equivalent steady-state method or the exact pulsed modeling. Moreover, the applicability of this method to components of an IFE power plant subject to repetition rates lower than those of the FSW is still being studied. The analytical investigation was performed for 0.05 Hz, which could be typical for the coolant. Conclusions seem to be similar to those obtained for the FSW. However, further future work is needed for a final answer

  18. Active carbon supported molybdenum carbides for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Chiarello, Gian Luca; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    This work provides an investigation of the high pressure CO hydrogenation to higher alcohols on K2CO3 promoted active carbon supported molybdenum carbide. Both activity and selectivity to alcohols over supported molybdenum carbides increased significantly compared to bulk carbides in literatures...

  19. Physical activity in schizophrenia is higher in the first episode than in subsequent ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eWalther

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is frequently associated with abnormal motor behavior, particularly hypokinesia. The course of the illness tends to deteriorate in the first years. We aimed to assess gross motor activity in patients with a first episode (n = 33 and multiple episodes (n = 115 of schizophrenia spectrum disorders using wrist actigraphy. First episode patients were younger, had higher motor activity and reduced negative symptom severity. Covarying for age, chlorpromazine equivalents and negative symptoms, first episode patients still had higher motor activity. This was also true after excluding patients with schizophreniform disorder from the analyses. In first episode patients but not in patients with multiple episodes, motor activity was correlated with antipsychotic dosage. In conclusion, after controlling for variables related to disorder chronicity, patients with first episodes were still more active than patients with multiple episodes. Thus, reduced motor activity is a marker of deterioration in the course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  20. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity...... in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance...... causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self...

  1. SCIENTIFIC AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION: THE ESSENCE AND INTERACTION OF THE COMPONENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Meniailo, Viktorija

    2017-01-01

    One of the main directions of state policy in education is the development of scientific and innovation activities at institutions of higher education. It imposes on them additional features related to the inclusion of scientific activities in universities united innovative process for the creating and practical application of new knowledge. The purpose of the article is to establish the relationship between scientific and innovation activities and clarify the essence of scientific and innova...

  2. Efficient peroxydisulfate activation process not relying on sulfate radical generation for water pollutant degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Yin; Wang, Yuru; Le Roux, Julien; Yang, Yang; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-20

    Peroxydisulfate (PDS) is an appealing oxidant for contaminated groundwater and toxic industrial wastewaters. Activation of PDS is necessary for application because of its low reactivity. Present activation processes always generate sulfate radicals as actual oxidants which unselectively oxidize organics and halide anions reducing oxidation capacity of PDS and producing toxic halogenated products. Here we report that copper oxide (CuO) can efficiently activate PDS under mild conditions without producing sulfate radicals. The PDS/CuO coupled process is most efficient at neutral pH for decomposing a model compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). In a continuous-flow reaction with an empty-bed contact time of 0.55 min, over 90% of 2,4-DCP (initially 20 μM) and 90% of adsorbable organic chlorine (AOCl) can be removed at the PDS/2,4-DCP molar ratio of 1 and 4, respectively. Based on kinetic study and surface characterization, PDS is proposed to be first activated by CuO through outer-sphere interaction, the rate-limiting step, followed by a rapid reaction with 2,4-DCP present in the solution. In the presence of ubiquitous chloride ions in groundwater/industrial wastewater, the PDS/CuO oxidation shows significant advantages over sulfate radical oxidation by achieving much higher 2,4-DCP degradation capacity and avoiding the formation of highly chlorinated degradation products. This work provides a new way of PDS activation for contaminant removal.

  3. Enhancing efficiency of production cost on seafood process with activity based management method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, U.; Tarigan, U. P. P.

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency of production costs has an important impact maintaining company presence in the business world, as well as in the face of increasingly sharp global competition. It was done by identifying and reducing non-value-added activities to decrease production costs and increase profits. The study was conducted at a company engaged in the production of squid (seafood). It has a higher product price than the market as Rp 50,000 per kg while the market price of squid is only Rp 35,000 per kg. The price of the product to be more expensive compared with market price, and thereby a lot more consumers choose the lower market price. Based on the discussions conducted, the implementation of Activity Based Management was seen in the reduction of activities that are not added value in the production process. Since each activities consumers cost, the reduction of nonvalue-added activities has effects on the decline of production cost. The production’s decline costs mainly occur in the reduction of material transfer costs. The results showed that there was an increase after the improvement of 2.60%. Increased production cost efficiency causes decreased production costs and increased profits.

  4. Efficient universal computing architectures for decoding neural activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin I Rapoport

    Full Text Available The ability to decode neural activity into meaningful control signals for prosthetic devices is critical to the development of clinically useful brain- machine interfaces (BMIs. Such systems require input from tens to hundreds of brain-implanted recording electrodes in order to deliver robust and accurate performance; in serving that primary function they should also minimize power dissipation in order to avoid damaging neural tissue; and they should transmit data wirelessly in order to minimize the risk of infection associated with chronic, transcutaneous implants. Electronic architectures for brain- machine interfaces must therefore minimize size and power consumption, while maximizing the ability to compress data to be transmitted over limited-bandwidth wireless channels. Here we present a system of extremely low computational complexity, designed for real-time decoding of neural signals, and suited for highly scalable implantable systems. Our programmable architecture is an explicit implementation of a universal computing machine emulating the dynamics of a network of integrate-and-fire neurons; it requires no arithmetic operations except for counting, and decodes neural signals using only computationally inexpensive logic operations. The simplicity of this architecture does not compromise its ability to compress raw neural data by factors greater than [Formula: see text]. We describe a set of decoding algorithms based on this computational architecture, one designed to operate within an implanted system, minimizing its power consumption and data transmission bandwidth; and a complementary set of algorithms for learning, programming the decoder, and postprocessing the decoded output, designed to operate in an external, nonimplanted unit. The implementation of the implantable portion is estimated to require fewer than 5000 operations per second. A proof-of-concept, 32-channel field-programmable gate array (FPGA implementation of this portion

  5. Efficient Fludarabine-Activating PNP From Archaea as a Guidance for Redesign the Active Site of E. Coli PNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciapuoti, Giovanna; Bagarolo, Maria Libera; Martino, Elisa; Scafuri, Bernardina; Marabotti, Anna; Porcelli, Marina

    2016-05-01

    The combination of the gene of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from Escherichia coli and fludarabine represents one of the most promising systems in the gene therapy of solid tumors. The use of fludarabine in gene therapy is limited by the lack of an enzyme that is able to efficiently activate this prodrug which, consequently, has to be administered in high doses that cause serious side effects. In an attempt to identify enzymes with a better catalytic efficiency than E. coli PNP towards fludarabine to be used as a guidance on how to improve the activity of the bacterial enzyme, we have selected 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (SsMTAP) and 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase II (SsMTAPII), two PNPs isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. Substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency of SsMTAP and SsMTAPII for fludarabine were analyzed by kinetic studies and compared with E. coli PNP. SsMTAP and SsMTAPII share with E. coli PNP a comparable low affinity for the arabinonucleoside but are better catalysts of fludarabine cleavage with k(cat)/K(m) values that are 12.8-fold and 6-fold higher, respectively, than those reported for the bacterial enzyme. A computational analysis of the interactions of fludarabine in the active sites of E. coli PNP, SsMTAP, and SsMTAPII allowed to identify the crucial residues involved in the binding with this substrate, and provided structural information to improve the catalytic efficiency of E. coli PNP by enzyme redesign. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Towards higher transparency and efficiency in energy taxation. Energy taxation and environmental policy in a small open economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, Goeran

    2002-01-01

    The accrual of energy taxation has led to a complex structure of taxes and charges that are characterized by instability and low efficiency. Other reasons for analyzing the system is the pressure from our contractual responsibilities within the European Union and the raised ambitions in the environmental policy. The report leads to the conclusion that it would be motivated to separate fiscal energy taxation from measures to internalize environmental costs that the market does not register. This separation would make it possible to create a more transparent and rational energy taxation. The fiscal energy taxation ought to be a broad, value-based tax, equal for all energy sources. Value-based means, besides the energy content in kWh, also properties such as conversion and distribution costs. Two alternatives are suggested for the fiscal energy taxation: A separate consumption tax on energy. Such a tax would amount to 48% to produce the same income as the fiscal elements of today's energy taxes. Another alternative would be to include the fiscal energy tax in the value added tax. This would raise the standard VAT level to 30%, if the lower VAT levels are kept unchanged. With this model, consumption of energy would be treated as any other consumption. The environmental policy measures against greenhouse gases should be delt with through a system with international trade with emission quotas for such gases. Measures against other external effects from energy use are not suggested in this report, except for the opinion that economic incentives are preferable to regulations. The initial allocation of quotas ought to be done through an auction, since this method would give lower national costs than the alternatives. The system should cover all greenhouse gases and (almost) all sources which indicates that an upstream solution would be best with low administrative costs. A safety vent should be considered, so that extreme costs for CO 2 -emissions are avoided, if e.g. the

  7. Temperature dependent investigation on optically active process of higher-order bands in irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yi; Nanjing Univ., JS; Wu Fengmei; Nanjing Univ., JS; Zheng Youdou; Nanjing Univ., JS; Suezawa, M.; Imai, M.; Sumino, K.

    1996-01-01

    Optically active processes of the higher-order bands (HOB) are investigated at different temperatures in fast neutron irradiated silicon using Fourier transform infrared absorption measurement. It is shown that the optically active process is nearly temperature independent below 80 K, the slow decay process remains up to a heating temperature of 180 K. The observations are analyzed in terms of the relaxation behavior of photoexcited carriers governed by fast neutron radiation induced defect clusters. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of the Higher Education Active Community Fund Project in Bournemouth

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolakis, Christos

    2005-01-01

    This report evaluates the Higher Education Active Community Fund (HEACF) Project from its first year in September 2002 to May 2005.The principle objective of the study was to evaluate the implementation of the HEACF project, its impact and its capacity to achieve the aims during this time. Based on research evidence the HEACF project introduced a holistic and systematic way of organising and developing volunteer activity at Bournemouth University. In addition to this, the project provided an ...

  9. Collaborative learning in higher education : design, implementation and evaluation of group learning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hei, de M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    In higher education, group learning activities (GLAs) are frequently implemented in online, blended or face-to-face educational contexts. A major problem for the design and implementation of good quality GLAs that lead to the desired learning outcomes is that many approaches to GLAs have been

  10. Pavlov's Position on Old Age within the Framework of the Theory of Higher Nervous Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, George

    1995-01-01

    In later life, I. P. Pavlov incorporated his findings on aging into his theory of higher nervous activity. Some of the major findings showed that salivary conditioning and stimulus differentiation were difficult to establish in old dogs, but that conditioned reflexes established earlier in life persisted into old age. Pavlov hypothesized that…

  11. Activated Carbon-Fly Ash-Nanometal Oxide Composite Materials: Preparation, Characterization, and Tributyltin Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olushola S. Ayanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties, nature, and morphology of composite materials involving activated carbon, fly ash, nFe3O4, nSiO2, and nZnO were investigated and compared. Nature and morphology characterizations were carried out by means of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Other physicochemical characterizations undertaken were CNH analysis, ash content, pH, point of zero charge, and surface area and porosity determination by BET. Experimental results obtained revealed that activated carbon, nSiO2, activated carbon-fly ash, activated carbon-fly ash-nFe3O4, activated carbon-fly ash-nSiO2, and activated carbon-fly ash-nZnO composite materials exhibited net negative charge on their surfaces while fly ash, nFe3O4, and nZnO possessed net positive charge on their surfaces. Relatively higher removal efficiency (>99% of TBT was obtained for all the composite materials compared to their respective precursors except for activated carbon. These composite materials therefore offer great potential for the remediation of TBT in wastewaters.

  12. NAC selectively inhibit cancer telomerase activity: A higher redox homeostasis threshold exists in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengying Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase activity controls telomere length, and this plays an important role in stem cells, aging and tumors. Antioxidant was shown to protect telomerase activity in normal cells but inhibit that in cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism is elusive. Here we found that 7721 hepatoma cells held a higher redox homeostasis threshold than L02 normal liver cells which caused 7721 cells to have a higher demand for ROS; MnSOD over-expression in 7721 decreased endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS and inhibited telomerase activity; Akt phosphorylation inhibitor and NAC both inhibited 7721 telomerase activity. The over-elimination of ROS by NAC resulted in the inhibition of Akt pathway. Our results suggest that ROS is involved in the regulation of cancer telomerase activity through Akt pathway. The different intracellular redox homeostasis and antioxidant system in normal cells and tumor cells may be the cause of the opposite effect on telomerase activity in response to NAC treatment. Our results provide a theoretical base of using antioxidants selectively inhibit cancer telomerase activity. Findings of the present study may provide insights into novel approaches for cancer treatment.

  13. Double perovskites overtaking the single perovskites: A set of new solar harvesting materials with much higher stability and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangsabanik, Jiban; Sugathan, Vipinraj; Yadav, Anuradha; Yella, Aswani; Alam, Aftab

    2018-05-01

    Solar energy plays an important role in substituting the ever declining source of fossil fuel energy. Finding novel materials for solar cell applications is an integral part of photovoltaic research. Hybrid lead halide perovskites are one of, if not the most, well sought material in the photovoltaic research community. Its unique intrinsic properties, flexible synthesis techniques, and device fabrication architecture made the community highly buoyant over the past few years. Yet, there are two fundamental issues that still remain a concern, i.e., the stability in external environment and the toxicity due to Pb. This led to a search for alternative materials. More recently, double perovskite [A2B B'X6 (X =Cl, Br, I)] materials have emerged as a promising choice. Few experimental synthesis and high throughput computational studies have been carried out to check for promising candidates of this class. The main outcome from these studies, however, can essentially be summarized into two categories: (i) either they have an indirect band gap or (ii) a direct but large optical band gap, which is not suitable for solar devices. Here we propose a large set of stable double perovskite materials, Cs2B B 'X6 (X =Cl, Br, I), which show indirect to direct band gap transition via small Pb+2 doping at both B and B'sites. This is done by careful band (orbital) engineering using first-principles calculations. This kind of doping has helped to change the topology of the band structure, triggering an indirect to direct transition that is optically allowed. It also reduces the band gap significantly, bringing it well into the visible region. We also simulated the optical absorption spectra of these systems and found a comparable/higher absorption coefficient and solar efficiency with respect to the state of the art photovoltaic absorber material CH3NH3PbI3 . A number of materials Cs2(B0.75Pb0.25) (B0.75'Pb0.25) X6 (for various combinations of B ,B ', and X ) are found to be promising

  14. Active Site Flexibility as a Hallmark for Efficient PET Degradation by I. sakaiensis PETase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecker, Tobias; Galaz-Davison, Pablo; Engelberger, Felipe; Narui, Yoshie; Sotomayor, Marcos; Parra, Loreto P; Ramírez-Sarmiento, César A

    2018-03-27

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most-consumed synthetic polymers, with an annual production of 50 million tons. Unfortunately, PET accumulates as waste and is highly resistant to biodegradation. Recently, fungal and bacterial thermophilic hydrolases were found to catalyze PET hydrolysis with optimal activities at high temperatures. Strikingly, an enzyme from Ideonella sakaiensis, termed PETase, was described to efficiently degrade PET at room temperature, but the molecular basis of its activity is not currently understood. Here, a crystal structure of PETase was determined at 2.02 Å resolution and employed in molecular dynamics simulations showing that the active site of PETase has higher flexibility at room temperature than its thermophilic counterparts. This flexibility is controlled by a novel disulfide bond in its active site, with its removal leading to destabilization of the catalytic triad and reduction of the hydrolase activity. Molecular docking of a model substrate predicts that PET binds to PETase in a unique and energetically favorable conformation facilitated by several residue substitutions within its active site when compared to other enzymes. These computational predictions are in excellent agreement with recent mutagenesis and PET film degradation analyses. Finally, we rationalize the increased catalytic activity of PETase at room temperature through molecular dynamics simulations of enzyme-ligand complexes for PETase and other thermophilic PET-degrading enzymes at 298, 323, and 353 K. Our results reveal that both the binding pose and residue substitutions within PETase favor proximity between the catalytic residues and the labile carbonyl of the substrate at room temperature, suggesting a more favorable hydrolytic reaction. These results are valuable for enabling detailed evolutionary analysis of PET-degrading enzymes and for rational design endeavors aiming at increasing the efficiency of PETase and similar enzymes toward plastic

  15. Efficient adsorption of Hg (II) ions in water by activated carbon modified with melamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hangdao; Meng, Jingling; Chen, Jing

    2018-04-01

    Removal of Hg (II) ions from industrial wastewater is important for the water treatment, and adsorption is an efficient treatment process. Activated carbon (AC) was modified with melamine, which introduced nitrogen-containing functional groups onto AC surface. Original AC and melamine modified activated carbon (ACM) were characterized by elemental analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption, determination of the pH of the point of zero charge (pHpzc) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and their performance in the adsorption of Hg(II) ions was investigated. Langmuir model fitted the experimental data of equilibrium isotherms well. ACM showed the higher Hg (II) ions adsorption capacity, increasing more than more than 1.8 times compared to the original one. Moreover, ACM showed a wider pH range for the maximum adsorption than the parent AC.

  16. Efficiency of inactivation of trypsin inhibitory activity in some selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypsin inhibitor (TI) levels in the crop seeds varied between 0.0 in Adansonia digitata and 40.8 TIU/mg in Pterocarpus osun. Efficiency of inactivation of TI by autoclaving ranged from 58.1% in Millettia thonningii to 100% in Sesbania pachycarpa and Lonchocarpus. sericeus. It is concluded that the effect of heat treatment on ...

  17. Simple and efficient methods for isolation and activity measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... Key words: Hirudin, thrombin titration method, chromatography, purification. INTRODUCTION. Since recombinant ... Escherichia coli in 1986, intensive research had been .... mixed with 50 µl sample was incubated in 37°C water for 5 min, then 5 µl .... conclusion, the concise and efficient isolation line of the.

  18. Methodical Approach to Diagnostics of Efficiency of Production Economic Activity of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Andrii V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article offers developments of a methodical approach to diagnostics of efficiency of production economic activity of an enterprise, which, unlike the existing ones, is realised through the following stages: analysis of the enterprise external environment; analysis of the enterprise internal environment; identification of components of efficiency of production economic activity for carrying out complex diagnostics by the following directions: efficiency of subsystems of the enterprise production economic activity, efficiency of use of separate types of resources and socio-economic efficiency; scorecard formation; study of tendencies of change of indicators; identification of cause-effect dependencies between the main components of efficiency for diagnosing reasons of its level; diagnosing deviations of indicator values from their optimal values; development of a managerial decision on preserving and increasing efficiency of production economic activity of the enterprise.

  19. How efficient are municipalities in activating cash-help recipients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, James; Beltov, Tor

    Previous studies do not analyse activation starts as the parameter of interest in evaluating labour market programs. In this paper we evaluate municipality ability to activate cash-help recipients, which helps recipients gain the necessary skills vital to future regular employment in Denmark...... policy (ALMP) practices and organisation can only determine activation participation to a certain extent because unemployed cash-help recipient ability affects participation in activation. Municipalities can improve activation efficiency levels in the future by emulating the efficient municipalities...

  20. Active sources in the cutoff of centrifugal fans to reduce the blade tones at higher-order duct mode frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neise, W.; Koopmann, G. H.

    1991-01-01

    A previously developed (e.g., Neise and Koopmann, 1984; Koopmann et al., 1988) active noise control technique in which the unwanted acoustic signals from centrifugal fans are suppressed by placing two externally driven sources near the cutoff of the casing was applied to the frequency region where not only plane sound waves are propagational in the fan ducts but also higher-order acoustic modes. Using a specially designed fan noise testing facility, the performance of two fans (280-mm impeller diam and 508 mm diam) was monitored with static pressure taps mounted peripherally around the inlet nozzle. Experimental results show that the aerodynamically generated source pressure field around the cutoff is too complex to be successfully counterimaged by only two active sources introduced in this region. It is suggested that, for an efficient application of this noise control technique in the higher-order mode frequency regime, it is neccessary to use an active source involving larger number of individually driven loudspeakers.

  1. Enzymatic digestive activity and absorption efficiency in Tagelus dombeii upon Alexandrium catenella exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Reiriz, M. J.; Navarro, J. M.; Cisternas, B. A.; Babarro, J. M. F.; Labarta, U.

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed absorption efficiency (AE) and digestive enzyme activity (amylase, cellulase complex, and laminarinase) of the infaunal bivalve Tagelus dombeii originating from two geographic sites, Corral-Valdivia and Melinka-Aysén, which have different long-term paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) exposure rates. We report the effects of past feeding history (origin) on T. dombeii exposed to a mixed diet containing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and another dinoflagellate-free control diet over a 12-day period in the laboratory. Absorption efficiency values of T. dombeii individuals that experienced PSP exposure in their habitat (Melinka-Aysén) remained unchanged during exposure to toxic food in the laboratory. In contrast, T. dombeii from a non-PSP exposure field site (Corral-Valdivia) showed a significant reduction in AE with toxic exposure time. This study established that the amylase and cellulase complexes were the most important enzymes in the digestive glands of Tagelus from both sites. The temporal evolution of enzymatic activity under toxic diet was fitted to exponential (amylase and cellulase) and to a logarithmic (laminarinase) models. In all fits, we found significant effect of origin in the model parameters. At the beginning of the experiment, higher enzymatic activity was observed for clams from Corral-Valdivia. The amylase activity decreased with time exposure for individuals from Corral and increased for individuals from Melinka. Cellulase activity did not vary over time for clams from Corral, but increased for individuals from Melinka and laminarinase activity decreased over time for individuals from Corral and remained unchanged over time for Melinka. A feeding history of exposure to the dinoflagellate A. catenella was reflected in the digestive responses of both T. dombeii populations.

  2. Higher Physical Activity Is Associated With Lower Aortic Stiffness but Not With Central Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Wiinberg, Niels

    2015-01-01

    .47; -0.03). Associations with central systolic blood pressure and central pulse pressure were not statistically significant. We observed no difference in central hemodynamics when substituting 1 hour sedentary behavior with 1 hour light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. In this relatively...... was assessed by applanation tonometry, as aortic pulse wave velocity, and central blood pressure was estimated from radial waveforms. Associations between physical activity energy expenditure and central hemodynamics were examined by linear regression. Furthermore, the consequence of substituting 1 hour...... sedentary behavior with 1 hour light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on central hemodynamics was examined. Median physical activity energy expenditure was 28.0 kJ/kg/d (IQR: 19.8; 38.7). A 10 kJ/kg/d higher energy expenditure was associated with 0.75% lower aortic pulse wave velocity (CI: -1...

  3. Designing Efficient Self-Diagnosis Activities in the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Rafi'

    2017-01-01

    Self-diagnosis (SD) activities require students to self-diagnose their solutions to problems that they solved on their own. This involves identifying where they went wrong and then explaining the nature of their errors--why they went wrong--aided by some form of support. Worked examples (WEs) are often used to support students in SD activities. A…

  4. Higher energy efficiency in administrative and office buildings. Optimisation of primary energy consumption and economic efficiency; Energieeffiziente Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeude. Hinweise zur primaerenergetischen und wirtschaftlichen Optimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knissel, J.

    1999-12-15

    The study investigates measures to reduce primary energy consumption in administrative and office buildings and their effects in terms of economic efficiency. An exemplary office building is modernised step by step while recording the changes in the primary energy consumption coefficient. [German] In der vorliegenden Studie wird untersucht, wie weit und mit welchen Massnahmen der Primaerenergiebedarf von Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeuden gesenkt werden kann und welche Auswirkungen dies auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit hat. Hierzu wird die energetische Ausfuehrungsqualitaet eines einfachen Beispielgebaeudes schrittweise verbessert und die Veraenderung des Primaerenergiekennwertes ermittelt. (orig.)

  5. Efficient peroxydisulfate activation process not relying on sulfate radical generation for water pollutant degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2014-05-20

    Peroxydisulfate (PDS) is an appealing oxidant for contaminated groundwater and toxic industrial wastewaters. Activation of PDS is necessary for application because of its low reactivity. Present activation processes always generate sulfate radicals as actual oxidants which unselectively oxidize organics and halide anions reducing oxidation capacity of PDS and producing toxic halogenated products. Here we report that copper oxide (CuO) can efficiently activate PDS under mild conditions without producing sulfate radicals. The PDS/CuO coupled process is most efficient at neutral pH for decomposing a model compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). In a continuous-flow reaction with an empty-bed contact time of 0.55 min, over 90% of 2,4-DCP (initially 20 μM) and 90% of adsorbable organic chlorine (AOCl) can be removed at the PDS/2,4-DCP molar ratio of 1 and 4, respectively. Based on kinetic study and surface characterization, PDS is proposed to be first activated by CuO through outer-sphere interaction, the rate-limiting step, followed by a rapid reaction with 2,4-DCP present in the solution. In the presence of ubiquitous chloride ions in groundwater/industrial wastewater, the PDS/CuO oxidation shows significant advantages over sulfate radical oxidation by achieving much higher 2,4-DCP degradation capacity and avoiding the formation of highly chlorinated degradation products. This work provides a new way of PDS activation for contaminant removal. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  6. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF HIGHER EFFICIENCY IN FUNCTIONING OF ROAD-TRANSPORT COMPLEX IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Solodkaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The road-transport complex objectively reflects the essence of efficient transportation process which is carried out by transport facilities along the highways. The complex  emphasizes an equivalent contribution of transport facilities and highways in a unified transportation process. Efficiency of the state economy rigidly depends on availability of the developed and well-functioning network of highways. Countries with the developed economy which have generally finished creation of national highway networks continue to invest money in public road systems that stimulates development of industrial sectors, agriculture and trade, etc. Their progress and efficient functioning is possible only with the balanced, overall development of the road-transport complex of the country. Functioning of the road-transport complex is inextricable connected with the operation of automotive transport and road infrastructure. Interaction of these two components of the unified economic system is determined by technical characteristics of the automotive transport and transport and operational indices of  the highways. Development of methods for optimum organization of management for functioning of the road complex is considered as an important problem of the national economy while forming market economy mechanisms. Further growth of capital expenditures including  investments will be needed in order to ensure such road conditions that meet the requirements of modern and perspective road traffic. Management of the highway network conditions presupposes a selection of such set of regulatory impacts on road conditions which will allow to minimize expenses in the road-transport complex. Elaboration and realization of the most efficient repair measures serve as such regulatory impact. The purpose is achieved while solving the problem pertaining to minimization of expenses on  transportations in the road-transport complex in the process of the realization of the most

  7. Potential Biosignificant Interest and Surface Activity of Efficient Heterocyclic Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Refat; Althagafi, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Some functionalized pyridine and fused system derivatives were synthesized using enaminonitrile derivative 5 as a starting material for the reaction, with various reagents under different conditions. Propoxylation of these compounds using different moles of propylene oxide (3, 5 and 7 moles) leads to a novel group of surface active agents. The antimicrobial and surface activities of the synthesized compounds were investigated. Most of the evaluated compounds proved to be active as antibacterial and antifungal agents and showed good surface activity, which makes them suitable for diverse applications such as the manufacturing of emulsifiers, cosmetics, drugs, pesticides, etc. Additionally, biodegradation testing exhibits significant breakdown within six to seven days, and hence, lowers the toxicity to human beings and becomes environmentally friendly.

  8. Recovery efficiency test project, Phase 2 activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency of gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. This volume contains appendices for: (1) supporting material and procedures for data frac'' stimulation of zone 6 using nitrogen and nitrogen foam; (2) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 1 nitrogen gas frac on zone no. 1; (3) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 2 in zone no. 1 using liquid CO{sub 2}; (4) supporting material and procedures for frac no. 3 on zone no.1 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (5) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 4 in zones 2--3 and 4 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (6) supporting materials and procedures for stimulation no. 5 in zones 5 and 8; and (7) fracture diagnostics reports and supporting materials.

  9. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Chazdon, Robin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Sansevero, Jerônimo B B; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Strassburg, Bernardo B N

    2017-11-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested. Restoration success for biodiversity and vegetation structure was 34 to 56% and 19 to 56% higher in natural regeneration than in active restoration systems, respectively, after controlling for key biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover, precipitation, time elapsed since restoration started, and past disturbance). Biodiversity responses were based primarily on ecological metrics of abundance and species richness (74%), both of which take far less time to achieve restoration success than similarity and composition. This finding challenges the widely held notion that natural forest regeneration has limited conservation value and that active restoration should be the default ecological restoration strategy. The proposition that active restoration achieves greater restoration success than natural regeneration may have arisen because previous comparisons lacked controls for biotic and abiotic factors; we also did not find any difference between active restoration and natural regeneration outcomes for vegetation structure when we did not control for these factors. Future policy priorities should align the identified patterns of biophysical and ecological conditions where each or both restoration approaches are more successful, cost-effective, and compatible with socioeconomic incentives for tropical forest restoration.

  10. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  11. Developments in Transnational Research Collaborations: Evidence from U.S. Higher-education Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Koehn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In our knowledge-driven era, multiple and mutual benefits accrue from transnational research linkages. The article identifies important directions in transnational research collaborations involving U.S. universities revealed by key dimensions of 369 projects profiled on a U.S. higher-education association’s database. Project initiators, principal research fields, regional and country distributions, and the sources and amounts of funding for different types of transnational research activity are selected for analysis. The balanced total portfolio of reported current research projects by region suggests that U.S. university principal investigators increasingly recognize the value of collaborative knowledge generation in the Global South as well as in other OECD countries. The data also show concentrations in the distribution of transnational research projects by principal field of activity that could exacerbate intra-regional asymmetries. The multi-institutional data draw attention to the often unnoticed, but vital, role that higher-education institutions play in supporting transnational research endeavors that address issues of current and future global concern. The conclusion considers wider implications for higher-education involvement in transnational knowledge generation and calls for increased symmetry in collaborative research ventures.

  12. Higher exercise intensity delays postexercise recovery of impedance-derived cardiac sympathetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Scott; Jay, Ollie; Graham, Kenneth S; Davis, Glen M

    2017-08-01

    Systolic time intervals (STIs) provide noninvasive insights into cardiac sympathetic neural activity (cSNA). As the effect of exercise intensity on postexercise STI recovery is unclear, this study investigated the STI recovery profile after different exercise intensities. Eleven healthy males cycled for 8 min at 3 separate intensities: LOW (40%-45%), MOD (75%-80%), and HIGH (90%-95%) of heart-rate (HR) reserve. Bio-impedance cardiography was used to assess STIs - primarily pre-ejection period (PEP; inversely correlated with cSNA), as well as left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and PEP:LVET - during 10 min seated recovery immediately postexercise. Heart-rate variability (HRV), i.e., natural-logarithm of root mean square of successive differences (Ln-RMSSD), was calculated as an index of cardiac parasympathetic neural activity (cPNA). Higher preceding exercise intensity elicited a slower recovery of HR and Ln-RMSSD (p return to baseline by 10 min following any intensity (p ≤ 0.009). Recovery of STIs was also slower following higher intensity exercise (p ≤ 0.002). By 30 s postexercise, higher preceding intensity resulted in a lower PEP (98 ± 14 ms, 75 ± 6 ms, 66 ± 5 ms for LOW, MOD, and HIGH, respectively, p fashion. While exercise intensity must be considered, acute recovery may be a valuable period during which to concurrently monitor these noninvasive indices, to identify potentially abnormal cardiac autonomic responses.

  13. Development of a higher-efficiency tubular cavity receiver for direct steam generation on a dish concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, John; Hughes, Graham; Abbasi, Ehsan; Asselineau, Charles-Alexis; Burgess, Greg; Coventry, Joe; Logie, Will; Venn, Felix; Zapata, José

    2016-05-01

    An integrated model for an axisymmetric helical-coil tubular cavity receiver is presented, incorporating optical ray-tracing for incident solar flux, radiosity analysis for thermal emissions, computational fluid dynamics for external convection, and a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model for internal flow-boiling of water. A receiver efficiency of 98.7% is calculated, for an inlet/outlet temperature range of 60-500 °C, which is the ratio of fluid heating to receiver incident irradiance. The high-efficiency design makes effective use of non-uniform flux in its non-isothermal layout, matching lower temperature regions to areas of lower flux. Full-scale testing of the design will occur in late 2015.

  14. Development and application of VISAR probe with higher signal-collecting efficiency and adjusted depth of field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianheng; Sun Chengwei; Ma Ruchao

    2001-01-01

    The new design of optical fiber VISAR probes has been described. It consists of optical fibers and two lenses, and has simpler structure and lower cost than others. If the size of the image near the end face of collecting fiber is larger than the diameter of the core fiber, the distance between the probe and the target can be decreased. Requirement for the precision in the design is lower in this way, and is easier to build up. At the same time, the signal-collecting efficiency is improved in some degree. During the process of designing the probe, the technique for manufacturing the lens of plexiglass is developed. The lens of plexiglass is used to replace the lens of glass, which can reduce the cost of the probe. The factors affecting the collecting efficiency are analyzed

  15. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.—Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. PMID:26718888

  16. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.-Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. © FASEB.

  17. The Need for a Higher Fuel Efficiency of the Electricity Sector - An Analysis of Opportunities and Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimstra, J.

    2007-07-01

    The electricity sector is the single largest user of primary energy in the world. The issues of fuel prices, security of supply and greenhouse gas emissions are therefore closely connected with electricity generation. The total energy efficiency of the electricity sector is only 32.5% so that quick improvements are required. However, the uncertainty over fuel prices and technology preferences is such that most investors are hesitant. The life of existing, often low-efficiency, power plants is therefore extended. At the same time, the demand for electricity is rapidly increasing and the gap between capacity and demand decreases. This paper intends to bring more clarity into the economic and environmental boundary conditions of power plants. The goal is to find an attractive way for rapid efficiency improvement with an even better system reliability without increasing the costs. The paper discusses fuel price developments and the costs of generating technologies in connection with the typical demand pattern of electricity. Ultimately, it appears that local generation, preferably coupled with cogeneration, can be an important part of the solution. (auth)

  18. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  19. Optimisation of the Management of Higher Activity Waste in the UK - 13537

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Ciara; Buckley, Matthew [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Building 587, Curie Avenue, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The Upstream Optioneering project was created in the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (UK) to support the development and implementation of significant opportunities to optimise activities across all the phases of the Higher Activity Waste management life cycle (i.e. retrieval, characterisation, conditioning, packaging, storage, transport and disposal). The objective of the Upstream Optioneering project is to work in conjunction with other functions within NDA and the waste producers to identify and deliver solutions to optimise the management of higher activity waste. Historically, optimisation may have occurred on aspects of the waste life cycle (considered here to include retrieval, conditioning, treatment, packaging, interim storage, transport to final end state, which may be geological disposal). By considering the waste life cycle as a whole, critical analysis of assumed constraints may lead to cost savings for the UK Tax Payer. For example, it may be possible to challenge the requirements for packaging wastes for disposal to deliver an optimised waste life cycle. It is likely that the challenges faced in the UK are shared in other countries. It is therefore likely that the opportunities identified may also apply elsewhere, with the potential for sharing information to enable value to be shared. (authors)

  20. Technology performance evaluation of scientific and educational activities of scientific-pedagogical staff in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechvaya Maria, R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a performance assessment tool research and teaching staff on the basis of a rating system that allows for the analysis of the results of key personnel of the higher school for criteria and determine the size of incentive payments. The rating model wage researchers and teachers bases on strengthening the incentive function of wages, aimed at personalization of scientific and educational activities of employees, which in modern conditions is the most relevant for use. The functions of stimulation, such as economic, moral and social are considered. The analysis methodologies for assessing university in the world and national rankings on the basis of which formed a system of indicators for assessing the activities of academic staff of higher education is represented. The necessity of development of an information system through which it is possible to carry out comprehensive analysis, that is to monitor the number of registered employees, to determine the share indices in the total ranking, to conduct the ranking points received by employees by industry and science in the context of structural units. The proposed information system is one element of technology assessment of effectiveness of the academic staff designed to evaluate the effectiveness of their activities and incentives, allows the analysis of criteria, based on which can be applied informed management decisions regarding the development of social and labor relations in the highest school.

  1. The Relative Efficiency of Active Labour Market Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikström, Johan; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment, that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. We apply newly developed non...

  2. Energy conservation in industrial buildings. Higher energy efficiency with smart control systems; Energieeinsparung im Gewerbebau. Hoehere Energieeffizienz durch 'intelligente' Regeltechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Edgar [CentraLine c/o Honeywell GmbH, Schoenaich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    With smart control systems, the energy conservation potential of industrial buildings could be fully utilized. This means, e.g., that classic control algorithms must be replaced by new solutions. New methods will ensure higher energy efficiency with maximum comfort; they will also prolong the service life and the inspection intervals of the technical facilities. (orig.)

  3. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Crichton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA. We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX (n = 1331 were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  4. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ANALYSIS OF MARKETING TOOLS AND ACTIVITIES WITHIN EDUCATIONAL SERVICES ORGANIZATIONS, IN ORDER TO INCREASE THEIR EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbu Andreea Mihaela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian education, which is an important pillar for human resource forming process and the basis for economic development, suffered a lot of changes in the last decades. The main factors that have influenced the undergraduate and university training programs are the political and social-cultural ones. Educational services organizations are facing various challenges as: creating and maintaining a good institutional image, managing all types of resources efficiently, motivating the academic personnel, satisfying the community needs and supporting the public policy. The marketing tools and activities help these entities to improve the educational programs and adapt them to the individual needs of the clients, to keep under control the production costs, which are limited by the small public budget and to perform and promote these services efficiently, leading to an increased organizational performance. The paper begins by presenting the current situation of higher education in Romania, underlining the fierce competition among the universities, the increased market potential and the financing sources. It continues by mentioning the advantages of strategic marketing planning for universities, as superior results and effectiveness, improved decision making and multiple benefits for the people involved. The paper reveals also the characteristics of segmenting and positioning on higher education market and the specific of marketing mix. Thereby, educational product is more easily adapted to customer needs when it is designed in collaboration with existing and future students, their parents, with other universities in the field or even with graduates. Students themselves can contribute to the increase the quality of their education. Price may be a factor of choice when future student chooses to pursue a university course, especially in those situations where the price does not include only the payment of annual fees for education. Distribution takes into

  6. Nanostructured CoP: An efficient catalyst for degradation of organic pollutants by activating peroxymonosulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Rui; Liu, Chao; Li, Jiansheng, E-mail: lijsh@mail.njust.edu.cn; Wang, Jing; Hu, Xingru; Sun, Xiuyun; Shen, Jinyou; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • The CoP/PMS system was first presented for decomposition of pollutants. • CoP exhibited dramatic catalytic activity. • Broadened pH range and favorable anti-interference of anions were achieved. • A possible mechanism for activation of PMS by CoP was proposed. - Abstract: A new catalyst system of CoP/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) is presented, which achieved significant improvement in catalytic activity. Nanostructured CoP, obtained by a simple solid-state reaction, exhibited dramatic catalytic activity with 97.2% degradation of orange II of 100 ppm within 4 min. Moreover, the high efficiency could be reached for other phenolic pollutants, i.e., phenol and 4-chlorophenol. The reaction rate is much higher than the most reported catalysts. Effect of parameters on catalytic activity of the catalyst was studied in detail. Notably, initial pH of the solution had a slight negative effect on the catalytic performance over the pH range 4.07–10.92, suggesting that CoP has the great adaptability of pH. CoP/PMS demonstrated excellent anti-interference performance toward anions (Cl{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, and HCO{sub 3}{sup −}). In addition, the pathway of degradation of orange II is proposed by analyzing its intermediates. Based on the XPS spectra of CoP, the identification of the reactive species (·OH and SO{sub 4}·{sup −}) by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis and quenching tests, a possible mechanism for activation of PMS by CoP was proposed. Considering the dramatic catalytic activity, a wide range of pH catalyst suited, CoP is believed to provide robust support for the promising industrial application of AOPs.

  7. Analyzing the Approaches to the Interpretation of Efficiency of Activity of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasymov Oleksandr K.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying, systematizing and analyzing scientific approaches to the definition of the category of «efficiency», evolution of the formation and development of scientific schools, defining of the basic and the general theories of efficiency: economic, dynamic, statistical, adaptive, and synergistic. The results of the study show that there is no uniform approach to understanding the concept of «efficiency» in the current circumstances. Efficiency presents itself as an indicator of the development of actor (phenomenon and works as an incentive for implementing entrepreneurial activity. Efficiency is the target guideline of managerial activities for leaders of enterprises who direct their activities towards substantiation, necessity, justification, and sufficiency. Prospect for further research in this area is the development of an organizational-economic mechanism for the marketing provision of enterprise, as well as a methodical approach to assessing the efficiency of the enterprise performance along with its marketing subsystem.

  8. Funding System of Full-Time Higher Education and Technical Efficiency: Case of the University of Ljubljana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajnikar, Maks; Debevec, Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    The present paper tackles the issue of the higher education funding system in Slovenia. Its main attribute is that institutions are classified into study groups according to their fields of education, and funds granted by the state are based on their weights or study group factors (SGF). Analysis conducted using data envelopment analysis tested…

  9. Designing Efficient Self-Diagnosis Activities in the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Rafi'

    2017-12-01

    Self-diagnosis (SD) activities require students to self-diagnose their solutions to problems that they solved on their own. This involves identifying where they went wrong and then explaining the nature of their errors—why they went wrong—aided by some form of support. Worked examples (WEs) are often used to support students in SD activities. A WE is a step-by-step demonstration of how to solve a problem. One unresolved issue is why students fail to exploit WEs in SD exercises. Yerushalmi et al., for instance, provided students with written WEs and asked them to self-diagnose their solutions with respect to these WEs. These authors found no correlation between students' SD performance and their subsequent problem-solving performance on transfer problems, suggesting that students had only superficially exploited the written WEs. The aim of this article is to describe a new SD activity that was developed to prompt students to effectively use written WEs when self-diagnosing, and to examine its effectiveness in advancing students' learning in physics.

  10. Carbon Isotope discrimination in acacia auriculiformis - can it be used to select for higher water-use-efficiency in trees?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagu, K.D.; Woo, K.C.; Puangchit, L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Determining the water-use-efficiency of trees in relation lo wood production is problematic due to the sheer size of the plant and the number of years taken to produce the wood. Indirect measures of water-use-efficiency, such as carbon isotope discrimination (Δ), are therefore attractive to tree breeders wishing to select for increased water-use-efficiency. To begin to evaluate the usefulness of Δ as a selection parameter for the tropical tree Acacia auriculiformis we addressed the following questions: 1. Within the tree canopy, how variable is Δ? 2. Is there any genotypic variation in Δ? and 3. Does water availability affect genotypic variation? To address these questions we sampled foliage from pot trials and field trials of A. auriculiformis ranging in age from 3 months lo 8 years in Australia and Thailand. In 16-18m high 8-year-old trees, canopy variation in Δ was large (P>0.01). Foliage Δ values increased down the tree from 22.0 %o at the top to 24.7 %o at the base. The decrease was rapid in the lop 3 m of the canopy thus considerable care must be taken to sampling foliage from the same position in the canopy. Genotype variations in Δ was observed in seedlings and 2 year-old trees (P>0.01) but not in 8 year-old trees (P=0.60). Where genotypic variation were observed the differences between the lowest and highest values were 2.2 - 3.6 %o. Reduced water availability decreased Δ values in both pot and field studies but not in a consistent way across seedlots. Thus it would appear that the Δ of trees grown under favourable conditions does not give an indication of the Δ value which will be obtained under water-limited conditions. This complicates the use of Δ as a screening method. We have clearly shown that genotype variation occurs in A. auriculiformis in both seedlings and young field-grown trees. Considerable care is required when sampling large trees, as variation in Δ within the tree can be as large as between genotypes. The challenge

  11. Level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of higher education institution servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Vidal Andreato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of Brazilian higher education institution servers. Method: 134 public servants (80 men and 54 women were evaluated to estimate body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist/hip ratio (WHR, aerobic fitness and blood pressure at rest. Results: most of the servers were classified as insufficiently active (62%. BMI results show a high prevalence of obesity (39% mild and 33% moderate. WC showed a prevalence of high (30% and very high risk (27%, and WHR showed a prevalence of high (28% or very high risk (12%. The ergometric test showed that 41% of the servers presented very poor (17% or poor (24% aerobic fitness and 23%, regular aerobic fitness. Considering blood pressure, 15% of the servers presented blood pressure considered as borderline and 30% considered as hypertension. No associations were found between physical condition (active or inactive with WC (χ2 = 3.4, p = 0.179, WHR (χ2 = 7.0, p = 0.073, aerobic fitness (χ2 = 4.3, p = 0.368 and blood pressure (χ2 = 2.9, p = 0.734. Although no association was observed between physical activity and BMI (χ2 = 7.6, p = 0.062, significance values (p < 0.07 suggested an association trend, with worse ratings for the sedentary group. Closing remarks: among higher education institution servers, there is high prevalence of physical inactivity, obesity and risk factors, and the majority of the sample had aerobic fitness below recommended levels.

  12. A novel efficient coupled polynomial field interpolation scheme for higher order piezoelectric extension mode beam finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulbhewar, Litesh N; Raveendranath, P

    2014-01-01

    An efficient piezoelectric smart beam finite element based on Reddy’s third-order displacement field and layerwise linear potential is presented here. The present formulation is based on the coupled polynomial field interpolation of variables, unlike conventional piezoelectric beam formulations that use independent polynomials. Governing equations derived using a variational formulation are used to establish the relationship between field variables. The resulting expressions are used to formulate coupled shape functions. Starting with an assumed cubic polynomial for transverse displacement (w) and a linear polynomial for electric potential (φ), coupled polynomials for axial displacement (u) and section rotation (θ) are found. This leads to a coupled quadratic polynomial representation for axial displacement (u) and section rotation (θ). The formulation allows accommodation of extension–bending, shear–bending and electromechanical couplings at the interpolation level itself, in a variationally consistent manner. The proposed interpolation scheme is shown to eliminate the locking effects exhibited by conventional independent polynomial field interpolations and improve the convergence characteristics of HSDT based piezoelectric beam elements. Also, the present coupled formulation uses only three mechanical degrees of freedom per node, one less than the conventional formulations. Results from numerical test problems prove the accuracy and efficiency of the present formulation. (paper)

  13. Achieving 99.9% proton spin-flip efficiency at higher energy with a small rf dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Leonova, M A; Gebel, R; Hinterberger, F; Krisch, A D; Lehrach, A; Lorentz, B; Maier, R; Morozov, V S; Prasuhn, D; Raymond, R S; Schnase, A; Stockhorst, H; Ulbrich, K; Wong, V K; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.224801

    2004-01-01

    We recently used a new ferrite rf dipole to study spin flipping of a 2.1 GeV/c vertically polarized proton beam stored in the COSY Cooler Synchrotron in Julich, Germany. We swept the rf dipole's frequency through an rf-induced spin resonance to flip the beam's polarization direction. After determining the resonance's frequency, we varied the frequency range, frequency ramp time, and number of flips. At the rf dipole's maximum strength and optimum frequency range and ramp time, we measured a spin-flip efficiency of 99.92+or-0.04%. This result, along with a similar 0.49 GeV/c IUCF result, indicates that, due to the Lorentz invariance of an rf dipole's transverse integral Bdl and the weak energy dependence of its spin-resonance strength, an only 35% stronger rf dipole should allow efficient spin flipping in the 100 GeV BNL RHIC Collider or even the 7 TeV CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  14. Adrenal activity in maned wolves is higher on farmlands and park boundaries than within protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spercoski, Katherinne M; Morais, Rosana N; Morato, Ronaldo G; de Paula, Rogério C; Azevedo, Fernanda C; May-Júnior, Joares A; Santos, Jean P; Reghelin, Angela L; Wildt, David E; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2012-11-01

    In this study we measured excreted fecal corticoid metabolites (FCM) in maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) living within a protected reserve, on farmlands or in a boundary zone between the two habitats, and determined the impacts of season and reproductive status on adrenal activity. Feces were collected within a national park (n=191 samples), a park boundary zone (n=39) and on nearby farmlands (n=27), processed and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. FCM amounts from samples collected on farmlands were higher (Pwolf pairs were raising young. We then divided the samples collected during breeding season (March-August) into cycling females and male/non-cycling females based on fecal progesterone: fecal testosterone ratio. FCM concentrations of the former collected inside the park were higher than (P<0.05) than the latter group. However, there were no differences in FCM levels between the two groups for samples collected in the boundary zone and on farmlands. Furthermore, FCM concentrations of male/non-cycling females samples collected on farmlands were 2- to 5-fold higher (P<0.05) than in counterparts collected inside the park. The consistently high FCM concentrations in samples collected on farmlands indicate that, in addition to seasonality, gender and reproductive status, anthropogenic pressures also contribute to elevating adrenal steroid for individuals living in altered habitat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms of Attracting Investments within the Activity of Higher Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleh Ye.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of attracting innovations within the activity of higher educational institutions are considered. Features of educational innovations arising from the immanent nature of the sector are characterized. The attention is focused on the applied aspect of educational innovations. The emphasis is placed on the need for rapid adaptation of higher education of the present time to new social realities, civilizational challenges, giving consideration to trends and prospects for human development. The state of introduction of educational innovations in leading European countries and the USA, their orientation to the introduction and promotion of e-learning that has formed a powerful market with characteristics inherent in it is considered. It is pointed up that the growth of the popularity of e-schools has led to global changes in educational systems of many countries of the world. The situation of the popularization of e-learning in China and Africa is studied. There identified trends in the development of e-learning that in the long term should ensure continuous education throughout life. The state of introduction of educational innovations in the system of the higher school of Ukraine is described. The prospects of innovative processes in the sphere of education are outlined, and promising directions of attracting educational innovations are indicated.

  16. Higher frequency network activity flow predicts lower frequency node activity in intrinsic low-frequency BOLD fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Sahil; Adhikari, Bhim Mani; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-01-01

    The brain remains electrically and metabolically active during resting conditions. The low-frequency oscillations (LFO) of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) coherent across distributed brain regions are known to exhibit features of this activity. However, these intrinsic oscillations may undergo dynamic changes in time scales of seconds to minutes during resting conditions. Here, using wavelet-transform based time-frequency analysis techniques, we investigated the dynamic nature of default-mode networks from intrinsic BOLD signals recorded from participants maintaining visual fixation during resting conditions. We focused on the default-mode network consisting of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), left middle temporal cortex (LMTC) and left angular gyrus (LAG). The analysis of the spectral power and causal flow patterns revealed that the intrinsic LFO undergo significant dynamic changes over time. Dividing the frequency interval 0 to 0.25 Hz of LFO into four intervals slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz), slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz), slow-3 (0.073-0.198 Hz) and slow-2 (0.198-0.25 Hz), we further observed significant positive linear relationships of slow-4 in-out flow of network activity with slow-5 node activity, and slow-3 in-out flow of network activity with slow-4 node activity. The network activity associated with respiratory related frequency (slow-2) was found to have no relationship with the node activity in any of the frequency intervals. We found that the net causal flow towards a node in slow-3 band was correlated with the number of fibers, obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, from the other nodes connecting to that node. These findings imply that so-called resting state is not 'entirely' at rest, the higher frequency network activity flow can predict the lower frequency node activity, and the network activity flow can reflect underlying structural

  17. Achieving Lower Nitrogen Balance and Higher Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency Reduces Nitrous Oxide Emissions in North America's Maize Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex A. Omonode

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the common, yet unproven, hypothesis that an increase of plant nitrogen (N uptake and/or recovery efficiency (NRE will reduce nitrous oxide (N2O emission during crop production. Understanding the relationships between N2O emissions and crop N uptake and use efficiency parameters can help inform crop N management recommendations for both efficiency and environmental goals. Analyses were conducted to determine which of several commonly used crop N uptake-derived parameters related most strongly to growing season N2O emissions under varying N management practices in North American maize systems. Nitrogen uptake-derived variables included total aboveground N uptake (TNU, grain N uptake (GNU, N recovery efficiency (NRE, net N balance (NNB in relation to GNU [NNB(GNU] and TNU [NNB(TNU], and surplus N (SN. The relationship between N2O and N application rate was sigmoidal with relatively small emissions for N rates <130 kg ha−1, and a sharp increase for N rates from 130 to 220 kg ha−1; on average, N2O increased linearly by about 5 g N per kg of N applied for rates up to 220 kg ha−1. Fairly strong and significant negative relationships existed between N2O and NRE when management focused on N application rate (r2 = 0.52 or rate and timing combinations (r2 = 0.65. For every percentage point increase, N2O decreased by 13 g N ha−1 in response to N rates, and by 20 g N ha−1 for NRE changes in response to rate-by-timing treatments. However, more consistent positive relationships (R2 = 0.73–0.77 existed between N2O and NNB(TNU, NNB(GNU, and SN, regardless of rate and timing of N application; on average N2O emission increased by about 5, 7, and 8 g N, respectively, per kg increase of NNB(GNU, NNB(TNU, and SN. Neither N source nor placement influenced the relationship between N2O and NRE. Overall, our analysis indicated that a careful selection of appropriate N rate applied at the right time can both increase NRE and reduce N

  18. MEGA. Higher energy-efficiency through systematic user information - Final report; MEGA. Mehr Energieeffizienz durch gezielte Anwenderinformationen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, CEESAR - iHomeLab, Horw (Switzerland); Egli, A. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, ISIS, Horw (Switzerland); Gallati, J. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, Wirtschaft, Horw (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    Individuals are empowered to conserve energy and natural resources when provided with motivational and personalized information on its use. By presenting information about the energy consumption from the home's energy meters along with recommended actions, the residential customer becomes aware of how in/efficiently energy is consumed within his home and can decide on how to act to conserve. This information can provide an accurate metric of how effective a conservation action is even to inhabitants that are not yet knowledgeable about or self-motivated by the monetary and ecologic rewards of conserving. This project was designed to build knowledge on technically and economically feasible ways to create an awareness of energy (especially electricity) for the sake of conservation. Specifically, it implements an exemplar prototype of a highly effective energy feedback system that is an interactive, real-time, in-home display. Toward this goal, four system architecture configuration proposals, a set of system requirements, and ideal system features are synthesized; they are based on the results of the research that evaluates effectiveness of existing energy-efficiency and -conservation methods and studies related technologies. Three of the four systems proposed represent energy technologies expected to be available within the next decade. The fourth system proposal is a demonstration prototype designed for implementation in the iHomeLab. This prototype is an open, modular, robust, cross-platform software framework that collects data, processes, and presents it interactively and visually on hardware available in most households. The results of this project both indicate that the creation of such energy feedback systems appear beneficial and also provide guidelines for their design. However, further development of infrastructure and elaboration of design is foreseen as necessary for this system to be suitable for mass deployment. (author)

  19. MEGA. Higher energy-efficiency through systematic user information - Final report; MEGA. Mehr Energieeffizienz durch gezielte Anwenderinformationen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, CEESAR - iHomeLab, Horw (Switzerland); Egli, A. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, ISIS, Horw (Switzerland); Gallati, J. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, Wirtschaft, Horw (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    Individuals are empowered to conserve energy and natural resources when provided with motivational and personalized information on its use. By presenting information about the energy consumption from the home's energy meters along with recommended actions, the residential customer becomes aware of how in/efficiently energy is consumed within his home and can decide on how to act to conserve. This information can provide an accurate metric of how effective a conservation action is even to inhabitants that are not yet knowledgeable about or self-motivated by the monetary and ecologic rewards of conserving. This project was designed to build knowledge on technically and economically feasible ways to create an awareness of energy (especially electricity) for the sake of conservation. Specifically, it implements an exemplar prototype of a highly effective energy feedback system that is an interactive, real-time, in-home display. Toward this goal, four system architecture configuration proposals, a set of system requirements, and ideal system features are synthesized; they are based on the results of the research that evaluates effectiveness of existing energy-efficiency and -conservation methods and studies related technologies. Three of the four systems proposed represent energy technologies expected to be available within the next decade. The fourth system proposal is a demonstration prototype designed for implementation in the iHomeLab. This prototype is an open, modular, robust, cross-platform software framework that collects data, processes, and presents it interactively and visually on hardware available in most households. The results of this project both indicate that the creation of such energy feedback systems appear beneficial and also provide guidelines for their design. However, further development of infrastructure and elaboration of design is foreseen as necessary for this system to be suitable for mass deployment. (author)

  20. Antioxidant activity and haemolysis prevention efficiency of polyaniline nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Somik; Kumar, A [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Saikia, Jyoti P; Konwar, B K, E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2010-01-29

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers have been synthesized by interfacial polymerization using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) as dopants. The powder x-ray diffraction pattern of bulk polyaniline reveals ES I structure and has been indexed in a pseudo-orthorhombic lattice. The broadening of (110) reflection in the nanofiber samples has been analysed in terms of domain length and strain using a convolution method employing a Voigt function. The increase in d spacing for the (110) reflection in HCl-doped PAni nanofibers have been assigned to the change in structural conformation due to the increase in the tilt angle of the polymer chain, which is also evident from microRaman spectra. UV-vis spectra of the PAni nanofibers exhibit a remarkable blueshift in the absorption bands attributed to {pi}-{pi}{sup *} and {pi}-polaron band transitions indicating a reduction in particle size, which is also observed in TEM micrographs. The antioxidant activity of the polyaniline nanofiber samples has been investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay by employing UV-visible spectroscopy. It has also been observed that polyaniline nanofibers are able to protect the haemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) from cytotoxic agents, namely H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The observed enhancement in the antioxidant and haemolysis prevention activity of the PAni nanofibers as compared to bulk has been attributed to the reduction in particle size and changes in structural conformation, as evident from TEM, XRD and microRaman spectroscopy.

  1. Efficiency and cutoff values of the Voice Activity and Participation Profile for nonteachers and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Vargas, Aline Cristina Tafarelo; Behlau, Mara

    2015-01-01

    To identify the efficiency characteristics and cutoff values of the dimensions of the Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP) protocol, which discriminates the dysphonic and vocally healthy individuals; to verify if the cutoff values remain the same for a sample of teachers. Efficiency characteristics and cutoff values of VAPP data from 171 subjects were analyzed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve: 90 teachers (60 dysphonic and 30 vocally healthy individuals, with a similar mean age, p=0.418) and 81 nonteachers (48 dysphonic and 33 vocally healthy individuals, with a similar mean age, p=0.934). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the cutoff values of the total score of VAPP for discriminating the individuals with and without dysphonia are different for the nonteachers and teachers. The nonteachers presented AUC=0.986 (pteachers presented AUC=0.872 (pteachers, being higher for the teachers but with greater sensitivity and specificity for the nonteachers, and can be used to screen large populations with the risk of voice disorders.

  2. New aeration systems for higher efficiency in mine water treatment in the Lausitz region; Einsatz neuer Belueftungssysteme zur Effizienzsteigerung bei der Grubenwasserbehandlung in der Lausitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janneck, E.; Glombitza, F. [G.E.O.S. Freiberg Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Freiberg (Germany); Schlee, K.; Arnold, I. [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The article presents experiences and results of the application of new aerator-systems in the mine water treatment. The processes of ferrous iron oxidation and sludge removal became more stable and efficiently by the application of the aerators. For the first time, spiral aerators were used in the Lower Lusatia lignite mining district to clean ferrous iron containing mine water. These devices lead to an enhanced iron oxidation rate under the existing conditions, where the oxygen diffusion is the rate determining step. Furthermore, the application caused increased throughput, optimal lime utilisation and better sludge thickening, which led to a higher efficiency of the mine water treatment. (orig.)

  3. Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in Polymers: A New Route toward Highly Efficient Solution Processable OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Cass, Michael; Bourcet, Florence; Mohamad, David; Roberts, Matthew

    2015-11-25

    Efficient intermonomer thermally activated delayed fluorescence is demonstrated for the first time, opening a new route to achieving high-efficiency solution processable polymer light-emitting device materials. External quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 10% is achieved in a simple fully solution-processed device structure, and routes for further EQE improvement identified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Activating whole brain® innovation: A means of nourishing multiple intelligence in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise De Boer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The interconnectedness of the constructs ‘whole brain® thinking’ and ‘multiple intelligence’ forms the epicentre of this article. We depart from the premise that when whole brain® thinking is activated multiple intelligence can be nourished. When this becomes evident in a higher education practice it can be claimed that such a practice is innovative. Whole brain® thinking that informs intelligence and vice versa is inevitable when it comes to facilitating learning with a view to promoting quality learning in the context of higher education. If higher education is concerned about the expectations of industry and the world of work there is no other option as to prepare students in such a way that they develo as holistic – whole brained and intelligent – employers, employees and entrepreneurs who take responsibility for maximising their full potential. Becoming a self-regulated professional and being reflexive are some of the attributes of the 21st century which should be cultivated in all students. Research on whole brain® thinking and multiple intelligence shows that these human attributes form an integral part of one’s interaction with life – one’s environment and especially people as integral part of the environment. This focus on people highlights the need for developing soft skills within every curriculum. The epistemological underpinning of our reporting of experience in practice and research of the application of the principals of the constructs is meta- reflective in nature. Instead of a typical traditional stance to research we do not report on the numerous sets of data obtained over a period of more than 15 years. Our approach is that of a meta-reflective narrative as most of the studies we were involved in and still are, are reflective as it is most often than not action research-driven. And action research is a reflective process. We report on evidence-based practice that includes fields of specialisation such as

  5. The hybrid methylene blue-zeolite system: a higher efficient photo catalyst for photo inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolinska, M.; Cik, G.; Sersen, F.; Caplovicova, M.; Takacova, A.; Kopani, M.

    2015-01-01

    The composite system can be prepared by incorporation of methylene blue into the channels of zeolite and by adsorption on the surface of the crystals. The composite photo sensitizer effectively absorbs the red light (kmax = 648 nm) and upon illumination with light-emitting diode at a fluence rate of 1.02 mW cm-2 generates effectively reactive singlet oxygen in aqueous solution, which was proved by EPR spectroscopy. To test efficiency for inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms, we measured photo killing of bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts Candida albicans. We found out that after the microorganisms have been adsorbed at the surface of such modified zeolite, the photo generated singlet oxygen quickly penetrates their cell walls, bringing about their effective photo inactivation. The growth inhibition reached almost 50 % at 200 and 400 mg modified zeolite in 1 ml of medium in E. coli and C. albicans, respectively. On the other hand, the growth inhibition of S. aureus reached 50 % at far smaller amount of photo catalyst (30 lg per 1 ml of medium). These results demonstrate differences in sensitivities of bacteria and yeast growth. The comparison revealed that concentration required for IC50 was in case of C. albicans several orders of magnitude lower for a zeolite-immobilized dye than it was for a freely dissolved dye. In S. aureus, this concentration was even lower by four orders of magnitude. Thus, our work suggested a new possibility to exploitation of zeolite and methylene blue in the protection of biologically contaminated environment, and in photodynamic therapy.

  6. Teaching global climate change as a controversial issue - Active learning in higher education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolas, E.I.

    2007-07-01

    Global climate change is one of the most important controversial issues of our time. If the role of Universities is to create the leaders of tomorrow, then, the duty of teachers in institutions of higher education is to find ways to help students become aware of the problem and understand the complexity of the issue. Following presentation of the definition of controversial issues, the reasons for teaching controversial topics as well as the characteristics of controversial topics, this paper puts forward certain active learning approaches which are in conformity with such considerations without, at the same time, loosing sight of the interdisciplinary nature of the subject. The paper concludes with a discussion of the obstacles which should be overcome so that the methods put forward in this paper can be applied successfully. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of EMG Signals in Aggressive and Normal Activities by Using Higher-Order Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Sezgin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and classification of electromyography (EMG signals are very important in order to detect some symptoms of diseases, prosthetic arm/leg control, and so on. In this study, an EMG signal was analyzed using bispectrum, which belongs to a family of higher-order spectra. An EMG signal is the electrical potential difference of muscle cells. The EMG signals used in the present study are aggressive or normal actions. The EMG dataset was obtained from the machine learning repository. First, the aggressive and normal EMG activities were analyzed using bispectrum and the quadratic phase coupling of each EMG episode was determined. Next, the features of the analyzed EMG signals were fed into learning machines to separate the aggressive and normal actions. The best classification result was 99.75%, which is sufficient to significantly classify the aggressive and normal actions.

  8. Analysis of EMG Signals in Aggressive and Normal Activities by Using Higher-Order Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Necmettin

    2012-01-01

    The analysis and classification of electromyography (EMG) signals are very important in order to detect some symptoms of diseases, prosthetic arm/leg control, and so on. In this study, an EMG signal was analyzed using bispectrum, which belongs to a family of higher-order spectra. An EMG signal is the electrical potential difference of muscle cells. The EMG signals used in the present study are aggressive or normal actions. The EMG dataset was obtained from the machine learning repository. First, the aggressive and normal EMG activities were analyzed using bispectrum and the quadratic phase coupling of each EMG episode was determined. Next, the features of the analyzed EMG signals were fed into learning machines to separate the aggressive and normal actions. The best classification result was 99.75%, which is sufficient to significantly classify the aggressive and normal actions. PMID:23193379

  9. Teaching Sustainability Using an Active Learning Constructivist Approach: Discipline-Specific Case Studies in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kalamas Hedden

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present our rationale for using an active learning constructivist approach to teach sustainability-related topics in a higher education. To push the boundaries of ecological literacy, we also develop a theoretical model for sustainability knowledge co-creation. Drawing on the experiences of faculty at a major Southeastern University in the United States, we present case studies in architecture, engineering, geography, and marketing. Four Sustainability Faculty Fellows describe their discipline-specific case studies, all of which are project-based learning experiences, and include details regarding teaching and assessment. Easily replicated in other educational contexts, these case studies contribute to the advancement of sustainability education.

  10. Measures for improving the adoption of higher efficiency appliances in Indonesian households: An analysis of lifetime use and decision-making in the purchase of electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijaya, Muhammad Ery; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observe human psychosocial variables regarding purchase of electrical appliances. ► Two cities with different cultures are subject of this study – Bandung and Yogyakarta. ► Differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural. ► Ads and store’s staff have the greatest impact on people’s choice of appliances. ► Adoption of higher-efficiency appliances could be implemented based on each culture. - Abstract: One approach to decreasing electricity consumption is to facilitate the replacement of older appliances with new, higher-efficiency. The objectives of this paper are to compare and analyse the replacement of appliances in two cities of Indonesia – Yogyakarta and Bandung – that are characterised by different cultural backgrounds, ethnicities, and decision-making processes in the household purchase of electrical appliances. A questionnaire survey method was employed to obtain information on behavioural economics and human psychosocial variables such as attitudes, beliefs and perceived benefits regarding the replacement and purchase of electrical appliances. The results show that refrigerators in Yogyakarta have a longer lifetime than in Bandung. However, in Bandung, air conditioners, electric fans, rice cookers, and water pumps have a longer lifetime than in Yogyakarta. These differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural differences within the two cities that are reflected in the manner in which people use electrical appliances as well as to their lack of knowledge regarding appliance operation. An analysis of the factors influencing the purchase of appliances indicated that people in Yogyakarta show a greater awareness of the benefits of adopting higher-efficiency appliances than do persons in Bandung. The following suggestions could be implemented to improve the strategy of encouraging the adoption of higher-efficiency appliances: (1) in Yogyakarta, energy labelling could be

  11. Elementary physical education: A focus on fitness activities and smaller class sizes are associated with higher levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Kirkham-King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity during physical education is necessary for children to achieve daily physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among various contextual factors with accelerometer measured physical activity during elementary physical education. Data were collected during 2015–2016 from 281 students (1st–5th grade, 137 males, 144 females from a private school located in a metropolitan area of Utah in the U.S. Students wore accelerometers for 12 consecutive weeks at an accelerometer wear frequency of 3days per week during physical education. A multi-level general linear mixed effects model was employed to examine the relationship among various physical education contextual factors and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA, accounting for clustering of observations within students and the clustering of students within classrooms. Explored contextual factors included grade level, lesson context, sex, and class size. Main effects and interactions among the factors were explored in the multi-level models. A two-way interaction of lesson context and class size on %MVPA was shown to be statistically significant. The greatest differences were found to be between fitness lessons using small class sizes compared to motor skill lessons using larger class sizes (β=14.8%, 95% C.I. 5.7%–23.9% p<0.001. Lessons that included a focus on fitness activities with class sizes that were <25 students associated with significantly higher %MVPA during elementary physical education. Keywords: Exercise, Physical education and training, Adolescents

  12. Higher Order Loess Terracettes and Related Ungulate Activities in Western Pottawattamie County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    Terracettes are small, quasi-parallel, staircase-like, stepped landforms. They are generally less than a meter in tread width and riser height and as long as 300 meters, located transversely along slopes. Many theories purport to explain the mechanisms that cause them, including animal disturbance, soil creep, solifluction (gelifluction), slumping and rotational slippage, regolith control, vegetation control, subsidence, and anthropogenic or tectonic activities. This thesis was aimed at morphologically characterizing terracettes in the western Iowa Loess Hills, with an emphasis on further classifying the forms morphogenetically. Onsite observations suggest that terracettes in this area are highly associated with anthropogenically induced grazing of domestic ungulates such as cattle, horses, and sheep, as well as deer. A new class of terracette (higher order or mega-terracette) is proposed that characterizes (and differentiates) the study area forms based on size, in that the study area contains terracettes that are an order above those discussed by other authors (sub-meter). This new addition to the current standard (tear terracettes-risers bare of vegetation, and normal terracettes-normal to the slope), as suggested by Anderson (1972), will add to the local understanding of the forms, and especially to the theory of polygenesis in which terracettes can result from a host of processes. This new class of terracette (mega) is higher magnitude, and directly related to ungulate activities such as geophagy, soil transport (from hooves), compaction, smearing, pawing, and wallowing (dust bathing) as well as the effects of variable soil moisture on erosion of the forms used by the animals. High magnitude terracettes in western Pottawattamie County, Iowa

  13. Seasonal Thermal-Energy Storage: A Critical Review on BTES Systems, Modeling, and System Design for Higher System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lanahan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Buildings consume approximately ¾ of the total electricity generated in the United States, contributing significantly to fossil fuel emissions. Sustainable and renewable energy production can reduce fossil fuel use, but necessitates storage for energy reliability in order to compensate for the intermittency of renewable energy generation. Energy storage is critical for success in developing a sustainable energy grid because it facilitates higher renewable energy penetration by mitigating the gap between energy generation and demand. This review analyzes recent case studies—numerical and field experiments—seen by borehole thermal energy storage (BTES in space heating and domestic hot water capacities, coupled with solar thermal energy. System design, model development, and working principle(s are the primary focus of this analysis. A synopsis of the current efforts to effectively model BTES is presented as well. The literature review reveals that: (1 energy storage is most effective when diurnal and seasonal storage are used in conjunction; (2 no established link exists between BTES computational fluid dynamics (CFD models integrated with whole building energy analysis tools, rather than parameter-fit component models; (3 BTES has less geographical limitations than Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES and lower installation cost scale than hot water tanks and (4 BTES is more often used for heating than for cooling applications.

  14. Combined effects of cooled EGR and a higher geometric compression ratio on thermal efficiency improvement of a downsized boosted spark-ignition direct-injection engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Jianye; Xu, Min; Li, Tie; Gao, Yi; Wang, Jiasheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments for the effects of cooled EGR and two compression ratios (CR) on fuel efficiency were conducted. • The mechanism for the observed fuel efficiency behaviors by cooled EGR and high CR was clarified. • Cooled EGR offers more fuel efficiency improvement than elevating CR from 9.3 to 10.9. • Combining 18–25% cooled EGR with 10.9 CR lead to 2.1–3.5% brake thermal efficiency improvements. - Abstract: The downsized boosted spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine has proven to be one of the most promising concepts to improve vehicle fuel economy. However, the boosted engine is typically designed at a lower geometric compression ratio (CR) due to the increased knock tendency in comparison to naturally aspirated engines, limiting the potential of improving fuel economy. On the other hand, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has drawn attention due to the potential to suppress knock and improve fuel economy. Combing the effects of boosting, increased CR and cooled EGR to further improve fuel economy within acceptable knock tolerance has been investigated using a 2.0 L downsized boosted SIDI engine over a wide range of engine operating conditions from 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm at low to high loads. To clarify the mechanism of this complicated effects, the first law of thermodynamics analysis was conducted with the inputs from GT-Power® engine simulation. Experiment results indicate that cooled EGR provides more brake thermal efficiency improvement than increasing geometric CR from 9.3 to 10.9. The benefit of brake thermal efficiency from the higher CR is limited to low load conditions. The attributes for improving brake thermal efficiency by cooled EGR include reduced heat transfer loss, reduced pumping work and increased ratio of specific heats for all the engine operating conditions, as well as higher degree of constant volume heat release only for the knock-limited high load conditions. The combined effects of 18–25% cooled EGR

  15. Higher landing accuracy in expert pilots is associated with lower activity in the caudate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheen M Adamson

    Full Text Available The most common lethal accidents in General Aviation are caused by improperly executed landing approaches in which a pilot descends below the minimum safe altitude without proper visual references. To understand how expertise might reduce such erroneous decision-making, we examined relevant neural processes in pilots performing a simulated landing approach inside a functional MRI scanner. Pilots (aged 20-66 were asked to "fly" a series of simulated "cockpit view" instrument landing scenarios in an MRI scanner. The scenarios were either high risk (heavy fog-legally unsafe to land or low risk (medium fog-legally safe to land. Pilots with one of two levels of expertise participated: Moderate Expertise (Instrument Flight Rules pilots, n = 8 or High Expertise (Certified Instrument Flight Instructors or Air-Transport Pilots, n = 12. High Expertise pilots were more accurate than Moderate Expertise pilots in making a "land" versus "do not land" decision (CFII: d' = 3.62 ± 2.52; IFR: d' = 0.98 ± 1.04; p<.01. Brain activity in bilateral caudate nucleus was examined for main effects of expertise during a "land" versus "do not land" decision with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline. In making landing decisions, High Expertise pilots showed lower activation in the bilateral caudate nucleus (0.97 ± 0.80 compared to Moderate Expertise pilots (1.91 ± 1.16 (p<.05. These findings provide evidence for increased "neural efficiency" in High Expertise pilots relative to Moderate Expertise pilots. During an instrument approach the pilot is engaged in detailed examination of flight instruments while monitoring certain visual references for making landing decisions. The caudate nucleus regulates saccade eye control of gaze, the brain area where the "expertise" effect was observed. These data provide evidence that performing "real world" aviation tasks in an fMRI provide objective data regarding the relative expertise of pilots and brain regions

  16. TOURISM HIGHER EDUCATION AND TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO ACTIVE LIFE. THE PRACTeam PROJECT STUDY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca DODESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the impact of practice and internship stages in order to facilitate transition from school to active life for Tourism higher education graduates in Romania, in the case of the project entitled: “The practice of students in Economics. An inter-regional partnership on the labour market between universities and business environment" (PRACTeam, implemented in partnership by Faculties of Economics and Business Administration from: University of Oradea, West University of Timişoara and „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava. The research carried out for this article is addressed to students, members of the PRACTeam project’s target groups, enrolled in Economics of Commerce, Tourism and Services as common Bachelor specialization and, also, to students from different Master degree specializations in the field of Tourism from universities mentioned above. The article presents the literature analysis about transition from university to active life, research methodology and characteristics of respondents, then the main findings and concludes that the practice and internship stages developed in PRACTeam project have generated both improving the students’ skills and abilities and their perception and attitude regarding work in Tourism.

  17. Numerical Optimization of a Bifacial Bi-Glass Thin-Film a-Si:H Solar Cell for Higher Conversion Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrian, Djaber; Fathi, Mohamed; Kechouane, Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    Bifacial solar cells that maximize the energy output per a square meter have become a new fashion in the field of photovoltaic cells. However, the application of thin-film material on bifacial solar cells, viz., thin-film amorphous hydrogenated silicon ( a- Si:H), is extremely rare. Therefore, this paper presents the optimization and influence of the band gap, thickness and doping on the performance of a glass/glass thin-film a- Si:H ( n- i- p) bifacial solar cell, using a computer-aided simulation tool, Automat for simulation of hetero-structures (AFORS-HET). It is worth mentioning that the thickness and the band gap of the i-layer are the key parameters in achieving higher efficiency and hence it has to be handled carefully during the fabrication process. Furthermore, an efficient thin-film a- Si:H bifacial solar cell requires thinner and heavily doped n and p emitter layers. On the other hand, the band gap of the p-layer showed a dramatic reduction of the efficiency at 2.3 eV. Moreover, a high bifaciality factor of more than 92% is attained, and top efficiency of 10.9% is revealed under p side illumination. These optimizations demonstrate significant enhancements of the recent experimental work on thin-film a- Si:H bifacial solar cells and would also be useful for future experimental investigations on an efficient a- Si:H thin-film bifacial solar cell.

  18. Monitoring and inspection techniques for long term storage of higher activity waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, Gary

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, following recent changes in United Kingdom (UK) Government Policy, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) identified a knowledge gap in the area of long term interim storage of waste packages. A cross-industry Integrated Project Team (IPT) for Interim Storage was created with responsibility for delivering Industry Guidance on the storage of packaged Higher Activity Waste (HAW) for the current UK civil decommissioning and clean-up programmes. This included a remit to direct research and development projects via the NDA's Direct Research Portfolio (DRP) to fill the knowledge gap. The IPT for Interim Storage published Industry Guidance in 2012 which established a method to define generic package performance criteria and made recommendations on monitoring and inspection. The package performance method consists of the following steps; identification of the package safety function, identification of evolutionary processes that may affect safety function performance, determination of measurable indicators of these evolutionary processes and calibration of the indicators into package performance zones. This article provides an overview of three projects funded by the NDA's DRP that the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) have completed to address monitoring and inspection needs of waste packages in interim storage. (orig.)

  19. Hydroxyapatite supported Ag3PO4 nanoparticles with higher visible light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Xiaoting; Wu Xiaohui; Zhang Qiuyun; Xiao Mingfeng; Yang Gelin; Qiu Meirong; Han Guocheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite supported Ag 3 PO 4 nanocomposites have been synthesized by a wet impregnation process. UV-vis absorption spectra show a red shift of the absorption edges for the composite systems compared to pure hydroxyapatite support. The surface structure and morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) apparatus, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results suggest that Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles (6-17 nm in diameter) are well dispersed on the hydroxyapatite support and Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles density is larger for the higher Ag + loading sample. The as-prepared nanocomposite photocatalysts showed a pronounced photocatalytic activity upon decomposition of methylene blue dye in aqueous solution under both visible light (wavelength > 400 nm) and UV-vis light irradiation. A synergic mechanism of inherent photocatalytic capability of Ag 3 PO 4 and the accelerated electron/hole separation resulting from the photoinduced electrons captured by the slow-released Ag + at the interface of Ag 3 PO 4 and hydroxyapatite is proposed for the nanocomposites on the enhancement of photocatalytic performance in comparison to that of pure Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles. The support of hydroxyapatite may also act as an absorbent which favors the mass transfer in heterogeneous photocatalysis reaction.

  20. Governance of the research activities in higher educational institutions: factors and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musawenkosi Ngibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available South African higher education institutions, specifically, universities of technology have been faced with an arduous battle of increasing postgraduate students enrolment (masters and doctoral and improve their completion rate. However, the situation is exacerbated by inadequate number and inexperience of supervisors to supervise these postgraduate students. The Durban University of Technology has formulated research structures to administer and co-ordinate research activities in order to improve the number of staff members with doctoral qualifications in order to aid the current challenges. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the circumstances and factors hindering the academic staff throughput rates and the impact it has on the university. The use of qualitative and quantitative approach was used for this study, with closed and open-ended questionnaires used to collect data from 278 academic staff members using a probability sampling. The respondents 9 (4.9% indicated that lack of external funding and project management skills proved to be major contributory factors hindering academics staff to complete their postgraduate degrees within the required time. The study recommends that funding should be made easily available to academics pursuing doctoral studies, while project management workshops should be organised regularly to help academics appropriately management their studies. This can have a positive impact which will benefit the university and aid to the current crisis of lack of supervisor for masters and doctoral studies

  1. Antibodies with higher bactericidal activity induced by a Neisseria gonorrhoeae Rmp deletion mutant strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guocai Li

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae outer membrane protein reduction modifiable protein (Rmp has strong immunogenicity. However, anti-Rmp antibodies block rather than preserve the antibacterial effects of protective antibodies, which hampers the development of vaccines for gonococcal infections. We herein constructed an Rmp deletion mutant strain of N. gonorrhoeae by gene homologous recombination. The 261-460 nucleotide residues of Rmp gene amplified from N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain were replaced with a kanamycin-resistant Kan gene amplified from pET-28a. The resultant hybridized DNA was transformed into N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain. PCR was used to screen the colonies in which wild-type Rmp gene was replaced with a mutant gene fragment. Western blotting revealed that the Rmp deletion mutant strain did not express Rmp protein. Rmp deletion did not alter the morphological and Gram staining properties of the mutant strain that grew slightly more slowly than the wild-type one. Rmp gene mutated stably throughout 25 generations of passage. Antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay indicated that the antibodies induced by the mutant strain had evidently higher bactericidal activities than those induced by the wild-type strain. Further modification of the Rmp deletion mutant strain is still required in the development of novel live attenuated vaccines for gonorrhea by Opa genes deletion or screening of phenotypic variant strains that do not express Opa proteins.

  2. Muscular Strength Is Associated with Higher Intraocular Pressure in Physically Active Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; García-Ramos, Amador; Cárdenas, David

    2018-02-01

    The positive association between intraocular pressure (IOP) and relative maximum force may have relevance for exercise recommendations when IOP is a concern. The relationship between exercise and IOP has been approached in several studies. However, the influence of muscle function on IOP remains underexplored. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the maximal mechanical capabilities of muscles to generate force, velocity, and power with IOP. Sixty-five physically active males participated in this cross-sectional study. Baseline IOP measures were obtained by rebound tonometry, and participants performed an incremental loading test in the ballistic bench press. Baseline IOP showed a strong positive correlation with relative maximum force (r65 = 0.85, P .05). There is a positive association between greater upper-body power and strength with higher baseline IOP, which might have important implications in the management of ocular health and especially in individuals constantly involved in resistance training programs (e.g., military personnel, weightlifters). The possible protective effect of high fitness level on the acute IOP response to strength exercise needs to be addressed in future studies.

  3. Effects of fluoride on mitochondrial activity in higher plants. [Glycine max, Zea mays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J E; Miller, G W

    1974-01-01

    The effects of fluoride on respiration of plant tissue and mitochondria were investigated. Fumigation of young soybean plants (Glycine max Merr. cm. Hawkeye) with 9-12 ..mu..g x m/sup -3/ HF caused a stimulation of respiration at about 2 days of treatment followed by inhibition 2 days later. Mitochondria isolated from the stimulated tissue had higher respiration rates, greater ATPase activity, and lower P/O ratios, while in mitochondria from inhibited tissue, all three were reduced. Treatment of etiolated soybean hypocotyl sections in Hoagland's solution containing KF for 3 to 10 h only resulted in inhibition of respiration. Mitochondria isolated from this tissue elicited increased respiration rates with malate as substrate and inhibited respiration with succinate. With both substrates respiratory control and ADP/O ratios were decreased. Direct treatment of mitochondria from etiolated soybean hypocotyl tissue with fluoride resulted in inhibition of state 3 respiration and lower ADP/O ratios with the substrates succinate, malate, and NADH. Fluoride was also found to increase the amount of osmotically induced swelling and cause a more rapid leakage of protein with mitochondria isolated from etiolated corn shoots (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam). 40 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  4. NDA generic research programme for higher activity waste management issues - 16390

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, James; Brownridge, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    NDA has a responsibility to ensure decommissioning activities are sufficiently technically underpinned and appropriate Research and Development (Rand D) is carried out. The NDA funds research and development (R and D) indirectly via the Site Licence Companies (SLCs) or directly. The main component of directly funded R and D is the NDA Direct Research Portfolio (DRP). The DRP is split into four framework areas: - University Interactions; - Waste Processing; - Material Characterisation; - Actinide and Strategic Nuclear Materials. These four framework areas were competed through an Official Journal of European Union (OJEU) process in 2008. Although all four areas involve waste management, Waste Processing and Material Characterisation specifically deal with Higher Activity Waste (HAW) waste management issues. The Waste Processing area was awarded to three groups: (i) National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL), (ii) Consortium led by Hyder Consulting Ltd, and (iii) Consortium led by UKAEA Ltd. The Material Characterisation area was awarded to three groups: (i) NNL, (ii) Serco, and (iii) Consortium led by UKAEA Ltd. The initial work in Waste Processing and Material Characterisation was centered on establishing a forward research programme to address the generic needs of the UK civil nuclear industry and the NDA strategic drivers for waste management and land quality. This has been achieved by the four main framework contractors from the Waste Processing and Materials Characterisation areas working together with the NDA to identify the key research themes and begin the development of the NDA's HAW Management Research Programme. The process also involves active engagement with both industry and regulators via the Nuclear Waste Research Forum (NWRF). The NDA's HAW Management Research Programme includes a number of themes: - Optimisation of Interim Store Operation and Design; - Alternative Waste Encapsulants; - Waste Package Integrity; - Alternative Waste treatment methods

  5. Higher Trait Psychopathy Is Associated with Increased Risky Decision-Making and Less Coincident Insula and Striatal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Sutherland

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher trait levels of psychopathy have been associated with both a tendency to maintain disadvantageous decision-making strategies and aberrant cortico-limbic neural activity. To explore the neural mechanisms associated with the psychopathy-related propensity to continue selecting risky choices, a non-forensic sample of participants completed a self-report psychopathy questionnaire and two runs of a risky decision-making task during H215O positron emission tomography (PET scanning. In this secondary data analysis study, we leveraged data previously collected to examine the impact of previous drug use on risky decision-making to explore the relations between self-reported psychopathy and behavioral and brain metrics during performance of the Cambridge Decision-Making Task (CDMT, in which volunteers chose between small/likely or large/unlikely potential reward outcomes. Behaviorally, we observed that psychopathy scores were differentially correlated with the percent of risky decisions made in run 1 vs. run 2 of the task. Specifically, higher levels of psychopathy, above and beyond that attributable to drug use or sex, were associated with greater tendencies to make risky selections only in the second half (run 2 of the task. In parallel, psychopathy scores negatively correlated with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the right insula and right ventral striatum during run 2 of the CDMT. These exploratory outcomes suggest that greater levels of psychopathy may be associated with an inability to translate experience with negative outcomes into behavioral adaptations possibly due to decreased neural efficiency in regions related to somatic and/or reward feedback processes.

  6. National report card on energy efficiency : 2. annual report card on government activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This second annual report card produced by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance is a means by which to monitor the efforts of Canada's federal, provincial and territorial governments in energy efficiency activities. The Alliance works in partnership with manufacturers, utilities, governments, builders, labour, consumer groups and environmental organizations. Energy efficiency is one of the primary tools governments can use to meet the Kyoto climate change commitment. The issue of climate change was examined in greater depth in this second annual report card. Ten specific measures that each government should take in order to be efficiency leaders were identified. These included minimum standards and regulations for buildings and appliances, supporting energy efficiency in the marketplace, and leadership programs to improve energy efficiency and achieve emission reduction targets. Efficiency in transportation was not included in this report card. A brief summary of what the federal government, as well as each provincial and territorial government are doing to promote energy efficiency was included. Each jurisdiction was given a grade. The Yukon received the highest mark of A minus. Saskatchewan received the lowest, and only failed mark. It was emphasized that public and private utilities also play a key role in supporting energy efficiency in Canada. 2 tabs

  7. Efficiency of Photosynthesis in a Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium is Comparable to or Higher than that in Chl a-Utilizing Oxygenic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, S. P.; Kiang, N. Y.; Blankenship, R. E.; Gunner, M. R.; Mauzerall, D.

    2011-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina uses chlorophyll d to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis in environments depleted in visible and enhanced in lower-energy, far-red light. However, the extent to which low photon energies limit the efficiency of oxygenic photochemistry in A. marina is not known. Here, we report the first direct measurements of the energy-storage efficiency of the photosynthetic light reactions in A. marina whole cells,and find it is comparable to or higher than that in typical, chlorophyll a-utilizing oxygenic species. This finding indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis is not fundamentally limited at the photon energies employed by A. marina, and therefore is potentially viable in even longer-wavelength light environments.

  8. Higher photosynthesis, nutrient- and energy-use efficiencies contribute to invasiveness of exotic plants in a nutrient poor habitat in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Chao; Kong, De-Liang; Lu, Xiu-Rong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Wei-Bin; Qu, Bo; Feng, Yu-Long

    2017-08-01

    The roles of photosynthesis-related traits in invasiveness of introduced plant species are still not well elucidated, especially in nutrient-poor habitats. In addition, little effort has been made to determine the physiological causes and consequences of the difference in these traits between invasive and native plants. To address these problems, we compared the differences in 16 leaf functional traits related to light-saturated photosynthetic rate (P max ) between 22 invasive and native plants in a nutrient-poor habitat in northeast China. The invasive plants had significantly higher P max , photosynthetic nitrogen- (PNUE), phosphorus- (PPUE), potassium- (PKUE) and energy-use efficiencies (PEUE) than the co-occurring natives, while leaf nutrient concentrations, construction cost (CC) and specific leaf area were not significantly different between the invasive and native plants. The higher PNUE contributed to higher P max for the invasive plants, which in turn contributed to higher PPUE, PKUE and PEUE. CC changed independently with other traits such as P max , PNUE, PPUE, PKUE and PEUE, showing two trait dimensions, which may facilitate acclimation to multifarious niche dimensions. Our results indicate that the invasive plants have a superior resource-use strategy, i.e. higher photosynthesis under similar resource investments, contributing to invasion success in the barren habitat. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. A HIGHER EFFICIENCY OF CONVERTING GAS TO STARS PUSHES GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6 WELL ABOVE THE STAR-FORMING MAIN SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Rujopakarn, W. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Daddi, E.; Liu, D. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay (France); Rodighiero, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sargent, M. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Renzini, A. [Instituto Nazionale de Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, v.co dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Feruglio, C. [IRAM—Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Kashino, D. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Nagao, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI-96720 (United States); Berta, S.; Lutz, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-84571 Garching (Germany); Béthermin, M. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Koekemoer, A., E-mail: john.silverman@ipmu.jp [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); and others

    2015-10-20

    Local starbursts have a higher efficiency of converting gas into stars, as compared to typical star-forming galaxies at a given stellar mass, possibly indicative of different modes of star formation. With the peak epoch of galaxy formation occurring at z > 1, it remains to be established whether such an efficient mode of star formation is occurring at high redshift. To address this issue, we measure the molecular gas content of seven high-redshift (z ∼ 1.6) starburst galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and IRAM/Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our targets are selected from the sample of Herschel far-infrared-detected galaxies having star formation rates (∼300–800 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) elevated (≳4×) above the star-forming main sequence (MS) and included in the FMOS-COSMOS near-infrared spectroscopic survey of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6 with Subaru. We detect CO emission in all cases at high levels of significance, indicative of high gas fractions (∼30%–50%). Even more compelling, we firmly establish with a clean and systematic selection that starbursts, identified as MS outliers, at high redshift generally have a lower ratio of CO to total infrared luminosity as compared to typical MS star-forming galaxies, although with a smaller offset than expected based on past studies of local starbursts. We put forward a hypothesis that there exists a continuous increase in star formation efficiency with elevation from the MS with galaxy mergers as a possible physical driver. Along with a heightened star formation efficiency, our high-redshift sample is similar in other respects to local starbursts, such as being metal rich and having a higher ionization state of the interstellar medium.

  10. Active load sharing technique for on-line efficiency optimization in DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, E. Riva; Zizzo, G.; Boscaino, V.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, DC power distribution is gaining more and more importance over its AC counterpart achieving increased efficiency, greater flexibility, reduced volumes and capital cost. In this paper, a 24-120-325V two-level DC distribution system for home appliances, each including three parallel DC......-DC converters, is modeled. An active load sharing technique is proposed for the on-line optimization of the global efficiency of the DC distribution network. The algorithm aims at the instantaneous efficiency optimization of the whole DC network, based on the on-line load current sampling. A Look Up Table......, is created to store the real efficiencies of the converters taking into account components tolerances. A MATLAB/Simulink model of the DC distribution network has been set up and a Genetic Algorithm has been employed for the global efficiency optimization. Simulation results are shown to validate the proposed...

  11. Parametric study on removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, H.; Yuasa, Y.; Tani, A.; Ohki, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    The removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide is influenced by various parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, face velocity and packing density. This study is to evaluate the dependency of the removal efficiency on each parameter and these combined parameters, quantitatively. Four types of adsorbents, BC-727, AgX, CHC-50 and SS 208C 5KI 3 , were tested. From experimental data and mass transfer theory, an experimental equation for evaluating the removal efficiency of adsorbents was derived under a series of experiments for radioactive methyl iodine-131. It was concluded that the removal efficiency calculated from the experimental equation agreed well with the experimental value. Effects of experimental specific parameters, such as Pre-flow time, methyl iodide injection time and After-flow time, on the removal efficiency of adsorbent are also described

  12. Triangular relationship between sleep spindle activity, general cognitive ability and the efficiency of declarative learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lustenberger

    Full Text Available EEG sleep spindle activity (SpA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep has been reported to be associated with measures of intelligence and overnight performance improvements. The reticular nucleus of the thalamus is generating sleep spindles in interaction with thalamocortical connections. The same system enables efficient encoding and processing during wakefulness. Thus, we examined if the triangular relationship between SpA, measures of intelligence and declarative learning reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical system. As expected, SpA was associated with general cognitive ability, e.g. information processing speed. SpA was also associated with learning efficiency, however, not with overnight performance improvement in a declarative memory task. SpA might therefore reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical network and can be seen as a marker for learning during encoding in wakefulness, i.e. learning efficiency.

  13. Removal efficiency of methylene blue using activated carbon from waste banana stem: Study on pH influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misran, E.; Bani, O.; Situmeang, E. M.; Purba, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    The effort to remove methylene blue in artificial solution had been conducted using adsorption process. The abundant banana stem waste was utilized as activated carbon precursor. This study aimed to analyse the influence of solution pH to removal efficiency of methylene blue using activated carbon from banana stem as adsorbent. Activated carbon from banana stem was obtained by chemical activation using H3PO4 solution. Proximate analysis result showed that the activated carbon has 47.22% of fixed carbon. This value exhibited that banana stem was a potential adsorbent precursor. Methylene blue solutions were prepared at initial concentration of 50 ppm. The influence of solution pH was investigated with the use of 0.2 g adsorbent for 100 mL dye solution. The adsorption was conducted using shaker with at a constant rate of 100 rpm at room temperature for 90 minutes. The results showed that solution pH influenced the adsorption. The activated carbon from banana stem demonstrated satisfying performance since removal efficiencies of methylene blue were higher than 99%.

  14. High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishide, Jun-ichi; Hiraga, Yasuhide; Nakanotani, Hajime; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention recently, aimed for next-generation lighting sources because of their high potential to realize high electroluminescence efficiency, flexibility, and low-cost manufacture. Here, we demonstrate high-efficiency WOLED using red, green, and blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials as emissive dopants to generate white electroluminescence. The WOLED has a maximum external quantum efficiency of over 17% with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.30, 0.38).

  15. Improvement of methodical approaches to higher schools' marketing activity assessment on the basis of Internet technologies application

    OpenAIRE

    Elizaveta E. Tarasova; Evgeny A. Shein

    2014-01-01

    The paper substantiates the necessity of higher schools marketing activity developing on the basis of Internet technologies; suggests the technique of comprehensive assessment of functioning and quality of the site as the main tool of marketing activity on the Internet, substantiates the stages of its implementation and provides the approbation results; suggests strategic directions for the improvement of functioning and quality improvement of a higher school site, which makes it possible to ...

  16. Policymaking as a Multi-Layered Activity. A Case Study from the Higher Education Sector in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljosland, Ragnhild

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with policymaking in the higher education sector as an activity which happens on many levels, with many and varying interests involved. As the present thematic issue highlights, language is present in higher education policymaking, whether explicitly or implicitly. This special issue's initial claim is that "Policy is what…

  17. Prediction and design of efficient exciplex emitters for high-efficiency, thermally activated delayed-fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ke; Chen, Zhan; Zheng, Cai-Jun; Liu, Chuan-Lin; Lee, Chun-Sing; Li, Fan; Ou, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2015-04-08

    High-efficiency, thermally activated delayed-fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes based on exciplex emitters are demonstrated. The best device, based on a TAPC:DPTPCz emitter, shows a high external quantum efficiency of 15.4%. Strategies for predicting and designing efficient exciplex emitters are also provided. This approach allow prediction and design of efficient exciplex emitters for achieving high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes, for future use in displays and lighting applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. NARINGENIN ENHANCED EFFICIENCY OF GUS ACTIVITY IN Passiflora mollissima (H.B.K. Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Cancino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid naringenin has been investigated as a possible vir gene inducer in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Passiflora mollissima, P. giberti and Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi. The transformation efficiency percentage of explants showing blue GUS expression and the extent of staining following inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains EHA 105 and 1065, carrying gus and nptII genes was enhanced with the supplementation of the co-cultivation medium with naringenin. Supplementation of medium with 100µM (strain EHA 105 and 300 µM (strain 1065 naringenin was most effective at enhancing mean (±s.e.m., n=3 GUS activity in leaf explants (20.3 ± 2.4%, strain EHA; 105; 6.0 ± 0.57%, strain 1065 and nodal segments (16.7 ± 2.4% strain EHA 105; 8.3 ± 0.57% strain 1065 of P. mollissima. In P. giberti and N. tabacum maximum GUS activity was obtained in leaf and root explants with 100µM naringenin for both strains analysed. Additionally, when naringenin was added to Luria Bertani (LB medium, both bacterial growth via optical density and colony forming units were higher when compared to control. This is the first report of the use of naringenin to enhance gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants. These findings suggest that naringenin can be used as an alternative to acetosyringone for vir gene induction in Agrobacterium. This approach may be especially useful in plants that are generally recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediatedtransformation.

  19. Active Learning Strategies for Complementing the Lecture Teaching Methods in Large Classes in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangram, Jeffrey A.; Haddix, Marcelle; Ochanji, Moses K.; Masingila, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Massification in higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa is an ongoing reality that poses particular challenges and opportunities for these nations (Mohamedbhai, 2008). Like Scott (1995), we use the term massification to refer to the rapid increase of students attending higher education institutions in the latter part of the 20th century and into…

  20. The role of customers in higher education: Are students active stakeholders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mihanović

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As the primary subject of research, this paper puts forward the issue of students’ role in Croatian institutions of higher education, taking into consideration the multiplicity of constituents and the complexity of relationships established by an institution of higher education with target groups as potential donors. In order to determine the position of students in higher education in relation to a dependency on the sources of financing, the research includes students as the main target group as well as potential students and the competent Ministry. They are the ones the institution of higher education establishes relations with, while representing a source of financing at the same time. For the purpose of research a model was created and the research carried out in May and June 2006 on a sample that included all public colleges in Croatia (87 of them, with their executives participating as respondents. According to research results, institutions of higher education, whether being largely financed by students or the Ministry, have not focused sufficiently on students or potential students. There are significant differences in the orientation of institutions of higher education to the Ministry. The institutions that are mainly financed by students show a higher degree of orientation toward the Ministry than those financed by the Ministry itself. Both the orientation and development of the relationships with students and potential students depend on the financing sources of institutions of higher education in Croatia. Therefore, students are not recognized as primary/original partners of the Croatian higher education and, in accordance with the mission and objectives of education, they are not adequately taken care of.

  1. A Studi on High Plant Systems Course with Active Learning in Higher Education Through Outdoor Learning to Increase Student Learning Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Rokhimah Hanik, Anwari Adi Nugroho

    2015-01-01

    Biology learning especially high plant system courses needs to be applied to active learning centered on the student (Active Learning In Higher Education) to enhance the students' learning activities so that the quality of learning for the better. Outdoor Learning is one of the active learning invites students to learn outside of the classroom by exploring the surrounding environment. This research aims to improve the students' learning activities in the course of high plant systems through t...

  2. Vigorous physical activity predicts higher heart rate variability among younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard; McBerty, Victoria; Zaky, Adam; Gianotti, Melino

    2017-06-14

    Baseline heart rate variability (HRV) is linked to prospective cardiovascular health. We tested intensity and duration of weekly physical activity as predictors of heart rate variability in young adults. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were calculated based on 5-min resting electrocardiograms collected from 82 undergraduate students. Hours per week of both moderate and vigorous activity were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In regression analyses, hours of vigorous physical activity, but not moderate activity, significantly predicted greater time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability. Adjusted for weekly frequency, greater daily duration of vigorous activity failed to predict HRV indices. Future studies should test direct measurements of vigorous activity patterns as predictors of autonomic function in young adulthood.

  3. Highly efficient electroluminescence from a solution-processable thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Yoshimasa; Kubo, Shosei; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kaji, Hironori, E-mail: kaji@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Shizu, Katsuyuki [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Adachi, Chihaya [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-11-02

    We developed a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter, 2,4,6-tris(4-(9,9-dimethylacridan-10-yl)phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine (3ACR-TRZ), suitable for use in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). When doped into 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host at 16 wt. %, 3ACR-TRZ showed a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 98%. Transient photoluminescence decay measurements of the 16 wt. % 3ACR-TRZ:CBP film confirmed that 3ACR-TRZ exhibits efficient TADF with a triplet-to-light conversion efficiency of 96%. This high conversion efficiency makes 3ACR-TRZ attractive as an emitting dopant in OLEDs. Using 3ACR-TRZ as an emitter, we fabricated a solution-processed OLED exhibiting a maximum external quantum efficiency of 18.6%.

  4. Removal efficiency of radioactive methyl iodide on TEDA-impregnated activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, C.M.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Roman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by different series of carbon dioxide and steam activation from walnut shells for their optimal use as radioactive methyl iodide adsorbents in Nuclear Plants. The knowledge of the most favourable textural characteristics of the activated carbons was possible by the previous study of the commercial activated carbon currently used for this purpose. In order to increase their methyl iodide affinity, the effect of triethylenediamine impregnation was studied at 5 and 10 wt.%. The results obtained indicated that in both cases the adsorption efficiency is markedly improved by the addition of impregnant, which allows the adsorbate uptake to occur not only by physical adsorption, via non-specific interactions (as in non-impregnated carbons) but also by the specific interaction of triethylenediamine with radioactive methyl iodide. Methyl iodide retention efficiencies up to 98.1% were achieved. (author)

  5. Efficiency optimization of wireless power transmission systems for active capsule endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Jiangpingping; Zhiwu, Wang; Hua, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. A wireless power supply system is regarded as a practical way to overcome the power shortage problem in such devices. This paper focuses on the efficiency optimization of a wireless energy supply system with size and safety constraints. A mathematical programming model in which these constraints are considered is proposed for transmission efficiency, optimal frequency and current, and overall system effectiveness. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, we use a wireless active capsule endoscope as an illustrative example. The achieved efficiency can be regarded as an index for evaluating the system, and the proposed approach can be used to direct the design of transmitting and receiving coils.

  6. Efficiency optimization of wireless power transmission systems for active capsule endoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Jiangpingping; Zhiwu, Wang; Hua, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. A wireless power supply system is regarded as a practical way to overcome the power shortage problem in such devices. This paper focuses on the efficiency optimization of a wireless energy supply system with size and safety constraints. A mathematical programming model in which these constraints are considered is proposed for transmission efficiency, optimal frequency and current, and overall system effectiveness. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, we use a wireless active capsule endoscope as an illustrative example. The achieved efficiency can be regarded as an index for evaluating the system, and the proposed approach can be used to direct the design of transmitting and receiving coils

  7. Compact, Energy-Efficient High-Frequency Switched Capacitor Neural Stimulator With Active Charge Balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Yang; Schmid, Alexandre

    2017-08-01

    Safety and energy efficiency are two major concerns for implantable neural stimulators. This paper presents a novel high-frequency, switched capacitor (HFSC) stimulation and active charge balancing scheme, which achieves high energy efficiency and well-controlled stimulation charge in the presence of large electrode impedance variations. Furthermore, the HFSC can be implemented in a compact size without any external component to simultaneously enable multichannel stimulation by deploying multiple stimulators. The theoretical analysis shows significant benefits over the constant-current and voltage-mode stimulation methods. The proposed solution was fabricated using a 0.18 μm high-voltage technology, and occupies only 0.035 mm 2 for a single stimulator. The measurement result shows 50% peak energy efficiency and confirms the effectiveness of active charge balancing to prevent the electrode dissolution.

  8. Energy efficient smartphone-based activity recognition using fixed-point arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Anguita, Davide; Ghio, Alessandro; Oneto, Luca; Llanas Parra, Francesc Xavier; Reyes Ortiz, Jorge Luis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel energy efficient approach for the recognition of human activities using smartphones as wearable sensing devices, targeting assisted living applications such as remote patient activity monitoring for the disabled and the elderly. The method exploits fixed-point arithmetic to propose a modified multiclass Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning algorithm, allowing to better pre- serve the smartphone battery lifetime with respect to the conventional flo...

  9. Correlations between specific patterns of spontaneous activity and stimulation efficiency in degenerated retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Haselier

    Full Text Available Retinal prostheses that are currently used to restore vision in patients suffering from retinal degeneration are not adjusted to the changes occurring during the remodeling process of the retina. Recent studies revealed abnormal rhythmic activity in the retina of genetic mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa. Here we describe this abnormal activity also in a pharmacologically-induced (MNU mouse model of retinal degeneration. To investigate how this abnormal activity affects the excitability of retinal ganglion cells, we recorded the electrical activity from whole mounted retinas of rd10 mice and MNU-treated mice using a microelectrode array system and applied biphasic current pulses of different amplitude and duration to stimulate ganglion cells electrically. We show that the electrical stimulation efficiency is strongly reduced in degenerated retinas, in particular when abnormal activity such as oscillations and rhythmic firing of bursts of action potentials can be observed. Using a prestimulus pulse sequence, we could abolish rhythmic retinal activity. Under these conditions, the stimulation efficiency was enhanced in a few cases but not in the majority of tested cells. Nevertheless, this approach supports the idea that modified stimulation protocols could help to improve the efficiency of retinal prostheses in the future.

  10. Physical Activity Predicts Higher Physical Function in Older Adults: The Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, John A; Germain, Cassandra M; Vásquez, Elizabeth; Zbehlik, Alicia J; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity reduces mobility impairments in elders. We examined the association of physical activity on risk of subjective and objective physical function in adults with and at risk for osteoarthritis (OA). Adults aged ≥ 60 years from the longitudinal Osteoarthritis Initiative, a prospective observational study of knee OA, were classified by sex-specific quartiles of Physical Activity Score for the Elderly scores. Using linear mixed models, we assessed 6-year data on self-reported health, gait speed, Late-Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI) and chair stand. Of 2252 subjects, mean age ranged from 66 to 70 years. Within each quartile, physical component (PCS) of the Short Form-12 and gait speed decreased from baseline to follow-up in both sexes (all P physical activity is associated with maintained physical function and is mediated by muscle strength, highlighting the importance of encouraging physical activity in older adults with and at risk for OA.

  11. The influence of external environment factors on the activity of higher educational establishments in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Leonidovna Guzakova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The instability of market economy development causes continuous changes in the activity of higher educational establishments. The article deals with the processes, taking place in the system of higher professional education in the Russian Federation in recent decades. On the basis of the analysis of statistical data and normative acts of the Government and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the key global and national trends in higher education are identified: increasing demand for higher education, resulted in its considerable offer (the growth of quantitative indicators is not always accompanied by improvement of higher education quality; reduction in the total number of students due to the demographic situation worsening; transition to a multi-level system of higher education under the Bologna process; change in specialties patterns and directions of training specialists with higher professional education due to the economy structural reforms and labor market needs; aggravation of competition. The tendencies lead to the emergence of demographic, political and economic risks. To reduce negative impact of the external risks to the universities’ activity it is necessary to develop corresponding state educational policy in the sphere of higher education and risk management in universities

  12. Translating Research into New Instructional Technologies for Higher Education: The Active Ingredient Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a research-based approach for developing new instructional technologies for higher education. The argument is made that the most common instructional methods used by faculty and educational technology in colleges and universities are based on adult learning theories that have not been supported in the past half-century of…

  13. Making College Count: An Examination of Quantitative Reasoning Activities in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis M. Rocconi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Findings from national studies along with more frequent calls from those who employ college graduates suggest an urgent need for colleges and universities to increase opportunities for students to develop quantitative reasoning (QR skills. To address this issue, the current study examines the relationship between the frequency of QR activities during college and student and institutional characteristics, as well as whether students at institutions with an emphasis on QR (at least one QR course requirement for all students report more QR activity. Results show that gender, race-ethnicity, major, full-time status, first-generation status, age, institutional enrollment size, and institutional control are related to the frequency of QR activities. Findings also suggest that such activities are indeed more common among institutions that emphasize QR.

  14. Using Activity Theory to Design Constructivist Online Learning Environments for Higher Order Thinking: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Morrison

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper examined a particular online learning activity, embedded within a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL environment incorporated as part of the larger context of participation in a unique national agricultural leadership development program. Process outcomes such as a high level of collaboration and active peer facilitation as well as demonstration by participants of a variety of holistic thinking skills were observed via a transcript analysis of online interactions. This led to speculations that the particular design features embedded within the context of the online collaborative issues analysis project (IAP, were thought to clearly reflect a constructivist approach. Methods to confirm this included evaluating the learning activity in light of nine characteristics of an authentic task in CSCL environments, and using activity theory as a conceptual framework with which to further examine the extent to which the IAP reflected the values and principles of a constructivist online learning environment.

  15. A TLBO based gradient descent learning-functional link higher order ANN: An efficient model for learning from non-linear data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bighnaraj Naik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available All the higher order ANNs (HONNs including functional link ANN (FLANN are sensitive to random initialization of weight and rely on the learning algorithms adopted. Although a selection of efficient learning algorithms for HONNs helps to improve the performance, on the other hand, initialization of weights with optimized weights rather than random weights also play important roles on its efficiency. In this paper, the problem solving approach of the teaching learning based optimization (TLBO along with learning ability of the gradient descent learning (GDL is used to obtain the optimal set of weight of FLANN learning model. TLBO does not require any specific parameters rather it requires only some of the common independent parameters like number of populations, number of iterations and stopping criteria, thereby eliminating the intricacy in selection of algorithmic parameters for adjusting the set of weights of FLANN model. The proposed TLBO-FLANN is implemented in MATLAB and compared with GA-FLANN, PSO-FLANN and HS-FLANN. The TLBO-FLANN is tested on various 5-fold cross validated benchmark data sets from UCI machine learning repository and analyzed under the null-hypothesis by using Friedman test, Holm’s procedure and post hoc ANOVA statistical analysis (Tukey test & Dunnett test.

  16. Energy-Efficient Real-Time Human Activity Recognition on Smart Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, human activity recognition (HAR plays an important role in wellness-care and context-aware systems. Human activities can be recognized in real-time by using sensory data collected from various sensors built in smart mobile devices. Recent studies have focused on HAR that is solely based on triaxial accelerometers, which is the most energy-efficient approach. However, such HAR approaches are still energy-inefficient because the accelerometer is required to run without stopping so that the physical activity of a user can be recognized in real-time. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for HAR process that controls the activity recognition duration for energy-efficient HAR. We investigated the impact of varying the acceleration-sampling frequency and window size for HAR by using the variable activity recognition duration (VARD strategy. We implemented our approach by using an Android platform and evaluated its performance in terms of energy efficiency and accuracy. The experimental results showed that our approach reduced energy consumption by a minimum of about 44.23% and maximum of about 78.85% compared to conventional HAR without sacrificing accuracy.

  17. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Sansevero, Jerônimo B. B.; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biom...

  18. 3D Printing as Learning Activity in Higher Education A case study in a robotics’ prototyping course

    OpenAIRE

    Drakoulaki, Aikaterini

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is inspired by the new opportunities new technologies provide in education and more precisely in higher education. There is a general focus in higher education on supporting student learning beyond learning the existing knowledge, so that students are prepared for taking part in knowledge- generating activities in their future working environment. Technologies can offer new opportunities for exploring and constructing knowledge. The focus of this study is on 3D printing as a learn...

  19. Inventory of U.S.-led International Activities on Building Energy Efficiency Initial Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Alison; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-04-01

    Several U.S. Government agencies promote energy efficiency in buildings internationally. The types and scope of activities vary by agency. Those with the largest role include the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of State and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Both USAID and the Department of State have a substantial presence overseas, which may present some complementarities with the Department of Energy’s efforts to reach out to other countries. Generally speaking, USAID focuses on capacity building and policy issues; the Department of State focuses on broad diplomatic efforts and some targeted grants in support of these efforts, and EPA has more targeted roles linked to ENERGY STAR appliances and a few other activities. Several additional agencies are also involved in trade-related efforts to promote energy efficiency in buildings. These include the Department of Commerce, the Export-Import Bank, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation and the Trade and Development Agency (TDA). This initial synthesis report is designed to summarize broad trends and activities relating to international cooperation on energy efficiency in buildings, which can help the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in developing its own strategy in this area. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will develop a more complete synthesis report later in 2010 as it populates a database on international projects on building energy efficiency.

  20. Matrix Methods and Models of Economic Analysis in the Marketing Activity of Higher Educational Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stebliuk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available On the present stage of the development of educational environment, it is necessary to use the scientific tools for understanding the market patterns of the interaction of demand and supply of educational services, which will allow not only to navigate the consumer preferences but also to form them. It is in these circumstances that it is extremely important to study changes in the volume of demand for educational services in order to adapt them to the system of higher education. The aim of the article is to substantiate the theoretical positions and develop practical recommendations for the definition of the competitive marketing strategy of higher education organizations in the market of educational services with the help of modern approaches and methods of economic-mathematical modeling. The practical significance of the obtained results is the introduction of methodological provisions for forecasting the demand and supply of educational services for higher educational establishments. The complexity and interdependence of managerial problems in the system of higher education require new ideas and approaches, which necessitates the search for new definite solutions, namely: the research paper offers the method of optimal distribution of budgetary places of the university by means of practical application of the theory of system constraints and the theory of fuzzy sets. Along with that, the calculation of the optimal number of students of the corresponding specialty with the help of cluster analysis has been carried out. In addition, an important place for improvement and development is taken by the economics and mathematical methods and methods of linear programming, they are effective means of identifying the most influential factors in achieving the goals of a higher educational establishment and justifying the marketing strategy of its development in modern conditions. To predict the quantitative values of social and economic indicators

  1. Study on the establishment of efficient plan for regulatory activities at NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Son, Mun Gyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Sun; Yun, Jeong Ik; Ko, Hyun Seok; Lee, Young Wook [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    In-operation regulatory activities at sites are very important and it should be improved to cope with accidents efficiently and quickly. In case of site survey and safety regulatory inspection regulatory system based on not regulatory headquarter but site regional office should be constructed. In other words, safety assurance and pending problem management considering site situation are needed. In this study, regulatory system at Nuclear Power Plant sites all over the world were reviewed and effective regulatory system of Korea are suggested to maximize the efficiency of license and regulatory manpower and consider the interest of local government and residents.

  2. Studies of Some Parameters Affecting The Efficiency and Accuracy of The Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zaghloul, R.A.; Sroor, A.; Abdel Sabour, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The present studies deal with the optimum physical conditions which seriously affect the neutron activation analysis technique efficiency. An experimental work for the efficiency calibration of hyper pure germanium detectors especially for environmental studies is presented. This work showed that the tested parameters, under consideration, distance, mass and measured time, reveal a significant effect on the obtained data. These results, intern, affect the accuracy of the measurements. Further work on the test of other parameters is planned in our laboratory using special treatments and applying special computer programs

  3. THE RISK INSURANCE EFFICIENCY OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Lobova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of business activity insurance in the agricultural sector is grounded in this article. Different types of agricultural risks are described. The principles, on which the efficiency of agricultural insurance is based, are determined. Such as: voluntary; the farmers interest; risk management; multivariate product line; promote farmers efficient; equal access to subsidies from farmers; balance; transparency and coordination of the subsidies transfer; creating a reliable and multi-level system of insurance coverage; binding institute of independent examination. The different ways to determine the effectiveness of insurance are considered.

  4. Efficiency of moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon for adsorbing radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chuan-Chi; Huang, Ying-Pin; Wang, Wie-Chieh [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan (China); Chao, Jun-Hsing; Wei, Yuan-Yao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2011-02-15

    Preventing radioactive pollution is a troublesome problem but an urgent concern worldwide because radioactive substances cause serious health-related hazards to human being. The adsorption method has been used for many years to concentrate and remove radioactive pollutants; selecting an adequate adsorbent is the key to the success of an adsorption-based pollution abatement system. In Taiwan, all nuclear power plants use activated carbon as the adsorbent to treat radiation-contaminated air emission. The activated carbon is entirely imported; its price and manufacturing technology are entirely controlled by international companies. Taiwan is rich in bamboo, which is one of the raw materials for high-quality activated carbon. Thus, a less costly activated carbon with the same or even better adsorptive capability as the imported adsorbent can be made from bamboo. The objective of this research is to confirm the adsorptive characteristics and efficiency of the activated carbon made of Taiwan native bamboo for removing {sup 131}I gas from air in the laboratory. The study was conducted using new activated carbon module assembled for treating {sup 131}I-contaminated air. The laboratory results reveal that the {sup 131}I removal efficiency for a single-pass module is as high as 70%, and the overall efficiency is 100% for four single-pass modules operated in series. The bamboo charcoal and bamboo activated carbon have suitable functional groups for adsorbing {sup 131}I and they have greater adsorption capacities than commercial activated carbons. Main mechanism is for trapping of radioiodine on impregnated charcoal, as a result of surface oxidation. When volatile radioiodine is trapped by potassium iodide-impregnated bamboo charcoal, the iodo-compound is first adsorbed on the charcoal surface, and then migrates to iodide ion sites where isotope exchange occurs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Role of executive agencies for energy efficiency with a view on activities of Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačić Bojan J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, particularly in Europe, have executive energy efficiency agencies at national, regional and local levels that are organized in different ways. For all of them, it is common that there are existing strategic needs in their countries for enhancement of conditions and measures for rational use of energy and fuels. Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency was established in 2002 within the reform of the energy sector in Serbia and its current status was defined in 2004 by the Energy Law. It contributes to the improvement of social responsibility towards energy in all structures of the state and society, by proposing energy efficiency incentives, promoting importance of energy efficiency, as well as by managing energy efficiency and renewable energy programs and projects.

  6. Kinesiotaping enhances the rate of force development but not the neuromuscular efficiency of physically active young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Igor; Bottaro, Martim; Mezzarane, Rinaldo André; Neto, Frederico Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Bruno A; Ferreira-Júnior, João B; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz

    2016-06-01

    Investigations on the effects of KT on human performance have been increasing in the last few years. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating its effects on neuromuscular efficiency (NME) and rate of force development (RFD). To evaluate the NME and RFD of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in physically active individuals under KT application. Twenty young males (79.7±8.2kg; 1.78±0.05m; 24.7±4.4years) performed three conditions in a randomized order: (1) Baseline (BL, no tape); (2) Activation (ACTIKT, tape for muscle activation); and (3) Inhibition (INHIKT, tape for muscle inhibition). The tape was applied along the lateral and medial border of gastrocnemius with 30% tension for 48h. Peak torque (PT), RFD and NME were measured at BL and 48h after ACTIKT and INHIKT by performing a maximum isometric contraction. The RFD was significantly higher in ACTIKT compared to BL at 0-30 (P=0.010), 0-50 (P=0.008) and 0-100ms (P=0.007). The PT and NME did not differ among conditions (P>0.05). KT applied for muscle activation yielded a higher RFD during the initial phase of the muscle contraction. However, KT has no enhancement effect on NME and peak torque. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesizing Technology Adoption and Learners' Approaches towards Active Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin; Cheung, George; Wan, Kelvin; Brown, Ian; Luk, Green

    2015-01-01

    In understanding how active and blended learning approaches with learning technologies engagement in undergraduate education, current research models tend to undermine the effect of learners' variations, particularly regarding their styles and approaches to learning, on intention and use of learning technologies. This study contributes to further…

  8. Brain activity related to serial cognitive performance resembles circuitry of higher order motor control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, BM; vanZomeren, AH; Willemsen, ATM; Paans, AMJ

    Differences between two states of cerebral activation were studied in eight subjects by positron emission tomography (PET) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and subsequent statistical parameter mapping. Subjects had to respond to a row of numbers presented on tape. In one condition they had to

  9. Lower Serum Paraoxonase-1 Activity Is Related to Higher Serum Amyloid A Levels in Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul Jan Willem Herman; Bijzet, Johan; Hazenberg, Bouke Pier; Dullaart, Robin Pieter Frank

    Background and Aims. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) contain the anti-oxidative enzyme, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), which is important for atheroprotection. The acute phase reactant, serum amyloid A (SAA), an HDL-associated apolipoprotein, may impair PON-1 activity, whereas SAA and PON-1 are reciprocally

  10. Impact of Higher Fidelity Models on Simulation of Active Aerodynamic Load Control For Fatigue Damage Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resor, B.; Wilson, D.; Berg, D.; Berg, J.; Barlas, T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Active aerodynamic load control of wind turbine blades is being investigated by the wind energy research community and shows great promise, especially for reduction of turbine fatigue damage in blades and nearby components. For much of this work, full system aeroelastic codes have been used to

  11. THE ORGANIZATION OF TUTOR'S ACTIVITY IN THE SYSTEM OF DISTANCE EDUCATION AT HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii Voronkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates the results of the online tutor’s activity components. The review of the interaction between the learners (content interaction and interpersonal interaction in the distance course has shown that all of these elements should be taken into account in the course designing and should be later moderated by the tutor in the process of learning. It has been determined that effective learning occurs only in case of the possibility to sattisfy each student’s learning style. The complete learning circle should include different learning styles to follow the abovementioned requirements. According to the analysis of the online tutoring models the following structural components of tutor’s professional competence were defined: informative, organizational, psychological and pedagogical, technical, professional, personal, competence of online communication. Thus, in addition to the subject matter the tutor has to know psychological and pedagogical, organizational, methodological and technical bases of learning organization. The ability to plan (project the expected final result of tutor’s activity and the readiness to learn new technologies appear particularly important. Different criteria and methods of evaluation of the effectiveness of tutor’s activity have been studied. It is shown that the estimation of the activity effectiveness should be based on the goals and the content of tutor’s activity, and it can be performed by quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative method permits collecting the data which can be analyzed statistically. The qualitative method is more subjective, flexible and dynamic. The paper states the currency of the requirement of online tutors training programs on the state level.

  12. Dimerization Efficiency of Canine Distemper Virus Matrix Protein Regulates Membrane-Budding Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf, Fanny; Herren, Michael; Wyss, Marianne; Vidondo, Beatriz; Langedijk, Johannes P; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plattet, Philippe

    2017-08-15

    Paramyxoviruses rely on the matrix (M) protein to orchestrate viral assembly and budding at the plasma membrane. Although the mechanistic details remain largely unknown, structural data suggested that M dimers and/or higher-order oligomers may facilitate membrane budding. To gain functional insights, we employed a structure-guided mutagenesis approach to investigate the role of canine distemper virus (CDV) M protein self-assembly in membrane-budding activity. Three six-alanine-block (6A-block) mutants with mutations located at strategic oligomeric positions were initially designed. While the first one includes residues potentially residing at the protomer-protomer interface, the other two display amino acids located within two distal surface-exposed α-helices proposed to be involved in dimer-dimer contacts. We further focused on the core of the dimeric interface by mutating asparagine 138 (N138) to several nonconservative amino acids. Cellular localization combined with dimerization and coimmunopurification assays, performed under various denaturing conditions, revealed that all 6A-block mutants were impaired in self-assembly and cell periphery accumulation. These phenotypes correlated with deficiencies in relocating CDV nucleocapsid proteins to the cell periphery and in virus-like particle (VLP) production. Conversely, all M-N138 mutants remained capable of self-assembly, though to various extents, which correlated with proper accumulation and redistribution of nucleocapsid proteins at the plasma membrane. However, membrane deformation and VLP assays indicated that the M-N138 variants exhibiting the most reduced dimerization propensity were also defective in triggering membrane remodeling and budding, despite proper plasma membrane accumulation. Overall, our data provide mechanistic evidence that the efficiency of CDV M dimerization/oligomerization governs both cell periphery localization and membrane-budding activity. IMPORTANCE Despite the availability of

  13. Evaluation of Organic Matter Removal Efficiency and Microbial Enzyme Activity in Vertical-Flow Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, enzyme activities and their relationships to organics purification were investigated in three different vertical flow constructed wetlands, namely system A (planting Pennisetum sinese Roxb, system B (planting Pennisetum purpureum Schum., and system C (no plant. These three wetland systems were fed with simulation domestic sewage at an influent flow rate of 20 cm/day. The results showed that the final removal efficiency of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in these three systems was 87%, 85% and 63%, respectively. Planting Pennisetum sinese Roxb and Pennisetum purpureum Schum. could improve the amount of adsorption and interception for organic matter in the substrate, and the amount of interception of organic matter in planting the Pennisetum sinese Roxb system was higher than that in planting the Pennisetum purpureum Schum. system. The activities of enzymes (urease, phosphatase and cellulase in systems A and B were higher than those in system C, and these enzyme activities in the top layer (0–30 cm were significantly higher than in the other layers. The correlations between the activities of urease, phosphatase, cellulase and the COD removal rates were R = 0.815, 0.961 and 0.973, respectively. It suggests that using Pennisetum sinese Roxb and Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as wetland plants could promote organics removal, and the activities of urease, phosphatase and cellulase in those three systems were important indicators for COD purification from wastewater. In addition, 0–30 cm was the main function layer. This study could provide a theoretical basis for COD removal in the wetland system and supply new plant materials for selection.

  14. Active Learning Innovations in Knowledge Management Education Generate Higher Quality Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations in how a postgraduate course in knowledge management is delivered have generated better learning outcomes and made the course more engaging for learners. Course participant feedback has shown that collaborative active learning is preferred and provides them with richer insights into how knowledge is created and applied to generate innovation and value. The course applies an andragogy approach in which students collaborate in weekly dialogue of their experiences of the content, rather than learn the content itself. The approach combines systems thinking, learning praxis, and active learning to explore the interdependencies between topics and how they impact outcomes in real world situations. This has stimulated students to apply these ideas in their own workplaces.

  15. Participatory processes and institutional debate activities as key complementary aspects for embedding sustainability in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, F.; Ferrer Balas, Dídac; Barceló García, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    Introducing sustainable development into educational programs of universities tend to be approached under two complementary strategies: “top-down” and “bottom-up”. Top-down strategies promote the adaptation of the institutional framework to the new challenges that sustainable development generates into technical expertise areas. Bottom-up strategies focus on institutional activities oriented to convincing or supporting lecturers in integrating sustainable development in their d...

  16. Activities Based on Wiki Platform for Engineering Higher Education: Students' Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Nolasco de Almeida Mello

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The fast evolution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT introduced a new generation of learners that have been adopted mobile devices and Web 2.0 technologies to get information and communicate. The Web 2.0-based tools, such as blogs, wikis, Facebook, Instagram, etc, offer huge possibilities for collaboration. In this way, the main purpose of this research was plan an activity on wiki platform for Reinforced Concrete discipline in Civil Engineering course and answer the questions: (1 How should collaboration be effectively measured on wiki platform? (2 What is the students' point of view about using wiki platform for a collaboration activity? Wikispaces Classroom platform was chosen for the project because it is a free social writing platform, suitable for collaborative learning. Furthermore it works on modern browsers, tablets, and smart phone. A total of 167 students of Civil Engineering course were monitored on Wikispaces® platform. All students’ actions were analyzed and classified as low, medium or high level of collaboration. At the end of the project 111 students answered a questionnaire and 10 students participated of an informal interview where they expressed their opinion about the platform, the activities and the relationship with online peers. A descriptive statistical analysis of the data collected from the platform and the questionnaires answered by the students was performed. The results indicated that wiki platform is an important way to develop innovative activities and tasks for the purpose of to improve skills of engineering students such as: writing communication, organization, collaboration and critical thinking.

  17. Designing Online Teaching and Learning Activities for Higher Education in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Downing

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Instruction using the Web as a vehicle for content dissemination has increasingly dominated debates related to online learning (Nash, 2004 and there is little doubt that the exponential growth in the use of the internet and web-based instruction continues to present educators with considerable opportunities and challenges (Boettcher, 1999; McNaught & Lam, 2005. Many teachers and researchers (Wood, 1997; Littlejohn et al., 1999 point out that the organization and reflection necessary to effectively teach online often improves an instructor’s traditional teaching. This is a theme continued by Downing (2001 who identifies the eventual success or failure of online teaching as largely due to the same factors that have always been central to the provision of a quality learning experience. These factors include the energy, commitment and imagination of those responsible for providing the teaching and learning environment, whether it is virtual or actual. It is within this context that the authors of this paper set themselves the task of designing innovative online teaching and learning activities which add value to the student experience and genuinely assist learning traditionally difficult and dynamic concepts. The increasing adoption of outcomes based teaching and learning environments in universities around the world has provided wide-ranging opportunities to reflect on current learning and teaching practice. Whilst outcomes based teaching and learning is not a new idea (Biggs, 1999, many academic colleagues are actively seeking ways to leverage information technology solutions to design constructively aligned online teaching and learning activities which add value to the student learning experience and significantly assist in the understanding of difficult concepts and processes. This paper will describe and demonstrate the innovative development of online teaching and learning activities which adhere to the principles of both outcomes based

  18. Experienced Mindfulness Meditators Exhibit Higher Parietal-Occipital EEG Gamma Activity during NREM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarelli, Fabio; Smith, Richard; Dentico, Daniela; Riedner, Brady A.; Zennig, Corinna; Benca, Ruth M.; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings in long-term meditators (LTM) of Buddhist meditation practices (approximately 8700 mean hours of life practice) and meditation naive individuals. We found that LTM had increased parietal-occipital EEG gamma power during NREM sleep. This increase was specific for the gamma range (25–40 Hz), was not related to the level of spontaneous arousal during NREM and was positively correlated with the length of lifetime daily meditation practice. Altogether, these findings indicate that meditation practice produces measurable changes in spontaneous brain activity, and suggest that EEG gamma activity during sleep represents a sensitive measure of the long-lasting, plastic effects of meditative training on brain function. PMID:24015304

  19. A Time of Quiet Activism: Research, Practice, and Policy in American Women's Higher Education, 1945-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on three narratives that affected American women's participation in higher education during the first twenty years after World War II. In hindsight, the educators of the 1950s and early 1960s may seem gratuitously meek and self-effacing. In comparison to later efforts, their activism can appear unnecessarily limited and too…

  20. The Impact of Learning about Technology via Action Research as a Professional Development Activity on Higher Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premdas, Leisa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method study was to determine the perceived impact of learning about technology via action research as a professional development activity on faculty and students in higher education. Nine faculty members--also Teaching and Technology Fellows representing various disciplines at St. John's University--were selected based…

  1. Efficient Control of Active Transformers for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Degner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . The potential interferences between the operation of active transformers and the reactive power absorption by PV inverters are investigated, and a voltage droop control approach is proposed for the efficient control of these transformers during high PV generation periods. The proposed method can potentially...... increase the PV hosting capacity of the grid, while eliminating the need for a complex and centralized controller. The voltages of specific locations or the grid state estimations provide adequate data for adjustments of the droop parameters. The simulations and field test results associated...... with the implementation of the proposed method to a newly developed active LV grid with high PV penetration in Felsberg, Germany, confirm the efficiency of the proposed method....

  2. Active Structural Control for Aircraft Efficiency with the X-56A Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The X-56A Multi-Utility Technology Testbed is an experimental aircraft designed to study active control of flexible structures. The vehicle is easily reconfigured to allow for testing of different configurations. The vehicle is being used to study new sensor, actuator, modeling and controls technologies. These new technologies will allow for lighter vehicles and new configurations that exceed the efficiency currently achievable. A description of the vehicle and the current research efforts that it enables are presented.

  3. An efficient numerical scheme for the simulation of parallel-plate active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torregrosa-Jaime, Bárbara; Corberán, José M.; Payá, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of a parallel-plate active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is presented in this work. The model is based on an efficient numerical scheme which has been developed after analysing the heat transfer mechanisms in the regenerator bed. The new finite difference scheme optimally com...... to the fully implicit scheme, the proposed scheme achieves more accurate results, prevents numerical errors and requires less computational effort. In AMR simulations the new scheme can reduce the computational time by 88%....

  4. Successful bioaugmentation of an activated sludge reactor with Rhodococcus sp. YYL for efficient tetrahydrofuran degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yanlai; Lu, Zhenmei; Zhu, Fengxiang; Min, Hang; Bian, Caimiao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Rhodococcus sp. YYL is an efficient tetrahydrofuran-degrading strain. • Strain YYL was used to augment an activated sludge system for THF degradation. • Successful bioaugmentation was achieved only by coinoculation of strain YYL and the two bacilli. • Successful bioaugmentation of the system resulted in efficient THF degradation. -- Abstract: The exchange of tetrahydrofuran (THF)-containing wastewater should significantly affect the performance of an activated sludge system. In this study, the feasibility of using THF-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain YYL to bioaugment an activated sludge system treating THF wastewater was explored. As indicated by a DGGE analysis, strain YYL alone could not dominate the system, with the concentration of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) decreasing to nearly half of the initial concentration after 45 d, and the microbial diversity was found to be significantly reduced. However, after the reactor was augmented with the mixed culture of strain YYL and two bacilli initially coexisting in the enriched isolation source, strain YYL quickly became dominant in the system and was incorporated into the activated sludge. The concentration of MLSS increased from 2.1 g/L to 7.3 g/L in 20 d, and the efficiency of THF removal from the system was remarkably improved. After the successful bioaugmentation, more than 95% of THF was completely removed from the wastewater when 20 mM THF was continuously loaded into the system. In conclusion, our research first demonstrates that bioaugmentation of activated sludge system for THF degradation is feasible but that successful bioaugmentation should utilize a THF-degrading mixed culture as the inoculum, in which the two bacilli might help strain YYL colonize in activated sludge by co-aggregation

  5. Accuracy of rate coding: When shorter time window and higher spontaneous activity help

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leváková, Marie; Tamborrino, M.; Košťál, Lubomír; Lánský, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 022310. ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB17AT048 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rate coding * observation window * spontaneous activity * Fisher information * perfect integrate- and -fire model * Wiener process Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016

  6. An efficient acetylation of dextran using in situ activated acetic anhydride with iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD A. HUSSAIN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A facile, efficient, cost-effective and solvent-free acetylation method has been developed for the acetylation of dextran. Dextran acetates were successfully synthesized using different molar ratios of acetic anhydride in the presence of iodine as a catalyst without the use of any solvent. The reactions were realized at 50 °C for 3 h under stirring and nitrogen. This efficient method yielded highly pure and organosoluble dextran esters. The reaction appears highly effective for obtaining higher degrees of substitution (DS with great efficiency. Under solvent-free conditions, dextran triacetates were efficiently synthesized. It was also observed that the molar ratio can easily control the DS of pendant groups onto the polymer backbone. Hence, a range of products with varying DS were successfully designed, purified and characterized. Covalent attachment of the pendant groups onto the polymer backbone was verified by spectroscopic techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the obtained dextran esters were thermally as stable as dextran. The DS of the pendant groups onto the polymer backbone was calculated using standard acid base titration after saponification. Furthermore, all products were thoroughly characterized by thermal analysis (TG and DTG, and FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopic analysis.

  7. Properties of Arctic Aerosol Particles and Residuals of Warm Clouds: Cloud Activation Efficiency and the Aerosol Indirect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Imre, D. G.; Leaitch, R.; Ovchinnikov, M.; Liu, P.; Macdonald, A.; Strapp, W.; Ghan, S. J.; Earle, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II, was used to characterize the size, composition, number concentration, density, and shape of individual Arctic spring aerosol. Background particles, particles above and below the cloud, cloud droplet residuals, and interstitial particles were characterized with goal to identify the properties that separate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from background aerosol particles. The analysis offers a comparison between warm clouds formed on clean and polluted days, with clean days having maximum particle concentrations (Na) lower than ~250 cm-3, as compared with polluted days, in which maximum concentration was tenfold higher. On clean days, particles were composed of organics, organics mixed with sulfates, biomass burning (BB), sea salt (SS), and few soot and dust particles. On polluted days, BB, organics associated with BB, and their mixtures with sulfate dominated particle compositions. Based on the measured compositions and size distributions of cloud droplet residuals, background aerosols, and interstitial particles, we conclude that these three particle types had virtually the same compositions, which means that cloud activation probabilities were surprisingly nearly composition independent. Moreover, these conclusions hold in cases in which less than 20% or more than 90% of background particles got activated. We concluded that for the warm clouds interrogated in this study particle size played a more important factor on aerosol CCN activity. Comparative analysis of all studied clouds reveals that aerosol activation efficiency strongly depends on the aerosol concentrations, such that at Na <200 cm-3, nearly all particles activate, and at higher concentrations the activation efficiency is lower. For example, when Na was greater than 1500 cm-3, less than ~30% of particles activated. The data suggest that as the number of nucleated droplets increases, condensation on existing droplets effectively competes with particle

  8. The Role of Activator-Activator Interactions In Reducing in Low-Voltage-Cathodoluminescence Efficiency in Eu and Tb Doped Phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEAGER, CARLETON H.; TALLANT, DAVID R.

    1999-01-01

    High resolution measurements of spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) decay have been made in several commercial and experimental phosphors doped with Eu and Tb at beam energies ranging from 0.8 to 4 keV. CL emission from the lowest two excited states of both rare earth activators was compared to the decay of photoluminescence (PL) after pulsed laser excitation. We find that, at long times after the cessation of electron excitation, the CL decay rates are comparable to those measured in PL, at short times, the decay process is considerably faster and has a noticeable dependence on the energy of the electron beam. These beam energy effects are largest for the higher excited states and for phosphors with larger activator concentrations. Measurements of the experimental phosphors over a range of activator fractions from 0.1 to 0.002 show that the beam energy dependence of the steady-state CL efficiency is larger for higher excited states and weakens as the activator concentration is reduced. The latter effect is strongest for Y 2 SiO 5 :Tb, but also quite evident in Y 2 O 3 :Eu. We suggest that the electron beam dependence of both the decay lifetimes and the steady state CL efficiency may be due to interaction of nearby excited states which occurs as a result of the large energy deposition rate for low energy electrons. This picture-for non-radiative quenching of rare earth emission is an excited state analog of the well-known (ground state-excited state) concentration quenching mechanism

  9. Efficient Active Contour and K-Means Algorithms in Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Rommelse

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss a classic clustering algorithm that can be used to segment images and a recently developed active contour image segmentation model. We propose integrating aspects of the classic algorithm to improve the active contour model. For the resulting CVK and B-means segmentation algorithms we examine methods to decrease the size of the image domain. The CVK method has been implemented to run on parallel and distributed computers. By changing the order of updating the pixels, it was possible to replace synchronous communication with asynchronous communication and subsequently the parallel efficiency is improved.

  10. Efficient and silent cooling. Thermal activation of components; Effiziente und stille Kuehlung. Thermische Bauteilaktivierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmersbach, Matthias [Uponor GmbH, Ludwigsburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    In addition to the increasing user requirements for comfort and indoor climate, the economy is the number one planning tool in modern office buildings and commercial buildings. Under this aspect, the energy-efficient heating and cooling systems not only are an option, but rather an integral part of an economic building concept and a requirement for the successful marketing of modern real estates. A particularly interesting variant is the utilization of a concrete core activation such as Uponor Contec. Approximately 700,000 square meters of space were created annually in Germany - with a rising trend. Thereby, 70 % of the activated areas are installed in office buildings.

  11. Mutagenic activity of N-nitrosoethylene urea in higher plants. [C. cappilaris L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sal' nikova, T.V.; Grigorova, N.V.; Laputin, D.L.; Shustova, L.L., Zazimko, V.V.; Shustov, G.V.; Kostyanovskiy, R.G.

    1984-04-01

    Cytopathogenetic effect of N-nitrosoethylene urea (NETM) on common wheat and C. cappilaris L. are studied. Air-dried wheat seeds were treated with 1 of 5 concentrations (0.1-0.01%) of NETM for 18 hours at pH 5.7 or 7.0. Treatment of seeds with NETM reduced the germinating power significantly at pH 5.7, especially at high concentrations of NETM. NETM is also a highly effective chemical mutagen. Maximum mutagenic effect appears at pH 7.0. NETM greatly reduced mitotic activity of wheat and C. cappilaris L. which is typical for alkylating type mutagens. The aberration rate is rather high for both objects studied. In both the anaphase and metaphase method of calculating chromosomal injuries, a great percentage of the total number of aberrations are chromatid type reconstructions which indicates predominance of the alkylating action of NETM. Wheat affected by NETM has a large number of anaphase cells with lagging chromosome which is atypical for alkylating type mutagens. This may be explained by the effect of NETM on centromeric and precentromeric parts of chromosomes and spindle filaments. NETM is an alkylating agent rather than a carbamoylating agent. It is a highly active and slightly toxic mutagen. 25 references, 1 figure.

  12. Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2016-07-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extracted compounds exhibited reducing power and scavenging activity against 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant capacities varied with the used chemical reagents and exhibited dose-dependent effects. Extracts from anhydrous ethanol, chloroform and acetone were capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The anhydrous ethanol extracts were observed to have significant levels of antioxidant compounds since they had a strong reducing power, high scavenging rates against DPPH and superoxide anion-free radicals (>90%), and high inhibition rates on lipid peroxidation (>60%). The present study will provide reference data for the antioxidant applications of H. erinaceus in pharmaceutical use and disease prevention.

  13. Decreased physical activity attributable to higher body mass index influences fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Clauw, Daniel; Oh, Terry H; Whipple, Mary O; Toussaint, Loren L

    2014-09-01

    Although previous studies report associations between increased body mass index (BMI) and fibromyalgia symptoms, there is uncertainty as to whether this relationship is driven by physical factors, psychological factors, or both. To assess these relationships in a clinical sample of patients with fibromyalgia. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary care facility. A total of 686 patients from an existing national fibromyalgia registry. Patients completed a demographic form and self-report questionnaires including the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQ-R), the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and the 30-item Profile of Mood States (30-item POMS). FIQ-R overall impact subscale. BMI was significantly correlated with fibromyalgia impact (P BMI and fibromyalgia impact was almost fully accounted for by physical factors and not by psychological factors. Despite patient report that pain hinders physical activity, clinicians who encounter patients with fibromyalgia, particularly patients with increased BMI, should be cognizant of the need to invest time and resources to counsel patients on physical factors (ie, physical activity) that could improve the patients' symptom experience. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fast Temporal Activity Proposals for Efficient Detection of Human Actions in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba; Niebles, Juan Carlos; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In many large-scale video analysis scenarios, one is interested in localizing and recognizing human activities that occur in short temporal intervals within long untrimmed videos. Current approaches for activity detection still struggle to handle large-scale video collections and the task remains relatively unexplored. This is in part due to the computational complexity of current action recognition approaches and the lack of a method that proposes fewer intervals in the video, where activity processing can be focused. In this paper, we introduce a proposal method that aims to recover temporal segments containing actions in untrimmed videos. Building on techniques for learning sparse dictionaries, we introduce a learning framework to represent and retrieve activity proposals. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method in not only producing high quality proposals but also in its efficiency. Finally, we show the positive impact our method has on recognition performance when it is used for action detection, while running at 10FPS.

  15. Fast Temporal Activity Proposals for Efficient Detection of Human Actions in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2016-12-13

    In many large-scale video analysis scenarios, one is interested in localizing and recognizing human activities that occur in short temporal intervals within long untrimmed videos. Current approaches for activity detection still struggle to handle large-scale video collections and the task remains relatively unexplored. This is in part due to the computational complexity of current action recognition approaches and the lack of a method that proposes fewer intervals in the video, where activity processing can be focused. In this paper, we introduce a proposal method that aims to recover temporal segments containing actions in untrimmed videos. Building on techniques for learning sparse dictionaries, we introduce a learning framework to represent and retrieve activity proposals. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method in not only producing high quality proposals but also in its efficiency. Finally, we show the positive impact our method has on recognition performance when it is used for action detection, while running at 10FPS.

  16. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  17. Efficient degradation of trichloroethylene in water using persulfate activated by reduced graphene oxide-iron nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayyaz; Gu, Xiaogang; Li, Li; Lv, Shuguang; Xu, Yisheng; Guo, Xuhong

    2015-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and nano-sized zero-valent iron-reduced graphene oxide (nZVI-rGO) composite were prepared. The GO and nZVI-rGO composite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy. The size of nZVI was about 6 nm as observed by TEM. The system of nZVI-rGO and persulfate (PS) was used for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water, and showed 26.5% more efficiency as compared to nZVI/PS system. The different parameters were studied to determine the efficiency of nZVI-rGO to activate the PS system for the TCE degradation. By increasing the PS amount, TCE removal was also improved while no obvious effect was observed by varying the catalyst loading. Degradation was decreased as the TCE initial concentration was increased from 20 to 100 mg/L. Moreover, when initial solution pH was increased, efficiency deteriorated to 80%. Bicarbonate showed more negative effect on TCE removal among the solution matrix. To better understand the effects of radical species in the system, the scavenger tests were performed. The •SO4(-) and •O2(-) were predominant species responsible for TCE removal. The nZVI-rGO-activated PS process shows potential applications in remediation of highly toxic organic contaminants such as TCE present in the groundwater. Graphical abstract Persulfate activated by reduced graphene oxide and nano-sized zero-valent iron composite can be used for efficient degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water.

  18. Water activity control: a way to improve the efficiency of continuous lipase esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, S; Tweddell, R J; Condoret, J S; Marty, A

    1998-11-05

    During continuous lipase-catalyzed oleic acid esterification by ethanol in n-hexane, the oleic acid conversion, initially at 95%, decreases to 20% after 2 h. This decrease is caused by the accumulation of the water produced in the course of the reaction in the packed-bed reactor (PBR). In order to improve the PBR efficiency, it is necessary to evacuate the water produced. In this study, different approaches have been tested to control the water content in the PBR during continuous esterification. The first approach consisted in improving the water solubility by increasing the reaction medium polarity. The addition of polar additives to n-hexane, the use of more polar solvents, and the use of solvent-free reaction medium were tested as a means to favor the water evacuation from the PBR. First of all, the use ofn-hexane supplemented with acetone (3 M) or 2-methyl-2-propanol (1 M) enabled the conversion to be maintained at higher values than those obtained in pure n-hexane. The replacement of n-hexane by a more polar solvent, like the 5-methyl-2-hexanone, resulted in the same effect. In all cases, conversions at steady-state were always less than 95%, as obtained in pure n-hexane. This is explained by a decrease in the enzyme activity due to the increase in the medium polarity. Nevertheless, an increase in enzyme quantity allowed 90% conversion to be maintained during 1 week using 3 M acetone amended n-hexane. Good results (a steady-state conversion of about 80%) were obtained when esterification was carried out in a solvent-free reaction medium containing 2 M 2-methyl-2-propanol as a polar additive. The second approach consisted in the evaporation of the accumulated water by use of an intermittent airflow. Although this process did not enable constant esterification rate to be maintained, it did enable the initial conversion (95%) to be restored intermittently. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Advanced CFD modelling of air and recycled flue gas staging in a waste wood-fired grate boiler for higher combustion efficiency and greater environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajh, Boštjan; Yin, Chungen; Samec, Niko; Hriberšek, Matjaž; Kokalj, Filip; Zadravec, Matej

    2018-07-15

    Grate-fired boilers are commonly used to burn biomass/wastes for heat and power production. In spite of the recent breakthrough in integration of advanced secondary air systems in grate boilers, grate-firing technology needs to be advanced for higher efficiency and lower emissions. In this paper, innovative staging of combustion air and recycled flue gas in a 13 MW th waste wood-fired grate boiler is comprehensively studied based on a numerical model that has been previously validated. In particular, the effects of the jet momentum, position and orientation of the combustion air and recycled flue gas streams on in-furnace mixing, combustion and pollutant emissions from the boiler are examined. It is found that the optimized air and recycled flue gas jets remarkably enhance mixing and heat transfer, result in a more uniform temperature and velocity distribution, extend the residence time of the combustibles in the hot zone and improve burnout in the boiler. Optimizing the air and recycled flue gas jet configuration can reduce carbon monoxide emission from the boiler by up to 86%, from the current 41.0 ppm to 5.7 ppm. The findings of this study can serve as useful guidelines for novel design and optimization of the combustion air supply and flue gas recycling for grate boilers of this type. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Higher Language Ability is Related to Angular Gyrus Activation Increase During Semantic Processing, Independent of Sentence Incongruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Karlsson, Thomas; Engström, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task—which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency—employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, there was a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing, is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that no evidence is found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation. PMID

  1. Higher language ability is related to angular gyrus activation increase during semantic processing, independent of sentence incongruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene eVan Ettinger-Veenstra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task - which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency - employing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that there is no evidence found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation.

  2. Educational Activities and a Competency Framework for Meeting New Challenges in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jæger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In his article we explore how educational institutions are faced with changes in the modern global business environment, and how this leads to need for changes in curricula for business schools and information systems schools. Most of academia still uses a strict disciplinary model of education resulting in a high degree of specialization within each discipline while the modern business environments require knowledge workers who can address problems that cut across disciplines on an increasingly global scale. Research papers and governmental reports call for more emphasis on particularly three interdisciplinary topics; 1 competencies in globalization issues, 2 communication/working in team, and 3 information literacy. The disciplines of business and in particular information systems education have received much attention in this respect with several calls for change. How to bring about such a change is, however, still an open question. This paper proposes to address this issue in two ways; by suggesting two new educational activities and by proposing a new educational interdisciplinary competency framework to guide curriculum development when including interdisciplinary topics.

  3. Evolution of deceased organ donation activity vs. efficiency over a 15 year period: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Julius; Elmer, Andreas; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Avsec, Danica; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Haase-Kromwijk, Bernadette J J M; Laouabdia, Karim; Immer, Franz F

    2018-04-19

    The donation rate (DR) per million population is not ideal for an efficiency comparison of national deceased organ donation programs. The DR does not account for variabilities in the potential for deceased donation which mainly depends on fatalities from causes leading to brain death. In this study, the donation activity was put into relation to the mortality from selected causes. Based on that metric, this study assesses the efficiency of different donation programs. This is a retrospective analysis of 2001-2015 deceased organ donation and mortality registry data. Included are 27 Council of Europe countries, as well as the USA. A donor conversion index (DCI) was calculated for assessing donation program efficiency over time and in international comparisons. According to the DCI and of the countries included in the study, Spain, France, and the USA had the most efficient donation programs in 2015. Even though mortality from the selected causes decreased in most countries during the study period, differences in international comparisons persist. This indicates that the potential for deceased organ donation and its conversion into actual donation is far from being similar internationally. Compared with the DR, the DCI takes into account the potential for deceased organ donation, and therefore is a more accurate metric of performance. National donation programs could optimize performance by identifying the areas where most potential is lost, and by implementing measures to tackle these issues.

  4. Energy efficiency analyses of active flow aftertreatment systems for lean burn internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ming; Reader, Graham T.

    2004-01-01

    The use of three way catalytic converters in stoichiometric burn reciprocating internal combustion engine systems has proved to be an effective and efficient method for reducing the level of criteria pollutants. However, such passive systems have not been as successful in emission amelioration when combined with lean burn engines. This is because of the thermochemical nature of the exhaust gases generated by such engines. The high content of exhaust oxygen largely negates the effectiveness of three way catalytic converters, and the comparatively low temperature of the combusted gases means that supplemental energy has to be added to these gases to enable the converter to function correctly. This requirement severely reduces the energy efficiency of conventional passive aftertreatment systems. However, initial empirical studies have indicated that a possible means of improving the performance of aftertreatment devices when used with lean burn engine systems is to use active flow control of the exhaust gases. These results are reported in this paper. This concept has been further investigated by developing an energy efficiency analysis that enables the effects on aftertreatment performance of different gas flow rates, flow reversal frequencies and monolith solid properties to be investigated. Simulation results indicate that through active thermal management, the supplemental energy consumption can be drastically reduced

  5. Exergy Analysis of the Musculoskeletal System Efficiency during Aerobic and Anaerobic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Marques Spanghero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to the human body in order to evaluate the quality of the energy conversion during muscle activity. Such an implementation represents an important issue in the exergy analysis of the body, because there is a difficulty in the literature in evaluating the performed power in some activities. Hence, to have the performed work as an input in the exergy model, two types of exercises were evaluated: weight lifting and aerobic exercise on a stationary bicycle. To this aim, we performed a study of the aerobic and anaerobic reactions in the muscle cells, aiming at predicting the metabolic efficiency and muscle efficiency during exercises. Physiological data such as oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, skin and internal temperatures and performed power were measured. Results indicated that the exergy efficiency was around 4% in the weight lifting, whereas it could reach values as high as 30% for aerobic exercises. It has been shown that the stationary bicycle is a more adequate test for first correlations between exergy and performance indices.

  6. The Synapse Project: Engagement in mentally challenging activities enhances neural efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Ian M; Haber, Sara; Bischof, Gérard N; Park, Denise C

    2015-01-01

    Correlational and limited experimental evidence suggests that an engaged lifestyle is associated with the maintenance of cognitive vitality in old age. However, the mechanisms underlying these engagement effects are poorly understood. We hypothesized that mental effort underlies engagement effects and used fMRI to examine the impact of high-challenge activities (digital photography and quilting) compared with low-challenge activities (socializing or performing low-challenge cognitive tasks) on neural function at pretest, posttest, and one year after the engagement program. In the scanner, participants performed a semantic-classification task with two levels of difficulty to assess the modulation of brain activity in response to task demands. The High-Challenge group, but not the Low-Challenge group, showed increased modulation of brain activity in medial frontal, lateral temporal, and parietal cortex-regions associated with attention and semantic processing-some of which were maintained a year later. This increased modulation stemmed from decreases in brain activity during the easy condition for the High-Challenge group and was associated with time committed to the program, age, and cognition. Sustained engagement in cognitively demanding activities facilitated cognition by increasing neural efficiency. Mentally-challenging activities may be neuroprotective and an important element to maintaining a healthy brain into late adulthood.

  7. Relationship of Nitrogen Use Efficiency with the Activities of Enzymes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation of Finger Millet Genotypes Grown under Different Nitrogen Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen responsiveness of three-finger millet genotypes (differing in their seed coat colour PRM-1 (brown, PRM-701 (golden, and PRM-801 (white grown under different nitrogen doses was determined by analyzing the growth, yield parameters and activities of nitrate reductase (NR, glutamine synthetase (GS, glutamate synthase; GOGAT, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH at different developmental stages. High nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen utilization efficiency were observed in PRM-1 genotype, whereas high nitrogen uptake efficiency was observed in PRM-801 genotype. At grain filling nitrogen uptake efficiency in PRM-1 negatively correlated with NR, GS, GOGAT activities whereas it was positively correlated in PRM-701 and PRM-801, however, GDH showed a negative correlation. Growth and yield parameters indicated that PRM-1 responds well at high nitrogen conditions while PRM-701 and PRM-801 respond well at normal and low nitrogen conditions respectively. The study indicates that PRM-1 is high nitrogen responsive and has high nitrogen use efficiency, whereas golden PRM-701 and white PRM-801 are low nitrogen responsive genotypes and have low nitrogen use efficiency. However, the crude grain protein content was higher in PRM-801 genotype followed by PRM-701 and PRM-1, indicating negative correlation of nitrogen use efficiency with source to sink relationship in terms of seed protein content.

  8. Calcium carbonate mediates higher lignin peroxidase activity in the culture supernatant of Streptomyces Viridosporus T7A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. B. MACEDO

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignin peroxidase (LiP production has been extensively studied due to the potential use of this enzyme in environmental pollution control. Important aspects of the production of the enzyme by S. viridosporus T7A which have been studied include the improvement of yield and enzyme stabilization. In experiments performed in agitated flasks containing culture media composed of yeast extract as the source of nitrogen, mineral salts and different carbon sources, the use of glucose resulted in the highest values for LiP activity (350 U/L, specific LiP activity (450 U/g and productivity (7 U/L/h. As the profile obtained with glucose-containing medium suggested enzyme instability, the effect of calcium carbonate was evaluated. The addition of CaCO3 in two different concentrations, 0.5% and 5.0%, resulted in higher values of maximum LiP activity, 600 and 900 U/L, respectively. The presence of this salt also anticipated enzyme activity peaks and allowed the detection of higher enzyme activities in the extracellular medium for longer periods of time. These results indicate a positive effect of calcium carbonate on LiP production, which is extremely relevant for industrial processes.

  9. Service-learning in Higher Education Relevant to the Promotion of Physical Activity, Healthful Eating, and Prevention of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.

  10. Efficient solution of ordinary differential equations modeling electrical activity in cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundnes, J; Lines, G T; Tveito, A

    2001-08-01

    The contraction of the heart is preceded and caused by a cellular electro-chemical reaction, causing an electrical field to be generated. Performing realistic computer simulations of this process involves solving a set of partial differential equations, as well as a large number of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterizing the reactive behavior of the cardiac tissue. Experiments have shown that the solution of the ODEs contribute significantly to the total work of a simulation, and there is thus a strong need to utilize efficient solution methods for this part of the problem. This paper presents how an efficient implicit Runge-Kutta method may be adapted to solve a complicated cardiac cell model consisting of 31 ODEs, and how this solver may be coupled to a set of PDE solvers to provide complete simulations of the electrical activity.

  11. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new higher amino acid Schiff base derivatives of 6-aminopenicillanic acid and 7-aminocephalosporanic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir (nee Güngör), Özlem; Gürkan, Perihan; Özçelik, Berrin; Oyardı, Özlem

    2016-02-01

    Novel β-lactam derivatives (1c-3c) (1d-3d) were produced by using 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) and the higher amino acid Schiff bases. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H/13C NMR and UV-vis spectra. Antibacterial activities of all the higher amino acid Schiff bases (1a-3a) (1b-3b) and β-lactam derivatives were screened against three gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Acinetobacter baumannii RSKK 02026), three gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 07005, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and their drug-resistant isolates by using broth microdilution method. Two fungi (Candida albicans and Candida krusei) were used for antifungal activity.

  12. Construction and Characterization of Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin (VHb) with Enhanced Peroxidase Activity for Efficient Degradation of Textile Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zidong; Li, Wei; Li, Haichao; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yuebin; Cao, Yufeng; Ma, Jianzhang; Li, Zhengqiang

    2015-09-01

    Pollution resulting from the discharge of textile dyes into water systems has become a major global concern. Because peroxidases are known for their ability to decolorize and detoxify textile dyes, the peroxidase activity of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) has recently been studied. It is found that VHb and variants of this enzyme show great promise for enzymatic decolorization of dyes and may play a role in achieving their successful removal from industrial wastewater. The level of VHb peroxidase activity correlates with two amino acid residues present within the conserved distal pocket, at positions 53 and 54. In this work, sitedirected mutagenesis of these residues was performed and resulted in improved VHb peroxidase activity. The double mutant, Q53H/P54C, shows the highest dye decolorization and removal efficiency, with 70% removal efficiency within 5 min. UV spectral studies of Q53H/P54C reveals a more compact structure and an altered porphyrin environment (λSoret = 413 nm) relative to that of wild-type VHb (λSoret = 406), and differential scanning calorimetry data indicate that the VHb variant protein structure is more stable. In addition, circular dichroism spectroscopic studies indicate that this variant's increased protein structural stability is due to an increase in helical structure, as deduced from the melting temperature, which is higher than 90°C. Therefore, the VHb variant Q53H/P54C shows promise as an excellent peroxidase, with excellent dye decolorization activity and a more stable structure than wild-type VHb under high-temperature conditions.

  13. Frontopolar cortex and decision-making efficiency: comparing brain activity of experts with different professional background during an exploration-exploitation task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella eLaureiro-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal balance between efficient exploitation of available resources and creative exploration of alternatives is critical for adaptation and survival. Previous studies associated these behavioral drives with, respectively, the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system and frontopolar-intraparietal networks. We study the activation of these systems in two age and gender-matched groups of experienced decision-makers differing in prior professional background, with the aim to understand the neural bases of individual differences in decision-making efficiency (performance divided by response time. We compare brain activity of entrepreneurs (who currently manage the organization they founded based on their venture idea and managers (who are constantly involved in making strategic decisions but have no venture experience engaged in a gambling-task assessing exploitative vs. explorative decision-making. Compared with managers, entrepreneurs showed higher decision-making efficiency, and a stronger activation in regions of frontopolar cortex previously associated with explorative choice. Moreover, activity across a network of regions previously linked to explore/exploit tradeoffs explained individual differences in choice efficiency. These results suggest new avenues for the study of individual differences in the neural antecedents of efficient decision-making.

  14. Use of radio-active phosphorus in determining the efficiency of fertilizer utilization by cacao plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahenkorah, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Both 32 P labelled phosphate solution and superphosphate were used in studying 1) in situ root distribution and activity of twenty year old Amelonado cacao (Theobroma Cacao L.) during wet and dry seasons, and 2) the efficiency of fertilizer utilization by the cacao plantation. The 32 P content of the leaves was used to determine patterns of root activity. Uptake of 32 P was greatest during the wet season and root activity highest within the upper 3 cm soil layer in both wet and dry seasons. Highest 32 P activity was obtained at a distance of 120-160 cm, and lowest at 91 cm from the base of the tree. For maximum utilization of phosphate fertilizer by a plantation of twenty year old Amelonado cacao, planted at 240 cm x 240 cm spacing, the fertilizer should be broadcast during the wet season. Under low soil moisture conditions, the placement of 32 P labelled superphosphate provides information on the relative availability of fertilizer or soil phosphorus and does not necessarily reflect the activity of the root profile. Active roots of cacao tend to be more extensive and are capable of exploring a much larger area than hitherto expected

  15. A NEW NETWORK FOR HIGHER-TEMPERATURE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY. I. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ACCRETION DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric; Wakelam, Valentine

    2010-01-01

    We present a new interstellar chemical gas-phase reaction network for time-dependent kinetics that can be used for modeling high-temperature sources up to ∼800 K. This network contains an extended set of reactions based on the Ohio State University (OSU) gas-phase chemical network. The additional reactions include processes with significant activation energies, reverse reactions, proton exchange reactions, charge exchange reactions, and collisional dissociation. Rate coefficients already in the OSU network are modified for H 2 formation on grains, ion-neutral dipole reactions, and some radiative association reactions. The abundance of H 2 O is enhanced at high temperature by hydrogenation of atomic O. Much of the elemental oxygen is in the form of water at T ≥ 300 K, leading to effective carbon-rich conditions, which can efficiently produce carbon-chain species such as C 2 H 2 . At higher temperatures, HCN and NH 3 are also produced much more efficiently. We have applied the extended network to a simplified model of the accretion disk of an active galactic nucleus.

  16. Efficiency calibration of a HPGe detector for [18F] FDG activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa

    2013-01-01

    The radionuclide 18 F, in the form of flurodeoxyglucose (FDG), is the most used radiopharmaceutical for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Due to [ 18 F]FDG increasing demand, it is important to ensure high quality activity measurements in the nuclear medicine practice. Therefore, standardized reference sources are necessary to calibrate of 18 F measuring systems. Usually, the activity measurements are performed in re-entrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides, since it is essential to minimize source preparation time. The purpose of this work was to perform the standardization of the [ 18 F]FDG solution by gamma spectrometry. In addition, the reference sources calibrated by this method can be used to calibrate and test the radionuclide calibrators from the Divisao de Producao de Radiofarmacos (DIPRA) of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE). Standard sources of 152 Eu, 137 Cs and 68 Ge were used for the efficiency calibration of the spectrometer system. As a result, the efficiency curve as a function of energy was determined in wide energy range from 122 to 1408 keV. Reference sources obtained by this method can be used in [ 18 F]FDG activity measurements comparison programs for PET services localized in the Brazilian Northeast region. (author)

  17. An easy and efficient permeabilization protocol for in vivo enzyme activity assays in cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Randi Engelberth; Erstad, Simon Matthé; Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel

    2016-01-01

    microbial cell factories. Better understanding of the activities of enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolism would lead to increasing product yields. Currently cell-free lysates are the most widely used method for determination of intracellular enzyme activities. However, due to thick cell walls...... used directly in the assays, the permeabilized cells exhibited the enzyme activities that are comparable or even higher than those detected for cell-free lysates. Moreover, the permeabilized cells could be stored at -20 °C without losing the enzyme activities. The permeabilization process...... for permeabilization of the cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and determination of two intracellular enzymes, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/decarboxylase (Rubisco) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), that play pivotal roles in the central carbon metabolism...

  18. Energy Efficient Routing and Node Activity Scheduling in the OCARI Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensor nodes are characterized by a small size, a low cost, an advanced communication technology, but also a limited amount of energy. Energy efficient strategies are required in such networks to maximize network lifetime. In this paper, we focus on a solution integrating energy efficient routing and node activity scheduling. The energy efficient routing we propose, called EOLSR, selects the route and minimizes the energy consumed by an end-to-end transmission, while avoiding nodes with low residual energy. Simulation results show that EOLSR outperforms the solution selecting the route of minimum energy as well as the solution based on node residual energy. Cross-layering allows EOLSR to use information from the application layer or the MAC layer to reduce its overhead and increase network lifetime. Node activity scheduling is based on the following observation: the sleep state is the least power consuming state. So, to schedule node active and sleeping periods, we propose SERENA that colors all network nodes using a small number of colors, such that two nodes with the same color can transmit without interfering. The node color is mapped into a time slot during which the node can transmit. Consequently, each node is awake during its slot and the slots of its one-hop neighbors, and sleeps in the remaining time. We evaluate SERENA benefits obtained in terms of bandwidth, delay and energy. We also show how cross-layering with the application layer can improve the end-to-end delays for data gathering applications.

  19. Improved Power Conversion Efficiency of Inverted Organic Solar Cells by Incorporating Au Nanorods into Active Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yeyuan; Liu, Chunyu; Li, Jinfeng; Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Zhiqi; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2015-07-29

    This Research Article describes a cooperative plasmonic effect on improving the performance of organic solar cells. When Au nanorods(NRs) are incorporated into the active layers, the designed project shows superior enhanced light absorption behavior comparing with control devices, which leads to the realization of organic solar cell with power conversion efficiency of 6.83%, accounting for 18.9% improvement. Further investigations unravel the influence of plasmonic nanostructures on light trapping, exciton generation, dissociation, and charge recombination and transport inside the thin films devices. Moreover, the introduction of high-conductivity Au NRs improves electrical conductivity of the whole device, which contributes to the enhanced fill factor.

  20. Structural and mechanistic analysis of engineered trichodiene synthase enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum: towards higher catalytic activities empowering sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Indu; Chaudhary, Nitika; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well-known bioagents for the plant growth promotion and pathogen suppression. The beneficial activities of the fungus Trichoderma spp. are attributed to their ability to produce and secrete certain secondary metabolites such as trichodermin that belongs to trichothecene family of molecules. The initial steps of trichodermin biosynthetic pathway in Trichoderma are similar to the trichothecenes from Fusarium sporotrichioides. Trichodiene synthase (TS) encoded by tri5 gene in Trichoderma catalyses the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to trichodiene as reported earlier. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive comparative sequence and structural analysis of the TS, which revealed the conserved residues involved in catalytic activity of the protein. In silico, modelled tertiary structure of TS protein showed stable structural behaviour during simulations. Two single-substitution mutants, i.e. D109E, D248Y and one double-substitution mutant (D109E and D248Y) of TS with potentially higher activities are screened out. The mutant proteins showed more stability than the wild type, an increased number of electrostatic interactions and better binding energies with the ligand, which further elucidates the amino acid residues involved in the reaction mechanism. These results will lead to devise strategies for higher TS activity to ultimately enhance the trichodermin production by Trichoderma spp. for its better exploitation in the sustainable agricultural practices.

  1. READINESS OF TEACHERS FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES OF STUDENTS AT HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT OF ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Vishnevetskaja

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the article, its theoretical and practical importance are caused by the existing contradiction between the state order for the formation of socially active person and lack of scientifically-practical workings out in the field of pedagogical support of the organization of extracurricular socially useful activity of the students. The settlement of the contradiction is possible in the presence of teachers specially prepared for the given process.Purpose. The purpose of the article is the theoretical substantiation and experimental estimation of teachers’ readiness for the organization of extracurricular activities of students in higher education establishments of economics.Methodology, Results. Complex application of theoretical (element and the structural analysis, comparison, generalization and empirical (questioning, testing, the expert estimation, included pedagogical supervision methods has allowed to define the essence of investigated concept as integrative personal formation, to develop criteria and its indicators of its formation and experimentally estimate the level of readiness of teaching staff for the organization of students’ extracurricular activities in higher education establishments of economics.Practical implications. The results of the research can be widely used in the work of curators of academic groups, tutors, teachers-organizers, in the system of training and advanced training of teaching staff.

  2. Spatiotemporally Representative and Cost-Efficient Sampling Design for Validation Activities in Wanglang Experimental Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofei Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporally representative Elementary Sampling Units (ESUs are required for capturing the temporal variations in surface spatial heterogeneity through field measurements. Since inaccessibility often coexists with heterogeneity, a cost-efficient sampling design is mandatory. We proposed a sampling strategy to generate spatiotemporally representative and cost-efficient ESUs based on the conditioned Latin hypercube sampling scheme. The proposed strategy was constrained by multi-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI imagery, and the ESUs were limited within a sampling feasible region established based on accessibility criteria. A novel criterion based on the Overlapping Area (OA between the NDVI frequency distribution histogram from the sampled ESUs and that from the entire study area was used to assess the sampling efficiency. A case study in Wanglang National Nature Reserve in China showed that the proposed strategy improves the spatiotemporally representativeness of sampling (mean annual OA = 74.7% compared to the single-temporally constrained (OA = 68.7% and the random sampling (OA = 63.1% strategies. The introduction of the feasible region constraint significantly reduces in-situ labour-intensive characterization necessities at expenses of about 9% loss in the spatiotemporal representativeness of the sampling. Our study will support the validation activities in Wanglang experimental site providing a benchmark for locating the nodes of automatic observation systems (e.g., LAINet which need a spatially distributed and temporally fixed sampling design.

  3. Increased visfatin levels are associated with higher disease activity in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejová, Hana; Kryštůfková, Olga; Mann, Heřman; Klein, Martin; Pavlíčková, Klára; Zámečník, Josef; Vencovský, Jiří; Šenolt, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of visfatin in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients, its expression in muscle tissue and to investigate potential relationships between visfatin, B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF), disease activity and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody levels. Serum levels of visfatin and BAFF were measured in 38 anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients and 35 healthy subjects. Disease activity was evaluated by myositis disease activity assessment tool (MYOACT) using visual analogue scales (VAS) and by serum muscle enzymes. Visfatin expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in muscle tissue of myositis patients (n=10) and compared with non-inflammatory control muscle tissue samples from patients with myasthenia gravis (n=5). Serum visfatin and BAFF levels were significantly higher in myositis patients compared to healthy subjects and were associated with clinical muscle activity assessed by VAS. Only serum BAFF levels, but not visfatin levels, positively correlated with muscle enzyme concentrations and anti-Jo1 antibody levels. There was a positive correlation between visfatin and BAFF serum levels in myositis patients but a negative correlation was observed in healthy subjects. Visfatin expression was up-regulated in endomysial and perimysial inflammatory infiltrates of muscle tissue from myositis patients. Up-regulation of visfatin in myositis muscle tissue and an association between increased visfatin levels and muscle disease activity evaluated by MYOACT in anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients could support possible role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of myositis.

  4. Efficient Active Sensing with Categorized Further Explorations for a Home Behavior-Monitoring Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robotics is a potential solution to home behavior monitoring for the elderly. For a mobile robot in the real world, there are several types of uncertainties for its perceptions, such as the ambiguity between a target object and the surrounding objects and occlusions by furniture. The problem could be more serious for a home behavior-monitoring system, which aims to accurately recognize the activity of a target person, in spite of these uncertainties. It detects irregularities and categorizes situations requiring further explorations, which strategically maximize the information needed for activity recognition while minimizing the costs. Two schemes of active sensing, based on two irregularity detections, namely, heuristic-based and template-matching-based irregularity detections, were implemented and examined for body contour-based activity recognition. Their time cost and accuracy in activity recognition were evaluated through experiments in both a controlled scenario and a home living scenario. Experiment results showed that the categorized further explorations guided the robot system to sense the target person actively. As a result, with the proposed approach, the robot system has achieved higher accuracy of activity recognition.

  5. Improving efficiency of transport fuels production by thermal hydrolysis of waste activated sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulshin, Igor

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with issues of transport biofuels. Transport biofuels are an important element of a system of energy security. Moreover, as part of a system it is inextricably linked to the urban, rural or industrial infrastructure. The paper discusses methods of increasing the yield of biogas from anaerobic digesters at wastewater treatment plants. The thermal hydrolysis method was considered. The main advantages and drawbacks of this method were analyzed. The experimental biomass (from SNDOD-bioreactor) and high-organic substrate have been previously studied by respirometry methods. A biomethane potential of the investigated organic substrate has high rates because of substrate composition (the readily biodegradable substrate in the total composition takes about 85%). Waste activated sludge from SNDOD-bioreactor can be used for biofuel producing with high efficiency especially with pre-treatment like a thermal hydrolysis. Further studies have to consider the possibility of withdrawing inhibitors from waste activated sludge.

  6. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning

    2016-01-01

    the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited...... a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the r......IgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the Ig...

  7. Resource potential methods using for efficiency of activities in the region increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vasiliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers impact methods on the economic results, the effectiveness of the regional economic complex should be based on a high quality of the basic characteristics classification of the region state. Application composition techniques to ensure a comprehensive impact on the achievement of this goal should in synthesized form to union, adopt a target orientation of development of the region with the parameters objectively revealing his condition. Ensuring organizational, economic, financial and investment techniques to achieve the planned targets and requires specifying align resource potential of the region with the available capacity of the regional economic complex to promote economic growth, improve the efficiency of operations. The main characteristics of the potential resource opportunities in the region are the skill level of workers, the degree of depreciation of fixed assets and their renewability, increased innovation in the region, its branches and facilities, strengthening of competitive advantages, the annual average number of employees, the cost of fixed and current assets, financial stability. In the region the opportunity to potentially affect the ability of its structural components to achieve the financial and economic performance targets acts as efficiency ability to provide stable dynamics of regional production efficiency, enhance the level of benefits to achieve the planned efficiency used (consumed resource. Applying of certain methods or their entire structure, created to provide a comprehensive impact on the goal achievement, in the synthesized form of target orientation combines regional development with the parameters most objectively revealing his condition. Achieving the appropriate organizational, economic, financial, investment or other measures to achieve planned targets that are expressed by the level of efficiency of activity in the conditions of the most complete involvement and intensity of use in

  8. An efficient cardiac mapping strategy for radiofrequency catheter ablation with active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yingjing; Guo, Ziyan; Dong, Ziyang; Zhou, Xiao-Yun; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Ernst, Sabine; Lee, Su-Lin

    2017-07-01

    A major challenge in radiofrequency catheter ablation procedures is the voltage and activation mapping of the endocardium, given a limited mapping time. By learning from expert interventional electrophysiologists (operators), while also making use of an active-learning framework, guidance on performing cardiac voltage mapping can be provided to novice operators or even directly to catheter robots. A learning from demonstration (LfD) framework, based upon previous cardiac mapping procedures performed by an expert operator, in conjunction with Gaussian process (GP) model-based active learning, was developed to efficiently perform voltage mapping over right ventricles (RV). The GP model was used to output the next best mapping point, while getting updated towards the underlying voltage data pattern as more mapping points are taken. A regularized particle filter was used to keep track of the kernel hyperparameter used by GP. The travel cost of the catheter tip was incorporated to produce time-efficient mapping sequences. The proposed strategy was validated on a simulated 2D grid mapping task, with leave-one-out experiments on 25 retrospective datasets, in an RV phantom using the Stereotaxis Niobe ® remote magnetic navigation system, and on a tele-operated catheter robot. In comparison with an existing geometry-based method, regression error was reduced and was minimized at a faster rate over retrospective procedure data. A new method of catheter mapping guidance has been proposed based on LfD and active learning. The proposed method provides real-time guidance for the procedure, as well as a live evaluation of mapping sufficiency.

  9. Readiness of educational activity subjects for results-oriented cooperation in the inclusive educational practice of higher school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ts. Tsyrenov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research is due to the necessity of integration of persons with health limitations and disabilities into the educational space of higher education institutions. With regard to this, the paper is aimed at finding out the extent of readiness of the educational activity subjects for results-oriented cooperation in inclusive educational practice of the higher school. The leading approach to studying this problem is the retrospective interdisciplinary analysis that allows an integrated consideration of the universities' readiness for full-fledged integration of people with health limitations and disabilities into the educational process. In the paper, the results of research into students' attitude toward the disabled and HL people and their readiness for results-oriented cooperation are presented, and the specific problems of psychological and social support rendering are described. The value references system of students with health limitations and disabilities has been found out, and grounds have been provided for having to include the subjects that form a tolerant attitude to special needs people into the student-training content. It has also been proven that qualified professional training has to be ensured for the academic teaching staff, infrastructure has to be provided, and an integrated program has to be developed that would allow personifying the academic process adjusted for the development particularities of students with health limitations. The materials of the paper are of practical importance for educational activity subjects involved into the higher-school inclusive educational practice.

  10. Commercially Available Activated Carbon Fiber Felt Enables Efficient Solar Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; He, Yurong; Hu, Yanwei; Wang, Xinzhi

    2018-03-21

    Sun-driven steam generation is now possible and has the potential to help meet future energy needs. Current technologies often use solar condensers to increase solar irradiance. More recently, a technology for solar steam generation that uses heated surface water and low optical concentration is reported. In this work, a commercially available activated carbon fiber felt is used to generate steam efficiently under one sun illumination. The evaporation rate and solar conversion efficiency reach 1.22 kg m -2 h -1 and 79.4%, respectively. The local temperature of the evaporator with a floating activated carbon fiber felt reaches 48 °C. Apart from the high absorptivity (about 94%) of the material, the evaporation performance is enhanced thanks to the well-developed pores for improved water supply and steam escape and the low thermal conductivity, which enables reduced bulk water temperature increase. This study helps to find a promising material for solar steam generation using a water evaporator that can be produced economically (∼6 $/m 2 ) with long-term stability.

  11. Active Vibration Suppression of a 3-DOF Flexible Parallel Manipulator Using Efficient Modal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the dynamic modeling and efficient modal control of a planar parallel manipulator (PPM with three flexible linkages actuated by linear ultrasonic motors (LUSM. To achieve active vibration control, multiple lead zirconate titanate (PZT transducers are mounted on the flexible links as vibration sensors and actuators. Based on Lagrange’s equations, the dynamic model of the flexible links is derived with the dynamics of PZT actuators incorporated. Using the assumed mode method (AMM, the elastic motion of the flexible links are discretized under the assumptions of pinned-free boundary conditions, and the assumed mode shapes are validated through experimental modal test. Efficient modal control (EMC, in which the feedback forces in different modes are determined according to the vibration amplitude or energy of their own, is employed to control the PZT actuators to realize active vibration suppression. Modal filters are developed to extract the modal displacements and velocities from the vibration sensors. Numerical simulation and vibration control experiments are conducted to verify the proposed dynamic model and controller. The results show that the EMC method has the capability of suppressing multimode vibration simultaneously, and both the structural and residual vibrations of the flexible links are effectively suppressed using EMC approach.

  12. Wrinkles and Folds of Activated Graphene Nanosheets as Fast and Efficient Adsorptive Sites for Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Baoliang; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-04-05

    To create more wrinkles and folds as available adsorption sites, graphene nanosheets (GNS) were thermally treated with KOH for morphological alteration. The surface structures and properties of the activated graphene nanosheets (AGN) were characterized by BET-N2, SEM, TEM, Raman, XRD, XPS, and FTIR. After KOH etching, the highly crystal structure was altered, self-aggregation of graphene layers were evidently relieved, and more single to few layer graphene nanosheets were created with wrinkles and folds. Also both specific surface area and micropore volume of AGN increased relative to GNS. The adsorption of AGN toward p-nitrotoluene, naphthalene and phenanthrene were greatly enhanced in comparison with GNS, and gradually promoted with increasing degree of KOH etching. Adsorption rate of organic contaminants on AGN was very fast and efficient, whereas small molecules showed higher adsorption rates due to the more porous surface of graphene. In addition to π-π interaction, the high affinities of p-nitrotoluene to AGN are suggested from strong electron charge transfer interactions between nitro groups on p-nitrotoluene and defect sites of AGN. A positively linear correlation between organic molecule uptake and the micropore volume of AGN indicated that pore-filling mechanism may play an important role in adsorption. Morphological wrinkles and folds of graphene nanosheets can be regulated to enhance the adsorption capability and kinetics for efficient pollutant removal and to selectively preconcentrate adsorbates with different sizes for detection.

  13. Localization of higher grade tumor foci in potential candidates for active surveillance who opt for radical prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kyu; Eastham, James A.; Fine, Samson W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate actual intraprostatic location of higher graded tumor foci undetected via standard transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy amongst patients who would be clinically considered appropriate candidates for active surveillance (AS) but underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods: We reviewed entirely-submitted and whole-mounted RP specimens from 169 men who were deemed appropriate for AS clinically, but opted for RP and were found to have higher grade tumors. For each case, tumor nodules were circled and color-coded in a grade-specific manner and digitally scanned to created tumor maps. The locations of tumor foci with Gleason grade ≥4 were stratified by specific sites: anterior, anterolateral, lateral only (not clearly anterior or posterior), posterior, and posterolateral area. Results: Of 169 patients, 86% had clinical stage T1c and 14% T2a. RP Gleason score 7 in all but two men. Higher-grade tumor foci were localized to: anterior (n=66, 39%), anterolateral (n=4, 2%), lateral only (not clearly anterior or posterior) (n=5, 3%), posterior (n=52, 31%), and posterolateral (n=42, 25%) prostate, respectively. Conclusions: Among patients deemed clinically appropriate for AS, higher-grade tumor foci missed by standard prostate biopsies were localized to both the anterior and posterior prostate, without predominance of a particular area. These findings lend additional support to performing repeat standard prostate biopsy in potential candidates for AS and should be considered in efforts to optimize current biopsy strategies for the selection of AS patients. PMID:24392439

  14. [Analysis of cost and efficiency of a medical nursing unit using time-driven activity-based costing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi

    2011-08-01

    Time-driven activity-based costing was applied to analyze the nursing activity cost and efficiency of a medical unit. Data were collected at a medical unit of a general hospital. Nursing activities were measured using a nursing activities inventory and classified as 6 domains using Easley-Storfjell Instrument. Descriptive statistics were used to identify general characteristics of the unit, nursing activities and activity time, and stochastic frontier model was adopted to estimate true activity time. The average efficiency of the medical unit using theoretical resource capacity was 77%, however the efficiency using practical resource capacity was 96%. According to these results, the portion of non-added value time was estimated 23% and 4% each. The sums of total nursing activity costs were estimated 109,860,977 won in traditional activity-based costing and 84,427,126 won in time-driven activity-based costing. The difference in the two cost calculating methods was 25,433,851 won. These results indicate that the time-driven activity-based costing provides useful and more realistic information about the efficiency of unit operation compared to traditional activity-based costing. So time-driven activity-based costing is recommended as a performance evaluation framework for nursing departments based on cost management.

  15. Designing a highly active soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase for efficient glucose biosensors and biofuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, Fabien [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Stines-Chaumeil, Claire [Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS, Institut de Biochimie et de Genetique Cellulaires, 1 rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Flexer, Victoria [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Andre, Isabelle [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792 Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Mano, Nicolas, E-mail: mano@crpp-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} A new mutant of PQQ-GDH designed for glucose biosensors application. {yields} First mutant of PQQ-GDH with higher activity for D-glucose than the Wild type. {yields} Position N428 is a key point to increase the enzyme activity. {yields} Molecular modeling shows that the N428 C mutant displays a better interaction for PQQ than the WT. -- Abstract: We report for the first time a soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase that is twice more active than the wild type for glucose oxidation and was obtained by combining site directed mutagenesis, modelling and steady-state kinetics. The observed enhancement is attributed to a better interaction between the cofactor and the enzyme leading to a better electron transfer. Electrochemical experiments also demonstrate the superiority of the new mutant for glucose oxidation and make it a promising enzyme for the development of high-performance glucose biosensors and biofuel cells.

  16. Sustained availability of trimethoprim in drinking water to achieve higher plasma sulphonamide-trimethoprim antibacterial activity in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumano, H; Hernandez, L; Gutierrez, L; Bernad-Bernad, M J

    2005-02-01

    (1) In order to make trimethoprim (TMP) available to broilers throughout the day, a sustained release formulation (SRF) of the drug in the form of granules was added to the water tank that supplies drinking water. (2) Broilers were initially dosed with sulphachloropiridazine-TMP (SCP-TMP 5:1) and then further medicated throughout the day, achieving in the end a dose of 30 mg/kg each of SCP and TMP (group A). Group B received a preparation with the same dose of SCP and TMP (1:1) as group A, but administered as a single dose without the SRF of TMP. Group C received the customary SCP-TMP 5:1 preparation (30 and 6 mg/kg, respectively). Water tanks were completely consumed in 3 to 4 h. (3) Broilers were bled at different times and concentration of antibacterial activity in serum determined by correlating the composite antibacterial activity of SCP and TMP with actual concentrations of these drugs by means of a microbiological agar diffusion assay. (4) Time vs serum concentrations of activity were higher in group B; the increments in the maximum serum concentration for group B over groups A and C being 39 and 67%, respectively. (5) However, the sustained concentration of activity over time, measured as the area under the cu)rve, was highest in group A. Group B had higher values for area under the curve than group C. (6) An additional dose of TMP to achieve 30 mg/kg of both SCP and TMP improves the serum concentration of this combination over the customary 5:1 proportion. The best values for sustaining antibacterial activity were obtained using a 1:1 ratio as in group A. The use of a SRF as in group A may translate into better clinical results.

  17. Service-learning in higher education relevant to the promotion of physical activity, healthful eating, and prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Rosenkranz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.

  18. Increasing Physical Activity Efficiently: An Experimental Pilot Study of a Website and Mobile Phone Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjærsti Thorsteinsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n=21 recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35–73 were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool.

  19. Increasing physical activity efficiently: an experimental pilot study of a website and mobile phone intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsen, Kjærsti; Vittersø, Joar; Svendsen, Gunnvald Bendix

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n = 21) recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35-73) were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool.

  20. Higher-Order Sensory Cortex Drives Basolateral Amygdala Activity during the Recall of Remote, but Not Recently Learned Fearful Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Grosso, Anna; Likhtik, Ekaterina; Mazziotti, Raffaele; Concina, Giulia; Renna, Annamaria; Sacco, Tiziana; Gordon, Joshua A; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2016-02-03

    Negative experiences are quickly learned and long remembered. Key unresolved issues in the field of emotional memory include identifying the loci and dynamics of memory storage and retrieval. The present study examined neural activity in the higher-order auditory cortex Te2 and basolateral amygdala (BLA) and their crosstalk during the recall of recent and remote fear memories. To this end, we obtained local field potentials and multiunit activity recordings in Te2 and BLA of rats that underwent recall at 24 h and 30 d after the association of an acoustic conditioned (CS, tone) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US, electric shock). Here we show that, during the recall of remote auditory threat memories in rats, the activity of the Te2 and BLA is highly synchronized in the theta frequency range. This functional connectivity stems from memory consolidation processes because it is present during remote, but not recent, memory retrieval. Moreover, the observed increase in synchrony is cue and region specific. A preponderant Te2-to-BLA directionality characterizes this dialogue, and the percentage of time Te2 theta leads the BLA during remote memory recall correlates with a faster latency to freeze to the auditory conditioned stimulus. The blockade of this information transfer via Te2 inhibition with muscimol prevents any retrieval-evoked neuronal activity in the BLA and animals are unable to retrieve remote memories. We conclude that memories stored in higher-order sensory cortices drive BLA activity when distinguishing between learned threatening and neutral stimuli. How and where in the brain do we store the affective/motivational significance of sensory stimuli acquired through life experiences? Scientists have long investigated how "limbic" structures, such as the amygdala, process affective stimuli. Here we show that retrieval of well-established threat memories requires the functional interplay between higher-order components of the auditory cortex and the

  1. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters.

  2. AgI/Ag3PO4 hybrids with highly efficient visible-light driven photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Masanao; Suzuki, Tohru; Kaneco, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 hybrid was prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method. • AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 displays the excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light. • AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 readily transforms to be Ag@AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 system. • h + and O 2 ·− play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization over AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 . • The activity enhancement is ascribed to a Z-scheme system composed of Ag 3 PO 4 , Ag and AgI. - Abstract: Highly efficient visible-light-driven AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 hybrid photocatalysts with different mole ratios of AgI were prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) technique. Under visible light irradiation (>420 nm), the AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 photocatalysts displayed the higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag 3 PO 4 and AgI for the decolorization of acid orange 7 (AO 7). Among the hybrid photocatalysts, AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 with 80% of AgI exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for the decolorization of AO 7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 readily transformed to be Ag@AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 system while the photocatalytic activity of AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 remained after 5 recycling runs. In addition, the quenching effects of different scavengers displayed that the reactive h + and O 2 ·− play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 hybrids can be ascribed to the efficient separation of electron–hole pairs through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag 3 PO 4 , Ag and AgI, in which Ag nanoparticles act as the charge separation center

  3. Development of a Generic Environmental Safety Case for the Disposal of Higher Activity Wastes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Lucy; Hicks, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The UK generic ESC demonstrates safe disposal of higher activity wastes, by providing: • A demonstration of how environmental safety can be achieved by a variety of disposal concepts based on systems of multiple engineered and natural barriers, providing multiple safety functions; • An understanding of expected barrier performance and how conditions in a disposal system will evolve, based on research findings presented in RWM’s knowledge base; • An approach to safety assessment based on multiple lines of reasoning, involving both qualitative and quantitative analysis; • Complementary insight modelling and total system modelling used to develop understanding of how different components of the engineered and natural barrier system contribute to safety

  4. Synthesis of Phase Pure Hexagonal YFeO3 Perovskite as Efficient Visible Light Active Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ismael

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal perovskite YFeO3 was synthesized by a complex-assisted sol-gel technique allowing crystallization at calcination temperatures below 700 °C. As determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and Tauc plots, the hexagonal YFeO3 exhibits a lower optical band gap (1.81 eV than the orthorhombic structure (about 2.1 eV or even higher being typically obtained at elevated temperatures (>700 °C, and thus enables higher visible light photocatalysis activity. Structure and morphology of the synthesized YFeO3 perovskites were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and nitrogen adsorption, proving that significantly smaller crystallite sizes and higher surface areas are obtained for YFeO3 with a hexagonal phase. The photocatalytic activity of the different YFeO3 phases was deduced via the degradation of the model pollutants methyl orange and 4-chlorophenol. Experiments under illumination with light of different wavelengths, in the presence of different trapping elements, as well as photoelectrochemical tests allow conclusions regarding band positions of YFeO3 and the photocatalytic degradation mechanism. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that a very thin layer of Y2O3 might support the photocatalysis by improving the separation of photogenerated charge carriers.

  5. THE MOST MASSIVE ACTIVE BLACK HOLES AT z ∼ 1.5-3.5 HAVE HIGH SPINS AND RADIATIVE EFFICIENCIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2014-01-01

    The radiative efficiencies (η) of 72 luminous unobscured active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 1.5-3.5, powered by some of the most massive black holes (BHs), are constrained. The analysis is based on accretion disk (AD) models, which link the continuum luminosity at rest-frame optical wavelengths and the BH mass (M BH ) to the accretion rate through the AD, M-dot AD . The data are gathered from several literature samples with detailed measurements of the Hβ emission line complex, observed at near-infrared bands. When coupled with standard estimates of bolometric luminosities (L bol ), the analysis suggests high radiative efficiencies, with most of the sources showing η > 0.2, that is, higher than the commonly assumed value of 0.1, and the expected value for non-spinning BHs (η = 0.057). Even under more conservative assumptions regarding L bol (i.e., L bol = 3 × L 5100 ), most of the extremely massive BHs in the sample (i.e., M BH ≳ 3 × 10 9 M ☉ ) show radiative efficiencies which correspond to very high BH spins (a * ), with typical values well above a * ≅ 0.7. These results stand in contrast to the predictions of a ''spin-down'' scenario, in which a series of randomly oriented accretion episodes leads to a * ∼ 0. Instead, the analysis presented here strongly supports a ''spin-up'' scenario, which is driven by either prolonged accretion or a series of anisotropically oriented accretion episodes. Considering the fact that these extreme BHs require long-duration or continuous accretion to account for their high masses, it is argued that the most probable scenario for the super-massive black holes under study is that of an almost continuous sequence of randomly yet not isotropically oriented accretion episodes

  6. Evidence of more efficient whistler-mode transmission during periods of increased magnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Thomson

    Full Text Available In a previous study it was reported that whistler- mode signals received at Faraday, Antarctica (65°S,64°W and Dunedin, New Zealand (46°S,171°E with entry regions in Pacific longitudes (typically from the VLF transmitter NLK, Seattle, USA showed an increase in transmission of wave energy as magnetic activity increased. However, signals with entry regions in Atlantic longitudes (typically from the NSS transmitter, Annapolis, USA did not appear to show such a relationship. This paper reports the results of a study of the same two longitude ranges but with the opposite transmitter providing additional whistler-mode signal information, with L-values in the range 1.8–2.6. Transmissions from NLK once again indicate a relationship between the transmission of wave energy and magnetic activity even though the signals were propagating in Atlantic longitudes, not Pacific. Any trend in NSS events observed at Dunedin was obscured by a limited range of magnetic activity, and duct exit regions so close to the receiver that small-scale excitation effects appeared to be occurring. However, by combining data from both longitudes, i.e Pacific and Atlantic, and using only ducts with exit regions that were >500km from the receiver, NSS events were found to show the same trend as NLK events. No significant longitude-dependent or transmitter-dependent variations in duct efficiency could be detected. Duct efficiency increases by a factor of about 30 with Kp=2–8 and this result is discussed in terms of changes in wave-particle interactions and duct size.

  7. Evidence of more efficient whistler-mode transmission during periods of increased magnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Thomson

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study it was reported that whistler- mode signals received at Faraday, Antarctica (65°S,64°W and Dunedin, New Zealand (46°S,171°E with entry regions in Pacific longitudes (typically from the VLF transmitter NLK, Seattle, USA showed an increase in transmission of wave energy as magnetic activity increased. However, signals with entry regions in Atlantic longitudes (typically from the NSS transmitter, Annapolis, USA did not appear to show such a relationship. This paper reports the results of a study of the same two longitude ranges but with the opposite transmitter providing additional whistler-mode signal information, with L-values in the range 1.8–2.6. Transmissions from NLK once again indicate a relationship between the transmission of wave energy and magnetic activity even though the signals were propagating in Atlantic longitudes, not Pacific. Any trend in NSS events observed at Dunedin was obscured by a limited range of magnetic activity, and duct exit regions so close to the receiver that small-scale excitation effects appeared to be occurring. However, by combining data from both longitudes, i.e Pacific and Atlantic, and using only ducts with exit regions that were >500km from the receiver, NSS events were found to show the same trend as NLK events. No significant longitude-dependent or transmitter-dependent variations in duct efficiency could be detected. Duct efficiency increases by a factor of about 30 with Kp=2–8 and this result is discussed in terms of changes in wave-particle interactions and duct size.

  8. Wound healing activity of an aqueous extract of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Asheesh; Kirar, Vandana; Keshri, Gaurav Kr; Gola, Shefali; Yadav, Anju; Negi, Prem Singh; Misra, Kshipra

    2014-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) is popular because of its health-promoting properties. The effects of G. lucidum extract on cancer, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatitis have been reported by many researchers. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the healing efficacy of an aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum from the Indian Himalayan region on dermal excision wound in experimental rats. The extract used in the study was found to be rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. The healing efficacy was comparatively assessed with a reference povidone-iodine ointment. The G. lucidum extract showed significant enhanced healing activity, evidenced by an increase in wound contraction, collagen accumulation (hydroxyproline), hexosamine, and total protein contents. Histopathological findings further supported the biochemical indices. The results suggest that aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum possesses significant wound-healing activity.

  9. Petroleum distillates suppress in vitro metabolic activation: higher [S-9] required in the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, J H; Machado, M L; MacGregor, J A

    1985-01-01

    To determine if standard conditions used in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay could reliably screen complex petroleum samples, two high-boiling (700-1,070 degrees F) distillates and their separated aromatic fractions were tested. The initial mutagenic activities were inconsistent with the samples' known polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents and observed potencies in a dermal carcinogenesis bioassay. A significant mutagenic response was observed only at S-9 concentrations 5 to 10 times higher than those used in the standard assay, supporting the use of elevated levels of S-9 in the Salmonella/microsome assay to assess the carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived materials. All four samples masked the expected mutagenic activity of added PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene and perylene). Data suggested that petroleum distillates suppress the functional efficacy of the S-9; possible mechanisms are discussed.

  10. The efficiency of superficially active compounds on the process of decontamination in animals exposed to various doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficiency of some superficially active compounds on the process of decontamination was investigated in swine exposed to various doses of ionizing radiation (300, 600 R), and then contaminated with 90 Sr, 131 I, 137 Cs, and 144 Ce. The results revealed that the time factor after irradiation was more important for the efficiency of decontamination than the doses of radiation. (author)

  11. Higher energy intake at dinner decreases parasympathetic activity during nighttime sleep in menstruating women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yuki; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Tanaka, Izumi; Kanehara, Rieko; Kato, Misao; Hatta, Naoko; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari

    2018-06-09

    Previous studies have found more frequent increases in dietary intake and nonrestorative nocturnal sleep during the luteal phase than in the follicular phase, but few studies have investigated how increased energy intake at dinner influences sleep by considering the correlation between female hormone and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. This study examined the effects of energy intake at dinner on ANS activity during nighttime sleep in order to evaluate restorative sleep in healthy women. We also examined whether ANS activity is associated with female hormone dynamics. Twenty-four healthy collegiate women participated in this randomized crossover trial. Each was assigned to receive a High Energy Dinner (HED) or Low Energy Dinner (LED) treatment. Energy ratios of each test meal (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) to total energy intake were 1:1:2 and 1:2:1 for HED and LED treatments, respectively. Each participant wore an ECG recorder before dinner and removed it upon waking the next morning. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was used to calculate low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and total spectral power (TP). Cardiac sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous system activity were evaluated as LF/HF and HF/TP, respectively. Mean HF/TP for the entire sleeping period was lower with HED treatment compared to LED treatment (41.7 ± 11.4 vs. 45.0 ± 12.13, P = .034). Intergroup comparisons of the initial 3-h sleeping period revealed that LF/HF (0.87 ± 0.82 vs. 0.66 ± 0.82, P = .013) and HF/TP (45.6 ± 13.9 vs. 51.5 ± 11.8, P = .002) were higher and lower, respectively, with HED treatment compared to LED treatment. Progesterone levels were positively correlated with LF/HF with LED treatment, and negatively correlated with HF/TP with both HED and LED treatments. Higher energy intake at dinner increases and decreases SNS and PNS activities, respectively, resulting in nonrestorative nocturnal

  12. Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA-led project, conducted in collaboration with UNEP, the Swedish Environmental Institute and various Russian Institutes, that demonstrates that the mercury emission control efficiencies of activated carbon injection technologies applied at a Russian power plant burning Rus...

  13. Poly(vinyl alcohol) separators improve the coulombic efficiency of activated carbon cathodes in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang; Zhang, Fang; Logan, Bruce E.; Hickner, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    enabled high coulombic efficiencies (CEs) in MFCs with activated carbon (AC) cathodes without significantly decreasing power output. MFCs with AC cathodes and PVA separators had CEs (43%-89%) about twice those of AC cathodes lacking a separator (17

  14. Efficient removal of tetracycline with KOH-activated graphene from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Sun, Yiran; Yu, Fei

    2017-11-01

    Activated graphene absorbents with high specific surface area (SSA) were prepared by an easy KOH-activated method, and were applied in absorbing antibiotics, such as tetracycline (TC). After activation, many micropores were introduced to graphene oxide sheets, leading to higher SSA and many new oxygen-containing functional groups, which gave KOH-activated graphene excellent adsorption capacity (approx. 532.59 mg g -1 ) of TC. Further study on the adsorption mechanism showed that the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted with experiment data. To further understand the adsorption process, the effects of solid-liquid ratio, pH, ionic strength and coexisting ions were also investigated. The results revealed that, compared with pH and ionic strength, solid-liquid ratio and coexisting ions (Cu 2+ , CrO 4 2- ) had more significant influence over the adsorption performance. The findings provide guidance for application of KOH-activated graphene as a promising alternative adsorbent for antibiotics removal from aqueous solutions.

  15. Robust active combustion control for the optimization of environmental performance and energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demayo, Trevor Nat

    Criteria pollutant regulations, climate change concerns, and energy conservation efforts are placing strict constraints in the design and operation of advanced, stationary combustion systems. To ensure minimal pollutant emissions and maximal efficiency at every instant of operation while preventing reaction blowout, combustion systems need to react and adapt in real-time to external changes. This study describes the development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multivariable feedback control system, designed to maximize the performance of natural gas-fired combustion systems. A feedback sensor array was developed to monitor reaction stability and measure combustion performance as a function of NOx, CO, and O, emissions. Acoustic and UV chemiluminescent emissions were investigated for use as stability indicators. Modulated signals of CH* and CO2* chemiluminescence were found to correlate well with the onset of lean blowout. A variety of emissions sensors were tested and evaluated, including conventional CEMS', micro-fuel cells, a zirconia NOx transducer, and a rapid response predictive NOx sensor based on UV flame chemiluminescence. A dual time-scale controller was designed to actively optimize operating conditions by maximizing a multivariable performance function J using a linear direction set search algorithm. The controller evaluated J under slow, quasi steady-state conditions, while dynamically monitoring the reaction zone at high speed for pre-blowout instabilities or boundary condition violations. To establish the input control parameters, two burner systems were selected: a 30 kW air-swirl, generic research burner, and a 120 kW scaled, fuel-staged, industrial boiler burner. The parameters, chosen to most affect burner performance, consisted of air swirl intensity and excess air for the generic burner, and fuel-staging and excess air for the boiler burner. A set of optimization parameters was also established to ensure efficient and deterministic

  16. Artificial Chemical Reporter Targeting Strategy Using Bioorthogonal Click Reaction for Improving Active-Targeting Efficiency of Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong Yeol; Shin, Min Lee; Shim, Man Kyu; Lee, Sangmin; Na, Jin Hee; Koo, Heebeom; Lee, Hyukjin; Kim, Jong-Ho; Lee, Kuen Yong; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan

    2017-05-01

    Biological ligands such as aptamer, antibody, glucose, and peptide have been widely used to bind specific surface molecules or receptors in tumor cells or subcellular structures to improve tumor-targeting efficiency of nanoparticles. However, this active-targeting strategy has limitations for tumor targeting due to inter- and intraheterogeneity of tumors. In this study, we demonstrated an alternative active-targeting strategy using metabolic engineering and bioorthogonal click reaction to improve tumor-targeting efficiency of nanoparticles. We observed that azide-containing chemical reporters were successfully generated onto surface glycans of various tumor cells such as lung cancer (A549), brain cancer (U87), and breast cancer (BT-474, MDA-MB231, MCF-7) via metabolic engineering in vitro. In addition, we compared tumor targeting of artificial azide reporter with bicyclononyne (BCN)-conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles (BCN-CNPs) and integrin α v β 3 with cyclic RGD-conjugated CNPs (cRGD-CNPs) in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescence intensity of azide-reporter-targeted BCN-CNPs in tumor tissues was 1.6-fold higher and with a more uniform distribution compared to that of cRGD-CNPs. Moreover, even in the isolated heterogeneous U87 cells, BCN-CNPs could bind artificial azide reporters on tumor cells more uniformly (∼92.9%) compared to cRGD-CNPs. Therefore, the artificial azide-reporter-targeting strategy can be utilized for targeting heterogeneous tumor cells via bioorthogonal click reaction and may provide an alternative method of tumor targeting for further investigation in cancer therapy.

  17. Estimation of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and vegetation net production efficiency using satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N.P.; Prince, S.D.; Begue, A.

    1995-01-01

    The amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by green vegetation is an important determinant of photosynthesis and growth. Methods for the estimation of fractional absorption of PAR (iff PAR ) for areas greater than 1 km 2 using satellite data are discussed, and are applied to sites in the Sahel that have a sparse herb layer and tree cover of less than 5%. Using harvest measurements of seasonal net production, net production efficiencies are calculated. Variation in estimates of seasonal PAR absorption (APAR) caused by the atmospheric correction method and relationship between surface reflectances and iff PAR is considered. The use of maximum value composites of satellite NDVI to reduce the effect of the atmosphere is shown to produce inaccurate APAR estimates. In this data set, however, atmospheric correction using average optical depths was found to give good approximations of the fully corrected data. A simulation of canopy radiative transfer using the SAIL model was used to derive a relationship between canopy NDVI and iff PAR . Seasonal APAR estimates assuming a 1:1 relationship between iff PAR and NDVI overestimated the SAIL modeled results by up to 260%. The use of a modified 1:1 relationship, where iff PAR was assumed to be linearly related to NDVI scaled between minimum (soil) and maximum (infinite canopy) values, underestimated the SAIL modeled results by up to 35%. Estimated net production efficiencies (ϵ n , dry matter per unit APAR) fell in the range 0.12–1.61 g MJ −1 for above ground production, and in the range 0.16–1.88 g MJ −1 for total production. Sites with lower rainfall had reduced efficiencies, probably caused by physiological constraints on photosynthesis during dry conditions. (author)

  18. Efficient activation of peroxymonosulfate by magnetic Mn-MGO for degradation of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jiangkun [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Bao, Jianguo, E-mail: bjianguo@cug.edu.cn [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Ying; Ling, Haibo; Zheng, Han [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Kim, Sang Hoon, E-mail: kim_sh@kist.re.kr [Center for Materials Architecturing, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, 705 Engineering Research Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: Manganese catalyst was immobilized on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene hybrids to facilitate magnetic separation. Magnetic manganese catalyst exhibited high efficacy and long-term stability for catalytic PMS activation. The minerlization efficiency and the biotoxicity of BPA byproducts were evaluated. The degradation pathways of BPA and the possible activation mechanism of PMS were proposed. - Abstract: A heterogeneous manganese/magnetite/graphene oxide (Mn-MGO) hybrid catalyst was fabricated through the reduction of KMnO{sub 4} by ethylene glycol in the presence of magnetite/GO (MGO) particles. The Mn-MGO catalyst exhibited high efficacy and long-term stability in activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate sulfate radicals for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water. The results of the batch experiments indicated that an increase in the catalyst dose and solution pH could enhance BPA degradation in the coupled Mn-MGO/PMS system. Regardless of the initial pH, the solution pH significantly dropped after the reaction, which was caused by catalytic PMS activation. The production of sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals was validated through radical quenching and electron paramagnetic resonances (EPR) tests. BPA degradation pathways were proposed on the basis of LC-MS and GC-MS analyses. Finally, a possible mechanism of catalytic PMS activation was proposed that involved electron transfer from MnO or Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} to PMS with the generation of sulfate radicals, protons and MnO{sub 2}, as well as the simultaneous reduction of MnO{sub 2} by PMS.

  19. STUDIES ON THE EFFICIENCY OF GRUNDWATER TREATMENT PROCESS WITH ADSORPTION ON ACTIVATED ALUMINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szatyłowicz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The one of inorganic sorbents used in water treatment technology is activated alumina. Recommended by the European Commission to remove inorganic impurities, such as arsenic, fluoride, selenium and silicates. The adsorbent is usually applied in granular form, under flow conditions. It can become absorbent material increasingly used due to the presence of arsenic beside iron and manganese in groundwater intakes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of groundwater treatment in the technological system containing adsorption on activated alumina. The experiment was performed on test model CE 581 manufactured by G.U.N.T. Hamburg, in which can extract four treatment stages. The first stage is used in a gravel filter of grain size 1-2 mm, in the second sand filter of grain size 0.4-0.8 mm. The third and fourth phase includes two adsorbers. The first adsorber comprises activated alumina (Al2O3 and the other comprises a granular activated carbon. The study was conducted at different speeds of filtration: 5, 10 and 15 m/h. In the raw water samples and the purified water samples after each treatment step were determined the following parameters: pH, O2 concentration, electrolytic conductivity, SO42-, concentration, NO3- concentration, PO43- concentration, Cl-concentration, color, turbidity, iron and manganese concentration, CODMn, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, content of dissolved substances. Conducted research indicates that optimum filtration rate for most pollution is 15 m/h. Moreover, the presence of activated alumina has contributed to increasing the efficiency of nitrate (V and phosphate (V ions removal.

  20. The Economic Aspects of Improving the Efficiency of Activities of Ukrainian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naboka Serhii O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The only possibility to ensure a high rate of growth of economic efficiency of production is a result of transition to a predominantly intensive type of development, especially for domestic enterprises in current conditions. The article considers, which concrete factors of the external environment of enterprise impact its activity in the present time and on the territory of Ukraine, and also substantiates the necessity of transition to the mode of «intensification». Scientific novelty consists in approbation of the method of research of the degree of intensification of activity on the example of one of the enterprises of Kharkiv, carrying out foreign economic activity. The system of the scientific and special methods was used: system approach; methods of analysis and synthesis of grouping; economic-mathematical method – the method of analysis of production intensification – to determine the degree of intensity/extensiveness of production at the researched enterprise. The calculations allowed to determine that the relative saving of the aggregate resources at the researched enterprise, using this method, amounted to more than 16 million UAH. Thus, it is possible to speak about expediency of use of the presented method in practice, especially in view of the current condition of enterprises of Ukraine.

  1. St Petersburg Business Information Centres and Their Role in Increasing the Efficiency of International Business Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yu.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation acknowledges the significant contribution of regions to the development of the state’s foreign policy. An increase in innovative production, a commitment to achieve complete import substitution, and the development of measures to promote non-raw material export are the principal objectives established by the state for its regions. The current trends in world economy and the geopolitical situation formulate new goals and objectives for regions and suggest the creation of innovative and universal mechanisms to increase the efficiency of international economic activities, promotion of a positive image of Saint Petersburg and other regions of the Russian Northwest. The article analyses the activities of Saint Petersburg business information centres abroad, similar experience of other Russian regions, and prerequisites for reforming the institution of regional offices abroad. In the course of the study, new theoretical and methodological questions as to improving the regulatory framework for development and functioning of Russian regional offices abroad, the use of public-private partnership mechanism in foreign economic activities and information technologies of positive image promotion were formulated.

  2. Efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity using sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, K; Saravanakumar, A; Vijayakumar, R

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Prosopis juliflora was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out to asses silver nanoparticles formation within 5 min, scanning electron microscopic was used to characterize shape of the Ag nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the nanoparticles as crystalline silver and facecentered cubic type and Fourier transform infra-red assed that shows biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The anti microbial activity of silver nanoparticle was performed using sewage. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between Structural Characteristics of Activated Carbons and Their Concentrating Efficiency with Respect to Nitroorganics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboda, R.; Gun'ko, V. M.; Tomaszewski, W.; Trznadel, B. J.

    2001-07-15

    The relationships between structural properties of activated microporous, micro-mesoporous, mesoporous, and graphitized carbons determined on the basis of nitrogen adsorption at 77.4 K and the efficiency of concentrating (solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique) several nitroorganic compounds from polar solvents were investigated. Microporosity, mesoporosity, fractality, and other characteristics of adsorbents were analyzed to evaluate the dependence of the effectiveness of the SPE technique with respect to nitrate esters, cyclic nitroamines, and nitroaromatics on the origin and texture of carbons. The values of the free energy of solvation and dipole moment of nitroorganic compounds in polar liquids computed with the SM5.42/PM3 method with consideration of geometry relaxation in solution were utilized to elucidate features of their concentration of carbon adsorbents. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. An Efficient Modal Control Strategy for the Active Vibration Control of a Truss Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carvalhal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an efficient modal control strategy is described for the active vibration control of a truss structure. In this approach, a feedback force is applied to each mode to be controlled according to a weighting factor that is determined by assessing how much each mode is excited by the primary source. The strategy is effective provided that the primary source is at a fixed position on the structure, and that the source is stationary in the statistical sense. To test the effectiveness of the control strategy it is compared with an alternative, established approach namely, Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC. Numerical simulations show that with the new strategy it is possible to significantly reduce the control effort required, with a minimal reduction in control performance.

  5. High efficient photocatalytic activity of Zn-Al-Ti layered double hydroxides nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amor F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work establishes a simple method for synthesising layered double hydroxides (LDHs powders with coprecipitation. The characteristics of the samples were investigated y X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and spectrophotometer UV–Vis (DRS. Non-uniform distribution was shown for LDHs samples by SEM. Photocatalytic efficiencies were tested using methylene blue (MB dye as a model contaminant under UV irradiation. In particular, Zn–Al-Ti LDH exhibited an excellent performance towards MB degradation compared with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles. Methylene blue removal percentage was reached at almost 100%, whereas commercial TiO2 reached a removal rate of only 66% under the same conditions within 20 min. The aim of the current work is to prepare Zn-Al-Ti layered double hydroxides nanocomposite and to evaluate their photocatalytic activity in the removal of methylene blue under UV irradiation.

  6. Efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity using sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, K.; Saravanakumar, A.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Prosopis juliflora was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out to asses silver nanoparticles formation within 5 min, scanning electron microscopic was used to characterize shape of the Ag nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the nanoparticles as crystalline silver and facecentered cubic type and Fourier transform infra-red assed that shows biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The anti microbial activity of silver nanoparticle was performed using sewage. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy methods.

  7. Latent myostatin has significant activity and this activity is controlled more efficiently by WFIKKN1 than by WFIKKN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szláma, György; Trexler, Mária; Patthy, László

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, is produced from myostatin precursor by multiple steps of proteolytic processing. After cleavage by a furin-type protease, the propeptide and growth factor domains remain associated, forming a noncovalent complex, the latent myostatin complex. Mature myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases. Here, we show that, in reporter assays, latent myostatin preparations have significant myostatin activity, as the noncovalent complex dissociates at an appreciable rate, and both mature and semilatent myostatin (a complex in which the dimeric growth factor domain interacts with only one molecule of myostatin propeptide) bind to myostatin receptor. The interaction of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin is efficiently blocked by WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 1 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 2 (WFIKKN1), a large extracellular multidomain protein that binds both mature myostatin and myostatin propeptide [Kondás et al. (2008) J Biol Chem 283, 23677–23684]. Interestingly, the paralogous protein WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 2 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 1 (WFIKKN2) was less efficient than WFIKKN1 as an antagonist of the interactions of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin. Our studies have shown that this difference is attributable to the fact that only WFIKKN1 has affinity for the propeptide domain, and this interaction increases its potency in suppressing the receptor-binding activity of semilatent myostatin. As the interaction of WFIKKN1 with various forms of myostatin permits tighter control of myostatin activity until myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases, WFIKKN1 may have greater potential as an antimyostatic agent than WFIKKN2

  8. Ceria modified activated carbon: an efficient arsenic removal adsorbent for drinking water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawana, Radha; Somasundar, Yogesh; Iyer, Venkatesh Shankar; Baruwati, Babita

    2017-06-01

    Ceria (CeO2) coated powdered activated carbon was synthesized by a single step chemical process and demonstrated to be a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of both As(III) and As(V) from water without any pre-oxidation process. The formation of CeO2 on the surface of powdered activated carbon was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The percentage of Ce in the adsorbent was confirmed to be 3.5 % by ICP-OES. The maximum removal capacity for As(III) and As(V) was found to be 10.3 and 12.2 mg/g, respectively. These values are comparable to most of the commercially available adsorbents. 80 % of the removal process was completed within 15 min of contact time in a batch process. More than 95 % removal of both As(III) and As(V) was achieved within an hour. The efficiency of removal was not affected by change in pH (5-9), salinity, hardness, organic (1-4 ppm of humic acid) and inorganic anions (sulphate, nitrate, chloride, bicarbonate and fluoride) excluding phosphate. Presence of 100 ppm phosphate reduced the removal significantly from 90 to 18 %. The equilibrium adsorption pattern of both As(III) and As(V) fitted well with the Freundlich model with R 2 values 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. The material shows reusability greater than three times in a batch process (arsenic concentration reduced below 10 ppb from 330 ppb) and a life of at least 100 L in a column study with 80 g material when tested under natural hard water (TDS 1000 ppm, pH 7.8, hardness 600 ppm as CaCO3) spiked with 330 ppb of arsenic.

  9. Using Movement Test to Evaluate Effectiveness of Health and Fitness Activities of Students in Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pashkevich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to evaluate the possibility of using screening methods for determining the effectiveness of health and fitness activities of students in higher education institutions. Materials and methods. The participants in the experiment were 37 first-year students (17 boys and 20 girls of the School of History of H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University. The experiment lasted during the fall semester. Using the Framingham method for analyzing weekly timing, the study conducted a survey among the students on their level of motor activity and performed a functional movement screen testing. To tentatively evaluate the cause and effect relationship between the level of motor activity and the occurrence of a pathological movement pattern, the study used the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The characteristics between the groups were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney test for comparing the distribution of ordinal variables. Results. The correlation analysis showed that the first-year students’ motor activity was positively related to the results of functional movement screening (R=+0.69, p< 0.05. At the same time, the students (EG1 who mainly had a high level of physical activity at physical education classes showed low values of functional movement evaluation, compared to the students (EG2 participating in extra-curricular physical activity. In EG1, the overall screening score was 10.3±0.7, in EG2 — 14.2±0.9 (p<0.05. Conclusions. The students with insufficient weekly motor activity had risk values of the test (10.3±0.7, which requires further analysis of the causes of a pathological movement pattern. The study results have confirmed the existence of the relationship between motor activity indicators and functional movement evaluation (R=+0.69, p<0.05. This provides a way to use the screening method of determining motor competence for the effectiveness evaluation of health and fitness programs, but further

  10. Exploring the smallest active fragment of HsQSOX1b and finding a highly efficient oxidative engine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyun Zheng

    Full Text Available Human quiescin-sulfhydryl oxidase 1 isoform b (HsQSOX1b is a highly efficient, multiple-domain enzyme that directly inserts disulfide bonds into client protein. However, previous studies have focused mainly on the catalytic activity of the whole protein rather than its domain structure. In this research, we dissected the structure and function of HsQSOX1b and explored its mechanism as a highly efficient sulfhydryl oxidase by analyzing the truncated variants. The results showed that the first HsQSOX1b thioredoxin domain was essential for thiol oxidase activity. The smallest active fragment (SAQ was identified to consist of a helix-rich region (HRR and an essential for respiration and viability/augmenter of liver regeneration (ERV/ALR domain, which remained highly active to oxidize an artificial non-thiol substrate but not small molecular and protein thiols. Our study clearly demonstrated that SAQ is a highly efficient oxidative engine, which shows high efficiency in the de novo disulfide formation and oxygen reduction and that this more efficient oxidative engine is necessary for the highly efficient catalysis of QSOXs compared to Erv1 and Erv2. This study will help address the roles of different HsQSOX1b domains in de novo disulfide formation and encourage the engineering of more efficient QSOX variants for the in vitro folding of disulfide-containing proteins.

  11. An efficient visible and UV-light-activated B-N-codoped TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic film for solar depollution prepared via a green method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Qingchi; Zhang Yan; He Ziming [Nanyang Technological University, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); Loo, Say Chye Joachim, E-mail: joachimloo@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore); Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang, E-mail: tytan@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (Singapore)

    2012-08-15

    This work reports an efficient visible and UV-light-activated boron and nitrogen codoped TiO{sub 2} porous film prepared via a 'green' and direct coating approach. Such photocatalyst is highly promising for solar depollution application due to its efficient photocatalytic activities in both visible and UV spectrum. The preparation method avoids the use of organic solvents, which are usually more expensive and hazardous compared with water. Using stearic acid as the model organic pollutant, the visible-light photocatalytic activity of optimized porous B-N-codoped TiO{sub 2} film (p-3B-N-TiO{sub 2}) is 3 times higher than that of porous N-doped TiO{sub 2} (p-N-TiO{sub 2}) film, while its UV photocatalytic activity is almost double that of p-N-TiO{sub 2} film and comparable to that of porous TiO{sub 2}. The enhancement in photocatalytic activity is attributed to higher surface area due to the porous structure, improved visible-light absorption attributed to interstitially substituted boron atoms, and coexistence of boron and nitrogen dopants which may reduce Ti{sup 3+} recombination centers.

  12. An efficient visible and UV-light-activated B–N-codoped TiO2 photocatalytic film for solar depollution prepared via a green method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qingchi; Zhang Yan; He Ziming; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2012-01-01

    This work reports an efficient visible and UV-light-activated boron and nitrogen codoped TiO 2 porous film prepared via a “green” and direct coating approach. Such photocatalyst is highly promising for solar depollution application due to its efficient photocatalytic activities in both visible and UV spectrum. The preparation method avoids the use of organic solvents, which are usually more expensive and hazardous compared with water. Using stearic acid as the model organic pollutant, the visible-light photocatalytic activity of optimized porous B–N-codoped TiO 2 film (p-3B–N–TiO 2 ) is 3 times higher than that of porous N-doped TiO 2 (p-N–TiO 2 ) film, while its UV photocatalytic activity is almost double that of p-N–TiO 2 film and comparable to that of porous TiO 2 . The enhancement in photocatalytic activity is attributed to higher surface area due to the porous structure, improved visible-light absorption attributed to interstitially substituted boron atoms, and coexistence of boron and nitrogen dopants which may reduce Ti 3+ recombination centers.

  13. Enhanced fuel efficiency on tractor-trailers using synthetic jet-based active flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Michael; Menicovich, David; Gallardo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The application of piezo-electrically-driven synthetic-jet-based active flow control to reduce drag on tractor-trailers was explored experimentally in wind tunnel testing as well as full-scale road tests. Aerodynamic drag accounts for more than 50% of the usable energy at highway speeds, a problem that applies primarily to trailer trucks. Therefore, a reduction in aerodynamic drag results in large saving of fuel and reduction in CO2 emissions. The active flow control technique that is being used relies on a modular system comprised of distributed, small, highly efficient actuators. These actuators, called synthetic jets, are jets that are synthesized at the edge of an orifice by a periodic motion of a piezoelectric diaphragm(s) mounted on one (or more) walls of a sealed cavity. The synthetic jet is zero net mass flux (ZNMF), but it allows momentum transfer to flow. It is typically driven near diaphragm and/or cavity resonance, and therefore, small electric input [O(10W)] is required. Another advantage of this actuator is that no plumbing is required. The system doesn't require changes to the body of the truck, can be easily reconfigured to various types of vehicles, and consumes small amounts of electrical power from the existing electrical system of the truck. Preliminary wind tunnel results showed up to 18% reduction in fuel consumption, whereas road tests also showed very promising results.

  14. Methanol removal efficiency and bacterial diversity of an activated carbon biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Callie W; Pacheco, Adriana; Lindner, Angela S

    2009-12-01

    Motivated by the need to establish an economical and environmentally friendly methanol control technology for the pulp and paper industry, a bench-scale activated carbon biofiltration system was developed. This system was evaluated for its performance in removing methanol from an artificially contaminated air stream and characterized for its bacterial diversity over time, under varied methanol loading rates, and in different spatial regions of the filter. The biofilter system, composed of a novel packing mixture, provided an excellent support for growth and activity of methanol-degrading bacteria, resulting in approximately 100% methanol removal efficiency for loading rates of 1-17 g/m(3) packing/h, when operated both with and without inoculum containing enriched methanol-degrading bacteria. Although bacterial diversity and abundance varied over the length of the biofilter, the populations present rapidly formed a stable community that was maintained over the entire 138-day operation of the system and through variable operating conditions, as observed by PCR-DGGE methods that targeted all bacteria as well as specific methanol-oxidizing microorganisms. Phylogenetic analysis of bands excised and sequenced from DGGE gels indicated that the biofilter system supported a diverse community of methanol-degrading bacteria, with high similarity to species in the genera Methylophilus (beta-proteobacteria), Hyphomicrobium and Methylocella (both alpha-proteobacteria).

  15. Regeneration of the iodine isotope-exchange efficiency for nuclear-grade activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.

    1985-01-01

    The removal of radioactive iodine from air flows passing through impregnated activated carbons depends on a minimum of three distinguishable reactions: (1) adsorption on the carbon networks of the activated carbons, (2) iodine isotope exchange with impregnated iodine-127, and (3) chemical combination with impregnated tertiary amines when present. When a carbon is new, all three mechanisms are at peak performance and it is not possible to distinguish among the three reactions by a single measurement; the retention of methyl iodide-127 is usually equal to the retention of methyl iodide-131. After the carbon is placed in service, the three mechanisms of iodine removal are degraded by the contaminants of the air at different rates; the adsorption process degrades faster than the other two. This behavior will be shown by comparisons of methyl iodide-127 and methyl iodide-131 penetration tests. It was found possible to regenerate the iodine isotope-exchange efficiency by reaction with airborne chemical reducing agents with little or no improvement in methyl iodine-127 retention. Examples will be given of the chemical regeneration of carbons after exhaustion with known contaminants as well as for many carbons removed from nuclear power operations. The depth profile of methyl iodide-131 penetration was determined in 2-inch deep layers before and after chemical treatments

  16. “Always Look on the Bright Side of Life!” – Higher Hypomania Scores Are Associated with Higher Mental Toughness, Increased Physical Activity, and Lower Symptoms of Depression and Lower Sleep Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Jahangard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present study, we explored the associations between hypomania, symptoms of depression, sleep complaints, physical activity and mental toughness. The latter construct has gained interest for its association with a broad variety of favorable behavior in both clinical and non-clinical samples.Subjects and Methods: The non-clinical sample consisted of 206 young adults (M = 21.3 years; age range: 18–24 years; 57.3% males. They completed questionnaires covering hypomania, mental toughness, symptoms of depression, physical activity, and sleep quality.Results: Higher hypomania scores were associated with higher mental toughness, increased physical activity, lower symptoms of depression and lower sleep complaints. No gender differences were observed. Higher hypomania scores were predicted by higher scores of mental toughness subscales of control and challenge, and physical activity.Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that among a non-clinical sample of young adults, self-rated hypomania scores were associated with higher scores on mental toughness and physical activity, along with lower depression and sleep complaints. The pattern of results further suggests that hypomania traits are associated with a broad range of favorable psychological, behavioral and sleep-related traits, at least among a non-clinical sample of young adults.

  17. "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life!" - Higher Hypomania Scores Are Associated with Higher Mental Toughness, Increased Physical Activity, and Lower Symptoms of Depression and Lower Sleep Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangard, Leila; Rahmani, Anahita; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Soltanian, Ali R; Shirzadi, Shahriar; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the present study, we explored the associations between hypomania, symptoms of depression, sleep complaints, physical activity and mental toughness. The latter construct has gained interest for its association with a broad variety of favorable behavior in both clinical and non-clinical samples. Subjects and Methods: The non-clinical sample consisted of 206 young adults ( M = 21.3 years; age range: 18-24 years; 57.3% males). They completed questionnaires covering hypomania, mental toughness, symptoms of depression, physical activity, and sleep quality. Results: Higher hypomania scores were associated with higher mental toughness, increased physical activity, lower symptoms of depression and lower sleep complaints. No gender differences were observed. Higher hypomania scores were predicted by higher scores of mental toughness subscales of control and challenge, and physical activity. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that among a non-clinical sample of young adults, self-rated hypomania scores were associated with higher scores on mental toughness and physical activity, along with lower depression and sleep complaints. The pattern of results further suggests that hypomania traits are associated with a broad range of favorable psychological, behavioral and sleep-related traits, at least among a non-clinical sample of young adults.

  18. Combined effect of head down tilt (HDT) and gamma radiation on the higher nervous activity of the rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtemberg, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with a combined effect of 30-day head down tilt (HDT) and gamma-radiation at a dose of 3 Gy on the higher nervous activity of the rats. The 30-day HDT disturbs the process of forming the motor-drinking differentiated conditioned reflex coming to a reduction of internal inhibition, generalization and sluggishness of a stimulation process. Functionally, these processes are reflected by a behavioral pattern shifting to stable stereotype impeding the formation of differentiated inhibition. Against HDT the unidirectional gamma-radiation exposure increases this effects. In some cases, it leads to blocking the adaptational procesess showing in the development of neurotic responses or deep, beyond the limits, inhibition

  19. Development of joint regulatory guidance on the management of higher activity radioactive wastes on nuclear licensed sites - 16095

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, Mick; Ilett, Doug; Whittall, Andy

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the UK Government's response (1) to recommendations by its Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM) established, in England and Wales, that geological disposal, supported by safe and secure interim storage, is the preferred route for the long-term management of higher-activity radioactive waste (i.e. that which is not suitable for near-surface disposal). It also gave the responsibility for delivering the programme for a deep geological repository to the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The Scottish Government has a policy of long term, near site, near surface safe and secure interim storage. To support the open and transparent approach promised by Government, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), the Environment Agency and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) are developing joint guidance on the management of higher-activity radioactive waste to explain regulatory objectives in securing safe and secure interim storage and the associated management of radioactive wastes. The guidance comes in two parts: - Guidance on the regulatory process; - Technical guidance modules. The guidance promotes a cradle to grave approach to radioactive waste management and by aligning the regulatory interests of environmental and safety regulators it delivers one of the Government's 'Better Regulation' objectives. This paper describes the process by which the joint guidance was produced with particular emphasis on stakeholder engagement. It describes the key features of the guidance, including the concept of the radioactive waste management case (RWMC). Finally the problems encountered with dissemination and implementation are discussed together with measures taken by the regulators to improve these aspects. (1) : UK Government and the devolved administrations, 'Response to the Report and Recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM)', (PB 12303) October 2006. www

  20. A saxitoxin-binding aptamer with higher affinity and inhibitory activity optimized by rational site-directed mutagenesis and truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Hu, B; Gao, S X; Liu, D J; Sun, M J; Jiao, B H; Wang, L H

    2015-07-01

    Saxitoxin (STX), a member of the family of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, poses toxicological and ecotoxicological risks. To develop an analytical recognition element for STX, a DNA aptamer (APT(STX1)) was previously discovered via an iterative process known as Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) by Handy et al. Our study focused on generating an improved aptamer based on APT(STX1) through rational site-directed mutation and truncation. In this study, we generated the aptamer, M-30f, with a 30-fold higher affinity for STX compared with APT(STX1). The Kd value for M-30f was 133 nM, which was calculated by Bio-Layer Interferometry. After optimization, we detected and compared the interaction of STX with aptamers (APT(STX1) or M-30f) through several techniques (ELISA, cell bioassay, and mouse bioassay). Both aptamers' STX-binding ability was demonstrated in all three methods. Moreover, M-30f performs better than its parent sequence with higher suppressive activity against STX. As a molecular recognition element, M-30f has good prospects for practical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PEG capped methotrexate silver nanoparticles for efficient anticancer activity and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Zarmina; Raza, Abida; Ghafoor, Sana; Naeem, Ayesha; Naz, Syeda Sohaila; Riaz, Sundus; Ahmed, Wajiha; Rana, Nosheen Fatima

    2016-08-25

    Nanocarriers endow tremendous benefits to the drug delivery systems depending upon the specific properties of either component. These benefits include, increase in the drug blood retention time, reduced efflux, additional toxicity and targeted delivery. Methotrexate (MTX) is clinically used for cancer treatment. Higher dosage of MTX results in hepatic and renal toxicity. In this study methotrexate silver nanoparticles (Ag-MTX) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) are synthesized and characterized. Their anticancer activity and biocompatibility is also evaluated. Ag-MTX nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical reduction method. They are characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Average size of PEG coated Ag-MTX nanoparticles (PEG-Ag-MTX nanoparticles) is 12nm. These particles exhibited improved anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell line. Hemolytic activity of these particles was significantly less than MTX. PEG-Ag-MTX nanoparticles are potential nanocarrier of methotrexate which may offer MTX based cancer treatment with reduced side effects. In-vivo investigations should be carried out to explore them in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving Efficiency Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibor, Laura C; Schultz, Stacy R; Menaker, Ronald; Weber, Bradley D; Ness, Jay; Smith, Paula; Young, Phillip M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to increase efficiency in MR enterography using a time-driven activity-based costing methodology. In February 2015, a multidisciplinary team was formed to identify the personnel, equipment, space, and supply costs of providing outpatient MR enterography. The team mapped the current state, completed observations, performed timings, and calculated costs associated with each element of the process. The team used Pareto charts to understand the highest cost and most time-consuming activities, brainstormed opportunities, and assessed impact. Plan-do-study-act cycles were developed to test the changes, and run charts were used to monitor progress. The process changes consisted of revising the workflow associated with the preparation and administration of glucagon, with completed implementation in November 2015. The time-driven activity-based costing methodology allowed the radiology department to develop a process to more accurately identify the costs of providing MR enterography. The primary process modification was reassigning responsibility for the administration of glucagon from nurses to technologists. After implementation, the improvements demonstrated success by reducing non-value-added steps and cost by 13%, staff time by 16%, and patient process time by 17%. The saved process time was used to augment existing examination time slots to more accurately accommodate the entire enterographic examination. Anecdotal comments were captured to validate improved staff satisfaction within the multidisciplinary team. This process provided a successful outcome to address daily workflow frustrations that could not previously be improved. A multidisciplinary team was necessary to achieve success, in addition to the use of a structured problem-solving approach. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient photocatalytic activity with carbon-doped SiO2 nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongen

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalysis provides a \\'green\\' approach to completely eliminate various kinds of contaminants that are fatal for current environmental and energy issues. Semiconductors are one of the most frequently used photocatalysts as they can absorb light over a wide spectral range. However, it is also well known that naked SiO2 is not an efficient photocatalyst due to its relatively large band gap, which could only absorb shortwave ultraviolet light. In this report, nanoscale particles of carbon-doped silicon dioxide (C-doped SiO2) for use in photocatalysis were successfully prepared by a facile one-pot thermal process using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the source of both silicon and carbon. These particles were subsequently characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, standard and high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The C-doped SiO2 displayed outstanding photocatalytic properties, as evidenced by its catalysis of Rhodamine B degradation under near-UV irradiation. We propose that carbon doping of the SiO2 lattice creates new energy states between the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band, which narrows the band gap of the material. As a result, the C-doped SiO2 nanoparticles exhibit excellent photocatalytic activities in a neutral environment. The novel synthesis reported herein for this material is both energy efficient and environmentally friendly and as such shows promise as a technique for low-cost, readily scalable industrial production. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Activities of the work efficiency institute`s department of forestry; Tyoetehoseuran metsaeosaston toiminta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, J

    1997-12-31

    In accordance with the demarcation of tasks among Finnish forest-engineering research institutions, the Work Efficiency Institute`s Department of Forestry is the only one specialising in research and development focusing on forestry work involving low capital investments and done by landowners on their own estate or on a part-time basis outside their estates. This activity also includes the small-scale utilisation of wood and peat in heating. This bulletin presents a review of our recent research and development work. A significant stepping up of the utilisation of bioenerqy is one of the objectives of the Finnish Government. This has been noted in the Work Efficiency Institute`s Department of Forestry`s work programme in recent years by increasing the role of research and development promoting the consumption of bioenergy. As one of the participants in the National Bioenergy research programme (1993-1998), we are looking into the harvesting of small-diameter wood and wood residues, technology employed in the production of wood chips and fuelwood, cost calculations in fuelwood harvesting, energy entrepreneurship, and the development of fireplaces. Other recent topics of research engaged in by the Department of Forestry include possibilities in the mechanisation of tending of young stands, excavator-loaders in timber harvesting, and promoting self-reliance among landowners in carrying out of forestry work. On-going studies include comparison of pruning methods, a survey of co-operation among landowners at the local community level, and a study looking into the quality of wood produced for delivery sales. (orig.)

  5. Effects on the efficiency of activated carbon on exposure to welding fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-02-01

    It is the intention of this paper to document that certain types of welding fumes have little or no effect on the effectiveness of the carbon filter air filtration efficiency when directly exposed to a controlled amount of welding fumes for a short-term period. The welding processes studied were restricted to shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), flux cored arc welding (FCAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes. Contrary to the SMAW and FCAW processes, the GTAW (or TIG) and the GMAW (or MIG) welding processes do not require the use of flux as part of the overall process. Credit was taken for these processes occurring in inert gas environments and producing minimal amount of smoke. It was concluded that a study involving the SMAW process would also envelop the effects of the TIG and MIG welding processes. The quantity of welding fumes generated during the arc welding process is a function of the particular process, the size and type of electrode, welding machine amperage, and operator proficiency. For this study, the amount of welding for specific testing was equated to the amount of welding normally conducted during plant unit outages. Different welding electrodes were also evaluated, and the subsequent testing was limited to an E7018 electrode which was judged to be representative of all carbon and stainless steel electrodes commonly used at the site. The effect of welding fumes on activated charcoal was tested using a filtration unit complete with prefilters, upstream and downstream high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and a carbon adsorber section. The complete system was field tested in accordance with ANSI N510 standards prior to exposing the filters and the adsorber bed to welding fumes. The carbon samples were tested at an established laboratory using ASTM D3803-1989 standards.

  6. Energy and climate protection management, the key to higher energy efficiency in communities; Energie- und Klimaschutzmanagement. Der Schluessel zu mehr Energieeffizienz in Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    The brochure explains the dena energy and climate protection management concepts and presents tools for long-term reduction of energy consumption in communities. It presents valuable information for better organization of internal processes in community administrations and for the management of energy efficiency measures. The dena energy and climate protection management concept is developed in cooperation with model communities of different sizes since 2010. All interested communities can use this brochure as a guide for initiating effective climate protection measures.

  7. Modelling borders of expediency of use of money funds for ensuring efficiency of marketing activity of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereshchahіna Hanna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article offers improvement of methods of determining the limit exceeding which additional attraction of money funds does not ensure efficiency of marketing activity. These methods are based on the use of theoretical approach based on analysis of change of marginal utility. This approach lies in: 1 the use of the correlation-regression analysis of dependency of change of indicators of efficiency of enterprise activity on change of the volume of resources (money funds directed at conduct of marketing activity; and 2 determination of first derivatives (extreme values, if possible of relevant functions. Practical use of the offered methods allows determination of the maximum volume of investments into the marketing activity required for ensuring its efficiency.

  8. Influence of the particle size of activated charcoal on labeling efficiency with 67Ga-citrate for colonic transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan-Yu Lin; Shih-Chuan Tsai; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Bor-Tsung Hsieh

    2008-01-01

    Indium-111 and 99m Tc have been proposed for colonic transit study, but 111 In is expensive and the half-life of 99m Tc is too short for the study. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and has a suitable half-life. In our previous study, we successfully labeled 67 Ga-citrate activated charcoal, and the labeling efficiency exceeded 91% after a 96 hour incubation period. In this work, we evaluated the influence of the size of activated charcoal particles on the labeling efficiency with 67 Ga-citrate. The data showed that the influence of particle size on the labeling efficiency of activated charcoal with 67 Ga was insignificant. Both sizes of activated charcoal particles can be used for labeling with 67 Ga in colonic transit study. (author)

  9. Size and Aging Effects on Antimicrobial Efficiency of Silver Nanoparticles Coated on Polyamide Fabrics Activated by Atmospheric DBD Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zille, Andrea; Fernandes, Margarida M; Francesko, Antonio; Tzanov, Tzanko; Fernandes, Marta; Oliveira, Fernando R; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, Teresa; Carneiro, Noémia; Esteves, Maria F; Souto, António P

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the surface characteristics, antimicrobial activity, and aging effect of plasma-pretreated polyamide 6,6 (PA66) fabrics coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), aiming to identify the optimum size of nanosilver exhibiting antibacterial properties suitable for the manufacture of hospital textiles. The release of bactericidal Ag(+) ions from a 10, 20, 40, 60, and 100 nm AgNPs-coated PA66 surface was a function of the particles' size, number, and aging. Plasma pretreatment promoted both ionic and covalent interactions between AgNPs and the formed oxygen species on the fibers, favoring the deposition of smaller-diameter AgNPs that consequently showed better immediate and durable antimicrobial effects against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Surprisingly, after 30 days of aging, a comparable bacterial growth inhibition was achieved for all of the fibers treated with AgNPs silver. Overall, the results suggest that instead of reducing the size of the AgNPs, which is associated with higher toxicity, similar long-term effects can be achieved with larger NPs (40-60 nm), even in lower concentrations. Because the antimicrobial efficiency of AgNPs larger than 30 nm is mainly ruled by the release of Ag(+) over time and not by the size and number of the AgNPs, this parameter is crucial for the development of efficient antimicrobial coatings on plasma-treated surfaces and contributes to the safety and durability of clothing used in clinical settings.

  10. How different are hospitals' responses to a financial reform? The impact on efficiency of activity-based financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biørn, Erik; Hagen, Terje P; Iversen, Tor; Magnussen, Jon

    2010-03-01

    For policy-makers the heterogeneity of hospital response to reforms is of crucial concern. Even though a reform may entail a positive effect on average efficiency, policy-makers will consider the reform as less attractive if the variation in hospital efficiency increases. The reason is that increased variance of efficiency across hospitals is likely to increase the impact of geography on access to hospital services. This paper examines the heterogeneity with respect to the impact of a financial reform-Activity Based Financing (ABF)-on hospital efficiency in Norway. From a theoretical model we find an ambiguous effect of hospital heterogeneity on the effect of ABF on efficiency. The data set is from a contiguous 10-year panel of 47 hospitals covering both pre-ABF years and years after its imposition. Substantial heterogeneity in the responses, as measured by both estimated and predicted coefficients, is found. We did not find any significant correlation between pre-ABF measures of efficiency and the effect of ABF on efficiency. We did however find a strongly significant correlation between the effect of ABF and post-ABF efficiency. Thus, the analysis confirms the impression that, whereas pre-ABF efficiency did not play any role in how hospitals responded to ABF, those responding generally ended up as better-performing hospitals. Hence, for the type of reform studied in this article we find that policy-makers do not need to worry about the impact of location on patients' access to hospital services.

  11. Energy Efficient Catalytic Activation of Hydrogen peroxide for Green Chemical Processes: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Terrence J.; Horwitz, Colin

    2004-11-12

    A new, highly energy efficient approach for using catalytic oxidation chemistry in multiple fields of technology has been pursued. The new catalysts, called TAML® activators, catalyze the reactions of hydrogen peroxide and other oxidants for the exceptionally rapid decontamination of noninfectious simulants (B. atrophaeus) of anthrax spores, for the energy efficient decontamination of thiophosphate pesticides, for the facile, low temperature removal of color and organochlorines from pulp and paper mill effluent, for the bleaching of dyes from textile mill effluents, and for the removal of recalcitrant dibenzothiophene compounds from diesel and gasoline fuels. Highlights include the following: 1) A 7-log kill of Bacillus atrophaeus spores has been achieved unambiguously in water under ambient conditions within 15 minutes. 2) The rapid total degradation under ambient conditions of four thiophosphate pesticides and phosphonate degradation intermediates has been achieved on treatment with TAML/peroxide, opening up potential applications of the decontamination system for phosphonate structured chemical warfare agents, for inexpensive, easy to perform degradation of stored and aged pesticide stocks (especially in Africa and Asia), for remediation of polluted sites and water bodies, and for the destruction of chemical warfare agent stockpiles. 3) A mill trial conducted in a Pennsylvanian bleached kraft pulp mill has established that TAML catalyst injected into an alkaline peroxide bleach tower can significantly lower color from the effluent stream promising a new, more cost effective, energy-saving approach for color remediation adding further evidence of the value and diverse engineering capacity of the approach to other field trials conducted on effluent streams as they exit the bleach plant. 4) Dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), including 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, the most recalcitrant sulfur compounds in diesel and gasoline, can be completely removed from model gasoline

  12. Intrinsic atopic dermatitis shows similar TH2 and higher TH17 immune activation compared with extrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Dhingra, Nikhil; Gittler, Julia; Shemer, Avner; Cardinale, Irma; de Guzman Strong, Cristina; Krueger, James G; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is classified as extrinsic and intrinsic, representing approximately 80% and 20% of patients with the disease, respectively. Although sharing a similar clinical phenotype, only extrinsic AD is characterized by high serum IgE levels. Because most patients with AD exhibit high IgE levels, an "allergic"/IgE-mediated disease pathogenesis was hypothesized. However, current models associate AD with T-cell activation, particularly TH2/TH22 polarization, and epidermal barrier defects. We sought to define whether both variants share a common pathogenesis. We stratified 51 patients with severe AD into extrinsic AD (n = 42) and intrinsic AD (n = 9) groups (with similar mean disease activity/SCORAD scores) and analyzed the molecular and cellular skin pathology of lesional and nonlesional intrinsic AD and extrinsic AD by using gene expression (real-time PCR) and immunohistochemistry. A significant correlation between IgE levels and SCORAD scores (r = 0.76, P extrinsic AD. Marked infiltrates of T cells and dendritic cells and corresponding epidermal alterations (keratin 16, Mki67, and S100A7/A8/A9) defined lesional skin of patients with both variants. However, higher activation of all inflammatory axes (including TH2) was detected in patients with intrinsic AD, particularly TH17 and TH22 cytokines. Positive correlations between TH17-related molecules and SCORAD scores were only found in patients with intrinsic AD, whereas only patients with extrinsic AD showed positive correlations between SCORAD scores and TH2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-5) levels and negative correlations with differentiation products (loricrin and periplakin). Although differences in TH17 and TH22 activation exist between patients with intrinsic AD and those with extrinsic AD, we identified common disease-defining features of T-cell activation, production of polarized cytokines, and keratinocyte responses to immune products. Our data indicate that a TH2 bias is not the sole cause of high Ig

  13. The Lust for Efficiency: A Downhome Story or The Implications of Zero-Based Budgeting for Institutions of Higher Education as Seen from the State of Georgia's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    Reactions to zero-based budgeting in the State of Georgia as it pertains to institutions of higher education are discussed. Major advantages and disadvantages of zero-based budgeting as reported by budget analysts and selected department heads in state agencies were examined by George Minmier and Roger Hermanson (1976). Zero-based budgeting was…

  14. The Splicing Efficiency of Activating HRAS Mutations Can Determine Costello Syndrome Phenotype and Frequency in Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Mette Hartung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Costello syndrome (CS may be caused by activating mutations in codon 12/13 of the HRAS proto-oncogene. HRAS p.Gly12Val mutations have the highest transforming activity, are very frequent in cancers, but very rare in CS, where they are reported to cause a severe, early lethal, phenotype. We identified an unusual, new germline p.Gly12Val mutation, c.35_36GC>TG, in a 12-year-old boy with attenuated CS. Analysis of his HRAS cDNA showed high levels of exon 2 skipping. Using wild type and mutant HRAS minigenes, we confirmed that c.35_36GC>TG results in exon 2 skipping by simultaneously disrupting the function of a critical Exonic Splicing Enhancer (ESE and creation of an Exonic Splicing Silencer (ESS. We show that this vulnerability of HRAS exon 2 is caused by a weak 3' splice site, which makes exon 2 inclusion dependent on binding of splicing stimulatory proteins, like SRSF2, to the critical ESE. Because the majority of cancer- and CS- causing mutations are located here, they affect splicing differently. Therefore, our results also demonstrate that the phenotype in CS and somatic cancers is not only determined by the different transforming potentials of mutant HRAS proteins, but also by the efficiency of exon 2 inclusion resulting from the different HRAS mutations. Finally, we show that a splice switching oligonucleotide (SSO that blocks access to the critical ESE causes exon 2 skipping and halts proliferation of cancer cells. This unravels a potential for development of new anti-cancer therapies based on SSO-mediated HRAS exon 2 skipping.

  15. Mechanical Properties and Eco-Efficiency of Steel Fiber Reinforced Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Woo Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional concrete production that uses ordinary Portland cement (OPC as a binder seems unsustainable due to its high energy consumption, natural resource exhaustion and huge carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. To transform the conventional process of concrete production to a more sustainable process, the replacement of high energy-consumptive PC with new binders such as fly ash and alkali-activated slag (AAS from available industrial by-products has been recognized as an alternative. This paper investigates the effect of curing conditions and steel fiber inclusion on the compressive and flexural performance of AAS concrete with a specified compressive strength of 40 MPa to evaluate the feasibility of AAS concrete as an alternative to normal concrete for CO2 emission reduction in the concrete industry. Their performances are compared with reference concrete produced using OPC. The eco-efficiency of AAS use for concrete production was also evaluated by binder intensity and CO2 intensity based on the test results and literature data. Test results show that it is possible to produce AAS concrete with compressive and flexural performances comparable to conventional concrete. Wet-curing and steel fiber inclusion improve the mechanical performance of AAS concrete. Also, the utilization of AAS as a sustainable binder can lead to significant CO2 emissions reduction and resources and energy conservation in the concrete industry.

  16. The Adsorption Efficiency of Chemically Prepared Activated Carbon from Cola Nut Shells by on Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Ndi Nsami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from cola nut shell has been investigated under batch mode. The influence of major parameters governing the efficiency of the process such as, solution pH, sorbent dose, initial concentration, and contact time on the removal process was investigated. The time-dependent experimental studies showed that the adsorption quantity of methylene blue increases with initial concentration and decreasing adsorbent dosage. The equilibrium time of 180 min was observed and maximum adsorption was favoured at pH 3.5. The dye removal using 0.1 g of adsorbent was more than 90%. This dosage (0.1 g was considered as the optimum dosage to remove methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The kinetics of methylene blue solution was discussed by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich models. The adsorption process follows the Elovich rate kinetic model, having a correlation coefficient in the range between 0.9811 and 1.

  17. Cadmium hydroxide nanowire loaded on activated carbon as efficient adsorbent for removal of Bromocresol Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Khajesharifi, Habibollah; Hemmati Yadkuri, Amin; Roosta, Mostafa; Sahraei, Reza; Daneshfar, Ali

    2012-02-01

    In the present research, cadmium hydroxide nanowire loaded on activated carbon (Cd(OH) 2-NW-AC) was synthesized and characterized. This new adsorbent was applied for the removal of Bromocresol Green (BCG) molecules from aqueous solutions. The influence of effective variables such as solution pH, contact time, initial BCG concentration, amount of Cd(OH) 2-NW-AC and temperature on the adsorption efficiency of BCG in batch system was examined. During all experiments BCG contents were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Fitting the experimental data to different kinetic models including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models show the suitability of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model to interpret in the experimental data. Equilibrium isotherm studies were examined by application of different conventional models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin models to explain the experimental data. Based on considering R2 value as criterion the adsorption data well fitted to Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 108.7 mg g -1. Thermodynamic parameters (Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy) of adsorption were calculated according to general procedure to take some information about the on-going adsorption process. The high negative value of Gibb's free energy and positive value of enthalpy show the feasibility and endothermic nature of adsorption process.

  18. Efficient parallel implementation of active appearance model fitting algorithm on GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinwei; Ma, Xirong; Zhu, Yuanping; Sun, Jizhou

    2014-01-01

    The active appearance model (AAM) is one of the most powerful model-based object detecting and tracking methods which has been widely used in various situations. However, the high-dimensional texture representation causes very time-consuming computations, which makes the AAM difficult to apply to real-time systems. The emergence of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) that feature a many-core, fine-grained parallel architecture provides new and promising solutions to overcome the computational challenge. In this paper, we propose an efficient parallel implementation of the AAM fitting algorithm on GPUs. Our design idea is fine grain parallelism in which we distribute the texture data of the AAM, in pixels, to thousands of parallel GPU threads for processing, which makes the algorithm fit better into the GPU architecture. We implement our algorithm using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) on the Nvidia's GTX 650 GPU, which has the latest Kepler architecture. To compare the performance of our algorithm with different data sizes, we built sixteen face AAM models of different dimensional textures. The experiment results show that our parallel AAM fitting algorithm can achieve real-time performance for videos even on very high-dimensional textures.

  19. Efficient Parallel Implementation of Active Appearance Model Fitting Algorithm on GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The active appearance model (AAM is one of the most powerful model-based object detecting and tracking methods which has been widely used in various situations. However, the high-dimensional texture representation causes very time-consuming computations, which makes the AAM difficult to apply to real-time systems. The emergence of modern graphics processing units (GPUs that feature a many-core, fine-grained parallel architecture provides new and promising solutions to overcome the computational challenge. In this paper, we propose an efficient parallel implementation of the AAM fitting algorithm on GPUs. Our design idea is fine grain parallelism in which we distribute the texture data of the AAM, in pixels, to thousands of parallel GPU threads for processing, which makes the algorithm fit better into the GPU architecture. We implement our algorithm using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA on the Nvidia’s GTX 650 GPU, which has the latest Kepler architecture. To compare the performance of our algorithm with different data sizes, we built sixteen face AAM models of different dimensional textures. The experiment results show that our parallel AAM fitting algorithm can achieve real-time performance for videos even on very high-dimensional textures.

  20. Seedless synthesis and efficient recyclable catalytic activity of Ag@Fe nanocomposites towards methyl orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Salma Ahmed; Malik, Maqsood Ahmad; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Khan, Zaheer

    2018-03-01

    This work demonstrates a competitive reduction method of synthesis of nanomaterials. In this method along cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), the reduction of Ag+ and Fe3+ ions is achieved by ascorbic acid-to-bimetallic Ag@Fe yellow-colored nanomaterials. The shape of UV-visible spectra and wavelengths absorbed of Ag@Fe can be tuned from ca. 290-600 nm by controlling [CTAB] and [Ag+]. The apparent first-order rate constants were calculated within the approximation of 6.1 × 10-3 s-1. The as-prepared Ag@Fe NPs have been found to be very important catalyst in terms of depredate methyl orange in vicinity of sodium borohydride (NaBH4), which exhibits excellent efficiency and re-usability in the prototypical reaction. The cmc of cationic surfactant CTAB has been determined by conductivity method under different experimental conditions. In the presence of CTAB, Ag+ and Fe3+ ions reduce to Ag@Fe core/shell nanoparticles, comprehend a change in wavelength and intensity of SRP band. The apparent first-order rate constant, activation energy, and turnover frequency for the methyl orange reduction catalyzed by Ag@Fe NPs were found to be 1.6 × 10-3 s-1, 58.2 kJ mol-1, and 1.1 × 10-3 s-1, respectively.

  1. Mechanical Properties and Eco-Efficiency of Steel Fiber Reinforced Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Woo; Jang, Seok-Joon; Kang, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Kyung-Lim; Yun, Hyun-Do

    2015-10-30

    Conventional concrete production that uses ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as a binder seems unsustainable due to its high energy consumption, natural resource exhaustion and huge carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. To transform the conventional process of concrete production to a more sustainable process, the replacement of high energy-consumptive PC with new binders such as fly ash and alkali-activated slag (AAS) from available industrial by-products has been recognized as an alternative. This paper investigates the effect of curing conditions and steel fiber inclusion on the compressive and flexural performance of AAS concrete with a specified compressive strength of 40 MPa to evaluate the feasibility of AAS concrete as an alternative to normal concrete for CO₂ emission reduction in the concrete industry. Their performances are compared with reference concrete produced using OPC. The eco-efficiency of AAS use for concrete production was also evaluated by binder intensity and CO₂ intensity based on the test results and literature data. Test results show that it is possible to produce AAS concrete with compressive and flexural performances comparable to conventional concrete. Wet-curing and steel fiber inclusion improve the mechanical performance of AAS concrete. Also, the utilization of AAS as a sustainable binder can lead to significant CO₂ emissions reduction and resources and energy conservation in the concrete industry.

  2. Surface activation of graphene oxide nanosheets by ultraviolet irradiation for highly efficient anti-bacterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Zhang, Linghe; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Yun, Kyusik

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anti-bacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiated GO nanosheets was carried out. Microscopic characterization revealed that the GO nanosheet-like structures had wavy features and wrinkles or thin grooves. Fundamental surface chemical states of GO nanosheets (before and after UV irradiation) were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results revealed that UV irradiated GO nanosheets have more pronounced anti-bacterial behavior than GO nanosheets and standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The MIC of UV irradiated GO nanosheets was 0.125 μg ml-1 for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 0.25 μg ml-1 for Bacillus subtilis and 0.5 μg ml-1 for Enterococcus faecalis, ensuring its potential as an anti-infective agent for controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration of normal GO nanosheets was determined to be two-fold higher than its corresponding MIC value, indicating promising bactericidal activity. The mechanism of anti-bacterial action was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of β-d-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside.

  3. Surface activation of graphene oxide nanosheets by ultraviolet irradiation for highly efficient anti-bacterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Zhang, Linghe; Yun, Kyusik; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anti-bacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiated GO nanosheets was carried out. Microscopic characterization revealed that the GO nanosheet-like structures had wavy features and wrinkles or thin grooves. Fundamental surface chemical states of GO nanosheets (before and after UV irradiation) were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results revealed that UV irradiated GO nanosheets have more pronounced anti-bacterial behavior than GO nanosheets and standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The MIC of UV irradiated GO nanosheets was 0.125 μg ml −1 for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 0.25 μg ml −1 for Bacillus subtilis and 0.5 μg ml −1 for Enterococcus faecalis, ensuring its potential as an anti-infective agent for controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration of normal GO nanosheets was determined to be two-fold higher than its corresponding MIC value, indicating promising bactericidal activity. The mechanism of anti-bacterial action was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of β-d-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside. (paper)

  4. Efficient diode-end-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/SrWO4/KTP yellow laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Qingpu; Liu, Zhaojun; Li, Shutao; Chen, Xiaohan; Zhang, Xiaolei; Fan, Shuzhen; Zhang, Huaijin; Tao, Xutang

    2009-09-01

    An efficient intracavity frequency-doubled Raman laser was obtained by using an SrWO(4) Raman medium, an Nd:YAG ceramic gain medium, and a KTP frequency-doubling medium. Three laser cavities, including a two-mirror cavity, a three-mirror coupled cavity, and a folded cavity, were investigated. With the coupled cavity, a 2.93 W, 590 nm laser was obtained at an incident pump power of 16.2 W and a pulse repetition frequency of 20 kHz; the corresponding conversion efficiency was 18.1%. The highest conversion efficiency of 19.2% was obtained at an incident pump power of 14.1 W and a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz. The obtained maximum output power and conversion efficiency were much higher than the results previously obtained with intracavity frequency-doubled solid-state Raman lasers.

  5. High Efficiency, Transparent, Reusable, and Active PM2.5 Filters by Hierarchical Ag Nanowire Percolation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongmin; Cho, Hyunmin; Han, Seonggeun; Won, Phillip; Lee, Habeom; Hong, Sukjoon; Yeo, Junyeob; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2017-07-12

    Air quality has become a major public health issue in Asia including China, Korea, and India. Particulate matters are the major concern in air quality. We present the first environmental application demonstration of Ag nanowire percolation network for a novel, electrical type transparent, reusable, and active PM2.5 air filter although the Ag nanowire percolation network has been studied as a very promising transparent conductor in optoelectronics. Compared with previous particulate matter air filter study using relatively weaker short-range intermolecular force in polar polymeric nanofiber, Ag nanowire percolation network filters use stronger long-range electrostatic force to capture PM2.5, and they are highly efficient (>99.99%), transparent, working on an active mode, low power consumption, antibacterial, and reusable after simple washing. The proposed new particulate matter filter can be applied for a highly efficient, reusable, active and energy efficient filter for wearable electronics application.

  6. Ecotoxicological assessment of solar cell leachates: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells show higher activity than organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Wehrli, Bernhard [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of photovoltaics their potential environmental risks are poorly understood. Here, we compared ecotoxicological effects of two thin-film photovoltaics: established copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Leachates were produced by exposing photovoltaics to UV light, physical damage, and exposure to environmentally relevant model waters, representing mesotrophic lake water, acidic rain, and seawater. CIGS cell leachates contained 583 μg L{sup −1} molybdenum at lake water, whereas at acidic rain and seawater conditions, iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, silver, and tin were present up to 7219 μg L{sup −1}. From OPV, copper (14 μg L{sup −1}), zinc (87 μg L{sup −1}) and silver (78 μg L{sup −1}) leached. Zebrafish embryos were exposed until 120 h post-fertilization to these extracts. CIGS leachates produced under acidic rain, as well as CIGS and OPV leachates produced under seawater conditions resulted in a marked hatching delay and increase in heart edema. Depending on model water and solar cell, transcriptional alterations occurred in genes involved in oxidative stress (cat), hormonal activity (vtg1, ar), metallothionein (mt2), ER stress (bip, chop), and apoptosis (casp9). The effects were dependent on the concentrations of cationic metals in leachates. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid protected zebrafish embryos from morphological and molecular effects. Our study suggests that metals leaching from damaged CIGS cells, may pose a potential environmental risk. - Highlights: • Photovoltaics may be disposed in the environment after usage. • Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic (OPV) cells were compared. • Morphological and molecular effects were assessed in zebrafish embryos. • Environmental condition affected metal leaching and ecotoxicological activity. • Damaged CIGS cells pose higher risk to the environment than OPV cells.

  7. Efficiency of state financial support of export activity of small and medium businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur R. Urumov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to assess the effectiveness and role of state financial support of export activities of small and medium enterprises. Methods regression analysis abstractlogical method method of comparison. Results the need is identified to evaluate the impact of state programs of export support on the results of export operations as a mechanism for assessing the efficiency of public spending in this area. The institutions are analyzed of state support of export of small and medium businesses production in the USA and India. It is revealed that in the US the main tool of support are export credits and guarantees while in India the emphasis is on the promotion of products to the world markets. To assess the effectiveness of public expenditure on export support the data were collected and systematized on the total volume of export and the costs of its support in the United States and India. The project revealed the presence of a time lag between these indices. When building a regression model the method of least squares was applied on the basis of which three hypotheses were investigated namely those taking into account and not taking into account the presence of the time lag between variables. As a result of constructing the model it was found that in the U.S. the increase in budget spending on export support to 1mln leads to an increase in export volume to 2mln. In India the corresponding figure was 10mln. The analysis of the Russian practice of the state support of export of the small and medium businesses production showed a lack of systematic approach and poor development of the small business sector compared to the studied countries. Scientific novelty the positive relationship was revealed between the costs of exports support and export sales in the United States and India. The necessity was grounded of state the financial support of export activities of small and medium enterprises in Russia as well as product promotion through sectoral

  8. Siebel eEnergy ensures higher efficiency at HEW; Siebel eEnergy sorgt bei HEW fuer mehr Effizienz. Vertriebsvertraege und Service managen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, U. [EMEA, Siebel Systems, Ismaning (Germany)

    2003-01-27

    HEW, a leading German energy provider, uses Siebel eEnergy to create a single, comprehensive view of customer information across multiple channels and integrating with the company's back office applications. Siebel eEnergy provides improved management of energy contracts and enables HEW to increase sales efficiency, accelerate the service delivery process, and enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty. (orig.) [German] HEW, eines der fuehrenden deutschen Energieversorgungsunternehmen, nutzt Siebel eEnergy, um ueber verschiedene Kanaele hinweg umfassende Kundenprofile zu erstellen und sie mit den Back-Office-Anwendungen zu integrieren. Siebel eEnergy bietet verbessertes Management der Energieversorgungs-Vertraege und ermoeglicht HEW dadurch, die Effizienz im Vertrieb zu steigern, die Bereitstellung und Lieferung von Energie zu beschleunigen und so Kundenzufriedenheit und Kundentreue zu erhoehen. (orig.)

  9. How private housholds can use environment - higher energy consumption despite efficiency increasement; Wie private Haushalte die Umwelt nutzen - hoeherer Energieverbrauch trotz Effizienzsteigerung. Hintergrundpapier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    Energy saving potentials are not being used satisfactorily to date, especially as regards the use of electricity. No-load losses caused by electrical devices such as television sets and computers amount to some 17 billion kilowatt hours per year for private households alone. This makes 3.3. billion euros in electricity costs. Having an easily accessible mains switch that disconnects electrical devices from the mains can already help to avoid no-load losses. White goods such as fridge-freezers, washing machines or dish washers also offer considerable saving potentials. Efficient technologies could contribute annual savings from this product sector in the order of seven billion kilowatt hours, equivalent to 5.8% of the total electricity consumption of private households.

  10. Higher media multi-tasking activity is associated with smaller gray-matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kep Kee Loh

    Full Text Available Media multitasking, or the concurrent consumption of multiple media forms, is increasingly prevalent in today's society and has been associated with negative psychosocial and cognitive impacts. Individuals who engage in heavier media-multitasking are found to perform worse on cognitive control tasks and exhibit more socio-emotional difficulties. However, the neural processes associated with media multi-tasking remain unexplored. The present study investigated relationships between media multitasking activity and brain structure. Research has demonstrated that brain structure can be altered upon prolonged exposure to novel environments and experience. Thus, we expected differential engagements in media multitasking to correlate with brain structure variability. This was confirmed via Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM analyses: Individuals with higher Media Multitasking Index (MMI scores had smaller gray matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Functional connectivity between this ACC region and the precuneus was negatively associated with MMI. Our findings suggest a possible structural correlate for the observed decreased cognitive control performance and socio-emotional regulation in heavy media-multitaskers. While the cross-sectional nature of our study does not allow us to specify the direction of causality, our results brought to light novel associations between individual media multitasking behaviors and ACC structure differences.

  11. Accelerating Energy Efficiency in Indian Data Centers. Final Report for Phase I Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Suprotim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Raje, Sanyukta [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kumar, Satish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sartor, Dale [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenberg, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report documents Phase 1 of the “Accelerating Energy Efficiency in Indian Data Centers” initiative to support the development of an energy efficiency policy framework for Indian data centers. The initiative is being led by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)-U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and under the guidance of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). It is also part of the larger Power and Energy Efficiency Working Group of the US-India Bilateral Energy Dialogue. The initiative consists of two phases: Phase 1 (November 2014 – September 2015) and Phase 2 (October 2015 – September 2016).

  12. Hierarchical mesosilicalite nanoformulation integrated with cisplatin exhibits target-specific efficient anticancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermy, B. Rabindran; Acharya, Sadananda; Ravinayagam, Vijaya; Alghamdi, Hajer Saleh; Akhtar, Sultan; Basuwaidan, Rehab S.

    2018-04-01

    Hierarchically structured zeolitic ZSM-5 and meso MCM-41 interlinked domain had an impeccable use as catalysis in many applications. The aim of the study was to develop a new drug delivery nanoformulation, specifically, cisplatin/mesosilicalite using top-down approach for cancer therapy. Hierarchical mesosilicalite with variable porosity was synthesized using alkaline molar solution (0.2 and 0.7 M NaOH) and was loaded with cisplatin through equilibrium adsorption technique. Physico-chemical properties of the nanoformulation (IAUM-56—Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University Mesosilicalite-56) were characterized using X-ray diffraction, surface area analysis (BET), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Drug release study and anticancer activity were assayed on HeLa and MCF7 cancer cells using MTT assay. X-ray diffraction pattern showed interrelated meso- and microphases, while BET analysis revealed considerable mesoporosity formation with a remodulation of isotherm hysteresis indicating the presence of hierarchical pores. FT-IR showed the presence of nanozeolitic subunits into mesostructure with a band at about 550 cm-1. IAUM-56 demonstrated high cytotoxic activity against HeLa cancer cells with an LC50 of 0.02 mg/ml, MCF7 cancer cells with an LC50 of 0.05 mg/ml, and less toxic to normal fibroblast cells with an LC50 of approximately ten times higher at 0.5 mg/ml. Overall, IAUM-56 showed a high rate of sustained release of cisplatin imparting target specific cytotoxic effect against tumor cells with at least tenfold lower toxicity on normal fibroblast cells. Our nanoformulation has the potential use in cancer therapy as a targeted drug delivery system.

  13. Improving the ablation efficiency of excimer laser systems with higher repetition rates through enhanced debris removal and optimized spot pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Klinner, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the reasons for the required increased radiant exposure for higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers and determine experimentally possible compensations to achieve equivalent ablation profiles maintaining the same single-pulse energies and radiant exposures for laser repetition rates ranging from 430 to 1000 Hz. Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany. Experimental study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated. The pulse laser energy was maintained during all experiments; the effects of the flow of the debris removal, the shot pattern for the correction, and precooling the PMMA plates were evaluated in terms of achieved ablation versus repetition rate. The mean ablation performance ranged from 88% to 100%; the variability between the profile measurements ranged from 1.4% to 6.2%. Increasing the laser repetition rate from 430 Hz to 1000 Hz reduced the mean ablation performance from 98% to 91% and worsened the variability from 1.9% to 4.3%. Increasing the flow of the debris removal, precooling the PMMA plates to -18°C, and adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the variability. Only adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the mean ablation performance. The ablation performance of higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers on PMMA improved with improvements in the debris removal systems and shot pattern. More powerful debris removal systems and smart shot patterns in terms of thermal response improved the performance of these excimer lasers. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient silver modification of TiO2 nanotubes with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Ding, Lei; Xi, Yaoning; Shi, Liang; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie; Wang, Wei; Dong, Bohua; Cao, Lixin

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, Ag(CH3NH2)2+, Ag(NH3)2+ and Ag+ with different radii have been used as silver sources to find out the distribution of Ag ions on the H-TNT surface, which is critical to the final performance. The influence of this distribution on visible photocatalytic activity is further studied. The results indicate that, when Ag+ used as silver source with low concentration, these small sized silver ions mainly distribute on interlayer spacing of H-TNT. After heat-treatment and photo-reduction, the generated silver nanoparticles uniformly embed in the anatase TiO2 nanotube walls, and bring large interfacial area between Ag particles and TiO2 nanotubes. The separation effect of photogenerated electron-hole pair in TiO2 is enhanced by Ag particles, and achieves the best at 0.15 g/L, much higher than P25, TiO2/0, Ag-N@TiO2 and Ag-C-N@TiO2. This paper provides new ideas for the modification of TiO2 nanotubes.

  15. High-efficiency particulate air filter test activities at the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    For the past 2 years, test activities at the three Department of Energy HEPA Filter Test Facilities (FTFs) have been conducted under a unified set of operating standards intended to help achieve consistency in test methods and test results. Reviews of test operations are conducted at each FTF annually, and technical support and guidance are provided on request. Round Robin tests are conducted twice a year to compare penetration and resistance test results among the three FTFs. The FTFs prepare summary test data twice a year, and the data is analyzed for trends with respect to ongoing quality of HEPA filters in nuclear facilities. Data and conclusions from both the Round Robin tests and semiannual reports are discussed, the latter without reference to specific manufacturers. The new DOE standards include provisions for consideration and approval of new test aerosols or test methods, under closely controlled change procedures. Progress in obtaining DOE approval for DOS as a new aerosol, and for the Alternative Test System (ATS) developed by, and reported on by the LANL, as an approved new test method are discussed, as are 2 significant changes in standard NE-F-3-43, related to (a) toxicology test alternatives, and (b) the test aerosol definition. Finally, the emergence of new, higher flow rated HEPA filters and Ultra Low Particulate Air (ULPA) filters will impact DOE's design, procurement, testing and use of HEPA filters in the near future

  16. Antioxidant potential of curcumin-related compounds studied by chemiluminescence kinetics, chain-breaking efficiencies, scavenging activity (ORAC) and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova-Kazakova, Adriana K; Angelova, Silvia E; Veprintsev, Timur L; Denev, Petko; Fabbri, Davide; Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Kratchanova, Maria; Naumov, Vladimir V; Trofimov, Aleksei V; Vasil’ev, Rostislav F

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study compares the ability to scavenge different peroxyl radicals and to act as chain-breaking antioxidants of monomers related to curcumin (1): dehydrozingerone (2), zingerone (3), (2Z,5E)-ethyl 2-hydroxy-6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxohexa-2,5-dienoate (4), ferulic acid (5) and their corresponding C 2-symmetric dimers 6–9. Four models were applied: model 1 – chemiluminescence (CL) of a hydrocarbon substrate used for determination of the rate constants (k A) of the reactions of the antioxidants with peroxyl radicals; model 2 – lipid autoxidation (lipidAO) used for assessing the chain-breaking antioxidant efficiency and reactivity; model 3 – oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), which yields the activity against peroxyl radicals generated by an azoinitiator; model 4 – density functional theory (DFT) calculations at UB3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level, applied to explain the structure–activity relationship. Dimers showed 2–2.5-fold higher values of k A than their monomers. Model 2 gives information about the effects of the side chains and revealed much higher antioxidant activity for monomers and dimers with α,β-unsaturated side chains. Curcumin and 6 in fact are dimers of the same monomer 2. We conclude that the type of linkage between the two “halves” by which the molecule is made up does not exert influence on the antioxidant efficiency and reactivity of these two dimers. The dimers and the monomers demonstrated higher activity than Trolox (10) in aqueous medium (model 3). A comparison of the studied compounds with DL-α-tocopherol (11), Trolox and curcumin is made. All dimers are characterized through lower bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) than their monomers (model 4), which qualitatively supports the experimental results. PMID:26425195

  17. Antioxidant potential of curcumin-related compounds studied by chemiluminescence kinetics, chain-breaking efficiencies, scavenging activity (ORAC and DFT calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana K. Slavova-Kazakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the ability to scavenge different peroxyl radicals and to act as chain-breaking antioxidants of monomers related to curcumin (1: dehydrozingerone (2, zingerone (3, (2Z,5E-ethyl 2-hydroxy-6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-4-oxohexa-2,5-dienoate (4, ferulic acid (5 and their corresponding C2-symmetric dimers 6–9. Four models were applied: model 1 – chemiluminescence (CL of a hydrocarbon substrate used for determination of the rate constants (kA of the reactions of the antioxidants with peroxyl radicals; model 2 – lipid autoxidation (lipidAO used for assessing the chain-breaking antioxidant efficiency and reactivity; model 3 – oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, which yields the activity against peroxyl radicals generated by an azoinitiator; model 4 – density functional theory (DFT calculations at UB3LYP/6-31+G(d,p level, applied to explain the structure–activity relationship. Dimers showed 2–2.5-fold higher values of kA than their monomers. Model 2 gives information about the effects of the side chains and revealed much higher antioxidant activity for monomers and dimers with α,β-unsaturated side chains. Curcumin and 6 in fact are dimers of the same monomer 2. We conclude that the type of linkage between the two “halves” by which the molecule is made up does not exert influence on the antioxidant efficiency and reactivity of these two dimers. The dimers and the monomers demonstrated higher activity than Trolox (10 in aqueous medium (model 3. A comparison of the studied compounds with DL-α-tocopherol (11, Trolox and curcumin is made. All dimers are characterized through lower bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs than their monomers (model 4, which qualitatively supports the experimental results.

  18. Antioxidant potential of curcumin-related compounds studied by chemiluminescence kinetics, chain-breaking efficiencies, scavenging activity (ORAC) and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova-Kazakova, Adriana K; Angelova, Silvia E; Veprintsev, Timur L; Denev, Petko; Fabbri, Davide; Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Kratchanova, Maria; Naumov, Vladimir V; Trofimov, Aleksei V; Vasil'ev, Rostislav F; Delogu, Giovanna; Kancheva, Vessela D

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the ability to scavenge different peroxyl radicals and to act as chain-breaking antioxidants of monomers related to curcumin (1): dehydrozingerone (2), zingerone (3), (2Z,5E)-ethyl 2-hydroxy-6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxohexa-2,5-dienoate (4), ferulic acid (5) and their corresponding C 2-symmetric dimers 6-9. Four models were applied: model 1 - chemiluminescence (CL) of a hydrocarbon substrate used for determination of the rate constants (k A) of the reactions of the antioxidants with peroxyl radicals; model 2 - lipid autoxidation (lipidAO) used for assessing the chain-breaking antioxidant efficiency and reactivity; model 3 - oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), which yields the activity against peroxyl radicals generated by an azoinitiator; model 4 - density functional theory (DFT) calculations at UB3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level, applied to explain the structure-activity relationship. Dimers showed 2-2.5-fold higher values of k A than their monomers. Model 2 gives information about the effects of the side chains and revealed much higher antioxidant activity for monomers and dimers with α,β-unsaturated side chains. Curcumin and 6 in fact are dimers of the same monomer 2. We conclude that the type of linkage between the two "halves" by which the molecule is made up does not exert influence on the antioxidant efficiency and reactivity of these two dimers. The dimers and the monomers demonstrated higher activity than Trolox (10) in aqueous medium (model 3). A comparison of the studied compounds with DL-α-tocopherol (11), Trolox and curcumin is made. All dimers are characterized through lower bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) than their monomers (model 4), which qualitatively supports the experimental results.

  19. Coral-like CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites with efficient enzyme-mimetic activity for biosensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jianshuai; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jie [College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Functional Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Yang, En-Cui, E-mail: encui_yang@163.com [College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Functional Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhao, Xiao-Jun, E-mail: xiaojun_zhao15@163.com [College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Functional Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Development of nanomaterials-based enzymatic mimics has gained considerable attention in recent years, because of their low cost, high stability and efficiently catalytic ability. Here, CeO{sub 2} was successfully incorporated into the coral-like NiO nanostructures assembled by nanoflakes with high surface area, forming the coral-like CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites. The morphology and composition of CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, SEM, element mapping and XPS. The results of characterization showed that cerium was highly dispersed in the coral-like NiO nanostructures. The peroxidase-like activity of CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites was investigated, and they exhibited enhanced peroxidase-like activity in comparison to that of pure NiO or CeO{sub 2}. The catalytic activity was dependent on the cerium content, and the optimal content was 2.5%. The enhanced catalytic activity of CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites arised from their high ability of electron transfer because of cerium incorporation. The catalytic performance of CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites was evaluated by steady-state kinetic, which showed that the CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites exhibited higher affinity for the substrates and similar catalytic efficiency compared with natural peroxidase. Based on the efficient peroxidase-like activity, CeO{sub 2}/NiO was used for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} determination. The constructed colorimetric H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor had fast response for only 5 min, a wide linear range from 0.05 to 40 mM and a low detection limit with 0.88 μM. The CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites were expected to have potential applications in clinical diagnosis and biotechnology as enzymatic mimics. - Highlights: • Coral-like CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites with different Ce content were synthesized. • CeO{sub 2} was highly dispersed in the NiO matrixes with high surface area. • CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites exhibited efficient peroxidase-like activity. • A colorimetric H{sub 2}O

  20. Criteria of psychological efficiency of realization system of psychology-pedagogical support of sports activity of sportsmen-disables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the system of psychological pedagogical accompaniment of sporting activity is certain. In research the sportsmen of high qualification took part in sport of invalids. Prevailing high level of readiness of swimmers is rotined to self-realization in competition activity. On results procedure of self-appraisal 68,75 % sportsmen were attained optimum level of readiness, 14,58 % - base (sufficient, 14,58 % - middle (insufficient, 02,08 % - low (critical.

  1. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY OF CASH FLOW MANAGEMENT IN INVESTMENT ACTIVITY OF THE ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    I. Magdych

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the methodological approaches to the analysis of cash flows in investment activity of the enterprise; the system of motion net cash flows, reflecting the impact of cash management efficiency on the amount and source of investment cash flows of the enterprise; analytical model of definition of effectiveness of cash management of the enterprise is proposed, based on the selected principals of modeling, comprehensive analysis of cash flows in investing activities and their o...

  2. Efficient Method for the Determination of the Activation Energy of the Iodide-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, William; Lee, James; Abid, Nauman; DeMeo, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    An experiment is described that determines the activation energy (E[subscript a]) of the iodide-catalyzed decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide in a much more efficient manner than previously reported in the literature. Hydrogen peroxide, spontaneously or with a catalyst, decomposes to oxygen and water. Because the decomposition reaction is…

  3. {331}-Faceted trisoctahedral gold nanocrystals: synthesis, superior electrocatalytic performance and highly efficient SERS activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yahui; Miao, Tingting; Zhang, Peina; Bi, Cuixia; Xia, Haibing; Wang, Dayang; Tao, Xutang

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the effect of gold (Au) seeds prepared in cetyltrimethylammonium chloride solution (CTAC-Au seeds) on the index facets of trisoctahedral gold nanocrystals (TOH Au NCs). We demonstrate that monodisperse {331}-faceted TOH Au NCs with controllable sizes (from 60 to 255 nm) can be successfully prepared in high yield by using 3.0 nm CTAC-Au seeds or as-prepared 70 nm TOH Au NCs as seeds. We find that the electrocatalytic performance on methanol oxidation and surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy (SERS) activity of {331}-faceted TOH Au NCs is size-dependent. In comparison with well-known nanoporous gold (0.088 mA cm-2), {331}-faceted TOH Au NCs with sizes of 110 nm exhibit fairly high catalytic activity (0.178 mA cm-2) on methanol oxidation (1.0 M) in alkaline media due to the presence of increasing density of atomic steps, ledges, and kinks on the NC surfaces. Their current density is reduced by less than 7% after 500 cycling tests. {331}-Faceted TOH Au NCs with sizes of 175 nm exhibit the highest SERS activity for 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) molecules. The enhancement factors of a1 modes of 4-ATP molecules can reach the order of 109 when the 4-ATP concentration is 3 × 10-6 M. Moreover, Raman signals (ag modes) of 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) molecules on TOH Au NCs are stronger than those on spherical Au NCs of comparable size due to the enhanced laser-induced transformation of 4-ATP molecules by high-index {331}-facets during SERS measurement. Furthermore, the SERS intensities of 4-methylbenzenethiol (4-MTP) molecules on TOH Au NCs are also higher than those on spherical Au NCs of comparable size due to sharp extremities.We investigate the effect of gold (Au) seeds prepared in cetyltrimethylammonium chloride solution (CTAC-Au seeds) on the index facets of trisoctahedral gold nanocrystals (TOH Au NCs). We demonstrate that monodisperse {331}-faceted TOH Au NCs with controllable sizes (from 60 to 255 nm) can be successfully prepared in high yield by

  4. A method for assessing buildings’ energy efficiency by dynamic simulation and experimental activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisello, Anna Laura; Goretti, Michele; Cotana, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose a new methodology for the evaluation of buildings’ thermal-energetic performance. ► We express year-round performance by an appropriate objective function. ► The procedure allows to translate dynamic simulation results into buildings’ energy guidelines. ► The proposed index shows an important correlation with indoor thermal comfort international index DH. -- Abstract: Buildings’ thermal-energetic assessment and the relative proposal of new technical solutions applied to both summer and winter analyses has a strategic role in increasing the year-round performance of buildings. Buildings’ dynamic analysis is by now a well-established procedure to study effective building energy performance given real climate considerations. Then in this work, a concise and effective methodology for analyzing buildings’ thermal performance in a dynamic environment is proposed and applied to different case studies, consisting of single-family residential buildings’ prototypes. This procedure is aimed to define different performance levels by proper non-dimensional indexes named thermal deviation indexes (TDI). These indexes values could express in a concise way buildings’ thermal behavior, different optimization strategies impact, sensitivity analysis results. Buildings’ prototypes representing the case studies are three free-floating houses where the architectural shape role and the sensitivity of different envelope features are analyzed, also supported by experimental results regarding envelope properties measured on existing residential buildings in Italy. The three prototypes are respectively designed to optimize summer or winter energy performance or to represent the typical Italian house before and after energy efficiency regulation is implemented. To better define the important envelope parameters necessary to calibrate the numerical models, experimental activities are conducted. In particular, thermal insulation level and roof

  5. Main Directions of Increasing Efficiency of Foreign Trade Activities of the Fishing Industry of the European North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii Mikhailovich Vasil’ev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the List of Orders of the Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin has shown that many priority challenges of the fishing industry development, including promotion of fish production with a high degree of processing and its exports have not been solved. Analysis of exports of cod, haddock and saithe from Russia (Murmansk Oblast and Norway proves that there is a wider range of products from Norway with high added value. The unit cost of the same products from Norway is also significantly higher. The consequence of these factors is the low unit cost of Russian exports, compared to Norwegian. For 2009–2013 the average unit cost of cod is lower by 2.66 US dollars (47.9%, of haddock – by 0.23 US dollars (10.6%. The article estimates foreign currency revenues, which were not fully received due to the reasons mentioned above. The author points out key directions of increase of economic efficiency of Russian exports of cod, haddock and saithe: 1. Change in the access of economic agents to marketable resources by stimulating the obtainment of larger quotas of biological resources at the expense of profit ratio. 2. Establishment of an organization for the export of fish products. The purpose of the organization is to study international markets, to regulate foreign trade activities and perform other functions as set forth above, in accordance with the Russian legislation. 3. Exclusion of intermediaries in the sales of fish products by organizing electronic auctions. 4. Prohibition of using fishery products for the payment of loans obtained from foreign banks. 5. Use of trawlers that are not able to produce products with added value, to provide fish processing enterprises of Russia with fish resources

  6. Inter-domain synergism is required for efficient feeding of cellulose chain into active site of cellobiohydrolase Cel7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim

    2016-01-01

    systems. TrCel7A consists of catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites. The active site of TrCel7A is lined with four Trp residues with two...... to Ala substitution on on-rates was strongly dependent on the presence of the CBM-linker. This compensation between CBM-linker and Trp-38 indicates synergism between CBM-linker and CD in feeding the cellulose chain into the active site. The inter-domain synergism was pre-requisite for the efficient......Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme...

  7. Platelet activating factor-acylhydrolase (PAF-ase) activity is higher in serum of men than women and is related to levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, R.S.; Howell, S.E.; Wardlow, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    PAF-ase is a specific serum enzyme that inactivates PAF by hydrolyzing acetate from the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. A reproducible PAF-ase activity assay was developed. A unit is based on the amount of serum required to release 3.61 +/- 0.042 pm 3 H-acetate from 10 pm 3 H-labeled PAF after incubation for 1 hr at 37 0 C. Assays on two single reference serums repeated 7 days were 0.63 +/- 0.013 U and 1.33 +/- 0.031 U. Serum from 20 normal men and 20 normal premenopausal women had significantly different (p = <0.001) levels of 1.32 +/- 0.072 U and 0.97 +/- 0.051 U respectively. They previously reported that PAF-ase is associated with B-lipoprotein. Therefore, total cholesterol (TC), LDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were determined on these 40 serums. Regression analysis revealed PAF-ase units were correlated with LDL (r = 0.740; p = < 0.001) and, parenthetically, with the TC (r = 0.620; p = < 0.001) but not with HDL. These correlations were similar for men and women. Thus, serum PAF-ase was partially controlled by serum LDL levels and the higher PAF-ase levels in serum from men were due in part to higher (p = < 0.01) LDL levels in men (147.6 +/- 6.9 mg/dl) as contrasted to women (119.0 +/- 7.6 mg/dl). PAF is a potent inflammatory, bronchoconstrictive and hypotensive agent. These data indicate that sex and serum LDL levels of subjects must be considered during future studies of the role of PAF vs PAF-ase in different disease states

  8. Power sector reforms in Brazil and its impacts on energy efficiency and research and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannuzzi, G.M. de

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-nineties Brazil has implemented significant changes in the country's power sector, including privatization, introduction of competition and the creation of regulatory agency. As reform started in Brazil traditional support to energy efficiency and energy research and development suffered a discontinuation, budget cuts and re-definition of roles of the public agents in charge. At the same time, new regulatory measures and the creation of a national public interest fund have helped to maintain and potentially enhance the country's effort to promote energy efficiency and investments in energy R and D. This paper analyses the impacts of these changes in the areas of energy efficiency and energy research and development and argues for an increased role of developing countries to provide solutions for a meeting energy demand requirements more suitable to their internal markets

  9. Efficient peroxydisulfate activation process not relying on sulfate radical generation for water pollutant degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Yin; Wang, Yuru; Le Roux, Julien; Yang, Yang; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Peroxydisulfate (PDS) is an appealing oxidant for contaminated groundwater and toxic industrial wastewaters. Activation of PDS is necessary for application because of its low reactivity. Present activation processes always generate sulfate radicals

  10. More efficient integrated safeguards by applying a reasonable detection probability for maintaining low presence probability of undetected nuclear proliferating activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A theoretical foundation is presented for more efficient Integrated Safeguards (IS). • Probability of undetected nuclear proliferation activities should be maintained low. • For nations under IS, the probability to start proliferation activities is very low. • The fact can decrease the detection probability of IS by dozens of percentage points. • The cost of IS per nation can be cut down by reducing inspection frequencies etc. - Abstract: A theoretical foundation is presented for implementing more efficiently the present International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) integrated safeguards (ISs) on the basis of fuzzy evaluation of the probability that the evaluated nation will continue peaceful activities. It is shown that by determining the presence probability of undetected nuclear proliferating activities, nations under IS can be maintained at acceptably low proliferation risk levels even if the detection probability of current IS is decreased by dozens of percentage from the present value. This makes it possible to reduce inspection frequency and the number of collected samples, allowing the IAEA to cut costs per nation. This will contribute to further promotion and application of IS to more nations by the IAEA, and more efficient utilization of IAEA resources from the viewpoint of whole IS framework

  11. The Splicing Efficiency of Activating HRAS Mutations Can Determine Costello Syndrome Phenotype and Frequency in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Anne-Mette; Swensen, Jeff; Uriz, Inaki E

    2016-01-01

    by the efficiency of exon 2 inclusion resulting from the different HRAS mutations. Finally, we show that a splice switching oligonucleotide (SSO) that blocks access to the critical ESE causes exon 2 skipping and halts proliferation of cancer cells. This unravels a potential for development of new anti......-cancer therapies based on SSO-mediated HRAS exon 2 skipping....

  12. Intelligent future wireless networks for energy efficiency: overall analysis and standardization activities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kliks, A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available solutions supporting sophisticated energy management within each layer of the OSI stack model in the context of wireless networking, as well as the overview of cross-layer energy-efficient applications. All parts of the chapter have adequate references...

  13. Twitter as a Teaching Practice to Enhance Active and Informal Learning in Higher Education: The Case of Sustainable Tweets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassens-Noor, Eva

    2012-01-01

    With the rise of Web 2.0, a multitude of new possibilities on how to use these online technologies for active learning has intrigued researchers. While most instructors have used Twitter for in-class discussions, this study explores the teaching practice of Twitter as an active, informal, outside-of-class learning tool. Through a comparative…

  14. The Impact of Institutional Culture on Student Activism: A Multi-Case Study in Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to the description and meaning of student activism within the context of Christian college environments and cultures, and is interpreted through the sociological concept of symbolic interactionism. The purpose of this study is to help fill the void in the literature on student activism at Christian colleges and universities,…

  15. Digestive enzyme activities are higher in the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, than in ectothermic sharks as a result of visceral endothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kyle C; Wraith, James; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2015-08-01

    Lamnid sharks are regionally endothermic fishes that maintain visceral temperatures elevated above the ambient water temperature. Visceral endothermy is thought to increase rates of digestion and food processing and allow thermal niche expansion. We tested the hypothesis that, at in vivo temperatures, the endothermic shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, has higher specific activities of three digestive enzymes-gastric pepsin and pancreatic trypsin and lipase-than the thresher shark, Alopias vulpinus, and the blue shark, Prionace glauca, neither of which can maintain elevated visceral temperatures. Homogenized stomach or pancreas tissue obtained from sharks collected by pelagic longline was incubated at both 15 and 25 °C, at saturating substrate concentrations, to quantify tissue enzymatic activity. The mako had significantly higher enzyme activities at 25 °C than did the thresher and blue sharks at 15 °C. This difference was not a simple temperature effect, because at 25 °C the mako had higher trypsin activity than the blue shark and higher activities for all enzymes than the thresher shark. We also hypothesized that the thermal coefficient, or Q 10 value, would be higher for the mako shark than for the thresher and blue sharks because of its more stable visceral temperature. However, the mako and thresher sharks had similar Q 10 values for all enzymes, perhaps because of their closer phylogenetic relationship. The higher in vivo digestive enzyme activities in the mako shark should result in higher rates of food processing and may represent a selective advantage of regional visceral endothermy.

  16. Activated human primary NK cells efficiently kill colorectal cancer cells in 3D spheroid cultures irrespectively of the level of PD-L1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza, Pilar M; Vigueras, Alan; Olivan, Sara; Prats, Anne C; Costas, Santiago; Llamazares, Guillermo; Sanchez-Martinez, Diego; Ayuso, José María; Fernandez, Luis; Ochoa, Ignacio; Pardo, Julián

    2018-01-01

    Haploidentical Natural Killer (NK) cells have been shown as an effective and safe alternative for the treatment of haematological malignancies with poor prognosis for which traditional therapies are ineffective. In contrast to haematological cancer cells, that mainly grow as single suspension cells, solid carcinomas are characterised by a tridimensional (3D) architecture that provide specific surviving advantages and resistance against chemo- and radiotherapy. However, little is known about the impact of 3D growth on solid cancer immunotherapy especially adoptive NK cell transfer. We have recently developed a protocol to activate ex vivo human primary NK cells using B lymphoblastic cell lines, which generates NK cells able to overcome chemoresistance in haematological cancer cells. Here we have analysed the activity of these allogeneic NK cells against colorectal (CRC) human cell lines growing in 3D spheroid culture and correlated with the expression of some of the main ligands regulating NK cell activity. Our results indicate that activated NK cells efficiently kill colorectal tumour cell spheroids in both 2D and 3D cultures. Notably, although 3D CRC cell cultures favoured the expression of the inhibitory immune checkpoint PD-L1, it did not correlate with increased resistance to NK cells. Finally, we have analysed in detail the infiltration of NK cells in 3D spheroids by microscopy and found that at low NK cell density, cell death is not observed although NK cells are able to infiltrate into the spheroid. In contrast, higher densities promote tumoural cell death before infiltration can be detected. These findings show that highly dense activated human primary NK cells efficiently kill colorectal carcinoma cells growing in 3D cultures independently of PD-L1 expression and suggest that the use of allogeneic activated NK cells could be beneficial for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma.

  17. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ACHIEVED SUCCESSIVE TO THE APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE PRODUCTS IN SMOOTH BROME CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA PEł

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Within any branch of material production, the supervision of the economic effects caused by the applied technologies is an essential requirement. Not only related to the productive activity, but also related to scientific research, designing and other fields of activity, the final goal is represented by the achievement of immediate or far off economic effects. The introduction and generalization into production of the newest technologies of forage production must rely upon calculations of economic efficiency, too. The objective of these calculations is to offer to any producer the possibility to choose among the optimal technologic variants, with great productions per surface unit, of high quality and low costs. The calculations of economic efficiency were carried out during the three years of experimentation. The economic efficiency obtained after the application of biostimulants in smooth brome during the first year of production is expressed through the achievement of a profit per surface unit of 75.85 – 127.00 €/ha. Successive to the calculations of economic efficiency, during the second year of production, the profit per surface unit recorded values between 79.10 – 153.10 €/ha depending upon the applied biostimulant, and during the third year of production the profit obtained per surface unit was 211.05 – 270.70 €/ha.

  18. Cooked Food Waste-An Efficient and Less Expensive Precursor for the Generation of Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krithiga, Thangavelu; Sabina, Xavier Janet; Rajesh, Baskaran; Ilbeygi, Hamid; Shetty, Adka Nityananda; Reddy, Ramanjaneya; Karthikeyan, Jayabalan

    2018-06-01

    Activated carbon was synthesized from cooked food waste, especially dehydrated rice kernels, by chemical activation method using NaOH and KOH as activating agents. It was then characterized by ultimate and proximate analysis, BET surface analysis, XRD, FTIR, Raman and SEM. The XRD patterns and Raman spectra confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared activated carbons. Ultimate analysis showed an increase in the carbon content after activation of the raw carbon samples. Upon activation with NaOH and KOH, the surface area of the carbon sample was found to have increased from 0.3424 to 539.78 and 306.83 m2g-1 respectively. The SEM images revealed the formation of heterogeneous pores on the surface of the activated samples. The samples were then tested for their adsorption activity using acetic acid and methylene blue. Based on the regression coefficients, the adsorption kinetics of methylene blue dye were fitted with pseudo-second order model for both samples. Similarly, the Freundlich isotherm was found to be a better fit than Langmuir isotherm for both samples. The activity of thus prepared activated carbons was found to be comparable with the commercial carbon.

  19. Genetic Determinism of Fearfulness, General Activity and Feeding Behavior in Chickens and Its Relationship with Digestive Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Bertin, Aline

    2017-01-01

    The genetic relationships between behavior and digestive efficiency were studied in 860 chickens from a cross between two lines divergently selected on digestive efficiency. At 2 weeks of age each chick was video-recorded in the home pen to characterize general activity and feeding behavior. Tonic immobility and open-field tests were also carried out individually to evaluate emotional reactivity (i.e. the propensity to express fear responses). Digestive efficiency was measured at 3 weeks. Genetic parameters of behavior traits were estimated. Birds were genotyped on 3379 SNP markers to detect QTLs. Heritabilities of behavioral traits were low, apart from tonic immobility (0.17-0.18) and maximum meal length (0.14). The genetic correlations indicated that the most efficient birds fed more frequently and were less fearful. We detected 14 QTL (9 for feeding behavior, 3 for tonic immobility, 2 for frequency of lying). Nine of them co-localized with QTL for efficiency, anatomy of the digestive tract, feed intake or microbiota composition. Four genes involved in fear reactions were identified in the QTL for tonic immobility on GGA1.

  20. Energy Efficiency Center - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obryk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Energy Efficiency Center (EEC) activities have been concentrated on Energy Efficiency Network (SEGE), education and training of energy auditors. EEC has started studies related to renewable fuels (bio fuel, wastes) and other topics related to environment protection. EEC has continued close collaboration with Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. It has been organized and conducted Seminar and Workshop on ''How to Reduce Energy and Water Cost in Higher Education Buildings'' for general and technical managers of the higher education institutions. This Seminar was proceeded by the working meeting on energy efficiency strategy in higher education at the Ministry of National Education. EEC has worked out proposal for activities of Cracow Regional Agency for Energy Efficiency and Environment and has made offer to provide services for this Agency in the field of training, education and consulting. The vast knowledge and experiences in the field of energy audits have been used by the members of EEC in lecturing at energy auditors courses authorized by the National Energy Efficiency Agency (KAPE). Altogether 20 lectures have been delivered. (author)

  1. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-01-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr_3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. - Highlights: • A small-sized UAV airborne sensor system was developed. • Three radioactive models were chosen to simulate the Fukushima accident. • Both the air and ground radiation were considered in the models. • The efficiency calculations and MDAC values were given. • The sensor system is able to monitor in serious nuclear accidents.

  2. Improvement of carrier transport and luminous efficiency of organic light emitting diodes by introducing a co-deposited active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Naoki; Murata, Masaya; Kashiwabara, Keiichiro; Kurata, Kazunori, E-mail: ohtani@mail.doshisha.ac.j [Department of Electronics, Doshisha University, 3-1 Tatara-Miyakodani, Kyotanabe-shi, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    We evaluated carrier transport and luminous efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) whose active regions consist of a single co-deposited layer. One organic material is a hole transport material N,N'-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), while the other is an electron transport/emissive material Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)-aluminum (Alq3). It was found that the luminous efficiency strongly depends on the thickness and the ratio of the TPD:Alq3 co-deposited layer. This indicates that the carrier balance in the active region can be improved by changing the co-deposited layers. In addition, we performed the dye-doping method to clarify the recombination region. As a result, we found that the radiative recombination is caused in the whole TPD:Alq3 co-deposited layer.

  3. Influence of motive activity on forming of proof skills of healthy way of life of students of higher educational establishments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trotsenko V.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation and the analysis of impellent activity of students is considered. The importance of impellent activity in forming a healthy way of life of students is shown. In research the data of questionnaire of students are used. sports priorities of students are revealed should to undertake in attention by development of the program of physical training. The wide spectrum of the reasons which interfere with exercises is revealed. These reasons should be considered during individual work with each student. It is proved, that impellent activity influences forming of proof skills of a healthy way of life of students.

  4. Analysis of the specificity of improving the efficiency of marketing activities of the enterprises of power

    OpenAIRE

    Grabovskiy, E.; Kostyuk, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In modern market conditions of each company power is interested in the effective management of its marketing activities. In particular, he needs to know how to analyze market opportunities, select the required target markets, to develop an effective marketing complex and successfully manage the implementation of marketing activities. The activity of the enterprises of a food is one of the most important factors giving the integral assessment of the socio-economic level of the society, and und...

  5. Photometric Calibration of the Barium Cloud Image in a Space Active Experiment: Determining the Release Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Liang-Hai; Li Lei; Wang Jing-Dong; Tao Ran; Cheng Bing-Jun; Zhang Yi-Teng

    2014-01-01

    The barium release experiment is an effective method to explore the near-earth environment and to study all kinds of space physics processes. The first space barium release experiment in China was successfully carried out by a sounding rocket on April 5, 2013. This work is devoted to calculating the release efficiency of the barium release by analyzing the optical image observed during the experiment. First, we present a method to calibrate the images grey value of barium cloud with the reference stars to obtain the radiant fluxes at different moments. Then the release efficiency is obtained by a curve fitting with the theoretical evolution model of barium cloud. The calculated result is basically consistent with the test value on ground

  6. Wall-plug efficiency analysis of semi-active piezoelectric shunt damping systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jan; Kodejška, M.; Mokrý, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, September (2014), 1077546314548910 ISSN 1077-5463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR GA13-10365S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Piezoelectric shunt damping * vibration isolation * negative capacitor * wall-plug efficiency * mechanical power measurement * power supply optimization Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 4.355, year: 2013 http://jvc.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/09/17/1077546314548910

  7. Wall-plug efficiency analysis of semi-active piezoelectric shunt damping systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jan; Kodejška, M.; Mokrý, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 11 (2016), s. 2582-2590 ISSN 1077-5463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR GA13-10365S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Piezoelectric shunt damping * vibration isolation * negative capacitor * wall-plug efficiency * mechanical power measurement * power supply optimization Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1077546314548910

  8. Inter-domain Synergism Is Required for Efficient Feeding of Cellulose Chain into Active Site of Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A*

    OpenAIRE

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter; Väljamäe, Priit

    2016-01-01

    Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme systems. TrCel7A consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel-shaped active site rests in the CD and ...

  9. Biomass boilers: towards a higher efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline; Signoret, Stephane; Mary, Olivier; Dejeu, Mathieu; Tachet, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of the situation and perspectives of biomass fuelled boilers in France. As outlined in an interview, professionals are supported by ADEME and the Heat Fund (Fonds Chaleur) for a continuous development of wood-energy in order to reach national objectives for renewable energies by 2020. The next article discusses issues related to wood supply, with some concerns regarding forest exploitation, and needs to find new management ways and to use other sources than forests. The technical status and perspectives of smoke condensation in wood-fuelled boilers are discussed. The example of a malt-house near Issoudun fuelled by biomass since 2013 is presented. Other examples concern a small town of Burgundy which developed and is still improving a heat network, a wood-fuelled heat network in Saint-Denis, and a biomass wood-fuelled heat production plant for the Toulouse University hospital. Graphs indicate evolutions of prices for different wood-based fuel products. The last article outlines the role of forests and the importance of their protection in the struggle against climate change, and discusses problems faced to support this preservation and its financing

  10. The Rethinking of the Economic Activity Based on Principles of Eco-Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VÎRJAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought, floods, damaging storms, heat waves, acid rain, climate changes are but a few of the consequences of human action upon the environment. Can we possibly live against the environment? The answer is NO, and as such we must run an economy which respects the principles of eco-efficiency because only so can economic progress go on. Green economy is a great opportunity for all of the world’s countries, and is a real economy which keeps the resource-needs and environment relation in balance, aims towards quality and not quantity, lays emphasis on regeneration, recycling, reuse and creativity. Eco-efficiency implies both innovation towards a high degree of product dematerialization, services and systems, alongside with greatly changing current production and consumption practices. If we produce based on the principle of eco-efficiency we can reduce the effects of the profound economic, ecological, socio-political and cultural-spiritual crisis which marks our planet and countries.

  11. High-efficiency electroluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission from a thermally activated delayed fluorescent near-infrared emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeon; D'Aléo, Anthony; Chen, Xian-Kai; Sandanayaka, Atula D. S.; Yao, Dandan; Zhao, Li; Komino, Takeshi; Zaborova, Elena; Canard, Gabriel; Tsuchiya, Youichi; Choi, Eunyoung; Wu, Jeong Weon; Fages, Frédéric; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2018-02-01

    Near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers could benefit a variety of applications including night-vision displays, sensors and information-secured displays. Organic dyes can generate electroluminescence efficiently at visible wavelengths, but organic light-emitting diodes are still underperforming in the near-infrared region. Here, we report thermally activated delayed fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes that operate at near-infrared wavelengths with a maximum external quantum efficiency of nearly 10% using a boron difluoride curcuminoid derivative. As well as an effective upconversion from triplet to singlet excited states due to the non-adiabatic coupling effect, this donor-acceptor-donor compound also exhibits efficient amplified spontaneous emission. By controlling the polarity of the active medium, the maximum emission wavelength of the electroluminescence spectrum can be tuned from 700 to 780 nm. This study represents an important advance in near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes and the design of alternative molecular architectures for photonic applications based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

  12. Using microwave heating to improve the desorption efficiency of high molecular weight VOC from beaded activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, Mohammadreza; Shariaty, Pooya; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher; Phillips, John H; Anderson, James E; Nichols, Mark

    2015-04-07

    Incomplete regeneration of activated carbon loaded with organic compounds results in heel build-up that reduces the useful life of the adsorbent. In this study, microwave heating was tested as a regeneration method for beaded activated carbon (BAC) loaded with n-dodecane, a high molecular weight volatile organic compound. Energy consumption and desorption efficiency for microwave-heating regeneration were compared with conductive-heating regeneration. The minimum energy needed to completely regenerate the adsorbent (100% desorption efficiency) using microwave regeneration was 6% of that needed with conductive heating regeneration, owing to more rapid heating rates and lower heat loss. Analyses of adsorbent pore size distribution and surface chemistry confirmed that neither heating method altered the physical/chemical properties of the BAC. Additionally, gas chromatography (with flame ionization detector) confirmed that neither regeneration method detectably altered the adsorbate composition during desorption. By demonstrating improvements in energy consumption and desorption efficiency and showing stable adsorbate and adsorbent properties, this paper suggests that microwave heating is an attractive method for activated carbon regeneration particularly when high-affinity VOC adsorbates are present.

  13. Adsorption efficiencies of calcium (II ion and iron (II ion on activated carbon obtained from pericarp of rubber fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Sirichote

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of adsorption efficiencies of activated carbon from pericarp of rubber fruit for calcium (II ion and iron (II ion has been performed by flowing the solutions of these ions through a column of activated carbon. The weights of activated carbon in 500 mL buret column (diameter 3.2 cm for flowing calcium (II ion and iron (II ion solutions were 15 g and 10 g, respectively. The initial concentration of calcium ion was prepared to be about eight times more diluted than the true concentration found in the groundwater from the lower part of southern Thailand. Calcium (II ion concentrations were analysed by EDTA titration and its initial concentration was found to be 23.55 ppm. With a flow rate of 26 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 11.4 % with passed through volume 4.75 L. Iron (II ion concentrations were analysed by spectrophotometric method; its initial concentration was found to be 1.5565 ppm. At a flow rate of 22 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 0.42 % with passed through volume of 34.0 L.

  14. Extraction of Crude Chitinase from Higher Plants and their Chitin-Hydrolysis Activities; Kotosyokubutu yurai kichinaze no chusyutu to kichin bunkai kassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, K.; Harada, K.; Shibata, M.; Maeda, R. [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-07-10

    To prepare a purified chitinase from higher plants, firstly, crude enzymes were extracted from six higher plants, namely, radish seeds, sunflower seeds, watermelon seeds, bamboo leaves, orange skin, and persimmon skin. Using these crude enzymes, pH dependencies of hydrolysis reaction of colloidal chitin are investigated. For radish seeds and bamboo leaves, which have relatively high activities, the kinetics of enzymatic reaction are studies. It is clear that these reactions obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Eco-efficiency analysis for intensified production of an active pharmaceutical ingredient : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dencic, I.; Ott-Reinhardt, D.; Kralisch, D.; Noel, T.; Meuldijk, J.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Hessel, V.; Laribi, Y.; Perrichon, P.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results on cost and performance benefit analysis of optimization and intensification activities of a pharmaceutical process. A batch process for the production of a low-volume, high value active pharmaceutical ingredient, developed at Sanofi (France), has been used as a case

  16. High Efficient Enrichment and Activated Dissolution of Refractory Low Grade Rh-containing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaofeng; DONG Haigang; TONG Weifeng; ZHAO Jiachun; ZENG Rui

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to the low-grade rhodium-containing waste materials,a new process was proposed to enrich and activate rhodium by smelting using iron oxide as a trapping agent and activator.A rhodium concentrate was obtained by the separation of base metals and precious metals.The concentrate was reacted with dilute aqua regia to obtain rhodium solution.The factors influencing the enrichment and activation effects were discussed in this paper.The results showed that the dissolution rate is greater than 99% under the optimum conditions.In this process,the activation of rhodium was finished in the enrichment process.The iron oxide is both a trapping agent and activator,which simplifies the process and reduce the cost.

  17. An efficient top-down approach for the fabrication of large-aspect-ratio g-C3N4 nanosheets with enhanced photocatalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jincheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Fei; Li, Mingming; Cao, Shaokui

    2015-09-28

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets with large aspect ratios were fabricated from bulk g-C3N4 through an efficient top-down approach of moderate disintegration-exfoliation using diluted H2SO4 as an "efficient knife". By prior disintegration in a diluted H2SO4 solution, the exfoliation of bulk g-C3N4 was effectively accelerated. The as-prepared g-C3N4 nanosheets possess a two-dimensional (2D) thin-layer structure with seven-atom thickness, a large lateral size of about 1 μm, and a high specific surface area of 80 m(2) g(-1). Compared with the bulk precursor, the g-C3N4 nanosheets showed much higher efficiency of photogenerated charge transfer and separation, and consequently exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution and pollutant decomposition under both full-sunlight and visible-light irradiation.

  18. Localization of higher grade tumor foci in potential candidates for active surveillance who opt for radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Hong

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: Among patients deemed clinically appropriate for AS, higher-grade tumor foci missed by standard prostate biopsies were localized to both the anterior and posterior prostate, without predominance of a particular area. These findings lend additional support to performing repeat standard prostate biopsy in potential candidates for AS and should be considered in efforts to optimize current biopsy strategies for the selection of AS patients.

  19. Higher percent body fat in young women with lower physical activity level and greater proportion Pacific Islander ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nate; Nabokov, Vanessa; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-11-01

    Samoan women exhibit high rates of obesity, which can possibly be attenuated through diet and physical activity. Obesity, and body fatness in particular, is associated with increased risk for chronic diseases. Ancestry, physical activity, and dietary patterns have been associated with body composition. Using a cross-sectional design, the relative importance of proportion of Pacific Islander (PI) ancestry, level of physical activity, and macronutrients among healthy women in Honolulu, Hawai'i, ages 18 to 28 years was examined. All data were collected between January 2003 and December 2004. Percent body fat (%BF) was determined by whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Nutrient data were derived from a three-day food record. Means and standard deviations were computed for all variables of interest. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to determine correlates of %BF. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine relative contribution of variables significantly associated with %BF. Proportion of PI ancestry was significantly positively associated with %BF (P=0.0001). Physical activity level was significantly negatively associated with %BF (P=0.0006). Intervention to increase physical activity level of young Samoan women may be effective to decrease body fat and improve health. CRC-NIH grant: 0216.

  20. Meyer, H.-D., St. John, E.P., Chankseliani, M. & Uribe, L. (Eds.. (2013. Fairness in Access to Higher Education in a Global Perspective: Reconciling Excellence, Efficiency, and Justice. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewis Elisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fairness in Access to Higher Education in a Global Perspective: Reconciling Excellence, Efficiency, and Justice is an edited volume that aims to address the central question of how and why we can promote policies for fair access to higher education (HE. It takes a fairly common view of equity, exploring fair access in terms of racial, socio-economic and rural/urban background. The chapters on China and Georgia also consider fairness in the context of political favouritism and nepotism. The book’s primary focus is on access to HE, in other words, academic preparation, selection of students and affordability of HE. To a lesser extent, the book also explores the question of how to sustain participation in and completion of HE among disadvantaged groups.

  1. The Potential of Active Video Games (AVG to Improve Motor Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Šlosar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in video games and the related increase in sedentary lifestyles among adolescents has encouraged researchers to look for alternative strategies replacing the passive time in front of the screen with the active one. The solution was found in active video games (AVG, which require physical activity from the player. Given encouraging results about the impact of AVG on healthy lifestyle, subsequent studies were expanded to cover the area of motor abilities and sports performance. The purpose of our article is to determine whether the use of AVG can improve sport performance, bring progress in sports and rehabilitation.

  2. Correction of acid beta-galactosidase deficiency in GM1 gangliosidosis human fibroblasts by retrovirus vector-mediated gene transfer: higher efficiency of release and cross-correction by the murine enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena-Esteves, M; Camp, S M; Alroy, J; Breakefield, X O; Kaye, E M

    2000-03-20

    Mutations in the lysosomal acid beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) underlie two different disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis, which involves the nervous system and visceral organs to varying extents, and Morquio's syndrome type B (Morquio B disease), which is a skeletal-connective tissue disease without any CNS symptoms. This article shows that transduction of human GM1 gangliosidosis fibroblasts with retrovirus vectors encoding the human acid beta-galactosidase cDNA leads to complete correction of the enzymatic deficiency. The newly synthesized enzyme is correctly processed and targeted to the lysosomes in transduced cells. Cross-correction experiments using retrovirus-modified cells as enzyme donors showed, however, that the human enzyme is transferred at low efficiencies. Experiments using a different retrovirus vector carrying the human cDNA confirmed this observation. Transduction of human GM1 fibroblasts and mouse NIH 3T3 cells with a retrovirus vector encoding the mouse beta-galactosidase cDNA resulted in high levels of enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the mouse enzyme was found to be transferred to human cells at high efficiency. Enzyme activity measurements in medium conditioned by genetically modified cells suggest that the human beta-galactosidase enzyme is less efficiently released to the extracellular space than its mouse counterpart. This study suggests that lysosomal enzymes, contrary to the generalized perception in the field of gene therapy, may differ significantly in their properties and provides insights for design of future gene therapy interventions in acid beta-galactosidase deficiency.

  3. Design, enhanced Thermal and Flow efficiency of a 2KW active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallolio, Stefano; Eriksen, Dan; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    power of 1500 W over a temperature span of 25 K. This paper explains several details of the device, such as the design of the magnet, the regenerator housing and the flow system. In particular, this paper investigates the best geometry for the regenerator bed to achieve a thermal and mechanically...... efficient housing to be used in the AMR system. Particular attention has been given to the reduction of the parasitic losses through the regenerator housing: both heat leaks between the magnetocaloric material (MCM) and an adjacent iron ring and the surroundings through a lid on top of the regenerator...

  4. The efficient neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination with small active volume scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Van Chuan; Nguyen Duc Hoa; Nguyen Xuan Hai; Nguyen Ngoc Anh; Tuong Thi Thu Huong; Nguyen Nhi Dien; Pham Dinh Khang

    2016-01-01

    A small detector with EJ-301 liquid scintillation was manufactured for the study on the neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination. In this research, four algorithms, including Threshold crossing time (TCT), Pulse gradient analysis (PGA), Charge comparison method (CCM), and Correlation pattern recognition (CPR) were developed and compared in terms of their discrimination effectiveness between neutrons and gamma rays. The figures of merits (FOMs) obtained for 100 ÷ 2000 keVee (keV energy electron equivalent) neutron energy range show the charge comparison method was the most efficient of the four algorithms. (author)

  5. Higher order mode excitation in eccentric active nano-particles for tailoring of the near-field radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, R. O.; Arslanagic, Samel

    2015-01-01

    We examine the excitation of resonant modes inside eccentrically layered cylindrical active nano-particles. The nano-particle is a three-layer structure comprised of a silica core, a free-space middle layer, and an outer shell of silver. It is shown that a concentric configuration, initially desi...... of the gain constant, is shown to be controlled by the direction of the core displacement. The present eccentric active nano-particles may provide alternative strategies for directive near-field radiation relative to the existing designs....

  6. Chemical Compositions and Macrophage Activation of Polysaccharides from Leon's Mane Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Different Maturation Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao-Zhen; Wu, Di; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Yang, Yan; Cui, Fengjie

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of the maturation stage on the chemical compositions and macrophage activation activity of polysaccharides from the culinary-medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus. Results showed that total polysaccharides increased, whereas protein content decreased with the maturation stage development of fruiting body. Nine polysaccharide fractions, 3 from each of the maturity stages IV (small fungal spine stage), V (mid-fungal spine stage) and VI (mature), were prepared using the gradient ethanol precipitation method. The polysaccharide fraction HP4A isolated from the maturating-stage (stage IV) fruiting body had a significant difference from the fractions HP5A (stage V) and HP6A (stage VI) in the molecular weight distribution and monosaccharide compositions. Immunostimulating tests revealed that the polysaccharide fraction HP6 isolated from the mature stage (stage VI) fruiting body presented higher macrophage activation activity. Our findings provided important information for the harvest and use of H. erinaceus with higher qualities and functional benefits.

  7. An efficient method to eliminate the protease activity contaminating commercial bovine pancreatic DNase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tien; Lee, Hak Jin; Jin, Hyung Jong

    2015-08-15

    A method was developed to eliminate the proteases contaminating commercial DNase I, which can cause degradation of target protein during the purification process. Bio Basic DNase stock solution (in Tris-HCl buffer [pH 8.0] containing 5mM CaCl2) was first incubated at 50 °C to generate autolysis of proteases and zymogens, leading to a significant reduction in protease activity while preserving DNase activity. The residual protease activity was completely inhibited by further incubation with 2mM PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) or 2× S8830 inhibitor cocktail. This approach could be readily applicable to eliminate the protease activity in any DNase products or during the preparation of commercial DNase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between higher levels of sexual function, activity, and satisfaction and self-rated successful aging in older postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Wesley K.; Charo, Lindsey; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Depp, Colin; Allison, Matthew; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if measures of successful-aging are associated with sexual activity, satisfaction, and function in older post-menopausal women. Design Cross-sectional study using self-report surveys; analyses include chi-square and t-tests and multiple linear regression analyses. Setting Community-dwelling older post-menopausal women in the greater San Diego Region. Participants 1,235 community-dwelling women aged 60-89 years participating at the San Diego site of the Women's Health Initiative. Measurements Demographics and self-report measures of sexual activity, function, and satisfaction and successful aging. Results Sexual activity and functioning (desire, arousal, vaginal tightness, use of lubricants, and ability to climax) were negatively associated with age, as were physical and mental health. In contrast, sexual satisfaction and self-rated successful aging and quality of life remained unchanged across age groups. Successful aging measures were positively associated with sexual measures, especially self-rated quality of life and sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Self-rated successful aging, quality of life, and sexual satisfaction appear to be stable in the face of declines in physical health, some cognitive abilities, and sexual activity and function and are positively associated with each other across ages 60-89 years. PMID:21797827

  9. In folio study of carbonic anhydrase and Rubisco activities in higher C3 plants using 18O and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, G.; Despax, V.; Dimon, B.; Rumeau, D.; Tourneux, C.

    1994-01-01

    This document studies the effects of a mild water stress and carbonic anhydrase activity by ethoxyzolamide (EZA) on the diffusion of CO 2 in leaves, by 18 O labelling of O 2 and of CO 2 associated to mass spectrometry. (A.B.). 5 refs., 2 figs

  10. Connectivism in Learning Activity Design: Implications for Pedagogically-Based Technology Adoption in African Higher Education Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Rita Ndagire

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the possible characteristics and the value of designing learning activities grounded in connectivism--an emerging learning theory. It is an exploratory attempt to connect the theory to the prevailing technology adoption archetypes used in African contexts with the aim of extracting influences that could shape pedagogical…

  11. Extraction, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Activities of Crude Polysaccharides from the Wood Ear Medicinal Mushroom Auricularia auricula-judae (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ming; Lin, Yang; Luo, Yin-long; Liang, Han-hua; Sun, Pei-long

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude polysaccharides of culinary-medicinal mushroom Auricularia auricular-judae were extracted by hot water extraction and alcohol precipitation, and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were investigated. An optimum extraction condition was obtained at a ratio of liquid to solid 70 mL/g, temperature 90°C, time 4 h and extraction number 4. Accordingly, the best yield of crude polysaccharides was 6.89% with 76.12% in purity. Some bacteria and fungi were used for antimicrobial studies. It was found that crude A. auricula-judae had great antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but no activities on the others. The inhibitory diameters of antimicrobial zones for the two were 5.55 ± 0.182 and 9.84 ± 0.076 mm, respectively. Moreover, crude A. auricula-judae had significant antioxidant activities in scavenging free radicals, reducing power assays, and Fe2+ chelating ability assay. Results revealed that crude A. auricula-judae has a great potential as antimicrobial and antioxidant, and it can be a supplementary food for human health.

  12. Active learning in research methods classes is associated with higher knowledge and confidence, though not evaluations or satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter James Allen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research methods and statistics are regarded as difficult subjects to teach, fueling investigations into techniques that increase student engagement. Students enjoy active learning opportunities like hands-on demonstrations, authentic research participation, and working with real data. However, enhanced enjoyment does not always correspond with enhanced learning and performance. In this study, we developed a workshop activity in which students participated in a computer-based experiment and used class-generated data to run a range of statistical procedures. To enable evaluation, we developed a parallel, didactic/canned workshop, which was identical to the activity-based version, except that students were told about the experiment and used a pre-existing/canned dataset to perform their analyses. Tutorial groups were randomized to one of the two workshop versions, and 39 students completed a post-workshop evaluation questionnaire. A series of generalized linear mixed models suggested that, compared to the students in the didactic/canned condition, students exposed to the activity-based workshop displayed significantly greater knowledge of the methodological and statistical issues addressed in class, and were more confident about their ability to use this knowledge in the future. However, overall evaluations and satisfaction between the two groups were not reliably different. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. Salivary lipase and a-amylase activities are higher in overweight than in normal weight subjects: Influences on dietary beharior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, I.; Fogliano, V.; Vitaglione, P.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence shows that hedonic eating, leading to overeating just for pleasure, can be driven by oro-sensory factors through the activation of reward processing and learning in the brain. Foods rich in sugars and fats are potent rewards and saliva composition influences oral taste, texture and

  14. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  15. Recovery efficiency test project, Phase 2 activity report. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency of gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. This volume contains appendices for: (1) supporting material and procedures for ``data frac`` stimulation of zone 6 using nitrogen and nitrogen foam; (2) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 1 nitrogen gas frac on zone no. 1; (3) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 2 in zone no. 1 using liquid CO{sub 2}; (4) supporting material and procedures for frac no. 3 on zone no.1 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (5) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 4 in zones 2--3 and 4 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (6) supporting materials and procedures for stimulation no. 5 in zones 5 and 8; and (7) fracture diagnostics reports and supporting materials.

  16. On the Prognostic Efficiency of Topological Descriptors for Magnetograms of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazeva, I. S.; Urtiev, F. A.; Makarenko, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    Solar flare prediction remains an important practical task of space weather. An increase in the amount and quality of observational data and the development of machine-learning methods has led to an improvement in prediction techniques. Additional information has been retrieved from the vector magnetograms; these have been recently supplemented by traditional line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms. In this work, the problem of the comparative prognostic efficiency of features obtained on the basis of vector data and LOS magnetograms is discussed. Invariants obtained from a topological analysis of LOS magnetograms are used as complexity characteristics of magnetic patterns. Alternatively, the so-called SHARP parameters were used; they were calculated by the data analysis group of the Stanford University Laboratory on the basis of HMI/SDO vector magnetograms and are available online at the website (http://jsoc.stanford.edu/) with the solar dynamics observatory (SDO) database for the entire history of SDO observations. It has been found that the efficiency of large-flare prediction based on topological descriptors of LOS magnetograms in epignosis mode is at least s no worse than the results of prognostic schemes based on vector features. The advantages of the use of topological invariants based on LOS data are discussed.

  17. Efficiency of chitosan (Poly-[D] Glucosamine as natural organic coagulant in pre-treatment of active carbon effluent in Panacan, Davao City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezel A. Cinco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of environmental friendly coagulant is widened which can be proposed as an imperative option for water treatment. In this study, the efficiency of Chitosan, a natural organic coagulant in pre-treating Active Carbon Effluent (ACE as alternative to conventional metal based coagulants in terms of Turbidity (T, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Total Suspended Solid (TSS was evaluated. Collection of effluent for testing was conducted at the Philippine – Japan Active Carbon Corporation, Panacan, Davao City, Philippines. Chitosan (Deacetylated chitin; Poly- [1- 4] – β- glucosamine was obtained from Qingdao Develop Chemistry Co., Ltd., China. Suspensions added with experimental coagulant dosages (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mgL-1 were made by sediment mixer maintained at pH 5 and analyzed with the following parameters: Total Suspended Solid (TSS, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Turbidity (T. The efficiency of the chitosan coagulation was found to be high in terms of turbidity (99.2%, Chemical Oxygen Demand (97.2% in 5 mg/L dose of chitosan and Total Suspended Solid (99.15% in 10 mg/L dose of chitosan. It can be concluded that Chitosan is an effective coagulant which can significantly reduce the level of turbidity, COD and TSS. A further study with different types of effluent and higher Chitosan doses are needed for recommending it for practical application as a natural organic coagulant.

  18. Determination of the Removal Efficiency of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate Acids (LAS in Fixed Bed Aeration Tank and Conventional Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Ebrahimi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate Acids (LAS are one of the anionic surfactants that are produced and used in large quantities in different countries and find their way into the natural environment through sewer systems. These compounds may potentially cause environmental hazards in such surface waters as rivers. It is, therefore, necessary to remove as much of these compounds as possible by biological processes in wastewater treatment plants. For this purpose, four parallel biological reactors were constructed that used the conventional activated sludge and aeration tanks with fixed bed on the bench scale in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of LAS. The reactors were operated under conditions similar to domestic wastewater treatment plants. Parameters of interest were measured according to standard methods and ANOVA and T-test were used for the statistical analysis of the data. The results showed that aeration tanks with fixed beds yielded higher values of LAS and COD removal and air consumption compared to the conventional activated sludge system. It was shown that the two systems studied achieved LAS removal efficiencies of 96% and 94% for an influent LAS concentration of 5 mg/L. Further, it was found that the effluents from both systems satisfied water quality standards for discharge into surface waters (

  19. A New Design Strategy for Efficient Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Organic Emitters: From Twisted to Planar Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Xiankai

    2017-10-17

    In the traditional molecular design of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters composed of electron-donor and electron-acceptor moieties, achieving a small singlet-triplet energy gap (ΔEST ) in strongly twisted structures usually translates into a small fluorescence oscillator strength, which can significantly decrease the emission quantum yield and limit efficiency in organic light-emitting diode devices. Here, based on the results of quantum-chemical calculations on TADF emitters composed of carbazole donor and 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine acceptor moieties, a new strategy is proposed for the molecular design of efficient TADF emitters that combine a small ΔEST with a large fluorescence oscillator strength. Since this strategy goes beyond the traditional framework of structurally twisted, charge-transfer type emitters, importantly, it opens the way for coplanar molecules to be efficient TADF emitters. Here, a new emitter, composed of azatriangulene and diphenyltriazine moieties, is theoretically designed, which is coplanar due to intramolecular H-bonding interactions. The synthesis of this hexamethylazatriangulene-triazine (HMAT-TRZ) emitter and its preliminary photophysical characterizations point to HMAT-TRZ as a potential efficient TADF emitter.

  20. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/ deletion dimorphism tracks with higher serum ace activities in both younger and older subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frossard, Philippe M.; Hill, Susan H.; Obineche, Enyioma N.; Lestringant, Gilles G.

    1998-01-01

    The absence of a 287 base pair alu sequence in the ACE gene (D allele) is associated with higher ACE levels than its presence (I allele) in adults. We carried out a case control study of thr ACE*I/D dimorphism in relation to circulating ACE activities to evaluate associations between the two variables in adults, compared to younger (18 years or less) individuals. Genotypes of the ACE*I/D dimorphism were determined on DNA samples from a population of 164 random (unrelated) Emirtaes nationals, composed of groups: 112 subjects above 18 years of age (range=20-77), and 52 subjects of 18 years or less (range=1-18) and analyzed for putative associations with serum ACE activities. ACE*I/D genotypes of the 164 individualds were determined by assays based on polymerase chain reaction. ACE activities were determined on serum samples of these subjects bu colorimetric assays. The D allele was associared with increasd ACE values in both adult and younger individuals. Mean ACE activity levels associated with II, ID and DD genotypes, however, were 42%-61% higher in the 18 years and under group of subjects. The ACE*I/D marker accounted for 28% of the variance of the phenomenon determining ACE levels in adults, and for 30% among youngsters. The ACE*I/D dimorphism is correlated strongly with circulating ACE activities in both and young Emirati, subjects and the corresponding mean ACE activities were significantly higher among the youngsters. (author)

  1. Short and Efficient Synthesis of Optically Active N-Tosyl Aziridines from 2-Amino Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. F. de Araújo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Two alternative and complementary one-pot procedures for the direct transformation of 2-amino alcohols to N-tosyl aziridines are presented. The unsubstituted parent compound and its less hindered homologues can be obtained in high yields by tosylation and in situ cyclisation effected by potassium hydroxide in water/dichloromethane. Higher substituted amino alcohols give better yields using potassium carbonate in acetonitrile. Both procedures use simple inorganic bases and produce only inorganic salts as byproducts.

  2. FINANCIAL DISCIPLINE IN REPUBLIC MACEDONIAWAY OF MORE EFFICIENT MODE FOR ENTERPRISES’ ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIJA MATESKA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The severe economic crisis that occupied the world economy can be felt in the Republic of Macedonia, too. The low solvency and the decreased buying faculties of the population and firms are a major problem in the economics in general. A great capability and power is necessary in order to survive in these difficult economic conditions, as well as a constant alertness by the firms as instigators of the economic activity in every country. Enitieis in the Economy are realizing different tipes of transactions making financial obligations that, ussualy can not be fullfiled. As a result there is a problem with financial recovery that disrupts their liquidity, and at the end point, their activity in the economy is worsens. Because of that, the Law for Financial Discipline was voted, for the first time in Republic of Macedonia in December 2013. This Law is regulation for payments on time for all financial activities made between private entities, also for financial activities made between entities among public and private sector preventing failure of the financial obligations on agreed terms. In this article we would like to determine the reasons and needs for finding the way which will be regulatory instead of punishment for successful financial discipline of the entities, that will improve their liquidity and, of course, to ensure better activities in the economy as a whole.

  3. Activity-based costing as an information basis for an efficient strategic management process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based costing (ABC provides an information basis for monitoring and controlling one of two possible sources of competitive advantage, low-cost production and lowcost distribution. On the basis of cost information about particular processes and activities, management may determine their contribution to the success of a company, and may decide to transfer certain processes and activities to another company. Accuracy of cost information is conditioned by finding an adequate relation between overhead costs and cost objects, identifying and tracing cost drivers and output measures of activities, and by monitoring cost behaviour of different levels of a product. Basic characteristics of the ABC approach, such as more accurate cost price accounting of objects, focusing on process and activity output (rather than only on resource consumption and on understanding and interpretation of cost structure (rather than on cost measurement, enable managers to estimate and control future costs more reliably. Thus the ABC methodology provides a foundation for cost tracing, analysis, and management, which entails making quality and accurate operative and strategic decisions as a basis for the longterm orientation of a company. ABC is also complementary to the widely accepted technique of strategic planning and strategy implementation known as Balanced Scorecard (BSC.

  4. Immunomodulatory activities of different solvent extracts from Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et S. Imai) singer (higher basidiomycetes) on normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai

    2012-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activities of different solvent extracts from the culinary-medicinal mushroom Tricholoma matsutake were studied in vivo in normal mice. The extracts were prepared using different solvents in an order of increasing polarity. The immunomodulatory activities were investigated by measuring the thymus and spleen index, phagocytic rate of macrophage phagocytosis, delayed-type hypersensitivity, plaque-forming cell, and proliferation of splenocytes. Results demonstrated that water extract (WE) and n-butyl alcohol extract (BAE) of T. matsutake could enhance the immunity of mice significantly compared with the control group. Main components of WE and BAE were polysaccharides, proteins, and flavonoids; we presume that these may be the main immunomodulating and immuno-enhancing agents in T. matsutake.

  5. Active region dimensionality and quantum efficiencies of InGaN LEDs from temperature dependent photoluminescence transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Nuri; Okur, Serdal; Monavarian, Morteza; Zhang, Fan; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Teke, Ali; Özgür, Ümit

    2015-03-01

    Temperature dependent recombination dynamics in c-plane InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different well thicknesses, 1.5, 2, and 3 nm, were investigated to determine the active region dimensionality and its effect on the internal quantum efficiencies. It was confirmed for all LEDs that the photoluminescence (PL) transients are governed by radiative recombination at low temperatures while nonradiative recombination dominates at room temperature. At photoexcited carrier densities of 3 - 4.5 x 1016 cm-3 , the room-temperature Shockley-Read-Hall (A) and the bimolecular (B) recombination coefficients (A, B) were deduced to be (9.2x107 s-1, 8.8x10-10 cm3s-1), (8.5x107 s-1, 6.6x10-10 cm3s-1), and (6.5x107 s-1, 1.4x10-10 cm3s-1) for the six period 1.5, 2, and 3 nm well-width LEDs, respectively. From the temperature dependence of the radiative lifetimes, τrad α Tn/2, the dimensionality n of the active region was found to decrease consistently with decreasing well width. The 3 nm wide wells exhibited ~T1.5 dependence, suggesting a three-dimensional nature, whereas the 1.5 nm wells were confirmed to be two-dimensional (~T1) and the 2 nm wells close to being two-dimensional. We demonstrate that a combination of temperature dependent PL and time-resolved PL techniques can be used to evaluate the dimensionality as well as the quantum efficiencies of the LED active regions for a better understanding of the relationship between active-region design and the efficiency limiting processes in InGaN LEDs.

  6. Selective activation of microglia in spinal cord but not higher cortical regions following nerve injury in adult mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yuze

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuronal plasticity along the pathway for sensory transmission including the spinal cord and cortex plays an important role in chronic pain, including inflammatory and neuropathic pain. While recent studies indicate that microglia in the spinal cord are involved in neuropathic pain, a systematic study has not been performed in other regions of the central nervous system (CNS. In the present study, we used heterozygous Cx3cr1GFP/+mice to characterize the morphological phenotypes of microglia following common peroneal nerve (CPN ligation. We found that microglia showed a uniform distribution throughout the CNS, and peripheral nerve injury selectively activated microglia in the spinal cord dorsal horn and related ventral horn. In contrast, microglia was not activated in supraspinal regions of the CNS, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, prefrontal cortex (PFC, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2, insular cortex (IC, amygdala, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray (PAG and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM. Our results provide strong evidence that nerve injury primarily activates microglia in the spinal cord of adult mice, and pain-related cortical plasticity is likely mediated by neurons.

  7. The Efficiency of an Active Generator in the Case of a Deep Foundation Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbut Aneta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept for vibration-mitigation techniques with the potential to reduce ground vibration amplitudes by applying an additional vibration source. The idea of an additional generator is verified in the case of an impact load for the points located on the ground surface and below it. Equations of motion for the damped transversally isotropic ground model with the absorbing boundary conditions are presented and numerically integrated using FlexPDE software, based on the finite element method. The efficiency of the solution is analyzed in terms of reducing the vertical and horizontal components. Results are presented in the form of a dimensionless amplitude reduction factor. In each case being analyzed, a vibration mitigation effect in a three-story building was achieved.

  8. Recovery of soil unicellular eukaryotes: an efficiency and activity analysis on the single cell level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentendu, Guillaume; Hübschmann, Thomas; Müller, Susann; Dunker, Susanne; Buscot, François; Wilhelm, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Eukaryotic unicellular organisms are an important part of the soil microbial community, but they are often neglected in soil functional microbial diversity analysis, principally due to the absence of specific investigation methods in the special soil environment. In this study we used a method based on high-density centrifugation to specifically isolate intact algal and yeast cells, with the aim to analyze them with flow cytometry and sort them for further molecular analysis such as deep sequencing. Recovery efficiency was tested at low abundance levels that fit those in natural environments (10(4) to 10(6) cells per g soil). Five algae and five yeast morphospecies isolated from soil were used for the testing. Recovery efficiency was between 1.5 to 43.16% and 2 to 30.2%, respectively, and was dependent on soil type for three of the algae. Control treatments without soil showed that the majority of cells were lost due to the method itself (58% and 55.8% respectively). However, the cell extraction technique did not much compromise cell vitality because a fluorescein di-acetate assay indicated high viability percentages (73.3% and 97.2% of cells, respectively). The low abundant algae and yeast morphospecies recovered from soil were cytometrically analyzed and sorted. Following, their DNA was isolated and amplified using specific primers. The developed workflow enables isolation and enrichment of intact autotrophic and heterotrophic soil unicellular eukaryotes from natural environments for subsequent application of deep sequencing technologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Does Pelletizing Catalysts Influence the Efficiency Number of Activity Measurements? Spectrochemical Engineering Considerations for an Accurate Operando Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Perez-Ferreras, Susana; Banares, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    of, for example, support oxides might take place, which in turn affects the pore size distribution and the porosity of the catalyst, leading to the observation of lower activity values due to decreased catalyst efficiency. This phenomenon can also apply to conventional activity measurements......, in the cases that pelletizing and recrushing of samples are performed to obtain adequate particle size fractions for the catalytic bed. A case study of an operand investigation of a V2O3-WO3/TiO2-sepiolite catalyst is used as an example, and simple calculations of the influence of catalyst activity...... and internal pore diffusion properties are considered in this paper for the evaluation of catalyst performance in, for example, operando reactors. Thus, it is demonstrated that with a pelletizing pressure of...

  10. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY OF CASH FLOW MANAGEMENT IN INVESTMENT ACTIVITY OF THE ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Magdych

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the methodological approaches to the analysis of cash flows in investment activity of the enterprise; the system of motion net cash flows, reflecting the impact of cash management efficiency on the amount and source of investment cash flows of the enterprise; analytical model of definition of effectiveness of cash management of the enterprise is proposed, based on the selected principals of modeling, comprehensive analysis of cash flows in investing activities and their optimization for the purpose of maximization of social and economic benefit. The research performed here allowed generalization and definition of stages of analysis for investing cash flow of the enterprise with the appropriate reasoning. It is necessary that research is going concern in this direction of effectiveness valuation of cash flow management in investing activity of the enterprise.

  11. An Exploration of the Use of Branding to Shape Institutional Image in the Marketing Activities of Faith-Based Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Modern higher education includes student-consumers who shop for educational opportunities and institutions that actively market themselves. This study examined the marketing of faith-based institutions to determine how faith-related missions are reflected in the printed recruitment materials, Web sites, and admissions portals of the 112 member…

  12. Self-Regulated Learning Skills and Online Activities between Higher and Lower Performers on a Web-Intensive Undergraduate Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry B.; Lawanto, Kevin N.; Goodridge, Wade

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate students' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills used in a Web-intensive learning environment. The research question guiding the study was: How did the use of student SRL skills and student engagement in online activities compare between higher- and lower-performing students participating in a…

  13. Adopting an Active Learning Approach to Teaching in a Research-Intensive Higher Education Context Transformed Staff Teaching Attitudes and Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul J.; Larson, Ian; Styles, Kim; Yuriev, Elizabeth; Evans, Darrell R.; Rangachari, P. K.; Short, Jennifer L.; Exintaris, Betty; Malone, Daniel T.; Davie, Briana; Eise, Nicole; Mc Namara, Kevin; Naidu, Somaiya

    2016-01-01

    The conventional lecture has significant limitations in the higher education context, often leading to a passive learning experience for students. This paper reports a process of transforming teaching and learning with active learning strategies in a research-intensive educational context across a faculty of 45 academic staff and more than 1,000…

  14. Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Improving Efficiency: TiO2 Nanotube Arrays in Active Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Yeop Rho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have been widely studied due to several advantages, such as low cost-to-performance ratio, low cost of fabrication, functionality at wide angles and low intensities of incident light, mechanical robustness, and low weight. This paper summarizes the recent progress in DSSC technology for improving efficiency, focusing on the active layer in the photoanode, with a part of the DSSC consisting of dyes and a TiO2 film layer. In particular, this review highlights a huge pool of studies that report improvements in the efficiency of DSSCs using TiO2 nanotubes, which exhibit better electron transport. Finally, this paper suggests opportunities for future research.

  15. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  16. Bi2WO6 nanoflowers: An efficient visible light photocatalytic activity for ceftriaxone sodium degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Yongbo; Liu, Enzhou; Fan, Jun; Hu, Xiaoyun

    2018-04-01

    The morphology-controlled synthesis of nano-structure photocatalyst have leaded a new possibility to improve their physical and chemical properties. Herein, Bi2WO6 nanocrystals (BWO) with nano-flower, nano plates, knot shape, rod like and irregular morphologies have been successfully synthesized through a highly facile hydrothermal process by simply adjusting pH values, reactive solvents and temperature. Photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by degradation of Ceftriaxone sodium under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm), the results indicated that all the BWO samples exhibit morphology-associated photocatalytic activity, and the 3D flowerlike-structure of BWO composed of well-ordered nano plates (BWO-D-5) displayed the outstanding photocatalytic activity. Through getting insight into the mechanism, h+ and rad O2- play major roles compared with rad OH in photocatalytic degradation process. The possible pathway of Ceftriaxone sodium and the intermediates were proposed to better understand the reaction process. Moreover, this work not only provides an example of morphology-dependent photocatalytic activity of BWO but also provides an illustrative example for removing organic pollutant molecules according to practical requirements.

  17. General and efficient method for calculating modulation ressponses and noise spectra of active semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical method for obtaining small-signal responses in a spatially resolved active semiconductor waveguide including finite end-facet reflectivities and amplified spontaneous emission. RF-modulation responses and output noise spectra of an SOA are shown....

  18. Neutron activation appraisal of efficiency of herbs in prophylactic measures of teeth caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumatov, U.Zh.

    1997-01-01

    The results of neutron activation analysis of elemental composition of teeth in experimental animals under conditions of pesticides and fluorine influence on an organism have been obtained and the role of black mulberry and zizyphus jujubi mill in prophylactics of teeth caries has been determined. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  19. Measurement of Biocolloid Collision Efficiencies for Granular Activated Carbon by Use of a Two-Layer Filtration Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonova, Ekaterina; Zerfoss, Erica L.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2006-01-01

    Point-of-use filters containing granular activated carbon (GAC) are an effective method for removing certain chemicals from water, but their ability to remove bacteria and viruses has been relatively untested. Collision efficiencies (α) were determined using clean-bed filtration theory for two bacteria (Raoutella terrigena 33257 and Escherichia coli 25922), a bacteriophage (MS2), and latex microspheres for four GAC samples. These GAC samples had particle size distributions that were bimodal, but only a single particle diameter can be used in the filtration equation. Therefore, consistent with previous reports, we used a particle diameter based on the smallest diameter of the particles (derived from the projected areas of 10% of the smallest particles). The bacterial collision efficiencies calculated using the filtration model were high (0.8 ≤ α ≤ 4.9), indicating that GAC was an effective capture material. Collision efficiencies greater than unity reflect an underestimation of the collision frequency, likely as a result of particle roughness and wide GAC size distributions. The collision efficiencies for microspheres (0.7 ≤ α ≤ 3.5) were similar to those obtained for bacteria, suggesting that the microspheres were a reasonable surrogate for the bacteria. The bacteriophage collision efficiencies ranged from ≥0.2 to ≤0.4. The predicted levels of removal for 1-cm-thick carbon beds ranged from 0.8 to 3 log for the bacteria and from 0.3 to 1.0 log for the phage. These tests demonstrated that GAC can be an effective material for removal of bacteria and phage and that GAC particle size is a more important factor than relative stickiness for effective particle removal. PMID:16885264

  20. Fabrication of AgX-loaded Ag2CO3 (X = Cl, I) composites and their efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hui; Zhu, Jiaxiang; Song, Yongxiu; Zhu, Tingting; Zhao, Wenkai; Song, Yanhua; Da, Zulin; Liu, Chengbao; Li, Huaming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The novel AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 composites have been synthesized by ion exchange reaction. • AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 exhibit higher photoactivity and stability than that of Ag 2 CO 3 . • The band structure of AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 is beneficial to improve the photoactivity. - Abstract: The novel visible-light-driven AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 (X = Cl, I) hybrid materials were synthesized by ion exchange reaction. The physical and chemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse-reflection spectra (DRS) and photocurrent techniques. The as-prepared AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 (X = Cl, I) composites showed higher photocatalytic activity than that of the pure Ag 2 CO 3 photocatalyst under visible light irradiation (λ ⩾ 400 nm) in the process of methylene blue (MB) degradation. The optimal mass percentage of AgCl and AgI in the AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 (X = Cl, I) composite was 20.54 wt% and 40 wt%, respectively. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity was attributed to the suitable band potential between AgX and Ag 2 CO 3 , which was beneficial to increase the separation efficiency of electrons and holes. Besides, the photocatalytic mechanism of AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 (X = Cl, I) composites was also proposed

  1. Organized Sport Participation Is Associated with Higher Levels of Overall Health-Related Physical Activity in Children (CHAMPS Study-DK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Jeffrey J.; Møller, Niels C.; Andersen, Lars B.; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many children fail to meet international guideline recommendations for health-related activity (≥60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]), and intervention studies to date have reported negligible effects. Objective Explore the associations of organized leisure-time sport participation with overall physical activity levels and health-related physical activity guideline concordance. Methods This prospective cohort study was nested in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Study participants were a representative sample of 1124 primary school students. Organized leisure-time sport participation was reported via text messaging and physical activity was objectively measured over seven days with accelerometry. Associations between sport participation and physical activity level were explored with multilevel mixed-effects regression models and reported with beta coefficients (b) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR). Results Participants were 53% female, with mean(SD) age = 8.4(1.4) years. Boys were more active than girls (psports (gymnastics, basketball, volleyball) were inconsistent. Conclusions Many children, particularly girls and those in higher grade levels do not adhere to health-related physical activity recommendations. Organized leisure-time sport participation may be a viable strategy to increase overall health-related physical activity levels and international guideline concordance in children. PMID:26262678

  2. Intrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD) shows similar Th2 and higher Th17 immune activation compared to extrinsic AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Fariñas, M; Dhingra, N; Gittler, J; Shemer, A; Cardinale, I; de Guzman Strong, C; Krueger, JG; Guttman-Yassky, E

    2013-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is classified as extrinsic (ADe) and intrinsic (ADi), representing approximately 80% and 20% of patients, respectively. While sharing a similar clinical phenotype, only ADe is characterized by high serum IgE. Since most AD patients exhibit high IgE, an “allergic”/IgE-mediated disease pathogenesis was hypothesized. However, current models associate AD with T-cell activation, particularly Th2/Th22 polarization, and epidermal barrier defects. Objective To define if both variants share a common pathogenesis. Methods We stratified 51 severe AD patients as ADe (42) and ADi (9) (with similar mean disease activity/SCORAD), and analyzed the molecular and cellular skin pathology of lesional and non-lesional ADi and ADe using gene-expression (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Results A significant correlation between IgE levels and SCORAD (r=0.76, pextrinsic and intrinsic AD variants might be treated with T-cell targeted therapeutics or agents that modify keratinocyte responses. PMID:23777851

  3. Peramivir analogues bearing hydrophilic side chains exhibit higher activities against H275Y mutant than wild-type influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Din-Chi; Lin, Tzu-Chen; Huang, Wen-I; Cheng, Ting-Jen; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Fang, Jim-Min

    2017-11-29

    Peramivir is an effective anti-influenza drug in the clinical treatment of influenza, but its efficacy toward the H275Y mutant is reduced. The previously reported cocrystal structures of inhibitors in the mutant neuraminidase (NA) suggest that the hydrophobic side chain should be at the origin of reduced binding affinity. In contrast, zanamivir having a hydrophilic glycerol side chain still possesses high affinity toward the H275Y NA. We thus designed five peramivir analogues (5-9) carrying hydrophilic glycol or glycerol side chains, and evaluated their roles in anti-influenza activity, especially for the H275Y mutant. The synthetic sequence involves a key step of (3 + 2) cycloaddition reactions between alkenes and nitrile oxides to construct the scaffold of peramivir carrying the desired hydrophilic side chains and other appropriate functional groups. The molecular docking experiments reveal that the hydrophilic side chain can provide extra hydrogen bonding with the translocated Glu-276 residue in the H275Y NA active site. Thus, the H275Y mutant may be even more sensitive than wild-type virus toward the peramivir analogues bearing hydrophilic side chains. Notably, the peramivir analogue bearing a glycerol side chain inhibits the H275Y mutant with an IC 50 value of 35 nM, which is better than the WSN virus by 9 fold.

  4. Enhancing the functional and economical efficiency of a novel combined thermo chemical disperser disintegration of waste activated sludge for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Jayashree, C; Adish Kumar, S; Kaliappan, S; Rajesh Banu, J

    2014-12-01

    In this investigation, an effort was made to pretreat surplus waste activated sludge (WAS) inexpensively by a novel combined process involving thermo chemical disperser pretreatment. This pretreatment was found to be efficient at a specific energy (SE) consumption of 3360.94 kJ/kg TS, with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization of 20%. This was comparatively higher than thermo chemically treated sludge where the solubilization was found to be 15.5% at a specific energy consumption of 10,330 kJ/kg TS respectively. Higher production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) (675 mg/L) in anaerobic fermentation of pretreated WAS indicates better hydrolysis performance. The biogas production potential of sludge pretreated through this combined technique was found to be 0.455 (L/gVS) and comparatively higher than thermo chemically pretreated sludge. Economic investigation provides 90% net energy savings in this combined pretreatment. Therefore, this combined process was considered to be potentially effective and economical in sludge disintegration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Axiological, goal and substantial aspects of lifelong learning of teacher of higher school in context of informatization of his professional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurazakov Magomed M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues, related to insufficient competence of higher school teachers in the sphere of usingmodern informational resources and technologies in their professional activities are discussed in this paper. The suggestion offered in the paper is optimization of higher school teachers’lifelong learning. This optimization is possible due to the axiological approach to formation of substantial and procedural aspect of leaning. The support on axiological approach allows to consider the multidimensional nature of vocational and life experience, character of his base of values. The analysis of necessary content of lifelonglearning of a teacher for development of his information competence as expert, subject of activity, member of professional community and carrier of professional consciousness is presented in the paper. These aspects of professionalizing of a teacher are analyzed in the context of his learning, training and research activity.

  6. Highly Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Activated Mesoporous Biocarbons with Extremely High Surface Area for High-Pressure CO2 Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurwinder; Lakhi, Kripal S; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sungho; Srivastava, Prashant; Naidu, Ravi; Vinu, Ajayan

    2017-09-06

    A simple and efficient way to synthesize activated mesoporous biocarbons (AMBs) with extremely high BET surface area and large pore volume has been achieved for the first time through a simple solid state activation of freely available biomass, Arundo donax, with zinc chloride. The textural parameters of the AMB can easily be controlled by varying the activation temperature. It is demonstrated that the mesoporosity of AMB can be finely tuned with a simple adjustment of the amount of activating agent. AMB with almost 100% mesoporosity can be achieved using the activating agent and the biomass ratio of 5 and carbonization at 500 °C. Under the optimized conditions, AMB with a BET surface area of 3298 m 2 g -1 and a pore volume of 1.9 cm 3 g -1 can be prepared. While being used as an adsorbent for CO 2 capture, AMB registers an impressively high pressure CO 2 adsorption capacity of 30.2 mmol g -1 at 30 bar which is much higher than that of activated carbon (AC), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and mesoporous carbon nitrides. AMB also shows high stability with excellent regeneration properties under vacuum and temperatures of up to 250 °C. These impressive textural parameters and high CO 2 adsorption capacity of AMB clearly reveal its potential as a promising adsorbent for high-pressure CO 2 capture and storage application. Also, the simple one-step synthesis strategy outlined in this work would provide a pathway to generate a series of novel mesoporous activated biocarbons from different biomasses.

  7. Transmutation of human glutathione transferase A2-2 with peroxidase activity into an efficient steroid isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Par L; Johansson, Ann-Sofie; Mannervik, Bengt

    2002-08-16

    A major goal in protein engineering is the tailor-making of enzymes for specified chemical reactions. Successful attempts have frequently been based on directed molecular evolution involving libraries of random mutants in which variants with desired properties were identified. For the engineering of enzymes with novel functions, it would be of great value if the necessary changes of the active site could be predicted and implemented. Such attempts based on the comparison of similar structures with different substrate selectivities have previously met with limited success. However, the present work shows that the knowledge-based redesign restricted to substrate-binding residues in human glutathione transferase A2-2 can introduce high steroid double-bond isomerase activity into the enzyme originally characterized by glutathione peroxidase activity. Both the catalytic center activity (k(cat)) and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) match the values of the naturally evolved glutathione transferase A3-3, the most active steroid isomerase known in human tissues. The substrate selectivity of the mutated glutathione transferase was changed 7000-fold by five point mutations. This example demonstrates the functional plasticity of the glutathione transferase scaffold as well as the potential of rational active-site directed mutagenesis as a complement to DNA shuffling and other stochastic methods for the redesign of proteins with novel functions.

  8. Leadership as factor of men's student basketball team sports and games activities efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andryushina L.L.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of study is extension of information about combining psychological, athlete's physical and sports fitness qualification in playing sports in training process while studying in university. This study took place on 24 athletes, boys 18 - 21 years of different skills (the candidate for the master of sports - 9, first-class sportsman - 12, second-class sportsman - 3. It is proved that the effectiveness of sports and gaming activities in team sports will then be productive when there be a switch in the relationship between leading and famous players from the "subject - object" to "subject -subjective ". It was determined that the main precondition for the effectiveness of competitive activity is before head identification and formation of leadership behavior in teams players of team sports, where leadership is behavioral interaction process for individuals or teams to achieve established goals.

  9. Physical activity level in people with age related white matter changes correlates to better motor performance, lower comorbidity and higher cognitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Anna F; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Bronge, Lena; Olsson, Elisabeth; Amberla, Kaarina; Baezner, Hansjoerg; Crisby, Milita

    2017-07-12

    Physical activity plays a pivotal role in the development of disability and may modify the negative effect of vascular risk factors on progression of both cardio and cerebrovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity level in people with age-related white matter changes as identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to motor performance, cognition and perceived health. Data came from the first year follow up of one participating centers of the LADIS study. Fifty one subjects were first enrolled in the study. Complete first year follow up data was available for 41 subjects. Information on comorbidity, physical activity level, physical function, cognition, level of white matter changes and perceived health was collected. Physical activity level was classified with a yes or no question and with the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI). Only 36% of the subjects in this study were physically active according to the yes/no question. 27.5% of the subjects were active according to the FAI score which evaluates the everyday activities. Being active discriminated subjects with better physical function. Subjects active according to the FAI score had a higher cognitive level (p ≤ 0.01), lower comorbidity (p = 0.02) and performed better on all motor function tasks as assessed by walking speed (p ≤ 0.01) and the Short Physical Performance battery (SPPB) (p ≤ 0.01). Being physically active seems to be a long term protective factor. In our study, the majority of subjects with Age Related White Mattter Changes (ARWMC) with no or mild Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) disability did not attain recommended level of activity at first year follow up. Whether or not increasing physical activity may slow down cognitive decline and lessen development of disability in physically inactive subjects with manifest ARWC remains to be studied. not applicable.

  10. Efficient and Enhanced Diffusion of Vector Field for Active Contour Model

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guoqi; Sun, Lin; Liu, Shangwang

    2015-01-01

    Gradient vector flow (GVF) is an important external force field for active contour models. Various vector fields based on GVF have been proposed. However, these vector fields are obtained with many iterations and have difficulty in capturing the whole image area. On the other hand, the ability to converge to deep and complex concavity with these vector fields is also needed to improve. In this paper, by analyzing the diffusion equation of GVF, a normalized set is defined and a dynamically nor...

  11. Delta-Opioid receptors exhibit high efficiency when activating trimeric G proteins in membrane domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouřová, Lenka; Koštrnová, Alexandra; Hejnová, Lucie; Moravcová, Zuzana; Moon, H. E.; Novotný, Jiří; Milligan, G.; Svoboda, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2003), s. 34-49 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026; GA ČR GA309/01/0255 Grant - others:Welcome Trust(GB) xx Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : membrane domains * GTPase activity * G protein coupling Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.825, year: 2003

  12. Active Edge Sites Engineering in Nickel Cobalt Selenide Solid Solutions for Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2017-01-06

    An effective multifaceted strategy is demonstrated to increase active edge site concentration in NiCoSe solid solutions prepared by in situ selenization process of nickel cobalt precursor. The simultaneous control of surface, phase, and morphology result in as-prepared ternary solid solution with extremely high electrochemically active surface area (C = 197 mF cm), suggesting significant exposure of active sites in this ternary compound. Coupled with metallic-like electrical conductivity and lower free energy for atomic hydrogen adsorption in NiCoSe, identified by temperature-dependent conductivities and density functional theory calculations, the authors have achieved unprecedented fast hydrogen evolution kinetics, approaching that of Pt. Specifically, the NiCoSe solid solutions show a low overpotential of 65 mV at -10 mV cm, with onset potential of mere 18 mV, an impressive small Tafel slope of 35 mV dec, and a large exchange current density of 184 μA cm in acidic electrolyte. Further, it is shown that the as-prepared NiCoSe solid solution not only works very well in acidic electrolyte but also delivers exceptional hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performance in alkaline media. The outstanding HER performance makes this solid solution a promising candidate for mass hydrogen production.

  13. Intracellular ROS protection efficiency and free radical-scavenging activity of curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Barzegar

    Full Text Available Curcumin has many pharmaceutical applications, many of which arise from its potent antioxidant properties. The present research examined the antioxidant activities of curcumin in polar solvents by a comparative study using ESR, reduction of ferric iron in aqueous medium and intracellular ROS/toxicity assays. ESR data indicated that the steric hindrance among adjacent big size groups within a galvinoxyl molecule limited the curcumin to scavenge galvinoxyl radicals effectively, while curcumin showed a powerful capacity for scavenging intracellular smaller oxidative molecules such as H₂O₂, HO•, ROO•. Cell viability and ROS assays demonstrated that curcumin was able to penetrate into the polar medium inside the cells and to protect them against the highly toxic and lethal effects of cumene hydroperoxide. Curcumin also showed good electron-transfer capability, with greater activity than trolox in aqueous solution. Curcumin can readily transfer electron or easily donate H-atom from two phenolic sites to scavenge free radicals. The excellent electron transfer capability of curcumin is because of its unique structure and different functional groups, including a β-diketone and several π electrons that have the capacity to conjugate between two phenyl rings. Therfore, since curcumin is inherently a lipophilic compound, because of its superb intracellular ROS scavenging activity, it can be used as an effective antioxidant for ROS protection within the polar cytoplasm.

  14. Russian energy efficiency projects: lessons learnt from Activities Implemented Jointly pilot phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korppoo, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Russia needs to improve the efficiency of energy. Failure to do so will retard the economic recovery of the country, but the energy sector is lacking both domestic and foreign investments. JI projects could provide the underfinanced Russian energy sector with additional investments. AIJ pilot project experiences provide an overview of the potential difficulties for future JI projects. Institutional problems were the most important category. Most of these problems remain, and the lack of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Russia has formed a new very significant barrier. Implementation level problems caused some problems to AIJ projects, but they are likely to have less impact on the better prepared JI projects. The character of funding-related problems has changed: for AIJ projects the main problem was that emission reductions could not be credited, whereas future JI projects will experience more competition in the Kyoto market where the overall investment climate and the availability of local cofunding are more relevant. Therefore, the unfinished economic and energy sector reforms currently discourage JI investments. The project experiences so far have been dismal, and if Russian policy-makers cannot improve this performance, only few JI projects can be expected in the future

  15. Efficient active waveguiding properties of Mo6 nano-cluster-doped polymer nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigeon, J.; Huby, N.; Amela-Cortes, M.; Molard, Y.; Garreau, A.; Cordier, S.; Bêche, B.; Duvail, J.-L.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate 1D nanostructures based on a Mo6@SU8 hybrid nanocomposite in which photoluminescent Mo6 clusters are embedded in the photosensitive SU8 resist. Tens of micrometers long Mo6@SU8-based tubular nanostructures were fabricated by the wetting template method, enabling the control of the inner and outer diameter to about 190 nm and 240 nm respectively, as supported by structural and optical characterizations. The image plane optical study of these nanotubes under optical pumping highlights the efficient waveguiding phenomenon of the red luminescence emitted by the clusters. Moreover, the wave vector distribution in the Fourier plane determined by leakage radiation microscopy gives additional features of the emission and waveguiding. First, the anisotropic red luminescence of the whole system can be attributed to the guided mode along the nanotube. Then, a low-loss propagation behavior is evidenced in the Mo6@SU8-based nanotubes. This result contrasts with the weaker waveguiding signature in the case of UV210-based nanotubes embedding PFO (poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)). It is attributed to the strong reabsorption phenomenon, owing to overlapping between absorption and emission bands in the semi-conducting conjugated polymer PFO. These results make this Mo6@SU8 original class of nanocomposite a promising candidate as nanosources for submicronic photonic integration.

  16. Efficient room temperature hydrogen sensor based on UV-activated ZnO nano-network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, Rahul; Rajamani, Saravanan; Ranwa, Sapana; Fanetti, Mattia; Valant, Matjaz; Kumar, Mahesh

    2017-09-01

    Room temperature hydrogen sensors were fabricated from Au embedded ZnO nano-networks using a 30 mW GaN ultraviolet LED. The Au-decorated ZnO nano-networks were deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate by a chemical vapour deposition process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum analysis revealed a hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and presence of Au. The ZnO nanoparticles were interconnected, forming nano-network structures. Au nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on ZnO surfaces, as confirmed by FESEM imaging. Interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) were fabricated on the ZnO nano-networks using optical lithography. Sensor performances were measured with and without UV illumination, at room temperate, with concentrations of hydrogen varying from 5 ppm to 1%. The sensor response was found to be ˜21.5% under UV illumination and 0% without UV at room temperature for low hydrogen concentration of 5 ppm. The UV-photoactivated mode enhanced the adsorption of photo-induced O- and O2- ions, and the d-band electron transition from the Au nanoparticles to ZnO—which increased the chemisorbed reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. The sensor response was also measured at 150 °C (without UV illumination) and found to be ˜18% at 5 ppm. Energy efficient low cost hydrogen sensors can be designed and fabricated with the combination of GaN UV LEDs and ZnO nanostructures.

  17. Efficient degradation of carbamazepine by easily recyclable microscaled CuFeO_2 mediated heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yaobin; Tang, Hebin; Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Songbo; Tang, Heqing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CuFeO_2 microparticles were prepared by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • CuFeO_2 microparticles efficiently catalyzed the activation of peroxymonosulfate. • Quenching experiments confirmed sulfate radicals as the major reactive radicals. • Carbamazepine was rapidly degraded by micro-CuFeO_2/peroxymonosulfate. • Feasibility of CuFeO_2/peroxymonosulfate was tested for treatment of actual water. - Abstract: Microscaled CuFeO_2 particles (micro-CuFeO_2) were rapidly prepared via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the micro-CuFeO_2 was of pure phase and a rhombohedral structure with size in the range of 2.8 ± 0.6 μm. The micro-CuFeO_2 efficiently catalyzed the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate sulfate radicals (SO_4·−), causing the fast degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ). The catalytic activity of micro-CuFeO_2 was observed to be 6.9 and 25.3 times that of micro-Cu_2O and micro-Fe_2O_3, respectively. The enhanced activity of micro-CuFeO_2 for the activation of PMS was confirmed to be attributed to synergistic effect of surface bonded Cu(I) and Fe(III). Sulfate radical was the primary radical species responsible for the CBZ degradation. As a microscaled catalyst, micro-CuFeO_2 can be easily recovered by gravity settlement and exhibited improved catalytic stability compared with micro-Cu_2O during five successive degradation cycles. Oxidative degradation of CBZ by the couple of PMS/CuFeO_2 was effective in the studied actual aqueous environmental systems.

  18. Efficient degradation of carbamazepine by easily recyclable microscaled CuFeO{sub 2} mediated heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yaobin, E-mail: yaobinding@mail.scuec.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Hebin [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Songbo [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Heqing, E-mail: tangheqing@mail.scuec.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • CuFeO{sub 2} microparticles were prepared by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • CuFeO{sub 2} microparticles efficiently catalyzed the activation of peroxymonosulfate. • Quenching experiments confirmed sulfate radicals as the major reactive radicals. • Carbamazepine was rapidly degraded by micro-CuFeO{sub 2}/peroxymonosulfate. • Feasibility of CuFeO{sub 2}/peroxymonosulfate was tested for treatment of actual water. - Abstract: Microscaled CuFeO{sub 2} particles (micro-CuFeO{sub 2}) were rapidly prepared via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the micro-CuFeO{sub 2} was of pure phase and a rhombohedral structure with size in the range of 2.8 ± 0.6 μm. The micro-CuFeO{sub 2} efficiently catalyzed the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate sulfate radicals (SO{sub 4}·−), causing the fast degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ). The catalytic activity of micro-CuFeO{sub 2} was observed to be 6.9 and 25.3 times that of micro-Cu{sub 2}O and micro-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. The enhanced activity of micro-CuFeO{sub 2} for the activation of PMS was confirmed to be attributed to synergistic effect of surface bonded Cu(I) and Fe(III). Sulfate radical was the primary radical species responsible for the CBZ degradation. As a microscaled catalyst, micro-CuFeO{sub 2} can be easily recovered by gravity settlement and exhibited improved catalytic stability compared with micro-Cu{sub 2}O during five successive degradation cycles. Oxidative degradation of CBZ by the couple of PMS/CuFeO{sub 2} was effective in the studied actual aqueous environmental systems.

  19. Power efficiency of the active boundary layer control around the hump by a slotted synthetic jet generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pick Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution summarizes the power efficiency of the active flow control of the boundary layer of air around a hump. The synthetic jet generator with a rectangular output part, i.e. a slot, is actuated using a modulated signal. The actuation of the synthetic jet is carried out by modulating the input voltage of acoustic transducers of the generator. This causes the decrease of the loss coefficient and the change of the mixing size area (e.g. wake. A comparison of three types of modulating signals and their influence on the loss coefficient is performed. The main advantages of modulated signal are then described.

  20. MCNP efficiency calculations of INEEL passive active neutron assay system for simulated TRU waste assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, W.Y.; Meachum, T.R.; Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) passive active neutron (PAN) radioassay system is used to certify transuranic (TRU) waste drums in terms of quantifying plutonium and other TRU element activities. Depending on the waste form involved, significant systematic and random errors need quantification in addition to the counting statistics. To determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results, a statistical sampling and verification approach has been developed. In this approach, the total performance of the PAN nondestructive assay system is simulated using the computer models of the assay system, and the resultant output is compared with the known input to assess the total uncertainty. The supporting steps in performing the uncertainty analysis for the passive assay measurements in particular are as follows: (1) Create simulated waste drums and associated conditions; (2) Simulate measurements to determine the basic counting data that would be produced by the PAN assay system under the conditions specified; and (3) Apply the PAN assay system analysis algorithm to the set of counting data produced by simulating measurements to determine the measured plutonium mass. The validity of this simulation approach was verified by comparing simulated output against results from actual measurements using known plutonium sources and surrogate waste drums. The computer simulation of the PAN system performance uses the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Code System to produce a neutron transport calculation for a simulated waste drum. Specifically, the passive system uses the neutron coincidence counting technique, utilizing the spontaneous fission of 240 Pu. MCNP application to the SWEPP PAN assay system uncertainty analysis has been very useful for a variety of waste types contained in 208-ell drums measured by a passive radioassay system. The application of MCNP to the active radioassay system is also feasible