WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher economic status

  1. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  2. Investigating Stratification within Higher Education through Examining the Status of Students in Different Academic Majors in Terms of Cultural, Social and Economic Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Seyyed Jamal Mir

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to explore the status of stratification within higher education through measuring cultural, economic and social capital of students in major academic disciplines across universities in Urmia, Northwestern Iran. The findings indicate that there are stratification structures in the presence of students in…

  3. Proposers’ Economic Status Affects Behavioral and Neural Responses to Unfairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic status played an important role in the modulation of economic decision making. The present fMRI study aimed at investigating how economic status modulated behavioral and neural responses to unfairness in a modified Ultimatum Game (UG. During scanning, participants played as responders in the UG, and they were informed of the economic status of proposers before receiving offers. At the behavioral level, higher rejection rates and lower fairness ratings were revealed when proposers were in high economic status than in low economic status. Besides, the most time-consuming decisions tended to occur at lower unfairness level when the proposers were in high (relative to low economic status. At the neural level, stronger activation of left thalamus was revealed when fair offers were proposed by proposers in high rather than in low economic status. Greater activation of right medial prefrontal cortex was revealed during acceptance to unfair offers in high economic status condition rather than in low economic status condition. Taken together, these findings shed light on the significance of proposers’ economic status in responders’ social decision making in UG.

  4. Ethics, Economics and Higher Education: A Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. John

    2013-01-01

    This comment was given to an international panel on the economics of education at the invitation of the Beijing Forum, China, on 3 November 2012. It was published in Chinese in Volume 11, 2013, of the "Peking University Education Review". It considers the connections between ethics, economics and policy towards higher education, using a…

  5. Status Configurations, Military Service and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Elder, Glen H; Spence, Naomi J

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Armed Forces offer educational and training benefits as incentives for service. This study investigates the influence of status configurations on military enlistment and their link to greater educational opportunity. Three statuses (socioeconomic status of origin, cognitive ability and academic performance) have particular relevance for life course options. We hypothesize that young men with inconsistent statuses are more likely to enlist than men with consistent status profiles, and that military service improves access to college for certain configurations. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) show (1. that several status configurations markedly increased the likelihood of military enlistment and (2. within status configurations, recruits were generally more likely to enroll in higher education than nonveterans, with associate degrees being more likely.

  6. Status Configurations, Military Service and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Elder, Glen H.; Spence, Naomi J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Armed Forces offer educational and training benefits as incentives for service. This study investigates the influence of status configurations on military enlistment and their link to greater educational opportunity. Three statuses (socioeconomic status of origin, cognitive ability and academic performance) have particular relevance for life course options. We hypothesize that young men with inconsistent statuses are more likely to enlist than men with consistent status profiles, and that military service improves access to college for certain configurations. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) show (1. that several status configurations markedly increased the likelihood of military enlistment and (2. within status configurations, recruits were generally more likely to enroll in higher education than nonveterans, with associate degrees being more likely. PMID:24511161

  7. Online social activity reflects economic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  8. Status Configurations, Military Service and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Elder, Glen H., Jr.; Spence, Naomi J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Armed Forces offer educational and training benefits as incentives for service. This study investigates the influence of status configurations on military enlistment and their link to greater educational opportunity. Three statuses (socioeconomic status of origin, cognitive ability and academic performance) have particular relevance for…

  9. Higher Education, Collaboration and a New Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    In this article I take as my starting point the economist, Jeremy Rifkin's, claims about the rise of what he calls the "collaborative commons". For Rifkin, this is nothing less than the emergence of a new economic paradigm where traditional consumers exploit the possibilities of technology, and position themselves as…

  10. The Role of Home Economics in Higher Institutions in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... This review explores the role of Home Economics education in higher institutions in Nigeria. ... will contribute to global stability, economic, political, social development, and in fact, the world ...

  11. Peruvian Higher Education: Expansions Amid Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Peruvian university system is described, focusing on periods of rapid expansion. Enrollment declines in 1974-78 are analyzed in the context of the educational reform program of the military government. The 1983 new university law, following return to civilian government, and future prospects for higher education are discussed.…

  12. Equal Educational Opportunity. The Status of Black Americans in Higher Education, 1975-1977. ISEP Third Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for the Study of Educational Policy.

    This report analyzes the status of black Americans in higher education from 1975-1977. The book opens with a review of basic concepts of equal educational opportunity and the Federal role in guaranteeing equal opportunity. The social and economic context for higher education is then examined with a focus on the national commitment to higher…

  13. Justifying the Ivory Tower: Higher Education and State Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J. Norman; McCracken, William A., III

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. continues to embrace a comprehensive plan for economic recovery, this article investigates the validity of the claim that investing in higher education will help restore state economic growth and prosperity. It presents the findings from a study that indicates that the most consistent predictors of state economic growth related to…

  14. Status of Indian Women in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghara, Tushar Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Women education and empowerment are the indicators of development. Women education ensures the holistic and long development. It includes equitable and increased access to technical and vocational education and training, higher education and research with due attention to quality assurance. This communication has taken a look on women…

  15. Higher education status in public value orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olehnovica E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the interrelationships between the types of dominating values in the society and corresponding consequences for higher education aims and objectives. In the context of the mentioned interrelationships, there are given the examples of studies offered by the USA and Daugavpils University, as well as the access to value structuring and typology found in scientific literature. The surveyed study results render the public evaluation on the instrumental and terminal values of the higher education. Authors pay a special attention to systemic view or four quadrant matrix use in the analysis of value formation process. Semantic analysis of the concept “knowledge” and hermeneutic interpretation depict the direct connection of the education with individual and collective values. By determining the values dominating in the public, one can predict its expectations in the field of education and adapt it to the necessary changes.

  16. Think Again: Higher Elasticity of Substitution Increases Economic Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    P. Dumas; S. Hallegatte

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that, counter-intuitively, a higher elasticity of substitution in model production function can lead to reduced economic resilience and larger vulnerability to shocks in production factor prices. This result is due to the fact that assuming a higher elasticity of substitution requires a recalibration of the production function parameters to keep the model initial state unchanged. This result has consequences for economic analysis, e.g., on the economic vulnerability to climat...

  17. Educational status, social economic status and evaluation of some dimensions of octogenarians' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Keika; Pedrazzani, Elisete Silva

    2007-01-01

    To describe the profile of a sample of octogenarians (n=80) attended at the municipal health network of a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil; evaluate their perception regarding quality of life dimensions (QoL); identify correlations between socio economic status, education level and QoL. It is an exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative analysis of data. The results revealed that this population is predominantly female, widowed, illiterate, sedentary and poor, who need health services and leisure opportunities, and whose main support is religion. The socio economic status did not interfere in the QoL perception, though, higher education and participation in physical activities result in higher satisfaction.

  18. Noblesse oblige? Social status and economic inequality maintenance among politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats - measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender - was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered.

  19. Socio-economic status of Ghanians of Subsaharan Africa assessed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic status of Ghanians of Subsaharan Africa assessed by subjective perception as against objective criteria: methodological considerations. The Mamprobi (Ghana) Cardiovascular Helath Programme 1975-1980.

  20. The Roles of Higher Education in Economic Development: Challenges and Prospects of Nigerian Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Chimezie; Anyanwu, Jerome; Kaegon, Lies Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper was on the roles of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) especially universities in economic development, paying particular attention to the challenges and prospects of the Nigerian Universities. The role of higher education as a major driver of economic development is well established, and this role will increase as…

  1. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? An Exploration of Factors That Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher education attainment. Although the cost inputs to…

  2. Increasing Impact of Economic Conditions upon Higher Education Enrollments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, James J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    To assess the impact of economic conditions on enrollment in higher education, researchers used time series analysis on national data for 1966-78 and on 1972-78 data from all eight regions of the country and the University of Arizona. The findings indicate enrollment has gone up during economic downturns. (Author/RW)

  3. China's Higher Education Expansion and the Task of Economic Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China's economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China's economy, and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…

  4. The Current Status of the Economic Security of Poltava Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarevska Olha M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of economic security of Poltava region in 2012–2016 was analyzed, the analysis was conducted using the developed methodology for assessing economic security of region, which is based on the joint use of indicative and functional methods. In order to assess the status of economic security of region, a system of indicators, divided by economic security components, has been formed using functional approach. The information-analytical provision of assessment has been formed using statistical information on the socio-economic development of the region. The influence of factors of destabilizing and destimulative nature on the status of economic security of the region has been researched. It has been concluded that the economic security of Poltava region is unsatisfactory, despite the existence of some positive tendencies, which at present are not sustainable.

  5. Status of Higher Secondary School Libraries in Thiruvallur District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasan, M.; Kumar, N. Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Libraries are the main sources of knowledge. They play a major role in fostering reading habit among school children. Hence, it is deemed interactive to study the status of higher secondary school libraries in Thiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu. For the Analysis 50 Higher Secondary Schools were selected randomly comprising of Government Higher…

  6. Why higher economic growth cannot always enhance human development

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Md Montasir

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies why higher economic growth cannot always enhance human development. In general, these two dimensions have a strong and positive relationship, but some countries appear unable to balance this relationship. As a consequence, there are some countries with high economic growth but sluggish human development progress. This paper studies how other factors besides GDP – women labor force participation, urbanization, and inequality - are correlated to human development. I construct...

  7. ECONOMIC HIGHER EDUCATION AND THE COMPETENCES TRAINING PERSPECTIVE

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    Radu Lucian BLAGA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the current socio-economic realities of training and professional development, the paper aims to present the concept of competence, in the knowledge-society, that has become a key concept and especially how the competences training, is regarded as a major solution to global socio-economic problems. Competence training is regarded, at the European level, as a major solution to global socio-economic problems. In this context, higher economic and business education, assigned the multiple tasks to them, which can solved using effective and flexible sources like material, human and capital, that could overcome the well-known inertia of higher education systems.The paper presents some current guidelines in education, training and related competences development, training models from the perspective of university economic education, examples of definition, development and assessment of specific economic field competences. Examples were made in the context of the marketing field at the potential meaning of this qualification, which is currently discussed and is still in its early recovery in the economic and business. This field it is still considered by the Romanian business environment like an expense rather than as an investment.

  8. Adoption of Technology and the Socio-Economic Status of Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic status of rural women. A comparison of adopters and non-adopters reveals that the adopters are generally more privileged and occupy a higher status because of adoption. In addition, education and awareness are crucial variables in the ...

  9. Economics of Higher Education under Occupation: The Case of Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Abd Al-Qadir Alfoqahaa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through some extremely difficult experiences, education in general and Higher Education in particular has remained a constant focus of resources in Palestine.  Due to the ongoing occupation of Palestine, Palestinian universities could not expect to contribute significantly to economic development in the same way as other institutions around the world. However, the establishment and development of universities in Palestine meant that Palestine was investing in Palestinians, and, for reasons discussed in this paper, the development represented a clear breakthrough to be celebrated throughout Palestinian society. Most of the previous studies on the Economics of Higher Education (HE have not explicitly dealt with the Economics of Higher Education under occupation, especially in Palestine, neglecting much of the broader context and strategic impact of Palestinian Higher Education. This research investigates in depth Palestinian HE socio-economic outcomes for Palestinians, bringing to the light the meaning of HE under occupation that goes beyond mere economic impact to include its impact on Palestinians' human capital, dignity, and national identity reflecting the unique case of Palestine. This research reveals that from very early on it was clear that Palestinian Higher Education could not give the economy a boost, but that universities did give people a pride in Palestine, which, given the conditions of a brutal military occupation that increasingly separated one Palestinian from the next, amounted to quite a significant achievement. It demonstrated the central role Palestinian HE plays in the life of Palestinians as it is goes beyond means of economic growth to means of survival, building human capital, and maintaining people's dignity and national identity.

  10. Higher Education, Globalization and Economic Development in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) initiated an effort to assess the status of the Commonwealth's international education programs. A survey was distributed to the public and private institutions, focusing on critical aspects of contemporary international education programs as identified by an ad hoc group of…

  11. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (pinequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  12. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle A Mode

    Full Text Available Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675. At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03, with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001. Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04. While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  13. Socio-economic status and preferences in marriage partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    The result revealed that university undergraduates socio-economic status significantly ..... had university education marry university graduates or those with more education than they have. ... Dissertation Abstract. International, 59(9-A0, 3526.

  14. Effect of Socio-Economic Status of Parents on Educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Socio-Economic Status of Parents on Educational Attainment of Female ... of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well-equipped laboratories. ... homes the opportunity to acquire basic primary education to university level.

  15. Relationship between Parental Socio-economic Status and Casual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between Parental Socio-economic Status and Casual Blood Pressure in ... data suggest that essential or primary hypertension occurs in the young. ... METHODS: One thousand and eight adolescents attending two secondary ...

  16. Socio-Economic Status and Psychological Constructs of Heads of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... The valid psychological constructs were adoption behaviour, leadership abilities, cosmopoliteness, education level, and attitude to innovation. There was a significant ... Key words: Socio-economic Status, Adoption, Leadership, Cosmopolitness, Education, Attitude, Innovation.

  17. Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania: A Case of Onion ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Therefore the government, nongovernmental organisations and development programmes espousing to ...

  18. The Status of Native American Women in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    A study of the status of Native American women in higher education obtained questionnaires from 61 undergraduate women at 4 colleges and 9 women with advanced degrees, interviewed 6 women in or about to enter graduate programs, and reviewed previous research and available statistical data. Results indicated that: relatively few Native American…

  19. Socio-economic status and overall and cause-specific mortality in Sweden

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    Sundquist Jan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another aim was to investigate possible gender differences. Methods Using the 2006 update of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified over 2 million individuals with socio-economic data recorded in the 1960 national census. The association between mortality and socio-economic status was investigated by Cox's proportional hazards models taking into account the age, time period and residential area in both men and women, and additionally parity and age at first birth in women. Results We observed significant associations between socio-economic status and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, to cancer and to endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The influence of socio-economic status on female breast cancer was markedly specific: women with a higher socio-economic status showed increased mortality due to breast cancer. Conclusion Even in Sweden, a country where health care is universally provided, higher socio-economic status is associated with decreased overall and cause-specific mortalities. Comparison of mortality among female and male socio-economic groups may provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of socio-economic inequalities in length of life.

  20. Socio-economic determinants of nutritional status of women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic determinants of nutritional status of women beneficiaries of UNICEF-assisted nutrition enhancement programme in Abia State, Nigeria. ... educated, and as a way of sustaining the women's nutritional status for reproduction and food security at the household level and development in its entirety at large.

  1. Determinants of Household Socio-economic Status in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... tended to correspond with high income status of the households. ... figures to describe household socio-economic status remains a gap that ... Accra because it is skills, knowledge and the abilities which enable ... the city) that people rely on to achieve their livelihood objectives. ..... Gender of household.

  2. Socio-economic status, lifestyle and childhood obesity in Gombe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood obesity is a complex condition resulting from an interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors and socio-economic status. The prevalence has been increasing all over the world, probably due to economic transition and rapid urbanization as well as globalisation. This relationship should ...

  3. Does parents' socio-economic status matter in intentions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) socio-economic status are significantly stronger than the moderate (4.56) in deciding to purchase the HPV vaccination. Socio-economic factor has a slightly negative impact (B= -0.08), and attitude (0.68), subjective norms (0.16), and behavior ...

  4. Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economic status of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from…

  5. Higher Status Honesty Is Worth More: The Effect of Social Status on Honesty Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R. Blue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Promises are crucial for maintaining trust in social hierarchies. It is well known that not all promises are kept; yet the effect of social status on responses to promises being kept or broken is far from understood, as are the neural processes underlying this effect. Here we manipulated participants’ social status before measuring their investment behavior as Investor in iterated Trust Game (TG. Participants decided how much to invest in their partners, who acted as Trustees in TG, after being informed that their partners of higher or lower social status either promised to return half of the multiplied sum (4 × invested amount, did not promise, or had no opportunity to promise. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded when the participants saw the Trustees’ decisions in which the partners always returned half of the time, regardless of the experimental conditions. Trustee decisions to return or not after promising to do so were defined as honesty and dishonesty, respectively. Behaviorally, participants invested more when Trustees promised than when Trustees had no opportunity to promise, and this effect was greater for higher status than lower status Trustees. Neurally, when viewing Trustees’ return decisions, participants’ medial frontal negativity (MFN responses (250–310 ms post onset were more negative when Trustees did not return than when they did return, suggesting that not returning was an expectancy violation. P300 responses were only sensitive to higher status return feedback, and were more positive-going for higher status partner returns than for lower status partner returns, suggesting that higher status returns may have been more rewarding/motivationally significant. Importantly, only participants in low subjective socioeconomic status (SES evidenced an increased P300 effect for higher status than lower status honesty (honesty – dishonesty, suggesting that higher status honesty was especially rewarding

  6. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  7. The family economic status and outcome of people with schizophrenia in Xinjin, Chengdu, China: 14-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Yang, Lawrence H; Liu, Yu-Jun; Huang, Debbie; Mao, Wen-Jun; Lin, Fu-Rong; Li, Jie; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about whether family economic status might influence the long-term (e.g. over 10 years) outcome of persons with schizophrenia in the community. To examine the differences in outcome at 14-year follow-up of persons with schizophrenia from high versus low family economic status backgrounds in a Chinese rural area. A prospective 14-year follow-up study was conducted in six townships in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. All participants with schizophrenia ( n = 510) were identified in an epidemiological investigation of 123,572 people aged 15 years and older and followed up from 1994 to 2008. Individuals from low family economic status (economic status (⩾mean; 3.2% and 76.6%, respectively). Individuals from low family economic status had significantly lower rates of marriage and complete remission, higher mean scores on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and lower mean score on Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) than those from high family economic status in 2008. The predictors of low family economic status of individuals in 2008 encompassed the baseline low family economic status, poor families' attitude toward the patient, younger age, older age of first onset and longer duration of illness. Low family economic status is a predictive factor of poor long-term outcome of persons with schizophrenia in the rural community. Individuals' family economic status should be considered in making mental health policy and providing community-based mental health services.

  8. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the data collection work performed for an advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) economics analysis activity at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The methodology development and analytical results are described in separate, stand-alone documents as listed in the references. The economics analysis effort for the AdvSMR program combines the technical and fuel cycle aspects of advanced (non-light water reactor [LWR]) reactors with the market and production aspects of SMRs. This requires the collection, analysis, and synthesis of multiple unrelated and potentially high-uncertainty data sets from a wide range of data sources. Further, the nature of both economic and nuclear technology analysis requires at least a minor attempt at prediction and prognostication, and the far-term horizon for deployment of advanced nuclear systems introduces more uncertainty. Energy market uncertainty, especially the electricity market, is the result of the integration of commodity prices, demand fluctuation, and generation competition, as easily seen in deregulated markets. Depending on current or projected values for any of these factors, the economic attractiveness of any power plant construction project can change yearly or quarterly. For long-lead construction projects such as nuclear power plants, this uncertainty generates an implied and inherent risk for potential nuclear power plant owners and operators. The uncertainty in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle costs is in some respects better understood and quantified than the energy market uncertainty. The LWR-based fuel cycle has a long commercial history to use as its basis for cost estimation, and the current activities in LWR construction provide a reliable baseline for estimates for similar efforts. However, for advanced systems, the estimates and their associated uncertainties are based on forward-looking assumptions for performance after the system has been built and has achieved commercial operation

  9. Inferring personal economic status from social network location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Travizano, Matías; Makse, Hernán A.

    2017-05-01

    It is commonly believed that patterns of social ties affect individuals' economic status. Here we translate this concept into an operational definition at the network level, which allows us to infer the economic well-being of individuals through a measure of their location and influence in the social network. We analyse two large-scale sources: telecommunications and financial data of a whole country's population. Our results show that an individual's location, measured as the optimal collective influence to the structural integrity of the social network, is highly correlated with personal economic status. The observed social network patterns of influence mimic the patterns of economic inequality. For pragmatic use and validation, we carry out a marketing campaign that shows a threefold increase in response rate by targeting individuals identified by our social network metrics as compared to random targeting. Our strategy can also be useful in maximizing the effects of large-scale economic stimulus policies.

  10. Private Islamic Higher Education in Asean Economic Community (AEC Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyawan Safwandy Nugraha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the challenge faced by Indonesia in ASEAN Economic Community (AEC era. It is also revealed the Private Islamic Religion Institution (PTKIS strategic to play its role and function in generating human resource. The method used is qualitative in the form of literature study. The result shows that PTKIS are required to adapt and see the AEC as an opportunity to change. A private status should be used as an institutional capital to create and innovate freely, by maximally utilizing the available resources. The management of a reputable institution is seen to be a significant factor for reinforcement. Aspects of visionary leadership, qualified lecturers, a curriculum that is responsive to a change, and an adequate infrastructure become a strengthening point toward the management accountability of universities in creating graduates who are competitive, skillful and qualified.

  11. FAMILY’S ECONOMIC LEVEL AND CULTURE CORRELATE WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition is an important thing for human life. Variety in family’s economic level and culture have effect on family’s eating habit. Family with higher economic status have big opportunity to met under fi ve year’s nutrition. Cultural diversity on each family has an impact on the difference of raw food selection, processing methods, and presentation of food. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between family’s economic level and culture with nutritional status of children under fi ve year. Method: Research design was observational analytic with cross sectional approach. The population were mother and their children under fi ve years at Desa Jatigono Kunir, Kabupaten Lumajang. Sampel were 184 respondents, taken by using cluster sampling. Independent variables were family’s economic level and culture. Dependent variable was nutritional status of children under fi ve years. Data were collected by using questionnaire and observational sheet. Then, data were analyzed by using Spearman Rho Test with α<0.05. Result: The results showed that 140 (76.1% respondents have low economic level, 105 (57.1% respondents have negative culture in children’s nutrition, and 89 (48% respondents have good nutritional status. The result of Spearman-rho test showed that family’s economic level (p=0.000 and culture (0.019 have correlated with nutritional status of children under five years. Discussion: It can be concluded that family’s economic level and culture have correlated with nutritional status of children under fi ve years. Nurses should develop health education and counseling to improve family’s knowledge about nutrition, so children will have good nutritional status. Keywords: economic level, family’s culture, nutritional status, children under five years

  12. Economic Valuation of European Commercial Fisheries under Good Environmental Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goulding, Ian; Hutniczak, Barbara; Münch, Angela

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on assessing the economic impact of achieving Good Environmental Status in the EU’s commercial capture fisheries, being one of the descriptors listed under the MSFD in terms of landed value using 2010 prices. The approach adopted is to assess the values of landings under...... different environmental scenarios, and use the differences between them to highlight the economic impacts of each....

  13. Sex Preferences, Marital Dissolution and the Economic Status of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bedard, Kelly; Deschenes, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    The rise in the divorce rate over the past 40 years is one of the fundamental changes in American society. A seemingly ever-increasing number of women and children spend some fraction of their life in single female-headed households, leading many to be concerned about the economic circumstances of these women their and children. Estimating the cause-to-effect relationship between marital dissolution and female economic status is complicated because the same factors that increase marital insta...

  14. The relationship between socio-economic status and cancer detection at screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.

  15. Gender, socio-economic status and educational level as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple regression procedure and t-test statistics were utilized to analyse data. Results indicated that the regression equation of career maturity using the three predictor variables was significant; the scores on socio-economic status were the best predictor of career maturity. On the basis of this finding, suggestions were ...

  16. Socio-Economic Status as Predictor of Deviant Behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated socio-economic status as predictor of deviant behaviours among Nigeria secondary school students. The subject were sixty five students with an age range of 10 – 19 years drawn from Senior secondary school (SSS) 1 – III in four secondary schools in Oyo State. The subjects were selected from those ...

  17. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Lexical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Esther; Peppe, Sue; Gibbon, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    The British Picture Vocabulary Scale, second edition (BPVS-II), a measure of receptive vocabulary, is widely used by speech and language therapists and researchers into speech and language disorders, as an indicator of language delay, but it has frequently been suggested that receptive vocabulary may be more associated with socio-economic status.…

  18. Socio-economic status, knowledge, awareness and attitudes of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was collected using a semi-structured researcher administered questionnaire. Knowledge, awareness and attitudes were addressed using questions on balanced diet, healthy eating, healthy body weight, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and diabetes and hypertension causes. Socio-economic status was addressed by ...

  19. Socio-economic status and menarcheal age in urban African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different socio-economic levels, height, weight and sum of four skinfolds on the menarcheal age of 302 Black, South African school girls ranging in age from 8 to 17 years was researched. Socioeconomic status was obtained by means of a questionnaire that focused on the education, income, and occupations ...

  20. socio-economic determinants of nutritional status of women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr

    7. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ... 90% of domestic responsibilities and are national resource managers and environmental ..... Education exposes one to better ways of managing resources and doing ... human nutrition basics, as well as rules for healthy eating. ... Second Edition.

  1. Social Activities And Socio-Economic Status Of Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agent (at P=0.01) while contact with extension and age of farmer and social participation and access to radio (at P=0.05). And, results of stepwise regression showed that age, level of education and farm size of farmers were significantly related to adoption (at P=0.05). Keywords: Improved maize, socio-economic status, rural ...

  2. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the demographic variables and socio-economic status on the prevalence of health hazards amongst residents of Akure North Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive research design of the survey type. The population for this study was estimated to be 131,587 residents.

  3. Socio-economic status, risk factors and coronary heart disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship of socio-economic status (SES) indicators and coronary risk factors (RFs) with coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence was examined in 5620 subjects aged 20 ... The SES indicators had Iitlle or no independent effect on CHD prevalence in multivariate logistic analyses after, inclusion of the standard RFs.

  4. Disability inclusion in higher education in Uganda: Status and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emong, Paul; Eron, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Uganda has embraced inclusive education and evidently committed itself to bringing about disability inclusion at every level of education. Both legal and non-legal frameworks have been adopted and arguably are in line with the intent of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on education. The CRPD, in Article 24, requires states to attain a right to education for persons with disabilities without discrimination and on the basis of equal opportunities at all levels of education. Despite Uganda's robust disability legal and policy framework on education, there is evidence of exclusion and discrimination of students with disabilities in the higher education institutions. The main objective of this article is to explore the status of disability inclusion in higher education and strategies for its realisation, using evidence from Emong's study, workshop proceedings where the authors facilitated and additional individual interviews with four students with disabilities by the authors. The results show that there are discrimination and exclusion tendencies in matters related to admissions, access to lectures, assessment and examinations, access to library services, halls of residence and other disability support services. The article recommends that institutional policies and guidelines on support services for students with disabilities and special needs in higher education be developed, data on students with disabilities collected to help planning, collaboration between Disabled Peoples Organisations (DPO's) strengthened to ensure disability inclusion and the establishment of disability support centres.

  5. Status threat, not economic hardship, explains the 2016 presidential vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutz, Diana C

    2018-05-08

    This study evaluates evidence pertaining to popular narratives explaining the American public's support for Donald J. Trump in the 2016 presidential election. First, using unique representative probability samples of the American public, tracking the same individuals from 2012 to 2016, I examine the "left behind" thesis (that is, the theory that those who lost jobs or experienced stagnant wages due to the loss of manufacturing jobs punished the incumbent party for their economic misfortunes). Second, I consider the possibility that status threat felt by the dwindling proportion of traditionally high-status Americans (i.e., whites, Christians, and men) as well as by those who perceive America's global dominance as threatened combined to increase support for the candidate who emphasized reestablishing status hierarchies of the past. Results do not support an interpretation of the election based on pocketbook economic concerns. Instead, the shorter relative distance of people's own views from the Republican candidate on trade and China corresponded to greater mass support for Trump in 2016 relative to Mitt Romney in 2012. Candidate preferences in 2016 reflected increasing anxiety among high-status groups rather than complaints about past treatment among low-status groups. Both growing domestic racial diversity and globalization contributed to a sense that white Americans are under siege by these engines of change. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. The Economic Effects of Providing Legal Status to DREAMers

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Francesc; Edwards, Ryan; Hsin, Amy

    2018-01-01

    This study quantifies the economic effects of two major immigration reforms aimed at legalizing undocumented individuals that entered the United States as children and completed high school: Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) and the DREAM Act. The former offers only temporary legal status to eligible individuals; the latter provides a track to legal permanent residence. Our analysis is based on a general-equilibrium model that allows for shifts in participation between work, colle...

  7. Management of the assisted instruction environment in economic higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana REVEIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The world has entered the Knowledge Age. Information Technology is gradually turning the world into an Information Highway Network. The development of technology has greatly accelerated the international flow of information, capital and commodities and speeded the growth of economic integration. At the same time, the cycle of technological development and commercialization is becoming shorter and shorter [Zhouying, 1999]. Information technology is bringing rapid and profound changes to higher education, as it has to virtually every process in our society. Productivity often suffers because is difficult and timeconsuming to conduct a team effort. A portal solution base on SharePoint Portal Server can greatly facilitate the process of bringing knowledge teachers together as a team to achieve educational goals by providing a single point to access: automated essential day-to-day email communication, management of contacts, calendars, and instant messages, shared facilities to allow small teams of teachers to contribute to team and project-focused Web site, track tasks and events, shortened web-publishing cycles by linking collaboration and publishing processes.

  8. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  9. Status and prospects in higher alcohols synthesis from syngas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Ho Ting; Mondelli, Cecilia; Ferré, Daniel Curulla; Stewart, Joseph A; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2017-03-06

    Higher alcohols are important compounds with widespread applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical and energy sectors. Currently, they are mainly produced by sugar fermentation (ethanol and isobutanol) or hydration of petroleum-derived alkenes (heavier alcohols), but their direct synthesis from syngas (CO + H 2 ) would comprise a more environmentally-friendly, versatile and economical alternative. Research efforts in this reaction, initiated in the 1930s, have fluctuated along with the oil price and have considerably increased in the last decade due to the interest to exploit shale gas and renewable resources to obtain the gaseous feedstock. Nevertheless, no catalytic system reported to date has performed sufficiently well to justify an industrial implementation. Since the design of an efficient catalyst would strongly benefit from the establishment of synthesis-structure-function relationships and a deeper understanding of the reaction mechanism, this review comprehensively overviews syngas-based higher alcohols synthesis in three main sections, highlighting the advances recently made and the challenges that remain open and stimulate upcoming research activities. The first part critically summarises the formulations and methods applied in the preparation of the four main classes of materials, i.e., Rh-based, Mo-based, modified Fischer-Tropsch and modified methanol synthesis catalysts. The second overviews the molecular-level insights derived from microkinetic and theoretical studies, drawing links to the mechanisms of Fischer-Tropsch and methanol syntheses. Finally, concepts proposed to improve the efficiency of reactors and separation units as well as to utilise CO 2 and recycle side-products in the process are described in the third section.

  10. Body mass index of children and youth with an intellectual disability by country economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; Foley, John T; Temple, Viviene A

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities are at higher risk for health disparities including overweight and obesity; however, little is known at the population level about the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities. This study is a secondary analysis of BMI status (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) in children and youth (8-Olympics by country economic status. A total of 14,032 participants (n=8,856 male) measured height and weight records were available from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database. The 141 countries in the database were re-coded according to the World Bank's classification of country economic status. BMI prevalence rates were calculated for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity for children and youth using IOTF cutoffs by economic status. Chi-squared analyses and Fisher's exact test were used to examine differences in weight status by economy and sex. Overall, 27.87% of Special Olympics participants from low-income economies, 31.04% from lower middle-income, 25.29% from upper middle-income, and 42.36% from high-income economies had BMI levels outside of the normal range. The low-income countries had higher rates of underweight and the high-income countries had higher rates of obesity. The high levels of both underweight and overweight/obesity found in this population of children and youth participating in Special Olympics represents a double burden of health risk. More research is needed to understand why this population experiences such disparities in BMI status and to develop health promotion initiatives targeted at this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.

  12. The Higher Essence of Economic Convergence Regarding Monetary Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudec Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pace of achieving socio-economic growth and convergence into developed structures represents the main desire of most countries. Moreover, membership in monetary unions has quite a significant impact on the economies of participating countries, since integration processes have become undoubtedly the undisputed accelerator of convergence and integration catalyst, reflecting on the development of the world economy. The growing intensity of world trade, the ever-deepening division of labor and specialization, international movement of capital and labor mobility as wells as investments into education, research and development, innovations are among the factors that lead to the creation of increasingly closer ties between economies, deepening their mutual dependence, further reflected in knowledge-based societies. Thus, the close ties between national economies themselves represent a further incentive for more intensive cooperation through the different stages of economic integration. International economic integration is an objective to promote a gradual process of linking and connecting existing economic units, i.e. national economies to the greater interconnected units in the global economy. The aim of our research paper, by using the methods of analysis and comparison, is to closely present the issue of monetary integration, focusing on the impact of monetary integration on countries’ economy, resulting in the issue of benefits and costs of the countries’ entry into the monetary union, associated with initial economic shocks.

  13. Economic burden of malaria in rural Tanzania: variations by socioeconomic status and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somi, Masha F; Butler, James R G; Vahid, Farshid; Njau, Joseph D; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

    2007-10-01

    To determine the economic burden of malaria in a rural Tanzanian setting and identify any differences by socioeconomic status and season. Interviews of 557 households in south eastern Tanzania between May and December 2004, on consumption and malaria-related costs. Malaria-related expenses were significantly higher in the dry, non-malarious season than in the rainy season. Households sought treatment more frequently and from more expensive service providers in the dry season, when they have more money. Malaria expenses did not vary significantly across socioeconomic status quintiles, but poorer households spent a higher proportion of their consumption in both seasons. Poorer households bear a greater economic burden from malaria relative to their consumption than better-off households. Households are particularly vulnerable to malaria in the rainy season, when malaria prevalence is highest but liquidity is lower. Alternative strategies to assist households to cope with seasonal liquidity issues, including insurance, should be investigated.

  14. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) t...

  15. Higher Education as an Instrument of Economic Growth in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangau, Josiah Z.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to identify the main challenges facing Kenya's public higher education system and to propose plausible and, concrete steps policy makers and educational leaders can take to address those challenges to ensure the country's higher education system prepares the human capital, which is necessary for the construction…

  16. Special Issue: Women's Status in Higher Education--Equity Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph emerges from the premise that discrimination on the basis of one's sex, gender, race, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, disability, religion, or ethnicity is harmful to advancing a civil society where all citizens have opportunities to contribute to their fullest potential. The chapters included in this monograph are…

  17. Driving Economic Growth: Higher Education--A Core Strategic Asset to the UK. Higher Education in Focus: Driving Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights the critical role UK universities will continue to play in reviving and sustaining economic growth across the country. Using a range of visual data and statistics, it highlights that the UK's future success depends on developing innovation and the knowledge economy in what is an increasingly competitive global…

  18. Universities and Colleges as Economic Drivers: Measuring Higher Education's Role in Economic Development. Critical Issues in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jason E., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Local, state, and national economies are facing unprecedented levels of international competition. The current fiscal crisis has hampered the ability of many governments in the developed world to directly facilitate economic growth. At the same time, many governments in the developing world are investing significant new resources into local…

  19. Socio-Economic Status, Time Spending, and Sleep Duration in Indian Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bapat, Radhika; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this article physical activity, screen time, and academic work are studied as mediators between socio-economic status and sleep duration among school children in India. Participants were 268 school children aged 10?15 from Pune, India. They were sampled from private schools and impoverished public schools. We found that the highest socio-economic status children reported almost an hour and a half less sleep than their lowest socio-economic status counterparts. The lower socio-economic stat...

  20. [Teenage and adult pregnancy: different correlations between socio-economic status and smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Brigitta; Bácskai, Erika; Gerevich, József; Czobor, Pál

    2013-03-10

    Smoking occurs frequently during pregnancy, thereby putting mother and child at health risks. Low socio-economic status is a risk factor for smoking. To investigate the relationship between smoking and low income in teenage and adult pregnancy, which is an important measure of poor socioeconomic status. The authors used subject-level data from the US NSDUH database, which contains information on pregnancies and smoking. Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher, whereas adult pregnancy with lower prevalence of smoking, compared to the age-matched female population. The association between income and smoking is age-dependent. Among adults there is an inverse relationship (high income -- low-risk of smoking), while in teenage pregnancy smoking increases with income. To investigate in teenage and adult pregnancy the relationship between smoking and low income, which is an important measure of poor socio-economic status. Higher socioeconomic status may be associated with risky behaviour, thereby increasing both the risk of smoking and early pregnancy.

  1. Socio-Economic Status and Peritonitis in Australian Non-Indigenous Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen; Grace, Blair; McDonald, Stephen P.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Badve, Sunil V.; Boudville, Neil C.; Brown, Fiona G.; Clayton, Philip A.; Johnson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. ♦ Methods: Associations between area SES and peritonitis risk and outcomes were examined in all non-indigenous patients who received PD in Australia between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2010 (peritonitis outcomes). SES was assessed by deciles of postcode-based Australian Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), including Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD), Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD), Index of Economic Resources (IER) and Index of Education and Occupation (IEO). ♦ Results: 7,417 patients were included in the present study. Mixed-effects Poisson regression demonstrated that incident rate ratios for peritonitis were generally lower in the higher SEIFA-based deciles compared with the reference (decile 1), although the reductions were only statistically significant in some deciles (IRSAD deciles 2 and 4 – 9; IRSD deciles 4 – 6; IER deciles 4 and 6; IEO deciles 3 and 6). Mixed-effects logistic regression showed that lower probabilities of hospitalization were predicted by relatively higher SES, and lower probabilities of peritonitis-associated death were predicted by less SES disadvantage status and greater access to economic resources. No association was observed between SES and the risks of peritonitis cure, catheter removal and permanent hemodialysis (HD) transfer. ♦ Conclusions: In Australia, where there is universal free healthcare, higher SES was associated with lower risks of peritonitis-associated hospitalization and death, and a lower risk of peritonitis in some categories. PMID:24497587

  2. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbron E, E.; Puente E, F.

    2014-10-01

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  3. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbron E, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: erick.zimbron@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  4. Political and economic structure and energy industry status of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Looking at the composition of energy resources import of Korea per each country, Australian-made import takes up 11.8% of total energy resources import. It possesses the highest import composition of 30.5% when petroleum sector is excluded. In the order of Korea`s mineral import per each country, Australia still keep the number one position every year though Korea keep promoting the diversification of import sources. In the mean time, reflecting on the treatment aspect of import country of Australia, when Korea`s energy, the import size of resources, import intensity of Australia`s primary raw material resources and international resources situation are considered, Korea is thought to receive less treatment from Australia as the second export country of Australia than Japan who is the number one export country of Australia, relatively. Though the increase ratio of Korean tourists in Australia is the highest for the past few years and international promotion effect shows big with the IMF financial support of Korea who faces sudden economic crisis recently as a momentum, sincere evaluation through in-depth analysis between Korea and Australia is still in the initial stage. The necessity to diagnosis the general political and economic structure of Australia more in detail emerges as trade volume between two countries keep growing, esp. in the import of energy and resources sectors, the number of visits between two countries keep increasing. Therefore, the purpose of this study lies mainly in the structure of the new Australian government, general macroeconomics structure and the understanding of energy industry-related status such as energy supply and demand, development status of energy, related laws, and government`s energy agencies, etc. 6 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. The Nexus between Higher Education and Economic Growth: An Empirical Investigation for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amatul R. Chaudhary

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the role of higher education in economic growth for Pakistan between 1972 and 2005 using the application of Johansen Cointegration and Toda & Yamamoto (1995 Causality approach in Vector Autoregressive (VAR framework. It examines whether higher education affect long run economic growth in Pakistan. The empirical analysis reveals that there is a long run relationship between economic growth and higher education, which suggests that these variables are necessary for each other. The empirical results of causality test indicate that there exists a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to higher education and no other direction of causality found between these variables.

  6. Status of higher education in nuclear technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.

    2007-01-01

    To harness the benefits of nuclear energy and the applications of radiation and radionuclides in various disciplines, a broad and deeply rooted nuclear education is essential. To cater to its needs, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has established training institutes/centres of higher education. This paper briefly describes the programmes offered by these institutes/centres. (author)

  7. Does the Economic Crisis Have an Influence on the Higher Education Dropout Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão Fernandes, Graça; Chagas Lopes, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to identify the effects of the economic crisis on higher education (HE) dropout rates at Lisbon School of Economics and Management (ISEG)--Universidade de Lisboa, after having controlled for individual characteristics, family background, High School and HE trajectories. Our main hypothesis is that the economic crisis induces…

  8. Social mechanisms of development and dynamics of economism and commercialization of Ukrainian higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Strigul

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of respondents in fact doesn’t understand the concept of «economism», doesn’t consider the need for University to take part in the entrepreneurial activity and doesn’t recognize the need for the existence of the elements of the business structures in the higher education institutions. The University lost its primary purpose and becomes a huge supermarket, which offers various types of knowledge. Rational action is the desire to buy the most qualitative product – a diploma from a prestigious University, which can be successfully converted to the official and economic status. All this leads to the emergence of the Ukrainian form of commercialization, which differs from the Western one. Its significant difference lies in the bias, focus on profit, consumerism as a type of a consumer behavior. It has been mentioned in the article that in the educational system the principles of consumerism moved to the introduction of fees for various additional services (training, courses, testing classes, tests, etc.. The study of economism and the commercialization in the Ukrainian educational system is characterized by a peculiar relevance as it raises the issue of the dynamics and development of the modernization and transformation of the modern higher education. Commercialization is caused by a number of obstacles. The prioritative and harmonious development of the education system can be done only by the expense of state budget financing. In such circumstances, the University becomes a business entity for the provision of educational services. The attention in the article has been drawn to the nature and characteristics of the commercialization and economism. It has been noted that the state education policy as an integral part of social policy is one of the tools of state influence on the formation of social structures and is aimed at solving problems of societal level. This makes sociological examination of transformation processes in

  9. Can Higher Education Foster Economic Growth? Chicago Fed Letter. Number 229

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    Not all observers agree that higher education and economic growth are obvious or necessary complements to each other. The controversy may be exacerbated because of the difficulty of measuring the exact contribution of colleges and universities to economic growth. Recognizing that a model based on local conditions and higher education's response…

  10. Football as a Status System in U.S. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, Arik; Sauder, Michael; Stevens, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Sociologists have focused almost exclusively on academic aspects of status in higher education, despite the prominence of nonacademic activities, specifically athletics, in U.S. colleges and universities. We use the case of football to investigate whether intercollegiate sports influence the distribution of status in U.S. higher education.…

  11. The company you keep: Is socialising with higher-status people bad for mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-09-01

    Socialising with higher-status individuals can be hypothesised to exert opposing influences on the mental health of the ego. On the one hand, socialising with higher-status alters might enable individuals to access valuable resources. On the other hand, status-discrepant friendships could be detrimental to mental health by engendering feelings of unfairness. We sought to examine the impact of status-discrepant social relationships on depressive symptoms in the 2012 Korean General Social Survey (KGSS), a nationally representative sample. We show that socialising with higher-status people is positively associated with depressive symptoms. There is no significant difference between those socialising with equivalent-status or with lower-status alters. Perceived unfairness also increase depressive symptoms. Respondents socialising with higher-status alters tend to report greater depressive symptoms as their perceived unfairness increases. Gender-stratified analyses reveal that the detrimental impact of status-discrepant relationships are observed for men only, not for women. These findings suggest that socialising with higher-status people can be a net detriment for mental wellbeing by increasing stress/frustration or decreasing psychological resources such as self-esteem, and that these effects are more pronounced for individuals who perceive that society is unfair. This pattern appears stronger for men, which might be associated with gender roles internalised through gender socialisation processes. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  12. LANGUAGE ATTITUDES OF INDONESIANS AS EFL LEARNERS, GENDER, AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirtya Sunyi Paradewari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the language attitude in terms of gender and socio-economic status (SES in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The aim of this study was to find out the relationships among five components of languages attitudes in terms of gender and socio-economic status (SES.  There were 256 participants from four universities in Yogyakarta. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire about the language used and general language attitudes through the Google Form. The results showed that there are five components of language attitudes; 1 Indonesian learners showed positive language attitudes toward English (3.58; 2 positive language attitudes toward Indonesian (3.66; 3 positive language attitudes toward English and negative language attitudes toward Indonesian (3.52; 4 positive language attitudes toward Indonesian and negative language attitudes toward English (3.58; 5 positive language attitudes toward English and Indonesian (3.91. These five components of language attitudes were then correlated with gender; 1 gender was positively related to English language attitude where female learners had higher positive language attitudes than males did toward English (.097; 2 there was no relation between gender and Indonesian language attitude (-.071. In addition, SES was also related to five (5 components of language attitudes in which the learners who came from upper class had higher positive language attitudes towards English (.155 than learners who came from lower class. On the other hand, the correlation between SES and Indonesian language showed the learners from middle class had higher positive language attitudes (.031 than the learners from upper class and lower class.   Keywords: language attitudes, gender, socio-economic status

  13. Effect of socio-economic status on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Won Hee; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Gunha; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Byung Min

    2017-06-01

    Sufficient sleep is an important factor in physical and mental health. Sleep duration can be affected by socio-economic status (SES). This study aimed to examine the association between sleep duration and SES in Korean adolescents. This study was conducted with 1608 adolescents aged 12-18 years, based on data from the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Sleep duration was self-reported in hours and three SES indicators were used: household income, basic livelihood security programmes and type of health insurance. Confounding factors in this study were age, mental health and physical activity. Participants' average age was 15.6 ± 0.05 years and average sleep duration was 7.04 ± 0.05 h. There was a strong association between sleep duration and household income (P sleep duration was significantly associated with age, body mass index (P sleep and long sleep (>9 h/night). We found similar results in both genders, that is, that the highest income group had shorter sleep duration than the lowest income group. This study shows that the SES, particularly household income, is an important factor in short sleep duration in Korean adolescents. Our findings suggest that, in future investigations of the adolescent's sleep problem, attention should be paid to household income. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P K; Biswas, S; Nayak, K; Chatterjee, M K; Chakraborty, D; Mukherjee, S

    2012-05-01

    Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here.

  15. Status of higher education in nuclear technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, A.

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan's nuclear power program was formally launched in 1959 with the establishment of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). The first research reactor, the Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR1), went critical in 1965, while the first nuclear power plant, the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), was connected to the grid in 1972. PARR1, a 5 MW highly enriched uranium swimming pool reactor, has been upgraded to 10 MW low enriched reactor and KANUPP is a 137 MWe CANDU reactor. Later during the mid eighties PAEC added another small research reactor, PARR2, a miniature neutron source, and in 2000 a 325 MW PWR at Chashma, the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASHNUPP). Thus PAEC currently owns and operates two nuclear power plants and two research reactors. KANUPP has completed its design life of 30 years and is now undergoing the re-licensing process. CHASNUPP has just completed its first refuelling outage. Negotiations for the third nuclear power plant, also a 300 MW PWR from China, are continuing. The training and education programs in nuclear technology were initiated in the early 1960's soon after the establishment of PAEC. Initially the cream of fresh graduates in engineering, medicine and natural sciences, who were inducted in PAEC were given short training before they were sent for higher studies abroad. The availability of a nucleus of highly qualified professionals in nuclear power and allied disciplines, the lack of adequate facilities in the local educational institutions in these fields and the realization that many more professionals will be needed than could be trained abroad led to the establishment of coherent indigenous training and education program in the late sixties. Given below is a brief description of the centers set up by the PAEC for providing manpower for its nuclear power program

  16. Preventive Care Use among the Belgian Elderly Population: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hoeck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (≥65 years and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the independent effect of socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and SES on the four preventive services. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, region, survey year, living situation, risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and health status (self-assessed health and longstanding illness lower educated elderly were significantly less likely to report a blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement. For instance, elderly participants with no degree or only primary education were less likely to have had a cholesterol and blood sugar measurement compared with those with higher education. Pneumococcus vaccination was not related to educational level, but lower income groups were more likely to have had a pneumococcus immunization. Influenza vaccination was not significantly related to SES. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to promote cholesterol and blood sugar measurement for lower SE groups, and pneumococcus immunization for the entire elderly population. Influenza immunization seems to be equally spread among different SE groups.

  17. A Comparison of the Status, Legal, Economic, and Psychological Characteristics of Types of Adult Male Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, A; Dinur Klein, L; Dannon, P N

    2015-09-01

    Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblers—sports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)—in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p < 0.0001). There were higher rates of bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers.

  18. Family affluence, socio - economic status and dietary habits of 1st year University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Syligardou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low socio-economic status (SES is associated with health risk behaviours contributing to the social inequalities in health. However, the associations of dietary habits with socio-economic status have not been investigated in emerging adulthood in detail yet. Aim: To investigate the associations of dietary habits with socio-economic status in 1st year undergraduate university students. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis draws data from the LATO study, a longitudinal study of all 1st year undergraduate students of TEI Crete during the academic year 2012/13 (Ν=1138, 54% girls, Mean age 18,31 years, response rate 96,7%. The consumption frequencies of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, breakfast and delivery food were associated with the following socio-economic indicators: Family affluence (FAS II, paternal and maternal educational level and self-reported economic status. The SPSS v21.0 was used to perform logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Only 24,9%, 12% and 17% of the students were consuming breakfast, fruits and vegetables, respectively, in a daily basis. Soft drinks were consumed daily by 6,1% of the participants but most of them consumed delivery/junk food less than 1/week (73,8%. Higher family affluence was associated with increased odds of consuming breakfast (OR=2,90, 95%CI=1,13-7,44, soft drinks (OR=8,10, 95%CI=1,38-47,68 and delivery/junk food (OR=2,44, 95%CI=1,27-4,70 in boys. High paternal educational level was associated in a protective way with boys’ consumption of delivery food (OR=0,42, 95%CI=0,18-0,95 and soft drinks (OR=0,19, 95%CI=0,05-0,72. Fruits and vegetables consumption was not associated with any SES indicator. Conclusions: The majority of 1st year university students were not following current diet recommendations irrespective of SES. Interventions targeting eating behaviours are needed at higher education institutes.

  19. Economic Status and Adult Mortality in India: Is the Relationship Sensitive to Choice of Indicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Debasis; Desai, Sonalde; Vanneman, Reeve

    2018-03-01

    Research on economic status and adult mortality is often stymied by the reciprocity of this relationship and lack of clarity on which aspect of economic status matters. While financial resources increase access to healthcare and nutrition and reduce mortality, sickness also reduces labor force participation, thereby reducing income. Without longitudinal data, it is difficult to study the linkage between economic status and mortality. Using data from a national sample of 132,116 Indian adults aged 15 years and above, this paper examines their likelihood of death between wave 1 of the India Human Development Survey (IHDS), conducted in 2004-2005 and wave 2, conducted in 2011-2012. The results show that mortality between the two waves is strongly linked to the economic status of the household at wave 1 regardless of the choice of indicator for economic status. However, negative relationship between economic status and mortality for individuals already suffering from cardiovascular and metabolic conditions varies between three markers of economic status - income, consumption and ownership of consumer durables - varies, reflecting two-way relationship between short and long term markers of economic status and morbidity.

  20. Socio-economic status by rapid appraisal is highly correlated with mortality risks in rural Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bodegom, D.; May, L.; Kuningas, M.; Kaptijn, R.; Thomese, G.C.F.; Meij, H.J.; Amankwa, J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Socio-economic status is an important determinant of health and survival in rural Africa and necessitates a practical and valid instrument to implement in health studies. Our objective was to investigate the validity of the rapid appraisal method to assess socio-economic status and its ability to

  1. Socio-Economic status of parents as a correlate of re-entry of girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic status (SES) and re-entry of girls into school in Edo State, Nigeria. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated for the study. Two research instruments, the “Socio-Economic Status of Parents” and the “Reentry into ...

  2. Introductory Textbooks and Plagiarism in Higher Education: A Case Study from Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Textbooks are powerful technologies that are foundational to introductory level courses. In the research site of an introductory economic classroom, the textbook is positioned as having status similar to that of a canonical religious text. This study investigated how student reading and writing can be problematic when introductory level courses…

  3. Traffic, air pollution, minority and socio-economic status: addressing inequities in exposure and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C; Vadali, Monika L; Kvale, Dorian L; Ellickson, Kristie M

    2015-05-19

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities.

  4. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  5. The Economic Impact of Higher Education Institutions in Ireland: Evidence from Disaggregated Input-Output Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiantao; Larkin, Charles; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    While there has been a long history of modelling the economic impact of higher education institutions (HEIs), little research has been undertaken in the context of Ireland. This paper provides, for the first time, a disaggregated input-output table for Ireland's higher education sector. The picture painted overall is a higher education sector that…

  6. Higher Education and Economic Development in the OECD: Policy Lessons for Other Countries and Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Rómulo; Pillay, Pundy

    2016-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the role of tertiary or higher education in economic development across two successful OECD case studies: Finland and South Korea. A number of key aspects are discussed, from the nature of the social contract between higher education and the economy to the endogenous characteristics of domestic higher education to the…

  7. Economic Education in Korea: Current Status and Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe key aspects of precollege and undergraduate economic education in Korea. They show that precollege students seem to have low economics literacy due to problems with the curriculum and insufficient training of teachers. At the undergraduate level, they show that economics departments have more male students than female students…

  8. Effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress among farmers and non-farmers of rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Ji, Linqin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between farmers and non-farmers of rural China. Further, this examines the effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress and whether this effect varies between farmers and non-farmers. The study design is a cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in 27 villages of Dongying City in Shandong Province. Rural employed people included 1433 farmers and 584 non-farmers. Psychological distress was assessed by the Kessler 10 questionnaire, and subjective economic status was assessed by a single question. Overall, the farmers did not report significantly higher prevalence of psychological distress than non-farmers (31.13% versus 30.01%). However, the farmers aged 51-70 years did report significantly higher psychological distress than their non-farmer counterparts (33.4% versus 24.2%, P = 0.04). Second, subjective economic status had a significant (β = -0.28, P farmers (β = 0.30, P farmers (β = 0.20, P farmers had a comparable prevalence of psychological distress when compared with non-farmers in rural China. Subjective economic status exerted a significant effect on the psychological distress of rural employed people, and this effect was stronger for the farmers than for the non-farmers. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  9. Biomass torrefaction technology: Techno-economic status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batidzirai, B.; Mignot, A.P.R.; Schakel, W.B.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising bioenergy pre-treatment technology, with potential to make a major contribution to the commodification of biomass. However, there is limited scientific knowledge on the techno-economic performance of torrefaction. This study therefore improves available knowledge on torrefaction by providing detailed insights into state of the art prospects of the commercial utilisation of torrefaction technology over time. Focussing on and based on the current status of the compact moving bed reactor, we identify process performance characteristics such as thermal efficiency and mass yield and discuss their determining factors through analysis of mass and energy balances. This study has shown that woody biomass can be torrefied with a thermal and mass efficiency of 94% and 48% respectively (on a dry ash free basis). For straw, the corresponding theoretical energetic efficiency is 96% and mass efficiency is 65%. In the long term, the technical performance of torrefaction processes is expected to improve and energy efficiencies are expected to be at least 97% as optimal torgas use and efficient heat transfer are realised. Short term production costs for woody biomass TOPs (torrefied pellets) are estimated to be between 3.3 and 4.8 US$/GJ LHV , falling to 2.1–5.1 US$/GJ LHV in the long term. At such cost levels, torrefied pellets would become competitive with traditional pellets. For full commercialisation, torrefaction reactors still require to be optimised. Of importance to torrefaction system performance is the achievement of consistent and homogeneous, fully hydrophobic and stable product, capable of utilising different feedstocks, at desired end-use energy densities. - Highlights: • Woody biomass torrefaction thermal efficiency is 94% and mass efficiency is 48% on a daf basis. • Straw theoretical torrefaction energetic efficiency is 96% and mass efficiency is 65%. • Current woody TOPs production costs are between 3.3 and 4.8 US$/GJ LHV , 50

  10. Comparing the Physiological, Socio economic and Nutritional Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the present days, increasing trend of eating disorders are noticed among college students (both male and female) which can disturb their overall physiological and health status. It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of ...

  11. The Status of Econometrics in the Economics Major: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce K.; Perry, John J.; Petkus, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the place of econometrics in undergraduate economics curricula in all American colleges and universities that offer economics majors as listed in the "U.S. News & World Report" "Best Colleges 2010" guide ("U.S. News & World Report" 2009). Data come from online catalogs, departmental Web sites, and online…

  12. Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifuddin Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries.The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth.Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1, universal primary education (MDG 2, and women's empowerment (MDG 3.

  13. Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saifuddin; Creanga, Andreea A; Gillespie, Duff G; Tsui, Amy O

    2010-06-23

    Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries. The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth. Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1), universal primary education (MDG 2), and women's empowerment (MDG 3).

  14. Socio-economic status and incident diabetes mellitus among employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, B.; Hannerz, Harald; Poulsen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To contribute to the research on diabetes and social inequality by presenting national data on incident diabetes mellitus, stratified according to socio-economic status. Methods: National registers were combined, linking socio-economic status with incident diabetes over a 10-year period (2001...... had been as low as those in the reference group. Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate 95% CIs for excess fraction estimates Results: A total of 1 005 572 men and 951 039 women were included in the analysis. The follow-up yielded 43 439 cases in 9 533 199 person-years at risk among men and 29...... 266 cases in 9 163 405 person-years at risk among women. Using 'professionals' as a reference group, higher levels of relative risk were observed among every other socio-occupational group. The excess fraction was, 0.342 (95% CI 0.329-0.354) among men and 0.359 (95% CI 0.349-0.369) among women...

  15. Higher education, Graduate unemployment, Poverty and Economic growth in Tunisia, 1990-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Mefteh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between economic growth, higher education, unemployment and poverty using properties of time series variables while applying the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS method. Our study thus contributes to the existing literature by giving the first integrated approach to examine the four way linkages in the Tunisian background over the period 1990-2013. This paper holds that higher education can impact unemployment and graduate unemployment causes poverty which would affect economic growth. Our empirical results show that there is bi-directional causal relationship between per capita gross domestic product (GDP and poverty rate (POV and also between Number of graduate students (GRA and School enrollment tertiary education (ENR besides unidirectional causal relationship which running from Number of graduate students to Unemployment with tertiary education (UNP, from Higher education expenditure (EXP to poverty rate and from Unemployment with tertiary education to poverty rate. Our empirical results also verified the existence of positive effect of ENR, GRA and POV on economic growth, while, UNP and EXP have negative determining influence on economic growth with only GRA statistically significant. These empirical insights are of particular interest for the policy makers as they help build sound economic policies to sustain economic development and improve the higher educational quality.

  16. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  17. On Stratification in Changing Higher Education: The "Analysis of Status" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Roland; Mitterle, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to shed light on current dynamics of stratification in changing higher education and proposes an analytical perspective to account for these dynamics based on Martin Trow's work on "the analysis of status." In research on higher education, the term "stratification" is generally understood as a metaphor that…

  18. Student Motivations, Quality and Status in Adult Higher Education (AHE) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Naixia; Morgan, W. John

    2009-01-01

    This article examines an important and yet neglected aspect of the relationship between higher education and the labour market in contemporary China. It does this through a detailed case study of student motivations, quality and status in adult higher education (AHE) in the city of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province. This is a region which has seen major…

  19. Cooperative biogas plants. Economic results and analyses. Status report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjort-Gregersen, K.

    1998-11-01

    The years 1995 - 1998 have been characterised by stabilisation of operation and economy of the Danish co-operative biogas plants. Most of the plants have obtained increasingly better economic results although the increase has been less significant than during earlier periods. There are several reasons for the increase. Most of the plants have been able to increase the sales income because of larger amounts of biomass available resulting in an increased biogas production. Furthermore it has been possible to contain the income level for biomass receipt. Several plants have established gas collection in storage tanks, which has resulted in increased gas yield. The operational stability related to both technique and processes have improved. The operational costs have been stabilised and are under control at most of the plants. The improved economic results have resulted in most of the plants having a satisfactory operation and economy. However, it must be stressed that some of the oldest plants have not been able to settle the investment dept at normal conditions. Also some, even rather new plants, still are in a difficult economic situation. Most of the plants established in the 90'ies have had a good start both operationally and economically. Thus the economic risk of establishing a plant has been reduced compared to earlier years. Generally the prerequisites for establishing a biogas plant are favourable economic conditions and quality assurance of the project. (LN)

  20. Economic Subjectivities in Higher Education: Self, Policy and Practice in the Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Saltmarsh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers higher education in the context of global knowledge economy policies as a site for the production of economic subjectivities. Drawing insights from poststructuralist theory and feminist economics, it explores how the incorporation of economic discourse and market metaphors into education policy and practice functions as a disciplinary technique of governmentality. The article argues that while economic discourse displaces, disciplines and disrupts educational discourse, there is a need for greater acknowledgement of the productive potential of the intersection of education and economy as a means through which agency is in part accomplished. Implications for university learning and labour are considered, with a view to contributing to dialogues about new ways of undisciplining economic subjectivities, through which new ways of doing and being might enact alternative educational economies.

  1. Effects of Rural – Urban Interaction on Socio-Economic Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic status of rural dwellers in the study area. Policy makers and development workers should exploit the role of rural-urban interaction to bring about sustainable livelihood in the present changing perspective of extension system in ...

  2. Effect of some Socio-economic Factors on the Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of some Socio-economic Factors on the Nutritional Status of Pregnant ... Conclusion: The need for nutrition education, women empowerment, health support and ... in reducing prevalence of malnutrition among these vulnerable groups.

  3. Maternal depression and socio-economic status moderate the parenting style/child obesity association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Glade L; Page, Melanie C; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka; Harrist, Amanda W

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of two risk factors, maternal depression and socio-economic status (SES), on the association between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and child obesity. Correlational, cross-sectional study. Parenting style was measured with the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ). Maternal depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). BMI-for-age percentile was used to categorize children by weight status (children with BMI-for-age > or = 95th percentile were classified as obese). SES was computed from parent education and occupational status using the four-factor Hollingshead index. Rural public schools in a mid-western state in the USA. One hundred and seventy-six mothers of first-grade children (ninety-one boys, eighty-five girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Both maternal depression and SES were found to moderate the permissive parenting style/child obesity association, but not the authoritarian/child obesity association. For depressed mothers, but not for non-depressed mothers, more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity. Similarly more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity among higher SES mothers, but not for lower SES mothers. Maternal depression and SES interact with permissive parenting style to predict child obesity. Future research should examine the relationship among these variables using a longitudinal design.

  4. The economical efficiency of private investments in higher education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maksyutina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the economical efficiency of investments in higher education in modern conditions of Russia. The beginning of the article includes a characteristic of the existing empiric research concerning the efficiency of investments in human capital assets. Further the author of the article introduces the results of pay off calculation of private investments in higher education. The result of the research was that in modern conditions of Russia investments in higher education are exceedingly advantageous. High norms of higher education feedback and short period of pay off of these investments explain the reasons of continuously growing demand for it on the part of the population, especially young people. The article proves that the level of population education in Russia is quite high, however accumulated human capital asset is used insufficiently effective. Many people with higher education are forced to take jobs not requiring higher education.  Sharp shift in educational behavior of Russian people raises new demands to labor market. Graduates of higher educational institutions, appearing on a labor market, form qualitatively different demands towards it. But tempo of Russian economics development today can not provide job positions for all graduates of higher educational institutions. That is why structural change of economics is needed.

  5. ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE RUSSIAN MINORITY IN TAJIKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz A. Bandey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards, there was a sharp economic decline in the entire Soviet Union including Central Asia. People in general were affected due to this economic decline; however, in case of the Slav minority in Central Asia including Tajikistan the outmigration of Russian, which started from the 1980s, affected them more than that of their Central Asian counterparts. After the disintegration of Soviet Union, the condition of the leftovers was further accentuated by the language policy, ethnicisation while recruitment in the public offices, etc. Besides this Tajikistan has been the poorest country in the post Soviet space, which in turn is adding to the economic hardships of the people in general and ethnic Russians of the country in particular.

  6. Russian Socio-Economic Geography: Status, Challenges, Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov Vasilii

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic geography studies the processes, characteristics and patterns of spatial development. In the recent decades, however, this area of scientific investigation has failed its promise, which happened for a number of external and internal reasons. The main external reason is the development of "consumer society", which does not require the search of new space and therefore ignores the "spatial" science, geography. Internal reason is the blurring of socio-economic geography along the variety of new lines of research. The discipline was, in many ways, redundant, and unselective in the application of theoretical and methodological tools liberally borrowed from other branches of both geography and economics. The only way this discipline can return to its former glory is by going all the way back to doing proper spatial research.

  7. Exploring the Latino Paradox: How Economic and Citizenship Status Impact Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kelly; Garcia, Donna M.; Granillo, Christina V.; Chavez, David V.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the contributions of economic status (ES) and citizenship status to health differences between European Americans, Latino Americans, and noncitizen Latinos. The investigation was framed using social identity and comparison theories. Southern California residents (N = 2,164) were randomly selected to complete a telephone…

  8. Family Economic Status and Parental Involvement: Influences of Parental Expectation and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiji; Deng, Ciping; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's education is a critical factor associated with children's socio-emotional and educational outcomes. However, low parental involvement occurs more often among economically disadvantaged families. It is unclear what mechanisms may explain the association between family economic status and parents' educational…

  9. Empirical measurement of socio-economic status of farm families in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A universe of 106 socio-economic status indicators was collated. The t-test and point-biserial correlation were used in the item analysis of quantitatively measured and dichotomous items respectively. Forty items were found valid across all the ethnic groups in the state. The 40 items were standardized into a socio-economic ...

  10. On the disciplinary and functional status of economic lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2015-01-01

    of name, size, content, style, and structure may, at least partially, be explained by this fact. In this respect, the article systematizes the functions registered in economic dictionaries during the past 300 years, and presents some suggestions for the immediate future of online dictionaries....

  11. Job Attitudes among Different Occupational Status Groups. An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Simcha; Sadan, Simcha

    1984-01-01

    An economic model is applied to employee attitudinal variables to compare the contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to job satisfaction for skilled workers and managers in an electronics manufacturing organization. Intrinsic rewards are found to increase in importance as employment level increases, suggesting different frames of…

  12. The importance and role of theoretical economics in contemporary higher educational process with a review of the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slijepčević Đoko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After pointing out the importance and role of theoretical economics in contemporary higher education and in creation of a long-term stable and successful economic and general social development, the authors analyze in this paper the status of theoretical economics and representation of theoretical economics courses (Political economy, Economic Doctrines, Macroeconomics, Microeconomics... in the Curricula of the Faculties of Economics and other Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH (Law, Political Science. Thereby it is ascertained that Neo-Liberal School and its concepts still dominate in both, economic politics of transition, and in creation of Curricula within the Bologna System of Higher Education in BiH and its entities. However, the Neo-Liberal School has been undergoing a crisis for a long time, as it is not able to explain properly neither the global financial crisis, nor the transitional processes and crisis in BiH. Therefore, the knowledge of Keynesian, Marxist, and other schools of economic thought and learning, should be used more in creating the Curricula of general education courses. In analyzing the representation and role of courses of theoretical character in current high education of economists, lawyers and political scientists in BiH, the authors highlight the thesis that 'Political Economics' and other disciplines of theoretical economics have been repressed, while business and specialist disciplines, which study the skills and techniques of business management, are more and more present. The authors consider that this state of affairs is unacceptable and that it should be changed in direction of reaffirmation of 'Political Economics' and other general education disciplines from theoretical economics domain, since only these disciplines provide fundamental knowledge for creation of economic system, economic policy and achievement of a successful economic and general development of every socio-political community.

  13. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  14. Higher Education Development in Korea: Western University Ideas, Confucian Tradition, and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol

    2012-01-01

    The features of Korean higher education development are related to sociocultural tradition (Confucian tradition), the model university ideas, and economic development in Korea. The modern university ideas adopted in Korean are based on the German model which was established by the Japanese colonial government and drawing on the US university model…

  15. Cross-Border Higher Education: Global and Local Tensions within Competition and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Taya L.; Lane, Jason E.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors explore various types of cross-border higher education, considering equity and quality issues within these developments. With a particular focus on international branch campuses, the authors discuss the ways in which global competition for knowledge and economic development interact with tensions at the local level.

  16. Female Intense Curricula: Fashion Merchandising in Home Economics and Associated Programs in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikitka, Kathleen Faith; Van Camp, Mary Lou

    A study was done of higher education curricula with substantial enrollment by women (such as fashion merchandising and home economics) to examine the context and substance of the curricula, to identify infrastructures that have supported these programs, and to probe issues that face administrators, faculty and students engaged in such programs.…

  17. Balancing Economic and Other Discourses in the Internationalization of Higher Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Mel; Nilan, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Since the end of the apartheid era in South Africa, "internationalization" of higher education has been a popular theme as the country takes its place as a regional leader in education and research in sub-Saharan Africa. However, competing discourses of internationalization have produced economic and moral dilemmas rather than the…

  18. Some Lessons for Higher Education from the Economics of Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenell, Simon

    The arrival of the Internet has been seen to portend the rise of the virtual university, global competition, and the end of campus education. The emerging economics of electronic commerce (eCommerce) allows for a measured understanding of the implications of the new technologies for higher education and even how educational innovation should be…

  19. Mathematics in Finance and Economics: Importance of Teaching Higher Order Mathematical Thinking Skills in Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tularam, Gurudeo Anand

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of teaching mathematics in business and finance schools of tertiary institutions of Australia. The paper explores the nature of thinking and reasoning required for advancement financial or economic studies involves the use of higher order thinking and creativity skills (HOTS) for teaching in mathematics classes.…

  20. Scientific Research in Jordanian Higher Education Institutions: An Evaluation of the Status and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Tareef, Atif

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the status and obstacles of scientific research in Jordanian higher education institutions. And defined by being an attempt to increase faculty member's, researcher's and educational leader's attention to the necessity of improving research planning or strategies, professional development, working conditions,…

  1. Socioeconomic status, labour market connection, and self-rated psychological health: the role of social capital and economic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Ali, Sadiq M; Rosvall, Maria

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the association between socioeconomic status, unemployment and self-rated psychological health, taking economic stress and horizontal trust into account. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 55% participation rate. A random sample was invited and 28,198 persons aged 18-80 participated. Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic status by occupation (SES), labour market connection and self-rated psychological health (GHQ12). The multiple regression analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress and generalized (horizontal) trust. 13.8% of the men and 18.2% of the women had poor psychological health. Poor psychological health was more common among the young, among those born abroad, among those with lower education, with economic stress, and low horizontal trust. There were no significant differences between the employed and self-employed groups. However, the people who had retired early, the unemployed and those on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health than higher non-manual employees throughout the analyses. There were no differences in psychological health between non-manual employees in higher positions and other employed and self-employed SES groups among men or women. In contrast, the early retired, the unemployed and the category on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health among both men and women throughout the multiple analyses. Both economic stress and trust affected this association (i.e., lowered the odds ratios of poor psychological health), but affected by economic stress to a somewhat higher extent.

  2. Status report : British Columbia`s economic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    A sector-by-sector update of actions taken under British Columbia`s three-year economic plan is outlined and the progress to date reviewed. The three year plan includes the support for industry growth in partnership with the private sector, making Vancouver a major international conference destination, and developing Vancouver International Airport into a major gateway to the Pacific. The plan also includes the promotion of adventure tourism in major international markets, and promoting aboriginal tourism and culture. The government also plans to stimulate the economy by providing $973 million in tax reductions for BC families and business. 1 tab.

  3. Deciding to Wait: Partnership Status, Economic Conditions, and Pregnancy during the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Percheski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession was associated with reduced fertility in the United States. Many questions about the dynamics underlying this reduction remain unanswered, however, including whether reduced fertility rates were driven by decreases in intended or unplanned pregnancies. Using restricted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth (N = 4,630, we exploit variation in state economic indicators to assess the impact of economic conditions on the likelihood of an intended pregnancy, an unplanned pregnancy, or no pregnancy for adult women without a college education. We focus on variations by partnership and marital status. Overall, we find that worse economic conditions were predictive of a lower risk of unplanned pregnancy. Women's odds of intended pregnancy did not, however, respond uniformly to economic conditions but varied by marital status. When economic conditions were poor, married women had lower odds of intended pregnancy, whereas cohabiting women had greater odds of intended pregnancy.

  4. Effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socio-economic status on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed J; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Razmifard, Farzad; Afsharnia, Farzaneh

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants' first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants' birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants' birth weight.

  5. Socio-economic status and urbanization are linked to snacks and obesity in adolescents in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruapula, Segametsi D; Jackson, Jose C; Holsten, Joanna; Shaibu, Sheila; Malete, Leapetswe; Wrotniak, Brian; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Mokone, George G; Stettler, Nicolas; Compher, Charlene

    2011-12-01

    To describe patterns of food consumption associated with overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization. A nationwide cross-sectional survey. Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa. A total of 746 adolescent schoolchildren. OW/OB is associated with greater SES, city residence and a snack-food diet pattern. Students belonging to higher SES compared with those from a lower SES background reported significantly (P snack foods (1·55 v. 0·76) and fewer servings of traditional diet foods (0·99 v. 1·68) and also reported that they ate meals outside the home more often (90% v. 72%). Students in cities ate significantly (P snacks (1·69 v. 1·05 v. 0·51) and fewer servings of traditional foods (0·67 v. 1·52 v. 1·61) compared with those in urban and rural villages. The odds of OW/OB were increased 1·16-fold with a snack-food diet, a result that was diminished when controlled for SES. These data suggest that nutritional transition occurs at different rates across urbanization and SES levels in Botswana. In cities, increasing the availability of fruit while reducing access to or portion sizes of snack items is important. Emphasis on continued intake of traditional foods may also be helpful as rural areas undergo economic and infrastructural development.

  6. High economic inequality leads higher-income individuals to be less generous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Stéphane; House, Julian; Willer, Robb

    2015-01-01

    Research on social class and generosity suggests that higher-income individuals are less generous than poorer individuals. We propose that this pattern emerges only under conditions of high economic inequality, contexts that can foster a sense of entitlement among higher-income individuals that, in turn, reduces their generosity. Analyzing results of a unique nationally representative survey that included a real-stakes giving opportunity (n = 1,498), we found that in the most unequal US states, higher-income respondents were less generous than lower-income respondents. In the least unequal states, however, higher-income individuals were more generous. To better establish causality, we next conducted an experiment (n = 704) in which apparent levels of economic inequality in participants’ home states were portrayed as either relatively high or low. Participants were then presented with a giving opportunity. Higher-income participants were less generous than lower-income participants when inequality was portrayed as relatively high, but there was no association between income and generosity when inequality was portrayed as relatively low. This research finds that the tendency for higher-income individuals to be less generous pertains only when inequality is high, challenging the view that higher-income individuals are necessarily more selfish, and suggesting a previously undocumented way in which inequitable resource distributions undermine collective welfare. PMID:26598668

  7. High economic inequality leads higher-income individuals to be less generous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Stéphane; House, Julian; Willer, Robb

    2015-12-29

    Research on social class and generosity suggests that higher-income individuals are less generous than poorer individuals. We propose that this pattern emerges only under conditions of high economic inequality, contexts that can foster a sense of entitlement among higher-income individuals that, in turn, reduces their generosity. Analyzing results of a unique nationally representative survey that included a real-stakes giving opportunity (n = 1,498), we found that in the most unequal US states, higher-income respondents were less generous than lower-income respondents. In the least unequal states, however, higher-income individuals were more generous. To better establish causality, we next conducted an experiment (n = 704) in which apparent levels of economic inequality in participants' home states were portrayed as either relatively high or low. Participants were then presented with a giving opportunity. Higher-income participants were less generous than lower-income participants when inequality was portrayed as relatively high, but there was no association between income and generosity when inequality was portrayed as relatively low. This research finds that the tendency for higher-income individuals to be less generous pertains only when inequality is high, challenging the view that higher-income individuals are necessarily more selfish, and suggesting a previously undocumented way in which inequitable resource distributions undermine collective welfare.

  8. Economic stability and health status: evidence from East Asia before and after the 1990s economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sandra

    2006-02-01

    The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health.

  9. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, W.A.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L.

    1992-01-01

    A study was carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Reported costs for most aspects had a wide range. Currently, yields of 10-15 dry Mg/hectare/y are readily achievable. Using the cost and yield data, and assuming a biomass price of $40/dry Mg, a series of cash flow analyses were performed. For the low cost inputs, all scenarios were marginally profitable. For the high cost inputs, none of the scenarios were profitable. A current scenario, using figures for contract farming, was not profitable, however this system would break even with a yield of 23.3 dry Mg/hectare/y, within the range of some production clones. A future scenario using farm labour with increased productivity, product values, and machinery efficiencies yielded a profit-making situation. The addition of incentives increased profitability. There is great potential for the production of woody biomass in Canada as a feedstock for energy and other products. Continued and more intensive breeding and selection to develop high yielding stress tolerant clones, cost efficient harvesting systems, continued research into optimization of planting density, rotation length and cultural techniques, and characterization of promising clones with respect to nutrient-use efficiency, site requirements and pest/disease resistance are important areas for further work. 81 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation: Evidence from BRIC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: artur.tamazian@usc.es; Chousa, Juan Pineiro [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: efjpch@usc.es; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: kc_dcm@yahoo.co.in

    2009-01-15

    A vast number of studies addressed the environmental degradation and economic development but not financial development. Moreover, as argued by Stern [2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32, 1419-1439] they present important econometric weaknesses. Using standard reduced-form modeling approach and controlling for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity, we investigate the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also the financial development. Panel data over period 1992-2004 is used. We find that both economic and financial development are determinants of the environmental quality in BRIC economies. We show that higher degree of economic and financial development decreases the environmental degradation. Our analysis suggests that financial liberalization and openness are essential factors for the CO{sub 2} reduction. The adoption of policies directed to financial openness and liberalization to attract higher levels of R and D-related foreign direct investment might reduce the environmental degradation in countries under consideration. In addition, the robustness check trough the inclusion of US and Japan does not alter our main findings.

  11. Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation. Evidence from BRIC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur; Chousa, Juan Pineiro; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    A vast number of studies addressed the environmental degradation and economic development but not financial development. Moreover, as argued by Stern [2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32, 1419-1439] they present important econometric weaknesses. Using standard reduced-form modeling approach and controlling for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity, we investigate the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also the financial development. Panel data over period 1992-2004 is used. We find that both economic and financial development are determinants of the environmental quality in BRIC economies. We show that higher degree of economic and financial development decreases the environmental degradation. Our analysis suggests that financial liberalization and openness are essential factors for the CO{sub 2} reduction. The adoption of policies directed to financial openness and liberalization to attract higher levels of R and D-related foreign direct investment might reduce the environmental degradation in countries under consideration. In addition, the robustness check trough the inclusion of US and Japan does not alter our main findings. (author)

  12. Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation. Evidence from BRIC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazian, Artur; Chousa, Juan Pineiro; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2009-01-01

    A vast number of studies addressed the environmental degradation and economic development but not financial development. Moreover, as argued by Stern [2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32, 1419-1439] they present important econometric weaknesses. Using standard reduced-form modeling approach and controlling for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity, we investigate the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also the financial development. Panel data over period 1992-2004 is used. We find that both economic and financial development are determinants of the environmental quality in BRIC economies. We show that higher degree of economic and financial development decreases the environmental degradation. Our analysis suggests that financial liberalization and openness are essential factors for the CO 2 reduction. The adoption of policies directed to financial openness and liberalization to attract higher levels of R and D-related foreign direct investment might reduce the environmental degradation in countries under consideration. In addition, the robustness check trough the inclusion of US and Japan does not alter our main findings. (author)

  13. School quality, economic status and school dropout rates among Mexican teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Danitza Vargas Valle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between dropping out of school and the perceived quality of the last school that Mexican teenagers attended, and examine the interaction between this educational factor and the economic status of this population. Based on the 2010 National Youth Survey, the researchers used the life table to describe this relationship, and Cox regression models to analyze it, including individual, family-related and educational co-variables. The results show that the risk of dropping out of school is indirectly linked to school quality and, to a greater degree, to economic status; and that the gap between students dropping out based on school quality is slightly wider among adolescents of low academic status than among those of high status.

  14. Measuring the Total Economic Value of State-Funded Higher Education in Iowa

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This is an evaluation of the statewide total economic value of state-funded higher education in Iowa. The analysis is based on Fiscal Year 2010 final budgeted values for Iowa's three Board of Regents universities and their teaching hospital, as well as the state's 15 community colleges. Final budget year data were obtained from the respective state universities' web sites, from the Board of Regents, and from the Annual Condition of Iowa's Community Colleges, 2010, report published by the Iowa...

  15. Socio-economic status and health in a marginalized group: the role of subjective social status among prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friestad, Christine

    2010-12-01

    One problem in studies of social inequality in health is that traditional socio-economic indicators are unsuitable for groups finding themselves on the outside of those societal arenas from which measures of education, income and occupation are generated. A measure of subjective social position has accordingly been proposed as an addition to the traditional objective socio-economic measures. The present study investigates this concepts' usefulness as an addition to objective SES markers in a sample of prison inmates, known for their marginalized position in society as well as their poor health. Analyses are based on the male part (n = 225) of a nationally representative sample of prison inmates in Norway. Outcome measures are self-rated health, long-standing illness or disability, mental health problems, perceived change in health status and drug use. Analyses of correlation as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Subjective social status was bivariately related to all of the health outcomes, except long-standing illness. Multivariate analyses indicated that subjective social status influenced the odds of experiencing mental health problems, but not any of the other health outcomes when controlling for the other independent variables. Subjective social status may add important information to our understanding of the relationship between social disadvantage and mental health in a marginalized social group such as prison inmates.

  16. Sevoflurane Induces DNA Damage Whereas Isoflurane Leads to Higher Antioxidative Status in Anesthetized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita L. A. Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that there are controversial antioxidative effects of inhalational anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane and absence of comparison of genotoxicity of both anesthetics in animal model, the aim of this study was to compare DNA damage and antioxidant status in Wistar rats exposed to a single time to isoflurane or sevoflurane. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay was performed in order to evaluate DNA damage in whole blood cells of control animals (unexposed; n = 6 and those exposed to 2% isoflurane (n = 6 or 4% sevoflurane (n = 6 for 120 min. Plasma antioxidant status was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. There was no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups regarding hemodynamic and temperature variables (P > 0.05. Sevoflurane significantly increased DNA damage compared to unexposed animals (P = 0.02. In addition, Wistar rats anesthetized with isoflurane showed higher antioxidative status (MTT than control group (P = 0.019. There were no significant differences in DNA damage or antioxidant status between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups (P > 0.05. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, in contrast to sevoflurane exposure, isoflurane increases systemic antioxidative status, protecting cells from DNA damage in rats.

  17. Social and economic structures and health status of the Early Medieval population from Greater Moravia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velemínský, P.; Dobisíková, M.; Stránská, Petra; Trefný, P.; Likovský, Jakub

    Suppl. 36, - (2003), s. 214-215 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists /72./. 23.04.2003-26.04.2003, Tempe] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8002910 Keywords : 9th-10th century * socio-economic status * health status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology

  18. Job Pressure and SES-contingent Buffering: Resource Reinforcement, Substitution, or the Stress of Higher Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Jonathan; Schieman, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Analyses of the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce demonstrate that job pressure is associated with greater anxiety and job dissatisfaction. In this paper we ask, What conditions protect workers? The conventional buffering hypothesis in the Job-Demands Resource (JD-R) model predicts that job resources should attenuate the relationship. We test whether the conventional buffering hypothesis depends on socioeconomic status (SES). Support for conventional buffering is evident only for job dissatisfaction--and that generalizes across SES. When anxiety is assessed, however, we observe an SES contingency: Job resources attenuate the positive association between job pressure and anxiety among workers with lower SES, but exacerbate it among those with higher SES. We discuss the implications of this SES-contingent pattern for theoretical scenarios about "resource reinforcement," "resource substitution," and the "stress of higher status." Future research should consider SES indicators as potential contingencies in the relationship between job conditions and mental health. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  19. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  20. Socio-economic status over the life course and obesity: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Suzy; Braithwaite, Dejana; Akinyemiju, Tomi F

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarize the published literature on the association of childhood, adulthood and life course socio-economic status (SES) with obesity between January 1990 and June 2015. The major medical electronic databases were searched to identify studies that examined SES over the life-course in relation to obesity. A total of 219 studies were identified through the initial search, and 35 qualified for full review. Of these, 14 publications met our inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, all from developed or upper-middle income countries. There was a consistent association between lower life course SES and obesity among women (summary OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.76), but not among men (summary OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.60, 1.40). Overall, mean BMI was higher among individuals with lower life course SES compared with those with higher life course SES (summary mean BMI difference: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71). Mean waist circumference (WC) was higher among women with lower life course SES compared with those with higher life course SES (summary mean WC: 4.67, 95% CI: 4.15, 5.20), but lower among men (summary mean WC difference: -0.10, 95% CI: -0.11, -0.08). The inverse relationship between life course SES and obesity among women was consistent, based mostly on studies in developed countries. Nevertheless, critical information gaps remain in relation to the impact of childhood and life course SES on obesity in developing countries.

  1. National Economic Development Status May Affect the Association between Central Adiposity and Cognition in Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Maharani

    Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a global problem, rather than one found only in developed countries. Although recent studies have suggested a detrimental effect of obesity on cognition, studies of the relationship between obesity and cognition among older adults have been limited to developed countries. We aimed to examine the associations between central obesity, as measured by waist circumference, and cognition level in adults aged 50 years and older in England and Indonesia.We used linear regression models to analyse these associations and multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2006 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 3 is the source of data from England, while data from Indonesia is sourced from the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 4.Centrally obese respondents had lower cognition levels than non-centrally obese respondents in England. In contrast, central adiposity had a statistically significant positive association with cognition in Indonesia. Higher levels of education and higher economic status were associated with higher cognitive ability, while age was associated with lower cognition in both countries. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and smoking behaviour, both linked to higher risk of obesity, were negatively associated with cognitive ability among older adults in England, but they had no statistically significant association with cognition among Indonesians.The contradictory findings on obesity and cognition in England and Indonesia not only create a puzzle, but they may also have different policy implications in these countries. Reducing the prevalence of obesity may be the main focus in England and other developed countries to maintain older adults' cognition. However, Indonesia and other developing countries should place more emphasis on education, in addition to continued efforts to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, in order to prevent cognitive impairment among older adults.

  2. Higher-Status Occupations and Breast Cancer: A Life-Course Stress Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; McFarland, Michael; Collins, Caitlyn

    2013-01-01

    Using the 1957-2011 data from 3,682 White non-Hispanic women (297 incident breast cancer cases) in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, United States, we explore the effect of occupation in 1975 (at age 36) on breast cancer incidence up to age 72. Our study is motivated by the paradoxical association between higher-status occupations and elevated breast cancer risk, which presents a challenge to the consistent health advantage of higher social class. We found that women in professional occupatio...

  3. Matrix Methods and Models of Economic Analysis in the Marketing Activity of Higher Educational Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stebliuk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available On the present stage of the development of educational environment, it is necessary to use the scientific tools for understanding the market patterns of the interaction of demand and supply of educational services, which will allow not only to navigate the consumer preferences but also to form them. It is in these circumstances that it is extremely important to study changes in the volume of demand for educational services in order to adapt them to the system of higher education. The aim of the article is to substantiate the theoretical positions and develop practical recommendations for the definition of the competitive marketing strategy of higher education organizations in the market of educational services with the help of modern approaches and methods of economic-mathematical modeling. The practical significance of the obtained results is the introduction of methodological provisions for forecasting the demand and supply of educational services for higher educational establishments. The complexity and interdependence of managerial problems in the system of higher education require new ideas and approaches, which necessitates the search for new definite solutions, namely: the research paper offers the method of optimal distribution of budgetary places of the university by means of practical application of the theory of system constraints and the theory of fuzzy sets. Along with that, the calculation of the optimal number of students of the corresponding specialty with the help of cluster analysis has been carried out. In addition, an important place for improvement and development is taken by the economics and mathematical methods and methods of linear programming, they are effective means of identifying the most influential factors in achieving the goals of a higher educational establishment and justifying the marketing strategy of its development in modern conditions. To predict the quantitative values of social and economic indicators

  4. Associations between economic loss, financial strain and the psychological status of Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunong; Wong, Hung; Tan, Ngoh Tiong

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the effects of economic loss on the life satisfaction and mental health of Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Economic loss is measured by earthquake impacts on the income and houses of the survivors. The correlation analysis shows that earthquake impact on income is significantly correlated with life satisfaction and depression. The regression analyses indicate that earthquake impact on income is indirectly associated with life satisfaction and depression through its effect on financial strain. The research highlights the importance of coping strategies in maintaining a balance between economic status and living demands for disaster survivors. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  5. Higher-status occupations and breast cancer: a life-course stress approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; McFarland, Michael; Collins, Caitlyn

    2013-07-01

    Using the 1957-2011 data from 3682 White non-Hispanic women (297 incident breast cancer cases) in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, United States, we explore the effect of occupation in 1975 (at age 36) on breast cancer incidence up to age 72. Our study is motivated by the paradoxical association between higher-status occupations and elevated breast cancer risk, which presents a challenge to the consistent health advantage of higher social class. We found that women in professional occupations had 72122% and women in managerial occupations had 57-89% higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis than housewives and women in lower-status occupations. We explored an estrogen-related pathway (reproductive history, health behaviors, and life-course estrogen cycle) as well as a social stress pathway (occupational experiences) as potential explanations for the effect of higher-status occupations. The elevated risk of breast cancer among professional women was partly explained by estrogen-related variables but remained large and statistically significant. The association between managerial occupations and breast cancer incidence was fully explained by job authority defined as control over others' work. Exercising job authority was related to higher breast cancer risk (HR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.18), especially with longer duration of holding the professional/managerial job. We suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences that may have promoted breast cancer development via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of the breast tissue to adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. Our study emphasizes complex biosocial pathways through which women's gendered occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of parental cultural and economic status on adolescents’ life course preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijer, M.G.; Nagel, I.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent adolescents' ideas about their future life course in the professional and family domain are influenced by the cultural and economic status of their parents, and to what extent these influences are mediated by parents' own preferences for their child's future life

  7. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  8. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general...... Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP...

  9. The relationship between parental literacy involvement, socio-economic status and reading literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmerechts, K.; Agirdag, O.; Kavadias, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we explore the relationship between parental literacy activities with the child, socio-economic status (SES) and reading literacy. We draw upon the Bourdieusian theory of habitus development to explore this relationship. Multilevel analyses of a survey of 43,870 pupils (with an

  10. Socio-economic status of fish farmers in Phalga Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of socio-economic status of fish farmers in Phalga Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out to evaluate the trend, structures, operations, management of fish farms and the level of acceptability of new technologies. The Local Government Area was divided into eight zones, and each zone was ...

  11. Added-on salt, socio-economic status and blood pressure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of (pre)hypertension and its relationship with added-on salt and socio-economic status (SES) is under-reported in sub-Saharan Africa, and thus was studied in 315 adolescents (57.8% girls) living in Umuahia, Nigeria. Standard procedures were used for all measurements. (Pre)hypertension were defined ...

  12. Socio-economic Status Plays Important Roles in Childhood Cancer Treatment Outcome in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, S.; Gunawan, S.; Wolters, E.; van de Ven, P.M.; Sitaresmi, M.N.; van Dongen, J.; Veerman, A.J.P.; Mantik, M.F.J.; Kaspers, G.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic

  13. Vegetation status and socio-economic importance of gum and resin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences ... Abstract. Study on population status, socio-economic importance and threats of gum- and resin-producing plant species was made in Borena, South Wollo, (Ethiopia). ... A total of 14 gum- and resin-bearing plant species representing seven families were recorded. Five of them ...

  14. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  15. Socio-Economic Status And Birth-Order As Correlates Of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated socio-economic status and birth-order as correlates of women spiritual help-seeking behavior. Five hundred women help-seekers were sampled from 10 spiritual houses within Ibadan metropolis. Their age ranged between 17-70 years. Fifty percent (50 %,) i.e. 250 of the total sample were singles; ...

  16. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  17. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  18. Impact of Socio-Economic Status of Parents and Family Location on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of socio-economic status of parents and family location on truant behaviour of secondary school students in the North-West Senatorial District of Benue State. The survey design was used to carry out the study using a sample of 400 respondents selected from different schools within the ...

  19. HIV / AIDS And The Socio – Economic Status Of Victims In Oyo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owing to the ferocious spread of HIV / AIDS and the soaring cases of ill – halth and impending death associated with the epidemic in Nigeria, this study assesses the impact of HIV / AIDS on the socio – economic status. Specifically, it examines the effects of the epidemic on the level of imcome, level of productivity, marital ...

  20. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents : The mediating role of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study

  1. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents : The mediating role of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study

  2. Infants' behavioral styles in joint attention situations and parents' socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Monika; Hutman, Ted

    2015-08-01

    In this study the eco-cultural model of parenting (Keller, H. (2007). Cultures of infancy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum) was applied to the study of joint attention behavior of children from families with different socio-economic status (SES). It was hypothesized that infants' early communication styles would differ with SES reflecting more independent or interdependent interactions with their caregivers. It was also hypothesized that infants would use the same types of behaviors whether they have declarative or imperative communication goals. The Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS, Mundy et al., 2003) was administered to 103 typically developing infants of 12 months (approximately half of them siblings of children with autism). A factor analysis, yielding four behavioral factors, namely pointing, eye contact, actions and following points, confirmed the hypothesis that infants use behaviors consistently across situations independent of their communicative intent. MANOVAs (comprising parental education and income) revealed that higher SES infants showed actions more frequently in the ESCS whereas lower SES infants followed experimenter's points more frequently. The results are discussed in the context of presumably differing socialization goals for infants and the divergent contribution of parental education and income that seem to have additive contribution to some factors (actions, following points) but divergent contributions to others (pointing, eye contact). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) than the European (20–30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10–20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity–SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

  4. Socio Economic Status and Traumatic Brain Injury amongst Pediatric Populations: A Spatial Analysis in Greater Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Amram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Within Canada, injuries are the leading cause of death amongst children fourteen years of age and younger, and also one of the leading causes of morbidity. Low Socio Economic Status (SES seems to be a strong indicator of a higher prevalence of injuries. This study aims to identify hotspots for pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI and examines the relationship between SES and pediatric TBI rates in greater Vancouver, British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods: Pediatric TBI data from the BC Trauma Registry (BCTR was used to identify all pediatric TBI patients admitted to BC hospitals between the years 2000 and 2013. Spatial analysis was used to identify hotspots for pediatric TBI. Multivariate analysis was used to distinguish census variables that were correlated with rates of injury. Results: Six hundred and fifty three severe pediatric TBI injuries occurred within the BC Lower Mainland between 2000 and 2013. High rates of injury were concentrated in the East, while low rate clusters were most common in the West of the region (more affluent neighborhoods. A low level of education was the main predictor of a high rate of injury (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.03–1.23, p-Value 0.009. Conclusion: While there was a clear relationship between different SES indicators and pediatric TBI rates in greater Vancouver, income-based SES indicators did not serve as good predictors within this region.

  5. Economic efficiency of e-learning in higher education: An industrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Vilaseca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been yet done to analyse if e-learning is an efficiency way in economic terms to produce higher education, especially because there are not available data in official statistics. Despite of these important constrains, this paper aims to contribute to the study of economic efficiency of e-learning through the analysis of a sample of e-learning universities during a period of time (1997-2002. We have wanted to obtain some empirical evidence to understand if e-learning is a feasible model of providing education for universities and which are the variables that allow for feasibility attainment. The main findings are: 1 that the rise of the number of students enrolled is consistent with increasing labour productivity rates; 2 that cost labour savings are explained by the improvement of universities’ economic efficiency (or total factor productivity; and 3 that improvement of total factor productivity in e-learning production is due to the attainment of scale economies, but also to two organisational innovations: outsourcing processes that leads to the increase of variable costs consistent with decreasing marginal costs, and the sharing of assets’ control and use that allow for a rise in assets rotation.

  6. The Roles of Public Higher Education Expenditure and the Privatization of the Higher Education on U.S. States Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curs, Bradley R.; Bhandari, Bornali; Steiger, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Previous empirical literature finds that government expenditure on higher education has a negative, or null, effect on U.S. economic growth rates. This empirical result may be driven by omission of an important variable--the privatization of higher education. Using state-level panel data from 1970 to 2005, this analysis investigates whether the…

  7. Eating habits of children and adolescents from rural regions depending on gender, education, and economic status of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołłątaj, Witold; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Kołłątaj, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The proper lifestyle of a child, including proper eating habits, should be monitored to ensure proper physical and psychological development. This applies particularly to rural areas which are economically, socially and educationally backward. The study included 1,341 rural schoolchildren and adolescents aged 9-13 years (734 females, 607 males). The representative survey research was conducted in 2008, making use of an original survey questionnaire. The results showed that the majority of respondents eat improperly. 83.2% of them have regular breakfast, and 62.6% have regular light lunch. Most respondents do not eat more than 4 meals a day (usually 3-4). It is worrying that the consumption of sweets is high (34.9% of the surveyed group eat them regularly), whereas fruit and vegetable consumption is low. In this study, relationships between types of diet and such descriptive variables as gender, parents' educational status, and economic situation of the households are described. In families where the parents have a higher education and the household situation is good, the eating habits are much better. The list of poor dietary habits of pupils from rural schools includes skipping breakfast and/or light lunch, high consumption of sweets and low consumption of fruit and vegetables. There are correlations between improper dietary habits and gender of the children and adolescents, educational status of parents, economic situation of households, and housing conditions.

  8. Economic abuse between intimate partners in Australia: prevalence, health status, disability and financial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutin, Jozica; Russell, Roslyn; Reid, Mike

    2017-06-01

    Economic abuse is a form of domestic violence that has a significant impact on the health and financial wellbeing of victims, but is understudied. This study determined the lifetime prevalence of economic abuse in Australia by age and gender, and the associated risk factors. The 2012 ABS Personal Safety Survey was used, involving a cross-sectional population survey of 17,050 randomly selected adults using face-to-face interviews. The survey-weighted prevalence of economic abuse was calculated and analysed by age and gender. Logistic regression was used to adjust odds ratios for possible confounding between variables. The lifetime prevalence of economic abuse in the whole sample was 11.5%. Women in all age groups were more likely to experience economic abuse (15.7%) compared to men (7.1%). Disability, health and financial stress status were significant markers of economic abuse. For women, financial stress and disability were important markers of economic abuse. However, prevalence rates were influenced by the measures used and victims' awareness of the abuse, which presents a challenge for screening and monitoring. Implications for public health: Social, health and financial services need to be aware of and screen for the warning signs of this largely hidden form of domestic violence. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in school children in Rwanda and its association with socio-economic status: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedt, Stefan De; Nkurikiye, John; Fonteyne, Yannick; Hogewoning, Arjan; Esbroeck, Marjan Van; Bacquer, Dirk De; Tuft, Stephen; Gilbert, Clare; Delanghe, Joris; Kestelyn, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an allergic eye disease and an important cause of hospital referral among children in Africa and Asia. Hospital-based studies have suggested a role for parasites in its pathogenesis. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for VKC in Central Africa, we conducted a nested population-based case control study in Rwanda, involving randomly selected primary schools from different environments (rural/urban) and climate. A prevalence of VKC of 4.0% (95% confidence interval 3.3-4.7%) was found among 3,041 children studied (participation rate 94.7%). The intestinal parasitic burden was not related to VKC. Besides hot dry climate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, P = 0.05) and male gender (OR = 1.7, P = 0.005), multivariate analysis identified higher economic status as a risk for VKC (OR = 1.4, P = 0.005). The effect on VKC of higher economic status appears not to act through differences in parasitic intestinal load.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Infant Mortality Gaps and the Role of Socio-Economic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Elder, Todd E.; Goddeeris, John H.; Haider, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    We assess the extent to which differences in socio-economic status are associated with racial and ethnic gaps in a fundamental measure of population health: the rate at which infants die. Using micro-level Vital Statistics data from 2000 to 2004, we examine mortality gaps of infants born to white, black, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Asian, and Native American mothers. We find that between-group mortality gaps are strongly and consistently (except for Mexican infants) associated with maternal marita...

  11. Assessment of socio-economic status in the context of food insecurity: Implications for field research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Burnham, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Measures of socio-economic status (SES) were compared with a measure of physical well-being, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), in the food insecure regions of Ethiopia. Income, housing conditions and education had the greatest correlation to MUAC, and significant differences in these measures were observed between malnourished and adequately nourished individuals. Findings indicate that in rural Ethiopia, income, education and housing quality may be better indicators of SES than wealth and measures encompassing home and landownership.

  12. Is therapeutic judgement influenced by the patient's socio-economic status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Esben Elholm; Morville, Anne-Le; Larsen, Anette Enemark

    2016-01-01

    Background In Denmark patients are entitled to rehabilitation regardless of socio-economic status (SES). During this process therapists have to balance cost effectiveness with providing equal treatment. Aim To investigate whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists were influenced...... their professional ethical principles, although they might face ethical dilemmas during their clinical decision-making. In order to prevent and resolve these dilemmas, they have to be made explicit. However, further research on how SES influences the health care professional's judgement is warranted....

  13. The relationship between food consumption and socio-economic status: evidence among British youths

    OpenAIRE

    De Agostini, Paola

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among British youths. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975- 2000. Daily calories-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study and the...

  14. Are daughters' childbearing intentions related to their mothers' socio-economic status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Testa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unlike actual fertility, fertility intentions are often found to be positively correlated with education. The literature explaining this paradox is scarce. Objective: We aim to fill the gap in the existing scientific literature by searching for the main factors that influence highly educated women to plan a larger family size. Methods: Using the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey for four countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Italy, and Norway, we analyse the relationship between mother's socio-economic status and daughter's fertility intentions, controlling for daughter's socio-economic status and sibship size. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models are employed to estimate the predictors of women's additionally intended number of children. Results: We find that the effect of family of origin is exerted mainly through sibship size among childless daughters: Daughters with more siblings intend to have more children. After the transition to parenthood, the effect of family of origin is exerted mainly through the mother's level of education: Daughters with highly educated mothers intend to have more children. Conclusions: The empirical results suggest that the positive link between births intentions and level of education might not merely be an artefact generated by the design of cross-sectional surveys but the outcome of a better socio-economic status that allows forming positive reproductive plans. Contribution: The positive role of mother's socio-economic status on daughter's fertility decision-making offers a valuable interpretation of the positive link between education and fertility intentions which goes beyond the alternative explanations referring to self-selection, partner effect, or time squeeze, and needs to be confirmed by further research.

  15. Socio-economic Status of Livestock farmers of Narasapura Village - A Benchmark Analysis

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    V. Chandrashekhar Murthy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted following exploratory research design to ascertain the profile characteristics of livestock farmers. Findings indicated that majority of the farmers had low to medium profile. Hence efforts should be undertaken by the Government, Veterinary Universities and other extension agencies in providing information on livestock farming practices so that they could bring about change in their living and improve the socio-economic status of livestock farmers. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 215-218

  16. ON THE FORMATION OF «ECONOMIC CORRIDOR SILK ROAD»: STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

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    Rashid K. Alimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the status and prospect of Tajik-Chinese relations in the context of the initiative of the President of the PRC on establishing of an economic corridor the Silk Road. A detailed characteristic of expected challenges and benefits for countries of Central Asia and China is given. Special attention is spent on the possibilities of developing of relations between Tajikistan and China, that have risen to the level of strategic partnership.

  17. Socio-economic status and family structure differences in early trajectories of child adjustment: Individual and neighbourhood effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of single-parent family status and high parental socio-economic status (SES) on the trajectories of children's emotional/behavioural adjustment in early-to-middle childhood (ages 3-7 years). We also assessed whether these family characteristics interact with the equivalent neighbourhood characteristics of shares of single-parent families and high-SES adults in predicting these trajectories. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that family status and parental SES predicted children's trajectories of adjustment. Even after controlling for these family factors and key child and parent characteristics, the neighbourhood shares of high-SES adults and single-parent families were related (negatively and positively, respectively) to child problem behaviour. Importantly, children of low-SES parents in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of high-SES adults had fewer emotional symptoms than their counterparts in areas with fewer high-SES adults. Surprisingly, the adverse effect of single-parent family status on child hyperactivity was attenuated in areas with a higher share of single-parent families. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional status and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa, 1950-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    How did nutritional status develop in sub-Saharan Africa during the second half of the 20th century, and what role did economic development play in nutrition and health? Aggregating data from more than 200,000 women in 28 sub-Saharan African countries, we use mean height as an indicator of net nutritional status and find that the nutritional status of 1960 birth cohorts was relatively high. This situation, however, was not sustained. In almost all countries examined, mean heights were stagnating or decreasing after the 1970 cohorts. Using regression analysis we model human growth from birth to maturity, and find that economic growth had a significant and robust influence on final adult height at two distinct periods of the life cycle: (1) in the first years of life and (2) at puberty. We conclude that the economic difficulties of the late 1970s and 1980s contributed to the decline or stagnation in heights. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Intelligence, socio-economic status and hospital admissions of young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, H; Traag, T; Berger-van Sijl, M; van Eijk, J; Otten, F

    2007-05-12

    To determine whether socio-economic differences in hospital admissions of adolescents and young adults are related to differences in intelligence. . Retrospective cohort study. The data were derived from a group of 10,231 young adults and adolescents who were followed for a total of 47,212 person years with regard to their hospital admissions. Intelligence was measured in the first year of secondary school by 2 non-verbal intelligence tests for fluid intelligence. Data from hospital admissions were matched to a large-scale educational and occupational cohort. Data were analysed with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Intelligence was not found to be related to hospital admissions. However, a low occupational and educational level of the young adults or their parents, was strongly related to heightened risk for hospital admissions. In particular, the low socio-economic status of a respondent was associated with heightened risk for hospital admissions due to accidents (relative risk: 3.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.91-6.39). The small extent to which the socio-economic differences in hospital admissions seem to be based upon fluid intelligence, at least in adolescents and young adults, as well as the heightened risks of hospital admissions in lower socio-economic status groups and the associated high costs for health care legitimise further study of the determinants of these differences.

  20. Health inequities: lower socio-economic conditions and higher incidences of intestinal parasites

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    Limoncu M Emin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections affect child health and development and slow down growth, while reducing adults' productivity and work capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the incidences of intestinal parasitic infections and the socio-economic status of two near primary school children in Manisa, a western city of Turkey. Methods A total of 352 children were involved a questionnaire study from a private school (Ülkem Primary School – ÜPS, 116 children and a community-based school (Şehzadeler Primary School – ŞPS, 236 children. Of these, stool samples could be obtained from a total of 294 students; 97 (83.6% from ÜPS, and 197 (83.5% from ŞPS. The wet mount preparations of the stool samples were examined; samples were also fixed in polyvinyl alcohol and examined with modified formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 10.0. The chi-squared test was used for the analytic assessment. Results The percentages of the students found to be infected with intestinal parasites, were 78 (39.6% and 13 (13.4% in ŞPS and ÜPS, respectively. Totally 91 (31.0% of the students from both schools were found to be infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite and Blastocystis hominis was prevalent independently from the hygienic conditions. The factors which significantly (p Conclusion Intestinal parasitic infections in school children were found to be a public health problem that increased due to lower socio-economic conditions. We conclude that organization of education seminars including the topics such as prevention of the infectious diseases, improving general hygienic conditions, and application of supportive programs for the parents may be suggested not only to reduce intestinal parasitic infections, but also to elevate the socio

  1. Trauma and Poor Mental Health in Relation to Economic Status: The Case of Cambodia 35 Years Later.

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    Johan Jarl

    Full Text Available Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia.A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18-60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression.No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure.

  2. Trauma and Poor Mental Health in Relation to Economic Status: The Case of Cambodia 35 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarl, Johan; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Chak, Thida; Sunbaunat, Ka; Larsson, Charlotte A

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia. A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia) collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18-60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression. No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON THE LEVEL OF EARLY-SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN’S MOTOR ABILITIES – BLURRING OF DIFFERENCES IN THE ECONOMICALLY UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the level of motor abilities of 7-9-year-old girls and boys in relation to the socioeconomic status of their families . Material and Methods: The research was conducted in 12 primary schools in two regions of Poland namely of Warmia & Mazury and Pomorskie voivodeship, on the total of 1205 pupils (584 boys and 621 girls aged 7-9. Selected economic factors such as the type of school (public or private, monthly income per household member, and the number of children in a given family were accepted as the independent variables. The factors behind social status included the place of residence and parents’ educational background. In order to determine the level of motor abilities, 13 motor tests were applied. Results: The research revealed that motor tests such as 1 and 3 min. Burpee test and medicine ball throws (forward and backward appeared to show the biggest differences in the level of motor abilities of the children whose social and economic status varied. The results of these tests as well as those of the shuttle run were significantly higher for the girls from the families of high social status than for the boys of low social status. Social status to a greater extent than economic one differentiated the tested motor abilities, especially in the case of the girls from families marked by high social status, who scored better than boys. The exception is the skipping with clapping of hands – 8 s trial, which differentiated only the tested categories of economic status, especially when referred to the girls. Conclusions: Owing to the small number of significant differences between high and low social and economic status in both sex groups in the motor tests applied, it can be assumed that in the less developed, agriculture and tourism-oriented areas there has occurred blurring of the differences in the level of children’s motor abilities depending on their social and economic status.

  4. A spatial analysis of variations in health access: linking geography, socio-economic status and access perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs) surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local) variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economic status of the individual concerned. PMID:21787394

  5. Association of Socio-economic Status with Injuries in Children Andadolescents:the CASPIAN-IV Study

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    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Childhood and adolescence injuries are still frequently occuring in developing countries. This study aims to assess the association  of socio-economic status (SES with injuriesin Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This multicentricsurvey was part of a national surveillance program, which was conducted in 2011-2012 amongst 14,880 students aged6-18 years. Participants were randomly selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Socio- economic status (SES of participants was categorized to “low”, “middle” ,and “high” by using principle component analysis method by considering parental job and education as well as family assets. Prevalence, types and places of injuries were based on the questionnaire of the World Health Organization- Global School-based student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS.Multivariate modelwas used for comparison of variables between SES groups. Results: Overall, 13486 out of 14880 invited students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this study.Their mean (SD age was12.47 (3.36 years.Boys and urban residents constituted the majority of participants (50.8% and 75.6%, respectively. Compared with low SES group, oddsof sport injury was higher in students with middle (OR=1.44; 95%CI: 0.92-2.26 and highSES (OR=1.96; 95%CI: 1.27-3.01. Compared to participants withlow SES,odds of home injuries was significantly lower in high SES group (OR=0.78; 95%CI: 0.64-0.95. Conclusion: This study revealedconsiderable differences in injuries of children and adolescents according to their SES, with higher prevalence of home injuries in low SES families and higher prevalence of sport injuries in middle and high SES levels. When implementing injury prevention programs, such differences should be taken into account.

  6. Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children

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    Heelan Kate

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES independent of body mass index. Methods Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females in study 1 and 131 children in study 2 (63 males; 68 females. The average age was 9.6 and 8.8 years respectively. Height and body mass were assessed according to standard procedures and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 was calculated. Parent-reported household income was used to determine SES. Habitual, free-living physical activity (PA was assessed by a pedometer (steps/day in study 1 and accelerometer (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA in study 2. Self-reported time spent watching TV and on the computer was used as measure of sedentary behavior. Differences in PA and sedentary behavior by SES were initially tested using ANOVA. Further analyses used ANCOVA controlling for BMI, as well as leg length in the pedometer cohort. Results In study 1, mean daily steps differed significantly among SES groups with lower SES groups approximating 10,500 steps/day compared to about 12,000 steps/day in the higher SES groups. These differences remained significant (p Conclusions Children from a low SES show a trend of lower PA levels and spend more time in sedentary behavior than high SES children; however, differences in PA were influenced by BMI. The higher BMI in these children might be another factor contributing to increased health risks among low SES children compared to children from with a higher SES.

  7. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  8. Issues and Economic Role of Waqf In Higher Education Institution: Malaysian Experience

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    Farra Munna Harun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As early as 1980, the Malaysianfederal government’s spending on education, was the highest in East Asia andhigher than the OECD average of 3.4% of GDP. This demonstrates that theMalaysian Government has big expenses from educational sector and respectivelyis amenability for Malaysian economic budget. In other side Waqf in Malaysia isone of large financial source that has not been fully explored. By using qualitative methodology through content analysis this paper attempt to explore the issues andeconomic role of Waqf in Malaysia, especially in Higher Education Institution(HEI and attempt to study how Waqf fund empowering the education. Thisstudy found that taking the que from the institutions of Waqf, the explorationand development of waqf fund can be exalarate through the formation of formalorganizations at state and federal level and rearrange the Malaysian educationalbudget and policy to support the better quality of HEI.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i1.2514 

  9. Simultaneous Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents Associated with Higher Economic Class in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Arley Santos Leão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Design. The social, cultural, and economic context can be an important variable in the perception and adoption of risk behaviors in adolescents. Objective. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of simultaneous health risk behaviors and associated socioeconomic factors in adolescents living in the metropolitan region of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. Methods. The sample consisted of 2,207 high school students aged 13–18 years. The risk behaviors measured were “low levels of physical activity,” “excessive daily TV time,” “high consumption of alcoholic beverages on a single occasion,” “involvement in fights,” “smoking cigarettes,” “carrying firearms,” and “marijuana consumption.” Information was obtained through self-administered questionnaire. Results. Considering the results, it was observed that female adolescents and those aged up to 16 years were less likely to have two or more health risk behaviors compared to males and those aged 17 years or more, respectively. It was also found that both high- and middle-income level adolescents had higher prevalence of having two or more health risk behaviors. Conclusions. It was concluded that male adolescents older than 16 years with better socioeconomic level were more exposed to the simultaneous presence of several health risk behaviors.

  10. Who is eating where? Findings from the SocioEconomic Status and Activity in Women (SESAW) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Crawford, David A; Ball, Kylie

    2011-03-01

    Foods prepared outside of the home have been linked to less-than-ideal nutrient profiles for health. We examine whether the locations where meals are prepared and consumed are associated with socio-economic predictors among women. A cross-sectional study using self-reported data. We examined multiple locations where meals are prepared and consumed: (i) at home; (ii) fast food eaten at home; (iii) fast food eaten at the restaurant; (iv) total fast food; (v) non-fast-food restaurant meals eaten at home; (vi) non-fast-food restaurant meals eaten at the restaurant; and (vii) all non-fast-food restaurant meals. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether frequent consumption of meals from these sources varied by level of education, occupation, household income and area-level disadvantage. Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. A total of 1328 women from forty-five neighbourhoods randomly sampled for the SocioEconomic Status and Activity in Women study. Those with higher educational qualifications or who were not in the workforce (compared with those in professional employment) were more likely to report frequent consumption of meals prepared and consumed at home. High individual- and area-level socio-economic characteristics were associated with a lower likelihood of frequent consumption of fast food and a higher likelihood of frequent consumption of meals from non-fast-food sources. The strength and significance of relationships varied by place of consumption. The source of meal preparation and consumption varied by socio-economic predictors. This has implications for policy makers who need to continue to campaign to make healthy alternatives available in out-of-home food sources.

  11. Status of the natural and enriched uranium market: the basic economical factor for the development of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nochev, T.

    1999-01-01

    Status of the Natural and Enriched Uranium Market - the Basic. Economical Factor for the Development of the Fuel Cycle An overview of the status of the natural and enriched uranium market has been performed and it offers a possibility to estimate the changes and tendencies, the knowledge of which is needed in negotiations about the fresh fuel. The simplified financial analysis presented here demonstrates the economical profitability of the storage of the spent fuel making now the allocations for the future reprocessing

  12. Socio-Economic Determinants of Inter-State Student Mobility in India: Implications for Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shashiranjan; Kumar, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the socio-economic determinants of student mobility in India and evaluates the factors that hinder and promote higher educational mobility. It is argued that despite the mass expansion of higher education in India in recent times, student mobility is directed towards developed educational regions. India is a unique case…

  13. Institutional delivery in rural India: the relative importance of accessibility and economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterton, Amy J; Cleland, John; Sloggett, Andy; Ronsmans, Carine

    2010-06-06

    Skilled attendance at delivery is an important indicator in monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. In addition to professional attention, it is important that mothers deliver their babies in an appropriate setting, where life saving equipment and hygienic conditions can also help reduce the risk of complications that may cause death or illness to mother and child. Over the past decade interest has grown in examining influences on care-seeking behavior and this study investigates the determinants of place of delivery in rural India, with a particular focus on assessing the relative importance of community access and economic status. A descriptive analysis of trends in place of delivery using data from two national representative sample surveys in 1992 and 1998 is followed by a two-level (child/mother and community) random-effects logistical regression model using the second survey to investigate the determinants. In this investigation of institutional care seeking for child birth in rural India, economic status emerges as a more crucial determinant than access. Economic status is also the strongest influence on the choice between a private-for-profit or public facility amongst institutional births. Greater availability of obstetric services will not alone solve the problem of low institutional delivery rates. This is particularly true for the use of private-for-profit institutions, in which the distance to services does not have a significant adjusted effect. In the light of these findings a focus on increasing demand for existing services seems the most rational action. In particular, financial constraints need to be addressed, and results support current trials of demand side financing in India.

  14. Health and Socio-Economic Status: Factors impacting care and treatment in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, L.; Petersen, L. K.; Blaakaer, J.

    2011-01-01

    To provide knowledge about health status, socio-economic status and use of public health care in women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery, in order to improve their care during the perioperative period. Method: An epidemiological methodology was applied. The material consisted of data from...... the Registry of Health and Social Conditions and the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database on women diagnosed in 2007; this material underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Results: Data from 666 women were suitable for analysis. The majority were older, with moderate to severe systemic illness...... and a tendency to be overweight. Many had a low educational level, were retired, and lived alone with few financial resources. The quality of the surgical treatment had improved in terms of centralisation and staging procedures. Conclusions: As a group the women proved to be in a vulnerable position in terms...

  15. Anaerobic digestion for bioenergy production: Global status, environmental and techno-economic implications, and government policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco-Correa, Juliana; Khanal, Sami; Manandhar, Ashish; Shah, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that can transform organic matter into a bioenergy source - biogas (composed mainly of methane and carbon dioxide), while stabilizing waste. AD implementation around the world varies significantly, from small-scale household digesters in developing countries to large farm-scale or centralized digesters in developed countries. These differences in the implementation of AD technology are due to a complex set of conditions, including economic and environmental implications of the AD technology, and stimulus provided by a variety of polices and incentives related to agricultural systems, waste management, and renewable energy production. This review explores the current status of the AD technology worldwide and some of the environmental, economic and policy-related drivers that have shaped the implementation of this technology. The findings show that the regulations and incentives have been the primary factor influencing the steady growth of this technology, in both developing and developed countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Political-economic values and the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Ariel; Miller, Dale T

    2007-02-01

    Values concerning the distribution of wealth are an important aspect of identity for many Americans, and such values may therefore influence how Americans experience their own socioeconomic status (SES). Based on this proposition, the present research examines political-economic values as a moderator of the relationship between SES and self-esteem. Results supported the hypothesis that there is a stronger relationship between SES and self-esteem among individuals who report relatively inegalitarian values than among individuals who report relatively egalitarian values. This result was replicated using both objective and subjective measures of SES. Implications of the present findings for the study of values and well-being, psychological conflict, and the influence of economic factors on self-esteem are discussed.

  17. The Economic and Legal Status of Cryptocurrency Both in Ukraine and Abroad

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    Nadievets Luidmila M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the economic essence of cryptocurrency, researching the foreign experience in the use of digital currency in market economies and the possibilities of its adaptation to the conditions of Ukraine. Attention is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of using cryptocurrency in the development of the modern economy. Definitions of the category of «cryptocurrency» from different literary sources have been generalized. It has been defined that the first and most widespread cryptocurrency in different countries of the world is the Bitcoin. The features of issue and circulation of cryptocurrency both in Ukraine and abroad have been clarified. The international experience of work with cryptocurrency was considered and its potential influence on development of the national economy was determined. The economic and legal status of national and foreign cryptocurrencies was researched. The ways of overcoming the legal vacuum of the mode of work with national and foreign cryptocurrencies have been proposed.

  18. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  19. Psychosocial Status and Economic Dependence for Healthcare and Nonhealthcare among Elderly Population in Rural Coastal Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rent, Priyanka Dsouza; Kumar, Sudeep; Dmello, Mackwin Kenwood; Purushotham, Jagannath

    2017-01-01

    The elderly who will constitute 10% of the Indian population by 2021 face problems such as deteriorating healthcare status, loneliness, and economic constraints among others. All these factors together may affect the psychosocial status of the elderly and their health-seeking behavior. With this background, the current study tried to evaluate the psychosocial status, economic dependence for health and nonhealth expenses and awareness regarding geriatric welfare services (GWS) among elderly patients. The study was carried out among 599 men and women aged above 60 who visited rural healthcare centers in two districts of Karnataka during September-December 2016. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered by a trained medical professional after taking informed consent. Majority of the respondents said that they had company at home, interacted with people outside home and that their advice was honored. About 75.8% of the respondents reported that they were either partially or completely financially dependent on someone else. The mean cost of hospitalization was reported to be Rs. 11,086. Majority of those hospitalized depended on their children to pay for healthcare (66.9%), whereas 16.9% had availed government insurance schemes and 14.6% paid out of pocket. Nearly 64.9% of the respondents were aware of the GWS while 32.6% had used them. The absence of financial risk pooling mechanisms and social support may cause elderly to forego treatment because of the need to pay for healthcare and further deteriorate their psychosocial status. Government initiatives to improve healthcare and social services to the elderly maybe advocated.

  20. Psychosocial status and economic dependence for healthcare and nonhealthcare among elderly population in rural coastal Karnataka

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    Priyanka Dsouza Rent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The elderly who will constitute 10% of the Indian population by 2021 face problems such as deteriorating healthcare status, loneliness, and economic constraints among others. All these factors together may affect the psychosocial status of the elderly and their health-seeking behavior. With this background, the current study tried to evaluate the psychosocial status, economic dependence for health and nonhealth expenses and awareness regarding geriatric welfare services (GWS among elderly patients. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 599 men and women aged above 60 who visited rural healthcare centers in two districts of Karnataka during September–December 2016. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered by a trained medical professional after taking informed consent. Results: Majority of the respondents said that they had company at home, interacted with people outside home and that their advice was honored. About 75.8% of the respondents reported that they were either partially or completely financially dependent on someone else. The mean cost of hospitalization was reported to be Rs. 11,086. Majority of those hospitalized depended on their children to pay for healthcare (66.9%, whereas 16.9% had availed government insurance schemes and 14.6% paid out of pocket. Nearly 64.9% of the respondents were aware of the GWS while 32.6% had used them. Conclusion: The absence of financial risk pooling mechanisms and social support may cause elderly to forego treatment because of the need to pay for healthcare and further deteriorate their psychosocial status. Government initiatives to improve healthcare and social services to the elderly maybe advocated.

  1. A matter of perception: Perceived socio-economic status and cortisol on the island of Utila, Honduras.

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    García, Angela R; Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D

    2017-09-10

    Numerous studies link low objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) to chronic activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examine associations between objective and subjective SES and diurnal salivary cortisol, a primary HPA component, as well as demographic and ecological predictors associated with SES perceptions and changes in diurnal cortisol. Participants were residents (age 18-79, n = 61) of Utila, a Honduran island where economic disparities are overt and geographically contained. Objective SES was measured as a composite of income, education, and occupation. Subjective SES was measured with a MacArthur ladder and a perceived lifestyle discrepancy (PLD) scale. Salivary cortisol was collected three times per day for two days. Questions addressing demographic, social, and household characteristics were assessed as predictors of PLD. Assessed independently, objective SES (P = .06) and PLD (P = .003) were associated with the steepness of diurnal cortisol changes, while PLD was also associated with higher cortisol area under the curve (AUC) (P = .036). Modeled together, only PLD predicted diurnal slope and AUC. PLD was associated with household sanitation, immigration status, food scarcity, objective SES, and owing money. Only access to sanitation and owing money had direct associations with cortisol that were not mediated by PLD. For adults on Utila, perceptions of unmet need outweigh other social and economic status factors in predicting cortisol AUC and slope. In addition, the unmediated effects of access to sanitation and owing money on cortisol suggest that these distinct aspects of inequality are important to consider when seeking to understand how inequality can impact HPA function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of higher education institution servers

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    Leonardo Vidal Andreato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of Brazilian higher education institution servers. Method: 134 public servants (80 men and 54 women were evaluated to estimate body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist/hip ratio (WHR, aerobic fitness and blood pressure at rest. Results: most of the servers were classified as insufficiently active (62%. BMI results show a high prevalence of obesity (39% mild and 33% moderate. WC showed a prevalence of high (30% and very high risk (27%, and WHR showed a prevalence of high (28% or very high risk (12%. The ergometric test showed that 41% of the servers presented very poor (17% or poor (24% aerobic fitness and 23%, regular aerobic fitness. Considering blood pressure, 15% of the servers presented blood pressure considered as borderline and 30% considered as hypertension. No associations were found between physical condition (active or inactive with WC (χ2 = 3.4, p = 0.179, WHR (χ2 = 7.0, p = 0.073, aerobic fitness (χ2 = 4.3, p = 0.368 and blood pressure (χ2 = 2.9, p = 0.734. Although no association was observed between physical activity and BMI (χ2 = 7.6, p = 0.062, significance values (p < 0.07 suggested an association trend, with worse ratings for the sedentary group. Closing remarks: among higher education institution servers, there is high prevalence of physical inactivity, obesity and risk factors, and the majority of the sample had aerobic fitness below recommended levels.

  3. The Status of Quality Assurance and Accreditation Systems within Higher Education Institutions in the Republic of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaam, Mahyoub Ali; Alhammadi, Abdullah Othman; Kwairan, Abdulwahab Awadh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the status of quality assurance and accreditation systems within higher education institutions in Yemen. The paper initially describes the stages of development and changes that have occurred in the field of quality and accreditation in Yemeni higher education. The paper shows that no formal…

  4. Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic Status Scale: Updating Income Ranges for the Year 2015

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    Hema Thakkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Community and hospital based studies require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of the health, nutritional status, mortality, and morbidity of an individual. SES also influences the accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and actual utilization of available health facilities. (1There are many different scales to measure the SES of a family: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. (2,3,4,5,6,7,8 However, social transition and fast growing economy have reduced these scales effectiveness in measuring the SES over the years.Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale is an important tool to measure socioeconomic status of families in urban areas. It was first proposed by Kuppuswamy in the in the year 1976. (6 (Table-1 This scale takes into account education, occupation of the head of the family and total income of the family per month from all the sources to categorise families into 5 groups; namely upper, upper middle, lower middle, upper lower and lower socioeconomic status. It is used by students and researchers in India for hospital and community based research. Mishra D and Singh HP (9 in their article on revision of Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic status scale have pointed that an income scale usually has relevance only for the period under study. They further clarified that due to the steady inflation and consequent fall in the value of the rupee, the income criteria in the scale lose their relevance. There is an unprecedented demand from researchers for the updated version of this because changes in inflation rate change the monetary values of the monthly income range scores. Attempts to revise the original scale to bring the income subscale up to date are done by various authors.The year wise reference indices are shown in Table -2. It tell us

  5. Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic Status Scale: Updating Income Ranges for the Year 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Thakkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Community and hospital based studies require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of the health, nutritional status, mortality, and morbidity of an individual. SES also influences the accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and actual utilization of available health facilities. (1 There are many different scales to measure the SES of a family: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. (2,3,4,5,6,7,8 However, social transition and fast growing economy have reduced these scales effectiveness in measuring the SES over the years. Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale is an important tool to measure socioeconomic status of families in urban areas. It was first proposed by Kuppuswamy in the in the year 1976. (6 (Table-1 This scale takes into account education, occupation of the head of the family and total income of the family per month from all the sources to categorise families into 5 groups; namely upper, upper middle, lower middle, upper lower and lower socioeconomic status. It is used by students and researchers in India for hospital and community based research. Mishra D and Singh HP (9 in their article on revision of Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic status scale have pointed that an income scale usually has relevance only for the period under study. They further clarified that due to the steady inflation and consequent fall in the value of the rupee, the income criteria in the scale lose their relevance. There is an unprecedented demand from researchers for the updated version of this because changes in inflation rate change the monetary values of the monthly income range scores. Attempts to revise the original scale to bring the income subscale up to date are done by various authors. The year wise reference indices are shown in Table -2. It tell

  6. Physical activity of adult residents of Katowice and selected determinants of their occupational status and socio-economic characteristics

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    Daniel Puciato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of physical activity (PA is often addressed in the literature, but its socio-economic determinants are not fully recognized. To date no studies of the adult population of Katowice have been carried out. Research in this area is of great importance in the context of the documented influence of PA on health and extension of retirement age in Poland. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between PA and socio-economic status of adult residents of Katowice. Materials and Methods: The study carried out in 2010 comprised 2053 people (987 women and 1066 men aged 30-65 years. To evaluate PA in the study group the diagnostic survey method and a research tool in the form of an abridged version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, with specification expanded by the authors, were used. In the statistical analysis logistic regression was employed. Results: The likelihood of meeting the standards of health-enhancing PA was higher in men than in women, and it decreased with age and education level of the respondents. The highest proportion of those meeting the recommendation of health-enhancing PA was observed among blue-collar workers, operators, teachers, police and soldiers. The lowest probability of meeting the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine was found among economists and lawyers, office workers, the unemployed, managers, and engineers, pensioners and health care professionals. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the correlation between PA and socio-economic status of the respondents. The analysis of the results indicates the necessity to promote PA programs mainly among women, the elderly, the unemployed, pensioners and representatives of professions, such as economists, lawyers, managers, engineers, and health professionals. Med Pr 2013;64(5:649–657

  7. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (χ(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p < 0.05), geographical site (χ(2) = 7.41, df = 2, p < 0.05), gender (χ(2) = 33.10, df = 1, p < 0.0005), household food insecurity (χ(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (χ(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (χ(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that

  8. Housing Wealth and Higher Education: Building a Foundation for Economic Mobility

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    Lovenheim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A college degree often translates into economic success: Americans who start at the bottom of the income ladder "quadruple" their chances of making it to the top when they earn a four-year degree, according to past research by the Pew Economic Mobility Project. Nevertheless, many young people from the bottom and middle of the ladder…

  9. Socio-economic and schooling status of dental undergraduates from six French universities.

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    Hennequin, M; Tubert, S; Devillers, A; Müller, M; Michaïlesco, P; Peli, J F; Pouëzat, J

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the socio-economic status of French undergraduate dental students. A 46-item questionnaire was completed by the dental students of six universities between 1992 and 1995. Subjects related to family background, housing, schooling, income, expenditure and participation in student life were investigated. A total of 1192 out of 1207 questionnaires were returned. Both genders had equal access to dental training. The average overall cost of the four last years of the dental course was 30,302 French francs and varied greatly between faculties, as did the number of hours spent at the faculty for lectures, tutorials and practicals, and clinical work. Overall, the majority of students came from a well off social background, and had a relatively high quality of life while a small minority received no support from their families. Thirty-four per cent of students had never worked. One third of students smoked and one third regularly consumed medication of some sort. A third did not participate in any sport. Only 25% students bought dental text books and 42% of the students reported using the library regularly. This study offers an accurate description of the socio-economic status of French dental students that could be used as a reference for comparable studies in other European countries.

  10. Socio-economic status plays important roles in childhood cancer treatment outcome in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Saskia; Gunawan, Stefanus; Wolters, Emma; van de Ven, Peter; Sitaresmi, Mei; Dongen, Josephine van; Veerman, Anjo; Mantik, Max; Kaspers, Gertjan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic hospital. Medical charts of 145 children diagnosed with cancer between 1999 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. From October 2011 until January 2012, 40 caretakers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Of all patients, 48% abandoned treatment, 34% experienced death, 9% had progressive/ relapsed disease, and 9% overall event-free survival. Prosperous patients had better treatment outcome than poor patients (Pfate or God (55%). Causes of cancer were thought to be destiny (35%) or God's punishment (23%). Alternative treatment could (18%) or might (50%) cure cancer. Most parents (95%) would like more information about cancer and treatment. More contact with doctors was desired (98%). Income decreased during treatment (55%). Parents lost employment (48% fathers, 10% mothers), most of whom stated this loss was caused by their child's cancer (84% fathers, 100% mothers). Loss of income led to financial difficulties (63%) and debts (55%). Treatment abandonment was most important reason for treatment failure. Treatment outcome was determined by parental socio-economic status. Childhood cancer survival could improve if financial constraints and provision of information and guidance are better addressed.

  11. Association between socio-economic status and childhood undernutrition in Bangladesh; a comparison of possession score and poverty index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Goto, Rie

    2010-10-01

    To determine how much of the variation in nutritional status of Bangladeshi children under 5 years old can be attributed to the socio-economic status of the family. Nutritional status used reference Z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). A 'possession score' was generated based on ownership of a radio, television, bicycle, motorcycle and telephone, and the availability of electricity, with categories of 0 to 4+ possessions. A five-point (quintile) 'poverty index' was created using principal component analysis. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004 was the source of data. A sample of 4891 children aged <5 years was obtained. Some 57.8 % of the sample was either stunted, wasted or underweight (7.7 % were stunted, wasted and underweight). Of those stunted (48.4 %), 25.7 % were also underweight. Underweight and wasting prevalences were 40.7 % and 14.3 %, respectively. Mean WAZ, HAZ and WHZ did not differ by sex. Children of mothers with no education or no possessions were, on average, about 1 sd more underweight and stunted than those with higher educated mothers or with 4+ possessions. The possession score provided much greater discrimination of undernutrition than the poverty index. Nearly 50 % of children from households with no possessions were stunted, wasted or underweight (only 27 % in the poorest quintile), compared with only 3-6 % of children from households with 4+ possessions (over 13 % in the richest quintile). Maternal education and possession score were the main predictors of a child's nutritional status. Possession score was a much better indicator of undernutrition than the poverty index.

  12. County-Level Population Economic Status and Medicare Imaging Resource Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hughes, Danny R; Prabhakar, Anand M; Duszak, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relationships between county-level variation in Medicare beneficiary imaging resource consumption and measures of population economic status. The 2013 CMS Geographic Variation Public Use File was used to identify county-level per capita Medicare fee-for-service imaging utilization and nationally standardized costs to the Medicare program. The County Health Rankings public data set was used to identify county-level measures of population economic status. Regional variation was assessed, and multivariate regressions were performed. Imaging events per 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries varied 1.8-fold (range, 2,723-4,843) at the state level and 5.3-fold (range, 1,228-6,455) at the county level. Per capita nationally standardized imaging costs to Medicare varied 4.2-fold (range, $84-$353) at the state level and 14.1-fold (range, $33-$471) at the county level. Within individual states, county-level utilization varied on average 2.0-fold (range, 1.1- to 3.1-fold), and costs varied 2.8-fold (range, 1.1- to 6.4-fold). For both large urban populations and small rural states, Medicare imaging resource consumption was heterogeneously variable at the county level. Adjusting for county-level gender, ethnicity, rural status, and population density, countywide unemployment rates showed strong independent positive associations with Medicare imaging events (β = 26.96) and costs (β = 4.37), whereas uninsured rates showed strong independent positive associations with Medicare imaging costs (β = 2.68). Medicare imaging utilization and costs both vary far more at the county than at the state level. Unfavorable measures of county-level population economic status in the non-Medicare population are independently associated with greater Medicare imaging resource consumption. Future efforts to optimize Medicare imaging use should consider the influence of local indigenous socioeconomic factors outside the scope of traditional beneficiary-focused policy

  13. Equal Educational Opportunity Scoreboard: The Status of Black Americans in Higher Education, 1970-1979. Fourth ISEP Status Report, Part I.

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    Morris, Lorenzo; And Others

    This fourth report of the Institute for the Study of Educational Policy examines the status of black Americans in higher education from 1970 to 1979, with special consideration to a discussion of a basis of parity which takes into account the rapid growth of the black population and to enrollment patterns in traditionally black institutions of…

  14. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

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    Louise H. Dekker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective: We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design: Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting: Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects: Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254, South Asian Surinamese (n=425, and African Surinamese (n=784 participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results: ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions: We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin

  15. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Socio-economic status and feeding habits of students in lower secondary schools in Bytom

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    Agata Wypych-Ślusarska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating habits are formed in childhood and adolescence.. Economic issues including social and demographic factors influence the choice and quality of products consumed. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the impact of socio-economic status (SES on eating habits of students in lower secondary schools. Material and methods: At the turn of 2011 and 2012, an epidemiological cross-sectional study on 1,099 students in lower secondary schools from Bytom was conducted. The questionnaire was based on the form used in Health Behaviour in School – aged Children study (HBSC. The socio-economic status of students was determined according to the Family Affluence Scale (FAS and the mother’s level of education. The statistical analysis was conducted using Statistica 10.0 software. The significance level was set at p40.05. Results: 1,099 students in lower secondary school took part in the study (55.6% females and 44.4% males. 59% of students skip vegetables in their daily diet, (58.5% fruits and (49.4%. milk but 59.7% have breakfast every day. Nevertheless the high percentage of children eating sweets every day or several times a day (37.2% is worrying. Those children whose mothers declared secondary education and high level of FAS have proper eating habits. Children eating sweets at least once a day come mostly from families with low level of FAS. Conclusions: Bad eating habits are mostly among children whose mothers are of primary or vocational education and a low level of FAS.

  17. Influence of socio-economic status and television watching on childhood obesity in Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, S; Pal, M; Shome, S; Roy, P; Dhara, P; Bharati, P

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is fast becoming an epidemic among the urban children and it has its adverse effect on the status of health even during adulthood. In this paper an attempt is made to assess the percentage of obesity among 6-10 year children and assess the effect of different socio-economic variables and TV watching on childhood obesity. We restricted our study to primary school-going children who attended classes I-IV. The sample consisted of 5216 children from 20 different Bengali medium and English medium schools in Kolkata. Categorical logistic regression of obesity on the socio-economic factors namely type of medium school, religion, parent's education, duration of television watching etc., has been carried out. The categorical logistic regression shows the significant effect of some of the socio-economic or demographic variables including the duration of television watching on obesity. We have seen a positive association between obesity and TV watching and also between obesity and consumption of fast food. This calls for making the parents aware and taking action as early as possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Lower Socio-economic Status and Cardiovascular Disease: Role of Healthcare Facility and Policy in India

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    Arti Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardio-vascular disease (CVD is one of the main cause of mortality Worldwide and India is no exception. Unlike developed countries, where both CVD prevalence and mortality has been established to affect lower socio-economic status (SES, in India there is no consensus among researchers over socio-economic patterning of CVD prevalence but the mortality rate has been reported to disproportionately affect the economically weaker sections. Aims & Objectives: This article, focuses at the issue of how lack of good healthcare facilities and non-supportive health policies are affecting CVD mortality positively among lower SES of India. Challenges of the Indian healthcare system in context of lower SES can be described in terms of the issue of availability, accessibility and affordability. Inadequate policy and public healthcare system either leads to the problem of high Out-of-Pocket Payments (OPP or opting out of the treatment, which further increases poverty and mortality among them. Moreover, limited insurance coverage and inadequate regulatory policies for alcohol and tobacco-leading CVD risk factors among lower SES groups – do little to discourage its use among them. Conclusion: Since, lower SES people in India are already under the burden of communicable diseases, government should take immediate steps to control the mortality among them by creating a supportive environment through pro-poor health policies and healthcare facilities.

  19. Potential economic impacts of achieving good environmental status in Black Sea fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C. Goulding

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD mandates that European Union (EU member states achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS based on an ecosystem-based approach to management. For commercial fisheries, the primary target under the MSFD is one of maximum sustainable yield. Of Black Sea riparian nations, only Romania and Bulgaria are EU member states. Focusing at the supranational level, we review institutions and instruments relevant to management of the Black Sea. The economic values of current fish catches are assessed, and the results of a recent analytical assessment of fish stocks are used to estimate potential future values based on maximum sustainable yields. In the Black Sea region, despite long-standing attempts to improve fisheries management, there remains a lack of effective regional cooperation. Evidence from the scenario analysis suggests that achieving GEnS would not have an undue negative impact on overall fishery sector incomes, and could, with appropriate investments in processing and marketing, deliver increased economic benefits for Black Sea countries. The ongoing policy debate between and within Black Sea coastal states needs to be extended to include recognition of the potential economic and social benefits of effective fisheries management. More work is required to assess returns on investment in interim management measures to deliver GEnS.

  20. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory.

  1. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual’s attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as ‘social context’. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women’s economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  2. Zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles influence the antioxidative status in a higher aquatic plant, Spirodela punctata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thwala, Melusi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available during the 14-d exposure. The biochemical anti-oxidative status of the plant specimens were investigated using quantitative analysis of total antioxidant capacity, peroxidase and activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. The anti-oxidative defence...

  3. The Economic Activity Rate of the Romanian Population. Status and Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA SIMION

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of balance of national budgets and, in particular, of the social security budget, makes decision makers to look increasingly to the characteristics of the labour market and to the general output of economic activity. The better a country is placed in terms of the technological performance of economic activities, which favours an increased labour productivity, the higher are the values of the gross domestic product of the state's general income, and the country's possibility to afford a social policy that is more adapted to the needs of the population. Innovation performance classifies EU member states into four groups, each of these groups having almost a specific curve of the participation rates according to age and sex. In Romania, the population's activity rates according to age groups in the more developed regions are closer to those in the countries with the best innovation performance, although, as a whole, Romania is placed in the fourth and last group according to innovation results among EU member states. In our country, the activity rates according to age group have decreased in recent years, especially with respect to groups aged 50 or more, although the retirement age for men is the highest among EU countries. The increase of labour productivity has boosted economic growth in the recent past but, because of the lack of coherent economic policies, this growth has not. In Romania, activity rates for certain age groups were higher three decades ago and even in the first years of the transition to the market economy. Several scenarios for the projection of rates of participation to economic life until 2020, according to age groups are useful - and, possibly, also realistic, even if the (optimistic scenario with the highest activity rates is taken into account. The latter could be achieved if policies are implemented which enable workforce retention in the country and a better match between the qualification level and profile and

  4. Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyland Alastair H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

  5. The association between objective walkability, neighborhood socio-economic status, and physical activity in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet

    2014-08-23

    Objective walkability is an important correlate of adults' physical activity. Studies investigating the relation between walkability and children's physical activity are scarce. However, in order to develop effective environmental interventions, a profound investigation of this relation is needed in all age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objective walkability and different domains of children's physical activity, and to investigate the moderating effect of neighborhood socio-economic status in this relation. Data were collected between December 2011 and May 2013 as part of the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in children. Children (9-12 years old; n = 606) were recruited from 18 elementary schools in Ghent (Belgium). Children together with one of their parents completed the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Children's neighborhood walkability was calculated using geographical information systems. Multilevel cross-classified modeling was used to determine the relationship between children's PA and objectively measured walkability and the moderating effect of neighborhood SES in this relation. In low SES neighborhoods walkability was positively related to walking for transportation during leisure time (β = 0.381 ± 0.124; 95% CI = 0.138, 0.624) and was negatively related to sports during leisure time (β = -0.245 ± 0.121; 95% CI = -0.482, -0.008). In high socio-economic status neighborhoods, walkability was unrelated to children's physical activity. No relations of neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socio-economic status with cycling during leisure time, active commuting to school and objectively measured moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity were found. No univocal relation between neighborhood walkability and physical activity was found in 9-12 year old children. Results from international adult studies

  6. National female literacy, individual socio-economic status, and maternal health care use in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Sarah; Moore, Spencer; Harper, Sam; Lynch, John

    2010-12-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals have identified improving women's access to maternal health care as a key target in reducing maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Although individual factors such as income and urban residence can affect maternal health care use, little is known about national-level factors associated with use. Yet, such knowledge may highlight the importance of global and national policies in improving use. This study examines the importance of national female literacy on women's maternal health care use in continental sSA. Data that come from the 2002-2003 World Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between national female literacy and individual's non-use of maternal health care, while adjusting for individual-level factors and national economic development. Analyses also assessed effect modification of the association between income and non-use by female literacy. Effect modification was evaluated with the likelihood ratio test (G(2)). We found that within countries, individual age, education, urban residence and household income were associated with lack of maternal health care. National female literacy modified the association of household income with lack of maternal health care use. The strength of the association between income and lack of maternal health care was weaker in countries with higher female literacy. We conclude therefore that higher national levels of female literacy may reduce income-related inequalities in use through a range of possible mechanisms, including women's increased labour participation and higher status in society. National policies that are able to address female literacy and women's status in sub-Saharan Africa may help reduce income-related inequalities in maternal health care use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Welk, Greg; Heelan, Kate; Gentile, Douglas; Walsh, David

    2010-04-27

    While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES) independent of body mass index. Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females) in study 1 and 131 children in study 2 (63 males; 68 females). The average age was 9.6 and 8.8 years respectively. Height and body mass were assessed according to standard procedures and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated. Parent-reported household income was used to determine SES. Habitual, free-living physical activity (PA) was assessed by a pedometer (steps/day) in study 1 and accelerometer (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA) in study 2. Self-reported time spent watching TV and on the computer was used as measure of sedentary behavior. Differences in PA and sedentary behavior by SES were initially tested using ANOVA. Further analyses used ANCOVA controlling for BMI, as well as leg length in the pedometer cohort. In study 1, mean daily steps differed significantly among SES groups with lower SES groups approximating 10,500 steps/day compared to about 12,000 steps/day in the higher SES groups. These differences remained significant (p depended on the methodology used to determine time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Only one equation resulted in significant group differences (p = 0.015), and these differences remained after controlling for BMI. Significant differences between SES groups were shown for sedentary behavior in both cohorts (P < 0.05) with higher SES groups spending less time watching TV than low SES groups. Children from a low SES show a trend of lower PA levels and spend more time in sedentary behavior than high SES children; however, differences in PA were influenced by BMI. The higher

  8. A Study of the Organizational Culture at a Higher Education Institution [Case Study: Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (PRUE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyakin, Bogdan S.; Ivleva, Marina I.; Pozharskaya, Yelena L.; Shcherbakova, Olga I.

    2016-01-01

    The article offers an analysis of the organizational culture at a higher education institution as in the case of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, conducted in order to study the students' involvement in this culture and to draw conclusions as to what organizational culture principles are internalized by the students. The study used…

  9. Assessment of the Contribution of Regional Higher Education Systems to the Socio-Economic Development of the Russian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshukov, O. V.; Yevseyeva, D. G.; Gromov, A. D.; Platonova, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes how Russia's networks of higher education institutions contribute to their host regions in terms of the following three major facets: the economic development; the human capital development; and the innovative development. To ensure the analytical framework used derives relevant and representative findings given the nature of…

  10. Socio-Economic Characteristics of Women Enrolled in Higher Education Programs at the National Open University of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibuogwu, Nnaka V.

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, as in most developing countries, there is gender disparity in education access especially at the higher education level. Research reports on this subject link this phenomenon to the prevailing socio-cultural and economic values and practices in Nigeria. Efforts are on ground to widen access to tertiary education for all including…

  11. Benchmarking in Czech Higher Education: The Case of Schools of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placek, Michal; Ochrana, František; Pucek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use of benchmarking in universities in the Czech Republic and academics' experiences with it. It is based on research conducted among academics from economics schools in Czech public and private universities. The results identified several issues regarding the utilisation and understanding of benchmarking in the Czech…

  12. Who Benefits Most from College? Evidence for Negative Selection in Heterogeneous Economic Returns to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jennie E.; Yu Xie,

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we consider how the economic return to a college education varies across members of the U.S. population. Based on principles of comparative advantage, scholars commonly presume that positive selection is at work, that is, individuals who are most likely to select into college also benefit most from college. Net of observed…

  13. The Triple Shift: Student-Mothers, Identity Work and Engagement with Low-Status Vocationally Related Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses a piece of qualitative research that examined the narratives that a group of learners articulated when they discussed their experiences of studying on a relatively low-status, vocationally related higher education programme. These students were school-based teaching assistants who were undertaking foundation degree study at a…

  14. Is the relationship between type of alcohol and mortality influenced by socio-economic status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Schnohr, P; Jensen, G

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of socio-economic status on the relationship between type of alcohol and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: A prospective population study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 14,223 men and women participated in the first examination...... controlling for intake of the other types of alcohol, and for sex, smoking, physical activity and body mass index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and time of death from all causes. RESULTS: Consumers of wine were better educated and wealthier compared with beer and spirits drinkers. The association between...... of The Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1976-1978. The participants were followed up until 18th of September 2001 during which 7208 persons died. The effect of beer, wine and spirits on mortality was stratified according to levels of education, income and cohabitation, and the association was examined after...

  15. Economic impacts of electricity liberalization on the status of nuclear power generation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Toru

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic impact of electricity liberalization on the status of nuclear power generation in the United States. Nuclear power plants have been treated equally with other types of power plants in the liberalized electricity market. The existing nuclear power plants were thought to be competitive in liberalized wholesale electricity market. Competitive pressure from the market also facilitated efficiency improvement among the existing nuclear power plants. Although it was difficult to build new reactor, the U.S. nuclear power generators expanded capacity through up rates. In recent years, however, nuclear power plants suffer from the decline in wholesale power prices and some of them are forced to retire early. Although there are some market design issues that could be improved to maintain the efficient nuclear power plants in competitive environment, it is now argued that some additional arrangements to mitigate the investment risks of the nuclear power plants are necessary. (author)

  16. Legal Status of the Catholic Church as an Economic Entity in EU and Croatian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Sokol

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the Catholic Church’s legal status in the European Union primarily falls within the competences of the Member States. The Croatian legal framework in this respect consists of various types of legal rules, most important of which is the set of international agreements entered into between the Republic of Croatia and the Holy See. Still, EU competition, state aid and free movement rules affect this legal framework to a significant degree. The aim of this paper is to analyse the applicability of the said EU rules to the activities of the Catholic Church in Croatia, that is to determine whether the Catholic Church can be considered an undertaking conducting an economic activity (and to what degree according to the said legal framework, whether the Croatian national legal framework is aligned with the EU rules, and whether there are points of contention in this area which need to be legally rectified. The second part of this paper analyses the European Union state aid and free movement legal framework, primarily trying to determine whether the Catholic Church is an undertaking carrying out an economic activity as prescribed by EU law. In this analysis, several issues emerge which have not been clearly resolved by the Court of Justice. The following part features an outline of the Croatian national legal framework on the legal status of the Catholic Church, focusing on potential points of contention between the national and the EU law. Finally, certain solutions to the mentioned issues are proposed, on the European and the national level, in accordance with legal certainty as the general principle of (EU law.

  17. Barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral therapy adherence in rural Eastern province, Zambia: the role of household economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa, Rainier; Chowa, Gina; Nyirenda, Victor

    2017-07-01

    In Zambia, more people living with HIV now have access to lifesaving antiretroviral therapy than ever before. However, progress in HIV treatment and care has not always resulted in lower mortality. Adherence remains a critical barrier to treatment success. The objective of this study was to examine the barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral therapy adherence, particularly the role of household economic status. The study included a cross-sectional sample of 101 people living with HIV (PLHIV) in two rural communities in eastern Zambia. Adherence was measured using patient self-assessment and pharmacy information. Household economic status included components such as occupation, income, assets, food security, and debt. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine the associations between household economic factors and adherence. Our findings suggest that the role of economic status on adherence appears to be a function of the economic component. Debt and non-farming-related occupation were consistently associated with non-adherence. The association between assets and adherence depends on the type of asset. Owning more transportation-related assets was consistently associated with non-adherence, whereas owning more livestock was associated with self-reported adherence. Additionally, living in a community with fewer economic opportunities was associated with non-adherence. The associations between place of residence and pharmacy refill adherence and between transportation assets and self-reported adherence were statistically significant. Improving adherence requires a multifaceted strategy that addresses the role of economic status as a potential barrier and facilitator. Programmes that provide economic opportunities and life-skills training may help PLHIV to overcome economic, social, and psychological barriers.

  18. The impact of CO2 emissions on economic growth: evidence from selected higher CO2 emissions economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Bin Abdullah, Hussin; Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze the impact of environmental degradation proxied by CO2 emissions per capita along with some other explanatory variables namely energy use, trade, and human capital on economic growth in selected higher CO2 emissions economies namely China, the USA, India, and Japan. For empirical analysis, annual data over the period spanning between 1971 and 2013 are used. After using relevant and suitable tests for checking data properties, the panel fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) method is employed as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The panel group FMOLS results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non cointegration, demonstrating that all variables play an important role in affecting the economic growth role across countries. Where two regressors namely CO2 emissions and energy use show significantly negative impacts on economic growth, for trade and human capital, they tend to show the significantly positive impact on economic growth. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the panel estimate suggests that CO2 emissions have a significant positive relationship with economic growth for China, Japan, and the USA, while it is found significantly negative in case of India. The empirical findings of the study suggest that appropriate and prudent policies are required in order to control pollution emerging from areas other than liquefied fuel consumption. The ultimate impact of shrinking pollution will help in supporting sustainable economic growth and maturation as well as largely improve society welfare.

  19. A sign of change in industrial structure under stable growth: economic status of nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The real economical growth rate in fiscal year 1983 in Japan was 3.7 %, and the business trend showed the sign of restoration. The status of primary energy supply in Japan turned to 4.5 % increase as compared with the previous year. Petroleum increased by 3.5 %, coal by 1.6 %, and nuclear power by 11.1 %. As the result, the proportion of petroleum to total primary energy supply slightly decreased to 61 %. Electric power demand increased by 6.3 %, and the proportion of nuclear power to total generated power quantity increased to 20.4 %. As to the status of atomic energy industry in fiscal 1983, one nuclear power plant started the operation, and the construction of three nuclear power plants began. The investment for nuclear fuel cycle was enthusiastic, and the business progressed favorably. The total outlay related to atomic energy was 2.89 trillion yen, 14 % increase as compared with the previous year. The sales of mining and manufacturing industries was 1.367 trillion yen, 17 % increase. The number of workers related to atomic energy was 65,997, 2 % decrease. The mean capacity ratio of the production facilities for atomic energy products in fiscal 1983 was 66.5 %, far below the target 72 %. (Kako, I.)

  20. New perspectives on internationalization and competitiveness integrating economics, innovation and higher education

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume showcases contributions from leading academics, educators and policymakers derived from two workshops hosted by the Interdisciplinary Center for Economic Science (ICES) at George Mason University on internationalization and competitiveness. It aims to present key areas of current research and to identify basic problems within the field to promote further discussion and research. This book is organized into two sections, focusing on: science and economics and innovation policy and its measurement, with an underlying emphasis on exploring connections across disciplines and across research, practice and policy. The first workshop was held at George Mason University (GMU) in Arlington, VA, USA in March 2013 and a second, building on the key results from the first, was held at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden in October 2013. A variety of problems were discussed and several interdisciplinary concepts in internationalization and competitiveness have already emerged from the...

  1. Adipokine serum concentrations, anthropometric measurements and socio-economic status in two ethnic groups with different prevalence levels for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisberg, R; Paiker, J E; Crowther, N J

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is more common in African than Asian-Indian populations and yet type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are more common in the latter populations. The main purpose of the current study was therefore to determine whether ethnic differences in body fat distribution, adipokine levels, and socio-economic status may explain population differences in the prevalence of these metabolic disorders. Leptin, IL-6, CRP, visceral fat, education level, and socio-economic status were measured in 50 African and the same number of Indian women residing in Johannesburg, South Africa. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in Indian than African subjects (41.3±2.0 and 34.2±2.9 ng/ml, respectively; pAfrican group, (5.22±0.86 vs. 2.54±0.52 pg/ml; peconomic status (pAfrican subjects, however, adjusting for these variables in ANCOVA did not attenuate differences in adipokine or visceral fat levels. We hypothesise that one of the reasons for the higher prevalence of obesity in the African than Indian population may be related to lower leptin levels, whilst ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic disorders cannot be explained by differences in adipokine levels, but maybe related to higher visceral adiposity in the Indian group. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · NewYork.

  2. Socio-economic status of fishermen of the Marjat Baor at Kaligonj in Jhenidah district, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Banerjee Bappa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the socio-economic status of fishermen of the Marjat Baor at Kaligonj of Jhenidah district. Fifty fishermen from 50 families were interviewed. Results revealed that 94% respondents were married and age varied between 30 and 45 years. Almost all the fishermen were Hindus (96%. Most of the people of the community were illiterate (60% and among all of the school going children (58% were boys and (42% were girls. Above fifty percent people lived in nuclear family. 40% people lived in earthen house, constructed by grass leaves and mud. Only a few (18% of them were found to be use electricity. Primary occupation of 60% respondents was fishing and few were also involved in agriculture. They were often found to suffer from various diseases due to lack of pure drinking water. Majority of them got fever and receive treatment from quack. Only twelve percent (12% women were engaged in making nets for fishing. Annual household income of maximum beneficiaries (44% was below BDT 30,000 and above BDT 50,000 found in only 4% cases. In the present study, educational, organizational, and technical credit support were very crucial to develop their better socio-economic conditions.

  3. Changes in stature, weight, and nutritional status with tourism-based economic development in the Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the Status of Entrepreneurship Education Courses in Higher Learning Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgence, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the status of entrepreneurship courses offered in education schools. It provides recommendations for how to address the existing challenges by developing entrepreneurship initiatives in education schools. Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey was circulated to the management of all education schools…

  5. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  6. Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children.

  7. "Soviet" Higher Education in a Changing Political, Social, and Economic Context: A Scenario for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkuriev, Stanislav

    1991-01-01

    Describes the changes in Soviet/Russian higher education since 1986. Reviews the development of higher education since 1918 and the bureaucratic structures that stifled progress and focused on vocational preparation. Argues that decentralization of authority will lead to improved general education essential for a free society. (CFR)

  8. Regional Inequality of Higher Education in China and the Role of Unequal Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickenbach, Frank; Liu, Wan-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the scale of higher education in China has expanded substantially. Regional development policies have attempted to make use of scale expansion as a tool to reduce inequality of higher education among regions with different development levels by providing poor regions with preferential treatment and support. This paper analyzes…

  9. Relation between Observed and Perceived Traffic Noise and Socio-Economic Status in Urban Blocks of Different Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte von Szombathely

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Living in cities offers many benefits and thus more and more people are living in urban areas. However, the concentration of human activities also creates environmental stressors with severe influence on people’s health and well-being. Noise is an environmental stressor with known health impact. Despite this, studies investigating small-scale difference in noise exposure and annoyance are lacking. Against this background, this case study investigates environmental justice empirically, focusing on the distribution of road traffic noise and its perception in Hamburg, Germany. The study outlines a methodological approach that takes into account subjective and objective measures of exposure in small-scale residential blocks. The results show that annoyance by noise is clearly related to noise emission. Moreover, different groups are affected by noise pollution in our study area unequally. In particular, younger people and people with lower socio-economic status have higher probabilities to be affected by noise. Additionally, it emerged that participants reporting higher levels of annoyance from noise are on average younger than those feeling less annoyed. Overall, these results show that the current legal noise limits applicable to residential planning processes in German cities are not sufficient to prevent substantial annoyance effects in residential populations.

  10. Higher Education Facilities: The SmartGrid Earns a Doctorate in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysseling, John C.; Zibelman, Audrey; Freifeld, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Most higher education facilities have already accomplished some measure of a "microgrid" investment with building control systems (BCS), energy management systems (EMS), and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) installations. Available energy production facilities may include boilers, chillers, cogeneration, thermal storage, electrical…

  11. Children′s growth pattern and mothers′ education and socio-economic status in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Ibrahim Alhaidari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An important indication of a child′s well-being is evidence of having a normal growth pattern. A child′s growth pattern is influenced by multiple factors, genetic and/or environmental. From an environmental point of view, the socio-economic status of the mother plays an important role in a child′s growth during the early stages of childhood. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the association between mothers′ educational and socio-economic status on their children′s growth in Riyadh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in eight hospitals in Riyadh. The target population was children aged between 1 month and 7 years and their mothers visiting the vaccination clinics. The mother′s data were collected using a structured interview, and the child′s weight and height were measured and plotted on growth charts. Results: A total of 744 mothers and children were screened (392 males, 352 females. The proportion of children with weight and height under the 25 th percentile was 40% and 29%, respectively. In terms of education, the height of a higher proportion of children (33% was under the 25 th percentile if the mother had a high school education compared with 25% when the mother had a college education (P = 0.02. Private sector-employed mothers had a lower proportion of children (26% with weight below the 25 th percentile compared to mothers who were government-employed or unemployed (both 41%. Mothers living in an apartment had a significantly lower proportion of children (24% with height under the 25 th percentile compared to mothers living in a house (33% (P = 0.04. In addition, mothers living in a rented residence had a significantly lower proportion (40% of children with weight under the 25 th percentile than mothers living in owned ones (42% (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Underweight and short stature among children are associated with less educated and unemployed mothers and with mothers who live in a house. The

  12. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; Δ = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe.

  13. Trends in the economic status of the elderly, 1976-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, T; Rassette, M; Iams, H; Koenig, M

    The economic well-being of elderly Americans (aged 65 or older) improved between 1976 and 2000. Overall, poverty rates fell during this period, median real income rose, and median income relative to the working-age population was relatively stable. Most population subgroups shared in the reduced poverty rates; however, the economic status of elderly Hispanics did not improve. This article attempts to explain those economic trends by identifying changes in five sources of income for the elderly and analyzing the changes in the context of demographic changes in the elderly populations over the past 25 years. As a result of increased longevity, for example, larger proportions of elderly men and women are now 80 or older, and smaller proportions are 65 to 69. Hispanics and Asian Americans make up a larger share of the elderly population and whites a smaller share. The fraction of women who are married has increased, the fraction who are widowed has fallen, and the fraction who are divorced has grown. Such demographic changes can greatly affect the economic status of subgroups as well as the overall elderly population. Of the five sources of income for the elderly, Social Security remains the most prevalent and important. While both the rate of receipt and the share of aggregate income from Social Security benefits stayed relatively steady over the past 25 years, the average real Social Security benefit increased because of rising wages. Income from assets, the second most important source of income for the elderly, fluctuated. Because the elderly are more likely to hold interest-bearing assets such as bonds rather than stocks, their asset income is responsive to changes in nominal interest rates and bond yields. Receipt of pension income increased during this period, although it leveled off during the 1990s. Factors contributing to this pattern include enactment of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, which increased protections of pension benefits for

  14. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES PRACTICE OF HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OF THIRUVANANTHAPURAM DISTRICT: A STATUS RESEARCH.

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja. S.

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the awareness of Higher Secondary School English teachers on Multiple Intelligences. Each teacher needs to be aware of different forms of intelligences. The objectives of the study are to find out the level of awareness of Higher Secondary School teachers on Multiple Intelligences and to compare the awareness on Multiple Intelligences among Higher Secondary School teachers based on gender and locality. Survey method is used for collecting data from 150 highe...

  15. The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, A; Morrison, E

    2013-04-23

    Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the poorest areas, whereas the opposite is true for the richest areas. At older ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the richest, but not the poorest areas. These patterns suggest that female-female competition encourages poorer women to adopt a fast life-history strategy and give birth early, and richer women to adopt a slow life-history strategy and delay reproduction.

  16. Recessions and Tax-Cuts: Economic Cycles' Impact on Individual Giving, Philanthropy, and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Noah D.

    2006-01-01

    Few researchers have examined how individual giving to higher education is effected by the economy, specifically during downturns and periodic changes in tax laws. Further understanding the relationship between the economy's cycles and philanthropic giving, including the correlation of tax cuts to donations, will help colleges and universities…

  17. Neighbourhood walkability, road density and socio-economic status in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Christine T; Ding, Ding; Rolfe, Margaret I; Mayne, Darren J; Jalaludin, Bin; Bauman, Adrian; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2016-04-27

    Planning and transport agencies play a vital role in influencing the design of townscapes, travel modes and travel behaviors, which in turn impact on the walkability of neighbourhoods and residents' physical activity opportunities. Optimising neighbourhood walkability is desirable in built environments, however, the population health benefits of walkability may be offset by increased exposure to traffic related air pollution. This paper describes the spatial distribution of neighbourhood walkability and weighted road density, a marker for traffic related air pollution, in Sydney, Australia. As exposure to air pollution is related to socio-economic status in some cities, this paper also examines the spatial distribution of weighted road density and walkability by socio-economic status (SES). We calculated walkability, weighted road density (as a measure of traffic related air pollution) and SES, using predefined and validated measures, for 5858 Sydney neighbourhoods, representing 3.6 million population. We overlaid tertiles of walkability and weighted road density to define "sweet-spots" (high walkability-low weighted road density), and "sour- spots" (low walkability-high weighted road density) neighbourhoods. We also examined the distribution of walkability and weighted road density by SES quintiles. Walkability and weighted road density showed a clear east-west gradient across the region. Our study found that only 4 % of Sydney's population lived in sweet-spot" neighbourhoods with high walkability and low weighted road density (desirable), and these tended to be located closer to the city centre. A greater proportion of neighbourhoods had health limiting attributes of high weighted road density or low walkability (about 20 % each), and over 5 % of the population lived in "sour-spot" neighbourhoods with low walkability and high weighted road density (least desirable). These neighbourhoods were more distant from the city centre and scattered more widely. There were

  18. Working Conditions of Agricultural Workers: A Reflection of Socio-economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R.K. Sinha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Working conditions of agricultural workers, like industrial, are one of the burning issues in a developing region. It is related to agricultural activities of the workers and their socio-economic status. Working conditions may be both favourable and unfavourable. Those working conditions which are unfavourable to health may be considered as occupational hazards or as a part of occupational environment. It is generally observed that a large section of the agricultural workers remains engaged in agricultural practices at the time of hunger, thirst, pregnancy (women and even despite their unpleasant state of health, both mental and physical. They also continue to work for more than the prescribed standard hours and also having half-fed. These are not positive or favourable working conditions to their health as they normally cause general weakness, fatigue, stomach disorder, dizziness, headache, loss of energy and some other similar physical, mental and psychological problems. The major driving forces behind as such adverse working conditions and its consequences are the pressure of work, pressure of land owners and of timely completion of works, shortage of manpower, psychological attitude, ignorance, weather constraints, poverty, illiteracy, lack of work related health awareness, lower social and economic status, etc. Such forces compel the workers to be engaged in their agricultural practices under the above circumstance. Adverse working conditions of agricultural workers vary widely with reference to space, time, activities, demographics, society, economy and consequently affect both the mental and physical, social and psychological conditions of the agricultural workers. Persons in varying number in the age groups from 15-34 and 35-49 to 60 & + year were reported working under different types of undesirable working conditions. The people from the S.C. and S.T. categories are the major sufferers as most of them continue their work during

  19. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annique Smeding

    Full Text Available In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning, but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society. Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals, instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  20. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  1. National Economic Conditions and Patient Insurance Status Predict Prostate Cancer Diagnosis Rates and Management Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Adam B; Conti, Rena M; Eggener, Scott E

    2016-05-01

    The recent Great Recession from December 2007 to June 2009 presents a unique opportunity to examine whether the incidence of nonpalpable prostate cancer decreases while conservative management for nonpalpable prostate cancer increases during periods of national economic hardship. We derived rates of national monthly diagnosis and conservative management for screen detected, nonpalpable prostate cancer and patient level insurance status from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) database from 2004 to 2011. We derived monthly statistics on national unemployment rates, inflation, median household income and S&P 500® closing values from government sources. Using linear and logistic multivariable regression we measured the correlation of national macroeconomic conditions with prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment patterns. We evaluated patient level predictors of conservative management to determine whether being insured by Medicaid or uninsured increased the use of conservative management. Diagnosis rates correlated positively with the S&P 500 monthly close (coefficient 24.90, 95% CI 6.29-43.50, p = 0.009). Conservative management correlated negatively with median household income (coefficient -49.13, 95% CI -69.29--28.98, p management compared to that in men with private insurance. As indicated by a significant interaction term being diagnosed during the Great Recession increased the Medicaid insurance predictive value of conservative management (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.68, p = 0.037). National economic hardship was associated with decreased diagnosis rates of nonpalpable prostate cancer and increased conservative management. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Work status as a predictor of academic performance in the field of distance higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Welman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the academic success of 13 590 Technikon SA students and the importance of their "work status" (employed/unemployed in light of the co-operative education philosophy of technikons. The data was collected by means of the students’ registration records, and analysed using a CHAID-analysis. The results indicated that the variable "work status" features second last on the list of nine successful variables for predicting academic performance. Generally, it would appear that the employment practice for technikon students is not as important a requirement for academic success as the co-operative education philosophy would like it to be. Opsomming Hierdie artikel lewer verslag oor die akademiese sukses van 13 590 Technikon SA studente en die belangrikheid van hul “werkstatus” (werkend/werkloos in die lig van die koöperatiewe onderwysfilosofie van technikons. Die inligting wat deur middel van die studente se registrasierekords ingesamel is, is ontleed met ‘n CHAID-ontleding. Die resultate toon dat die veranderlike “werkstatus” tweede laaste op die lys van nege veranderlikes voorkom wat akademiese verrigting voorspel. Oor die algemeen blyk dit dat die indiensnemingpraktyk van technikonstudente nie so ‘n belangrike vereiste vir akademiese sukses is as wat die koöperatiewe onderwysfilosofie dit sou wou hê nie.

  3. Genetically modified (GM) corn in the Philippines : Ecological impacts on agroecosystems, effects on the economic status and farmers’ experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabutol-Afidchao, Miladis B.

    2013-01-01

    To seek answers to the issues on GM corn adoption in the Philippines, the thesis focused to find answers on the general question: How can genetically modified (GM) corn and its attributed changes in agricultural practices affect the agro-ecosystem’s biodiversity and the economic status and social

  4. Measuring health inequality among children in developing countries: does the choice of the indicator of economic status matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Kunst, Anton E.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, poor-rich inequalities in health in developing countries receive a lot of attention from both researchers and policy makers. Since measuring economic status in developing countries is often problematic, different indicators of wealth are used in different studies. Until now,

  5. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  6. INCIDENCE OF STUNTING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD INTAKE, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, AND ECONOMIC STATUS IN KENDARI, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stunting is characterized by inhibition of growth in children that lead to failure in getting normal heights and healthy child's age. It is a public health problem in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kelurahan Mangga Dua in Kendari in 2016. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationship between food intake, infectious diseases, economic status and the incidence of stunting in Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study with retrospective approach. This research was conducted in Public Health Center of Mata. There were 41 respondents were selected as the samples. Data were collected by questionnaires, observation, and documentation. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square test. Results: The results showed that there were significant associations between food intake (p= 0.001, infectious diseases (p= 0.000, economic status (p= 0.000, and the incidence of stunting in infants. Conclusions: It can be concluded that there is a relationship between food intake, infectious diseases and economic status with the incidence of stunting in children aged 2-4 years in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kendari. Therefore, good food intake is needed for the growth and development of the child. Moreover, changing the behavior of parents by doing the healthy and clean behavior in the household to prevent infectious diseases in children infectious diseases is also very important. Economic status however also plays key role in the incidence of stunting in children

  7. How Does the Choice of A-level Subjects Vary with Students' Socio-Economic Status in English State Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnot, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at high status universities are not yet entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on A-level subject…

  8. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.H.; Nicolau, M.; Dam, van R.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet.

  9. Modern trends in economic regulation of the innovative development of the higher education system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аleksandr LEVCHENKO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The consensus in the high school is valued by how much we invest in human capital which is determinant of efficiency. High school is a pillar contributor to productivity growth. There is evidence that innovation is a key player in nurturing technology chan¬ge. In today’s knowledge based economy, it becomes more evident that investing in human capital has greater return for university and corporation which is more effec¬tive than that of physical assets. Simultaneously, the conceptual fundamental of hu¬man capital is based on knowledge, skills, competencies, and tools that are developed through coaching and learning activities provided by the concerned institution. This paper intend to tackle and to develop separate positions of the theory and practice of financing the innovative development of higher education (IDHE toward the formati¬on and development of the national economy of knowledge. Furthermore, it examines the retention of the increased globalization of higher education, while state financial obligation is in decrease, which leads to greater distinction among universities in res¬pect of financial support and security. Financial support should be a priority to support the innovative development of higher education.

  10. Association between HIV infection and socio-economic status: evidence from a semirural area of southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Duran, Clara; González, Raquel; Quintó, Llorenç; Munguambe, Khatia; Tallada, Joan; Naniche, Denise; Sacoor, Charfudin; Sicuri, Elisa

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the association between socio-economic status (SES) and HIV in Manhiça, a district of Southern Mozambique with one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world. Data were gathered from two cross-sectional surveys performed in 2010 and 2012 among 1511 adults and from the household census of the district's population. Fractional polynomial logit models were used to analyse the association between HIV and SES, controlling for age and sex and taking into account the nonlinearity of covariates. The inequality of the distribution of HIV infection with regard to SES was computed through a concentration index. Fourth and fifth wealth quintiles, the least poor, were associated with a reduced probability of HIV infection compared to the first quintile (OR = 0.595, P-value = 0.009 and OR = 0.474, P-value < 0.001, respectively). Probability of HIV infection peaked at 36 years and then fell, and was always higher for women regardless of age and SES. HIV infection was unequally distributed across the SES strata. Despite the high HIV prevalence across the entire population of Manhiça, the poorest are at greatest risk of being HIV infected. While women have a higher probability of being HIV positive than men, both sexes showed the same infection reduction at higher levels of SES. HIV interventions in the area should particularly focus on the poorest and on women without neglecting anyone else, as the HIV risk is high for everyone. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Socio-economic status and cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban areas of Vellore, Tamilnadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Raghupathy, Palani; Richard, Joseph; Fall, Caroline H D

    2012-10-01

    We examined associations between socio-economic status (SES) indicators and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among urban and rural South Indians. Data from a population-based birth cohort of 2218 men and women aged 26-32 years from Vellore, Tamilnadu were used. SES indicators included a household possessions score, attained education and paternal education. CVD risk factors included obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, plasma total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and triglyceride levels and consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between SES indicators and risk factors. Most risk factors were positively associated with possessions score in urban and rural men and women, except for tobacco use, which was negatively associated. Trends were similar with the participants' own education and paternal education, though weaker and less consistent. In a concurrent analysis of all the three SES indicators, adjusted for gender and urban/rural residence, independent associations were observed only for the possessions score. Compared with those in the lowest fifth of the score, participants in the highest fifth had a higher risk of abdominal obesity [odds ratio (OR) =6.4, 95% CI 3.4-11.6], high total cholesterol to HDL ratio (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.5) and glucose intolerance (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.9-4.1). Their tobacco use (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6) was lower. Except for hypertension and glucose intolerance, risk factors were higher in urban than rural participants independently of SES. In this young cohort of rural and urban south Indians, higher SES was associated with a more adverse CVD risk factor profile but lower tobacco use.

  12. Does the FTO Gene Interact with the Socio‐Economic Status on the Obesity Development Among Young European Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Frauke; Gwozdz, Wencke

    Various twin studies revealed that the influence of genetic factors on psychological diseases or behavior is more expressed in socio‐economically advantaged environments. Other studies predominantly show an inverse relation between socio‐economic status (SES) and childhood obesity in western...... developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the FTO gene interacts with the socio‐economic status (SES) on childhood obesity in a subsample of the IDEFICS cohort (N=4406). A structural equation model (SEM) is applied with the latent constructs obesity, dietary habits, physical...... activity and fitness habits, and parental SES to estimate the main effects of the latter three variables and a FTO polymorphism on obesity. Further, a multiple group SEM is used to explore whether an interaction effect between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 within the FTO gene and SES exists...

  13. Is Socio-Economic Status a Determinant of HIV-Related Stigma Attitudes in Zimbabwe? Findings from Project Accept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateveke, Kudzanai; Singh, Basant; Chingono, Alfred; Sibanda, E; Machingura, Ian

    2016-08-17

    HIV related stigma and discrimination is a known barrier for HIV prevention and care. We aimed to assess the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and HIV related stigma in Zimbabwe. This paper uses data from Project Accept , which examined the impact of community-based voluntary counseling and testing intervention on HIV incidence and stigma. Total of 2522 eligible participants responded to a psychometric assessment tool, which assessed HIV related stigma and discrimination attitudes on 4 point Likert scale. The tool measured three components of HIV-related stigma: shame, blame and social isolation, perceived discrimination, and equity. Participants' ownership of basic assets was used to assess the socio-economic status. Shame, blame and social isolation component of HIV related stigma was found to be significantly associated with medium [odds ratio (OR)=1.73, Pstigma and discrimination programs to be effective, they should take into account the socio-economic context of target population.

  14. Prevalence of overweight in the Seychelles: 15 year trends and association with socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, P; Chiolero, A; Shamlaye, C; Paccaud, F

    2008-11-01

    We assessed the 15-year trends in the distribution of body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of overweight in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African Region) and the relationship with socio-economic status (SES). Three population-based examination surveys were conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2004. Occupation was categorized as 'labourer', 'intermediate' or 'professional'. Education was also assessed in 1994 and 2004. Between 1989 and 2004, mean BMI increased markedly in all sex and age categories (overall: 0.16 kg m(-2) per calendar year, which corresponds to 0.46 kg per calendar year). The prevalence of overweight (including obesity, BMI >or= 25 kg m(-2)) increased from 29% to 52% in men and from 50% to 67% in women. The prevalence of obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg m(-2)) increased from 4% to 15% in men and from 23% to 34% in women. Overweight was associated inversely with occupation in women and directly in men in all surveys. In multivariate analysis, overweight was associated similarly (direction and magnitude) to occupation and education. In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity over time in all age, sex and SES categories suggests large-scale changes in societal obesogenic factors. The sex-specific association of SES with overweight suggests that prevention measures should be tailored accordingly.

  15. Early-life Socio-economic Status and Adult Health: The Role of Positive Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a further understanding of the relationship between early-life socio-economic status (SES) and adult health disparities. This was accomplished through evaluation of state indicators of positive and negative affect as mechanisms through which early-life SES was associated with susceptibility to a rhinovirus (i.e. the common cold). Analyses were conducted among 286 adults in a viral challenge study in which participants were exposed to a rhinovirus via nasal drops and cold symptoms were evaluated over a period of 5 days. Participant age, body mass index, sex, education, ethnicity, pre-challenge virus-specific antibody titres and subjective adult SES, along with virus type and season of participation, were included as covariates. Early-life SES was associated with cold incidence through state positive affect, but not state negative affect. In addition, contrast analysis indicated that the indirect effect through state positive affect was stronger than the indirect effect through state negative affect. Findings provide further support for early-life SES being an important variable associated with adult health, and that state self-reported positive affect may be an underlying mechanism associated with susceptibility to rhinoviruses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Community participation to refine measures of socio-economic status in urban slum settings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongo, Carrie Jane; Mathingau, Florence Alice; Burke, Heather; Brieger, William; Frick, Kevin; Chapman, Kimberly; Breiman, Robert

    Ownership of household durable assets can be a useful proxy for determining relative socio-economic status in a community, but the assets that should be measured are not always unambiguous. Often the selection of asset variables has been ad hoc or not well explained in the literature. Although the benefits of conducting focus groups to design surveys are widely recognized, the use of focus groups to adapt community-specific asset indices has not previously been reported in Kenya. This article describes how focus group discussions can allow communities to express how residents value assets and distinguish relative wealth. Focus group discussions were conducted within the informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants identified assets that distinguish between the poorest and the least poor in their community. They considered whether they would move away from the slum if they had the opportunity, and many would not, citing reasons ranging from loyalty to the community to greater living expenses on the outside. Local perceptions of relative poverty and mobility provide insight into how quality of life in this setting can be assessed and potentially improved. Moreover, a qualitative approach can lead to the adaptation of a community asset index for use in further research.

  17. Mediation of psychosocial determinants in the relation between socio-economic status and adolescents' diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Vynckier, Lisa; Moreno, Luis A; Beghin, Laurent; de la O, Alex; Forsner, Maria; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Huybrechts, Inge; Iguacel, Isabel; Kafatos, Antonio; Kersting, Mathilde; Leclercq, Catherine; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascension; Molnar, Denes; Sjöström, Michael; Widhalm, Kurt; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2018-04-01

    To examine the underlying reasons for the positive relation between socio-economic status (SES) and the diet quality of adolescents. In 2081 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) of the European HELENA study, a continuous variable on diet quality via 2-day 24-h recalls was available. SES was reflected by parental education, parental occupation and family affluence. Mediation by several psychosocial determinants was tested: self-efficacy, availability at school and home, social support, barriers, benefits, awareness and some self-reported influencers (parents, school, taste, health, friends, food readily available, easy preparation, hunger, price and habits). Multiple mediation analyses were adjusted for age, sex and country. The availability of soft drinks and fruit at home, social support, parental influence, barriers, price influence, taste influence, health influence and food being readily available were significant mediators. The multiple mediation indirect effect accounted for 23-64% of the total effect. Both occupation and education and both maternal and paternal factors could be explained by the mediation. The unavailability of soft drinks was the strongest mediator (17-44% of the total effect). Up to 64% of the positive relation between SES and the diet quality in adolescence could be explained by several healthy eating determinants. Focusing on these factors in low-SES populations can minimize social inequalities in diet and health by improving the diet of these specific adolescents.

  18. The correlation between burn mortality rates from fire and flame and economic status of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael; Pressman, Melissa A

    2013-09-01

    Over 95% of burn deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries globally. However, the association between burn mortality rates and economic health has not been evaluated for individual countries. This study seeks to answer the question, how strong is the correlation between burn mortality and national indices of economic strength? A retrospective review was performed for 189 countries during 2008-2010 using economic data from the World Bank as well as mortality data from the World Health Organization (WHO). Countries were categorized into four groups based on income level according to stratification by the World Bank: low income, lower middle income, upper middle income, and high income. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to estimate presence and strength of association among death rates, Gini coefficient (measure of inequality of distribution of wealth), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and gross national index (GNI) per capita. Statistically significant associations (p<0.05) were found between burn mortality and GDP per capita (r=-0.26), GNI per capita (r=-0.36), and Gini (r=+0.17). A nation's income level is negatively correlated with burn mortality; the lower the income level, the higher the burn mortality rates. The degree to which income within a country is equitably or inequitably distributed also correlates with burn mortality. Both governmental and non-governmental organizations need to focus on preventing burns in low-income countries, as well as in other countries in which there is marked disparity of income. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Socio-Economic and Health Status of Leprosy Affected Person: A Study in Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, N

    2015-01-01

    The study has been conducted in the Potka Block of East Singhbhum district of the state of Jharkhand. The district is mainly dominated by indigenous tribes, such as, Santhal, Munda, Ho, Bhumiz, Kharia, and Sabar. The unit of analysis of the study was an individual. The objectives were to: a) Understand the socio-economic and health status of LAP, b) Know the health seeking behavior and problems faced by the LAP, c) Assess the utilization of the programs related to Leprosy eradication in the study area and d), Suggest various measures for improving the socio-economic and health status of LAP. Fifty Leprosy affected persons (LAP) from the Potka block; comprising of 20% of LAP of that area have been selected as the study sample by using the method of Multi-Stage Random Sampling, with equal representation of men and women. The LAPs included leprosy patients, leprosy treated people and their family members. 39/50 (78%) of the respondents are illiterates and only 3/11 (6%) among the literate population have crossed matriculation and above. This seems to have resulted in the respondent's low level of awareness about the disease, resulting in delayed treatment. 14/25 (56%) percent of female and 13/25 (52%) of male respondents are considered untouchable by their natal families, thus forced to stay in congested leprosy colonies resulting in other social and health related issues. It was observed that leprosy cured children,and also children of LAP are being denied admission iany school, due to the social stigma attached to it. 27/50 (54%)of leprosy patients and leprosy cured people (mostly with visible deformities) were found to practice begging as their sole means of livelihood. Many LAPs are also engaged in cultivation and small scale business particularly among the rural population. An amount of gender disparity was also observed in the employment pattern among the LAPs. Among the, respondents 15/25 (60%) of the females are beggars as compared to 12/25 (48%) of the male

  20. Participation in population-based case-control studies: does the observed decline vary by socio-economic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum, Marie; Bailey, Helen D; Heiden, Tamika; Armstrong, Bruce K; de Klerk, Nicholas; Milne, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    An Australian study of childhood leukaemia (Aus-ALL) previously reported that control participation was positively associated with socio-economic status (SES). A similar study of childhood brain tumours (Aus-CBT) was carried out 4 years later, and this paper compares control participation and its relationship with SES in the two studies. To assess the representativeness of controls in terms of SES, the addresses of controls were linked to Australian Bureau of Statistics Census 2006 Collection Districts (CDs), and hence to area-based indices of SES. Independent sample t-tests and chi-squared tests were used to compare the SES indices of CDs where Aus-CBT controls lived with those where Aus-ALL controls lived and with those of all CDs where Australian families lived. The overall percentage of eligible families who agreed to participate was lower in Aus-CBT (53.9%) than in Aus-ALL (70.3%). Control families in both studies were of higher SES than the general population, while the distribution of SES among recruited controls was similar in both studies. These findings provide some reassurance that the observed decline in research participation over time may not be associated with an increasingly unrepresentative participant population. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Pursuing Prestige in Higher Education: Stratification, Status, and the Influence of College Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortagus, Justin C.

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that changes in rankings have an impact on admissions outcomes at colleges and universities. This study incorporates organization theory to explain these mechanisms and other external forces driving the pursuit of prestige in higher education. Beyond updating and replicating previous findings related to the impact of college…

  2. Current status of educational services in higher agricultural education in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Cobets’

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Perspective directions of integration state policy of Ukraine Higher Education  into the European educational space and steps of implementation are determined. It is analysed the current state of higher agricultural education and integration current state policy of Ukraine Higher Education into the European educational space which allowed to identify problems and highlighted areas for further development. It is considered that it is necessary to establish cooperation in the triangle «production ­ education – science», extend the impact of scientists and experts on the content of  educational sector, come educational standards to needs and challenges of the real economy, as upgrades of industry standards for higher education, forming curricula, new teaching methods. Professionals training is possible only in a simulation of modern production principles, including the European Union. It is necessary to strengthen the position of agricultural universities as international educational and scientific centers in the framework of the European educational space. This refers to the practice and teaching students abroad, teachers training, participation in international programs, joint research. Ukrainian agricultural education system has competitive advantages despite the general neglect and can be considered unique in the educational market, it has conditions for the creation and testing of innovative products for different agro­climatic zones within a region. This provides the results of knowledge­based real conditions of agricultural production. Among the weaknesses of the education system it is possible to note a lack of cooperation with employers, lack of logistical and information and communication resources, mismatch of modern innovative designs and high technologies. It is therefore necessary to overcome the gap between the content of education and the real needs of innovation economy. In general, you need to ensure long­term practice

  3. Maternal nutritional status (as measured by height, weight and BMI) in Bangladesh: trends and socio-economic association over the period 1996 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, Cg Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    To analyse trends in maternal nutritional status in Bangladesh over a 12-year period and to examine the associations between nutritional status and socio-economic variables. Maternal nutritional status indicators were height, weight and BMI. Socio-economic variables used were region, residency, education and occupation of the mothers and their husbands, house type, and possession score in the household. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (1996, 2000, 2004 and 2007) were the source of data. A total of 16 278 mothers were included. All of the socio-economic variables showed significant associations with maternal nutritional status indicators. Regional variation was found to be present; all three indicators were found to be lowest in the Sylhet division. Upward trends in maternal height, weight and BMI were evident from no possessions to four possessions in households, and for no education to higher education of women and their husbands. Bangladeshi mothers measured in 2007 were found to be on average 0·34 cm taller and 3·36 kg heavier than mothers measured in 1996. Between 1996 and 2007 maternal underweight fell from nearly 50 % to just over 30 % while overweight and obesity increased from about 3 % to over 9 % (WHO cut-offs) or from 7 % to nearly 18 % (Asian cut-offs). The study reveals that over the 12-year period in Bangladesh there has been a substantial reduction in maternal underweight accompanied by a considerable increase in obesity. It is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem that warrants a proper policy mix and programme intervention.

  4. Diminished Economic Return of Socioeconomic Status at Birth among Black than White Youth

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    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the Minorities’ Diminished Return theory, socioeconomic status (SES systemically generates larger gains for Whites compared to Blacks. It is, however, unknown whether the effects of baseline SES on future family income also varies between Blacks and Whites. Aims: Using a national sample, this study investigated racial variation in the effects of family SES (i.e., family structure, maternal education, and income at birth on subsequent household income at age 15. Methods: This 15-year longitudinal study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, which followed 1471 non-Hispanic Black or White families from the time of birth of their child for 15 years. Two family SES indicators (maternal education and income at birth were the independent variables. Family income 15 years later was the outcome. Maternal age, child gender, and family structure at baseline were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, maternal education (b = 11.62, p < 0.001 and household income (b = 0.73, p < 0.001 at baseline were predictive of family income 15 years later. Race, however, interacted with maternal education (b = −12,073.89, p < 0.001 and household income (b = −312.47, p < 0.001 at birth on household income 15 years later, indicating smaller effects for Black compared to White families. These differential gains were independent of family structure, mother age, and child gender. Conclusions: The economic return of family SES is smaller for Black compared to White families, regardless of the SES indicator. Policies should specifically address structural barriers in the lives of racial and ethnic minorities to minimize the diminished return of SES resources across racial minority groups. Policies should also reduce extra cost of upward social mobility for racial minorities. As the likely causes are multi-level, solutions should

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS COMPONENTS WITH SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN SHIRAZ, SOUTHERN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Robab; Chan, Yoke Mun; Khor, Geok Lin; Rahman, Hejar Abul; Esmailzadeh, Ahmad; Wong, Teck Wee

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its individual components with socio-economic factors among 14-18 year-old adolescents in Shiraz, Iran. Using a multistage random sampling, a total of 538 (289 males and 249 females) adolescents consented to the study. Socio-economic status was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire while presence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components was ascertained using NCEP-ATP III criteria. The relationships between the participants' socio-economic status and metabolic syndrome and its components were determined using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Approximately 6% of the adolescents had metabolic syndrome, with significantly more males than females (9.3% vs 2.4%, p Metabolic syndrome was significantly more prevalent in obese participants (44.4%) than those with normal body weight (2.0%) or overweight (9.3%). There were positive associations between the components of metabolic syndrome and parental education, school location and household monthly income. Having a family history of obesity was associated with metabolic syndrome after controlling for other variables (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 0.9-5.2, p = 0.042). Overweight and obese subjects were approximately 8 times and 15 times more likely to develop metabolic syndrome, respectively (overweight: OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 3.6-17.2; obese: OR = 15.4; 95% CI: 4.8-43.7). In conclusion, a positive association exists between socio-economic status and metabolic syndrome and its individual components among the studied participants. An intervention program to prevent metabolic syndrome needs to be developed for this young generation, especially among those who are overweight or obese and those with a family history of obesity. Keywords: adolescents, metabolic syndrome, components of metabolic syndrome, socio-economic status, Iran

  6. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

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    Yannis Manios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05. Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05. The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.

  7. The role of socio-economic status in depression: results from the COURAGE (aging survey in Europe

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    Aislinne Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socio-economic status (SES has been found to be associated with a higher prevalence of depression. However, studies that have investigated this association have been limited in their national scope, have analyzed different components of SES separately, and have not used standardized definitions or measurements across populations. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between SES and depression across three European countries that represent different regions across Europe, using standardized procedures and measurements and a composite score for SES. Method Nationally-representative data on 10,800 individuals aged ≥18 from the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE survey conducted in Finland, Poland and Spain were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. An adapted version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify the presence of depression, and SES was computed by using the combined scores of the total number of years educated (0–22 and the quintiles of the country-specific income level of the household (1–5. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between SES and depression. Results Findings reveal a significant association between depression and SES across all countries (p ≤ 0.001. After adjusting for confounders, the odds of depression were significantly decreased for every unit increase in the SES index for Finland, Poland and Spain. Additionally, higher education significantly decreased the odds for depression in each country, but income did not. Conclusion The SES index seems to predict depression symptomatology across European countries. Taking SES into account may be an important factor in the development of depression prevention strategies across Europe.

  8. Socio-economic status and health care utilization in rural Zimbabwe: findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Murima, Oliver; Singh, Basant; Hlubinka, Daniel; Kulich, Michal; Morin, Stephen F; Sweat, Michael

    2012-03-07

    Zimbabwe's HIV epidemic is amongst the worst in the world, and disproportionately effects poorer rural areas. Access to almost all health services in Zimbabwe includes some form of cost to the client. In recent years, the socio-economic and employment status of many Zimbabweans has suffered a serious decline, creating additional barriers to HIV treatment and care. We aimed to assess the impact of i) socio-economic status (SES) and ii) employment status on the utilization of health services in rural Zimbabwe. Data were collected from a random probability sample household survey conducted in the Mutoko district of north-western Zimbabwe in 2005. We selected variables that described the economic status of the respondent, including: being paid to work, employment status, and SES by assets. Respondents were also asked about where they most often utilized healthcare when they or their family was sick or hurt. Of 2,874 respondents, all forms of healthcare tended to be utilized by those of high or medium-high SES (65%), including private (65%), church-based (61%), traditional (67%), and other providers (66%) (P=0.009). Most respondents of low SES utilized government providers (74%) (P=0.009). Seventy-one percent of respondents utilizing health services were employed. Government (71%), private (72%), church (71%), community-based (78%) and other (64%) health services tended to be utilized by employed respondents (P=0.000). Only traditional health services were equally utilized by unemployed respondents (50%) (P=0.000). A wide range of health providers are utilized in rural Zimbabwe. Utilization is strongly associated with SES and employment status, particularly for services with user fees, which may act as a barrier to HIV treatment and care access. Efforts to improve access in low-SES, high HIV-prevalence settings may benefit from the subsidization of the health care payment system, efforts to improve SES levels, political reform, and the involvement of traditional

  9. Obesity and related risk factors among low socio-economic status minority students in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Tussing, Lisa; Braunschweig, Carol; Caballero, Benjamin; Flay, Brian

    2007-09-01

    To assess overweight and related risk factors among urban low socio-economic status (SES) African-American adolescents in an attempt to study the underlying causes of ethnicity and gender disparities in overweight. Cross-sectional data collected on anthropometric measures, diet, physical activity and family characteristics from 498 students in grades 5-7 in four Chicago public schools were analysed to study the risk factors for overweight using stepwise regression analysis. Only 37.2% of the students lived with two parents. Nearly 90% had a television (TV) in their bedroom, and had cable TV and a video game system at home. Overall. 21.8% (17.7% boys versus 25.1% girls) were overweight (body mass index (BMI) >/= 95th percentile); and 39.8% had a BMI >/= 85th percentile. Compared with national recommendations, they had inadequate physical activity and less than desirable eating patterns. Only 66.1% reported having at least 20 min vigorous exercise or 30 min of light exercise in >/= 5 days over the past 7 days; 62.1% spent >3 h days- 1 watching TV/playing video games/computer, while 33.1% spent >/= 5 h days- 1. Their vegetable and fruit consumption was low, and they consumed too many fried foods and soft drinks: 55.1% consumed fried food twice or more daily and 19.5% four times or more daily; 70.3% consumed soft drinks twice or more daily and 22.0% four times or more daily on average. Gender, physical activity and pocket money were significant predictors of overweight (P students' behaviours, school and family environments may increase overweight risk among this population. There is a great need for health promotion programmes with a focus on healthy weight and lifestyle, and targeting urban low-SES minority communities.

  10. Business intelligence and data warehouse programs in higher education institutions: current status and recommendations for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Marinova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the current situation and the main challenges in existing Business Intelligence (BI and Data Warehouse (DW curricula. On the base of this research, certain recommendations for their improvement are made. At the same time, the paper gives concrete guidelines for the development of a clear and comprehensive graduate profile with knowledge, skills and social competence in the field of BI and DW. This is particularly beneficial for universities and other higher education institutions, that seek to offer courses with high quality content and tendencies, adequate to the latest education, in the concerned area. The paper is written within the Erasmus plus KA2 project “Developing the innovative methodology of teaching Business Informatics” (DIMBI, 2015-1-PL01-KA203-0016636.

  11. READINESS OF TEACHERS FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES OF STUDENTS AT HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT OF ECONOMICS

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    L. V. Vishnevetskaja

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the article, its theoretical and practical importance are caused by the existing contradiction between the state order for the formation of socially active person and lack of scientifically-practical workings out in the field of pedagogical support of the organization of extracurricular socially useful activity of the students. The settlement of the contradiction is possible in the presence of teachers specially prepared for the given process.Purpose. The purpose of the article is the theoretical substantiation and experimental estimation of teachers’ readiness for the organization of extracurricular activities of students in higher education establishments of economics.Methodology, Results. Complex application of theoretical (element and the structural analysis, comparison, generalization and empirical (questioning, testing, the expert estimation, included pedagogical supervision methods has allowed to define the essence of investigated concept as integrative personal formation, to develop criteria and its indicators of its formation and experimentally estimate the level of readiness of teaching staff for the organization of students’ extracurricular activities in higher education establishments of economics.Practical implications. The results of the research can be widely used in the work of curators of academic groups, tutors, teachers-organizers, in the system of training and advanced training of teaching staff.

  12. Use of hospital services and socio-economic status in urban India: Does health insurance ensure equitable outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Mousumi; Husain, Zakir

    2012-01-01

    In recent years universal health coverage has become an important issue in developing countries. Successful introduction of such a social security system requires knowledge of the relationship between socio-economic status and usage of health care services. This paper examines this relationship, and analyzes the impact of introducing health insurance into the model, using data for India, a major developing country with poor health outcomes. In contrast to similar works undertaken for develope...

  13. What limits the utilization of health services among china labor force? analysis of inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liming; Zeng, Jingchun; Zeng, Zhi

    2017-02-02

    Inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status for China labor force place them at greater health risks, and marginalized them in the utilization of healthcare services. This paper identifies the inequalities which limit the utilization of health services among China labor force, and provides a reference point for health policy. Data were collected from 23,505 participants aged 15 to 65, from the 2014 China Labor Force Dynamic Survey (a nationwide cross-sectional survey covering 29 provinces with a multi-stage cluster, and stratified, probability sampling strategy) conducted by Sun Yat-sen University. Logistic regression models were used to study the effects of demographic (age, gender, marital status, type of hukou and migration status), socio-economic (education, social class and insurance) and health status (self-perceived general health and several chronic illnesses) variables on the utilization of health services (two-week visiting and hospitalization during the past 12 months). Goodness of fit was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Discrimination ability was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Migrants with more than 1 (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) or none chronic illnesses (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) are more likely to be two week visiting to the clinic than non-migrants; migrants with none chronic illnesses (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45 ~ 0.82) are less likely to be in hospitalization during the past 12 months than non-migrants. Female, elder, hukou of non-agriculture, higher education level, higher social class, purchasing more insurance and poorer self-perceived health were predictors for more utilization of health service. More insurance benefited more two-week visiting (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 ~ 1.17) and hospitalization during the past 12 months (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 ~ 1.18) for individuals with none chronic illness but not ≥1 chronic illnesses. All models achieved good calibration

  14. Knowledge, Communication and E-learning in Higher Education Perception and Differences of Traditional and Modern Academic Status

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    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present analyze is to underline the importance of a systemic approach of knowledge communication in eLearning academic sphere, in order to improve the efficiency and quality of research. Atthe same time, we intend to notice and shape the evolution of both teacher and learner status in higher education. The rhetoric about knowledge is often associated with organization and transfer of information. To provide students with a modern understanding of the „shared values” in higher education has become an important objective. The teachers have to adapt new forms of e-delivery of discipline content, form and inform about e-resources for learning. We have to develop national strategies and add value to the role ofuniversity as a key factor in e-learning. The knowledge transfer at academic level, can be fully realized only when information encounters in the student the optimal set of tools designed to facilitate learning, and an individual style of thinking, so as to analyze fundamental questions and to be able to validate or invalidate the information. The teacher status evolves from content expert to metacognition expert, from guide in valuable information search to knowledge communicator. The present analyze reflects some aspects of the consequences that new forms of communication evolved during transition from traditional to e-academic environment.

  15. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  16. Understanding the Relationships between Gender Inequitable Behaviours, Childhood Trauma and Socio-Economic Status in Single and Multiple Perpetrator Rape in Rural South Africa: Structural Equation Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively) and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape. 1370 young men aged 15 to 26 were interviewed as part of the randomised controlled trial evaluation of Stepping Stones in the rural Eastern Cape. We used multinomial to compare the characteristics of men who reported rape perpetration at baseline. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine pathways to rape perpetration. 76.1% of young men had never raped, 10.0% had perpetrated SPR and 13.9% MPR. The factors associated with both MPR and SPR (compared to never having raped) were indicators of socio-economic status (SES), childhood trauma, sexual coercion by a woman, drug and alcohol use, peer pressure susceptibility, having had transactional sex, multiple sexual partners and being physically violent towards a partner. The SEM showed the relationship between SES and rape perpetration to be mediated by gender inequitable masculinity. It was complex as there was a direct path indicating that SES correlated with the masculinity variable directly such that men of higher SES had more gender inequitable masculinities, and indirect path mediated by peer pressure resistance indicated that the former pertained so long as men lacked peer pressure resistance. Having a higher SES conveyed greater resistance for some men. There was also a path mediated through childhood trauma, such that men of lower SES were more likely to have a higher childhood trauma exposure and this correlated with a higher likelihood of having the gender inequitable masculinity (with or without the mediating effect of peer pressure resistance). Both higher and lower socio-economic status were associated with raping. Prevention of rape perpetration must

  17. Socio-economic status and oral health-related behaviours in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se-Hwan; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Ryu, Jae-In; Watt, Richard G

    2010-06-01

    The principle objective of this study was to assess the association between socio-economic status (SES) and oral health-related behaviours in Korean adolescents aged 13-18, using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). The secondary objective was to assess the influences of other factors (pocket money, school type, family structure and psychological factors) on this association. Cross-sectional data were from the national 2007 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Oral health-related behaviours included health-enhancing behaviours (frequency of toothbrushing and dental visits) and health-compromising behaviours (smoking and frequency of intake of soft drinks and confections). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. To assess the influence of other factors, additional models adjusting for sex, school grade and each of the other factors were compared to the initial model, which adjusted for sex and school grade only. We found that family affluence had a linear association with health-enhancing behaviours and a roughly U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours. After adjusting for a number of variables, the linear association with health-enhancing behaviours persisted. The U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours remained but was partly attenuated and flattened. In addition, we found a marked influence of school type and family structure and pocket money on the association between FAS and oral health-compromising behaviours. The findings indicate that the health-enhancing behaviours of adolescents were strongly associated with family affluence, but the health-compromising behaviours were more strongly linked to factors other than family affluence. However, it is difficult to determine which factors contribute most in relation to family affluence because of other confounding factors, such as the education system, peer group, youth culture, part-time work and advertising. Therefore, further studies are needed to assess

  18. The Current Status and Prospects of the Economic Relationship between North Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoungchul Cho

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available After the socialist market collapse after 1990s, the economic relationship of North Korea and China is becoming closer. It can be proven by the fact that economic relationship between this two countries are transferring from the national trade model to various models such as border trade, agency trade, the illicit trade and investment aid. In this progress, North Korea rely China more than in 1990. But after 1992, the economic relationship is falling from the political priority as before, blind support and assistance based on the nature of the economic benefits to the rapid changes in relationship. This thesis reviewed economic relations in the world environment which has changed. First it analyzed the national economy and trade policies adopted in the current situation of two countries, and on this basis, it looked forward to the economic relationship between the two countries, and point out the measures regarding the relationship between two countries.

  19. The Association of Level of Internet Use with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in South Korean Adolescents: A Focus on Family Structure and Household Economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Seung Ju; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Sohee

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association between the level of Internet addiction and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in South Korean adolescents, focusing on the roles of family structure and household economic status. Data from 221 265 middle and high school students taken from the 2008-2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were used in this study. To identify factors associated with suicidal ideation/attempts, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The level of Internet use was measured using the simplified Korean Internet Addiction Self-assessment Tool. Compared with mild users of the Internet, high-risk users and potential-risk users were more likely to report suicidal ideation (nonuser, odds ratio [OR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.15; potential risk, OR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.36 to 1.63; high risk OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.10) or attempts (nonuser, OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.42; potential risk, OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38; high risk, OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.71 to 2.14). The nonuser group also had a slightly higher risk of suicidal ideation/attempts compared with mild users. This association appeared to vary by perceived economic status and family structure. Our study suggests that it is important to attend to adolescents who are at high risk for Internet addiction, especially when they do not have parents, have stepparents, or perceive their economic status as either very low or very high. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Systematic literature review on effectiveness of self-management support interventions in patients with chronic conditions and low socio-economic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hecke, Ann; Heinen, Maud; Fernández-Ortega, Paz

    2017-01-01

    of patients with a low socio-economic status. No differences were found for interventions developed based on health behaviour theoretical models. CONCLUSION: Limited evidence was found for self-management support interventions in chronically ill patients with low socio-economic status. Essential......AIM: To assess the quality of evidence and determine the effect of patient-related and economic outcomes of self-management support interventions in chronically ill patients with a low socio-economic status. BACKGROUND: Integrated evidence on self-management support interventions in chronically ill...... people with low socio-economic status is lacking. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane database of trials, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Joanna Briggs Institute Library were searched (2000-2013). Randomized controlled trials addressing self-management support...

  1. Investigation into the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Stellenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive non-experimental approach was applied to investigate and describe the prevalence of factors influencing the health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting as a dissertation for a doctorate degree. For the purpose of this article the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting are described. The study only included economically active persons < 21 ^ 50 years. The objective was to determine the relationship between the health status and the socio-economic status of economically active Coloured people in an urban area as defined. The objectives set for the study were reached through a cross sectional study. The hypothesis, an association between the health status and the socio-economic status of the Coloured people of an urban area in the Western Cape was tested using the chi square statistical test. A purposeful stratified sample of 353 participants was drawn from the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were well represented in the suburbs. Statistical associations on a 95% confidence interval were shown between the socio-economic status (i.e. educational level, income and occupation social habits, diet, and money available for food, exercise and the health status of the respondents. Recommendations were made based on the scientific evidence obtained through the study.

  2. The role of husband's and wife's economic activity status in the demand for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y

    1987-04-01

    Data from Hong Kong were used to examine how the demand for children is affected by the economic returns to different types of market activities. The specific data used was a 1% sample of the 1976 "Hong Kong By-Census of Population." Only women under 50 who were currently married and living with their husbands were included. The households were restricted to land-based and non-farm families with economically active husbands. There were a total of 4128 families in the sample; in 3768 families the wife had experienced at least 1 birth. A simple 1-period model of household production and fertility demand is outlined. Emphasis was on 2 aspects of the demand for children in households who choose to work in the informal sector: children are more readily employed in a family business; and wife's work in a family business or in a wage employment at home is more compatible with childcare activities. Both effects imply that holding constant other characteristics, a higher desired stock of children will be demanded. As expected, an increase in wife's predicted log earnings in home work had a negative effect on the demand for children. The effect was almost always significant. An increase in wife's productivity in the family business, as proxied by her predicted log earnings in the family business, increased the demand for children significantly. This usually is interpreted to be a result of entering a market activity which is compatible with childcare. Another possible explanation is that the price of children is lowered because if children work in the family business then their productive contributions subsidize their parents' consumption. Yet, without direct measures or proxies for these effects, it is not possible to distinguish between them. An increase in husband's predicted log earnings in wage employment had a significant negative effect on demand for children. This can be interpreted in 2 ways: if an interior solution exists for husband's allocation of time, then a

  3. Optimization of economic load dispatch of higher order general cost polynomials and its sensitivity using modified particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Ahmed Yousuf; Chakraborty, Shantanu; Abdur Razzak, S.M.; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) for constrained economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. Real cost functions are more complex than conventional second order cost functions when multi-fuel operations, valve-point effects, accurate curve fitting, etc., are considering in deregulated changing market. The proposed modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) consists of problem dependent variable number of promising values (in velocity vector), unit vector and error-iteration dependent step length. It reliably and accurately tracks a continuously changing solution of the complex cost function and no extra concentration/effort is needed for the complex higher order cost polynomials in ELD. Constraint management is incorporated in the modified PSO. The modified PSO has balance between local and global searching abilities, and an appropriate fitness function helps to converge it quickly. To avoid the method to be frozen, stagnated/idle particles are reset. Sensitivity of the higher order cost polynomials is also analyzed visually to realize the importance of the higher order cost polynomials for the optimization of ELD. Finally, benchmark data sets and methods are used to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

  4. Economic security of the Russian Federation: current status, level and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of national and economic security maintenanceis aggravating in modern conditions of globalization and international competition related to controlof market channels, technological, information and natural resources.Today Russia is making all efforts to protect its position on the world stage and improve the lives of its citizens.Despite the worsening of the present economic, political and social differences in the world, the Russian Federation has its own national interests, which can be possible to fulfill only on the basis of sustainable development of the national economic security system.The latter traditionally determines the ability of the state economic system to maintain normal conditions for the national economy functioning and the population activity. The national economic securitystabilitycan be estimated only by the application of elaborate tools of the economic development indicators analysis and the threshold values examinationaimed at the determination of the quality characteristic of actual and the most successful model of the economic activity.The analysis of the current Russian economic situation showed the presence of some serious problems existing in the national economy. The economic security level of Russia, having a tendency to increase in the period of 1998-2013, has been sharply reduced to critical points since 2014. So, it is necessary to take some measures to restructure the system of economic security of the state. Based on the research it was identified the list of the most dangerous threats to the modern Russian economy, which includes: low level of the country industrial production; the economy dependence on goods import and raw materials export; low living standards of the population; the rapid growth of the shadow economy and corruption; the lack of civil science and innovationdevelopment. The main strategic directions for economic security levelincrease in Russia today and in the future are aimed at

  5. The association between perceived social support, socio-economic status and mental health in young Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, C L; Foo, Y C; Lee, T H

    2011-06-01

    To examine gender differences in mental health and perceived social support, relationship between parents' income and mental health, and differences in mental health across education levels. A total of 303 students aged 16 to 26 years were recruited from Selangor, Malaysia. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Health Questionnaire were used to measure the level of perceived social support and the mental health status. Demographic data, including education level and parents' income, were also obtained. Females perceived significantly higher levels of overall social support than males (t = -2.7; p mental health status between males and females (t = -1.8; p > 0.05), as well as mental health status among different parental income groups (chi2 = 5.0; p > 0.05) and the education levels of the subjects (chi2 = 0.7; p > 0.05). A more favourable mental health status of the subjects was associated with higher parental incomes (r = -0.1; p mental health status in older adolescents and young adults. There was also a relationship between parental income and an individual's mental health status, but mental health was not related to their education level.

  6. Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent-child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent-child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent-child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness.

  7. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eRobins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and

  8. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  9. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2009. With Particular Emphasis on Economic Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Thomas, Steve; Froggatt, Antony; Koplow, Doug; Hazemann, Julie

    2009-08-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2009 provides the reader with the basic quantitative and qualitative facts on the nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and in planning phases throughout the world. A detailed overview assesses the economic performance of past and current nuclear projects. As of 1 August 2009 there are 435 nuclear reactors operating in the world, nine less than in 2002. There are 52 units listed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as 'under construction'. At the peak of the nuclear industry's growth phase in 1979 there were 233 reactors being built concurrently. Even at the end of 1987, there were still 120 reactors in process. Much has changed. For the first time since commercial use of nuclear energy began in the middle of the 1950's no new nuclear plant was connected to the grid in 2008. In fact, no start-up has been reported for the past two years, since Cernavoda-2 was connected to the grid on 7 August 2007, after 24 years of construction. In 1989 a total of 177 nuclear reactors had been operated in what are now the 27 EU Member States, but as of 1 August 2009 only 144 units were in operation. Today the worldwide operating reactors total 370,000 megawatts (370 GW), about 1,600 MW less than one year ago. In 2007 nuclear power plants generated about 2,600 TWh and provided 14% of the world's electricity. After an unprecedented drop in electricity generation of 2% in 2007, nuclear power plants' output lost another half percentage point in 2008. Nuclear power provided 5.5% of the commercial primary energy production and about 2% of the final energy in the world, and has trended downwards for several years. Twenty-seven of the 31 countries operating nuclear power plants maintained or decreased their share of nuclear power within the electricity mix in 2008 relative to 2007. Four countries (Czech Republic, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia) increased their share. In addition to the 52 units currently under construction

  10. Health status among long-term breast cancer survivors suffering from higher levels of fatigue: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Salvago, Francisco; Galiano-Castillo, Noelia; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cruz-Fernández, Mayra; Lozano-Lozano, Mario; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene

    2018-05-05

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the health status of long-term breast cancer survivors (LTBCS) suffering from higher levels of fatigue, to highlight their needs, and to establish the key points of intervention support programs. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Sport and Health Joint University Institute (iMUDS) between September 2016 and July 2017 with 80 LTBCS that were classified into non-fatigued (≤ 3.9) or fatigued (≥ 4) according to the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS) total score. The instruments used were the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core 30 and its breast cancer (BC) module, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Scale for Mood Assessment (EVEA), the International Fitness Scale (IFIS), and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. The analysis revealed that 41.2% of LTBCS were considered moderately fatigued and showed significantly higher levels for the categories of "nausea and vomiting" (P = .005), "pain," "dyspnea" and "insomnia" (P < .001), "appetite loss" (P = .002), "financial difficulties" (P = .010), "systemic therapy side effects" (P < .001), "breast symptoms" and "arm symptoms" (P = .002), and "upset by hair loss" (P = .016). In addition, LTBCS presented significantly higher levels of pain in the affected and non-affected arm, "sadness-depression." "anxiety," "anger/hostility" (All: P < .001), and lower general physical fitness (P < .001). The rest of the variables did not show significant differences. LTBCS suffering from higher levels of fatigue had lower QoL, higher level of pain, worse mood state, and lower physical fitness.

  11. Low maternal education and socio-economic status were associated with household food insecurity in children under five with diarrhoea in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Rocky Khan; Khan, M M H; Rafiqul Islam, Md; Perera, Nirmala K P; Shumack, Matthew K; Kader, Manzur

    2016-05-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is insufficient access to nutritionally safe and adequate foods to meet the dietary needs for an active and healthy life. We examined the prevalence and determinants of HFI in Bangladeshi children under five with diarrhoea. This study included 365 children (55% boys) who had diarrhoea in the two weeks before the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS-2011). The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) was used to assess HFI and Pearson's chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the association between HFI and multilevel factors. The prevalence of HFI among children under five with diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the BDHS-2011 survey was 48%. HFI was significantly higher among the children of uneducated mothers, who were two times more likely to experience HFI, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.14 and children who were from the lowest socio-economic status families, who were more than seven times more likely to experience HFI, with an adjusted OR of 7.55. Low maternal education and low socio-economic status were significantly associated with HFI in Bangladeshi children under five with diarrhoea and public health campaigns should take this into account. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Using Economic Input/Output Tables to Predict a Country's Nuclear Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Daly, Don S.; Wood, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged in nuclear power development or nuclear weapons proliferation. We analyzed 93 IO tables, spanning the years 1993 to 2005 for 37 countries that are either members or associates of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The 2009 OECD input/output tables featured 48 industrial sectors based on International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Revision 3, and described the respective economies in current country-of-origin valued currency. We converted and transformed these reported values to US 2005 dollars using appropriate exchange rates and implicit price deflators, and addressed discrepancies in reported industrial sectors across tables. We then classified countries with Random Forest using either the adjusted or industry-normalized values. Random Forest, a classification tree technique, separates and categorizes countries using a very small, select subset of the 2304 individual cells in the IO table. A nation's efforts in nuclear power, be it for electricity or nuclear weapons, are an enterprise with a large economic footprint -- an effort so large that it should discernibly perturb coarse country-level economics data such as that found in yearly input-output economic tables. The neoclassical economic input-output model describes a country's or region's economy in terms of the requirements of industries to produce the current level of economic output. An IO table row shows the distribution of an industry's output to the industrial sectors while a table column shows the input required of each industrial sector by a given

  13. Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, William H

    2006-01-01

    At several meetings with Russian President Vladimir Putin, President George W. Bush stated that his administration will work with the Congress to grant Russia permanent "normal trade relations" (PNTR) status...

  14. Economic Differentiation as a Determinant of Higher Education Pricing and Expenditure Policies and State-wide Public Policy: Implications for Governance. ASHE 1983 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Richard L.

    A study of the impact of economic differentiation on institutional pricing and expenditure policies, higher education public policy, and governance in public colleges and universities is described. It is suggested that economic differentiation is a likely determinant of variation in institutional expenditure and pricing policies and higher…

  15. The Role of Higher Education in Economic Growth: A Comparative Analysis of the Republic of South Korea and the Republic of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulee, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    We may examine the relationship between higher education and economic growth by comparing the Republic of Korea to the Republic of India. How do political educational decisions impact economic growth? Although both countries began with relatively underdeveloped economies at the time of their independence in the late 1940s, these two countries took…

  16. College vs. Unemployment: Expanding Access to Higher Education is the Smart Investment during Economic Downturns. Research & Occasional Paper Series. CSHE.21.08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John Aubrey

    2008-01-01

    In forming a strategy to deal with the severe economic downturn, President-elect Obama and his evolving brain trust of economic advisers should recall the largely successful and innovative efforts by the federal and state governments to avoid a projected steep post-World War II recession - in particular, the key role of higher education. Demand…

  17. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators

  18. The economic impact of higher education institutions on regional development: the case of the Polytechnic Institute of Bragança

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Joana

    2010-01-01

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are considered, usually, important mechanisms for regional development. However, it is essential that they can quantify the impact that their activities have in surrounding communities and in regional economic development.

  19. Is socio-economic status a determinant of HIV-related stigma attitudes in Zimbabwe? Findings from Project Accept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudzanai Mateveke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available HIV related stigma and discrimination is a known barrier for HIV prevention and care. We aimed to assess the relationship between socio-economic status (SES and HIV related stigma in Zimbabwe. This paper uses data from Project Accept, which examined the impact of community-based voluntary counseling and testing intervention on HIV incidence and stigma. Total of 2522 eligible participants responded to a psychometric assessment tool, which assessed HIV related stigma and discrimination attitudes on 4 point Likert scale. The tool measured three components of HIVrelated stigma: shame, blame and social isolation, perceived discrimination, and equity. Participants’ ownership of basic assets was used to assess the socio-economic status. Shame, blame and social isolation component of HIV related stigma was found to be significantly associated with medium [odds ratio (OR=1.73, P<0.01] and low SES (OR=1.97, P<0.01, indicating more stigmatizing attitudes by participants belonging to medium and low SES in comparison to high SES. For HIV related stigma and discrimination programs to be effective, they should take into account the socio-economic context of target population.

  20. Application of economic techniques to fire management - A status review and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie K. Gorte; Ross W. Gorte

    1979-01-01

    Discusses both the historic and contemporary influences of economic in formulating USDA, Forest Service fire management policy in allocating money for fire management and in appraising fire effects. Includes a partial listing of publications that deal with resource valuation.

  1. Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jurenas, Remy

    2005-01-01

    .... economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

  2. Environmental and resource economics in South Africa: status quo and lessons for developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the potential contributions of environmental and resource economics (ERE) to the achievement of sustainable development in developing countries and highlights the limitations associated with applying ERE within a developing country...

  3. Status report on education in the economics of animal health: results from a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians.

  4. Changes in Economic Status and Timing of Marriage of Young Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanera, Zenaida R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishUsing the longitudinal panel data collected through the Canadian Surveys ofLabour and Income Dynamics (SLID from 1993 to1998, we examined thehypotheses that (a higher education delays marriage; (b labour forceparticipation and earnings of women, like those of men, increase the likelihoodof marriage; and, (c the magnitude of the effects of education and income variesby life course stages of the youth. Analyses were done for men aged 17-19, 20-22, and 23-25 and for women aged 15-17, 18-20, and 21-23 at the start of thepanel surveys. Our findings confirm our hypotheses, namely, a longer stay inschool lowers the risk of marrying while greater economic well-being increasesthe risk. The results also show that the effects of wages and salaries are strongestamong the middle cohorts of men (20-22 and women (18-20 who are at thestage of forming their own independent lives.FrenchEn utilisant les données recueillies par le panel longitudinal de l’Enquête sur ladynamique du travail et du revenu (EDTR de 1993 à 1998; nous examinons leshypothèses que : a un plus haut niveau d’éducation délaie le mariage; b laparticipation à la main d’oeuvre et les gains des femmes, comme ceux deshommes, augmentent la vraisemblance de mariage; et c que l’importance deseffets de l’éducation et des gains varie selon les groupes de cours de vie desjeunes. Nous avons conduit des analyses sur des groupes d’hommes âgés de 17 à19 ans, de 20 à 22 ans, et de 23 à 25 ans et sur des groupes de femmes âgées de15 à 17 ans, 18 à 20 ans, et de 21 à 23 au début de l’enquête par panel. Nosconstatations confirment nos hypothèses, c’est à dire que des études prolongéesdiminuent le risque de mariage tandis qu’un niveau économique plus confortablel’augmente. Les résultats démontrent aussi que l’effet des salaires est plus élevédans la cohorte médiane des hommes (20 à 22 ans et des femmes (18 à 20 anslorsqu’ils sont au stage de former

  5. Reconciling Post-Recession Strategies for Economic Growth with Higher Education's Current Fiscal Challenges: Part 1, New Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This week, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is publishing the findings of new research undertaken to explore the relationship between educational spending and economic growth. The report, "The High Cost of Low Educational Performance--The Long-Run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes", employs recent…

  6. Current Status of the MOOC Movement in the World and Reaction of the Turkish Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Hakan Aydin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript intends to elaborate the current status of MOOC movement in the world and to reveal the results of a survey study in which the Turkish higher education institutions’ reactions to this movement was investigated. The survey was actually a part of a larger survey study that, as a deliverable of the EU funded HOME project, was conducted to contribute to the literature by providing an insight about European perspectives on MOOCs, to gain a better understanding of the strategic reasons why a higher education institution is or isn’t involved in MOOCs, and to compare these reasons with the results of similar studies in U.S. After a brief background and history of MOOC movement, following sections of the manuscript present the details (methodology and results of the survey study on the Turkish HE institutions’ strategies regarding adaptation of MOOCs. The final part of the manuscript consists of discussions and conclusions drawn in the light of the results of the study.

  7. Association of Low-Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother's Education, Socio-Economic Status, and Birth Interval Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shafiqur Rahman

    Full Text Available Malnutrition in children under five years remains a significant problem in Bangladesh, despite substantial socio-economic progress and a decade of interventions aimed at improving it. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the important risk factors of malnutrition, none of them assess the role of low birth weight (LBW despite its high prevalence (36%. This study examines the association between LBW and malnutrition using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011 and provides practical guidelines for improving nutritional status of children.Malnutrition in children is measured in terms of their height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age. Children whose Z-scores for either of these indices are below two standard deviations (-2SD from median of WHO's reference population are considered as stunted, wasted or underweight, respectively. The association between malnutrition and LBW was investigated by calculating adjusted risk-ratio (RR, which controls for potential confounders such as child's age and sex, mother's education and height, length of preceding-birth-interval, access to food, area of residence, household socio-economic status. Adjusted RR was calculated using both Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel approach and multivariable logistic regression models controlling for confounder.The prevalence of malnutrition was markedly higher in children with LBW than those with normal birth-weights (stunting: 51% vs 39%; wasting: 25% vs 14% and underweight: 52% vs 33%. While controlling for the known risk factors, children with LBW had significantly increased risk of becoming malnourished compared to their counter part with RR 1.23 (95% CI:1.16-1.30, 1.71 (95% CI:1.53-1.92 and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.38-1.56 for stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The observed associations were not modified by factors known to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition, such as higher education of mother, better household socio-economic

  8. Association of Low-Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother's Education, Socio-Economic Status, and Birth Interval Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Shafiqur; Howlader, Tamanna; Masud, Mohammad Shahed; Rahman, Mohammad Lutfor

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in children under five years remains a significant problem in Bangladesh, despite substantial socio-economic progress and a decade of interventions aimed at improving it. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the important risk factors of malnutrition, none of them assess the role of low birth weight (LBW) despite its high prevalence (36%). This study examines the association between LBW and malnutrition using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 and provides practical guidelines for improving nutritional status of children. Malnutrition in children is measured in terms of their height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age. Children whose Z-scores for either of these indices are below two standard deviations (-2SD) from median of WHO's reference population are considered as stunted, wasted or underweight, respectively. The association between malnutrition and LBW was investigated by calculating adjusted risk-ratio (RR), which controls for potential confounders such as child's age and sex, mother's education and height, length of preceding-birth-interval, access to food, area of residence, household socio-economic status. Adjusted RR was calculated using both Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel approach and multivariable logistic regression models controlling for confounder. The prevalence of malnutrition was markedly higher in children with LBW than those with normal birth-weights (stunting: 51% vs 39%; wasting: 25% vs 14% and underweight: 52% vs 33%). While controlling for the known risk factors, children with LBW had significantly increased risk of becoming malnourished compared to their counter part with RR 1.23 (95% CI:1.16-1.30), 1.71 (95% CI:1.53-1.92) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.38-1.56) for stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The observed associations were not modified by factors known to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition, such as higher education of mother, better household socio-economic

  9. Association of Low-Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother’s Education, Socio-Economic Status, and Birth Interval Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Shafiqur; Howlader, Tamanna; Masud, Mohammad Shahed; Rahman, Mohammad Lutfor

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children under five years remains a significant problem in Bangladesh, despite substantial socio-economic progress and a decade of interventions aimed at improving it. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the important risk factors of malnutrition, none of them assess the role of low birth weight (LBW) despite its high prevalence (36%). This study examines the association between LBW and malnutrition using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 and provides practical guidelines for improving nutritional status of children. Methods Malnutrition in children is measured in terms of their height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age. Children whose Z-scores for either of these indices are below two standard deviations (–2SD) from median of WHO’s reference population are considered as stunted, wasted or underweight, respectively. The association between malnutrition and LBW was investigated by calculating adjusted risk-ratio (RR), which controls for potential confounders such as child’s age and sex, mother’s education and height, length of preceding-birth-interval, access to food, area of residence, household socio-economic status. Adjusted RR was calculated using both Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel approach and multivariable logistic regression models controlling for confounder. Results The prevalence of malnutrition was markedly higher in children with LBW than those with normal birth-weights (stunting: 51% vs 39%; wasting: 25% vs 14% and underweight: 52% vs 33%). While controlling for the known risk factors, children with LBW had significantly increased risk of becoming malnourished compared to their counter part with RR 1.23 (95% CI:1.16–1.30), 1.71 (95% CI:1.53–1.92) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.38–1.56) for stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The observed associations were not modified by factors known to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition, such as higher education of

  10. Effects of Prior Economic Education, Native Language, and Gender on Economic Knowledge of First-Year Students in Higher Education. A Comparative Study between Germany and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Walstad, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of university students' economic knowledge has become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Particularly, the different influences of prior education, native language, and gender as some of the main prerequisites on students' economic knowledge have been highlighted since long. However, the findings…

  11. Impact of socio-economic status in meeting the needs of people with mental illness; human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada

    2014-04-01

    The present descriptive study investigated the impact of socio-economic status in meeting the human rights needs among randomly selected recovered psychiatric patients (n = 100) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face to face interview, using structured Needs Assessment Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the participants from below poverty line were deprived of physical needs such as 'electricity facilities' (χ (2) = 6.821, p physical appearance (χ (2) = 8.337, p employment, disability pension, free housing, free treatment and free transportation service for people with mental illness to attend hospital or rehabilitation centres.

  12. EXAMINE THE RELATIONSHIP OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS (SES) WITH LEISURE TIME SPENDING OF GIRLS EMPHASIZING SPORTING ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bahyeh Zarei; Mozafar Yektayar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was doing an examination about the relationship of socio-economic status (SES) with leisure time spending in the girls of Sanandaj city emphasizing sporting activities. The method of research was descriptive-correlated and has been done as field research. The population of the research consisted of all young girls of Sanandaj aged between 15-29 years old which 384 samples were selected by using multi-stage cluster sampling. The tools of research were Godrat Nama...

  13. [Shift Work among Men and Women on the Threshold to Higher Working Age - Working Conditions and Health Status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, C; Tisch, A; Tophoven, S

    2016-11-01

    Background: The number of older employees in shift and night work has increased significantly in recent years. Furthermore, the proportion of women in shift and night work has increased markedly. This is due to the aging workforce and the expansion of shift work in the tertiary sector. Previous research shows that shift work is often associated with health risks. Against this background, the aim of the present study is to examine the situation of working men and women on the threshold to higher working age with regard to the relationship between shift work and physical health. Methods: We employed data from the study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit" German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health, a survey of the German baby boom cohorts born in 1959 and 1965 (n=5 637). Linear regression models are used to study the effect of shift work - with and without night work - and of further work exposures on the baby boomers' physical health status. The models control for sleep and health-related behaviour and are stratified by gender. Among women, also the scope of work was taken into account. Results: The results show that male shift workers are burdened by their on average lower occupational status and by physical exposure; female shift workers additionally suffer from high personal effort and low rewards and female part-time shift workers also from overcommitment. Conclusion: Working conditions of shift workers are strongly characterised by work stress. In order to preserve aging shift workers' work ability, some organisational measures seem necessary. In this context, occupational safety and health management as well as opportunities for recovery and encouraging leadership should be considered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Riva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. Objectives: To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods: Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition – Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results: Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions: The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.

  15. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition - Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.

  16. Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Qvist, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced...... changes in economic conditions, educational levels, and labor markets at the same time as cultural changes have taken place in relation to processes of individualization and reflexivity. Based on empirical data the aim of this paper is to investigate whether and to what extent changes in the structural...

  17. Social System of River City High School Senior Class: Socio-economic Status (SES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Richard F.

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…

  18. Socio-economic status, dietary intake and 10 y trends: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Telman, J.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study differences in dietary intake between adults with different socioeconomic status (SES) and trends over time. Design: Cross-sectional study based on data of three Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys (DNFCS-1 1987/88; DNFCS-2 1992; DNFCS-3 1997/98), obtained from a panel by a

  19. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  20. Socio-economic determinants of micronutrient intake and status in Europe: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Geelen, A.; Nikolic, M.; Altaba, I.I.; Vinas, B.R.; Ngo, J.; Golsorkhi, M.; Medina, M.; Brzozowska, A.; Szczecinkska, A.; Cock, de D.; Vansant, G.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Serra Majem, L.; Moreno, L.A.; Glibetic, M.; Gurinovic, M.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide the evidence base for targeted nutrition policies to reduce the risk of micronutrient/diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe, by focusing on: folate, vitamin B12, Fe, Zn and iodine for intake and status; and vitamin C, vitamin D, Ca, Se and Cu for

  1. A Status Quo of Segregation: Racial and Economic Imbalance in New Jersey Schools, 1989-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxman, Greg

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey has a curious status regarding school desegregation. It has had the nation's most venerable and strongest state law prohibiting racially segregated schooling and requiring racial balance in the schools whenever feasible. Yet, it simultaneously has had one of the worst records of racially imbalanced schools. Against the legal and…

  2. Cigarette smoking, health status, socio-economic status and access to health care in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedgwick JEC

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and microvascular complications. We evaluated cigarette smoking in people with diabetes mellitus in a socio-economically deprived area. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of people registered with diabetes mellitus at 29 general practices in inner London. Responses were analysed for 1,899 (64% respondents out of 2,983 eligible. Results There were 1,899 respondents of whom 968 (51% had never smoked, 296 (16% were current smokers and 582 (31% were ex-smokers. Smoking was more frequent in white Europeans (men 22%, women 20%, than in African Caribbeans (men 15%, women 10% or Africans (men 8%, women 2%. Smoking prevalence decreased with age. Smokers were more likely to be living in rented accommodation (odds ratio, OR 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 2.74. After adjusting for confounding, current smokers had lower SF-36 scores than subjects who had never smoked (mean difference in physical functioning score -5.6, 95% confidence interval -10.0 to -1.2; general health -6.1, -9.7 to -2.5. Current smokers were less likely to have attended a hospital diabetic clinic in the last year (OR 0.59, 0.44 to 0.79, and their hypertension was less likely to be treated (OR 0.47, 0.30 to 0.74. Conclusions Compared with non-smokers, smokers had lower socio-economic status and worse health status, but were less likely to be referred to hospital or treated for their hypertension. People with diabetes who smoke can be regarded as a vulnerable group who need more intensive support and treatment.

  3. Physical growth and health related physical fitness in adolescents of differents socio economic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study had as objective to compare: the physical growth through the body mass (BM, stature and body mass index (BMI between sex and socio-economic status (SES by age; the health-related physical fitness (HRPFbetween gender and SES; the HRPF for sex and SES with the criterion-referenced proposed by AAHPERD (1988. The sample was composed by 191 boys and 212 girls, with ages between 14.49 and 17.50 years, self-evaluated in 4 or 5 TANNER (1962 stages, students from public and private school from Luis Eduardo Magalhães - BA. The SES classification was made by ANEP (1996 questionnaire, adapted to the high, intermediate and low SES. The HRPF components were measured by the respective tests: body fat (sum of the triceps and calf skinfolds; aerobic endurance (run/walk 1600m; muscular strength/endurance (abdominal; upper body muscular strength/endurance (modified pull-up and flexibility (sit and reach. The analysis of the data was made through the descriptive statistics, analysis of variance one-way and the Scheffé’s post-hoc test (p RESUMO Este estudo teve como objetivos comparar: o crescimento físico através da massa corporal (MC, estatura e índice de massa corporal (IMC entre os gêneros e os níveis sócio-econômicos (NSE por idade; a aptidão físicarelacionada à saúde (AFRS entre os gêneros e os NSE; a AFRS por gênero e NSE com os critérios-referenciado propostos pela AAHPERD (1988. A amostra foi composta por 191 rapazes e 212 moças, com idades entre 14,49 e 17,50 anos, auto-avaliada nos estágios 4 ou 5 de TANNER (1962, estudantes das redes pública e particular de Luís Eduardo Magalhães - BA. A classificação sócio-econômica foi feita pelo questionário da ANEP (1996, adaptado para os NSE alto, médio e baixo. Os componentes da AFRS foram mensurados pelos respectivos testes: gordura corporal (somatório da dobras cutâneas tricipital e panturrilha; aptidão cardiorrespiratória (correr/caminhar 1600m; for

  4. Socio-economic Differences in Dietary Intakes: The Comprehensive Study on Household Food Consumption Patterns and Nutritional Status of I.R. Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Abdollahi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Based on our findings, an unhealthier dietary intake may exist among the households belonging to lower socio-economic level in Iran. This calls for appropriate policy making and intervention(s. Keywords: Socio-economic status, Food and nutrient intakes, Factor analysis, Household

  5. Social-Economic Status, Work Conditions and Inequalities in Self-Reported Health in Ukrainian Working-age Population: Evidence from the ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    -age respondents. The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS22 (logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the variables on poor SRH). Such variables as, socio-economic status, economic activity, work conditions were created by using principal component analysis.A binomial logistic regression...

  6. Relationship of socio-economic status and childhood cancer: an in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... Social and economic factors are known to affect health and well-being in several ... -seeking attitudes in childhood cancer; this usually re- sults in late ..... reported in guardians of 5.0% in Kenya and 19% in. Uganda.20 This ...

  7. Influence of health risk behavior and socio-economic status on health of Slovak adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, AM; van Dijk, JP; Honcariv, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    Aim. To investigate the role of health risk behavior, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, in the explanation of socio-economic health differences among adolescents. The hypothesis of different exposure and the hypothesis of different vulnerability were explored. Method. In the study carried out

  8. Longitudinal Models of Socio-Economic Status: Impact on Positive Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George

    2014-01-01

    Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early and…

  9. Relationship of socio-economic status and childhood cancer: an in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Socioeconomic factors are known to affect health quality, disease occurrence as well as health-seeking behaviors in several ways. Objectives: To determine the influence of socio-economic factors on awareness of cancer, healthseeking behaviors among parents of children with cancer in a developing country ...

  10. How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

  11. Franchising Education: Challenges and Opportunities for Coping with the Economic Recession and the Provision of Higher Education in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul; Shotte, Gertrude

    2010-01-01

    When the global economic recession hit the world some 18 months ago, very few could predict the impact this would have on government spending on higher education. Higher education institutions in the United Kingdom face spending cuts. Notwithstanding, they are expected to deliver quality education with fewer resources. This article discusses…

  12. Proceedings of Conference on: Economics of Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective of Policy and Dilemma (New York, New York, March 30, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Henry, Ed.

    Proceedings from a conference on the economics of higher education are presented. Following an introduction by Henry Wasser and opening remarks by Mina Rees, a paper by Gareth Williams is presented. In "The Buffer Under Pressure: An Examination of the British System of Financing Higher Education in Periods of Affluence and Stringency,"…

  13. HIV and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status, Popayan-Colombia (2008-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón, María Virgínia; Tello, Ines Constanza; Rincón-Hoyos, Hernan Gilberto; Galindo, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objetive: To determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status in the city of Popayan-Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated. Results: Mean age 33.5±10,2; 66 %women. Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86 % (95% CI:1.87-5.85), greater in men (7.38%; p= 0.013). Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 h). Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection. PMID:24892315

  14. Poor nutritional status is associated with a higher risk of falling and fracture in elderly people living at home in France: the Three-City cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M J; Féart, C; Samieri, C; Dorigny, B; Luiking, Y; Berr, C; Barberger-Gateau, P; Letenneur, L

    2015-08-01

    Falling and fractures are a public health problem in elderly people. The aim of our study was to investigate whether nutritional status is associated with the risk of falling or fracture in community-dwelling elderly. Poor nutritional status was significantly associated with a higher risk of both falling and fractures. Nutrition could play a role to prevent falls and fractures. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a poor nutritional status is associated with the risk of falling and of fracture in community dwelling elderly. Baseline nutritional status of participants was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). After a follow-up of 12 years, 6040 individuals with available data for falls and 6839 for fracture were included. People who presented the outcomes at baseline were excluded. Cox models were used to evaluate the associations between nutritional status and the risks of fall or fracture. The frequency of poor nutritional status (MNA ≤ 23.5), at baseline, was respectively 12.0% in the "fall study sample" and 12.8% in the "fracture study sample." Incident fall and fracture over 12 years were reported in 55.8 and 18.5% of the respective samples, respectively. In multivariate models controlled for sociodemographic data and several baseline health indicators, poor nutritional status was significantly associated with a higher risk of falling (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.66, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.35-2.04 in men and HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.34 in women) and with a higher risk of fracture (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.49). Poor nutritional status was associated with a higher risk of both falling and fractures in French elderly community-dwellers. Early screening and management of the nutritional status may be useful to reduce the frequency of these events in older people.

  15. "I Am Working-Class": Subjective Self-Definition as a Missing Measure of Social Class and Socioeconomic Status in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Denson, Nida; Kilpatrick, Sue; Matthews, Kelly E.; Stehlik, Tom; Zyngier, David

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a critical appraisal of the measurement of students' social class and socioeconomic status (SES) in the context of widening higher education participation. Most assessments of social class and SES in higher education have focused on objective measurements based on the income, occupation, and education of students'…

  16. The peculiarities of connection between social capital and psychological health of the people with different economic status: the analysis of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександра Андріївна Ніздрань

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and methodological foundations and the organization of the empirical research of the connection between social capital and psychological health of persons with low level of economic status were proved. The peculiarities of the state of psychological health and the development of social capital constituents depending on the level of economic well-being of a person were revealed. The model of the influence of social capital as a factor of the psychological health of persons with low level of economic status was given

  17. The Rio dos Sinos watershed: an economic and social space and its interface with environmental status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAS. Figueiredo

    Full Text Available The Rio dos Sinos watershed is located in the eastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and includes 32municipalities. These municipalities develop several different economic activities such as farming and livestock along the 190 km length of the Rio dos Sinos, one of the rivers with the worst quality of water in Brazil. The region is also characterised by growing urbanisation and heavy industrialisation. The main economic activity is the leather and footwear industry. This diversified land use puts the Rio dos Sinos watershed at risk of a wide range of potential environmental impacts. The aim of the present article is to discuss the socioeconomic process currently implemented in the Rio dos Sinos watershed and the effect of these human actions on the environmental quality described throughout this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Biology.

  18. The Economic and Legal Status of Cryptocurrency Both in Ukraine and Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Nadievets Luidmila M.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at disclosing the economic essence of cryptocurrency, researching the foreign experience in the use of digital currency in market economies and the possibilities of its adaptation to the conditions of Ukraine. Attention is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of using cryptocurrency in the development of the modern economy. Definitions of the category of «cryptocurrency» from different literary sources have been generalized. It has been defined that the first and m...

  19. The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates

    OpenAIRE

    Chipman, A.; Morrison, E.

    2013-01-01

    Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated w...

  20. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential, 1992-1993 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambles, R.L.; Kenney, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    An update is presented of a study carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Developments in economics and yields in short rotation intensive silviculture for the production of biomass energy since 1991 are documented. The most substantial changes have been: the introduction of new clones in Sweden with a 20% increase in yield; illustrating the potential genetic gains achievable through selection and breeding; and halving of harvesting costs with new machinery. Harvesting costs with chipping incorporated have fallen to $51.21/dry tonne. The twin row ESM and Frobbester harvesters have lower estimated costs of $36.62 and $ 33.69 respectively. Agricultural based machines have further reduced costs to $19.42 and $26.12/dry tonne. Using these new data, three new scenarios were developed for cost of production analysis, using contract labour, farm labour or farm labour plus a subsidy. A contracted operation is now viable with an annual equivalent net value (AENV) of $35/ha. With the use of farm labour for most operations and omitting land rent, profitability increased to $127/ha. With a subsidy of $75/ha, the AENV increases to $205/ha. 25 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. The Economic Domino Effect: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Community College Faculty's Lived Experiences during Financial Hard Times in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tridai A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eight full-time community college faculty members who taught during the economic crisis of 2008. The study was guided by the central research question, "How do community college faculty members describe their lived experiences regarding the recent economic crisis of 2008 and its impact…

  2. Present status of oceanographic studies and characteristics of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Bhargava, R.M.S.; Sarupria, J.S.; Reddy, G.V.

    production varied from 0.3 to 86.7 mgc/mu3/day. The surface production per unit area is marginally higher along the west coast waters than in the east coast waters whereas column production is much higher in the waters of the eastern coast than the western...

  3. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing nutritional status among early childbearing young mothers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ashraful; Islam, Nurul; Bharati, Premananda; Aik, Saw; Hossain, Golam

    2016-08-26

    Early childbearing influences women's health. This study aims to examine the effects of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status of early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh based on Body Mass Index (BMI) as the indicator. Data was extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)-2011. The survey was performed on 17,842 married women aged 15-49. We focused on early childbearing mothers (age ≤ 24, and who had delivered their first child ≤ 20). Mothers who were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 kg/m(2)) would be further classified into various grades of chronic energy deficiency (CED): mild (17.0 ≤ BMI Bangladesh is very high (32.1 %), associated with the still common practice of teenage marriage. Education level, wealth index, occupation, place of residence, age at first marriage and parity were important predictors for their nutritional status. The government and non-government organizations should take initiatives to reduce the prevalence of underweight mothers in Bangladesh.

  4. The Effect of Socio-Economic status of Parents, Family Financial Management Education and Learning in Universities Connected with the Financial Literacy of the Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irin Widayati

    2015-02-01

    Key Words: socio-economic status of parents, family financial management education, learning in college, financial literacy   Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengkaji pengaruh langsung maupun tak langsung status sosial ekonomi orang tua, pendidikan pengelolaan keuangan keluarga, dan pembelajaran di perguruan tinggi terhadap literasi finansial. Data dikumpulkan dengan melalui tes dan angket. Teknik analisis data dengan analisis jalur dan analisis regresi dengan uji selisih mutlak. Hasil penelitian adalah terdapat pengaruh langsung maupun tak langsung status sosial ekonomi orang tua, pendidikan pengelolaan keuangan keluarga, dan pembelajaran di perguruan tinggi terhadap literasi finansial. Kata kunci: status sosial ekonomi orang tua, pendidikan pengelolaan keuangan keluarga, pembelajar-an di perguruan tinggi, literasi finansial

  5. Differences in mathematics and science performance by economic status, gender, and ethnicity/race: A multiyear Texas statewide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela Bennett

    Purpose. The purpose of the first study was to ascertain the extent to which differences were present in the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores by Grade 5 and Grade 8 student economic status. The purpose of the second study was to examine differences in Grade 5 STAAR Mathematics and Science test performance by gender and by ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White). Finally, with respect to the third study in this journal-ready dissertation, the purpose was to investigate the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores of Grade 8 students by gender and by ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White). Method. For this journal-ready dissertation, a non-experimental, causal-comparative research design (Creswell, 2009) was used in all three studies. Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test data were analyzed for the 2011-2012 through the 2014-2015 school years. The dependent variables were the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores for Grade 5 and Grade 8. The independent variables analyzed in these studies were student economic status, gender, and ethnicity/race. Findings. Regarding the first study, statistically significant differences were present in Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores by student economic status for each year. Moderate effect sizes (Cohen's d) were present for each year of the study for the Grade 5 STAAR Mathematics and Science exams, Grade 8 Science exams, and the 2014-2015 Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics exam. However, a small effect size was present for the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics exam. Regarding the second and third study, statistically significant differences were revealed for Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores based on gender, with trivial effect sizes. Furthermore, statistically significant differences were present in these test scores by ethnicity/race, with moderate effects for each year of the study. With regard to

  6. Dental caries and oral health practice among 12 year old school children from low socio-economic status background in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula.

  7. [Association of the meaning of life with satisfaction, the occurrence of subjective complaints and the family's economic status in the population of lower secondary school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Dorota; Stalmach, Magdalena; Oblacińska, Anna; Tabak, Izabela

    Feeling of meaning in life is extremely crucial factor of mental health. The lack of it can result in various disorders. Many authors, especially those connected with current of humanistic psychology underline the teenagers' life sense. The aim of the paper was to examine the level of satisfaction with life, the frequency of psychosomatic complaints by junior high school students as well as the estimation of economical status of family and the analysis of meaning in life with above mentioned factors. The research was carried out in 2015 at 70 schools from all over the country, in group of 3695 lower secondary school students of I-III classes at the age of 13-17 (M=14,9; SD=0,87). The analysis connected with meaning in life using the shorten version of Purpose in Life Test (PIL) as well as analysis of life satisfaction using Cantril scale were taken up. What is more, the subjective physical complaints using single-factor shorten scale and economic status of family with the usage of material resources FAS scale (Family Affluence Scale) were examined. The statistical analysis included a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-student test post-hoc test as well as multivariate logistic regression model. The average level of meaning in life among the examined students was 24,7 points (the summary scale 0-36 points), the boys achieved higher score than girls. The students satisfied with life (t=28,0; plife than students who were dissatisfied with their life, often or fairly suffer from health complaints and live in families of at most average level of affluence. The meaning in life is positively connected with satisfaction with life, lack of subjective complaints and family affluence. Because there is a lack of analysis linked with school teenagers' meaning in life in Polish literature, another research involved not only shorten but also full version of this tool should be conducted.

  8. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Introduction. Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. Objective. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. Material and methods. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13–18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions. The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES included 6 features. The SES index (SESI was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR of underweight (BMI0.05. The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05 and in high SESI adolescents – 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05. The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05 and in high SESI adolescents – 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05. Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Conclusions. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  9. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor - incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa; Długosz, Tomasz; Wądołowska, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13-18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions). The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES) included 6 features. The SES index (SESI) was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of underweight (BMI0.05). The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05). The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05). Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  10. Dedicated Followers of Fashion? Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Socio-Economic Status, Inequality, and Health in Urban Children from the Industrial Revolution (18th-19th C), England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S L; Gowland, R L

    2017-01-01

    The 18th and 19th centuries in England were characterised by a period of increasing industrialisation of its urban centres. It was also one of widening social and health inequalities between the rich and the poor. Childhood is well-documented as being a stage in the life course during which the body is particularly sensitive to adverse socio-economic environments. This study therefore aims to examine the relationship between health and wealth through a comprehensive skeletal analysis of a sample of 403 children (0-17 years), of varying socio-economic status, from four cemetery sites in London (c.1712-1854). Measurements of long bone diaphyseal length, cortical thickness, vertebral neural canal size, and the prevalence of a range of pathological indicators of health stress were recorded from the Chelsea Old Church (high status), St Benet Sherehog (middle status), Bow Baptist (middle status), and Cross Bones (low status) skeletal collections. Children from the low status Cross Bones site demonstrated deficient growth values, as expected. However, those from the high status site of Chelsea Old Church also demonstrated poor growth values during infancy. Fashionable child-care practices (e.g. the use of artificial infant feeds and keeping children indoors) may have contributed to poor infant health amongst high status groups. However, differing health risks in the lower status group revealed the existence of substantial health inequality in London at this time. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dental Caries Status, Socio-Economic, Behavioral and Biological Variables among 12-Year-Old Palestinian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Bajali, M; Eskander, L; Steinberg, D; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    There are currently inadequate data regarding the prevalence of dental caries and its associated variables, among Palestinian children. To determine the current prevalence of dental caries and related variables, among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. A stratified sample of 286 East Jerusalem Palestinian children was selected, employing randomly chosen sixth grade clusters from three pre-selected socio-economic school groups. Dental caries was recorded according to WHO recommendations. Salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters, were recorded according to previously employed methodologies. The mean level of caries experience, by DMFT, was 1.98 ± 2.05. This level was higher than those found among Israeli children, but lower than several other Middle Eastern countries. In uni-variate analysis, significant associations were revealed between caries and school categories, which indicated lower, middle and higher socio-economic position(SEP), mothers' employment, home densities, dental visits, tooth brushing, Streptococci mutans (SM), Lactobacilli (LB), and saliva pH. According to a linear logistic regression model, children learning in lower SEP schools, with higher SM levels and more acidic saliva, had a higher chance of experiencing dental caries. These findings should be considered in the planning of services and dental health care programs for Palestinian children.

  12. Higher dietary magnesium intake and higher magnesium status are associated with lower prevalence of coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gant, C.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Binnenmars, S.H.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Navis, G.; Laverman, G.D.

    2018-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the handling of magnesium is disturbed. Magnesium deficiency may be associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated the associations between (1) dietary magnesium intake; (2) 24 h urinary magnesium excretion; and (3) plasma magnesium

  13. An Integrated Economics Model for ISRU in Support of a Mars Colony - Initial Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Fradet, Rene; Saydam, Serkan; Tapia-Cortez, Carlos; Dempster, Andrew G.; Coulton, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this effort is to develop an integrated set of risk-based financial and technical models to evaluate multiple Off-Earth Mining (OEM) scenarios. This quantitative, scenario- and simulation-based tool will help identify combinations of market variables, technical parameters, and policy levers that will enable the expansion of the global economy into the solar system and return economic benefits. Human ventures in space are entering a new phase in which missions formerly driven by government agencies are now being replaced by those led by commercial enterprises - in launch, satellite deployment, resupply of the International Space Station, and space tourism. In the not-too-distant future, commercial opportunities will also include the mining of asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. This investigation will examine the role of OEM in a growing space economy. (In this investigation, the term 'mining' is taken to embrace minerals, ice/water, and other in situ resources.) OEM can be the engine that drives the space economy, so it would be useful to understand what OEM market conditions and technology requirements are needed for that economy to prosper. These specific elements will be studied in the wider context of creating an economy that could ultimately support a sustainable Mars Colony. Such a colony will need in situ resources not only for its own survival, but to prosper and grow, it must create viable business ventures, essentially by fulfilling the demand for in situ resources from and on Mars. This investigation will focus on understanding the role and economic prospect for OEM associated with the Human Colonization of Mars (HCM).

  14. Leisure of the theory class. [Relationship of socio-economic status and espousals on energy or the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, R.V.

    1978-05-11

    The energy debate is evolving into discussions of how to select options capable of meeting long-range social goals and how to apply the appropriate weight to the various perceptions that underlie individual opinions. The causal relationships linking personal status and attitudes is examined to see if there is a correlation between economic well-being and enthusiasm for a no-growth economy. The affluent U.S. college-educated, primarily concerned with self-actualization, show an inversion of Maslow's hierarchy of needs compared to people in developing countries. They are also in a position to express and promote theories for no-risk technology. The author suggests that these theorists be required to submit the same detailed support for their theories as is required for new energy facilities. The theory class is noted for acting upon faith rather than evidence; for ideas rather than workable plans.

  15. Adolescent food frequency and socio-economic status in a private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -urban school in Hilton, KwaZulu-Natal. ... South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition ... Results: The findings indicated that there was a higher preference for globalised foods (high in fat and sugar), particularly fast food, by learners from the ...

  16. Prospective Associations Between Socio-economic Status and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    and their association with SES. We applied the K-means clustering algorithm based on the similarities between the relative frequencies of consumption of forty-two food items. The following three consistent clusters were obtained at baseline and follow-up: processed (higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast...

  17. Effective University Teaching: Views of Australian University Students from Low Socio-Economic Status Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Marcia; O'Shea, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As the Australian higher education population further diversifies as a result of federal government policy changes, the collective understanding of effective university teaching in the Australian context will need to evolve to incorporate such shifts. The Australian Government has set clear targets for increased university participation of people…

  18. Ups and Downs. The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 1998-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents text and data tables covering higher education faculty salaries for the period 1998-1999. A text discussion of academic salaries since the l970s reviews relative and real trends, salary differences between public and private institutions, salary advantages of research universities, gender differences, and other salary inequalities.…

  19. Physical activity patterns of children in Toronto: the relative role of neighbourhood type and socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michelle R; Faulkner, Guy E; Mitra, Raktim; Buliung, Ron

    2012-07-23

    A child's opportunity for physical activity and the safety of engaging in activity are influenced by built environment (BE) elements. This study examined the relationship of neighbourhood type and socio-economic status (SES) with activity using a sampling frame that purposely located schools in varying neighbourhoods to ensure that there was variability in BE characteristics and SES. Participants (1,027 Grade 5 & 6 students, Toronto, ON) were drawn from 16 schools that varied by neighbourhood type (pre-1946 "old/urban BE" with grid-based street layout versus post-1946 "new/inner-suburban BE" with looping street layout) and socio-economic status (low and high SES). Physical activity was recorded by accelerometry for seven days. Only children living within 1.6 km of school were included in the analyses (n=713; boys=339, girls=374). Generalized linear mixed models examined sex-specific differences in physical activity across four geographic stratifications: old BE, low-SES (OL); old BE, high-SES (OH); new BE, low-SES (NL); and new BE, high-SES (NH). Children who attended schools in more affluent neighbourhoods (urban and inner-suburban) had more positive physical activity profiles. Across school days, boys were more active in inner-suburban neighbourhoods whereas urban and inner-suburban girls' activity levels were similar. On the weekend, the influence of the neighbourhood environment was stronger, especially for girls and also for boys with respect to total activity and the accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. These findings focus attention on the need to consider the broader social and temporal contexts of specific geographic locations when planning and implementing built environment interventions to increase physical activity among children.

  20. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old to 5.5% (15-17 years old; the body weight excess (overweight and obesity decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity.

  1. Ethnicity- and socio-economic status-related stresses in context: an integrative review and conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Hector F

    2009-02-01

    There continues to be debate about how best to conceptualize and measure the role of exposure to ethnicity-related and socio-economic status-related stressors (e.g. racism, discrimination, class prejudice) in accounting for ethnic health disparities over the lifecourse and across generations. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the evidence of health disparities among ethnic groups, and the major evidence on the role of exposure to ethnicity- and SES-related stressors on health. We then offer a reciprocal and recursive lifespan meta-model that considers the interaction of ethnicity and SES history as impacting exposure to psychosocial adversities, including ethnicity-related stresses, and mediating biopsychosocial mechanisms that interact to result in hypothesized cumulative biopsychosocial vulnerabilities. Ultimately, group differences in the burden of cumulative vulnerabilities are hypothesized as contributing to differential health status over time. Suggestions are offered for future research on the unique role that ethnicity- and SES-related processes are likely to play as contributors to persistent ethnic health disparities.

  2. The status of preschool teachers in two municipalities following the economic collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufey Axelsdóttir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This feminist study examines the working conditions of preschool teachers, a female dominated occupation, in two municipalities in Iceland and asks, in light of government policy, if and then how the municipalities facilitate preschool teachers professionalism following the 2008 bank collapse. Weber´s (2001 theoretical framework is applied to explore the professional status of the preschools and the impact of local government on preschool teachers’ position. Qualitative methods were used and data was gathered in 2011 and 2012. Thirteen interviews were conducted with women and men in two preschools and the schools administrative environment. Preschool teachers employed in management and non-management positions as well as assistants were interviewed. The study’s results show that financial cutbacks in local government affect preschool teachers and assistants and thus the position of women in the labour market by preserving their subordination. Furthermore, preschool children seem to be affected by the cutbacks which possibly have negative consequences on their well-being. Reforms and developments of the preschool teachers education seem to be met with considerable opposition from local government and more emphasis is placed on operational costs rather than strengthening the preschool teachers in their role as professionals. The results thus point to a gap between government policy and the municipalities’ local version of that same policy.

  3. Tobacco Industry Marketing to Low Socio-economic Status Women in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; England, Lucinda J.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Describe tobacco companies’ marketing strategies targeting low socioeconomic-status (SES) females in the US. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results Tobacco companies focused marketing on low SES women starting in the late 1970s, including military wives, low-income inner-city minority women, “discount-susceptible” older female smokers, and less-educated young white women. Strategies included distributing discount coupons with food stamps to reach the very poor, discount offers at point-of-sale and via direct mail to keep cigarette prices low, developing new brands for low SES females, and promoting luxury images to low SES African American women. More recently, companies integrated promotional strategies targeting low-income women into marketing plans for established brands. Conclusions Tobacco companies used numerous marketing strategies to reach low SES females in the US for at least four decades. Strategies to counteract marketing to low SES women could include: 1) counter-acting price discounts and direct mail coupons that reduce the price of tobacco products, 2) instituting restrictions on point-of-sale advertising and retail display, and 3) creating counter-advertising that builds resistance to psychosocial targeting of low SES women. To achieve health equity, tobacco control efforts are needed to counteract the influence of tobacco industry marketing to low-income women. PMID:24449249

  4. HIV positivity but not HPV/p16 status is associated with higher recurrence rate in anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joshua E; Panico, Vinicius J A; Marconato, Heloisa M F; Sherr, David L; Christos, Paul; Pirog, Edyta C

    2013-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a pathogenic factor of squamous cell carcinoma in various mucosal locations, including anal carcinoma (ACA). It is also known that patients positive for HIV are at high risk of ACA. The goal of this study was to examine clinical outcome in ACA in relation to HPV/p16 positivity, histologic tumor differentiation, and HIV status. Patients with oropharyngeal cancers that are positive for HPV and show overexpression of p16 as well as having non-keratinizing/basaloid histology have been reported to have better outcomes following chemoradiation (CRT). However, such relationships in ACA remain unknown. Forty-two patients with SCC of the anus treated with CRT between 1997 and 2009 were identified. The tumors were subclassified as either non-keratinizing (including basaloid) or keratinizing categories. HPV testing was performed using SPF10-PCR, and all cases were immunostained for p16. There were 23 men and 19 women; 43% of men and 11% of women were HIV-positive (p = 0.04). Fifty-five percent of patients had local disease (stages I and II) and 41% were stages III and IV, with 4% stage unknown. All tumors were positive for high-oncogenic risk HPVs, and all were positive with p16 immunostain. Sixty-four percent of tumors were non-keratinizing/basaloid and 36 % were keratinizing. The keratinizing tumors were more common in HIV-positive patients (67%), whereas non-keratinizing/basaloid tumors were more common in HIV-negative patients (77%) (p = 0.008). Thirty-one percent of patients had recurrence of disease, including 50% HIV-positive patients and 23% HIV-negative patients (p = 0.09). There was no difference in the recurrence rate between non-keratinizing and keratinizing tumor subtypes (p = 0.80). The 24-month recurrence-free survival for the cohort was 66% (95% CI = 46%, 81%), with HIV-positive patients having worse recurrence-free survival compared to HIV-negative patients (HR = 2.85, 95% CI = 0.95, 8.53; p = 0

  5. The Current Status of E-learning and Strategies to Enhance Educational Competitiveness in Korean Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghoon Leem

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of e-Learning in Korean higher education and find ways to encourage the further use and development of e-Learning systems that aim to enhance Korea's academic competitiveness. A total of 201 universities in Korea (27 national and public, 163 private, and 11 national universities of education were examined in this study. At the time of the study, 85 percent of the universities and colleges had investigated implementing e-Learning. There were special e-Learning teams in most national and public universities, as well as private universities and colleges. Findings from this study found that both teachers and learners alike, lacked meaningful support systems and opportunities to actively participate in e-Learning programs. Although such lack of support was found to be endemic, such lack of support and opportunity was found to be more accute in private universities, private colleges, universities of education, than mid-sized, small-sized, and provincial universities and colleges. Except for a few mid- and small-sized universities and colleges, most large universities and colleges were equipped with technical support such as infrastructure and operational platforms. These same schools, however, did not provide institutional support, nor did they employ appropriate policies needed to further the quality and enhancement of e-Learning offerings. Also, there was no meaningful link found between schools and industry, nor was there adequate financial support in place for the implementation of e-Learning systems, simply because many universities failed to allocate sufficient funding for e-Learning.In conclusion, the strategies for enhancing university competitiveness through e-Learning are as follows: 1 establishing support strategies according to the types of universities; 2 developing quality assurance systems for e-Learning; 3 enhancing support systems for professors and learners; 4 developing

  6. Association of socio-economic status with diabetes prevalence and utilization of diabetes care services

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    Svenson Lawrence W

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low income appears to be associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes and diabetes related complications, however, little is known about how income influences access to diabetes care. The objective of the present study was to determine whether income is associated with referral to a diabetes centre within a universal health care system. Methods Data on referral for diabetes care, diabetes prevalence and median household income were obtained from a regional Diabetes Education Centre (DEC database, the Canadian National Diabetes Surveillance System (NDSS and the 2001 Canadian Census respectively. Diabetes rate per capita, referral rate per capita and proportion with diabetes referred was determined for census dissemination areas. We used Chi square analyses to determine if diabetes prevalence or population rates of referral differed across income quintiles, and Poisson regression to model diabetes rate and referral rate in relation to income while controlling for education and age. Results There was a significant gradient in both diabetes prevalence (χ2 = 743.72, p 2 = 168.435, p Conclusion Low income is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes and a higher population rate of referral to this regional DEC. After accounting for diabetes prevalence, however, the equal proportions referred to the DEC across income groups suggest that there is no access bias based on income.

  7. Can the introduction of a full-service supermarket in a food desert improve residents' economic status and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Beckman, Robin; Flórez, Karen R; DeSantis, Amy; Collins, Rebecca L; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the impacts of a new supermarket in a low-income desert, on residents' economic status and health. We surveyed a randomly selected cohort in two low-income Pittsburgh neighborhoods before and about 1 year following the opening of a supermarket. We used difference-in-difference approach to test changes across the two neighborhoods in residents' food security, United States Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infant and Children participation, employment, income, and self-reported health/chronic disease diagnoses. We observed declines in food insecurity (-11.8%, P supermarket relative to residents of the comparison neighborhood. We also found suggestive evidence that residents' incomes increased more ($1550, P = .09) and prevalence of diabetes increased less in the neighborhood with the supermarket than in the comparison neighborhood (-3.6%, P = .10). Locating a new supermarket in a low-income neighborhood may improve residents' economic well-being and health. Policymakers should consider broad impacts of neighborhood investment that could translate into improved health for residents of underserved neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F J

    2013-01-01

    Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  9. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Melchiorre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. METHODS: The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  10. Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. Methods The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Results Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. Conclusions High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age. PMID:23382989

  11. Ukrainian Economic Reforms: Current Status and Perspectives in the Face of Competition on European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Ukraine since the beginning of 2014 has been the important in the history of Ukraine as an independent state. Despite the danger of economic collapse, the loss of Crimea, and war in its most industrialized region, Ukraine is still trying to conduct reforms and implement Western standards. Through persistent work Ukraine has been moving forward, despite all the difficulties. The society is staying together with the government to save the economy and defend the integrity of the whole country. This article outlines key processes in the Ukrainian reforms during 2014 and describes the cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and international organizations in the field of financial support and reforms. The main goal of the article is to present the situation in various spheres of the country’s development, but it is also an attempt to present a wider perspective on both the achievements and shortcomings in the process of reforms. The authors focus on those aspects having a significant impact on the Ukrainian economy after February 2014.

  12. Dietary habits, economic status, academic performance and body mass index in school children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulu, Kamile; Sarvan, Süreyya; Muslu, Leyla; Yirmibesoglu, Serife Gözde

    2010-12-01

    The changes in dietary habits and way of life of adolescents can lead to some nutrition problems. The purpose of this study was to compare dietary habits of children living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas regarding their physical characteristics, socio-economic milieu and educational level. A total of 737 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of two different primary schools took part in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire including dietary habits of participants. Furthermore, the weight and height of students were measured and their body mass index was calculated. During the study, while 4.3 percent of students living in the non-metropolitan area were found obese, this figure was 8.4 percent in the metropolitan area. A big majority of non-metropolitan students have breakfast and lunch at home. Metropolitan students not having lunch at home have their lunch at restaurants or school canteens and generally consume more snacks. The obesity risk of students participating in the study was found to be high. Intervention programs should be organized in order to inform the students about the importance of healthy nutrition and lead them to change their current consumption behavior.

  13. Investment in radiotherapy infrastructure positively affected the economic status of an oncology hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielska, Mirella; Milecki, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy is among the most efficient treatment methods of cancer. However, a radiotherapy base needs a substantial financial investment, especially before the beginning of its operation, and in some cases, in developing countries such a huge investment may cause some financial disturbances for a hospital concerned. To assess the influence of investments modernizing the radiotherapy base in the period between 2000 and 2007 on the financial condition of the oncology hospital in the region with population of about 3 million. Financial reports and medical statistics for the period between 2000 and 2007 from the studied oncology hospital and a recognized staffing model, as well as data on epidemiological situation of the region have been used to calculate the economic effects of financial investment in the radiotherapy base. The growth of RT therapeutic potential has been driven by two cost-effective investment programmes. The total amount invested in both programmes was PLN 127,191,000. The number of radiotherapy patients treated in the hospital increased from 2301 in 2000 to 4799 in 2007 with a the same number of five therapeutic machines, although all five of them were replaced over that period. Investments modernizing the radiotherapy base lead to a significant increase in depreciation and operating costs, which adversely affects financial results of the hospital. Long term trends showed that investments had positive influence on hospital performance shown both in increased income and larger number of patients treated.

  14. Status and economics of fish markets in Rajshahi City Corporation of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

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    Md. Istiaque Hossain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the existing fish distribution and marketing systems, assess marketing costs and margins and identify constraints of fish marketing systems. Methods: Data were collected from three different markets by fishermen, commission agents, wholesalers, retailers, day laborers etc. through questionnaire interviews and participatory approach during June to September, 2013. Results: Four types of marketing channel were identified from farmers to consumers in all the three fish markets through a number of intermediaries. The daily supply of total fish in Binodpur Market, Talaimari Market and Shaheb Market was estimated 0.8-1 ton, 0.2-0.3 ton and 8-8.1 ton, respectively. Virtually, most of the fish (75% is imported from outside; the local supply amount is only 25%. The total marketing cost of wholesalers and retailers of the three markets were $ 8.58 and $ 6.47 per day, respectively. The average marketing margin of the wholesalers and retailers of the three markets were $ 0.18 and $ 0.25 per kg respectively. Income of fisherman, wholesaler, retailer and day laborer was estimated at $ 350, $ 9.75, $ 6.48, and $ 1.69, respectively. Conclusions: Traders have broadly improved their food consumption, standards of living, purchasing power, choice and ability as an economic sector.

  15. Socio-economic status and lifestyle factors are associated with achalasia risk: A population-based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Helen G; Gray, Ronan T; Lau, Kar W; McCaughey, Conall; Coyle, Peter V; Murray, Liam J; Johnston, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between various lifestyle factors and achalasia risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Northern Ireland, including n = 151 achalasia cases and n = 117 age- and sex-matched controls. Lifestyle factors were assessed via a face-to-face structured interview. The association between achalasia and lifestyle factors was assessed by unconditional logistic regression, to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Individuals who had low-class occupations were at the highest risk of achalasia (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.02-3.45), inferring that high-class occupation holders have a reduced risk of achalasia. A history of foreign travel, a lifestyle factor linked to upper socio-economic class, was also associated with a reduced risk of achalasia (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.35-0.99). Smoking and alcohol consumption carried significantly reduced risks of achalasia, even after adjustment for socio-economic status. The presence of pets in the house was associated with a two-fold increased risk of achalasia (OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.17-3.42). No childhood household factors were associated with achalasia risk. CONCLUSION: Achalasia is a disease of inequality, and individuals from low socio-economic backgrounds are at highest risk. This does not appear to be due to corresponding alcohol and smoking behaviours. An observed positive association between pet ownership and achalasia risk suggests an interaction between endotoxin and viral infection exposure in achalasia aetiology. PMID:27099443

  16. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators too. The research presented in this paper validates…

  17. After Welfare Reform and an Economic Boom: Why Is Child Poverty Still So Much Higher in the U.S. Than in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, Sheldon

    This paper argues that the U.S.'s experience during the economic boom of the 1990s, together with its choices concerning social welfare policies, imply that child poverty in the United States will be much higher than that in most European countries. It hypothesizes that Americans reveal their preferences about the extent of poverty they are…

  18. The Impact of Economic, Political, and Social Factors on Recent Overt Black/White Racial Conflict in Higher Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Evonne Parker

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the following: (1) what recent literature reveals about overt racial conflict in higher education between whites and African Americans; (2) how different factors influence this conflict; (3) an extensive listing of racism incidents; (4) rising economic anxiety and the nation's political climate; and (5) suggestions for alleviating the…

  19. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages...

  20. The Internationalisation of Higher Education, as Keystone for Developement in Eastern Europe. A Case Study on Bucharest University of Economic Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploae Cătălin

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions are a true backbone of a country's health and economic and socialdevelopment, but the analysis of this sector is not achieved in an isolated manner, but in closeconsistency with other systems of national and international economy and society, referringespecially to those from the European Union (EU.

  1. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households.

  2. The Impact of the Current Economic Crisis on the Demand for Higher Education: An Analysis of Spanish Distance Education Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina-Paz, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Oromendía, Ainhoa; Sevilla-Sevilla, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Spain is currently experiencing a difficult economic situation, and in recent years a significant change has been observed in the behavior of the demand for educational programs as a result of this situation. Recent studies reveal a change in student demand that does not have the same effect on all academic institutions. Bearing this behavior in…

  3. Deep geothermics in Germany. An energy-economic analysis of the status and possible developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczik, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    With the aim to supply the energy-intense and highly industrialized economy of the Federal Republic of Germany more climate-friendly and crisis-safely with a larger contribution of homelike energy in the past years by the federal government a manifold of obligatory aims were composed. So for instance the greenhouse-gas emissions of 1990 shall be reduced against 2020 by 40 %. This shall be reached among others by an increased use of the renewable energies. But a transformation of these ambitionized aims seems from the present view only realistic, if in future all in Germany available options for the supply of current and heat from renewable energies are distinctly more intensively used. In front of the background of the geothermic potentials available in Germany the current and heat supply from deep geothermics is a very much promising option. But in 2012 only one facility and in 2013 three facilities have gone to the net. But against this a far-reaching usage of the geothermics in the context of the energy transition and the large heat and current production potentials in Germany is worth to be aspired. In front of the described problematics the aim of this work is to show how the system technics of the facilities for the usage of the deep underground for a current respectively heat production present themselves and how such complete facilities can be evaluated by means of technical, economical, and ecological characteristics. Base on the shown political aim settings it then shall be analyzed, how the calculated characteristics could change in future and whether the deep geothermics can provide an increasing contribution in the energy system of the future. The corresponding potential further developments are thereby analyzed regarding a short-termed (i. e. 2020) and an intermediate-termed (i. e. 2030) time horizon.

  4. Higher agrobiodiversity is associated with improved dietary diversity, but not child anthropometric status, of Mayan Achí people of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-González, Diana V; Sørensen, Marten

    2018-04-03

    Child undernutrition remains one of the greatest challenges for public health nutrition in rural areas in developing countries. Interventions aiming to increase and conserve agrobiodiversity seem to be promising alternatives to improve child nutrition. However, the existing literature on these interventions is not conclusive about their effectiveness in combating child undernutrition. We tested the hypothesis that 'higher agrobiodiversity is associated with greater dietary diversity and better anthropometric status' in rural Guatemala.Design/Setting/SubjectsIn the summer of 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 154 children (6-60 months). We conducted dietary recalls and structured interviews, measured children's weight and height, and visited food production systems (Milpas, home gardens, coffee plantations). Crop species richness, nutritional functional diversity, dietary diversity scores and anthropometric status were calculated. Higher food self-sufficiency, nutritional functional diversity and dietary diversity scores were positively correlated with higher crop and animal species richness. Contrarily, remoteness to the local market was negatively correlated with dietary diversity scores. However, higher dietary diversity scores were not correlated with better child anthropometric status. Better child anthropometric status was positively correlated with improved sanitary conditions and maternal education; and negatively correlated with large household size and frequent child morbidity. Agricultural diversification could diversify diets, increase nutrient availability and improve child anthropometry. However, these interventions need to be accompanied by sanitation improvements, family planning, nutritional education and women's empowerment to strengthen their positive effect on diet and nutrition.

  5. Atypical auditory refractory periods in children from lower socio-economic status backgrounds: ERP evidence for a role of selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Paulsen, David; Yasen, Alia; Neville, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies indicate that lower socio-economic status (SES) is associated with reduced effects of selective attention on auditory processing. Here, we investigated whether lower SES is also associated with differences in a stimulus-driven aspect of auditory processing: the neural refractory period, or reduced amplitude response at faster rates of stimulus presentation. Thirty-two children aged 3 to 8 years participated, and were divided into two SES groups based on maternal education. Event-related brain potentials were recorded to probe stimuli presented at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 200, 500, or 1000 ms. These probes were superimposed on story narratives when attended and ignored, permitting a simultaneous experimental manipulation of selective attention. Results indicated that group differences in refractory periods differed as a function of attention condition. Children from higher SES backgrounds showed full neural recovery by 500 ms for attended stimuli, but required at least 1000 ms for unattended stimuli. In contrast, children from lower SES backgrounds showed similar refractory effects to attended and unattended stimuli, with full neural recovery by 500 ms. Thus, in higher SES children only, one functional consequence of selective attention is attenuation of the response to unattended stimuli, particularly at rapid ISIs, altering basic properties of the auditory refractory period. Together, these data indicate that differences in selective attention impact basic aspects of auditory processing in children from lower SES backgrounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Socio-economic status and incident diabetes mellitus among employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, B.; Hannerz, Harald; Poulsen, K.

    2014-01-01

    had been as low as those in the reference group. Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate 95% CIs for excess fraction estimates Results: A total of 1 005 572 men and 951 039 women were included in the analysis. The follow-up yielded 43 439 cases in 9 533 199 person-years at risk among men and 29...... 266 cases in 9 163 405 person-years at risk among women. Using 'professionals' as a reference group, higher levels of relative risk were observed among every other socio-occupational group. The excess fraction was, 0.342 (95% CI 0.329-0.354) among men and 0.359 (95% CI 0.349-0.369) among women...... the potential gains to be had by better use of the workplace as an arena for prevention. Greater integration of occupational health and general healthcare is required to achieve this....

  7. Changes in insurance status and emergency department visits after the 2008 economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Susan H; David Bryan, E; Tarwater, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    As the U.S. economy began its downward trend in 2008, many citizens lost their jobs and, ultimately, their employer-sponsored health care insurance. The expectation was that many of the newly uninsured would turn to emergency departments (EDs) for their health care. This study was undertaken to determine, first, if changes in the insurance status of the general population were reflected in the ED insurance payer mix and, second, whether there was evidence of an increased reliance on the ED as a continuing source of health care for any payer group(s). This was a retrospective observational study using public data files from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for Emergency Departments for years 2006 through 2010 (2008 ± 2 years). Changes in the relative proportions of ED visits funded annually by private insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, and self-pay (uninsured) were analyzed using a logistic model. Poisson regression was used to compare trends in the rates of ED visits for each payer type (i.e., number of ED visits per 100 persons with each insurance type). A linear spline term was used to determine if there was a change in each risk estimate after 2008 compared to the risk estimate before 2008. Before 2008, the odds of an ED visit being funded by private insurance increased by 4% per year (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98 to 1.10; p = 0.15), but after 2008 the odds reversed, decreasing by nearly 10% per year (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.97; p = 0.02). Medicaid-funded visits demonstrated opposite trends with a small decreasing trend of 2% per year before 2008 (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.04; p = 0.52), followed by a significantly increasing trend of 20% per year after 2008 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.27; p = 0.001). The growth in Medicaid-funded ED visits was attributable to increased numbers of visits by both pediatric (<18 years old) and non-elderly adult (19 to 64 years old) patients. For both Medicaid and private

  8. Self-ratings of materialism and status consumption in a Malaysian sample: effects of answering during an assumed recession versus economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, W J; Heaney, J G; Goldsmith, R E

    2001-06-01

    Consumers' self-assessments of materialism and status consumption may be influenced by external economic conditions. In this study, 239 Malaysian students were asked to describe their levels of materialism using Richins and Dawson's 1992 Materialism scale and status consumption using Eastman, Goldsmith, and Flynn's 1999 Status Consumption Scale. Half the students were told to respond assuming that they were in an expanding economy, and half as if the economy was in a recession. Comparison of the groups' mean scores showed no statistically significant differences.

  9. Socioeconomic status and impact of the economic crisis on dietary habits in Italy: results from the INHES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Bonanni, Americo; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2017-11-08

    There is lack of evidence about the likely impact of the economic crisis on dietary habits in Western societies. We aimed to assess dietary modifications that possibly occurred during the recession and to investigate major socioeconomic factors associated with such modifications. Cross-sectional analysis on 1829 subjects from the general population recruited in the larger INHES study (n = 9319) a telephone-based survey on nutrition and health conducted in Italy from 2010 to 2013. Association of socioeconomic (education, household income, occupation) with self-reported impact of the economic crisis on dietary habits was tested by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Low-educated subjects (OR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.39-3.80), those with poor income (OR = 5.71; 95% CI: 3.68-8.85), and unemployed (OR = 3.93; 95% CI: 1.62-9.56) had higher odds of reporting undesirable dietary changes due to recession. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was lower in subjects reporting a negative impact of the crisis on diet as compared to those declaring no effect, whereas the quality of grocery items was higher in the latter. Undesirable dietary changes due to the economic crisis were mainly reported by lower socioeconomic groups. Subjects perceiving a negative impact of the recession on their diet also showed a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet and reduced quality of grocery products. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Diabetes and depression comorbidity and socio-economic status in low and middle income countries (LMICs: a mapping of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leone Tiziana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-communicable diseases account for more than 50% of deaths in adults aged 15–59 years in most low income countries. Depression and diabetes carry an enormous public health burden, making the identification of risk factors for these disorders an important strategy. While socio-economic inequalities in chronic diseases and their risk factors have been studied extensively in high-income countries, very few studies have investigated social inequalities in chronic disease risk factors in low or middle-income countries. Documenting chronic disease risk factors is important for understanding disease burdens in poorer countries and for targeting specific populations for the most effective interventions. The aim of this review is to systematically map the evidence for the association of socio-economic status with diabetes and depression comorbidity in low and middle income countries. The objective is to identify whether there is any evidence on the direction of the relationship: do co-morbidities have an impact on socio-economic status or vice versa and whether the prevalence of diabetes combined with depression is associated with socio-economic status factors within the general population. To date no other study has reviewed the evidence for the extent and nature of this relationship. By systematically mapping the evidence in the broader sense we can identify the policy and interventions implications of existing research, highlight the gaps in knowledge and suggest future research. Only 14 studies were found to analyse the associations between depression and diabetes comorbidity and socio-economic status. Studies show some evidence that the occurrence of depression among people with diabetes is associated with lower socio-economic status. The small evidence base that considers diabetes and depression in low and middle income countries is out of step with the scale of the burden of disease.

  11. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Chi-kin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men, they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–59 were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Results Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. Conclusion The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific.

  12. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Chi-kin; Leung, Candi M C

    2012-07-06

    Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20-59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific.

  13. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Results Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. Conclusion The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific. PMID:22770504

  14. Tingkat Pendidikan dan Status Ekonomi Pemilik Hewan Kesayangan dalam Hal Pengetahuan dan Penerapan Kesejahteraan Hewan (EDUCATION LEVEL AND ECONOMIC STATUS OF PET OWNERS ON KNOWLEDGE AND ANIMAL WELFARE IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Utari Rahmiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pet is an animal that lives to partially or completely dependent on humans for a particular purpose.Keep a pet as a companion animal, should pay attention to animal welfare. This study aims to gain insightabout the relationship between education level and economic status of pet owners on knowledge andimplementation of the animal welfare principles. The data were collecting by direct interview or a face toface interview to the animal clinic or hospital visitors on site (accidental technique. The data were calculatedby statistical methods chi square to examined the relationship or the impact of the two nominal variablesand measure the strengthness of the relationships between variables with each other nominal variables.Data showed a significantly correlation between the economic status of n North Jakarta respondentsbehavior (p value is 0.040, with the economic status of the Central Jakarta respondents’ attitudes (pvalue is 0.020, level of education and attitude of South Jakarta respondents (p value is 0.000. There wereno difference significantly between the level of education and economic status of the respondents’ knowledgewas observed in all study sites. However, based on current information and on site observation, NorthJakarta and West Jakarta respondents were considered to be able to demonstrate more sufficientknowledge of the animal welfare principles.

  15. Status on the Development of a Modeling and Simulation Framework for the Economic Assessment of Nuclear Hybrid Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiney, Aaron Simon; Chen, Jun; Rabiti, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Continued effort to design and build a modeling and simulation framework to assess the economic viability of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems (NHES) was undertaken in fiscal year (FY) 2016. The purpose of this report is to document the various tasks associated with the development of such a framework and to provide a status of their progress. Several tasks have been accomplished. First, a synthetic time history generator has been developed in RAVEN, which consists of Fourier series and autoregressive moving average model. The former is used to capture the seasonal trend in historical data, while the latter is to characterize the autocorrelation in residue time series (e.g., measurements with seasonal trends subtracted). As demonstration, both synthetic wind speed and grid demand are generated, showing matching statistics with database. In order to build a design and operations optimizer in RAVEN, a new type of sampler has been developed with highly object-oriented design. In particular, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm is implemented. The optimizer is capable to drive the model to optimize a scalar objective function without constraint in the input space, while the constraints handling is a work in progress and will be implemented to improve the optimization capability. Furthermore, a simplified cash flow model of the performance of an NHES in the electric market has been developed in Python and used as external model in RAVEN to confirm expectations on the analysis capability of RAVEN to provide insight into system economics and to test the capability of RAVEN to identify limit surfaces. Finally, an example calculation is performed that shows the integration and proper data passing in RAVEN of the synthetic time history generator, the cash flow model and the optimizer. It has been shown that the developed Python models external to RAVEN are able to communicate with RAVEN and each other through the newly developed RAVEN capability called “EnsembleModel”.

  16. Socio-economic status and environmental problems affecting the fishermen along the river tributaries of Dagupan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A. Jarin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the socio-economic status of the fishermen along the river tributaries of Dagupan City and to study the environment problems affecting the fishermen along the river tributaries of Dagupan City. This study used a mixed method research design and utilized a survey questionnaire to gather response from 60 fishers selected through proportionate sampling. The fishermen along the tributaries of Dagupan City are mostly male, young adult with family of their own, attended primary education, and belong to big family size. All respondents owned houses made only of light materials. Shrimps and crabs were the most frequently caught species now compared to many small pelagic fishes before, when there were no aquaculture structures like fish pens and cages. Fishermen were limited to the ownership of passive fishing gears like gill nets, skylab, skyblue, and liftnet. Fishpen or cage structures were owned by big businessmen while the fishers served only as caretakers. The respondents are worried on the decrease of fish catch. It is recommended that the government of the City of Dagupan should continue its program in demolishing pen and cage structures to free the rivers from pollution of feed inputs. Management and economic measures should be considered in order to gain significant effect on income of the fishermen. In designing management systems which have income improvement as a goal, appropriate implementation, monitoring and evaluation initiatives should be conducted and taken cared of for sustainable income improvement of farmers in the community of Dagupan and, perhaps, wealth distribution.

  17. Status on the Development of a Modeling and Simulation Framework for the Economic Assessment of Nuclear Hybrid Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epiney, Aaron Simon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Continued effort to design and build a modeling and simulation framework to assess the economic viability of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems (NHES) was undertaken in fiscal year (FY) 2016. The purpose of this report is to document the various tasks associated with the development of such a framework and to provide a status of their progress. Several tasks have been accomplished. First, a synthetic time history generator has been developed in RAVEN, which consists of Fourier series and autoregressive moving average model. The former is used to capture the seasonal trend in historical data, while the latter is to characterize the autocorrelation in residue time series (e.g., measurements with seasonal trends subtracted). As demonstration, both synthetic wind speed and grid demand are generated, showing matching statistics with database. In order to build a design and operations optimizer in RAVEN, a new type of sampler has been developed with highly object-oriented design. In particular, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm is implemented. The optimizer is capable to drive the model to optimize a scalar objective function without constraint in the input space, while the constraints handling is a work in progress and will be implemented to improve the optimization capability. Furthermore, a simplified cash flow model of the performance of an NHES in the electric market has been developed in Python and used as external model in RAVEN to confirm expectations on the analysis capability of RAVEN to provide insight into system economics and to test the capability of RAVEN to identify limit surfaces. Finally, an example calculation is performed that shows the integration and proper data passing in RAVEN of the synthetic time history generator, the cash flow model and the optimizer. It has been shown that the developed Python models external to RAVEN are able to communicate with RAVEN and each other through the newly developed RAVEN capability called “EnsembleModel”.

  18. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-05-01

    We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages. There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor. Individual-specific qualities come more to fruition if the starting position in life is better.

  19. Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

  20. The Contours of Inequality: The Links between Socio-Economic Status of Students and Other Variables at the University of Johannesburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, André

    2016-01-01

    The low level of student success in South Africa is an intractable problem, with levels of success differing between the various groups that make up South African society. One of the major constraints influencing student success involves the socio-economic status (SES) of newly entering students. In the South African context, with its very high…

  1. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  2. Social engagement from childhood to middle age and the effect of childhood socio-economic status on middle age social engagement: results from the National Child Development study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietanen, H; Aartsen, M.J.; Kiuru, N.; Lyyra, T.M.; Read, S.

    2016-01-01

    Social engagement has powerful effects on wellbeing, but variation in individual engagement throughout the lifecourse is wide. The trajectories may differ by gender and be affected by socio-economic status (SES). However, long-term development of social engagement is little studied and the effect of

  3. Hierarchical Linear Modelling of Sixth-Grade Students' Socio-Economic Status and School Factors on Mathematics Achievement: Case Studies of Kenya and Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Ayieko, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between socio-economic status, school-level variables and mathematics achievement of sixth graders in Kenya and Zimbabwe. The study is based on secondary data collected by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ III). SACMEQ employed cluster-sampling procedures…

  4. So Young and Already Victims of Stereotype Threat: Socio-Economic Status and Performance of 6 to 9 Years Old Children on Raven's Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desert, Michel; Preaux, Marie; Jund, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether children from low socio-economic status (SES) are victims of stereotype threat. Children in first grade (6 to 7 years old) and third grade (8 to 9 years old) performed Raven's progressive matrices, an intellectual ability test commonly used by psychologists. The test was presented either with the…

  5. Women's Status and Fertility in Developing Countries: Son Preference and Economic Security. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 682 and Population and Development Series No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Mead

    The relationship between women's status--defined in terms of the degree to which they are economically dependent on men--and fertility in developing nations is examined. After a brief introduction, part 2 discusses a particular theoretical perspective regarding fertility determinants in developing countries and explores the implications of women's…

  6. A meta-analysis of marijuana and alcohol use by socio-economic status in adolescents aged 10-15 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Mark; Bennett, Norman R.; Neudorf, Cory; Kunst, Anton; Nannapaneni, Ushasri; Warren, Lynne M.; Kershaw, Tanis; Scott, Christina R.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A majority of population-based studies suggest prevalence of drug and alcohol risk behaviour increases during late adolescence to early adulthood. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to clarify if socio-economic status (SES) is a determinant of marijuana and alcohol risk

  7. The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships and Achievement Motivation on Students' Intentions to Dropout According to Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…

  8. Parental Socio-Economic Status, Self-Concept and Gender Differences on Students' Academic Performance in Borno State Colleges of Education: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Umar; Bello, S.

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey study, designed to determine gender differences and socio-economic status, self-concept on students' academic performance in Colleges of Education, Borno State: Implications for counselling. The study set two research objectives, answered two research questions and tested two research hypotheses. The target population of this…

  9. The Interaction of Logical Reasoning Ability and Socio-Economic Status on Achievement in Genetics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…

  10. A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Gary T.C.; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Yeung, Vincent T.F.; Chow, Chun-Chung; Tsang, Lynn W.W.; Cockram, Clive S.

    2001-01-01

    To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age

  11. Higher Education Public Relations at the Year 2000: Assessing the Status of Public Relations at Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyronel, Anthony C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of higher education public relations professionals playing a key role in institutional decision making and not being limited to the role of communication technician or information processor. Reviews studies on relationships between higher education and the media and between public relations professionals and…

  12. Socio-economic status in relation to smoking: The role of (expected and desired) social support and quitter identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Van Laar, Colette; Kawous, Ramin; Beijk, Sarah C A M

    2016-08-01

    Smoking behavior differs substantially between lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Previous research shows that social support for quitting may be more available to higher-SES smokers, and higher-SES smokers may have stronger nonsmoker self-identities (i.e., can see themselves more as nonsmokers). To investigate how SES influences smoking behavior, taking the role of identity processes and social support into account. A cross-sectional online survey study was conducted among 387 daily smokers from lower, middle and higher-SES groups in the Netherlands in 2014. Educational level was used as an indicator of SES. Expected and desired social support for quitting smoking, expected exclusion from the social network when quitting, identity factors and intention to quit were measured. Smokers from all SES backgrounds desired to receive positive social support if they would quit smoking. Lower-SES smokers expected to receive more negative and practical support than middle or higher-SES smokers. There were no significant differences between SES groups for almost all identity measures, nor on intention to quit. Above and beyond other important influences such as nicotine-dependence, results showed that smokers regardless of SES who expected to receive more positive support tended to have stronger intentions to quit. Moreover, smokers who could see themselves more as being quitters (quitter self-identity) and perceived themselves less as smokers (smoker self-identity), as well as smokers who felt more positive about nonsmokers (nonsmoker group-identity) had stronger intentions to quit. No significant interactions with SES were found. The results suggest that developing ways to stimulate the social environment to provide adequate support for smokers who intend to quit, and developing ways to strengthen identification with quitting in smokers may help smokers to quit successfully. Findings further suggest that the possible-self as a quitter is more important than

  13. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  14. The Effect of Combining Business Training, Microfinance, and Support Group Participation on Economic Status and Intimate Partner Violence in an Unplanned Settlement of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnquist, Clea C; Ouma, Linda; Lang'at, Nickson; Lubanga, Chrisanthus; Sinclair, Jake; Baiocchi, Michael T; Cornfield, David N

    2018-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has myriad negative health and economic consequences for women and families. We hypothesized that empowering women through a combination of formal business training, microfinance, and IPV support groups would decrease IPV and improve women's economic status. The study included adult female survivors of severe IPV. Women living in Korogocho received the intervention and women in Dandora served as a standard of care (SOC) group, but received the intervention at the end of the follow-up period. Women in the intervention groups ( n = 82, SOC group, n = 81) received 8 weeks of business training, assistance creating a business plan, a small initial loan (about US$60), and weekly business and social support meetings. The two primary outcome measures included change in: (a) average daily profit margin, and (b) incidence of severe IPV. Exploratory analysis also looked at incidence of violence against children and women's self-efficacy. Average daily profit margin in the intervention group increased by 351 Kenyan Shillings (about US$3.5) daily (95% CI = [172, 485]). IPV directed against participating women decreased from a baseline of 2.1 to 0.26 incidents, a difference of 1.84 incidents (95% CI = [1.32, 2.36]). Violence against children in the household in the prior 3 months decreased from 1.1 to 0.55 incidents, a difference of 0.55 incidents (95% CI = [0.16, 1.03]). Finally, the intervention appears to have increased self-efficacy scores by 0.42 points (95% CIs 0.13, 0.71). In a low-resource urban environment, employing three complementary interventions resulted in higher daily profit margins and lower IPV in the intervention compared with the SOC group. These data support the notion that employing multiple interventions concomitantly might possess synergistic, beneficial effects, and hold promise to address profound poverty and interrupt the devastating cycle of IPV.

  15. Relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children, and the influence of socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Kroon, Jeroen; Lalloo, Ratilal; Kulkarni, Suhas; Johnson, Newell W

    2017-04-01

    To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) with dental caries in Indian schoolchildren, and to analyse the influence of socio-economic status (SES). The study population consisted of 11- to 14-year-old children from Medak District in Telangana State, India. The Indian Academy of Paediatrics 2015 growth charts were used to categorise children as underweight, overweight, normal or obese, based on their BMI. Data on the SES of the family were collected through questionnaires. Clinical examination for dental caries was performed by a single examiner. A total of 1,092 subjects returned questionnaires and were clinically examined (giving a response rate of 85%). There were no significant differences in caries prevalence and experience across the categories of BMI. However, caries prevalence and experience in overweight children were 24.8% and 0.69 ± 1.51, respectively, while the corresponding values in normal-weight children were 35% and 0.85 ± 1.50, respectively. Among children of high-SES families, overweight children had approximately 71% fewer caries than did those who were normal weight [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11-0.78)]. BMI was not associated with dental caries prevalence and experience in this population. The association of BMI with dental caries varied across SES categories. In the high-SES category, overweight children experienced fewer caries than did normal-weight children. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  16. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Socio-Economic Status on Neonatal Brain Development are Modulated by Genetic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Anqi; Shen, Mojun; Buss, Claudia; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Entringer, Sonja; Styner, Martin; Karnani, Neerja; Heim, Christine M; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Holbrook, Joanna D; Fortier, Marielle V; Meaney, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    This study included 168 and 85 mother-infant dyads from Asian and United States of America cohorts to examine whether a genomic profile risk score for major depressive disorder (GPRSMDD) moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms (or socio-economic status, SES) and fetal neurodevelopment, and to identify candidate biological processes underlying such association. Both cohorts showed a significant interaction between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and infant GPRSMDD on the right amygdala volume. The Asian cohort also showed such interaction on the right hippocampal volume and shape, thickness of the orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Likewise, a significant interaction between SES and infant GPRSMDD was on the right amygdala and hippocampal volumes and shapes. After controlling for each other, the interaction effect of antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and GPRSMDD was mainly shown on the right amygdala, while the interaction effect of SES and GPRSMDD was mainly shown on the right hippocampus. Bioinformatic analyses suggested neurotransmitter/neurotrophic signaling, SNAp REceptor complex, and glutamate receptor activity as common biological processes underlying the influence of antenatal maternal depressive symptoms on fetal cortico-limbic development. These findings suggest gene-environment interdependence in the fetal development of brain regions implicated in cognitive-emotional function. Candidate biological mechanisms involve a range of brain region-specific signaling pathways that converge on common processes of synaptic development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Constructing a Time-Invariant Measure of the Socio-economic Status of U.S. Census Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jeremy N; Weden, Margaret M; Lavery, Diana; Escarce, José J; Cagney, Kathleen A; Shih, Regina A

    2016-02-01

    Contextual research on time and place requires a consistent measurement instrument for neighborhood conditions in order to make unbiased inferences about neighborhood change. We develop such a time-invariant measure of neighborhood socio-economic status (NSES) using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses fit to census data at the tract level from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Censuses and the 2008-2012 American Community Survey. A single factor model fit the data well at all three time periods, and factor loadings--but not indicator intercepts--could be constrained to equality over time without decrement to fit. After addressing remaining longitudinal measurement bias, we found that NSES increased from 1990 to 2000, and then--consistent with the timing of the "Great Recession"--declined in 2008-2012 to a level approaching that of 1990. Our approach for evaluating and adjusting for time-invariance is not only instructive for studies of NSES but also more generally for longitudinal studies in which the variable of interest is a latent construct.

  18. Oral vocabulary training program for Spanish third-graders with low socio-economic status: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gomes-Koban

    Full Text Available Although the importance of vocabulary training in English speaking countries is well recognized and has been extensively studied, the same is not true for Spanish-few evidence based vocabulary studies for Spanish-speaking children have been reported. Here, two rich oral vocabulary training programs (definition and context, based on literature about vocabulary instruction for English-speaking children, were developed and applied in a sample of 100 Spanish elementary school third-graders recruited from areas of predominantly low socio-economic status (SES. Compared to an alternative read-aloud method which served as the control, both explicit methods were more effective in teaching word meanings when assessed immediately after the intervention. Nevertheless, five months later, only the definition group continued to demonstrate significant vocabulary knowledge gains. The definition method was more effective in specifically teaching children word meanings and, more broadly, in helping children organize and express knowledge of words. We recommend the explicit and rich vocabulary instruction as a means to fostering vocabulary knowledge in low SES children.

  19. Maternal education, empowerment, economic status and child polio vaccination uptake in Pakistan: a population based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif

    2017-03-10

    To explore the association of maternal education and empowerment with childhood polio vaccination using nationally representative data of Pakistani mothers in a reproductive age group. Cross-sectional. Secondary analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), 2012-2013 data was performed. Of the 13 558 mothers included in the survey sample, 6982 mothers were able to provide information regarding polio vaccinations. Polio vaccination coverage among children aged up to 5 years was categorised as complete vaccination (all four oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses), incomplete vaccination, and no vaccination (zero OPV dose received). Mothers' empowerment status was assessed using standard 'Measure DHS' questions regarding their involvement in decision-making related to health, household possessions and visits among family and friends. Education was categorised as no education, primary, secondary and higher education. Results of multinomial regression analyses were reported as adjusted OR with 95% CI. We adjusted for age, wealth index, urban/rural residence, place of delivery, and antenatal and postnatal visits. Only 56.4% (n=3936) of the children received complete polio vaccination. Women with no education had significantly higher odds of their child receiving no polio vaccination (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.18; pchild for any polio vaccination (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.12; p<0.01) and incomplete vaccination (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.41; p=0.04). Illiteracy, socioeconomic status and empowerment of women remained significant factors linked to poorer uptake of routine polio vaccination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Low socio-economic status and familial occurrence of goitre are associated with a high prevalence of goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, N.; Buelow, I.; Laurberg, P.; Ovesen, L.; Perrild, H.; Jorgensen, T.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of goitre is dependent on genetic and environmental factors, but the associations with socio-economic and life-style factors have only been examined briefly. A cohort of 4649 participants from the general population was examined with questionnaires, thyroid ultrasonography, clinical examination and blood tests. Data were analysed in linear models and logistic regression analysis. Thyroid volume and serum thyroglobulin were closely associated with educational level with higher values in the group with the lowest levels of education (p < 0.001). The same pattern applied to thyroid multinodularity at ultrasonography (p = 0.002) and palpable goitre (p = 0.01). Physical activity in leisure time was negatively associated with thyroid enlargement (p = 0.02) and serum thyroglobulin (p < 0.001). These associations diminished markedly if adjustment was made for smoking habits, alcohol consumption and iodine intake. Familial occurrence of goitre was associated with goitre prevalence (Odds Ratio 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6-3.9), but did not confound the socio-economic associations. In conclusion, social imbalances in the occurrence of goitre were identified. These imbalances could in part be explained by differences in smoking habits and iodine intake

  1. Meritocracy and the "Gaokao:" A Survey Study of Higher Education Selection and Socio-Economic Participation in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Meritocracy is a powerful ideology that was used by the Chinese Communist Party during China's transition to a market economy. With the "Gaokao" in particular, higher education selection became an ideal vehicle for the Party to associate itself with the ideology of meritocracy. This article investigates the extent to which higher…

  2. Developing Generic Competences in the European Higher Education Area: A Proposal for Teaching the Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Manuel Salas; Sanchez Martinez, Maria Teresa; Ferrero, Noelina Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    The participation of Spain in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves a number of important challenges for academics. Adapting to an educational model that is characterised by competence-based teaching is a difficult task, yet it is of paramount importance in the context of current reforms. In an educational system in which the…

  3. Modelling the Demand for Higher Education by Local Authority Area in England Using Academic, Economic and Social Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Managing the demand for higher education has been a major concern of successive UK governments over the last 30 years. While initially they sought to increase demand, latterly the emphasis has been on widening participation to include demographic groups among which it has traditionally been low. There had long been an academic and policy interest…

  4. Dominated by Economics? Evidence of Changing Drivers of Internationalization and Its Funding within Higher Education Institutions in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Ross

    2016-01-01

    As internationalization has become an increasingly central part of higher education (HE), the range and types of activities carried out in its name have grown exponentially. At the same time, and particularly in the context of reduced public funding for HE in some countries, internationalization and its related activities have come to be seen as…

  5. Socio-Economic Status: A Barrier to Access to Mandibular Advancement Device Therapy for Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Fleury

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a major public health problem which affects between 5 to 10% of the general population. OSAS is known to be associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality mainly due to cardiovascular diseases and traffic accidents. The burden of illness is high for the individual and society. There are 2 treatment options for OSAS, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP and Mandibular Advancement Device therapy (MAD. CPAP is known to be an effective but very constraining treatment. Patients are usually poorly adherent. MAD is a more recent treatment easier to use and consequently better tolerated, but MAD can only be prescribed to patients with satisfactory oral hygiene. Oral health constitutes a real issue particularly among underprivileged groups in France. Through this link, the question of whether low socio-economic status constitutes a barrier to access to care for patients with OSAS is raised.In a multicenter prospective cohort of 2822 consecutive OSAS patients in whom MAD has been proposed as an alternative to CPAP between May 15, 2007 and December 1st, 2014, we identified the factors that lead to a patient diagnosed with OSAS to be treated by MAD instead of CPAP. A logistic regression was performed using a stepwise forward procedure. The main outcome of the study was that treatment by MAD was significantly associated with both educational attainment, as determined by the age at which the patient left full-time education, ≥18 years compared with <18 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.20, and the patient's occupational category. Executives and higher intellectual professions, intermediate professions, technicians, foremen and employees were significantly more likely to be treated by MAD than workers (aOR: 2.21, 95% CI 1.88 to 2.58; aOR: 1.74, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.63; aOR: 1.96, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.47, respectively.Overall, these results suggest that low socio-economic status constitutes a

  6. Higher educational status, staying in joint family and early treatment initiation improves quality of life in leprosy: Experiences from and observational study at a tertiary centre in Eastern India

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    Arup Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease with various risks of permanent and progressive disabilities as well as deformities. This can lead to social stigma and discrimination. Methodology A cross sectional institution based study was conducted among the patient of a leprosy clinic in a tertiary care center. WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used after taking consent from each study individual. Results Majority (69.8% of the patients was male and 41.3% of the study population belonged to below poverty line. Majority (85.7% of the study population were suffering from multi-bacillary type of leprosy. Though Majority (96.8% of the patients was receiving MDT (multi drug therapy regularly but still 33.33% of them were leading a poor quality of life. It has been seen that literacy, family type and time gap between starting of symptoms and initiation of treatment were significantly associated with quality of life. Discussion Different previous studies showed QOL (quality of life was associated with factors like SES (socio economic status, literacy and male gender, the present study revealed higher literacy, staying in the joint family and early treatment initiation helped to improve the QOL. Conclusion Better QOL was associated with higher educational status, good family support and early initiation of treatment among the leprosy patients.

  7. Some economic aspects of natural uranium graphite gas reactor types. Present status and trends of costs in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.; Tanguy, P.

    1964-01-01

    The first part of this report defines the economic advantages of natural uranium fuels, which are as follows: the restricted number and relatively simple fabrication processes of the fuel elements, the low cost per kWh of the finished product and the reasonable capital investments involved in this type of fuel cycle as compared to that of enriched uranium. All these factors combine to reduce the arbitrary nature of cost estimates, which is particularly marked in the case of enriched uranium due to the complexity of its cycle and the uncertainties of plutonium prices). Finally, the wide availability of yellowcake, as opposed to the present day virtual monopoly of isotope separation, and the low cost of natural uranium stockpiling, offer appreciable guarantees in the way of security of supply and economic and political independence as compared with the use of enriched uranium. As far as overall capital investments are concerned, it is shown that, although graphite-gas reactor costs are higher than those of light water reactors in certain capacity ranges, the situation becomes far less clear when we start taking into account, in the interest of national independence, the cost of nuclear fuel production equipment in the case of each of these types of reactor. Finally, the marginal cost of the power capacity of a graphite-gas reactor is low and its technological limitations have receded (owing particularly to the use of prestressed concrete). It is a well known fact that the trend is now towards larger power station units, which means that the rentability of natural uranium graphite reactors as compared to other types of reactors will become more and more pronounced. The second section aims at presenting a realistic short and medium term view of the fuel, running, and investment costs of French natural uranium graphite gas, reactors. Finally, the economic goals which this type of reactor can reach in the very near future are given. It is thus shown that considerable

  8. Status on the Development of a Modeling and Simulation Framework for the Economic Assessment of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard Doin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    An effort to design and build a modeling and simulation framework to assess the economic viability of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems (NHES) was undertaken in fiscal year 2015 (FY15). The purpose of this report is to document the various tasks associated with the development of such a framework and to provide a status on its progress. Several tasks have been accomplished. First, starting from a simulation strategy, a rigorous mathematical formulation has been achieved in which the economic optimization of a Nuclear Hybrid Energy System is presented as a constrained robust (under uncertainty) optimization problem. Some possible algorithms for the solution of the optimization problem are presented. A variation of the Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation algorithm has been implemented in RAVEN and preliminary tests have been performed. The development of the software infrastructure to support the simulation of the whole NHES has also moved forward. The coupling between RAVEN and an implementation of the Modelica language (OpenModelica) has been implemented, migrated under several operating systems and tested using an adapted model of a desalination plant. In particular, this exercise was focused on testing the coupling of the different code systems; testing parallel, computationally expensive simulations on the INL cluster; and providing a proof of concept for the possibility of using surrogate models to represent the different NHES subsystems. Another important step was the porting of the RAVEN code under the Windows™ operating system. This accomplishment makes RAVEN compatible with the development environment that is being used for dynamic simulation of NHES components. A very simplified model of a NHES on the electric market has been built in RAVEN to confirm expectations on the analysis capability of RAVEN to provide insight into system economics and to test the capability of RAVEN to identify limit surfaces even for stochastic constraints. This

  9. STATUS SOSIAL-EKONOMI DAN KADAR HORMON TIROTROPIN RUMAH-TANGGA PENGGUNA GARAM BERIDOIUM DI PERKOTAAN INDONESIA : ANALISIS DATA RISKESDAS 2007 (SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND THYROTROPIN HORMONE LEVEL OF HOUSEHOLDS USING IODIZED SALT IN INDONESIAN URBAN : ANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Kartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iodized salt is the long term and sustainable strategy to improve iodine intakeof the community.Level of thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin hormone can be used as indicator of iodine intake adequacy. To study the socio-economic status of households using iodized salt and thyrotropin hormone level in urban areas. Riskesdas data 2007 that include 280.000 households was used.Thyrotropin hormone data include 9.457 people aged above 1 years. Variables included classification of village, rapid test on salt, education and occupation of households’ head, household expenditure and level of thyrotropin hormone. Around 80 percentof households where households’ head graduated from college/university used salt containing sufficient iodine. Only 18 percent households with households’ headworks as government workers used salt containing sufficient iodine. Around 70 percent households in 5th quintile of household’s expenditure were using salt with sufficient iodine content. Around 70 percent households in urban areas were using salt withsufficient iodine content.Among children 1-4 years, percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormon level was 3.3 percentand among 60 years of age and above was 15.8 percent. The higher the educational levelthe higher the percentage of households used salt with sufficient iodine. Percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine was higher in urban than in rural areas. The higher the quintiles of household expenditures the higher the percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine. There was a trend that the higher the age the higher the percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormone level. Keywords: householdsalt, education, occupation, urban, rural, expenditure, thyrotropin hormone   ABSTRAK Garam beriodium merupakan strategi jangka panjang dan berkesinambungan untuk memperbaiki asupan iodium masyarakat. Sementara itu, kadar thyroid stimulating hormone (hormon tirotropin dapat

  10. Can Parenting Practices Explain the Differences in Beverage Intake According to Socio-Economic Status: The Toybox-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinket, An-Sofie; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet; Androutsos, Odysseas; Koletzko, Berthold; Moreno, Luis A.; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Manios, Yannis; Van Lippevelde, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicated that preschoolers of lower socioeconomic status (SES) consume less healthy beverages than high SES preschoolers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between SES and plain water, soft drink and prepacked fruit juice (FJ) consumption in European preschoolers. Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 years old (n = 6776) recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics, parenting practices and a food frequency questionnaire. Availability of sugared beverages and plain water, permissiveness towards sugared beverages and lack of self-efficacy showed a mediating effect on SES-differences in all three beverages. Rewarding with sugared beverages significantly mediated SES-differences for both plain water and prepacked FJ. Encouragement to drink plain water and awareness significantly mediated SES-differences for, respectively, plain water and prepacked FJ consumption. Avoiding negative modelling did not mediate any associations. Overall, lower SES preschoolers were more likely to be confronted with lower levels of favourable and higher levels of unfavourable parenting practices, which may lead to higher sugared beverage and lower plain water consumption. The current study highlights the importance of parenting practices in explaining the relation between SES and both healthy and unhealthy beverage consumption. PMID:27669290

  11. Can Parenting Practices Explain the Differences in Beverage Intake According to Socio-Economic Status: The Toybox-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Sofie Pinket

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicated that preschoolers of lower socioeconomic status (SES consume less healthy beverages than high SES preschoolers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between SES and plain water, soft drink and prepacked fruit juice (FJ consumption in European preschoolers. Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 years old (n = 6776 recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics, parenting practices and a food frequency questionnaire. Availability of sugared beverages and plain water, permissiveness towards sugared beverages and lack of self-efficacy showed a mediating effect on SES-differences in all three beverages. Rewarding with sugared beverages significantly mediated SES-differences for both plain water and prepacked FJ. Encouragement to drink plain water and awareness significantly mediated SES-differences for, respectively, plain water and prepacked FJ consumption. Avoiding negative modelling did not mediate any associations. Overall, lower SES preschoolers were more likely to be confronted with lower levels of favourable and higher levels of unfavourable parenting practices, which may lead to higher sugared beverage and lower plain water consumption. The current study highlights the importance of parenting practices in explaining the relation between SES and both healthy and unhealthy beverage consumption.

  12. White Paper: Interventional MRI: Current Status and Potential for Development Considering Economic Perspectives, Part 1: General Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhausen, Jörg; Kahn, Thomas; Krombach, Gabriele A; Kuhl, Christiane K; Lotz, Joachim; Maintz, David; Ricke, Jens; Schönberg, Stefan O; Vogl, Thomas J; Wacker, Frank K

    2017-07-01

    children with congenital heart defects and for atrial ablation at individual centers. Greater application can be expected in the future.. Citation format · Barkhausen J, Kahn T, Krombach GA et al. White Paper: Interventional MRI: Current Status and Potential for Development Considering Economic Perspectives, Part 1: General Application. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 611 - 623. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Tobacco use prevalence – disentangling associations between Alaska Native race, low socio-economic status and rural disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Dilley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alaska's 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, we used stratified analysis and logistic regression models to describe the current use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT (including iq'mik, a unique Alaska Native SLT product among the 3 populations of interest. Results . “Population segments” were created with combinations of responses for Alaska Native race, SES and community type. We identified the highest prevalence and highest proportion of tobacco users for each type of tobacco by “segment.” For cigarette smoking, while the largest proportion (nearly one-third of the state's smokers are non-Native, high SES and live in urban settings, this group also has lower smoking prevalence than most other groups. Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents had both high smoking prevalence (48% and represented a large proportion of the state's smokers (nearly 10%. Patterns were similar for SLT, with non-Native high-SES urban residents making up the largest proportion of users despite lower prevalence, and Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents having high prevalence and making up a large proportion of users. For iq'mik use, Alaska Native people in rural settings were both the highest prevalence and proportion of users. Conclusion . While Alaska Native race, low SES status and community of residence can be considered alone when developing tobacco control interventions, creating “population segments” based on combinations of factors may be

  14. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Wah

    Full Text Available To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI in an Asian population.Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40-80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004-2011 in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30, low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00, and blindness (logMAR≥1.00. Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI, created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models.The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%. Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval of any VI was 2.11(1.88-2.37 for low-SES and 1.07(1.02-1.13 per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40-65 years and male.In this community-based sample of Asian adults, both

  15. A school based study of time trends in food habits and their relation to socio-economic status among Norwegian adolescents, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2014-09-25

    In recent years, adolescents' food habits have become a major source of concern, and substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to influence adolescents to consume more fruit and vegetables and less sweets and soft drink. Particular attention has been devoted to the social gradient in food habits, aiming to reduce dietary inequality. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated trends in teenagers' food habits, or investigated how dietary inequalities develop. We used Norwegian cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001, 2005 and 2009. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar rich soft drink. Socio-economic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The analyses indicated an overall positive trend in food habits among adolescents in Norway. Students were more likely to consume fruit (OR 1.76, CI 1.61-1.92) and vegetables (OR 1.51, CI 1.37-1.66) daily in 2005 as compared to 2001, and were less likely to consume sweets (OR 0.58, CI 0.51-0.66 resp. OR 0.77, CI 0.67-0.90) and soft drink (OR 0.55, CI 0.49-0.62 resp. OR 0.84, CI 0.73-0.96) daily when comparing, respectively, 2005 with 2001 and 2009 with 2005. Across all survey years, students with higher SES were more likely to eat fruit (OR 1.47, CI 1.32-1.65) and vegetables (OR 1.40, CI 1.24-1.58) daily than did students with lower SES. Our analyses indicated that the socio-economic differences were stable in the period 2002 - 2010, with uniform improvement in fruit and vegetable consumption across all SES levels. No significant associations between SES and intake of sweets and sugar-added soft drink were found. The study identifies an overall improvement in diet among adolescents over a period characterized by

  16. Inequitable walking conditions among older people: examining the interrelationship of neighbourhood socio-economic status and urban form using a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Theresa L; Edwards, Nancy; Sveistrup, Heidi; Andrew, Caroline; Egan, Mary

    2010-11-05

    Supportive neighbourhood walking conditions are particularly important for older people as they age and who, as a group, prefer walking as a form of physical activity. Urban form and socio-economic status (SES) can influence neighbourhood walking behaviour. The objectives of this study were: a) to examine how urban form and neighbourhood SES inter-relate to affect the experiences of older people who walk in their neighbourhoods; b) to examine differences among neighbourhood stakeholder key informant perspectives on socio-political processes that shape the walkability of neighbourhood environments. An embedded comparative case study examined differences among four Ottawa neighbourhoods that were purposefully selected to provide contrasts on urban form (inner-urban versus suburban) and SES (higher versus lower). Qualitative data collected from 75 older walkers and 19 neighbourhood key informants, as well as quantitative indicators were compared on the two axes of urban form and SES among the four neighbourhoods. Examining the inter-relationship of neighbourhood SES and urban form characteristics on older people's walking experiences indicated that urban form differences were accentuated positively in higher SES neighbourhoods and negatively in lower SES neighbourhoods. Older people in lower SES neighbourhoods were more affected by traffic hazards and more reliant on public transit compared to their higher SES counterparts. In higher SES neighbourhoods the disadvantages of traffic in the inner-urban neighbourhood and lack of commercial destinations in the suburban neighbourhood were partially offset by other factors including neighbourhood aesthetics. Key informant descriptions of the socio-political process highlighted how lower SES neighbourhoods may face greater challenges in creating walkable places. These differences pertained to the size of neighbourhood associations, relationships with political representatives, accessing information and salient neighbourhood

  17. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this community-based sample of Asian adults, both individual- and area-level SES were independently associated with the presence and severity of VI. PMID:26555141

  18. Cortical networks for vision and language in dyslexic and normal children of variable socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene, Stanislas; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2012-05-15

    In dyslexia, anomalous activations have been described in both left temporo-parietal language cortices and in left ventral visual occipito-temporal cortex. However, the reproducibility, task-dependency, and presence of these brain anomalies in childhood rather than adulthood remain debated. We probed the large-scale organization of ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children using minimal target-detection tasks that were performed equally well by all groups. In 23 normal and 23 dyslexic 10-year-old children from two different socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, we compared fMRI activity to visually presented houses, faces, and written strings, and to spoken sentences in the native or in a foreign language. Our results confirm a disorganization of both ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children. Visually, dyslexic children showed a normal lateral-to-medial mosaic of preferences, as well as normal responses to houses and checkerboards, but a reduced activation to words in the visual word form area (VWFA) and to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA). Auditorily, dyslexic children exhibited reduced responses to speech in posterior temporal cortex, left insula and supplementary motor area, as well as reduced responses to maternal language in subparts of the planum temporale, left basal language area and VWFA. By correlating these two findings, we identify spoken-language predictors of VWFA activation to written words, which differ for dyslexic and normal readers. Similarities in fMRI deficits in both SES groups emphasize the existence of a core set of brain activation anomalies in dyslexia, regardless of culture, language and SES, without however resolving whether these anomalies are a cause or a consequence of impaired reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Socio-economic status, family disruption and residential stability in childhood: relation to onset, recurrence and remission of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, S E; Kawachi, I; Fitzmaurice, G M; Buka, L

    2003-11-01

    Childhood adversity significantly increases the risk of depression, but it is unclear whether this risk is most pronounced for depression occurring early in life. In the present study, we examine whether three aspects of childhood adversity--low socio-economic status (SES), family disruption, and residential instability--are related to increased risk of depression during specific stages of the life course. We also examine whether these aspects of childhood adversity are related to the severity of depression. A sample of 1089 of the 4140 births enrolled in the Providence, Rhode Island cohort of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project was interviewed between the ages of 18 and 39. Measures of parental SES, childhood family disruption and residential instability were obtained upon mother's enrolment and at age 7. Age at onset of major depressive episode, lifetime number of depressive episodes, and age at last episode were ascertained via structured diagnostic interviews. Survival analysis was used to identify risk factors for depression onset and remission and Poisson regression was used to model the recurrence rate of depressive episodes. Low parental SES, family disruption and a high level of residential instability, defined as three or more family moves, were related to elevated lifetime risks of depression; the effects of family disruption and residential instability were most pronounced on depression onset by age 14. Childhood adversity was also related to increased risk of recurrence and reduced likelihood of remission. Childhood social disadvantage significantly influences risk of depression onset both in childhood and in adulthood. Early childhood adversity is also related to poor prognosis.

  20. Relationship of family formation characteristics with unsafe abortion: is it confounded by women's socio-economic status? - A case-control study from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambepola, Carukshi; Rajapaksa, Lalini C; Attygalle, Deepika; Moonasinghe, Loshan

    2016-06-17

    Literature shows that choice for unsafe abortion is often driven by poverty. However, factors related to the family formation behaviour of women are also implied as determinants of this decision. This study assessed which family formation characteristics of women are associated with the risk of unsafe abortion, without being confounded by their low socio-economic status among Sri Lankan women admitted to hospital following post-abortion complications. An unmatched case-control study was conducted in nine hospitals in eight districts in Sri Lanka among 171 women with post-abortion complications following unsafe abortion (Cases) and 600 postpartum mothers admitted to same hospitals during the same period for delivery of term unintended pregnancies (Controls). Interviewer-administered-questionnaires obtained demographic, socio-economic and family formation related characteristics. Risk factors of abortion were assessed by odds-ratio (OR), adjusted for their socio-economic status in logistic regression analysis. Low socio-economic status, characterised by low-education (adjusted OR = 1.5; 95 % CI = 1.1-2.4) and less/unskilled occupations (2.3; 1.4-3.6) was a significant risk factor for unsafe abortion. Independent of this risk, being unmarried (9.3; 4.0-21.6), failure in informed decisions about desired family size (2.2; 1.4-3.5), not having a girl-child (2.2; 1.4-3.4) and longer average birth intervals (0.7 years; 0.6-0.8) signified the vulnerability of women for unsafe abortion. Cases were as fast as the controls in their family completion (4.3 versus 4.5 years; p = 0.4), but were at increased risk for abortion, if their average birth intervals (including the last one) were longer. Previous contraceptive use, age at reproductive events or partners' characteristics did not impart any risk for abortion. Low socio-economic status is not the most influencing risk factor for unsafe abortions leading to complications, but many other factors in relation to

  1. Global analysis of threat status reveals higher extinction risk in tropical than in temperate bird sister species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reif Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing pressures upon biodiversity, identification of species’ traits related to elevated extinction risk is useful for more efficient allocation of limited resources for nature conservation. Despite its need, such a global analysis was lacking in the case of birds. Therefore, we performed this exercise for avian sister species using information about their global extinction risk from IUCN Red List. We focused on 113 pairs of sister species, each containing a threatened and an unthreatened species to factor out the effects of common evolutionary history on the revealed relationship. We collected data on five traits with expected relationships to species’ extinction risk based on previous studies performed at regional or national levels: breeding habitat (recognizing forest, grassland, wetland and oceanic species, latitudinal range position (temperate and tropics species, migration strategy (migratory and resident species, diet (carnivorous, insectivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous species and body mass. We related the extinction risk using IUCN threat level categories to species’ traits using generalised linear mixed effects models expecting lower risk for forest, temperate, omnivorous and smaller-bodied species. Our expectation was confirmed only in the case of latitudinal range position, as we revealed higher threat level for tropical than for temperate species. This relationship was robust to different methods of threat level expression and cannot be explained by a simple association of high bird species richness with the tropical zone. Instead, it seems that tropical species are more threatened because of their intrinsic characteristics such as slow life histories, adaptations to stable environments and small geographic ranges. These characteristics are obviously disadvantageous in conditions of current human-induced environmental perturbations. Moreover, given the absence of habitat effects, our study indicates that such

  2. Parental social status and intrasexual competitiveness among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunk, Abraham P; Stulp, Gert; Ormel, Johan

    2014-11-17

    A study among 1,881 adolescents (52.3% girls) with a mean age of 19.1 years examined the effects of parental social status upon intrasexual competitiveness. Whereas females were consistently more intrasexually competitive the higher the socio-economic status of their parents, males with parents of the lowest socio-economic status tended to be more intrasexually competitive than those with parents of medium socio-economic status, and nearly as intrasexually competitive as those with parents of high socio-economic status. Only among adolescents with parents of low socio-economic status were males more intrasexually competitive than females. Among males and females, higher levels of intrasexual competitiveness were related to a higher family income, to a higher occupational status of the father as well as of the mother, and to a higher educational level of the mother. Only among females were higher levels of intrasexual competitiveness associated with a higher educational level of the father. Males whose fathers had only elementary education had a relatively high level of intrasexual competitiveness. The results are discussed in the context of the multifaceted nature of human status, and the potential relevance of intrasexual competitiveness for individuals of high versus low social status.

  3. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowy Yi Hoong Seah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n − 6 status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n − 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n − 6 is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25–80 years old with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44–74 years old from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3 n − 6, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n − 3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n − 3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n − 3 concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05 in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population.

  4. Status of higher order mode beam position monitors in 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M; Flisgen, T; Van Rienen, U; Shinton, I R R

    2013-01-01

    Higher order mode (HOM) beam position monitors (BPM) are being developed for the 3.9 GHz third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. The transverse beam position in a cavity can be determined utilizing beam-excited HOMs based on dipole components. The existing couplers used for HOM suppression provide necessary signals. The diagnostics principle is similar to a cavity BPM, but requires no additional vacuum instruments on the linac. The challenges of HOM-BPM for 3.9 GHz cavities lie in the dense HOM spectrum arising from the coupling of the majority HOMs amongst the four cavities in the cryo-module ACC39. HOMs with particularly promising diagnostics features were evaluated using a spectrum analyzer and custom-built test electronics with various data analysis techniques, data reduction was focused on. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, multi-cavity modes in the region of 5 GHz were chosen to provide a global position over the complete module with superi...

  5. Socio-economic status and overweight or obesity among school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhstorfer, B H; Mousoulis, C; Uthman, O A; Robertson, W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity have emerged as a public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a systematic review with the aim to examine the association between socio-economic status (SES) and overweight or obesity among school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa. In March 2014 we searched five electronic databases for reports which presented cross-sectional data on prevalence levels of overweight or obesity stratified by SES groups among school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa. We used a random-effect model to pool the relative indexes of inequality of the association from the individual studies. In total, 20 reports satisfied the inclusion criteria providing results of 21 datasets. The risk of overweight or obesity in children from highest SES households was 5.28 times as high as that of children from lowest SES households (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.62 to 10.66). On subgroup analysis, this association was statistically significant for household income and composite SES measures but not for parental educational attainment and occupation type. Similarly, the risk of overweight or obesity in children attending affluent (private) schools was 15.94 times as high as that of children going to either urban or rural public schools (95% CI 5.82 to 43.68). The magnitude of the association tended to be stronger for area or school-type compared with composite measures. In summary, children from higher SES households and those attending private schools tended to be overweight and obese. © 2016 World Obesity.

  6. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the

  7. Higher education does not protect against firework-related injuries: a review of the economic burden and the risk factors of firework-related injuries in the capital of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, S; Mafi, M; Smith, G A

    2012-01-01

    To examine the incidence and risk factors of firework-related injuries during the Last Wednesday Eve Festival in Tehran, Iran, with a focus on the association of socio-economic status and educational level with the use of fireworks and the incidence of firework-related injury. Cross-sectional household survey. Using a random cluster sampling approach, a household survey was conducted in Greater Tehran in April 2008. During a structured interview with an adult member of the household, questions were asked about the use of fireworks and any firework-related injuries sustained by household members during the preceding festival. Data were gathered on expenditure on fireworks, medical treatment of firework-related injuries, length of hospital stay for the treatment of these injuries, and damage to personal property by fireworks. The survey included 2456 households in Greater Tehran. At least one member of 18% of these households had used fireworks during the Last Wednesday Eve Festival in 2008. The overall incidence of firework-related injuries was 100 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval 37-163). The use of fireworks was less common among parents and more common among male children. Individuals who used fireworks were younger than non-users. Younger age and use of fireworks were associated with firework-related injuries (P fireworks was US$1.62. Among the households that had bought fireworks, the mean expenditure was US$9.40 (standard deviation US$16.34). Thirty-two households (1.3%) reported damage to personal property due to fireworks during the festival costing US$3.30-167.20. The regional price of housing in the study area was correlated with the educational level of the head of the household. Higher educational level of the head of the household was associated with participation in firework activities by household members, expenditure on fireworks, and the amount of financial loss due to fireworks (all P Fireworks are associated with serious injuries

  8. White Paper: Interventional MRI: Current Status and Potential for Development Considering Economic Perspectives, Part 2: Liver and Other Applications in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhausen, Jörg; Kahn, Thomas; Krombach, Gabriele A; Kuhl, Christiane K; Lotz, Joachim; Maintz, David; Ricke, Jens; Schönberg, Stefan O; Vogl, Thomas J; Wacker, Frank K

    2017-11-01

    Background  MRI is attractive for guiding and monitoring interventional procedures due to its high intrinsic soft tissue contrast and the possibility to measure flow and cardiac function. Methods  Technical solutions have been developed for all procedural steps including imaging guidance, MR-safe catheters and instruments and patient monitoring. This has led to widening of the clinical applications. Interventional MRI is becoming increasingly important for the treatment of patients suffering from malignant diseases. The detectability of masses and consequently their accessibility for biopsy is higher, compared to other modalities, due to the high intrinsic soft tissue contrast of MRI. Temperature-dependent sequences allow for minimally invasive and tissue-sparing ablation (A-0 ablation). Conclusion  Interventional MRI has become established in the clinical routine for a variety of indications, including biopsies and tumor ablation. Since the economic requirement of covering costs by reimbursement is met and interventional MRI decreases the mortality and morbidity of interventional procedures, broader application of interventional MRI can be expected in the clinical routine in the future. Key points   · Particularly for the treatment of oncological patients, interventional MRI is superior to other methods with respect to minimal invasiveness and tissue protection due to the ability to exactly determine tumor borders and to visualize and control the size of the ablation area on the basis of MR temperature measurement.. · Due to the better visualization of targets and the effects of ablation in tissue, interventional MRI can lower the mortality and morbidity associated with these interventions for many indications.. · The complex comparison of costs and reimbursement shows that this application can be performed in a cost-covering manner and broader application can be expected in the future.. Citation Format · Barkhausen J, Kahn T, Krombach GA et

  9. The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leppin Anja

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems

  10. Prospective associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in European children: the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants (IDEFICS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin; Gwozdz, Wencke; Krogh, Vittorio; Hebestreit, Antje; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Reisch, Lucia; Eiben, Gabriele; Iglesia, Iris; Veidebaum, Tomas; Kourides, Yannis A; Kovacs, Eva; Huybrechts, Inge; Pigeot, Iris; Moreno, Luis A

    2015-02-14

    Exploring changes in children's diet over time and the relationship between these changes and socio-economic status (SES) may help to understand the impact of social inequalities on dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns by applying a cluster analysis to 9301 children participating in the baseline (2-9 years old) and follow-up (4-11 years old) surveys of the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants Study, and to describe the cluster memberships of these children over time and their association with SES. We applied the K-means clustering algorithm based on the similarities between the relative frequencies of consumption of forty-two food items. The following three consistent clusters were obtained at baseline and follow-up: processed (higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food); sweet (higher frequency of consumption of sweet foods and sweetened drinks); healthy (higher frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal products). Children with higher-educated mothers and fathers and the highest household income were more likely to be allocated to the healthy cluster at baseline and follow-up and less likely to be allocated to the sweet cluster. Migrants were more likely to be allocated to the processed cluster at baseline and follow-up. Applying the cluster analysis to derive dietary patterns at the two time points allowed us to identify groups of children from a lower socio-economic background presenting persistently unhealthier dietary profiles. This finding reflects the need for healthy eating interventions specifically targeting children from lower socio-economic backgrounds.

  11. The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Self-Rated Health: Study of 29 Countries Using European Social Surveys (2002–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Alonso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES and self-rated health (SRH varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002–2008, in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with previous studies, income inequalities seem to be greater not only in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries, but especially in Eastern European countries. The impact of education is greater in Southern countries, and this effect is similar in Eastern and Scandinavian countries, although occupational status does not produce significant differences in southern countries. This study shows the general relevance of socio-educational factors on SRH. Individual economic conditions are obviously a basic factor contributing to a good state of health, but education could be even more relevant to preserve it. In this sense, policies should not only aim at reducing income inequalities, but should also further the education of people who are in risk of social exclusion.

  12. INFLUENCE OF PARENTS' SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND VOCATIONAL LEARNING MOTIVATION TO LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT IN THE LESSON OF CHASSIS AND POWER TRANSDUCTOR FOR XII GRADE STUDENTS OF LIGHT VIHICLE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF SMK PIRI 1 YOGYAKARTA IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Tri Setyawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to find the influence of parents’ socio-economic status and vocational learning motivation to learning achievement in the lesson of chassis and power transductor for XII grade students of SMK PIRI 1 Yogyakarta in the academic year 2013/2014. This research includes ex-post facto research conducted on the population 129 students with the sample 98 students. Data collection techniques in this research uses questionnaire instrument techniques for variable of parents’ socio-economic status and vocational learning motivation whereas documentation instrument techniques uses for variable of learning achievement the lesson of chassis and power transductor. Questionnaire was tested on 25 respondents. Data analysis techniques uses partial correlation analysis and regression analysis were preceded by prerequisite test that are normality test, linearity and multikolonieritas. The results of the data analysis is (1 parents’ socio-economic status (X1 influential positive and significant on learning achievement in the lesson of chassis and power transductor, (2 vocational learning motivation (X2 influential positive and significant on learning achievement in the lesson of chassis and power transductor, (3 parents’ socio-economic status (X1 and vocational learning motivation (X2 are jointly have positive and significant effect on learning achievement in the lesson of chassis and power transductor. Positive means that the higher the value of X1 and X2, the higher the value of Y, and vice versa. Thus, the socio-economic status of parents and the motivation to study vocational subjects affecting learning achievement the lesson of chassis and power transductor XII grade students of SMK PIRI 1 Yogyakarta in the academic year 2013/2014.

  13. Socio-Economic Status or Caste? Inequities in Maternal and Newborn Health Care in Rural Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gautham, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Many inequities in the coverage of essential interventions in pregnancy, childbirth and newborn and child health, especially those that require contact with the health system, persist within countries. \\ud \\ud Although economic inequities may be the most visible and profound, there can be other sources of social disadvantage. \\ud \\ud Poverty and caste are important determinants of health, including maternal healthcare. \\ud \\ud IDEAS conducted a descriptive analysis of socio-economic and caste...

  14. Mental health, employment status and parenthood: the impact of the economic downturn on portuguese youth mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Frasquilho, Diana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background: Economic recessions pose significant risks to individuals’ mental health and well-being. Common mental disorders are already highly prevalent in Europe, and more so in Portugal. Thus, changes in macroeconomic conditions are likely to aggravate this scenario. The exponential and rapid increase of unemployment is a particular consequence of the economic recession that has been proven to have a detrimental effect on mental health and well-being at both individual and popula...

  15. Association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age group and gender with prevalence of waterborne diseases in rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.S.; Amin, M.; Amber, M.; Malik, M.W.; Sherwani, S.K

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of waterborne illness is of great concern all over the world. Waterborne diseases represent significant burden of diseases in the globe. Nearly 4% of diseases are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene, and approximately 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrheal diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to find association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age groups and gender with prevalence of water borne diseases in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A research questionnaire was designed with questions related to demographic data, drinking water data and prevalence of water borne disease. The research questionnaire was interviewed to different respondents above 18 years of age randomly selected from different settings of Rawalpindi and Islamabad belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Data was analysed by employing cross tabulation and chi-square test with help of statistical software. The more frequent age group (47%) was 30 to 45 years. Proportion of diarrhea in females and males of middle age group were calculated as 36.11 % and 11.11 %, respectively. The second more frequent reported disease was jaundice with 15.9% of the target population being males and 16.7% females. Diarrhea was observed to be the major waterborne disease constituting 41 % of the population with poor hygiene practices. The hygienic practices were significantly associated with waterborne diseases (P = <0.001). Waterborne diseases were also, associated with financial status (P=0.02) and literacy rate (p=0.03). The current study concludes that improvement in the hygienic conditions and hygienic practices will playa pivotal role to prevent faeco-oral infections and reduce the waterborne disease burden. In targeted areas due to poor economic conditions, the population failed to achieve better hygienic practices and therefore there is a need to strengthen water filtration system and awareness of hygienic routine practices in these areas. (author)

  16. Nutritional advice from George Orwell. Exploring the social mechanisms behind the overconsumption of unhealthy foods by people with low socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Morten H

    2015-08-01

    Despite a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the "social gradient" on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (Budrys, 2003; Marmot & Wilkinson, 1999; Marmot et al., 1991; Ross & Wu, 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual underlying social mechanisms which could explain this association is small, fragmented and not contained within one single discipline of thought - the effects of this conundrum seem easier to describe than to explain. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and identify social mechanisms, which could help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification is historical descriptions (in the form of excerpts) from George Orwell's (1937) book "The Road to Wigan Pier" on the living conditions of the British working classes. These descriptions will be aligned with results from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour. Strong similarities are identified between George Orwell's historical descriptions of the working-class's unhealthy diet and the findings from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour of people with a low socio-economic status. Certain social mechanisms influencing nutritional choices are readily identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (nutritional) consequences for people with low socio-economic status. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general "de-socialization" of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already

  17. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, C. V. L.; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results....... Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable...... household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions. The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes...

  18. Employment status at time of first hospitalization for heart failure is associated with a higher risk of death and rehospitalization for heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, Rasmus; Fosbøl, Emil L; Mogensen, Ulrik M

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization in a nation......AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization...

  19. Manipulative therapy in addition to usual medical care accelerates recovery of shoulder complaints at higher costs: economic outcomes of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Gert JD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder complaints are common in primary care and have unfavourable long term prognosis. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of manipulative therapy of the cervicothoracic spine and the adjacent ribs in addition to usual medical care (UMC by the general practitioner in the treatment of shoulder complaints. Methods This economic evaluation was conducted alongside a randomized trial in primary care. Included were 150 patients with shoulder complaints and a dysfunction of the cervicothoracic spine and adjacent ribs. Patients were treated with UMC (NSAID's, corticosteroid injection or referral to physical therapy and were allocated at random (yes/no to manipulative therapy (manipulation and mobilization. Patient perceived recovery, severity of main complaint, shoulder pain, disability and general health were outcome measures. Data about direct and indirect costs were collected by means of a cost diary. Results Manipulative therapy as add-on to UMC accelerated recovery on all outcome measures included. At 26 weeks after randomization, both groups reported similar recovery rates (41% vs. 38%, but the difference between groups in improvement of severity of the main complaint, shoulder pain and disability sustained. Compared to the UMC group the total costs were higher in the manipulative group (€1167 vs. €555. This is explained mainly by the costs of the manipulative therapy itself and the higher costs due sick leave from work. The cost effectiveness ratio showed that additional manipulative treatment is more costly but also more effective than UMC alone. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve shows that a 50%-probability of recovery with AMT within 6 months after initiation of treatment is achieved at €2876. Conclusion Manipulative therapy in addition to UMC accelerates recovery and is more effective than UMC alone on the long term, but is associated with higher costs. International Standard

  20. Child Mortality, Women's Status, Economic Dependency, and State Strength: A Cross-National Study of Less Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ce; Williamson, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Data from 86 developing countries suggest that foreign investment and debt dependency have adverse indirect effects on child mortality--effects mediated by variables linked to industrialism theory and gender stratification theory: women's education, health, and reproductive autonomy and rate of economic growth. State strength was related to lower…