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  1. Conclusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusion. Problems of an Under-developed Economy. Geographical Location. Terrain. Change in attitude of mainstream India required. Using Technology to overcome problems.

  2. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusions. Be it 2G or 4G, networks are vulnerable to unwanted access and thus should be protected. 4G networks would be more sensitive as its core network will be TCP/IP based. Accordingly, resource and security management schemes with seamless ...

  3. Conclusions:

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusions: Extended objects – “D-branes” – appear naturally in theories of strings. They manifest themselves as new types of physical particles in string models. They provide a powerful handle on the symmetries and dynamics of strings. Branes will play a key role ...

  4. Conclusions :

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusions : No dramatic difference in the dynamics of anion-water and water-water hydrogen bonds are found for Cl- and Br- ions. Solvation shells of these ions are not rigid. For OH- in water, HB dynamics in the hydration shell determines the rate of proton transfer.

  5. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøy, Helge; Kristiansen, Tore

    2010-01-01

    1. Comparing empirical findings with the “mountain peak model” In the introduction to this volume, we presented a “mountain peak model” of Nordic purism based on evidence showing that language scholars and lay people are very much in agreement as to where we find the more purist languages......-speaking Finland to Finnish-speaking Finland. In this conclusion to the volume, we will summarize the empirical findings presented in the volume, findings for use and attitudes alike, and compare them with the mountain peak model. That way, we may be able to estimate the nature of the cross-national ideological...

  6. The Burden of NAFLD and Its Characteristics in a Nationwide Population with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Gabriele Forlani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We studied the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and its clinical correlates in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. Clinical data of 94,577 T2DM patients were retrieved from 160 diabetes clinics in Italy in a standardized format and centrally analyzed anonymously. After exclusion of 5967 cases (high or uncertain alcohol intake, in 38,880 the Fatty Liver Index (FLI was used as a proxy for the diagnosis of NAFLD. Factors associated with FLI assessed NAFLD (FLI-NAFLD were evaluated through multivariate analysis. Results. FLI-NAFLD was present in 59.6% of patients. Compared to non-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD was associated with impairment in renal function, higher albumin excretion, HbA1c and blood pressure, lower HDL cholesterol, and poorer quality of care. ALT was within normal limits in 73.6% of FLI-NAFLD patients (45.6% if the updated reference values were used. The prevalence of FLI-NAFLD did not differ if the whole sample (94,577 cases was examined, irrespective of alcohol intake. Conclusions. FLI-NAFLD was present in the majority of T2DM patients of our sample and metabolic derangement, not alcohol consumption, was mainly associated with the disease. FLI-NAFLD patients have a worse metabolic profile. ALT levels are not predictive of NAFLD.

  7. Circulating Phospholipid Patterns in NAFLD Patients Associated with a Combination of Metabolic Risk Factors

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    Shilpa Tiwari-Heckler

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is associated with inefficient macro- and micronutrient metabolism, and alteration of circulating phospholipid compositions defines the signature of NAFLD. This current study aimed to assess the pattern of serum phospholipids in the spectrum of NAFLD, and its related comorbidities and genetic modifications. Methods: 97 patients with diagnosed NAFLD were recruited at a single center during 2013–2016. Based on histological and transient elastography assessment, 69 patients were divided into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL subgroups. 28 patients served as healthy controls. Serum phospholipids were determined by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Results: The total content of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin in the serum was significantly increased in NAFL and NASH patients, compared to healthy controls. In addition, serum lysophospatidylethanolamine levels were significantly decreased in NAFL and NASH individuals. Circulating PC species, containing linoleic and α-linolenic acids, were markedly increased in NAFLD patients with hypertension, compared to NAFLD patients without hypertension. The pattern of phospholipids did not differ between NAFLD patients with diabetes and those without diabetes. However, NAFLD patients with hyperglycemia (blood glucose level (BGL >100 mg/dL exhibited significantly a higher amount of monounsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine than those with low blood glucose levels. In addition, NAFLD patients with proven GG-genotype of PNPLA3, who were at higher risk for the development of progressive disease with fibrosis, showed lower levels of circulating plasmalogens, especially 16:0, compared to those with CC- and CG-allele. Conclusions: Our extended lipidomic study presents a unique metabolic profile of circulating phospholipids associated with the presence of metabolic risk factors or the genetic background

  8. The Role of Metformin in the Management of NAFLD

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    Angela Mazza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common liver disorder worldwide. Its prevalence ranges 10–24% in the general population, reaching 60–95% and 28–55% in obese and diabetic patients, respectively. Although the etiology of NAFLD is still unclear, several lines of evidences have indicated a pathogenetic role of insulin resistance in this disorder. This concept has stimulated several clinical studies where antidiabetic drugs, such as insulin sensitizers including metformin, have been evaluated in insulin-resistant, NAFLD patients. These studies indicate that metformin might be of benefit in the treatment of NAFLD, also in nondiabetic patients, when associated to hypocaloric diet and weight control. However, the heterogeneity of these studies still prevents us from reaching firm conclusions about treatment guidelines. Moreover, metformin could have beneficial tissue-specific effects in NAFLD patients irrespective of its effects as insulin sensitizer.

  9. NAFLD and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuccilli, Morgan; Chonchol, Michel

    2016-04-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and it is now considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence linking NAFLD to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is emerging as a popular area of scientific interest. The rise in simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation as well as the significant cost associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease in the NAFLD population make this entity a worthwhile target for screening and therapeutic intervention. While several cross-sectional and case control studies have been published to substantiate these theories, very little data exists on the underlying cause of NAFLD and CKD. In this review, we will discuss the most recent publications on the diagnosis of NAFLD as well new evidence regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD and CKD as an inflammatory disorder. These mechanisms include the role of obesity, the renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulation of fructose metabolism and lipogenesis in the development of both disorders. Further investigation of these pathways may lead to novel therapies that aim to target the NAFLD and CKD. However, more prospective studies that include information on both renal and liver histology will be necessary in order to understand the relationship between these diseases.

  10. The Common Mechanisms of Sarcopenia and NAFLD

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    Yu Zhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current studies have shown that sarcopenia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD have similar pathophysiological profiles. The cooccurrence of sarcopenia and NAFLD has been observed in elderly patients. The actions of these conditions are linked, and their treatments are similar. Therefore, studies should be conducted on NAFLD-sarcopenia rather than on NAFLD or sarcopenia.

  11. The Common Mechanisms of Sarcopenia and NAFLD

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Yu; Xiao, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Current studies have shown that sarcopenia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have similar pathophysiological profiles. The cooccurrence of sarcopenia and NAFLD has been observed in elderly patients. The actions of these conditions are linked, and their treatments are similar. Therefore, studies should be conducted on NAFLD-sarcopenia rather than on NAFLD or sarcopenia.

  12. Effect of Ramadan fasting on alanine transferase (ALT in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD

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    Hojjatolah Rahimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of Ramadan fasting on NAFLD are unknown and there are very limited studies have done in this area. Some nutritional and behavioral changes of fasting people in Ramadan can affect NAFLD. These include nutrition with high fat and calories, altering in weight and sleep and low physical activity. We decided to evaluate the effects of these changes on one of the important indicators of deterioration of NAFLD, ALT.Methods: Sixty patients with fatty liver disease performed two consecutive ALT exams before and after Ramadan month of whom finally 34 were fasting and 26 nonfasting. After collecting data they were divided in two groups of fasting and nonfasting and compared using SPSS software.Results: Mean ALT change from before to after Ramadan was higher and positive in fasting (+7.38±8.47 IU/L compared to nonfastng patients that was negative (-0.12±10.15 IU/L (P=0.002 and this change was mainly in patients who had fasted 21-30 days.Conclusion: Ramadan fasting may increase ALT. It is needed to perform more studies in patients with NAFLD during Ramadan fasting with larger sample size and in various conditions especially weight loss with patients’ education for observing dietary regimen.

  13. Serum metabonomics of NAFLD plus T2DM based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Chunlong; Liu, Liyan; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Songtao; Huang, Lina; Sun, Changhao; Feng, Rennan

    2016-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a main liver disease around the world, is closely associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other metabolic diseases. The objective of this study is to identify distinct metabolites of NAFLD patients with or without T2DM. We used a biomarker-discovery population to find distinct metabolites of NAFLD patients with or without T2DM. Then, a validation population was applied to test the model of the biomarker-discovery population. All the individuals received anthropometric and common biochemical measurements. The metabolic data were analyzed by multivariable statistical analyses using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry. There were 7, 7, 2 metabolites in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) mode, which were identified between groups from both the biomarker-discovery and validation population. The NAFLD group showed higher concentrations of oleamide, l-phenylalanine, l-proline, bilirubin, l-palmitoylcarnitine, and PC (20:5) and a lower concentration of Lyso-PAF C-18 than those of control. Compared with the control group, the NAFLD+T2DM group displayed higher oleamide, l-leucine, LysoPC (14:0), bilirubin, tetradecenoylcarnitine, linoleyl carnitine, and tetradecadiencarnitine in serum. Tetradecenoylcarnitine and tetradecadiencarnitine were more elevated in patients with NAFLD+T2DM than in the NAFLD group. Serum metabonomic analyses displayed great metabolic changes in patients with NAFLD and NAFLD plus T2DM. Our study is beneficial in providing a further view into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of NAFLD and NAFLD plus T2DM, which might be useful for the prevention and therapy of NAFLD and NAFLD plus T2DM. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sweet Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  15. Conclusion; Zaklyuchenie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, V I

    1961-07-01

    In this chapter of book are present conclusions about work done by author, in particular that he found comparatively simple and available ways of synthesis of glycerin of acetylene line and glycerin of ethylen line which before was unknown or almost unknown in the chemical literature.

  16. Association of Sleep Disorders with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): A Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Heshaam M; Stepanova, Maria; Afendy, Hena; Cable, Rebecca; Younossi, Zobair M

    2013-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. In smaller studies, sleep apnea has been previously associated with NAFLD. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and independent associations of sleep disorders in patients with NAFLD using recent population-based data. Three cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted between 2005 and 2010 were used. The diagnosis of NAFLD was established as elevated liver enzymes in the absence of all other causes of chronic liver disease. Sleep disorders were diagnosed using sleep disorder questionnaires completed by NHANES participants, and included self-reported history of sleep apnea, insomnia, and restless leg syndrome. The prevalence of sleep disorders was compared between those with and without NAFLD. A total of 10,541 adult NHANES participants with complete demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were included. Of those, 15.0% had NAFLD and 7.2% reported having sleep disorders. Of those with sleep disorders, 64.7% reported history of sleep apnea, 16.0% had history of insomnia, and 4.0% had restless leg syndrome. Individuals with NAFLD were more likely to be male (53.8% vs. 45.7%, P < 0.0001), obese (50.1% vs. 33.4%, P < 0.0001) and had higher prevalence of sleep disorders (9.1% vs. 6.9%, P = 0.0118). In multivariate analysis, having any sleep disorder, sleep apnea and insomnia were all independently associated with NAFLD [OR (95% CI) = 1.40 (1.11-1.76), OR = 1.39 (0.98-1.97), and OR = 2.17 (1.19-3.95); respectively)]. This large population-based data suggests that NAFLD is associated with sleep disorders. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, this association is most likely through metabolic conditions associated with NAFLD.

  17. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  18. Regular exercise is associated with a reduction in the risk of NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in individuals with NAFLD independent of obesity in Korean adults.

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    Ji Cheol Bae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association of regular physical exercise with the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and liver enzymes in relation to obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 72,359 healthy Korean adults without diabetes who participated in a comprehensive health check-up. Subjects who have been exercising regularly (more than 3 times per week, at least for 30 minutes each time and for consecutive 3 month were categorized into exercise group. All subjects were categorized into deciles based on their body mass index (BMI and we estimated the odds ratios (ORs for having NAFLD according to exercise regularity in each decile. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography findings. Individuals with NAFLD (n = 19,921 were analyzed separately to evaluate ORs for having elevated liver enzymes based on regularity of exercise. The risk for NAFLD was significantly reduced in exercise group with age- and sex-adjusted ORs of 0.53-0.72 for all BMI deciles except at BMI categories of <19.6 and 20.7-21.6 kg/m(2. While no difference was seen in BMI between subjects in exercise and non-exercise group across the BMI deciles, the values of body fat percentage and metabolic risk factors differed. Among NAFLD patients, subjects in exercise group had a lower risk for having elevated liver enzymes with multivariable adjusted OR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99, for AST and 0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.81, for ALT than did subjects in non-exercise group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Regular exercise was associated with a reduced risk for having NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in patients with NAFLD, and this relationship was also independent of obesity.

  19. Portal Hypertension Complications Are Frequently the First Presentation of NAFLD in Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Sajan Jiv Singh; Kabbany, Mohammad Nasser; Mohamad, Bashar; Lopez, Rocio; Zein, Nizar N; Alkhouri, Naim

    2016-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is likely to replace Hepatitis C as the leading cause of cirrhosis resulting in liver transplantation (LT) within a few years. Unfortunately, due to the lack of established guidelines for the screening of NAFLD in high-risk populations, many patients present with portal hypertension complications as their first manifestation of NAFLD require a LT evaluation. We aimed to investigate what proportion of patients who underwent LT for NAFLD-cirrhosis had knowledge of their liver disease prior to presenting with portal hypertension complications and to identify differences in clinical parameters between those with and without knowledge of preexisting NAFLD. Consecutive patients who underwent LT for NAFLD-cirrhosis at a tertiary referral center were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data at the time of the first LT evaluation visit were collected, and patient knowledge of previous NAFLD was documented. Ascites, variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, and thrombocytopenia leading to diagnosis of underlying cirrhosis were considered as the presenting symptoms of portal hypertension. A p portal hypertension. The presenting symptoms were new-onset ascites in 61 %, hepatic encephalopathy in 25 %, variceal bleeding in 18 %, thrombocytopenia in 9 %, and other in 9 % (non-exclusive). Patients with no prior knowledge of NAFLD were less likely to have a diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia (30 vs. 50 %, p = 0.035) and had a trend toward having higher MELD scores at the time of the first LT evaluation visit (15 vs. 13.5, p = 0.05) and presenting with encephalopathy (25 vs. 10 %, p = 0.06) compared to those with previous knowledge of NAFLD diagnosis. The majority of patients undergoing liver transplant evaluation for NAFLD-cirrhosis are not aware of underlying NAFLD until they present with features of portal hypertension. New guidelines should consider screening for NAFLD in certain high-risk groups as more

  20. Comparison of blood tests for liver fibrosis specific or not to NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calès, Paul; Lainé, Fabrice; Boursier, Jérôme; Deugnier, Yves; Moal, Valérie; Oberti, Frédéric; Hunault, Gilles; Rousselet, Marie Christine; Hubert, Isabelle; Laafi, Jihane; Ducluzeaux, Pierre Henri; Lunel, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    To compare blood tests of liver fibrosis specific for NAFLD: the FibroMeter NAFLD and the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFSA) with a non-specific test, APRI. Two hundred and thirty-five NAFLD patients with liver Metavir staging and blood markers from two independent centres were randomly assigned to a test (n=121) or a validation population (n=114). The highest accuracy--91%--for significant fibrosis was obtained with the FibroMeter whose (i) AUROC (0.943) was significantly higher than those of NFSA (0.884, p=0.008) and APRI (0.866, pliver biopsy could have been avoided in most patients: FibroMeter: 97.4% vs NFSA: 86.8% (pfibrosis, significantly outperforming NFSA and APRI.

  1. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-01-01

    Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  2. Relationship between Retinal Vascular Caliber and Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

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    Marmor Alon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular caliber and cardiovascular disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD patients without diabetes and hypertension. Methods: Intention to treat study of individuals who underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT during a two year period. Coronary artery disease (CAD was defined as stenosis of >50% in at least one major coronary artery. Liver and spleen density were measured by abdominal (CT; intima-media thickness (IMT by Doppler ultrasound; retinal artery and vein diameter by colored-retinal angiography; and metabolic syndrome by ATP III guidelines. Serum biomarkers of insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidant-antioxidant status were assessed. Results: Compared with 22 gender and age matched controls, the 29 NAFLD patients showed higher prevalence of coronary plaques (70% vs. 30%, p < 0.001, higher prevalence of coronary stenosis (30% vs. 15%, p < 0.001, lower retinal arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR (0.66 ± 0.06 vs. 0.71 ± 0.02, p < 0.01, higher IMT (0.98 ± 0.3 vs. 0.83 ± 0.1, p < 0.04, higher carotid plaques (60% vs. 40%, p < 0.001, higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA (4.0 ± 3.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0, p < 0.005, and higher triglyceride levels (200 ± 80 vs. 150 ± 60, p < 0.005 than controls. Multivariate analysis showed fatty liver (OR 2.5; p < 0.01, IMT (OR 2.3 p < 0.001, and retinal AVR ratio (OR 1.5, p < 0.01 to be strongly associated with CAD independent of metabolic syndrome (OR 1.2, p < 0.05. Conclusions: Patients with smaller retinal AVR (<0.7 are likely to be at increased risk for CAD and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with NAFLD even without hypertension or diabetes.

  3. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  4. NAFLD and NASH in HCV Infection: Prevalence and Significance in Hepatic and Extrahepatic Manifestations

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    Luigi Elio Adinolfi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review and up to date the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and their significance in both accelerating progression of HCV-related liver disease and development of HCV-associated extrahepatic diseases. The reported mean prevalence of HCV-related NAFLD was 55%, whereas NASH was reported in 4%–10% of cases. HCV genotype 3 directly induces fatty liver deposition, namely “viral steatosis” and it is associated with the highest prevalence and degree of severity, whereas, HCV non-3 genotype infection showed lower prevalence of steatosis, which is associated with metabolic factors and insulin resistance. The host’s genetic background predisposes him or her to the development of steatosis. HCV’s impairment of lipid and glucose metabolism causes fatty liver accumulation; this seems to be a viral strategy to optimize its life cycle. Irrespective of insulin resistance, HCV-associated NAFLD, in a degree-dependent manner, contributes towards accelerating the liver fibrosis progression and development of hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, NAFLD is associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In addition, HCV-related “metabolic steatosis” impairs the response rate to interferon-based treatment, whereas it seems that “viral steatosis” may harm the response rate to new oral direct antiviral agents. In conclusion, a high prevalence of NAFLD occurs in HCV infections, which is, at least in part, induced by the virus, and that NAFLD significantly impacts progression of the liver disease, therapeutic response, and some extrahepatic diseases.

  5. Associations between Dietary Nutrient Intakes and Hepatic Lipid Contents in NAFLD Patients Quantified by 1H-MRS and Dual-Echo MRI

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    Yipeng Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary habits are crucial in the progression of hepatic lipid accumulation and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, there are limited studies using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS and dual-echo in-phase and out-phase magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (dual-echo MRI to assess the effects of dietary nutrient intakes on hepatic lipid contents. In the present study, we recruited 36 female adults (NAFLD:control = 19:17 to receive questionnaires and medical examinations, including dietary intakes, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, and 1H-MRS and dual-echo MRI examinations. NAFLD patients were found to consume diets higher in energy, protein, fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA. Total energy intake was positively associated with hepatic fat fraction (HFF and intrahepatic lipid (IHL after adjustment for age and body-mass index (BMI (HFF: β = 0.24, p = 0.02; IHL: β = 0.38, p = 0.02. Total fat intake was positively associated with HFF and IHL after adjustment for age, BMI and total energy intake (HFF: β = 0.36, p = 0.03; IHL: β = 0.42, p = 0.01. SFA intake was positively associated with HFF and IHL after adjustments (HFF: β = 0.45, p = 0.003; IHL: β = 1.16, p = 0.03. In conclusion, hepatic fat content was associated with high energy, high fat and high SFA intakes, quantified by 1H-MRS and dual-echo MRI in our population. Our findings are useful to provide dietary targets to prevent the hepatic lipid accumulation and NAFLD.

  6. Targeted delivery of microRNA 146b mimic to hepatocytes by lactosylated PDMAEMA nanoparticles for the treatment of NAFLD.

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    He, Shuying; Guo, Weihong; Deng, Feihong; Chen, Kequan; Jiang, Yonghong; Dong, Minyu; Peng, Liang; Chen, Xueqing

    2018-03-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide, and precision therapeutic will be a benefit for the NAFLD regression. In this study, we observed low microRNA 146 b (miR-146 b) expression in NAFLD mice model induced by methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCD) compared with control group. Furthermore, miR-146b -/- mice induced MCD exhibited severe liver steatosis and hepatitis. A bio-distribution study showed that novel Lactosylated PDMAEMA nanoparticles effectively targeted hepatocytes Lac-PDMAEMA. We coupled miR-146b mimic with Lac-PDMAEMA and then were administrated to NAFLD mice model, which could obviously alleviate the hepatic steatosis. Lac-PDMAEMA effectively delivered miR-146b mimic to hepatocytes with a ∼8-fold upregulation of miR-146b mimic targeting MyD88 and IRAK1, and in turn suppressed the expression of PPARγ. Meanwhile, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA levels were decreased after administration of Lac-PDMAEMA/miR-146b mimic. So, we made a conclusion that targeted delivering miR-146b mimic to the hepatocytes by, coupling Lac-PDMAEMA nanoparticles could effectively alleviate the hepatic steatosis in NAFLD mice, which maybe bring a new and effective way to intervene and therapy the NAFLD.

  7. NIKEI: a new inexpensive and non-invasive scoring system to exclude advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

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    Münevver Demir

    Full Text Available AIMS: To develop, validate and compare a non-invasive fibrosis scoring system for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD derived from routinely obtained clinical and biochemical parameters. METHODS: 267 consecutive patients with biopsy proven fatty liver or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were randomly assigned to the estimation (2/3 or validation (1/3 group to develop a model for the prediction of advanced fibrosis. Univariate statistics were performed to compare patients with and without advanced fibrosis, and following a multivariate logistic regression analysis a new scoring system was constructed. This non-invasive Koeln-Essen-index (NIKEI was validated and compared to the FIB-4 index by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. We evaluated a stepwise combination of both scoring systems for the precise prediction of advanced fibrosis. To set in contrast, we additionally tested the diagnostic accuracy of the AST/ALT ratio, BARD score and the NAFLD fibrosis score in our cohort. RESULTS: Age, AST, AST/ALT ratio, and total bilirubin were identified as significant predictors of advanced fibrosis and used to construct the NIKEI with an AUC of 0.968 [0.937; 0.998] compared to 0.929 [0.869; 0.989] for the FIB-4 index. The absence of advanced fibrosis could be confirmed with excellent accuracy (99-100%. The positive predictive value of the FIB-4 index was higher (100% vs. 60%, however, the false negative rate was also high (33%. With a stepwise combination of both indices 82%-84% of biopsies would have been avoidable without a single misclassification. The AUROC for AST/ALT ratio, the NAFLD fibrosis score, and the BARD score were 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.90, 0.96 (95% CI 0.92-0.99, and 0.67 (95% CI 0.55-0.78, respectively. CONCLUSION: The NIKEI can reliably exclude advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. In combination with the FIB-4 index misclassification with inadequate clinical management can be avoided while

  8. Circulating level of CTRP1 in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD: is it through insulin resistance?

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    Parisa Shabani

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is considered as one of the most common liver diseases. It is robustly linked to obesity and insulin resistance and is regarded as hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Adipokines are involved in the pathophysiology of liver diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma concentrations of CTRP1 (complement-C1q TNF-related protein 1 in 22 patients with NAFLD, 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, 22 patients with NAFLD+T2DM and 21 healthy controls, as well as their correlation with the level of metabolic and hepatic parameters. Plasma concentration of CTRP1 was measured with ELISA method. Plasma concentration of CTRP1 in patients with NAFLD, T2DM and NAFLD+T2DM were significantly higher than healthy subjects (p<0.0001. Moreover, we observed significant positive correlations between plasma level of CTRP1 and fasting blood glucose (FBG (p<0.001, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p<0.001, body mass index (BMI (p = 0.001, alanine amino transferase (ALT (p = 0.002, gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT (p<0.001 and liver stiffness (LS (p<0.001. Our results indicate the strong association of CTRP1 with insulin resistance in NAFLD. Also, it seems that CTRP1 can be considered as an emerging biomarker for NAFLD, however, more studies are necessary to unravel the role of CTRP1 in NAFLD pathogenesis.

  9. The ZJU index is a powerful index for identifying NAFLD in the general Chinese population.

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    Li, Linman; You, Wenyi; Ren, Wei

    2017-10-01

    The ZJU index is a novel model for detecting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that it is calculated based on combination of the body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and the serum alanine aminotransferase-to-aspartate transaminase ratio. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the ZJU index in detecting NAFLD in the Chinese population. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory data, and ultrasonography features were collected through a standard protocol. The ZJU index, fatty liver index, hepatic steatosis index, lipid accumulation product, and visceral adiposity index were calculated. Then the predictive values of the five indices were compared according to the area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values. A total of 19,804 participants were recruited, of whom 7324 participants were diagnosed with NFALD and 12,480 subjects were regarded as controls. The AUROC value for NAFLD identification by the ZJU index was 0.925 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.919-0.931), which was significantly higher than the values for the other four models (P 60 years, the AUROC for the ZJU increased from 87.1 to 95.4%, values which were also greater than those for the other four indices. Analysis by sex also showed that the performance of the ZJU index in males and females was better than that of the other four indices. The ZJU index is an accurate and easy to employ tool for identifying NAFLD in the general Chinese population.

  10. Major components of metabolic syndrome and nutritional intakes in different genotype of UCP2 -866G/A gene polymorphisms in patients with NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Farajnia, Safar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad-Asghari

    2016-06-14

    It has been suggested that dietary modifications in combination with genetic predisposition play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In the current study we aimed to investigate the major components of metabolic syndrome in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nutritional intakes according to different genotype of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) -866G/A gene polymorphism in these patients. In this study 151 participants including 75 patients with NAFLD and 76 healthy individuals were enrolled. Dietary intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Physical activity was obtained by metabolic equivalent questionnaire. Anthropometric assessments were conducted by a trained researcher and body mass index and waist to hip ratio were calculated. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and biochemical assays including fasting serum glucose, liver enzymes and lipid profiles were measured. Polymorphisms of -866G/A UCP2 gene was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Serum triglyceride concentrations in 53.3 % of NAFLD patients compared with 35.5 % of control group was more than 150 mg/dl (P = 0.034). A significantly higher prevalence of low serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations was also observed in female NAFLD patients (P  0.05). However, according to genotypes patients with AG genotype had significantly higher protein consumption compared with control group (P < 0.05). Significantly higher consumption of dietary iron and copper in NAFLD patients with AG genotype was only observed among patients with NAFLD. However, the comparison of macro and micronutrient intakes in control group sound for stronger differences for AA genotype although these differences did not achieve significant threshold. A high prevalence of metabolic abnormalities was reported among NAFLD patients. Additionally, among NAFLD group

  11. Overlapping Clinical Features Between NAFLD and Metabolic Syndrome in Children

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    Anna Alisi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a cluster of pathological liver conditions of emerging importance in overweight and obese children. NAFLD is associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidaemia, which are considered to be the main features of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Prevention of the adverse outcomes of NAFLD, as well as the risk of MetS, depends on the identification of genetic background and environmental factors that modulate susceptibility to these diseases. However, several lines of evidence highlight the strong correlation and co-currency of these two chronic diseases, both in children and in adults. In the present review, we provide an overview of the current clinical proofs on the link between NAFLD and MetS in children, with particular focus on all the possible overlapping features that connect them at paediatric age.

  12. Gut Microbiota: Association with NAFLD and Metabolic Disturbances

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    E. Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic expression of metabolic syndrome, being frequently associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Recent lines of evidence have demonstrated a role of gut microbiota in insulin resistance, obesity, and associated metabolic disturbances, raising the interest in its relationship with NAFLD pathogenesis. Therefore, intestinal microbiota has emerged as a potential factor involved in NAFLD, through different pathways, including its influence in energy storage, lipid and choline metabolism, ethanol production, immune balance, and inflammation. The main objective of this review is to address the pathogenic association of gut microbiota to NAFLD. This comprehension may allow the development of integrated strategies to modulate intestinal microbiota in order to treat NAFLD.

  13. Urinary Metabolomics in Pediatric Obesity and NAFLD Identifies Metabolic Pathways/Metabolites Related to Dietary Habits and Gut-Liver Axis Perturbations

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    Jacopo Troisi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To get insight into still elusive pathomechanisms of pediatric obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD we explored the interplay among GC-MS studied urinary metabolomic signature, gut liver axis (GLA abnormalities, and food preferences (Kid-Med. Intestinal permeability (IP, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance were investigated in forty children (mean age 9.8 years categorized as normal weight (NW or obese (body mass index <85th or >95th percentile, respectively ± ultrasonographic bright liver and hypertransaminasemia (NAFLD. SIBO was increased in all obese children (p = 0.0022, IP preferentially in those with NAFLD (p = 0.0002. The partial least-square discriminant analysis of urinary metabolome correctly allocated children based on their obesity, NAFLD, visceral fat, pathological IP and SIBO. Compared to NW, obese children had (1 higher levels of glucose/1-methylhistidine, the latter more markedly in NAFLD patients; and (2 lower levels of xylitol, phenyl acetic acid and hydroquinone, the latter especially in children without NAFLD. The metabolic pathways of BCAA and/or their metabolites correlated with excess of visceral fat centimeters (leucine/oxo-valerate, and more deranged IP and SIBO (valine metabolites. Urinary metabolome analysis contributes to define a metabolic fingerprint of pediatric obesity and related NAFLD, by identifying metabolic pathways/metabolites reflecting typical obesity dietary habits and GLA perturbations.

  14. A vegetarian diet does not protect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A cross-sectional study between Buddhist priests and the general population.

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    Choi, Sung Hun; Oh, Dong Jun; Kwon, Ki Hwan; Lee, Jun Kyu; Koh, Moon Soo; Lee, Jin Ho; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2015-07-01

    There is limited data that supports a role for a vegetarian diet in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between vegetarian diets and NAFLD, considering metabolic syndrome and obesity. This is a cross-sectional, retrospective study comparing the prevalence of NAFLD of 615 Buddhist priests and age-, sex-, Body mass index (BMI)-and presence/absence of metabolic syndrome-matched controls who underwent routine health checkups in a health promotion center. Diagnosis and severity of NAFLD was determined based on ultrasonographic findings. The prevalence of NAFLD was not statistically significantly different between the Buddhist priests and the general population (29.9% vs. 25.05%, p=0.055). The Buddhist priest group had higher serum albumin, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum triglyceride levels and lower serum total bilirubin, serum fasting glucose, and serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels than the general population group. In univariate analysis and multivariate analysis, NAFLD was associated with old age, male gender, increased BMI, increased waist circumference, metabolic syndrome, high albumin, high glucose, high AST, high ALT, high gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), high triglycerides, low HDL, high low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high total cholesterol. The vegetarian diet does not protect against NAFLD.

  15. New trends on obesity and NAFLD in Asia.

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    Fan, Jian-Gao; Kim, Seung-Up; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun

    2017-10-01

    Traditionally, obesity and its related diseases have been considered a problem in Western countries. However, in the past two decades, urbanisation in many Asian countries has led to a sedentary lifestyle and overnutrition, setting the stage for the epidemic of obesity. This article reviews the epidemiological trend of obesity in Asia, with special emphasis on the emerging condition of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Currently, the population prevalence of NAFLD in Asia is around 25%, like many Western countries. While hepatocellular carcinoma and end-stage liver disease secondary to NAFLD remain uncommon, a rising trend has emerged. Around 8-19% of Asians with body mass indexes less than 25kg/m 2 are also found to have NAFLD, a condition often described as "lean" or "non-obese" NAFLD. Although this condition is generally less severe than that in more obese patients, steatohepatitis and fibrotic disease are well recognized. Central adiposity, insulin resistance and weight gain are major risk factors, and genetic predisposition, such as the PNPLA3 polymorphism appears to be more important in the development of NAFLD in the non-obese population. Lifestyle modification remains the cornerstone of management for obesity and NAFLD, but few patients can achieve adequate weight reduction and even fewer can maintain the weight in the long run. While pharmacological agents have entered phase III development for steatohepatitis, Asian patients are under-represented in most drug trials. Future studies should define the optimal management of obesity and NAFLD in Asia. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Controversies in the Diagnosis and Management of NAFLD and NASH.

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    Rinella, Mary E; Loomba, Rohit; Caldwell, Stephen H; Kowdley, Kris; Charlton, Michael; Tetri, Brent; Harrison, Stephen A

    2014-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the United States. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occurs in a subset of patients with NAFLD and is characterized by the presence of hepa-tocellular injury, which is progressive in a substantial proportion of cases and can lead to cirrhosis and all of its complications. Although the diagnosis of NAFLD can be made through imaging studies or liver biopsy, the diagnosis of NASH still requires histologic confirmation. Liver biopsy should be performed in the presence of risk factors for advanced disease. Measures aimed at promoting weight loss, a healthier lifestyle, and optimization of metabolic risk factors remain the cornerstone of management of NAFLD. Therapeutic agents that are presently considered the most promising in NAFLD are effective in less than 50% of patients. Among patients with biopsy-proven NASH, treatment with pharmacologic agents should be considered; however, the role of specific agents in NASH still needs further study. Despite a wealth of research over the past 15 years, many controversies remain with respect to the diagnosis and management of NAFLD and NASH as well as the influence of alcohol on liver disease progression in these patients.

  17. The pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index: a predictor of liver fibrosis in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Pietrobattista Andrea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver fibrosis is a stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which is responsible for liver-related morbidity and mortality in adults. Accordingly, the search for non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis has been the subject of intensive efforts in adults with NAFLD. Here, we developed a simple algorithm for the prediction of liver fibrosis in children with NAFLD followed at a tertiary care center. Methods The study included 136 male and 67 female children with NAFLD aged 3.3 to 18.0 years; 141 (69% of them had fibrosis at liver biopsy. On the basis of biological plausibility, readily availability and evidence from adult studies, we evaluated the following potential predictors of liver fibrosis at bootstrapped stepwise logistic regression: gender, age, body mass index, waist circumference, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase, albumin, prothrombin time, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol. A final model was developed using bootstrapped logistic regression with bias-correction. We used this model to develop the 'pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index' (PNFI, which varies between 0 and 10. Results The final model was based on age, waist circumference and triglycerides and had a area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85 (95% bootstrapped confidence interval (CI with bias correction 0.80 to 0.90 for the prediction of liver fibrosis. A PNFI ≥ 9 (positive likelihood ratio = 28.6, 95% CI 4.0 to 201.0; positive predictive value = 98.5, 95% CI 91.8 to 100.0 could be used to rule in liver fibrosis without performing liver biopsy. Conclusion PNFI may help clinicians to predict liver fibrosis in children with NAFLD, but external validation is needed before it can be employed for this purpose.

  18. Correlation of blood glucose, serum chemerin and insulin resistance with NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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    Zhang, Zhengjun; Wang, Jijun; Wang, Hongmei

    2018-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a form of clinical syndrome characterized by the fatty degeneration in liver histology and should be further investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of blood glucose, serum chemerin and insulin resistance on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to provide a basis for the prevention and treatment thereof. In total, 300 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated and admitted into the Endocrinology Department of our hospital from June 2015 to June 2017 were enrolled and divided into the simple type 2 diabetes mellitus (group A) and concurrent NAFLD (group B) groups. The sex, age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood biochemical indexes and chemerin level were compared between the two groups. The patients in group B were further divided into the mild fatty liver (group B1), moderate fatty liver (group B2) and severe fatty liver (group B3) groups. The sex, age, BMI blood pressure, blood biochemical indexes and chemerin level were also compared among the three groups. Finally, the risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by NAFLD were analyzed via logistic regression. The BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-prandial plasma glucose (2hPG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA-β indexes and serum chemerin level in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (Pdiabetes mellitus complicated by NAFLD is closely associated with severe glucose-lipid metabolism disorder and insulin resistance, and BMI, FPG, TC, LDL-c, FINS, HOMA-IR and chemerin constitute risk factors of concurrent NAFLD.

  19. IGFBP-1 and IGF-I as markers for advanced fibrosis in NAFLD - a pilot study.

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    Hagström, Hannes; Stål, Per; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Brismar, Kerstin; Ansurudeen, Ishrath

    2017-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease globally. Advanced fibrosis (stage 3-4) is the most robust marker for future mortality, but diagnosis requires liver biopsy. Current non-invasive scoring systems aimed to identify advanced fibrosis are imperfect. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding protein IGFBP-1 are liver derived proteins, that are involved in various liver disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between advanced fibrosis and IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in NAFLD. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 52 patients diagnosed with NAFLD by liver biopsy. Total IGF-I and IGFBP-1 concentrations were determined in serum by in-house radio-immuno-assays. IGF-I levels were age-standardized (IGF-SD). A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association of IGF-SD and IGFBP-1 with advanced fibrosis (stage 3-4). Patients with advanced fibrosis (stage 3-4 vs. 0-2) had lower IGF-SD (-1.17 vs. 0.11, p = .01) and higher mean levels of IGFBP-1 (29.9 vs. 18.8 µg/l, p = .02). IGFBP-1 was associated with presence of advanced fibrosis (OR 1.04 per unit increase, 95%CI 1.0-1.07, p = .05), while IGF-1 was negatively associated with advanced fibrosis (OR 0.63 per standard deviation, 95%CI 0.44-0.92, p = .02). This pilot study suggests an association between serum IGFBP-1 and IGF-I levels with advanced fibrosis in NAFLD patients. IGFBP1 and IGF-1 could be of interest as future biomarkers. Similar studies in larger cohorts are needed.

  20. Methyl donor deficient diets cause distinct alterations in lipid metabolism but are poorly representative of human NAFLD [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Marcus J. Lyall

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a global health issue. Dietary methyl donor restriction is used to induce a NAFLD/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH phenotype in rodents, however the extent to which this model reflects human NAFLD remains incompletely understood. To address this, we undertook hepatic transcriptional profiling of methyl donor restricted rodents and compared these to published human NAFLD datasets.              Methods: Adult C57BL/6J mice were maintained on control, choline deficient (CDD or methionine/choline deficient (MCDD diets for four weeks; the effects on methyl donor and lipid biology were investigated by bioinformatic analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles followed by a cross-species comparison with human expression data of all stages of NAFLD. Results: Compared to controls, expression of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL packaging carboxylesterases (Ces1d, Ces1f, Ces3b and the NAFLD risk allele Pnpla3 were suppressed in MCDD; with Pnpla3 and the liver predominant Ces isoform, Ces3b, also suppressed in CDD. With respect to 1-carbon metabolism, down-regulation of Chka, Chkb, Pcty1a, Gnmt and Ahcy with concurrent upregulation of Mat2a suggests a drive to maintain S-adenosylmethionine levels. There was minimal similarity between global gene expression patterns in either dietary intervention and any stage of human NAFLD, however some common transcriptomic changes in inflammatory, fibrotic and proliferative mediators were identified in MCDD, NASH and HCC. Conclusions: This study suggests suppression of VLDL assembly machinery may contribute to hepatic lipid accumulation in these models, but that CDD and MCDD rodent diets are minimally representative of human NAFLD at the transcriptional level.

  1. Strong association between non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and low 25(OH vitamin D levels in an adult population with normal serum liver enzymes

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    Pozzilli Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypovitaminosis D has been recently recognized as a worldwide epidemic. Since vitamin D exerts significant metabolic activities, comprising free fatty acids (FFA flux regulation from the periphery to the liver, its deficiency may promote fat deposition into the hepatocytes. Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis of a direct association between hypovitaminosis D and the presence of NAFLD in subjects with various degree of insulin-resistance and related metabolic disorders. Methods We studied 262 consecutive subjects referred to the Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases clinics for metabolic evaluation. NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed by upper abdomen ultrasonography, metabolic syndrome was identified according to the Third Report of National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATPIII modified criteria. Insulin-resistance was evaluated by means of HOMA-IR. Fatty-Liver-Index, a recently identified correlate of NAFLD, was also estimated. Serum 25(OHvitamin D was measured by colorimetric method. Results Patients with NAFLD (n = 162,61.8% had reduced serum 25(OH vitamin D levels compared to subjects without NAFLD (14.8 ± 9.2 vs 20.5 ± 9.7 ng/ml, p Conclusions Low 25(OHvitamin D levels are associated with the presence of NAFLD independently from metabolic syndrome, diabetes and insulin-resistance profile.

  2. NAFLD: Is There Anything New under the Sun?

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    Amedeo Lonardo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an “umbrella” definition that encompasses a spectrum of histological liver changes ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH with/without fibrosis, “cryptogenic” cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, occurring in a dysmetabolic milieu, though in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption and other competing etiologies of chronic liver disease [1].[...

  3. Treatment of NAFLD with diet, physical activity and exercise.

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    Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Trenell, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Lifestyle intervention can be effective when treating non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) patients. Weight loss decreases cardiovascular and diabetes risk and can also regress liver disease. Weight reductions of ⩾10% can induce a near universal non-alcoholic steatohepatitis resolution and fibrosis improvement by at least one stage. However, modest weight loss (>5%) can also produce important benefits on the components of the NAFLD activity score (NAS). Additionally, we need to explore the role of total calories and type of weight loss diet, micro- and macronutrients, evidence-based benefits of physical activity and exercise and finally support these modifications through established behavioural change models and techniques for long-term maintenance of lifestyle modifications. Following a Mediterranean diet can reduce liver fat even without weight loss and is the most recommended dietary pattern for NAFLD. The Mediterranean diet is characterised by reduced carbohydrate intake, especially sugars and refined carbohydrates (40% of the calories vs. 50-60% in a typical low fat diet), and increased monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acid intake (40% of the calories as fat vs. up-to 30% in a typical low fat diet). Both TV sitting (a reliable marker of overall sedentary behaviour) and physical activity are associated with cardio-metabolic health, NAFLD and overall mortality. A 'triple hit behavioural phenotype' of: i) sedentary behaviour, ii) low physical activity, and iii) poor diet have been defined. Clinical evidence strongly supports the role of lifestyle modification as a primary therapy for the management of NAFLD and NASH. This should be accompanied by the implementation of strategies to avoid relapse and weight regain. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. General conclusions on workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustand, H.

    2006-01-01

    The author proposes a general conclusion on the second workshop on the indemnification of damage in the event of a nuclear accident, organized in Bratislava, the 18-20 May 2005. He pointed out the most important discussions and the results revealed during these two days. (A.L.B.)

  5. Effect of orlistat on periostin, adiponectin, inflammatory markers and ultrasound grades of fatty liver in obese NAFLD patients

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    Ali Khan R

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rashid Ali Khan,1 Prem Kapur,2 Abhinav Jain,3 Farrukh Farah,4 Uma Bhandari11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Radiology, 4Department of Paramedical Sciences, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Orlistat is recommended in the treatment of obesity, which is an independent risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The reported findings of orlistat in NAFLD are divisive. Recently, periostin is identified as an important regulatory molecule in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced fatty liver. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of orlistat in the treatment of NAFLD. A 16-week prospective observational study was conducted, with obese NAFLD patient (n=77 receiving orlistat (120 mg capsules, three times a day with hypocaloric diet or hypocaloric diet only. Grades of fatty liver were determined using ultrasound (US echogenicity of liver; serum levels of periostin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin-6 were determined using ELISA kits at 0 and 16 weeks. Correlations of US grades of fatty liver with these biomarkers were also determined. Orlistat significantly reversed the US grades of fatty liver (P=0.016, decreased serum levels of periostin (P=0.030 and TNF-α (P=0.040, and increased serum adiponectin levels (P<0.001 when compared with hypocaloric diet only. Serum interleukin-6 levels were not found to be significantly different in both groups after the treatment. In the orlistat group, the degree of reduction in grades of fatty liver was found to be positively correlated with the changes in serum levels of periostin (rs=0.306, P=0.041 and adiponectin (rs=0.314, P=0.036, whereas the associations were insignificant with the change in serum levels of TNF-α (rs=0.053, P=0.729. Mild gastrointestinal side effects (20% were reported in the orlistat group. In conclusion, orlistat is

  6. Gamma glutamyl transferase is an independent determinant for the association of insulin resistance with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Bangladeshi adults: Association of GGT and HOMA-IR with NAFLD.

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    Hossain, Israt Ara; Rahman Shah, Md Mijanur; Rahman, Mohammad Khalilur; Ali, Liaquat

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and is frequently associated with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) syndrome. Recently serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) has been considered as surrogate marker of NAFLD leading to oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. In the present study we examined the association of serum GGT and HOMA-IR with NAFLD in Bangladeshi adult subjects. Under a cross-sectional analytical design a total of 110 subjects were recruited who came for their routine health check up in the BIHS Hospital, Darussalam, Dhaka, Bangladesh. After whole abdomen ultrasonography, 62 were diagnosed as non-NAFLD and 48 were NAFLD subjects. Serum glucose was measured by glucose-oxidase method, lipid profile and liver enzymes by enzymatic colorimetric method, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), serum insulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HOMA-IR was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). NAFLD subjects had significantly higher levels of GGT and HOMA-IR as compared to their non-NAFLD counterparts. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant positive association of HOMA-IR with GGT after adjusting the effects of waist circumference (WC) and HbA1c. In binary logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR and GGT were found to be significant determinants of NAFLD after adjusting the effects of WC and HbA1c. These results suggest that elevated levels of GGT and insulin resistance are more likely to develop NAFLD and thus support a role of these determinants in the pathogenesis of NAFLD in Bangladeshi adult subjects. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/IAEA/GSF/SIDA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Cereal Grain Protein Improvement by Nuclear Techniques was a follow-up to the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Seed Protein Improvement. It was initiated in 1969 and ended in 1981. The objectives of the meeting were to review and evaluate the achievements of the current and previous programmes in order to draw conclusions on the possibility of genetic improvement of cereal grain protein using nuclear techniques, to identify unsolved problems and to discuss and propose possible approaches for their solution. Through reviews and discussions, conclusions and recommendations were made by the participants

  8. Clinical Model for NASH and Advanced Fibrosis in Adult Patients With Diabetes and NAFLD: Guidelines for Referral in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazick, Jessica; Donithan, Michele; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Kleiner, David; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Wilson, Laura; Doo, Ed; Lavine, Joel; Tonascia, James; Loomba, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Approximately 18 million people in the U.S. have coexisting type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is not known who among these patients has nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with advanced fibrosis. Therefore, we aimed to determine factors that are associated with both NASH and advanced fibrosis in patients with diabetes and NAFLD in order to identify who should be prioritized for referral to a hepatologist for further diagnostic evaluation and treatment. This study was derived from the NASH Clinical Research Network studies and included 1,249 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (including a model development cohort of 346 patients and an independent validation cohort of 100 patients with type 2 diabetes as defined by the American Diabetes Association criteria). Outcome measures were presence of NASH or advanced fibrosis (stage 3 or 4) using cross-validated, by jackknife method, multivariable-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and 95% CI. The mean ± SD age and BMI of patients with diabetes and NAFLD was 52.5 ± 10.3 years and 35.8 ± 6.8 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of NASH and advanced fibrosis was 69.2% and 41.0%, respectively. The model for NASH included white race, BMI, waist, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, HbA1c, HOMA of insulin resistance, and ferritin with an AUROC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.84, P = 0.007). The specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive values (NPVs), and positive predictive values (PPVs) were 90.0%, 56.8%, 47.7%, and 93.2%, respectively, and the model correctly classified 67% of patients as having NASH. The model for predicting advanced fibrosis included age, Hispanic ethnicity, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, hypertension, ALT-to-AST ratio, alkaline phosphatase, isolated abnormal alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct), globulin, albumin, serum insulin, hematocrit, international normalized ratio, and platelet count with

  9. Fructose and NAFLD: metabolic implications and models of induction in rats Frutose e NAFLD: implicações metabólicas e modelos de indução em ratos

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    Gabriela S. F. Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The increase in fructose consumption is paralleled by a higher incidence of obesity worldwide. This monosaccharide is linked to metabolic syndrome, being associated with hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. It is metabolized principally in the liver, where it can be converted into fatty acids, which are stored in the form of triglycerides leading to NAFLD. Several models of NAFLD use diets high in simple carbohydrates. Thus, this study aimed to describe the major metabolic changes caused by excessive consumption of fructose in humans and animals and to present liver abnormalities resulting from high intakes of fructose in different periods of consumption and experimental designs in Wistar rats. METHODS: Two groups of rats were fasted for 48 hours and reefed for 24 or 48 hours with a diet containing 63% fructose. Another group of rats was fed an diet with 63% fructose for 90 days. RESULTS: Refeeding for 24 hours caused accumulation of large amounts of fat, compromising 100% of the hepatocytes. The amount of liver fat in animals refed for 48 hours decreased, remaining mostly in zone 2 (medium-zonal. In liver plates of Wistar rats fed 63% fructose for 45, 60 and 90 days it's possible to see that there is an increase in hepatocytes with fat accumulation according to the increased time; hepatic steatosis, however, is mild, compromising about 20% of the hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Fructose is highly lipogenic, however the induction of chronic models in NAFLD requires long periods of treatment. The acute supply for 24 or 48 hours, fasted rats can cause big changes, liver steatosis with macrovesicular in all lobular zones.OBJETIVO: O aumento do consumo de frutose é concomitante a maior incidência mundial de obesidade. Este monossacarídeo está relacionado à Síndrome Metabólica, sendo vinculado à hipertrigliceridemia, hipertensão arterial, resistência à insulina e diabetes mellitus.

  10. Conclusions and Further Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A.

    1979-01-01

    The components of a complete and effective marketing plan for higher education institutions are summarized. It is suggested that a marketing plan embrace all elements of the total marketing concept, and include curriculum evaluation, a retention program, and a scheme for evaluating the strategy's effectiveness. A bibliography is included.…

  11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD – a new factor that interplays between inflammation, malnutrition, and atherosclerosis in elderly hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolasevic I

    2014-08-01

    remarkable positive correlation between NAFLD and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP (r=0.659; P<0.0001 and consequent negative correlation with the nutritional parameter, serum albumin (r=-0.321; P=0.004. Interestingly, we showed that in contrast to the general population, where NAFLD is associated with obesity, in the present study, there was no statistically significant association between NAFLD and overnutrition in elderly HD patients. Furthermore, the presence of NAFLD, low serum albumin levels, and high hs-CRP were strong predictors of poor outcome in our elderly HD patients. Conclusion: Our results indicated that NAFLD probably interplays between inflammation, malnutrition, and atherosclerosis in elderly HD patients. NAFLD could be a new factor that contributes to type 2 malnutrition in elderly HD patients, who may be amenable to adequate nutritional and HD support. Keywords: cardiovascular risk, serum albumin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP

  12. 7. Conclusions and reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Nettle, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    But now your eyes sing the sad, sad song,Of how you lived so fast and died so young. Introduction We’ve now finished the data chapters of this book, and some conclusions are in order. In this chapter, I summarise what strike me as the main things we have learned, and suggest what their implications might be. I then devote a more extended discussion to the issue of causes of patterns of social behaviour, and how our data might bear on it. From this follows a brief consideration of what kinds o...

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of a noninvasive hepatic ultrasound score for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Carvalho Goulart

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive strategies for evaluating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD have been investigated over the last few decades. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a new hepatic ultrasound score for NAFLD in the ELSA-Brasil study. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Diagnostic accuracy study conducted in the ELSA center, in the hospital of a public university. METHODS: Among the 15,105 participants of the ELSA study who were evaluated for NAFLD, 195 individuals were included in this sub-study. Hepatic ultrasound was performed (deep beam attenuation, hepatorenal index and anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe and compared with the hepatic steatosis findings from 64-channel high-resolution computed tomography (CT. We also evaluated two clinical indices relating to NAFLD: the fatty liver index (FLI and the hepatic steatosis index (HSI. RESULTS: Among the 195 participants, the NAFLD frequency was 34.4%. High body mass index, high waist circumference, diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were associated with high hepatic attenuation and large anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe, but not with the hepatorenal index. The hepatic ultrasound score, based on hepatic attenuation and the anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe, presented the best performance for NAFLD screening at the cutoff point ≥ 1 point; sensitivity: 85.1%; specificity: 73.4%; accuracy: 79.3%; and area under the curve (AUC 0.85; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.78-0.91]. FLI and HSI presented lower performance (AUC 0.76; 95% CI: 0.69-0.83 than CT. CONCLUSION: The hepatic ultrasound score based on hepatic attenuation and the anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe has good reproducibility and accuracy for NAFLD screening.

  14. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrette, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents conclusions and recommendations at the closing session of the NEA/OECD Workshop held at Fontenay-aux-Roses on 12-14 June 1995. The conclusions refer to issues like: public reaction to foodstuffs containing radioisotope concentrations under the danger standards, possible non-adherence of manufacturers, processors, distributors, et al, to the instructions and guidance from radiation protection specialists, integration of all the food chain factors in the elaboration of the emergency intervention programs, etc. Among the most significant recommendations the following may be mentioned: 1. Differences between different intervention levels and the maximum admissible levels agreed upon by national, regional or international nutrition authorities should be further studied; 2. Problems created by the Chernobyl accident (as for instance, the methods of treatment of food chain products containing unacceptable radioactivity concentrations) are still present and must be solved; 3. Further studies should be done on the socio-cultural aspects of the communication, particularly on the information in rural environment; 4. The preventive measures in agriculture should be implemented as rapidly as possible; 5. In elaborating programmes of agriculture countermeasures, the management of contaminated media, particularly, of forests and their effect on agriculture

  15. Summary and Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section summarizes the presentations and Panel discussions of the 4 technical sessions of the workshop: 1 - Regulatory cooperation on generic and design specific issues, MDEP working groups (EPR, AP1000), vendor inspection co-operation, digital I and C, and codes and standards (7 presentations); 2 - Regulatory positions on siting practices and enhancements as a result of lessons learned from Fukushima accident (5 presentations); 3 - Construction experience and regulatory oversight of new reactor construction activities (6 presentations); 4 - Lessons learned from regulatory licensing reviews of new reactor designs (6 presentations). The main workshop conclusions are listed as follows: - Harmonization is a long term goal and significant progress has been made. However, this long term objective needs to be associated with short term measurable steps; - MDEP approach to tackle on one side with specific technical subjects, and to strive harmonisation on generic topics was considered appropriate; - Convergence on technical requirements is more realistic than harmonization of codes and standard; - Beneficial early engagement of different stakeholders specially at the siting stage has been acknowledged; - Need to characterise the hazards and to keep updated the safety assessment (PSR); - Land use issues are important particularly after Fukushima; - Commissioning aspects (e.g. training aspects for inspectors) should be addressed by WGRNR taking into account MDEP interaction; - Importance of WGRNR ConEx Programme: construction experience sharing is a leverage for quality and so for a future safe operation of NPPs; - Capability of licensee to follow the responsibility of design changes (could be an issue for small utilities); - Importance of Periodic Safety Reviews to review and account for the design. Finally, the WGRNR has convened that a third conference should be held in about two years time (2014- 2015)

  16. Fructose and NAFLD: The Multifaceted Aspects of Fructose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Among various factors, such as an unhealthy diet or a sedentarity lifestyle, excessive fructose consumption is known to favor nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as fructose is both a substrate and an inducer of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. The present review presents some well-established mechanisms and new clues to better understand the pathophysiology of fructose-induced NAFLD. Beyond its lipogenic effect, fructose intake is also at the onset of hepatic inflammation and cellular stress, such as oxidative and endoplasmic stress, that are key factors contributing to the progression of simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Beyond its hepatic effects, this carbohydrate may exert direct and indirect effects at the peripheral level. Excessive fructose consumption is associated, for example, with the release by the liver of several key mediators leading to alterations in the communication between the liver and the gut, muscles, and adipose tissue and to disease aggravation. These multifaceted aspects of fructose properties are in part specific to fructose, but are also shared in part with sucrose and glucose present in energy–dense beverages and foods. All these aspects must be taken into account in the development of new therapeutic strategies and thereby to better prevent NAFLD. PMID:28273805

  17. Diet, Microbiota, Obesity, and NAFLD: A Dangerous Quartet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mariana Verdelho; Cortez-Pinto, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the importance of the gut-liver-adipose tissue axis has become evident. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic disease of a systemic metabolic disorder that radiates from energy-surplus induced adiposopathy. The gut microbiota has tremendous influences in our whole-body metabolism, and is crucial for our well-being and health. Microorganisms precede humans in more than 400 million years and our guest flora evolved with us in order to help us face aggressor microorganisms, to help us maximize the energy that can be extracted from nutrients, and to produce essential nutrients/vitamins that we are not equipped to produce. However, our gut microbiota can be disturbed, dysbiota, and become itself a source of stress and injury. Dysbiota may adversely impact metabolism and immune responses favoring obesity and obesity-related disorders such as insulin resistance/diabetes mellitus and NAFLD. In this review, we will summarize the latest evidence of the role of microbiota/dysbiota in diet-induced obesity and NAFLD, as well as the potential therapeutic role of targeting the microbiota in this set. PMID:27043550

  18. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    authorities, reactor designers, and operators/ licensees perspectives on the various practices used in the regulation of nuclear power plant siting (selection, evaluation and site preparation). This session was also aimed to address issues on sites where a mixture of activities are taking place (e.g., operating units, new construction, decommissioning, etc.) including organisation of the regulators and licensee/engineering organisation, methods, systems, etc. Conclusions: In general workshop participants agreed on the need to regularly have these kind of forums to discuss relevant regulatory issues for new builds. One important aspect of this workshop was the participation of 'New Entrants'. The interaction between NEA member countries with mature nuclear power plants and newcomers was quite important since it gave newcomers the possibility to benefit of mature international practices in order to focus their regulatory oversight and control. NEA members could also benefit from insights the New Entrants discover as they develop or enhance their regulatory controls. In addition technical exchanges associated with construction experience of New Entrants as they begin to license, build and operate NPP could benefit NEA members

  19. Family history and obesity in youth, their effect on acylcarnitine/aminoacids metabolomics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ibarguengoitia, Maria Elena; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Caballero, Augusto Enrique; Ibarra-González, Isabel; Herrera-Rosas, Arturo; Serratos-Canales, María Fabiola; León-Hernández, Mireya; González-Chávez, Antonio; Mummidi, Srinivas; Duggirala, Ravindranath; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1) If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines would be related to non-alcoholic fatty disease that will induce insulin resistance. 2) If a positive family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes are the major determinants of the metabolomic profile, there would be higher concentration of amino acids and acylcarnitines in patients with this background that will induce obesity and NAFLD which in turn will induce insulin resistance. 137 normoglycemic subjects, mean age (SD) of 30.61 (8.6) years divided in three groups: BMI30 with absence of NAFLD (G2), n = 24; and BMI>30 with NAFLD (G3), n = 31. Family history of obesity (any) was present in 53%. Both models were adjusted in SEM. Family history of obesity predicted obesity but could not predict acylcarnitines and amino acid concentrations (effect size obesity phenotype. Family history of obesity is the major predictor of obesity, and the metabolic abnormalities on amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD.

  20. Family history and obesity in youth, their effect on acylcarnitine/aminoacids metabolomics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Structural equation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Romero-Ibarguengoitia

    Full Text Available Structural equation modeling (SEM can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1 If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines would be related to non-alcoholic fatty disease that will induce insulin resistance. 2 If a positive family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes are the major determinants of the metabolomic profile, there would be higher concentration of amino acids and acylcarnitines in patients with this background that will induce obesity and NAFLD which in turn will induce insulin resistance.137 normoglycemic subjects, mean age (SD of 30.61 (8.6 years divided in three groups: BMI30 with absence of NAFLD (G2, n = 24; and BMI>30 with NAFLD (G3, n = 31. Family history of obesity (any was present in 53%. Both models were adjusted in SEM. Family history of obesity predicted obesity but could not predict acylcarnitines and amino acid concentrations (effect size <0.2, but did predict obesity phenotype.Family history of obesity is the major predictor of obesity, and the metabolic abnormalities on amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD.

  1. Associations between Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Polymorphisms and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Man-Yi; Zhang, Li; Shi, Song-Li; Lin, Jing-Na

    2016-01-01

    Background C677T and A1298C are the most common allelic variants of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) gene. The association between MTHFR polymorphisms and the occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains controversial. This study was thus performed to examine whether MTHFR mutations are associated with the susceptibility to NAFLD. Methods A first meta-analysis on the association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and NAFLD risks was carried out via Review Manager 5.0 and Stata/SE 12.0 software. The on-line databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, WOS, Scopus and EBSCOhost (updated to April 1st, 2016), were searched for eligible case-control studies. The odd radio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and P value were calculated through Mantel-Haenszel statistics under random- or fixed-effect model. Results Eight articles (785 cases and 1188 controls) contributed data to the current meta-analysis. For C677T, increased NAFLD risks were observed in case group under homozygote model (T/T vs C/C, OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.03~2.15, P = 0.04) and recessive model (T/T vs C/C+C/T, OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.07~1.88, P = 0.02), but not the other genetics models, compared with control group. For A1298C, significantly increased NAFLD risks were detected in allele model (C vs A, OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.13~2.07, P = 0.006), homozygote model (C/C vs A/A, OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.63~4.85, P = 0.0002), dominant model (A/C+C/C vs A/A, OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.06~2.41, P = 0.03) and recessive model (C/C vs A/A+A/C, OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.45~3.00, P<0.0001), but not heterozygote model. Conclusion T/T genotype of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and C/C genotype of MTHFR A1298C are more likely to be associated with the susceptibility to NAFLD. PMID:27128842

  2. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In long-term better adapted varieties are needed to adapt to multiple stresses linked with climate change. ... and water management are available which can help minimize negative impacts. ... Adaptation practices take time to become effective.

  3. Conclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grignon, F.; Mazrui, A.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Mazrui, A.; Grignon, F.

    2001-01-01

    The outcome of a three-day conference held at the African Studies Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands, in September 1998, this book on the 1997 Kenya general elections is organized in four parts: the direct pre-electoral background; technical and national analysis of the general elections, including the

  4. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Rainhorn, Jean-Daniel; Boudamoussi, Samira El

    2017-01-01

    “Science without conscience is but the ruin of the soul.”—François Rabelais, 1542 A special feature of this book is to bring together the work of researchers coming from different disciplines and having various themes of reflection or practices in the field of biomedicine. While the general trend of science goes towards increasing specialization, the project of this book is to look at the use of medical advances in a transversal perspective. In other words, it intends to highlight what unregu...

  5. Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.

    1994-01-01

    The renewable energies and the nuclear one are complementary. They belong to the french energy policy, which has three aims: strategic, economic and environmental. They contribute to the diversification of the energy balance and to the energy competitiveness. Energy savings might be achieved and renewable energies might be developed for the future

  6. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Confounding effect of obesity and associated co-morbidities (especially on metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity) should be clearly dissected out in future studies ...

  7. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Houmed Soulé, Aramis

    2018-01-01

    Au cours de son règne qui a duré plus d’une quarantaine d’années, en une période cruciale de l’histoire de la Corne de l’Afrique, Maḥammad Ḥanfaré parvient à préserver son sultanat, à défaut de l’ensemble du pays ‘Afar, des visées impérialistes d’où qu’elles viennent. Malheureusement, l’indépendance de cette entité politique ‘Afar ne lui survit pas, du moins sur le plan international. Des luttes fratricides pour sa succession qui opposent ses nombreux héritiers et dont les prémices apparaisse...

  8. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian Relsted; Warming, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    analysis approach reveal how clients’ struggles in intimate and societal life, and in public and private spaces, are intertwined with geo-politics and global flows of governance strategies, e.g. neoliberalism and managerialism, which also condition social work practices. Indeed, social work constitutes......Fahnøe and Warming provide a cogent overview of how a lived citizenship approach enables critical analyses of social work and social policies by addressing challenges related to rights, recognition, participation, belonging and identity. The sub-concept of intimate citizenship and a spatial...... a kind of sociological magnifying glass through which broader social changes can be studied, including dynamics of inclusion and exclusion, new conflicts and modes of resistance, and new social pathologies....

  9. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne; Fahnøe, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    analysis approach reveal how clients’ struggles in intimate and societal life, and in public and private spaces, are intertwined with geo-politics and global flows of governance strategies, e.g. neoliberalism and managerialism, which also condition social work practices. Indeed, social work constitutes......Warming and Fahnøe provide a cogent overview of how a lived citizenship approach enables critical analyses of social work and social policies by addressing challenges related to rights, recognition, participation, belonging and identity. The sub-concept of intimate citizenship and a spatial...... a kind of sociological magnifying glass through which broader social changes can be studied, including dynamics of inclusion and exclusion, new conflicts and modes of resistance, and new social pathologies....

  10. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vreese, Claes; Reinemann, Carsten; Esser, Frank

    2017-01-01

    At the outset, we asked if there is any good news about the news and, if so, where the good news is. In academic research and public discussions about news and democracy, one fi nds different interpretations of the state of current news provision. A tendency towards pessimism about current news...... is seen as having a negative impact on the quality of political life and democracy. Set against the pessimism and caution in the public debate and literature on news quality and the performance of political journalism, we were not optimistic that we would fi nd good-quality news or that we would be able...... to offer some good news as a positive antidote, so to speak, to the pervasive pessimism in the literature....

  11. Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.; Motamen, H.

    1984-01-01

    The paper covers the following: economics of nuclear power; nuclear or fossil-fuel plants; power systems; methods of capital investment appraisal; size factor; nuclear industry; uranium demand; fuel cycle; fast reactors; choice of reactors; case studies from France; power plants in USA and West Germany; electricity tariffs; nuclear energy in Middle Eastern states; energy growth and economic growth; nuclear energy as macroeconomic influence; future energy options. (U.K.)

  12. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Wallo, Andreas; Toiviainen, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Work in times of globalisation and uncertainty is undergoing considerable changes, which has strengthened the importance of work as a site of learning. New trends in production, such as digitalisation, challenge traditional modes of producing goods and services. Emerging forms of flexible...... production and knowledge-work offer growing learning opportunities to people throughout their active working life. In contrast to the stable and standardised modes of Fordist production, modern working life is characterised by rapid changes and employees interacting across globally distributed professional...... explores the challenges of working and learning on the boundaries between education and working life. Globalisation affects the transition patterns from vocational education to the labour market in many ways (Schoon & Silbereisen, 2009), even though the specific challenges to national-level policies vary...

  13. Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    Some say that an increase in security does not necessarily mean a further encroachment on privacy - indeed, security is necessary to protect personal data and our privacy. Networks must be secure, our personal devices, reliable, dependable and trustworthy. But security is a multifaceted term, with many dimensions. We are of the view that an increase in security most likely will encroach upon our privacy in an ambient intelligence world. Surveillance cameras will continue to proliferate. We assume that, whatever the law is, whatever privacy protections government and business say they honour, our telecommunications, e-mails and Internet usage will be monitored to an increasing degree. The same will be true of our interfaces with the world of ambient intelligence.

  14. Conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    In Asia, Japan and the Republic of Korea have conducted similar studies but relying on statistical data and used inputs and outputs (I-O) methodology, utilizing on general macro-level data. In contrast, this study captures data directly through surveys using questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, case studies and focus group discussions. The impact of nuclear technology applications in Malaysia were evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. These impacts are then linked to a broader objective associated with technological development, namely wealth generation, knowledge generation and societal well-being. In the process of the study, users and practitioners of the technology highlighted issues and challenges faced by them. To cap the study, the level of activities of nuclear technology in Malaysia was benchmarked against those in Japan and the Republic of Korea. This chapter highlights the results of the study, the outcome of the study, followed by recommendations as response to issues and challenges raised by respondents, and finally the way forward for monitoring and charting further progress of nuclear technology in the country. (author)

  15. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. First study on fHSC. First study on fHSC. fHSC exhibit embryonic stem cell like properties. fHSC therapy results in myocardial regeneration in rat model of MI. fHSC may be a novel stem cell type for cardiovascular regeneration.

  16. Conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the monograph peculiarities of radioinduced sexual dysfunctions of Chernobyl accident liquidators are described. It is shown, that ones of principal clinical manifestations of stochastic radio-genetic effects are sexual dysfunctions. Assessment in point of view of stages and components of copulative cycle is carried out. Authors made attempt to take in account all involved in sexual dysfunctions systems for examined contingent. It is noted, that genesis of radioinduced sexual dysfunctions is complex and it includes both the influence of vegetative nervous system damage and the direct damage of gonads. During clinical examination with patients it is revealed that both vegetative-vascular dysfunctions and asteno-neurotic dysfunctions are dominating. Authors noting that mentioned sexual dysfunctions are caused by low dose irradiation, and they have certain distinctions. Measures for comprehensive rehabilitation of suffered contingent in late period after irradiation are developed

  17. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microbial organisms play a major role in assimilation of P from the water column and also from the interstitial waters. Mineralisation of microbial bodies is a very rapid process and autophosphatization may occur within few hours or days after death. Geo-microbiology is an important subject and needs to be developed.

  18. Conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, Yu.M.; Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors made following summary: the cancerous growths of anal canal is rare form of growths; extension of anal canal depends from sex, age, weight and growth of patient; the developed schemes of classification and staging of cancerous growths of anal canal have important role for growths systematization; typical symptoms are blood in excrement, pains in anus, presence of swelling in anus, the treatment of the cancerous growths of anal canal must be varied

  19. Nutritional Management of Insulin Resistance in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Wylie-Rosett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an emerging global health concern. It is the most common form of chronic liver disease in Western countries, affecting both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses a broad spectrum of fatty liver disease, ranging from simple steatosis (NAFL to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and is strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. First-line therapy for NAFLD includes weight loss achieved through diet and physical activity. However, there is a lack of evidenced-based dietary recommendations. The American Diabetes Association’s (ADA recommendations that aim to reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease may also be applicable to the NAFLD population. The objectives of this review are to: (1 provide an overview of NAFLD in the context of insulin resistance, and (2 provide a rationale for applying relevant aspects of the ADA recommendations to the nutritional management of NAFLD.

  20. Synergistic interaction of fatty acids and oxysterols impairs mitochondrial function and limits liver adaptation during nafld progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bellanti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The complete mechanism accounting for the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been elucidated. Lipotoxicity refers to cellular injury caused by hepatic free fatty acids (FFAs and cholesterol accumulation. Excess cholesterol autoxidizes to oxysterols during oxidative stress conditions. We hypothesize that interaction of FAs and cholesterol derivatives may primarily impair mitochondrial function and affect biogenesis adaptation during NAFLD progression. We demonstrated that the accumulation of specific non-enzymatic oxysterols in the liver of animals fed high-fat+high-cholesterol diet induces mitochondrial damage and depletion of proteins of the respiratory chain complexes. When tested in vitro, 5α-cholestane-3β,5,6β-triol (triol combined to FFAs was able to reduce respiration in isolated liver mitochondria, induced apoptosis in primary hepatocytes, and down-regulated transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Finally, a lower protein content in the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was observed in human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, hepatic accumulation of FFAs and non-enzymatic oxysterols synergistically facilitates development and progression of NAFLD by impairing mitochondrial function, energy balance and biogenesis adaptation to chronic injury.

  1. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines but Not Endotoxin-Related Parameters Associate with Disease Severity in Patients with NAFLD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannie du Plessis

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and elevated lipopolysaccharides (LPS levels have been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. In order to determine if LPS levels are elevated in patients with NASH compared to patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL and, if elevated LPS levels correlated with histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD we compared LPS, markers of LPS bioactivity and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. At the time of surgery a liver biopsy was taken allowing the stratification into well-delineated subgroups including: No NAFL/NAFL; NASH; NASH with fibrosis and NASH cirrhotics, using the NAFLD Activity Score (NAS. Anthropometric data and plasma were collected for assessment of LPS, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, soluble CD14 (sCD14, intestinal-type fatty acid binding protein (iFABP, Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2, 4 and a panel of cytokines/chemokines. Similar analysis was performed on plasma from a cohort of healthy controls. Our data indicate elevated levels of LPS, LBP, sCD14, iFABP and TLR2,4 in obese patients compared to healthy controls, however, these parameters remained unaltered within patients with limited liver disease (NAFL compared to NASH/NASH with fibrosis subgroups. Hierarchic cluster analysis using endotoxin-related parameters failed to discriminate between lean controls, NAFLD. While similar cluster analysis implementing inflammation-related parameters clearly distinguished lean controls, NALFD subgroups and NASH cirrhotics. In addition, LPS levels was not associated with disease severity while TNFα, IL8, and CCL3 featured a clear correlation with transaminase levels and the histological severity of NALFD. In conclusion our data indicate a stronger correlation for circulating inflammatory- rather than endotoxin-related parameters in progression of NAFLD and highlights the need

  2. Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism in Liver: Link to NAFLD and Impact of n-3 PUFAs

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jin-Sik; Oh, Ah-Reum; Cha, Ji-Young

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease that affects one-third of adults in westernized countries. NAFLD represents a wide spectrum of hepatic alterations, ranging from simple triglyceride accumulation in the liver to steatohepatitis. Several pharmaceutical approaches to NAFLD management have been examined, but no particular treatment has been considered both safe and highly effective. Growing evidence reveal that supplemental fish o...

  3. Significant decrease of saturation index in erythrocytes membrane from subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Maria; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Tutino, Valeria; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Cozzolongo, Raffaele; Giannuzzi, Vito; De Nunzio, Valentina; De Leonardis, Giampiero; Abbrescia, Daniela I; Franco, Isabella; Intini, Vincenza; Mirizzi, Antonella; Osella, Alberto R

    2017-08-23

    The lipidomic profiling of erythrocyte membranes is expected to provide a peculiar scenario at molecular level of metabolic and nutritional pathways which may influence the lipid balance and the adaptation and homeostasis of the organism. Considering that lipid accumulation in the cell is important in promoting tissue inflammation, the purpose of this study is to analyze the fatty acid profile in red blood cell membranes of patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), in order to identify and validate membrane profiles possibly associated with the degree of hepatic damage. This work presents data obtained at baseline from 101 subjects that participated to a nutritional trial (registration number: NCT02347696) enrolling consecutive subjects with NAFLD. Diagnosis of liver steatosis was performed by using vibration-controlled elastography implemented on FibroScan. Fatty acids, extracted from phospholipids of erythrocyte membranes, were quantified by gas chromatography method. The subjects with severe NAFLD showed a significant decrease of the ratio of stearic acid to oleic acid (saturation index, SI) compared to controls, 1.281 ± 0.31 vs 1.5 ± 0.29, respectively. Low levels of SI in red blood cell membranes, inversely associated with degree of liver damage, suggest that an impairment of circulating cell membrane structure can reflect modifications that take place in the liver. Subjects with severe NAFLDalso showed higher levels of elongase 5 enzymatic activity, evaluated as vaccenic acid to palmitoleic acid ratio. Starting from these evidences, our findings show the importance of lipidomic approach in the diagnosis and the staging of NAFLD.

  4. NAFLD, Estrogens, and Physical Exercise: The Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Lavoie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One segment of the population that is particularly inclined to liver fat accumulation is postmenopausal women. Although nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis is more common in men than in women, after menopause there is a reversal in gender distribution. At the present time, weight loss and exercise are regarded as first line treatments for NAFLD in postmenopausal women, as it is the case for the management of metabolic syndrome. In recent years, there has been substantial evidence coming mostly from the use of the animal model, that indeed estrogens withdrawal is associated with modifications of molecular markers favouring the activity of metabolic pathways ultimately leading to liver fat accumulation. In addition, the use of the animal model has provided physiological and molecular evidence that exercise training provides estrogens-like protective effects on liver fat accumulation and its consequences. The purpose of the present paper is to present information relative to the development of a state of NAFLD resulting from the absence of estrogens and the role of exercise training, emphasizing on the contribution of the animal model on these issues.

  5. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)--is it a new marker of hyporesponsiveness to recombinant human erythropoietin in patients that are on chronic hemodialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlic, L; Mikolasevic, I; Lukenda, V; Racki, S; Stimac, D; Milic, S

    2014-12-01

    Anemia is a major consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that develops early in the course of illness and affects most patients who exhibit some degree of reduced renal function. Erythropoietin (EPO) deficiency is considered the most important cause of anemia in CKD. Renal anemia has serious clinical consequence. In addition to reducing patient physical capacity and quality of life, anemia induces adaptive cardiovascular mechanisms that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Thus, treatment of anemia in CKD is very important. While EPO is effective in correcting anemia in most cases, up to 10% of patients however, have an inadequate response to therapy. The two most common and important reasons why patients become relatively unresponsive to EPO therapy are the development of true iron deficiency and the onset of an inflammatory state that impairs the response to EPO. Indeed, the role of inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in resistance to EPO therapy is gaining increasing recognition. On the other hand, the main organ for C-reactive protein (CRP) synthesis is the liver and it is well known that the synthesis of an acute-phase proteins by the liver is up regulated by inflammation. The main consequence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is sub-chronic liver inflammation that leads and contributes to dyslipidemia, inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Considering the recent data about high prevalence of NAFLD in CKD patients, probably due to shared metabolic risk factors, we hypothesized that end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with NAFLD will need a much higher dose of EPO to achieve the target hemoglobin levels in comparison with ESRD patients without NAFLD. The possible underlying mechanism is sub-chronic liver inflammation in NAFLD patients that leads and contributes to poor response to EPO. Therefore, we believe that NAFLD could be a new clinical marker of poor response to EPO therapy in

  6. Frequency of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its biochemical derangements in Type-2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taseer, I.H.; Hussain, L.; Safdar, S.; Mirbahar, A.M.; Ahmad, I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To see the frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Type-2 diabetic patients and to see iochemical derangements in NAFLD patients. Methodology: It is a cross-sectional study, conducted at Diabetic Research Centre and outpatient department Nishtar Hospital and PMRC Research Centre Nishtar Medical College, Multan. One hundred patients of either sex having type 2 diabetes mellitus attending diabetic out-patient department Nishtar Hospital Multan were included in the study. A pre-designed study proforma was filled with relevant investigations and clinical assessments were carried out in all cases. All the patients underwent abdominal ultrasonography. Data were entered in SPSS-11 and analyzed. Results: Out of one hundred patients, 51 (51%) were female and 49 (49%) were male. Mean age of the patients was 47.93 +- 8.57 years. Fifty one (51%) of the diabetic patients had fatty liver. Out of these 32 (62.75%) were female and 19 (37.25%) were male. Fatigue was present in 49 (53.26%), generalized weakness in 48 (52.18%), heaviness right upper abdomen in 22 (64.70%) and pain right upper abdomen in 20 (58.82%) of fatty liver patients. Corresponding figure in Non Fatty Liver Patients were 43 (46.74%), 44 (47.82%), 12 (35.30%) and 14(41.18%), respectively. Itching was noted in 19 (44.18%) patients of fatty liver while it was 24(55.82%) in non-fatty liver patients. Serum triglyceride level more than 160 mg/dl in 47 (92.15%) patients of fatty liver while serum cholesterol level more than 200 mg/dl was seen in 24(47.05%). Aspartate amino transferase (AST) more than 35 u/l was noted in seven (13.72%), alanine amino-transferase (ALT) more than 40u/l was noted in 6(11.76%) fatty liver patients while serum albumin and serum bilirubin were within normal range in all fatty liver and non-fatty liver patients. Conclusion: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is more commonly seen in Type-2 diabetic patients. Serum triglyceride and serum cholesterol are significantly

  7. [Frequency of NAFLD in a group of patients with metabolic syndrome in Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, Federico; Dorantes-Cuéllar, Alicia; Carrillo-Toledo, Maria Graciela; Martínez-Sibaja, Cristina; Rojas-Carrera, Sonia; Bonilla-Rojas, Q C Sashenka; Uchino-Higueras, Virginia; Lagunas, Teresa; Carrasco-Arróniz, Miguel Angel; Soler-Leal, Bertha; León-Valdivieso, Johnatan; Cid-Juárez, Silvia; Martínez, José Angel

    2006-01-01

    values and aminotransferases in obese and diabetic patients compared with normal subjects and overweight patients in our study, the USG did not show sensibility and specificity to detect Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The results of this study show a lower frequency compared with the rest of the world, however it was higher in diabetic population than the frequency published by Bernal in Hidalgo, Mexico. The aminotransferases level resulted elevated in all patients with metabolic syndrome and NAFLD so we consider that elevated aminotransferases levels is the best predictor to suspect the presence of NAFLD. That is why it's very important to consider the possibility to avoid the progression to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma.

  8. SGLT-2 Inhibitors: Are They a Promising Treatment Option in T2DM Patients with NAFLD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Patoulias

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2 inhibitors are a class of antidiabetics, recently approved for the treatment of patients with T2DM. They feature cardioprotective and renoprotective action, while they exert beneficial effects on metabolic parameters. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a frequent co-morbidity in diabetic patients. Its prevalence reaches up to 70%. Since there is no specific treatment approved for NAFLD, both experimental and clinical studies have been recently conducted highlighting the efficacy and safety of SGLT-2 inhibitors mainly in animal models and secondarily in patients with T2DM and NAFLD. This class of antidiabetics seems very attractive, improving both glycemic control and liver function tests, while inhibiting NAFLD progression. However, further investigation is required to establish them as a first-line treatment option in T2DM patients with NAFLD, after thorough assessment of their efficacy and safety in clinical practice.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Risk Stratification of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD by the Primary Care Physician Using the NAFLD Fibrosis Score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot B Tapper

    Full Text Available The complications of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD are dependent on the presence of advanced fibrosis. Given the high prevalence of NAFLD in the US, the optimal evaluation of NAFLD likely involves triage by a primary care physician (PCP with advanced disease managed by gastroenterologists.We compared the cost-effectiveness of fibrosis risk-assessment strategies in a cohort of 10,000 simulated American patients with NAFLD performed in either PCP or referral clinics using a decision analytical microsimulation state-transition model. The strategies included use of vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE, the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS, combination testing with NFS and VCTE, and liver biopsy (usual care by a specialist only. NFS and VCTE performance was obtained from a prospective cohort of 164 patients with NAFLD. Outcomes included cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY and correct classification of fibrosis.Risk-stratification by the PCP using the NFS alone costs $5,985 per QALY while usual care costs $7,229/QALY. In the microsimulation, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000, the NFS alone in PCP clinic was the most cost-effective strategy in 94.2% of samples, followed by combination NFS/VCTE in the PCP clinic (5.6% and usual care in 0.2%. The NFS based strategies yield the best biopsy-correct classification ratios (3.5 while the NFS/VCTE and usual care strategies yield more correct-classifications of advanced fibrosis at the cost of 3 and 37 additional biopsies per classification.Risk-stratification of patients with NAFLD primary care clinic is a cost-effective strategy that should be formally explored in clinical practice.

  10. Lessons from Mouse Models of High-Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Terauchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD encompasses a clinicopathologic spectrum of diseases ranging from isolated hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, the more aggressive form of fatty liver disease that may progress to cirrhosis and cirrhosis-related complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD, including NASH, is also increasing in parallel with the growing epidemics of obesity and diabetes. However, the causal relationships between obesity and/or diabetes and NASH or liver tumorigenesis have not yet been clearly elucidated. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH provide crucial information, not only for elucidating the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH, but also for examining therapeutic effects of various agents. A high-fat diet is widely used to produce hepatic steatosis and NASH in experimental animals. Several studies, including our own, have shown that long-term high-fat diet loading, which can induce obesity and insulin resistance, can also induce NASH and liver tumorigenesis in C57BL/6J mice. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology of and treatment strategies for NAFLD and subsequent NAFLD-related complications such as NASH and liver tumorigenesis, mainly based on lessons learned from mouse models of high-fat diet-induced NAFLD/NASH.

  11. Zinc and Selenium Co-supplementation Reduces Some Lipid Peroxidation and Angiogenesis Markers in a Rat Model of NAFLD-Fed High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Faghihi, Amirhosein; Motaghinejad, Majid; Shiasi, Maryam; Imanparast, Fatemeh; Amiri, Hamid Lorvand; Shidfar, Farzad

    2018-02-01

    Studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients are more prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Zinc and selenium deficiency are common in NAFLD. But the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on CVD markers are not clear in NAFLD patients. This study aimed to compare the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on some of the CVD markers in an experimental model of NAFLD. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats (197 ± 4 g) were randomly assigned into four dietary groups: control group (C; received 9% of calorie as fat), model group (M; received 82% of calorie as fat), and supplementation before (BS) or after (AS) disease progression. Animals were fed diets for 20 weeks in all groups. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, HOMA-IR, ALT, AST, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured as CVD indices. Serum ALT, AST, FPG, insulin, MDA, VEGF and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the M than C group. Co-supplementation reduced serum ALT and AST levels in the BS and AS groups compared with the M group. FPG, insulin, HOMA-IR, VEGF, MDA, LDL/HDL-c and TC/HDL-c ratio were significantly reduced in the AS compared with the M group. TG/HDL-c ratio was significantly reduced in the BS and AS compared with the M group. Serum MDA, VEGF, Insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly lowered in the AS than BS group (p < 0.05). Zinc and selenium co-supplementation after NAFLD progression reduced CVD risk indices in an experimental model.

  12. Assessment of Hepatic Mitochondrial Oxidation and Pyruvate Cycling in NAFLD by (13)C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kitt Mia Falck; Befroy, Douglas E; Dufour, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, and there is great interest in understanding the potential role of alterations in mitochondrial metabolism in its pathogenesis. To address this question, we assessed rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation...... in subjects with and without NAFLD by monitoring the rate of (13)C labeling in hepatic [5-(13)C]glutamate and [1-(13)C]glutamate by (13)C MRS during an infusion of [1-(13)C]acetate. We found that rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation were similar between NAFLD and control subjects. We also assessed rates...

  13. Establishment of a general NAFLD scoring system for rodent models and comparison to human liver pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, W.; Menke, A.L.; Driessen, A.; Koek, G.H.; Lindeman, J.H.; Stoop, R.; Havekes, L.M.; Kleemann., R.; Hoek, A.M. van den

    2014-01-01

    Results: The criteria macrovesicular steatosis, microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, inflammation and fibrosis were generally applicable to rodent NAFLD. The inter-observer reproducibility (evaluated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient) between the ten observers was high

  14. Lessons from Mouse Models of High-Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Akinobu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a clinicopathologic spectrum of diseases ranging from isolated hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the more aggressive form of fatty liver disease that may progress to cirrhosis and cirrhosis-related complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD, including NASH, is also increasing in parallel with the growing epidemics of obesity and diabetes. However, the causal relationships between obesi...

  15. A Computational Model of Hepatic Energy Metabolism: Understanding Zonated Damage and Steatosis in NAFLD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Ashworth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, lipid build-up and the resulting damage is known to occur more severely in pericentral cells. Due to the complexity of studying individual regions of the sinusoid, the causes of this zone specificity and its implications on treatment are largely ignored. In this study, a computational model of liver glucose and lipid metabolism is presented which treats the sinusoid as the repeating unit of the liver rather than the single hepatocyte. This allows for inclusion of zonated enzyme expression by splitting the sinusoid into periportal to pericentral compartments. By simulating insulin resistance (IR and high intake diets leading to the development of steatosis in the model, we identify key differences between periportal and pericentral cells accounting for higher susceptibility to pericentral steatosis. Secondly, variation between individuals is seen in both susceptibility to steatosis and in its development across the sinusoid. Around 25% of obese individuals do not show excess liver fat, whilst 16% of lean individuals develop NAFLD. Furthermore, whilst pericentral cells tend to show higher lipid levels, variation is seen in the predominant location of steatosis from pericentral to pan-sinusoidal or azonal. Sensitivity analysis was used to identify the processes which have the largest effect on both total hepatic triglyceride levels and on the sinusoidal location of steatosis. As is seen in vivo, steatosis occurs when simulating IR in the model, predominantly due to increased uptake, along with an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Additionally, concentrations of glucose intermediates including glycerol-3-phosphate increased when simulating IR due to inhibited glycogen synthesis. Several differences between zones contributed to a higher susceptibility to steatosis in pericentral cells in the model simulations. Firstly, the periportal zonation of both glycogen synthase and the oxidative phosphorylation

  16. A Computational Model of Hepatic Energy Metabolism: Understanding Zonated Damage and Steatosis in NAFLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, William B.; Bogle, I. David L.

    2016-01-01

    In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), lipid build-up and the resulting damage is known to occur more severely in pericentral cells. Due to the complexity of studying individual regions of the sinusoid, the causes of this zone specificity and its implications on treatment are largely ignored. In this study, a computational model of liver glucose and lipid metabolism is presented which treats the sinusoid as the repeating unit of the liver rather than the single hepatocyte. This allows for inclusion of zonated enzyme expression by splitting the sinusoid into periportal to pericentral compartments. By simulating insulin resistance (IR) and high intake diets leading to the development of steatosis in the model, we identify key differences between periportal and pericentral cells accounting for higher susceptibility to pericentral steatosis. Secondly, variation between individuals is seen in both susceptibility to steatosis and in its development across the sinusoid. Around 25% of obese individuals do not show excess liver fat, whilst 16% of lean individuals develop NAFLD. Furthermore, whilst pericentral cells tend to show higher lipid levels, variation is seen in the predominant location of steatosis from pericentral to pan-sinusoidal or azonal. Sensitivity analysis was used to identify the processes which have the largest effect on both total hepatic triglyceride levels and on the sinusoidal location of steatosis. As is seen in vivo, steatosis occurs when simulating IR in the model, predominantly due to increased uptake, along with an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Additionally, concentrations of glucose intermediates including glycerol-3-phosphate increased when simulating IR due to inhibited glycogen synthesis. Several differences between zones contributed to a higher susceptibility to steatosis in pericentral cells in the model simulations. Firstly, the periportal zonation of both glycogen synthase and the oxidative phosphorylation enzymes meant that the

  17. CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents. Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity and measures of regional (central) adiposity. High prevalence of markers of dysmetabolic state in urban adolescents. ~10% prevalence of dysglycemia in overweight / obese school children.

  18. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  19. Summary and conclusions [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L.. Medina

    2012-01-01

    Summaries and conclusions of each chapter are compiled here to provide a “Quick Reference” guide of major results and recommendations for the UVR. More detail can be obtained from individual chapters.

  20. Establishment of a general NAFLD scoring system for rodent models and comparison to human liver pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liang

    Full Text Available The recently developed histological scoring system for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD by the NASH Clinical Research Network (NASH-CRN has been widely used in clinical settings, but is increasingly employed in preclinical research as well. However, it has not been systematically analyzed whether the human scoring system can directly be converted to preclinical rodent models. To analyze this, we systematically compared human NAFLD liver pathology, using human liver biopsies, with liver pathology of several NAFLD mouse models. Based upon the features pertaining to mouse NAFLD, we aimed at establishing a modified generic scoring system that is applicable to broad spectrum of rodent models.The histopathology of NAFLD was analyzed in several different mouse models of NAFLD to define generic criteria for histological assessment (preclinical scoring system. For validation of this scoring system, 36 slides of mouse livers, covering the whole spectrum of NAFLD, were blindly analyzed by ten observers. Additionally, the livers were blindly scored by one observer during two separate assessments longer than 3 months apart.The criteria macrovesicular steatosis, microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, inflammation and fibrosis were generally applicable to rodent NAFLD. The inter-observer reproducibility (evaluated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient between the ten observers was high for the analysis of macrovesicular steatosis and microvesicular steatosis (ICC = 0.784 and 0.776, all p<0.001, respectively and moderate for the analysis of hypertrophy and inflammation (ICC = 0.685 and 0.650, all p<0.001, respectively. The intra-observer reproducibility between the different observations of one observer was high for the analysis of macrovesicular steatosis, microvesicular steatosis and hypertrophy (ICC = 0.871, 0.871 and 0.896, all p<0.001, respectively and very high for the analysis of inflammation (ICC = 0.931, p

  1. Novel algorithm for non-invasive assessment of fibrosis in NAFLD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Peter Sowa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Various conditions of liver disease and the downsides of liver biopsy call for a non-invasive option to assess liver fibrosis. A non-invasive score would be especially useful to identify patients with slow advancing fibrotic processes, as in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD, which should undergo histological examination for fibrosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Classic liver serum parameters, hyaluronic acid (HA and cell death markers of 126 patients undergoing bariatric surgery for morbid obesity were analyzed by machine learning techniques (logistic regression, k-nearest neighbors, linear support vector machines, rule-based systems, decision trees and random forest (RF. Specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of the evaluated datasets to predict fibrosis were assessed. RESULTS: None of the single parameters (ALT, AST, M30, M60, HA did differ significantly between patients with a fibrosis score 1 or 2. However, combining these parameters using RFs reached 79% accuracy in fibrosis prediction with a sensitivity of more than 60% and specificity of 77%. Moreover, RFs identified the cell death markers M30 and M65 as more important for the decision than the classic liver parameters. CONCLUSION: On the basis of serum parameters the generation of a fibrosis scoring system seems feasible, even when only marginally fibrotic tissue is available. Prospective evaluation of novel markers, i.e. cell death parameters, should be performed to identify an optimal set of fibrosis predictors.

  2. CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort. Crossing BMI centiles and early adiposity rebound associated with adult metabolic syndrome. BMI gain in infancy and early childhood – associated more with adult lean mass. BMI gain in later childhood / adolescence – associated more with adult fat mass and constituents of ...

  3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in different populations: A clinical and epidemiological study – sample of São José do Rio Preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Costa de Andrade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: NAFLD is an heterogeneous condition that includes steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, in the absence of significant alcohol consumption, reaching 30% of the population. The most common risk factors are: age, gender, ethnicity, diabetes mellitus (DM, obesity, predisposition, metabolic syndrome (MS, insulin resistance (IR, drugs, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Objective: To describe the profile of patients with NAFLD seen at Hospital de Base of Rio Preto, in the state of São Paulo. Method: Patients with NAFLD were assessed, with medical and epidemiological data collected after informed consent. Results: Of the 62 patients evaluated, 76% were women, 73% Caucasians, and 71% were aged between 50 and 69 years and had no symptoms. Ultrasonography results showed steatosis in 84%. NASH was diagnosed in 61% of the sample. 21 patients underwent liver biopsy, of which 36% had cirrhosis, 1 had liver cancer, and 1 pure steatosis (5% each. Risk factors were found in 70% of patients with metabolic syndrome, 87% with increased waist circumference, 63% with dyslipidemia, 61% (n=38 with high blood pressure (HBP, 28% with DM, 52% physically inactive, and 44% with insulin resistance (IR (HOMA> 3.5. There was an association between IR and NASH (p=0.013, IR and obesity (p=0.027, IR and MS (p=0.006, and MS and steatosis on medical ultrasound (USG (p=0.014. Conclusion: The most frequent risk factors were MS and its variables: increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia and HBP. This underscores the importance of metabolic control in NAFLD and confirms its role as the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Research progress in roles of gut microbiota and bile acid metabolism in development and progression of NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasing year by year. Studies have uncovered the important roles of gut microbiota and bile acid metabolism in the development and progression of NAFLD. The roles of gut microbiota, as well bile acid and bile acid receptors, in the development and progression of NAFLD are highlighted.

  5. Suppressed hepatic bile acid signalling despite elevated production of primary and secondary bile acids in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Na; Baker, Susan S; Chapa-Rodriguez, Adrian; Liu, Wensheng; Nugent, Colleen A; Tsompana, Maria; Mastrandrea, Lucy; Buck, Michael J; Baker, Robert D; Genco, Robert J; Zhu, Ruixin; Zhu, Lixin

    2017-08-03

    Bile acids are regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, and modulate inflammation in the liver and other tissues. Primary bile acids such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) are produced in the liver, and converted into secondary bile acids such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid by gut microbiota. Here we investigated the possible roles of bile acids in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and the impact of the gut microbiome on bile acid signalling in NAFLD. Serum bile acid levels and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), liver gene expression profiles and gut microbiome compositions were determined in patients with NAFLD, high-fat diet-fed rats and their controls. Serum concentrations of primary and secondary bile acids were increased in patients with NAFLD. In per cent, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonistic DCA was increased, while the agonistic CDCA was decreased in NAFLD. Increased mRNA expression for cytochrome P450 7A1, Na + -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and paraoxonase 1, no change in mRNA expression for small heterodimer partner and bile salt export pump, and reduced serum FGF19 were evidence of impaired FXR and fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4)-mediated signalling in NAFLD. Taurine and glycine metabolising bacteria were increased in the gut of patients with NAFLD, reflecting increased secondary bile acid production. Similar changes in liver gene expression and the gut microbiome were observed in high-fat diet-fed rats. The serum bile acid profile, the hepatic gene expression pattern and the gut microbiome composition consistently support an elevated bile acid production in NAFLD. The increased proportion of FXR antagonistic bile acid explains, at least in part, the suppression of hepatic FXR-mediated and FGFR4-mediated signalling. Our study suggests that future NAFLD intervention may target the components of FXR signalling, including the bile acid converting gut microbiome. © Article

  6. Effects of Natural Products on Fructose-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a sugar additive, fructose is widely used in processed foods and beverages. Excessive fructose consumption can cause hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. Recent research revealed that fructose-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is related to several pathological processes, including: (1 augmenting lipogenesis; (2 leading to mitochondrial dysfunction; (3 stimulating the activation of inflammatory pathways; and (4 causing insulin resistance. Cellular signaling research indicated that partial factors play significant roles in fructose-induced NAFLD, involving liver X receptor (LXRα, sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1/1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid synthase (FAS, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (PPARα, leptin nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Until now, a series of natural products have been reported as regulators of NAFLD in vivo and in vitro. This paper reviews the natural products (e.g., curcumin, resveratrol, and (−-epicatechin and their mechanisms of ameliorating fructose-induced NAFLD over the past years. Although, as lead compounds, natural products usually have fewer activities compared with synthesized compounds, it will shed light on studies aiming to discover new drugs for NAFLD.

  7. Research perspectives on the regulation and physiological functions of FGF21 and its association with NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eInagaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a metabolic hormone primarily secreted from the liver and functions in multiple tissues. Various transcription factors induce FGF21 expression in the liver, which indicates that FGF21 is a mediator of multiple environmental cues. FGF21 alters metabolism under starvation conditions, protects the body from energy depletion, and extends life span. Pharmacological administration of FGF21 alleviates dyslipidemia and induces weight loss in obese animals. In addition to the well-studied functions of FG21, several lines of recent evidence indicate a possible link between FGF21 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. High serum levels of FGF21 are associated with NAFLD and its risk factors such as endoplasmic reticulum stress and chronic inflammation. In addition, FGF21 alleviates the major risk factors of NAFLD including obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin insensitivity. Thus, FGF21 is a potential drug candidate for diseases such as NAFLD, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. In this review, the research perspectives of FGF21 and therapeutic potencies of FGF21 as a modulator of NAFLD are summarized.

  8. Correlation between liver histology and novel magnetic resonance imaging in adult patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - MRI accurately quantifies hepatic steatosis in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permutt, Z; Le, T-A; Peterson, M R; Seki, E; Brenner, D A; Sirlin, C; Loomba, R

    2012-07-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that measure hepatic steatosis are limited by T1 bias, T(2)* decay and multi-frequency signal-interference effects of protons in fat. Newer MR techniques such as the proton density-fat fraction (PDFF) that correct for these factors have not been specifically compared to liver biopsy in adult patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To examine the association between MRI-determined PDFF and histology-determined steatosis grade, and their association with fibrosis. A total of 51 adult patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD underwent metabolic-biochemical profiling, MRI-determined PDFF measurement of hepatic steatosis and liver biopsy assessment according to NASH-CRN histological scoring system. The average MRI-determined PDFF increased significantly with increasing histology-determined steatosis grade: 8.9% at grade-1, 16.3% at grade-2, and 25.0% at grade-3 with P ≤ 0.0001 (correlation: r(2) = 0.56, P hepatic steatosis by both MRI-determined PDFF (7.6% vs. 17.8%, P steatosis grade (1.4 vs. 2.2, P steatosis were more likely to have characteristics of advanced liver disease including higher average AST:ALT (0.87 vs. 0.60, P steatosis grade in adults with NAFLD. Steatosis is non-linearly related to fibrosis progression. In patients with NAFLD, a low amount of hepatic steatosis on imaging does not necessarily indicate mild disease. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist, ameliorates the development of hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

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    Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Aguilera-Lizarraga, Javier; Rubio-Mediavilla, Susana; Narro, Judit; Recio, Emma; Ochoa-Callejero, Laura; Oteo, José-Antonio; Blanco, José-Ramón

    2014-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the general population. The NAFLD spectrum ranges from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. The chemokine CCL5/RANTES plays an important role in the progression of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist, on liver pathology in a NAFLD mouse model. A total of 32 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (i) control group (chow diet plus tap water); (ii) maraviroc group (chow diet plus maraviroc in drinking water); (iii) high-fat diet (HFD) group (HFD plus tap water); and (iv) maraviroc/HFD group (HFD plus maraviroc). All mice were sacrificed 16 weeks after the beginning of the experiment. Biochemical analyses and liver examinations were performed. Mice in the HFD group showed a tendency towards increased body mass gain and liver damage compared with the maraviroc/HFD group. Moreover, liver weight in the HFD group was significantly higher than in the maraviroc/HFD group. Hepatic triglyceride concentration in the maraviroc/HFD group was significantly lower than in the HFD group. Interestingly, the maraviroc/HFD group exhibited a lower degree of steatosis. Furthermore, hepatic CCL5/RANTES expression was significantly lower in the maraviroc/HFD group than in the HFD group. Overall, no differences were observed between the control group and the maraviroc group. Maraviroc ameliorates hepatic steatosis in an experimental model of NAFLD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Silymarin attenuated hepatic steatosis through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

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    Ni, Xunjun; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin, which derived from the milk thistle plant (silybum marianum), has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. Considering the therapeutic potential to liver disease, we tested efficacy of silymarin on hepatic steatosis with a high fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and investigated possible effects on lipid metabolic pathways. In our study, silymarin could attenuate the hepatic steatosis, which was proved by both Oil Red O staining and hepatic triglyceride (TG) level determination. Furthermore, compared with INT-747, a potent and selective FXR agonist, silymarin could preserve plasmatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to a higher level and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to a lower level, which benefited more to the circulation system. Through real-time PCR analysis, we clarified a vital protective role of silymarin in mRNA regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. It was also shown that silymarin had no effects on body weight, food intake, and liver transaminase. Taken together, silymarin could attenuate hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of NAFLD through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, and benefit to the circulation system. All these findings shed new light on NAFLD treatment.

  11. O Prouni e a conclusão do ensino superior: novas trajetórias pessoais e profissionais dos egressos El ProUni y la conclusión de la enseñanza superior: nuevas trayectorias personales y profesionales de los egresados ProUni and the conclusion of higher education: the new personal and professional trajectories of the users of the program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Patti do Amaral

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Iniciamos, em 2010, a pesquisa O ProUni e o acesso ao Ensino Superior: estudo introdutório sobre os usuários do programa na zona oeste do município Rio de Janeiro, que tem por objetivo geral avaliar os impactos de uma política pública em educação voltada à inclusão no Ensino Superior privado de populações com baixas chances de acesso ao mesmo. A pesquisa, realizada entre julho de 2010 e abril de 2011, investigou dados acerca dos alunos que ingressaram no Ensino Superior em 2005 e 2006, primeiros anos do ProUni, em duas IES privadas situadas no bairro de Campo Grande, zona oeste do Rio de Janeiro. Nossa hipótese inicial foi que, após pelo menos dois anos de conclusão do curso, esses egressos já teriam construído novas trajetórias profissionais e de vida. Os dados iniciais, apesar das suas limitações, indicam que, como política pública, o ProUni tem demonstrado eficácia pela baixa taxa de evasão e que os egressos experimentaram novas trajetórias profissionais e pessoais.Empezamos, en el año 2010, la investigación denominada el ProUni y el acceso a la educación superior: estudio introductorio sobre los usuarios del programa de la zona oeste de la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, cuyo objeto era evaluar los impactos de una política pública en educación orientada hacia la inclusión en la Enseñanza Superior privada de poblaciones con pocas oportunidades de acceso a la misma. La encuesta, realizada entre julio del 2010 y abril del 2011, analizó datos sobre los estudiantes que ingresaron a la educación superior en 2005 y 2006, primeros años del ProUni, en dos instituciones privadas situadas en el barrio de Campo Grande, zona suburbana situada al oeste de Río de Janeiro. Nuestra hipótesis inicial era que, después de dos años, por lo menos, de haber concluido el curso, los graduados ya habrían construido nuevas trayectorias profesionales y de vida. Los datos iniciales, a pesar de sus limitaciones, señalan que, como pol

  12. Evaluation of flaxseed effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rabbits submitted to a hypercholesterolemic diet

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    Caroline Tatim Saad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of flaxseed in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as on the lipid profile in rabbits submitted to hypercholesterolemic diet. Subject and Methods: 32 male rabbits, weighing approximately 1.5kg and averaging four months of age, were distributed into three groups. Group 1 received standard food plus 0.5% of cholesterol from dried egg, during 8 weeks. Group 2 obtained the same diet in the first 4 weeks, and 8mg/kg of ground flaxseed was added in the remaining weeks. Lastly, group 3 was fed with the previous group’s increased diet throughout the entire period. In the follow-up, the animals were euthanized, and liver blades were prepared to evaluate the histopathologic study. The evaluation score of NAFLD (ESN, as well as plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDLcholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and body weight, were all determined. Results: Increased levels of total cholesterol were obtained in both groups, with the smallest variation found in G3 (p=0.002. This variation was also found when the levels of LDLcholesterol were assessed (p=0.001. There was a reduction of triglyceride levels at the end of the study in G3 (p=0.008. A variation was noticed between the ESN groups, but the induced reduction was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Further studies are necessary, in order to elucidate the effects of flaxseed in NAFLD as well as in diseases that have risk factors for the development of the disease

  13. Vitamin C and Vitamin E in Prevention of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD in Choline Deficient Diet Fed Rats

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    Lopasso Fabio P

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD. Vitamin C and vitamin E are known to react with reactive oxygen species (ROS blocking the propagation of radical reactions in a wide range of oxidative stress situations. The potential therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants in NAFLD is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of antioxidant drugs (vitamin C or vitamin E in its prevention. Methods Fatty liver disease was induced in Wistar rats by choline-deficient diet for four weeks. The rats were randomly assigned to receive vitamin E (n = 6 – (200 mg/day, vitamin C (n = 6 (30 mg/Kg/day or vehicle orally. Results In the vehicle and vitamin E-treated rats, there were moderate macro and microvesicular fatty changes in periportal area without inflammatory infiltrate or fibrosis. Scharlach stain that used for a more precise identification of fatty change was strong positive. With vitamin C, there was marked decrease in histological alterations. Essentially, there was no liver steatosis, only hepatocellular ballooning. Scharlach stain was negative. The lucigenin-enhanced luminescence was reduced with vitamin C (1080 ± 330 cpm/mg/minx103 as compared to those Vitamin E and control (2247 ± 790; 2020 ± 407 cpm/mg/minx103, respectively (p Conclusions 1 Vitamin C reduced oxidative stress and markedly inhibited the development of experimental liver steatosis induced by choline-deficient diet ; 2Vitamin E neither prevented the development of fatty liver nor reduced the oxidative stress in this model.

  14. The 'donations for decreased ALT (D4D)' prosocial behavior incentive scheme for NAFLD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Yoshio; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Saiyu; Taketani, Hiroyoshi; Kanemasa, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Tekeshi; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Mitsuyoshi, Hironori; Yasui, Kohichiroh; Minami, Masahito; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2014-12-01

    Physicians often experience difficulties in motivating patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to undergo lifestyle changes. The aim of this study is to examine whether 'Donations for Decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT)' (D4D) prosocial behavior incentive can serve as an effective intrinsic motivational factor in comparison with conventional dietary and exercise intervention alone for NAFLD patients. Twenty-five NAFLD patients with elevated ALT were randomly assigned to a control group that received conventional dietary and exercise intervention alone, or a donation group whereby, as an incentive, we would make a monetary donation to the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) based on the decrease in their ALT levels achieved over 12 weeks, in addition to receiving control intervention. In a donation group, we would donate US$1 to the WFP for every 1 IU/l of decrease in their ALT levels. There were no differences of pre-treatment clinical characteristics between the two groups. Significant reductions of ALT levels were achieved only in a donation group, although post-treatment ALT levels were not different between the two groups. These patients raised a total of $316 for the WFP. Promoting patients' intrinsic motivation by incorporating 'D4D' prosocial behavior incentive into conventional dietary and exercise intervention may provide a means to improve NAFLD. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Knowledge-based identification of soluble biomarkers: hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Sandra; Birerdinc, Aybike; Estep, Michael; Stepanova, Maria; Afendy, Arian; Petricoin, Emanuel; Younossi, Zobair; Chandhoke, Vikas; Baranova, Ancha

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of biomarkers is often performed using high-throughput proteomics-based platforms and is limited to the molecules recognized by a given set of purified and validated antigens or antibodies. Knowledge-based, or systems biology, approaches that involve the analysis of integrated data, predominantly molecular pathways and networks may infer quantitative changes in the levels of biomolecules not included by the given assay from the levels of the analytes profiled. In this study we attempted to use a knowledge-based approach to predict biomarkers reflecting the changes in underlying protein phosphorylation events using Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) as a model. Two soluble biomarkers, CCL-2 and FasL, were inferred in silico as relevant to NAFLD pathogenesis. Predictive performance of these biomarkers was studied using serum samples collected from patients with histologically proven NAFLD. Serum levels of both molecules, in combination with clinical and demographic data, were predictive of hepatic fibrosis in a cohort of NAFLD patients. Our study suggests that (1) NASH-specific disruption of the kinase-driven signaling cascades in visceral adipose tissue lead to detectable changes in the levels of soluble molecules released into the bloodstream, and (2) biomarkers discovered in silico could contribute to predictive models for non-malignant chronic diseases.

  16. Knowledge-based identification of soluble biomarkers: hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Page

    Full Text Available The discovery of biomarkers is often performed using high-throughput proteomics-based platforms and is limited to the molecules recognized by a given set of purified and validated antigens or antibodies. Knowledge-based, or systems biology, approaches that involve the analysis of integrated data, predominantly molecular pathways and networks may infer quantitative changes in the levels of biomolecules not included by the given assay from the levels of the analytes profiled. In this study we attempted to use a knowledge-based approach to predict biomarkers reflecting the changes in underlying protein phosphorylation events using Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD as a model. Two soluble biomarkers, CCL-2 and FasL, were inferred in silico as relevant to NAFLD pathogenesis. Predictive performance of these biomarkers was studied using serum samples collected from patients with histologically proven NAFLD. Serum levels of both molecules, in combination with clinical and demographic data, were predictive of hepatic fibrosis in a cohort of NAFLD patients. Our study suggests that (1 NASH-specific disruption of the kinase-driven signaling cascades in visceral adipose tissue lead to detectable changes in the levels of soluble molecules released into the bloodstream, and (2 biomarkers discovered in silico could contribute to predictive models for non-malignant chronic diseases.

  17. Role of Serum Uric Acid and Ferritin in the Development and Progression of NAFLD

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    Rosa Lombardi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, tightly linked to the metabolic syndrome (MS, has emerged as a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Since it is potentially progressive towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and hepatic fibrosis, up to cirrhosis and its associated complications, the need for predictive factors of NAFLD and of its advanced forms is mandatory. Despite the current “gold standard” for the assessment of liver damage in NAFLD being liver biopsy, in recent years, several non-invasive tools have been designed as alternatives to histology, of which fibroscan seems the most promising. Among the different serum markers considered, serum uric acid (SUA and ferritin have emerged as possible predictors of severity of liver damage in NAFLD. In fact, as widely described in this review, they share common pathogenetic pathways and are both associated with hepatic steatosis and MS, thus suggesting a likely synergistic action. Nevertheless, the power of these serum markers seems to be too low if considered alone, suggesting that they should be included in a wider perspective together with other metabolic and biochemical parameters in order to predict liver damage.

  18. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): new challenge for general practitioners and important burden for health authorities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed H; Abu, Emmanuel O; Byrne, Christopher D

    2010-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of hepatic dysfunction encountered in general practice. A large proportion of individuals with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome develop NAFLD. NAFLD is associated with severe insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and can progress to non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and cancer. Currently the only known effective treatments for NAFLD are lifestyle changes including stable weight loss and a diet low in calories. General practitioners will increasingly play a key role in dealing with this evolving but serious epidemic of NAFLD and associated metabolic complications. However, success will depend on the appropriate systems and mechanisms being in place in primary care and the proper motivation, support and education of the patient. This review provides the primary care physician with: (a) a step-by step guide of how to identify NAFLD, (b) information to exclude common other causes of liver fat accumulation and (c) additional insight into relationships between NAFLD and other conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Disturbed Vitamin A Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

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    Ali Saeed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A’s functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs and retinoid X receptors (RXRs.The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1 it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2 it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3 it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. In times of inadequate dietary intake, the liver maintains stable circulating retinol levels of approximately 2 μmol/L, sufficient to provide the body with this vitamin for months. Liver diseases, in particular those leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis, are associated with impaired vitamin A homeostasis and may lead to vitamin A deficiency. Liver injury triggers HSCs to transdifferentiate to myofibroblasts that produce excessive amounts of extracellular matrix, leading to fibrosis. HSCs lose the retinyl ester stores in this process, ultimately leading to vitamin A deficiency. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is a spectrum of conditions ranging from benign hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; it may progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. NASH is projected to be the main cause of liver failure in the near future. Retinoic acids are key regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver and adipose tissue, but it is unknown whether impaired vitamin A homeostasis contributes to or suppresses the development of NAFLD. A genetic variant of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3-I148M is the most prominent

  20. The Wide and Complex Field of NAFLD Biomarker Research: Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichro, Erika; Macheiner, Tanja; Schmid, Jasmin; Kavsek, Barbara; Sargsyan, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now acknowledged as a complex public health issue linked to sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and related disorders like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aims. We aimed to retrieve its trends out of the huge amount of published data. Therefore, we conducted an extensive literature search to identify possible biomarker and/or biomarker combinations by retrospectively assessing and evaluating common and novel biomarkers to predict progression and prognosis of obesity related liver diseases. Methodology. We analyzed finally 62 articles accounting for 157 cohorts and 45,288 subjects. Results. Despite the various approaches, most cohorts were considerably small and rarely comparable. Also, we found that the same standard parameters were measured rather than novel biomarkers. Diagnostics approaches appeared incomparable. Conclusions. Further collaborative investigations on harmonizing ways of data acquisition and identifying such biomarkers for clinical use are necessary to yield sufficient significant results of potential biomarkers.

  1. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pathomechanism, new diagnostic markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Wilk, Beata; Klupa, Tomasz; Dembińska-Kieć, Aldona

    2010-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex of a wide spectrum of liver pathology--from steatosis alone, to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The pathogenic concept of NAFLD covers overnutrition with fatty acids, underactivity. Insulin resistance is believed to play the main role in this process. NAFLD is mostly related to visceral adiposity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes melitus. The presented work is a review of in vitro and in vivo modern studies, as well as clinical observations on molecular mechanisms leading to development and progress of NAFLD. Up till today their is no treatment od NAFLD, and this pathology is not benign--it may lead to patients' death in 10 years. The clinical approach to NAFLD is prevention of it's development. The manuscript is a review of new biochemical markers allowing for early detection of metabolic disorders leading to NAFLD development, thus to sufficient prevention of this pathology in patients.

  2. Influence of lifestyle habits, nutritional status and insulin resistance in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolti, Marcella; Battistini, Nino Carlo; Miglioli, Lucia; Bagni, Ilaria; Borelli, Luca; Marino, Mariano; Scaglioni, Federica; Bellentani, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance (IR). The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between IR, anthropometry, lifestyle habits, resting energy expenditure (REE) and degree of fatty liver at ultrasound in 48 overweight patients with NAFLD as compared to 24 controls without fatty liver, matched for age. Nutritional status, alcohol intake and physical activity were assessed by skinfold thickness measurements, a 7-day diary, and SenseWear armband (SWA). REE was assessed by both SWA (REE-SWA) and a Vmax metabolic cart (REE-Vmax). Fatty liver was measured by US and the Doppler Power Index was calculated. IR was assessed using the HOMA index. There was significant correlation between waist circumference, HOMA, Doppler power index and fatty liver grade at US. Multivariate analysis showed that alteration of waist circumference, Doppler power index, and HOMA were the major significant predictors of fatty liver. Our data demonstrated a significant association between NAFLD and central adiposity and IR.

  3. In Vitro and in Vivo Models of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

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    Ina Bergheim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available By now, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is considered to be among the most common liver diseases world-wide. NAFLD encompasses a broad spectrum of pathological conditions ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and finally even cirrhosis; however, only a minority of patients progress to end-stages of the disease, and the course of the disease progression to the later stages seems to be slow, developing progressively over several years. Key risk factors including overweight, insulin resistance, a sedentary life-style and an altered dietary pattern, as well as genetic factors and disturbances of the intestinal barrier function have been identified in recent years. Despite intense research efforts that lead to the identification of these risk factors, knowledge about disease initiation and molecular mechanisms involved in progression is still limited. This review summarizes diet-induced and genetic animal models, as well as cell culture models commonly used in recent years to add to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in NAFLD, also referring to their advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Toxic AGE (TAGE Theory for the Pathophysiology of the Onset/Progression of NAFLD and ALD

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    Masayoshi Takeuchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and alcoholic liver disease (ALD are among the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the westernized world. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular diseases, which have a negative impact on patient survival. The chronic ingestion of an excessive daily diet containing sugar/high-fructose corn syrup increases the level of the fructose/glucose metabolite, glyceraldehyde (GA, while the chronic consumption of an excessive number of alcoholic beverages increases the level of the alcohol metabolite, acetaldehyde (AA in the liver. GA and AA are known to react non-enzymatically with the ε- or α-amino groups of proteins, thereby generating advanced glycation end-products (AGEs, GA-AGEs, and AA-AGEs, respectively in vivo. The interaction between GA-AGEs and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE alters intracellular signaling, gene expression, and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules and also elicits the production of reactive oxygen species by human hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells, all of which may contribute to the pathological changes associated with chronic liver diseases. We herein discuss the pathophysiological roles of GA-AGEs and AA-AGEs (toxic AGEs, TAGE and a related novel theory for preventing the onset/progression of NAFLD and ALD.

  5. Formulation for Effective Screening and Management of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Noninvasive NAFLD Management Strategy

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    Kanae Hirose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish a versatile means for screening and management of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, shear wave velocity was measured in 20 normal controls and 138 consecutive nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD cases. Referencing biochemical properties in 679 healthy volunteers, a formula to distinguish NASH suspects was established and validated in another cohort of 138 histologically proven NAFLD cases. NASH and simple steatosis (SS suspects were selected based on a plot of shear wave velocity against age. A formula consisting of five factors (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, platelet counts, body mass index, and presence/absence of type 2 diabetes mellitus distinguished NASH suspects from SS suspects with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values of 86% and 84% in the development and validation cohorts. Among 25 NAFLD cases in which shear wave velocity was repeatedly measured, 8 and 9 cases revealed an increase or decrease, respectively, of shear wave velocity in the entire liver, and the corresponding change in shear wave velocity was primarily observed in the right lobe or the left lateral segment, respectively. These results suggest that the new formula and sequential shear wave velocity measurements at each segment enable high throughput screening of NASH suspects and noninvasive assessment of pathophysiological alleviation/aggravation in cases of NASH.

  6. Comparing Effects of Medication Therapy and Exercise Training with Diet on Liver enzyme Levels and Liver Sonography in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

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    Azadeh Nabizadeh Haghighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by the deposition of fat in liver cells, can cause fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cell damage if not controlled. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of medication therapy and exercise training with diet on liver enzyme levels and liver sonography in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Materials & Methods :In this quasi-experimental study, female patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver were randomly divided into two groups: medication therapy (n = 10 and exercise therapy (n = 10 for 8 weeks. During this period, the exercise group performed exercise training three days a week for 90 minutes per session. The drug was given to the medication group. In both groups, the diet was 500 calories less than their daily energy. Before and after intervention, blood tests and liver sonography were executed. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS for Windows version 20. Comparisons between and within groups were performed by Student's t-test and Wilcoxon test on paired and unpaired data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results :In both groups, liver enzyme levels and disease severity in sonography reduced significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present research showed that both methods of therapy have the same effect on reducing the severity of NAFLD.

  7. The Potential Effect of Chinese Herbal Formula Hongqijiangzhi Fang in Improving NAFLD: Focusing on NLRP3 Inflammasome and Gut Microbiota

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    Shu Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential therapeutic mechanism underlying the effects of the Chinese herbal formula Hongqijiangzhi Fang (HJF on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rats. Male Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=8: control group was fed a normal diet, three other groups were fed high-fat diets (HFD, and the two treatment groups were intragastrically given a compound probiotic or HJF during the molding time. After 16 w, related indices were detected. The results showed that HJF significantly reduced abdominal aorta serum cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, IL-1β, and IL-18, portal venous serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and liver TC and TG levels in HFD-fed rats. HJF ameliorated hepatic steatosis in the liver and improved the intestinal barrier in HFD-fed rats. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was reduced by HJF in HFD-fed rats. Additionally, the abundances of A. muciniphila (Verrucomicrobiaceae, F. rappini (Helicobacteraceae, and Enterobacteriaceae bacteria significantly decreased in HJF-treated HFD-fed rats. In conclusion, these result suggested that the Chinese herbal formula HJF reduced hepatic steatosis maybe through decreasing certain gut bacteria (such as Enterobacteriaceae bacteria and F. rappini, alleviating intestinal endotoxemia and reducing NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

  8. Effects of a combined intervention with a lentil protein hydrolysate and a mixed training protocol on the lipid metabolism and hepatic markers of NAFLD in Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Donaire, Ana; Lopez-Chaves, Carlos; Arrebola, Francisco; Galisteo, Milagros; Cantarero, Samuel; Aranda, Pilar; Porres, Jesus M; López-Jurado, María

    2018-02-21

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic alterations characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemia, elevated plasma glucose, insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, a combined intervention of a lentil protein hydrolysate and a mixed training protocol was assessed in an animal experimental model of genetic obesity and metabolic syndrome. Thirty-two male obese and 32 lean Zucker rats were divided into eight different experimental groups. Rats performed a mixed exercise protocol or had a sedentary lifestyle and were administered a lentil protein hydrolysate or placebo. Daily food intake, weekly body weight gain, plasma parameters of glucose and lipid metabolisms, body composition, hepatic weight, total fat content and fatty acid profile, as well as gene expression of lipogenic and lipolytic nuclear transcription factors and their target genes were measured. Obese Zucker rats exhibited higher body and liver weight and fat content than did their lean counterparts. Such alterations were related to modifications in aerobic capacity, plasma biochemical parameters of glucose and lipid metabolisms, hepatic fatty acid profile and gene expression of nuclear transcription factors SREBP1c, PPARα, LXR and associated lipogenic and lipolytic enzymes. The interventions tested did not affect body weight gain but improved aerobic capacity, reduced hepatomegalia and steatosis associated with NAFLD and relieved the adverse effects produced by this condition in glucose and lipid metabolisms through the modulation in the expression of different genes involved in diverse metabolic pathways.

  9. n-3 Fatty acids combined with flavan-3-ols prevent steatosis and liver injury in a murine model of NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzour, David; Rodriguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Rushbrook, Simon; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio R; Bevan, Damon; Davies, Susan; Tejera, Noemi; Mena, Pedro; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Del Rio, Daniele; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 25% of adults and at present no licensed medication has been approved. Despite its complex patho-physiology, dietary strategies aiming at delaying or preventing NAFLD have taken a reductionist approach, examining the impact of single components. Accumulating evidence suggests that n-3 LC-PUFAs are efficacious in regulating lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. In addition, plant derived flavonoids are also emerging as a dietary strategy for NAFLD prevention, with efficacy attributed to their insulin sensitising and indirect antioxidant effects. Based on knowledge of their complementary molecular targets, we aimed to demonstrate that the combination of n-3 LC-PUFA (n-3) and flavan-3-ols (FLAV) prevents NAFLD. In a high-fat high-fructose (HF/HFr) fed C57Bl/6J mouse model, the independent and interactive impact of n-3 and FLAV on histologically defined NAFLD, insulin sensitivity, weight gain, intestinal and hepatic gene expression, intestinal bile acids were examined. Only the combination of FLAV and n-3 (FLAVn-3) prevented steatosis as evidenced by a strong reduction in hepatocyte ballooning. While FLAV reduced body (-28-30%), adipose tissue (-45-50%) weights and serum insulin (-22-25%) as observed following an intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test, n-3 downregulated the expression of Srebf1 and the lipogenic genes (Acaca, Fasn). Significant impacts of interventions on intestinal bile acid metabolism, farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) signalling in the intestine and liver, and hepatic expression of fatty acid transporters (Fabp4, Vldlr, Cd36) were also evident. FLAVn-3 may be a novel intervention for NAFLD. Future research should aim to demonstrate its efficacy in the prevention and treatment of human NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between competing interests and authors' conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, Lise L; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials.......To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials....

  11. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) models in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Banumathi K; Feaver, Ryan E; Wamhoff, Brian R; Dash, Ajit

    2018-02-01

    The progressive disease spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which includes non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is a rapidly emerging public health crisis with no approved therapy. The diversity of various therapies under development highlights the lack of consensus around the most effective target, underscoring the need for better translatable preclinical models to study the complex progressive disease and effective therapies. Areas covered: This article reviews published literature of various mouse models of NASH used in preclinical studies, as well as complex organotypic in vitro and ex vivo liver models being developed. It discusses translational challenges associated with both kinds of models, and describes some of the studies that validate their application in NAFLD. Expert opinion: Animal models offer advantages of understanding drug distribution and effects in a whole body context, but are limited by important species differences. Human organotypic in vitro and ex vivo models with physiological relevance and translatability need to be used in a tiered manner with simpler screens. Leveraging newer technologies, like metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics, and the future development of validated disease biomarkers will allow us to fully utilize the value of these models to understand disease and evaluate novel drugs in isolation or combination.

  12. Epigenetic Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in NAFLD-Associated Hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Tian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, characterized by fat accumulation in liver, is closely associated with central obesity, over-nutrition and other features of metabolic syndrome, which elevate the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in the physiology and pathology of liver. Up to half of HCC patients have activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However, the mutation frequencies of CTNNB1 (encoding β-catenin protein or other antagonists targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling are low in HCC patients, suggesting that genetic mutations are not the major factor driving abnormal β-catenin activities in HCC. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that obesity-induced metabolic pathways can deregulate chromatin modifiers such as histone deacetylase 8 to trigger undesired global epigenetic changes, thereby modifying gene expression program which contributes to oncogenic signaling. This review focuses on the aberrant epigenetic activation of Wnt/β-catenin in the development of NAFLD-associated HCC. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying such deregulation may shed light on the identification of novel druggable epigenetic targets for the prevention and/or treatment of HCC in obese and diabetic patients.

  13. Hypocaloric high-protein diet improves clinical and biochemical markers in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra Duarte, Sebastião Mauro; Faintuch, Joel; Stefano, José Tadeu; Sobral de Oliveira, Maria Beatriz; de Campos Mazo, Daniel Ferraz; Rabelo, Fabiola; Vanni, Denise; Nogueira, Monize Aydar; Carrilho, Flair José; Marques Souza de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of hypocaloric highprotein diet, a prospective clinical study was conducted in NAFLD patients. Pre-versus post-interventional data were analyzed in 48 stable NAFLD patients (submitted to a hypocaloric high-protein diet during 75 days. Variables included anthropometrics (body mass index/ BMI and waist circumference/WC), whole-body and segmental bioimpedance analysis and biochemical tests. Diet compliance was assessed by interviews every two weeks. BMI, WC and body fat mass remained relatively stable (-1.3%, -1.8% and -2.5% respectively, no significance). HDL- cholesterol increased (P hypocaloric diet were associated with improvement of lipid profile, glucose homeostasis and liver enzymes in NAFLD independent on BMI decrease or body fat mass reduction.

  14. Gallic Acid Ameliorated Impaired Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis in High Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jung; Huo, Teh-Ia; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Qin, Xue-Mei; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Pao, Li-Heng; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA), a naturally abundant plant phenolic compound in vegetables and fruits, has been shown to have potent anti-oxidative and anti-obesity activity. However, the effects of GA on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of GA administration on nutritional hepatosteatosis model by a more “holistic view” approach, namely 1H NMR-based metabolomics, in order to prove efficacy and to obtain information that might lead to a better understanding of the mode of action of GA. Male C57BL/6 mice were placed for 16 weeks on either a normal chow diet, a high fat diet (HFD, 60%), or a high fat diet supplemented with GA (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, orally). Liver histopathology and serum biochemical examinations indicated that the daily administration of GA protects against hepatic steatosis, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and insulin resistance among the HFD-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, partial least squares discriminant analysis scores plots demonstrated that the cluster of HFD fed mice is clearly separated from the normal group mice plots, indicating that the metabolic characteristics of these two groups are distinctively different. Specifically, the GA-treated mice are located closer to the normal group of mice, indicating that the HFD-induced disturbances to the metabolic profile were partially reversed by GA treatment. Our results show that the hepatoprotective effect of GA occurs in part through a reversing of the HFD caused disturbances to a range of metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis), amino acids metabolism, choline metabolism and gut-microbiota-associated metabolism. Taken together, this study suggested that a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach is a useful platform for natural product functional evaluation. The selected metabolites are potentially useful as preventive action biomarkers and could also be used to help

  15. Expression of inflammation-related genes is altered in gastric tissue of patients with advanced stages of NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rohini; Birerdinc, Aybike; Neupane, Arpan; Shamsaddini, Amirhossein; Afendy, Arian; Elariny, Hazem; Chandhoke, Vikas; Baranova, Ancha; Younossi, Zobair M

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation perpetuated by visceral adipose. Other organs, particularly stomach and intestine, may also overproduce proinflammatory molecules. We examined the gene expression patterns in gastric tissue of morbidly obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and compared the changes in gene expression in different histological forms of NAFLD. Stomach tissue samples from 20 morbidly obese NAFLD patients who were undergoing sleeve gastrectomy were profiled using qPCR for 84 genes encoding inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, their receptors, and other components of inflammatory cascades. Interleukin 8 receptor-beta (IL8RB) gene overexpression in gastric tissue was correlated with the presence of hepatic steatosis, hepatic fibrosis, and histologic diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Expression levels of soluble interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) were correlated with the presence of NASH and hepatic fibrosis. mRNA levels of interleukin 8 (IL8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), and its receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor type 5 (CCR5) showed a significant increase in patients with advanced hepatic inflammation and were correlated with the severity of the hepatic inflammation. The results of our study suggest that changes in expression patterns for inflammatory molecule encoding genes within gastric tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related NAFLD.

  16. Expression of Inflammation-Related Genes Is Altered in Gastric Tissue of Patients with Advanced Stages of NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation perpetuated by visceral adipose. Other organs, particularly stomach and intestine, may also overproduce proinflammatory molecules. We examined the gene expression patterns in gastric tissue of morbidly obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and compared the changes in gene expression in different histological forms of NAFLD. Stomach tissue samples from 20 morbidly obese NAFLD patients who were undergoing sleeve gastrectomy were profiled using qPCR for 84 genes encoding inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, their receptors, and other components of inflammatory cascades. Interleukin 8 receptor-beta (IL8RB gene overexpression in gastric tissue was correlated with the presence of hepatic steatosis, hepatic fibrosis, and histologic diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Expression levels of soluble interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN were correlated with the presence of NASH and hepatic fibrosis. mRNA levels of interleukin 8 (IL8, chemokine (C-C motif ligand 4 (CCL4, and its receptor chemokine (C-C motif receptor type 5 (CCR5 showed a significant increase in patients with advanced hepatic inflammation and were correlated with the severity of the hepatic inflammation. The results of our study suggest that changes in expression patterns for inflammatory molecule encoding genes within gastric tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related NAFLD.

  17. Portal inflammation during NAFLD is frequent and associated with the early phases of putative hepatic progenitor cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotti, Simone; Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto; Perrone, Giuseppe; Picardi, Antonio; Morini, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether portal tract inflammation observed in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic progenitor cell compartment activation, as thoroughly evaluated with different markers of the staminal lineage. Fifty-two patients with NAFLD were studied. NAFLD activity score, fibrosis and portal inflammation were histologically evaluated. Putative hepatic progenitor cells, intermediate hepatobiliary cells and bile ductules/interlobular bile ducts were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin (CK)-7, CK-19 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and a hepatic progenitor cell compartment score was derived. Hepatic stellate cell and myofibroblast activity was determined by immunohistochemistry for α-smooth muscle actin. Portal inflammation was absent in a minority of patients, mild in 40% of cases and more than mild in about half of patients, showing a strong correlation with fibrosis (r=0.76, pcells (r=0.48, pcells (r=0.6, pcell compartment activation were associated with portal inflammation by univariate analysis. In the multivariate model, the only variable independently associated with portal inflammation was hepatic progenitor cell compartment activation (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6). Portal inflammation is frequent during NAFLD and strongly associated with activation of putative hepatic progenitor cells since the first steps of their differentiation, portal myofibroblast activity and fibrosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Data, Model, Conclusions, Doing It Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Ivo W.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the robustness of conclusions from a statistical model against variations in model choice with an illustration from G. Box and G. Tiao (1973). Suggests that simultaneous consideration of a class of models for the same data is sometimes superior to analyzing the data under one model and demonstrates advantages to Adaptive Bayesian…

  19. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Dr Cuijpers and Colleagues Reply To the Editor: We thank Dr Gaudiano and colleagues for their contribution to the discussion about psychotherapy for dysthymia. We agree very much with Gaudiano et al that we should be careful about drawing definite conclusions about the comparative efficacy of

  20. Data, model, conclusion, doing it again

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the robustness of conclusions from a statistical model against variations in model choice (rather than variations in random sampling and random assignment to treatments, which are the usual variations covered by inferential statistics). After the problem formulation in section 1,

  1. Results and conclusion; Resultados e conclusoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter shows the results and conclusions of the ordered studies by the Science and Technology Ministry from Brazil to the Center of Management and Strategic Studies (CGEE), executed by a multidisciplinary team, most of UNICAMP - State University of Campinas, SP - for evaluation of Brazilian capacity and potential in the production of fuel bioethanol.

  2. Power and Democracy in Denmark. Conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Goul; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Beck Jørgensen, Torben

    In 1997, the Danish Parliament decided to launch a power study, officially An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark. A steering committee consisting of five independent researchers was assigned responsibility for the project. The Steering Committee has gathered the overall conclusions from...... the numerous projects under the Power Study, and this book is a short presentation of these conclusions.The main focus of the book is the state of democracy in Denmark at the dawn of the 21st century. How has democracy fared, has the development made things better or worse, and to which extent does......, and the political institutions show considerable democratic robustness. However, not everything has gone or is going well. There are still pronounced social divisions in Danish society, although their nature has changed somewhat. The ideal of an informed public debate does not always enjoy the best conditions...

  3. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest.......James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...

  4. Associations between Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR Polymorphisms and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Yi Sun

    Full Text Available C677T and A1298C are the most common allelic variants of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR gene. The association between MTHFR polymorphisms and the occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD remains controversial. This study was thus performed to examine whether MTHFR mutations are associated with the susceptibility to NAFLD.A first meta-analysis on the association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and NAFLD risks was carried out via Review Manager 5.0 and Stata/SE 12.0 software. The on-line databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, WOS, Scopus and EBSCOhost (updated to April 1st, 2016, were searched for eligible case-control studies. The odd radio (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI and P value were calculated through Mantel-Haenszel statistics under random- or fixed-effect model.Eight articles (785 cases and 1188 controls contributed data to the current meta-analysis. For C677T, increased NAFLD risks were observed in case group under homozygote model (T/T vs C/C, OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.03~2.15, P = 0.04 and recessive model (T/T vs C/C+C/T, OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.07~1.88, P = 0.02, but not the other genetics models, compared with control group. For A1298C, significantly increased NAFLD risks were detected in allele model (C vs A, OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.13~2.07, P = 0.006, homozygote model (C/C vs A/A, OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.63~4.85, P = 0.0002, dominant model (A/C+C/C vs A/A, OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.06~2.41, P = 0.03 and recessive model (C/C vs A/A+A/C, OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.45~3.00, P<0.0001, but not heterozygote model.T/T genotype of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and C/C genotype of MTHFR A1298C are more likely to be associated with the susceptibility to NAFLD.

  5. Molecular signature of adipose tissue in patients with both non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Ancha; Tran, Thuy Phuong; Afendy, Arian; Wang, Lei; Shamsaddini, Amirhossein; Mehta, Rohini; Chandhoke, Vikas; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M

    2013-05-31

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive disorders with strong association with both insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To untangle the complex relationship between PCOS and NAFLD, we analyzed serum biomarkers of apoptosis, some adipokines and mRNA profiles in the visceral adipose tissue of obese patients with NAFLD who were also diagnosed with PCOS and compared to a group with NAFLD only. We included patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and PCOS (N = 12) and BMI-matched biopsy-proven NAFLD patients without PCOS (N = 12). Expression levels of individual mRNAs and soluble serum biomarkers were compared by non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. The analysis also included Spearman rank correlation tests and multiple regression analysis. For co-correlated genes, the factor analysis was performed. The total serum levels of apoptotic biomarker M30 were significantly elevated in PCOS patients with liver steatosis as compared to non-PCOS NAFLD controls (P < 0.02), pointing that androgen-dependent proapoptotic PCOS environment that may directly contribute to NAFLD progression in these patients. Similarly, hyperandrogenism may explain the observed PCOS-specific decrease (P < 0.04) in adipose LDLR mRNA expression that may be connected to the proneness of PCOS patients to NAFLD. The levels of mRNA encoding angiogenesis-associated GSK-3B interacting protein ninein were also significantly increased in the adipose tissue of NAFLD patients with PCOS (P < 0.007). Furthermore, the levels of resistin positively correlated with expression levels of LDLR and prothrombin time (PT). An androgen-dependent proapoptotic PCOS environment may directly contribute to NAFLD progression in these patients. Hyperandrogenism may explain an observed decrease in adipose LDLR mRNA expression. An inflammation-associated increase in the release of resistin into circulation might contribute to the prothrombotic state observed

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging and transient elastography in the management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ma Ai Thanda; Saouaf, Rola; Ayoub, Walid; Todo, Tsuyoshi; Mena, Edward; Noureddin, Mazen

    2017-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis worldwide and the second most common cause of liver transplantation in major medical centers. Because liver steatosis and fibrosis severity are related to disease morbidity and mortality, the extent of disease, and disease progression, they need to be assessed and monitored. In addition, innovation with new drug developments requires disease staging and monitoring in both phase 2 and 3 clinical trials. Currently, disease assessment in both clinical practice and research is mostly performed by liver biopsy, an invasive, procedure with risks. Noninvasive, highly accurate tests are needed that could be used in clinical trials as surrogate endpoints and in clinical practice for monitoring patients. Area Covered: We discuss noninvasive tests, transient elastography (TE) with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MR elastography (MRE), summarize the available evidence of their usefulness for assessing steatosis and fibrosis. Therefore they could be used as clinical trials outcomes and in disease monitoring in clinical practice. Expert Commentary: TE with CAP, MRI and MRE are highly accurate noninvasive diagnostic tools for quantifying hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. Therefore they could be used as clinical trials outcomes and in disease monitoring in clinical practice.

  7. Application of Weka environment to determine factors that stand behind non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutecki, Michal M.; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Socha, Piotr; Mulawka, Jan J.

    2009-06-01

    The paper describes an innovative approach to discover new knowledge in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In order to determine the factors that may cause the disease a number of classification and attribute selection algorithms have been applied. Only those with the best classification results were chosen. Several interesting facts associated with this unclear disease have been discovered. All data mining computations were made in Weka environment.

  8. Only one simple conclusion about the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-07-24

    Findings concerning climate change, by a three-man team of scientists from the North Dakota Geological Survey, which were presented in a paper read at the Eight International Williston Basin Horizontal Well Workshop, are discussed. The survey by the three scientists covered more than 6,000 scholarly publications. It reported that while the rise in the Earth's temperature is beyond argument, there is anything but agreement as to the causes, or whether the trend is unusual enough to justify concerted and costly actions to change lifestyles. It is shown by direct instrumental measurements that the average temperature at the Earth's surface increased about 0.8 degree Celsius between 1866 and 1998. During that time the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increased from 280 to 353 parts per million. While it is generally assumed that the global warming was caused by human activities, new techniques of measurement such as glacier ice coring, dendrochronology (tree-growth rings), lichenometry (measuring the diameter of lichens) and counting concentrations of oxygen 18 and 16 (isotopes whose presence in marine fossils varies depending on temperature) suggest that most of the global warming took place before the increase in carbon dioxide concentration occurred, raising the possibility that the increase in average temperature had causes other than the increase in greenhouse gases. Some of the studies reviewed by the group show that in Europe between ice ages during the Eemian period, some 135,000 to 110,000 years ago, temperature variations of seven degrees Celsius took place; they dropped from two degree Celsius warmer than today to five degree Celsius colder than today. Based on these findings the group's only firm conclusion was that climate is in a continual flux.

  9. Fructose and NAFLD: The Multifaceted Aspects of  Fructose Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2017-03-03

    Among various factors, such as an unhealthy diet or a sedentarity lifestyle, excessive fructose consumption is known to favor nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as fructose is both a substrate and an inducer of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. The present review presents some well-established mechanisms and new clues to better understand the pathophysiology of fructose-induced NAFLD. Beyond its lipogenic effect, fructose intake is also at the onset of hepatic inflammation and cellular stress, such as oxidative and endoplasmic stress, that are key factors contributing to the progression of simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Beyond its hepatic effects, this carbohydrate may exert direct and indirect effects at the peripheral level. Excessive fructose consumption is associated, for example, with the release by the liver of several key mediators leading to alterations in the communication between the liver and the gut, muscles, and adipose tissue and to disease aggravation. These multifaceted aspects of fructose properties are in part specific to fructose, but are also shared in part with sucrose and glucose present in energy- dense beverages and foods. All these aspects must be taken into account in the development of new therapeutic strategies and thereby to better prevent NAFLD.

  10. Fructose and NAFLD: The Multifaceted Aspects of  Fructose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanthi Jegatheesan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among various factors, such as an unhealthy diet or a sedentarity lifestyle, excessive fructose consumption is known to favor nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, as fructose is both a substrate and an inducer of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. The present review presents some well‐established mechanisms and new clues to better understand the pathophysiology of fructose‐induced NAFLD. Beyond its lipogenic effect, fructose intake is also at the onset of hepatic inflammation and cellular stress, such as oxidative and endoplasmic stress, that are key factors contributing to the progression of simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Beyond its hepatic effects, this carbohydrate may exert direct and indirect effects at the peripheral level. Excessive fructose consumption is associated, for example, with the release by the liver of several key mediators leading to alterations in the communication between the liver and the gut, muscles, and adipose tissue and to disease aggravation. These multifaceted aspects of fructose properties are in part specific to fructose, but are also shared in part with sucrose and glucose present in energy– dense beverages and foods. All these aspects must be taken into account in the development of new therapeutic strategies and thereby to better prevent NAFLD.

  11. Quantification of hepatic and visceral fat by CT and MR imaging: relevance to the obesity epidemic, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffy, Peter M; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2016-06-01

    Trends in obesity have continued to increase in the developed world over the past few decades, along with related conditions such as metabolic syndrome, which is strongly associated with this epidemic. Novel and innovative methods to assess relevant obesity-related biomarkers are needed to determine the clinical significance, allow for surveillance and intervene if appropriate. Aggregations of specific types of fat, specifically hepatic and visceral adiposity, are now known to be correlated with these conditions, and there are a variety of imaging techniques to identify and quantify their distributions and provide diagnostic information. These methods are particularly salient for metabolic syndrome, which is related to both hepatic and visceral adiposity but currently not defined by it. Simpler non-specific fat measurements, such as body weight, abdominal circumference and body mass index are more frequently used but lack the ability to characterize fat location. In addition, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a related condition that carries relevance not only for obesity-related diseases but also for the progression of the liver-specific disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis, albeit at a much lower frequency. Recent CT and MRI techniques have emerged to potentially optimize diagnosing metabolic syndrome and NAFLD through non-invasive quantification of visceral fat and hepatic steatosis with high accuracy. These imaging modalities should aid us in further understanding the relationship of hepatic and visceral fat to the obesity-related conditions such as metabolic syndrome, NAFLD and cardiovascular disease.

  12. Global Advisory Group: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    The conclusions and recommendations formulated for the global program by the 8th meeting of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group, which took place during November 1985, are summarized. The Global Advisory Group recommends that, in furtherance of the Five-Point Action Program endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 1983, 3 general and 4 specific actions be taken by national immunization programs with the support of the World Health Organization (WHO) to accelerate EPI progress. These recommendations reflect optimism that the 1990 goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by providing immunization for all children of the world can be realized but also acknowledge that many fundamental problems of national program management remain to be resolved. The general actions are: to promote the achievement of the 1990 immunization goal at national and international levels through collaboration among ministries, organizations, and individuals in both the public and private sectors; to adopt a mix of complementary strategies for program acceleration; and to ensure that rapid increases in coverage can be sustained through mechanisms which strengthen th delivery of other primary health care interventions. The specific actions are as follows: to provide immunization at every contact point; to reduce dropout rates between 1st and last immunizations; to improve immunization services to the disadvantaged in urban areas; and to increase priority for the control of measles, poliomyelitis, and neonatal tetanus. The WHO and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) have collaborated in support of the EPI since the early days of the program. The acceleration of national efforts heightens the importance of this collaboration, particularly at the national level. It may be further facilitated by the provision of policy guidance from global and regional levels, by WHO and UNICEF collaborative agreements at the regional level, and by country agreements

  13. NAFLD as a Sexual Dimorphic Disease: Role of Gender and Reproductive Status in the Development and Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Inherent Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestri, Stefano; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Baldelli, Enrica; Marrazzo, Alessandra; Romagnoli, Dante; Lonardo, Amedeo

    2017-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue. Ovarian senescence facilitates both the development of massive hepatic steatosis and the fibrotic progression of liver disease in an experimental overfed zebrafish model. Consistently, estrogen deficiency, by potentiating hepatic inflammatory changes, hastens the progression of disease in a dietary model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) developing in ovariectomized mice fed a high-fat diet. In humans, NAFLD more often affects men; and premenopausal women are equally protected from developing NAFLD as they are from cardiovascular disease. It would be expected that early menarche, definitely associated with estrogen activation, would produce protection against the risk of NAFLD. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that early menarche may confer an increased risk of NAFLD in adulthood, excess adiposity being the primary culprit of this association. Fertile age may be associated with more severe hepatocyte injury and inflammation, but also with a decreased risk of liver fibrosis compared to men and postmenopausal status. Later in life, ovarian senescence is strongly associated with severe steatosis and fibrosing NASH, which may occur in postmenopausal women. Estrogen deficiency is deemed to be responsible for these findings via the development of postmenopausal metabolic syndrome. Estrogen supplementation may at

  14. The Combined Intervention with Germinated Vigna radiata and Aerobic Interval Training Protocol Is an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD and Other Alterations Related to the Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garyfallia Kapravelou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean (Vigna radiata, a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65–85% VO2 max has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance statistical analysis. Germination of V. radiata over a period of four days originated a significant protein hydrolysis leading to the appearance of low molecular weight peptides. The combination of 4 day-germinated V. radiata and aerobic interval training was more efficient compared to raw V. radiata at improving the aerobic capacity and physical performance, hepatic histology and functionality, and plasma lipid parameters as well as reverting the insulin resistance characteristic of the obese Zucker rat model. In conclusion, the joint intervention with legume sprouts and aerobic interval training protocol is an efficient treatment to improve the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic histology and functionality related to the development of NAFLD and the MetS.

  15. The Combined Intervention with Germinated Vigna radiata and Aerobic Interval Training Protocol Is an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Other Alterations Related to the Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Nebot, Elena; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Cantarero, Samuel; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesus M

    2017-07-19

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean ( Vigna radiata ), a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65-85% VO₂ max) has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles) factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical analysis. Germination of V. radiata over a period of four days originated a significant protein hydrolysis leading to the appearance of low molecular weight peptides. The combination of 4 day-germinated V. radiata and aerobic interval training was more efficient compared to raw V. radiata at improving the aerobic capacity and physical performance, hepatic histology and functionality, and plasma lipid parameters as well as reverting the insulin resistance characteristic of the obese Zucker rat model. In conclusion, the joint intervention with legume sprouts and aerobic interval training protocol is an efficient treatment to improve the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic histology and functionality related to the development of NAFLD and the MetS.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of a noninvasive hepatic ultrasound score for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Oliveira, Ilka Regina Souza de; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Santos, Maira Solange Camara dos; Santos, Itamar Souza; Martines, Brenda Margatho Ramos; Meireles, Danilo Peron; Martines, João Augusto dos Santos; Misciagna, Giovanni; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive strategies for evaluating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been investigated over the last few decades. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a new hepatic ultrasound score for NAFLD in the ELSA-Brasil study. Diagnostic accuracy study conducted in the ELSA center, in the hospital of a public university. Among the 15,105 participants of the ELSA study who were evaluated for NAFLD, 195 individuals were included in this sub-study. Hepatic ultrasound was performed (deep beam attenuation, hepatorenal index and anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe) and compared with the hepatic steatosis findings from 64-channel high-resolution computed tomography (CT). We also evaluated two clinical indices relating to NAFLD: the fatty liver index (FLI) and the hepatic steatosis index (HSI). Among the 195 participants, the NAFLD frequency was 34.4%. High body mass index, high waist circumference, diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were associated with high hepatic attenuation and large anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe, but not with the hepatorenal index. The hepatic ultrasound score, based on hepatic attenuation and the anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe, presented the best performance for NAFLD screening at the cutoff point ≥ 1 point; sensitivity: 85.1%; specificity: 73.4%; accuracy: 79.3%; and area under the curve (AUC 0.85; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.78-0.91)]. FLI and HSI presented lower performance (AUC 0.76; 95% CI: 0.69-0.83) than CT. The hepatic ultrasound score based on hepatic attenuation and the anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe has good reproducibility and accuracy for NAFLD screening.

  17. Meta-Omic Platforms to Assist in the Understanding of NAFLD Gut Microbiota Alterations: Tools and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Chierico, Federica; Gnani, Daniela; Vernocchi, Pamela; Petrucca, Andrea; Alisi, Anna; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Nobili, Valerio; Lorenza, Putignani

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide as a result of the increasing prevalence of obesity, starting from early life stages. It is characterized by a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from simple fatty liver (NAFL) to steatohepatitis (NASH), with a possible progression to fibrosis, thus increasing liver-related morbidity and mortality. NAFLD development is driven by the co-action of several risk factors, including obesity and metabolic syndrome, which may be both genetically induced and diet-related. Recently, particular attention has been paid to the gut-liver axis, which may play a physio-pathological role in the onset and progression of the disease. The gut microbiota is intended to act as a bioreactor that can guarantee autonomous metabolic and immunological functions and that can drive functional strategies within the environment of the body in response to external stimuli. The complexity of the gut microbiota suggests that it behaves as an organ. Therefore, the concept of the gut-liver axis must be complemented with the gut-microbiota-liver network due to the high intricacy of the microbiota components and metabolic activities; these activities form the active diet-driven power plant of the host. Such complexity can only be revealed using systems biology, which can integrate clinical phenomics and gut microbiota data. PMID:24402126

  18. Meta-Omic Platforms to Assist in the Understanding of NAFLD Gut Microbiota Alterations: Tools and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Del Chierico

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide as a result of the increasing prevalence of obesity, starting from early life stages. It is characterized by a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from simple fatty liver (NAFL to steatohepatitis (NASH, with a possible progression to fibrosis, thus increasing liver-related morbidity and mortality. NAFLD development is driven by the co-action of several risk factors, including obesity and metabolic syndrome, which may be both genetically induced and diet-related. Recently, particular attention has been paid to the gut-liver axis, which may play a physio-pathological role in the onset and progression of the disease. The gut microbiota is intended to act as a bioreactor that can guarantee autonomous metabolic and immunological functions and that can drive functional strategies within the environment of the body in response to external stimuli. The complexity of the gut microbiota suggests that it behaves as an organ. Therefore, the concept of the gut-liver axis must be complemented with the gut-microbiota-liver network due to the high intricacy of the microbiota components and metabolic activities; these activities form the active diet-driven power plant of the host. Such complexity can only be revealed using systems biology, which can integrate clinical phenomics and gut microbiota data.

  19. Conclusive identification of quantum channels via monogamy of quantum correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Asutosh; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Pal, Amit Kumar; Prabhu, R.; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the action of global noise and local channels, namely, amplitude-damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels, on monogamy of quantum correlations, such as negativity and quantum discord, in three-qubit systems. We discuss the monotonic and non-monotonic variation, and robustness of the monogamy scores. By using monogamy scores, we propose a two-step protocol to conclusively identify the noise applied to the quantum system, by using generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger and generalized W states as resource states. We discuss a possible generalization of the results to higher number of parties. - Highlights: • Monogamy score monotonically decays with noise for generalized GHZ state as input. • Non-monotonically decaying monogamy score with noise for generalized W state as input. • Characterizing the dynamics of monogamy score. • Dynamics terminal quantifying robustness of monogamy score against noise. • Conclusively identifying the type of noise using monogamy score.

  20. Conclusive identification of quantum channels via monogamy of quantum correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Asutosh; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Pal, Amit Kumar [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Prabhu, R. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta 801103, Bihar (India); Sen, Aditi, E-mail: aditi@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Sen, Ujjwal [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-10-23

    We investigate the action of global noise and local channels, namely, amplitude-damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels, on monogamy of quantum correlations, such as negativity and quantum discord, in three-qubit systems. We discuss the monotonic and non-monotonic variation, and robustness of the monogamy scores. By using monogamy scores, we propose a two-step protocol to conclusively identify the noise applied to the quantum system, by using generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger and generalized W states as resource states. We discuss a possible generalization of the results to higher number of parties. - Highlights: • Monogamy score monotonically decays with noise for generalized GHZ state as input. • Non-monotonically decaying monogamy score with noise for generalized W state as input. • Characterizing the dynamics of monogamy score. • Dynamics terminal quantifying robustness of monogamy score against noise. • Conclusively identifying the type of noise using monogamy score.

  1. [Combination of NAFLD Fibrosis Score and liver stiffness measurement for identification of moderate fibrosis stages (II & III) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolz, Andreas; Wehmeyer, Malte; Diedrich, Tom; Piecha, Felix; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Kluwe, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver disease. Currently, therapeutic options for NAFLD patients are limited, but new pharmacologic agents are being investigated in the course of clinical trials. Because most of these studies are focusing on patients with fibrosis stages II and III (according to Kleiner), non-invasive identification of patients with intermediate fibrosis stages (II and III) is of increasing interest. Evaluation of NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) for prediction of fibrosis stages II/III. Patients with histologically confirmed NAFLD diagnosis were included in the study. All patients underwent a clinical and laboratory examination as well as a LSM prior to liver biopsy. Predictive value of NFS and LSM with respect to identification of fibrosis stages II/III was assessed. 134 NAFLD patients were included and analyzed. Median age was 53 (IQR 36 - 60) years, 55 patients (41 %) were female. 82 % of our patients were overweight/obese with typical aspects of metabolic syndrome. 84 patients (66 %) had liver fibrosis, 42 (50 %) advanced fibrosis. LSM and NFS correlated with fibrosis stage (r = 0.696 and r = 0.685, respectively; p stages II/III. If both criteria were met, probability of fibrosis stage II/III was 61 %. If none of the two criteria was met, chance for fibrosis stage II/III was only 6 % (negative predictive value 94 %). Combination of LSM and NFS enables identification of patients with significant probability of fibrosis stage II/III. Accordingly, these tests, especially in combination, may be a suitable screening tool for fibrosis stages II/III in NAFLD. The use of these non-invasive methods might also help to avoid unnecessary biopsies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Acoustic radiation force impulse-imaging and transient elastography for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis and steatosis in NAFLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Romen, Daniela; Vermehren, Johannes; Kriener, Susanne; Sadet, Dilek; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Bojunga, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Background: Transient elastography (TE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI)-imaging have shown promising results for the staging of liver fibrosis. Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare ARFI of the left and right liver lobe with TE using the standard and obese probes for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in NAFL/NASH. In addition, liver steatosis is evaluated using the novel controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). Methods: Sixty-one patients with NAFLD/NASH were included in the study. All patients received TE with both probes, ARFI of both liver lobes and CAP. The results were compared with liver histology. Results: 57 patients were included in the final analysis. The diagnostic accuracy for TE measurements with the M-and XL-probe and for ARFI of the right and left liver lobe was 0.73, 0.84, 0.71 and 0.60 for the diagnosis of severe fibrosis, and 0.93, 0.93, 0.74 and 0.90 for the diagnosis of cirrhosis, respectively. No significant difference of results was observed between TE and ARFI in the subgroup of patients with reliable TE-measurement when taking into account the best results of both methods. However, while a significant correlation could be found for TE with histological liver fibrosis, the correlation of ARFI with liver fibrosis was not statistically significant. A significant correlation was found for CAP with histological steatosis (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). Conclusions: No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis was found for transient elastography and ARFI. Nevertheless TE significantly correlated with liver fibrosis while ARFI did not. CAP enables the non-invasive assessment of steatosis.

  3. SARM1 deletion restrains NAFLD induced by high fat diet (HFD) through reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhen-Guo; An, Xu-Sheng

    2018-04-06

    SARM1 (Sterile alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein 1) is the recently identified TIR domain-containing cytosolic protein, which is involved in toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling transduction. In the present study, the role of SARM1 in high fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression was explored. We found that SARM1 was expressed highly in fatty liver. And SARM1-knockout (KO) reduced steatohepatitis and metabolic disorders induced by HFD. SARM1-deletion decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in HFD-fed mice. Additionally, inflammatory response caused by HFD was alleviated by SARM1-deletion through inactivating TLR4/7/9 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Of note, SARM1-deletion also reduced the expressions of inflammation-associated molecules in hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, HFD administration led to oxidative stress in liver of mice, while being decreased in SARM1-KO mice. Moreover, SARM1-ablation improved lipid dyslipidemia by suppressing the mRNA levels of genes, linked to glycolysis, lipogenesis and transcriptional regulation. Insulin resistance was also attenuated by SARM1-deficiency through enhancing the activation of liver Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1)/FOXO1 pathways in HFD-fed mice. Also, SARM1-knockout improved neuropeptide Y (NPY), Pro-Opiomelanocortins (POMC), Agouti-related Protein (AGRP) and Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Responsive Transcript 1 (CART1) expressions in hypothalamus of mice after HFD administration. In vitro, we found that the reduction of inflammatory response, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia induced by SARM1-knockout in primary hepatocytes after fructose stimulation was largely attributed to its suppression to TLR4/7/9. Together, the findings demonstrated that SARM1 might be an effective target for developing effective therapeutic strategies against NAFLD. Copyright © 2018

  4. A study of the prebiotic-like effects of tomato juice consumption in rats with diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, F J; González-Barrio, R; Martín-Pozuelo, G; Hidalgo, N; Navarro-González, I; Masuero, D; Soini, E; Vrhovsek, U; Periago, M J

    2017-10-18

    Gut microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. We investigated whether tomato juice consumption for 5 weeks could ameliorate high-fat diet-induced alterations in certain intestinal bacterial groups and products arising from their metabolism (short-chain fatty acids and microbial phenolic catabolites). For this, we used a rat model with NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet, involving four experimental groups: NA (standard diet and water), NL (standard diet and tomato juice), HA (high-fat diet and water) and HL (high-fat diet and tomato juice). The onset of NAFLD impacted the gut microbiota profile, reducing the abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and increasing that of Enterobacteriaceae. Also, reduced concentrations of propionate, butyrate and phenolic catabolites and an increased acetate to propionate (Ac : Pr) ratio were observed. Tomato juice intake partially ameliorated high-fat diet-induced disturbances, particularly by increasing Lactobacillus abundance and diminishing the Ac : Pr ratio, suggesting a potential improvement of the metabolic pattern of NAFLD.

  5. Jumping to conclusions and the continuum of delusional beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, Debbie M; Lysaker, Paul H; Martin, Joel M; Davis, Louanne; Haudenschield, Samantha L

    2007-06-01

    The present study examined the jumping to conclusions reasoning bias across the continuum of delusional ideation by investigating individuals with active delusions, delusion prone individuals, and non-delusion prone individuals. Neutral and highly self-referent probabilistic reasoning tasks were employed. Results indicated that individuals with delusions gathered significantly less information than delusion prone and non-delusion prone participants on both the neutral and self-referent tasks, (preferent task (p=.002). Those with delusions and those who were delusion prone reported higher confidence in their performance on the self-referent task than they did the neutral task (p=.02), indicating that high self-reference impacted information processing for individuals in both of these groups. The results are discussed in relation to previous research in the area of probabilistic reasoning and delusions.

  6. Activation of Liver AMPK with PF-06409577 Corrects NAFLD and Lowers Cholesterol in Rodent and Primate Preclinical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquejo, Ryan M; Salatto, Christopher T; Delmore, Jake; Albuquerque, Bina; Reyes, Allan; Shi, Yuji; Moccia, Rob; Cokorinos, Emily; Peloquin, Matthew; Monetti, Mara; Barricklow, Jason; Bollinger, Eliza; Smith, Brennan K; Day, Emily A; Nguyen, Chuong; Geoghegan, Kieran F; Kreeger, John M; Opsahl, Alan; Ward, Jessica; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Tess, David; Butler, Lynne; Shirai, Norimitsu; Osborne, Timothy F; Steinberg, Gregory R; Birnbaum, Morris J; Cameron, Kimberly O; Miller, Russell A

    2018-04-08

    Dysregulation of hepatic lipid and cholesterol metabolism is a significant contributor to cardiometabolic health, resulting in excessive liver lipid accumulation and ultimately non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Therapeutic activators of the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) have been proposed as a treatment for metabolic diseases; we show that the AMPK β1-biased activator PF-06409577 is capable of lowering hepatic and systemic lipid and cholesterol levels in both rodent and monkey preclinical models. PF-06409577 is able to inhibit de novo lipid and cholesterol synthesis pathways, and causes a reduction in hepatic lipids and mRNA expression of markers of hepatic fibrosis. These effects require AMPK activity in the hepatocytes. Treatment of hyperlipidemic rats or cynomolgus monkeys with PF-06409577 for 6weeks resulted in a reduction in circulating cholesterol. Together these data suggest that activation of AMPK β1 complexes with PF-06409577 is capable of impacting multiple facets of liver disease and represents a promising strategy for the treatment of NAFLD and NASH in humans. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Number of objectives and conclusions in dissertations and thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebano Richard Eloin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the number of objectives and conclusions presented in dissertations and thesis defended at Federal University of São Paulo - Paulista School of Medicine (UNIFESP - EPM. METHODS: It was realized a search in the master degree dissertations and doctor degree thesis defended at Federal University of São Paulo - Paulista School of Medicine in the years 2002 and 2003 that were found available in the central library of this university. RESULTS: From 723 master dissertations analyzed, 62 (8,57% presented only one objective and one conclusion, 134 (18,53% presented one objective and more than one conclusion and 527 (72,89% had more than one objective and more than one conclusion. From 502 doctor thesis analyzed, 23 (4,58% presented only one objective and one conclusion, 123 (24,50% presented one objective and more than one conclusion and 376 (74,90% had more than one objective and more than one conclusion.. CONCLUSIONS: It wasn't found in researched literature the number of objectives and conclusions a scientific work must have. A highest number of thesis and dissertations presented more than one objective and more than one conclusion.

  8. The Danish energy crop research and development project - main conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Production of energy crops in Denmark is more or less non-existent in Denmark at the time being. However, the need for biomass on the other side of year 2005 exceeds the existing biomass resources and a substantial amount of energy crops will be necessary in order to fulfil the goals in Energy 21. The targeted share of the use of renewable energy sources by year 2030 is approximately 30%. Energy crops are seen as the most important new resource in order to create a balanced input mix of renewable in the energy system. The energy crops are mainly seen as fuel in small and medium sized CHP plants and in the big power plants. The Danish energy crop project consists of three main parts: a demonstration part, a research and development part, and an overall assessment part. Based on the results from the project the following overall conclusions can be made: Seen from a strictly market and production economic point of view energy crops will not be competitive in a foreseeable future, neither as a production for farmers nor as a fuel at the utility companies; The costs per GJ of energy crops are still higher than a GJ of straw; The cost difference between annual and perennial energy crops are slightly in favour of perennials, however the conditions on the individual farms should govern the choice between annual and perennial energy crops; Energy crops must be seen as part of an overall environmental scheme covering both agriculture and the energy sector; Given the right production scheme energy crops can be grown on environmental sensitive areas and on most ground water protection areas; Adding the potential sustainability benefits like reduced nutrient leakage and reduced CO 2 emissions energy crops seem to be a sensible and sustainable solution; Due to different handling, storage and fuel characteristics an all year delivery scheme of energy crops should include a mix of different energy crops to keep overall cost down. (BA)

  9. Family history and obesity in youth, their effect on acylcarnitine/aminoacids metabolomics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Structural equation modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Ibarguengoitia, Maria Elena; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Caballero, Augusto Enrique; Ibarra-González, Isabel; Herrera-Rosas, Arturo; Serratos-Canales, María Fabiola; León-Hernández, Mireya; González-Chávez, Antonio; Mummidi, Srinivas; Duggirala, Ravindranath; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Background: Structural equation modeling (SEM) can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1) If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines woul...

  10. IDH2 Deficiency Aggravates Fructose-Induced NAFLD by Modulating Hepatic Fatty Acid Metabolism and Activating Inflammatory Signaling in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hoon Pan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fructose is a strong risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, resulting from the disruption of redox systems by excessive reactive oxygen species production in the liver cells. Of note, recent epidemiological studies indicated that women are more prone to developing metabolic syndrome in response to fructose-sweetened beverages. Hence, we examined whether disruption of the redox system through a deletion of NADPH supplying mitochondrial enzyme, NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2, exacerbates fructose-induced NAFLD conditions in C57BL/6 female mice. Wild-type (WT and IDH2 knockout (KO mice were treated with either water or 34% fructose water over six weeks. NAFLD phenotypes and key proteins and mRNAs involved in the inflammatory pathway (e.g., NF-κB p65 and IL-1β were assessed. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly increased in IDH2 KO mice fed fructose compared to the WT counterpart. Neutrophil infiltration was observed only in IDH2 KO mice fed fructose. Furthermore, phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and expression of IL-1β was remarkably upregulated in IDH2 KO mice fed fructose, and expression of IκBα was decreased by fructose treatment in both WT and IDH2 KO groups. For the first time, we report our novel findings that IDH2 KO female mice may be more susceptible to fructose-induced NAFLD and the associated inflammatory response, suggesting a mechanistic role of IDH2 in metabolic diseases.

  11. MRI and MRE for non-invasive quantitative assessment of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in NAFLD and NASH: Clinical trials to clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulai, Parambir S.; Sirlin, Claude B.; Loomba, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, and its prevalence is rising worldwide. The occurrence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with a substantial increase in disease related morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, there has been a surge of innovation surrounding drug development in an effort to off-set the natural progression and long-term risks of this disease. Disease assessment within clinical trials and clinical practice for NAFLD is currently done with liver biopsies. Liver biopsy-based assessments, however, remain imprecise and are not without cost or risk. This carries significant implications for the feasibility and costs of bringing therapeutic interventions to market. A need therefore arises for reliable and highly accurate surrogate end-points that can be used in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials to reduce trial size requirements and costs, while improving feasibility and ease of implementation in clinical practice. Significant advances have now been made in magnetic resonance technology, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and elastrography (MRE) have been demonstrated to be highly accurate diagnostic tools for the detection of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. In this review article, we will summarize the currently available evidence regarding the use of MRI and MRE among NAFLD patients, and the evolving role these surrogate biomarkers will play in the rapidly advancing arena of clinical trials in NASH and hepatic fibrosis. Furthermore, we will highlight how these tools can be readily applied to routine clinical practice, where the growing burden of NAFLD will need to be met with enhanced monitoring algorithms. PMID:27312947

  12. LPSF/GQ-02 inhibits the development of hepatic steatosis and inflammation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares e Silva, Amanda Karolina; de Oliveira Cipriano Torres, Dilênia; dos Santos Gomes, Fabiana Oliveira; dos Santos Silva, Bruna; Lima Ribeiro, Edlene; Costa Oliveira, Amanda; dos Santos, Laise Aline Martins; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a wide spectrum of liver diseases that extends from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Although the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains undefined, it is recognized that insulin resistance is present in almost all patients who develop this disease. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act as an insulin sensitizer and have been used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant conditions, including NAFLD. Hence, therapy of NAFLD with insulin-sensitizing drugs should ideally improve the key hepatic histological changes, while also reducing cardiometabolic and cancer risks. Controversially, TZDs are associated with the development of cardiovascular events and liver problems. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new therapeutic strategies to improve liver function in patients with chronic liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the therapeutic effects of LPSF/GQ-02 on the liver of LDLR-/- mice after a high-fat diet. Eighty male mice were divided into 4 groups and two different experiments: 1-received a standard diet; 2-fed with a high-fat diet (HFD); 3-HFD+pioglitazone; 4-HFD+LPSF/GQ-02. The experiments were conducted for 10 or 12 weeks and in the last two or four weeks respectively, the drugs were administered daily by gavage. The results obtained with an NAFLD murine model indicated that LPSF/GQ-02 was effective in improving the hepatic architecture, decreasing fat accumulation, reducing the amount of collagen, decreasing inflammation by reducing IL-6, iNOS, COX-2 and F4 / 80, and increasing the protein expression of IκBα, cytoplasmic NFκB-65, eNOS and IRS-1 in mice LDLR -/-. These results suggest a direct action by LPSF/GQ-02 on the factors that affect inflammation, insulin resistance and fat accumulation in the liver of these animals. Further studies are being conducted in our laboratory to investigate the possible mechanism of action of LPSF/GQ-02 on

  13. MicroRNA expression analysis in high fat diet-induced NAFLD-NASH-HCC progression: study on C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, Alessandra; Cicciarelli, Germana; Del Vecchio, Filippo; Gaggiano, Agata; Verzella, Daniela; Fischietti, Mariafausta; Mastroiaco, Valentina; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Barnabei, Remo; Capece, Daria; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Alesse, Edoardo

    2016-01-05

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent chronic liver disorder in developed countries. NAFLD can progress through the more severe non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and, lastly, HCC. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of coding genes as well as deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) activity play a role in HCC development. In this study, the C57BL/6J mouse model was long term high-fat (HF) or low-fat (LF) diet fed, in order to analyze molecular mechanisms responsible for the hepatic damage progression. Mice were HF or LF diet fed for different time points, then plasma and hepatic tissues were collected. Histological and clinical chemistry assays were performed to assess the progression of liver disease. MicroRNAs' differential expression was evaluated on pooled RNAs from tissues, and some miRNAs showing dysregulation were further analyzed at the individual level. Cholesterol, low and high density lipoproteins, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase increase was detected in HF mice. Gross anatomical examination revealed hepatomegaly in HF livers, and histological analysis highlighted different degrees and levels of steatosis, inflammatory infiltrate and fibrosis in HF and LF animals, demonstrating the progression from NAFLD through NASH. Macroscopic nodules, showing typical neoplastic features, were observed in 20% of HF diet fed mice. Fifteen miRNAs differentially expressed in HF with respect to LF hepatic tissues during the progression of liver damage, and in tumors with respect to HF non tumor liver specimens were identified. Among them, miR-340-5p, miR-484, miR-574-3p, miR-720, whose expression was never described in NAFLD, NASH and HCC tissues, and miR-125a-5p and miR-182, which showed early and significant dysregulation in the sequential hepatic damage process. In this study, fifteen microRNAs which were modulated in hepatic tissues and in tumors during

  14. Associations between dietary factors and markers of NAFLD in a general Dutch adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, A; Sluik, D; Feskens, E J M; Kok, F J; Mensink, M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this sudy was to assess the relationship between dietary intake and fatty liver as scored by the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI) in a large cross-sectional study among a general Dutch adult population. Diet is known to affect liver fat accumulation in humans. 1128 men and women aged 20-70 years were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. FLI was derived from body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triglycerides and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Associations were adjusted for energy intake, alcohol intake, age, sex, education, smoking and prevalence of hypertension and diabetes. In this population (mean age 53.0±11.4 years; BMI 25.9±4.0 kg/m 2 ; FLI 35.0±27.7), the prevalence of fatty liver as indicated by an FLI>60 was 21.5%. Subjects in the highest FLI category were more likely to be male, older and less physically active. Total protein intake and animal protein intake were positively associated with the highest FLI score versus the lowest (odds ratio (OR) 1.25 per 1 en%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.37 and OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.17-1.38, respectively); for vegetable protein, an inverse association was observed (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.94). A similar positive association with FLI was observed when carbohydrates and fat were iso-calorically exchanged for total and animal proteins. Subjects in the high FLI group consumed more protein, especially from animal origin, less carbohydrates and less dietary fibre. The presence of fatty liver was associated with a higher intake of animal protein and total fat, soft drinks and snacks.

  15. Hypothesis, Prediction, and Conclusion: Using Nature of Science Terminology Correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines the terms "hypothesis," "prediction," and "conclusion" and shows how to use the terms correctly in scientific investigations in both the school and science education research contexts. The scientific method, or hypothetico-deductive (HD) approach, is described and it is argued that an understanding of the scientific method,…

  16. Conclusion Chapters in Doctoral Theses: Some International Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafford, Vernon; Leshem, Shosh; Bitzer, Eli

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how candidates claimed to have made an original contribution to knowledge in the conclusion chapters of 100 PhD theses. Documentary analysis was used to discover how this was explained within theses at selected universities in three countries. No other documents were accessed and neither were candidates, supervisors or…

  17. Overview of human health in the Arctic: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Shawn; Adlard, Bryan; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to provide an overview of the key conclusions, knowledge gaps and key recommendations based on the recent 2015 Arctic human health assessment under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. This assessment was based primarily on data from human health monitoring and research studies and peer-reviewed literature published since the last assessment in 2009.

  18. 20 CFR 901.48 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Law Judge, before making his/her decision, shall give the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 901.48 Section 901.48 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE...

  19. Actual Problems of Conclusion and Discharge of Urgent Labour Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevelyova A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the consideration of the questions connected with the conclusion and the termination of the urgent labour contract. The author, analyzing judicial practice, allocates the problems of separate regulation of the RF labour legislation enforcement.

  20. Development of hepatocellular cancer induced by long term low fat-high carbohydrate diet in a NAFLD/NASH mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, Alessandra; Mastroiaco, Valentina; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Pompili, Simona; Cicciarelli, Germana; Barnabei, Remo; Capece, Daria; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Capalbo, Carlo; Alesse, Edoardo

    2017-08-08

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease. It can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in a percentage of cases, to hepatocarcinogenesis. The strong incidence in western countries of obesity and metabolic syndrome, whose NAFLD is the hepatic expression, is thought to be correlated to consumption of diets characterized by processed food and sweet beverages. Previous studies described high-fat diet-induced liver tumors. Conversely, the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in the progression of liver disease or cancer initiation has not been described yet. Here we show for the first time hepatic cancer formation in low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet fed NAFLD/NASH mouse model. Animals were long term high-fat, low-fat/high-carbohydrate or standard diet fed. We observed progressive liver damage in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat animals after 12 and, more, 18 months. Tumors were detected in 20% and 50% of high-fat diet fed mice after 12 and 18 months and, interestingly, in 30% of low-fat/high-carbohydrate fed animals after 18 months. No tumors were detected in standard diet fed mice. Global increase of hepatic interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and hepatocyte growth factor was detected in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat with respect to standard diet fed mice as well as in tumor with respect to non-tumor bearing mice. A panel of 15 microRNAs was analyzed: some of them revealed differential expression in low-fat/high-carbohydrate with respect to high-fat diet fed groups and in tumors. Data here shown provide the first evidence of the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in hepatic damage leading to tumorigenesis.

  1. Conclusion: imaging in strategy of endocrine diagnosis and therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, R.

    1995-01-01

    Images in medicine have to help the doctor in a diagnostic or therapeutic aim. The choice must be made in function of pathology or organ as known (it is not necessary to ask for a computed tomography where we know that only an echography can give the answer to the question we ask ), the criteria must stay the best performance for the cheapest price, but the quality of interpretation is a more important thing. It is important to avoid a lot of examinations which do not give better informations but are heavy to endure for the patients. In conclusion, the aim of this kind of proceedings is to assure to the patients who come confidently to us, the best service at the less constraints price without forgetting that a conclusion depends on a given methodological situation and reminding of beside machines we have not to forget the men

  2. Biogeochemistry of uranium mill wastes program overview and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.

    1981-05-01

    The major findings and conclusions are summarized for research on uranium mill tailings for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. An overview of results and interpretations is presented for investigations of 222 Rn emissions, revegetation of tailings and mine spoils, and trace element enrichment, mobility, and bioavailability. A brief discussion addresses the implications of these findings in relation to tailings disposal technology and proposed uranium recovery processes

  3. Summary and Conclusions. Final chapter of Scholarly Communication for Librarians.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Summary and Conclusions of Scholarly Communication for Librarians, a book designed to provide librarians at all levels with the basics of how scholarly communication works, an understanding of the academic library as an essential support for scholarly communication, the impact of the decisions librarians make, and emerging roles for libraries and librarians in scholarly communication. Includes major points from all chapters, on: scholarship, scholarly journals, the scholarly publishing indus...

  4. Review conclusions by Ernst and Canter regarding spinal manipulation refuted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Roni

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the April 2006 issue of the Journal of Royal Society of Medicine, Ernst and Canter authored a review of the most recent systematic reviews on the effectiveness of spinal manipulation for any condition. The authors concluded that, except for back pain, spinal manipulation is not an effective intervention for any condition and, because of potential side effects, cannot be recommended for use at all in clinical practice. Based on a critical appraisal of their review, the authors of this commentary seriously challenge the conclusions by Ernst and Canter, who did not adhere to standard systematic review methodology, thus threatening the validity of their conclusions. There was no systematic assessment of the literature pertaining to the hazards of manipulation, including comparison to other therapies. Hence, their claim that the risks of manipulation outweigh the benefits, and thus spinal manipulation cannot be recommended as treatment for any condition, was not supported by the data analyzed. Their conclusions are misleading and not based on evidence that allow discrediting of a large body of professionals using spinal manipulation.

  5. It pays to be green. A premature conclusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle, K.

    2006-01-01

    It has been claimed that good environmental performance can improve firms' economic performance. However, because of e.g. data limitations, the methods applied in most previous quantitative empirical studies on effects of environmental performance on economic performance of firms suffer from several shortcomings. We discuss these shortcomings and conclude that previously applied methods are unsatisfactory as support for a conclusion that it pays for firms to be green. Then we illustrate the consequences of these shortcomings by performing several regression analyses of the effect of environmental performance on economic performance using a panel data set of Norwegian plants. A pooled regression where observable firm characteristics like e.g. size or industry are controlled for, confirms a positive effect of environmental performance on economic performance. However, the estimated positive effect could be due to omitted unobserved variables like management or technology. When the regression model controls for unobserved plant heterogeneity, the effect is generally no longer statistically significant. Hence, although greener plants tend to perform economically better, the analysis provides little support for the claim that it is because they are greener. These empirical findings further indicate that a conclusion that it pays to be green is premature

  6. Higher free triiodothyronine is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid subjects: the Lifelines Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Eline H; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Amini, Marzyeh; Schreuder, Tim C M A; Faber, Klaas Nico; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2017-02-01

    Overt hypothyroidism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides; thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Thyroid function within the euthyroid range affects a number of health issues, including atherosclerosis development and biochemical markers of increased cardiovascular risk. However, the association of thyroid hormones with NAFLD in euthyroid subjects has not been unequivocally established. We therefore determined associations of thyroid hormone parameters with NAFLD among euthyroid subjects. The study was conducted in the Lifelines Cohort Study, a population-based cohort study of participants living in the North of the Netherlands. Only euthyroid subjects (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.5-4.0mU/L, free thyroxine (FT4) 11-19.5pmol/L and free triiodothyronine (FT3) 4.4-6.7pmol/L) older than 18years were included. Exclusion criteria were participants with excessive alcohol use, known hepatitis or cirrhosis, liver functions ≥ three times the upper limit, current cancer, non-white ancestry, previous or current use of thyroid medication and current use of lipid or glucose lowering medication. A priori defined liver biochemistry, thyroid function parameters and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied. NAFLD was defined by using the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI); FLI≥60 was categorized as NAFLD. A P<0.01 was considered significant. FLI≥60 was found in 4274 (21.1%) of 20,289 individuals (62.1% male, median age 46years) with increased prevalence of MetS (P<0.0001). In age- and sex-adjusted analysis FLI≥60 was independently associated with a higher FT3 (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.29-1.39, per SD increment, P<0.0001) and a lower FT4 (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75, P<0.0001) but not by TSH. The strongest association was found for the FT3/FT4 ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.39-1.49, P<0.0001). These associations remained similar after additional

  7. Conclusion of the I.C.T. benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacometti, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ICT Benchmark exercise made within the RIV working group of ESARDA on reprocessing data supplied by COGEMA for 53 routines reprocessing input batches made of 110 irradiated fuel assemblies from KWO Nuclear Power Plant was finally evaluated. The conclusions are: all seven different ICT methods applied verified the operator data on plutonium within about one percent; anomalies intentionally introduced to the operator data were detected in 90% of the cases; the nature of the introduced anomalies, which were unknown to the participants, was completely resolved for the safeguards relevant cases; the false alarm rate was in a few percent range. The ICT Benchmark results shows that this technique is capable of detecting and resolving anomalies in the reprocessing input data to the order of a percent

  8. The no conclusion intervention for couples in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migerode, Lieven

    2014-07-01

    Dealing with difference is central to all couple therapy. This article presents an intervention designed to assist couples in handling conflict. Central to this approach is the acceptance that most conflicts cannot be solved. Couples are in need of a different understanding of couples conflict. This understanding is found in the analysis of love in context and in relational dialectics. Couples are guided through different steps: deciding on the valence of the issue as individuals, helping them decide which differences can be resolved and which issues demand new ways of living with the inevitable, and the introduction in the suggested no conclusion dialogue. This article briefly describes the five day intensive couple therapy program, in which the no intervention is embedded. The theoretical foundation of the intervention, followed by the step by step description of the intervention forms the major part of the article. A case vignette illustrates this approach. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  9. The European Food Consumption Validation Project: conclusions and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Boer, E. J.; Slimani, N.; van 't Veer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To outline and discuss the main results and conclusions of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project. Subjects/Methods: The EFCOVAL Project was carried out within the EU Sixth Framework Program by researchers in 11 EU countries. The activities focused on (1...... showed that two non-consecutive EPIC-Soft 24-HDRs are suitable to estimate the usual intake distributions of protein and potassium of European adult populations. The 2-day non-consecutive 24-HDRs in combination with a food propensity questionnaire also appeared to be appropriate to rank individuals...... according to their fish and fruit and vegetable intake in a comparable way in five European centers. Dietary intake of (young) children can be assessed by the combination of EPIC-Soft 24-HDRs and food recording booklets. The EPIC-Soft-standardized method of describing foods is useful to estimate dietary...

  10. The accident at the Harrisburg nuclear reactor - Interim conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.

    1979-07-01

    This work describes the first minutes, first day and first week following the Three Mile Island accident. It shows the failures that occurred and the lessons which should be derived. It is pointed out that the doses of radiation that escaped from the TMI plant were at no time large enough to have had any effect on the 2 million people living on a radius of 80 km from the plant. Although no casualties occurred the Harrisburg accident will create an impulse for a new study and understanding of the nuclear plant safety and might serve as a live safety laboratory. After the TMI accident nuclear plants are already safer, one of the conclusions being that a new planning of the operation room is required, with the operators acquiring a better understanding of what is going on during a nuclear reactor accident. (B.G.)

  11. Workshop on large molten pool heat transfer summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The CSNI Workshop on Large Molten Heat Transfer held at Grenoble (France) in March 1994 was organised by CSNI's Principal Working Group on the Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4) with the cooperation of the Principal Working Group on Coolant System Behaviour (FWG2) and in collaboration with the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Conclusions and recommendations are given for each of the five sessions of the workshops: Feasibility of in-vessel core debris cooling through external cooling of the vessel; Experiments on molten pool heat transfer; Calculational efforts on molten pool convection; Heat transfer to the surrounding water - experimental techniques; Future experiments and ex-vessel studies (open forum discussion)

  12. Snakebites in French Guiana: Conclusions of an international symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallel, Hatem; Hommel, Didier; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Megarbane, Bruno; Resiere, Dabor

    2018-05-01

    A workshop on epidemiology and management of snakebites in French Guiana was performed at Cayenne, French Guiana from September 15 to September 16, 2017, under the auspices of the French Regional Health Agency (ARS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The activity was attended by experts from France (Angers, Martinique, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Paris), Costa Rica, Brazil, Saint Lucia, and Surinam. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, clinical grading and the management of snakebite in French Guiana were discussed. The conclusions of this symposium illustrated the urgent need to ensure accessibility of effective and safe polyvalent viperid antivenom in French Guiana. Finally, the results of this symposium have forged ties based on mutual goals and objectives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Conclusions regarding geotechnical acceptability of the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was authorized by Congress in 1980 as an unlicensed research and development (R and D) facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes arising from the defense activities and programs of the United States. WIPP is now being constructed in southeast New Mexico, using salt beds about 655 m below the surface of the ground. Construction of the full WIPP facility will not commence until a preliminary underground excavation phase, called Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV), is satisfactorily concluded in the summer of 1983. This SPDV program permits confirmation of subsurface geology, in drifts at planned facility depth that extend for 1555 m in a north-south direction, and in the two vertical shafts that provide access to these drifts. The subsurface studies are nearing completion, and it is therefore appropriate to draw conclusions regarding the geotechnical acceptability of the WIPP site. Four geotechnical elements are discussed: dissolution, deformation, hydrologic regime, and natural resources

  14. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  15. Summary of the discussion, Conclusion of the meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.

    1997-01-01

    The discussion was organised in three major periods corresponding to the main themes developed by the programme of the meeting: the qualification approaches, the qualification experience accumulated so far, one particular frame or motivation of the ISI qualification: the risk based (or informed) ISI. The qualification approaches presented by national representatives raised few questions. More discussion was induced on the qualification concepts, responsibilities, need and writing of the technical justification, motivation for the open trials, similitude between concepts, benefit deriving from the qualification of inspection procedures and further motivation. the conclusion could be as the following: the evolution of qualification applications, even if issued from harmonised concepts, appears to be nationalistically based. It is a thought that emulation and harmonisation could actually produce both savings and improvements in this area. 'The wheel does not have to be re-invented in each country' and it is the declared objective of ENIQ. There seems to be a need for some international agreement in the setting of standards for qualification. One area which seems to continue to be of underlying concern is in the characterisation of defects. There seems to be a need for appropriate 'defected blocks' satisfying the criteria of representativeness, quality, low cost, reproducibility, etc. More specific cases of Technical Justification development are needed to serve as examples and incentive for the case of this element of inspection qualification

  16. Summary of conclusions of the vacuum photodiode working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the design of a 30 MV gun. In considering the design of the vacuum photodiode switched to drive the accelerating field in the gun, we have paid attention to the work of the groups on high-voltage pulsing and on the design of the laser. We have found that we can trade off reduced laser power at the cost of a higher charging voltage for our one stage accelerator. We have presented the various parameter sets to the two groups and attempted to measure their enthusiasm for each set, and we have chosen the set that seems to provide an equal level of difficulty on both sides. 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Medical irradiation of children. Beware of too fast conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, H.; Sirinelli, D.; Adamsbaum, C.; Chateil, J.F.; Claudon, M.; Geoffray, A.; Petit, P.; Rausin, L.; Panuel, M.

    2004-01-01

    The publication in january 2004 in the British medical journal of the article of P. Hall and coll. 'Effect of low doses of ionizing irradiation in infancy on cognitive function in adulthood: Swedish population based cohort study, has been noticed by the Radiation protection group of the French speaking society of pediatrics imaging. The authors evaluate the psycho-motor development of less eighteen months years old children and irradiated between 1930 and 1959 for a face angioma. They study for each dose of irradiation ( from 0 to 250 m Gy) the level of school attendance and their results to the psycho-motor tests made during conscription medical examination. They noticed a diminution of 50% of the access success rate to university for the children having received an irradiation dose of 250 mG. No effect is noticed under the irradiation dose of 100 mGy. In their conclusions the authors compare these irradiation doses to these ones delivered in brain scanner examination. These results seem overestimated compared with the work made on fetuses ( publication 84 of ICRP) then the fetus is considered as more sensitive to ionizing radiations than the infant. The dose of 120 mGy is found in the literature and now the dose delivered in pediatrics are in the area of 0 and 100 mGy where no effect has been revealed in the cohort of irradiated children. The article does not include the principle of justification that is used nowadays and the replacement by the trans fontanel echography has allowed to reduce the number of brain scanner, used only for limited cases where the benefit is superior the the risk of irradiation. (N.C.)

  18. Plurihormonal cells of normal anterior pituitary: Facts and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanova, Lubov B.; Konovalov, Petr V.; Krylova, Julia S.; Polyakova, Victoria O.; Kvetnoy, Igor M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas is an ability of adenoma cells to produce more than one hormone. After the immunohistochemical analysis had become a routine part of the morphological study, a great number of adenomas appeared to be multihormonal in actual practice. We hypothesize that the same cells of a normal pituitary gland releases several hormones simultaneously. Objective To analyse a possible co-expression of hormones by the cells of the normal anterior pituitary of adult humans in autopsy material. Materials and methods We studied 10 pituitary glands of 4 women and 6 men with cardiovascular and oncological diseases. Double staining immunohistochemistry using 11 hormone combinations was performed in all the cases. These combinations were: prolactin/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin/luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin/adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH)/TSH, GH/LH, GH/FSH, GH/ACTH, TSH/LH, TSH/FSH, TSH/ACTH. Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy with a mixture of primary antibodies was performed in 2 cases. These mixtures were ACTH/prolactin, FSH/prolactin, TSH/prolactin, ACTH/GH, and FSH/GH. Results We found that the same cells of the normal adenohypophysis can co-express prolactin with ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH; GH with ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, and TSH with ACTH, FSH, LH. The comparison of the average co-expression coefficients of prolactin, GH and TSH with other hormones showed that the TSH co-expression coefficient was significantly the least (9,5±6,9%; 9,6±7,8%; 1,0±1,3% correspondingly). Conclusion Plurihormonality of normal adenohypophysis is an actually existing phenomenon. Identification of different hormones in pituitary adenomas enables to find new ways to improve both diagnostic process and targeted treatment. PMID:28418929

  19. Waste Handling Shaft concrete liner degradation conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The primary function of the Waste Handling Shaft (WHS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to permit the transfer of radioactive waste from the surface waste handling building to the underground storage area. It also serves as an intake shaft for small volumes of air during normal storage operations and as an emergency escape route. Part of the construction was the placement of a concrete liner and steel reinforced key in 1984. During a routine shaft inspection in May 1990, some degradation of the WHS concrete liner was observed between the depths of 800 and 900 feet below the ground surface. Detailed investigations of the liner had been carried out by Sandia National Laboratories and by Westinghouse Electric Corporation Waste Isolation Division (WID) through Lankard Materials Laboratory. Observations, reports, and data support the conclusion that the concrete degradation, resulting from attack by chemically aggressive brine, is a localized phenomena. It is the opinion of the WID that the degradation is not considered an immediate or near term concern; this is supported by technical experts. WID recommendations have been made which, when implemented, will ensure an extended liner life. Based on the current assessment of available data and the proposed shaft liner monitoring program described in this report, it is reasonable to assume that the operational life of the concrete shaft liner can safely support the 25-year life of the WIPP. Analysis of data indicates that degradation of the shaft's concrete liner is attributed to chemically aggressive brine seeping through construction joints and shrinkage cracks from behind the liner in and around the 834-foot depth. Chemical and mechanical components of concrete degradation have been identified. Chemical attack is comprised of several stages of concrete alteration. The other component, mechanical degradation, results from the expansive forces of crystals forming in the concrete pore space

  20. SU-F-I-63: Relaxation Times of Lipid Resonances in NAFLD Animal Model Using Enhanced Curve Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K-H; Yoo, C-H; Lim, S-I; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relaxation time of methylene resonance in comparison with other lipid resonances. Methods: The examinations were performed on a 3.0T MRI scanner using a four-channel animal coil. Eight more Sprague-Dawley rats in the same baseline weight range were housed with ad libitum access to water and a high-fat (HF) diet (60% fat, 20% protein, and 20% carbohydrate). In order to avoid large blood vessels, a voxel (0.8×0.8×0.8 cm{sup 3}) was placed in a homogeneous area of the liver parenchyma during free breathing. Lipid relaxations in NC and HF diet rats were estimated at a fixed repetition time (TR) of 6000 msec, and multi echo time (TEs) of 40–220 msec. All spectra for data measurement were processed using the Advanced Method for Accurate, Robust, and Efficient Spectral (AMARES) fitting algorithm of the Java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface (jMRUI) package. Results: The mean T2 relaxation time of the methylene resonance in normal-chow diet was 37.1 msec (M{sub 0}, 2.9±0.5), with a standard deviation of 4.3 msec. The mean T2 relaxation time of the methylene resonance was 31.4 msec (M{sub 0}, 3.7±0.3), with a standard deviation of 1.8 msec. The T2 relaxation times of methylene protons were higher in normal-chow diet rats than in HF rats (p<0.05), and the extrapolated M{sub 0} values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p<0.005). The excellent linear fit with R{sup 2}>0.9971 and R{sup 2}>0.9987 indicates T2 relaxation decay curves with mono-exponential function. Conclusion: In in vivo, a sufficient spectral resolution and a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be achieved, so that the data measured over short TE values can be extrapolated back to TE = 0 to produce better estimates of the relative weights of the spectral components. In the short term, treating the effective decay rate as exponential is an adequate approximation.

  1. Summary and conclusions of the faults-in-clay project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.R.; Brightman, M.A.; Jackson, P.D.; Sen, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises a research project carried out by the British Geological Survey, in cooperation with ISMES of Italy, into the geophysical detection of faults in clay formations and the determination of the hydrogeological effects of such faults on the groundwater flow regime. Following evaluation of potential research sites, an extensive programme of investigations was conducted at Down Ampney, Gloucester, where the Oxford Clay formation is underlain by the aquifers of the Great Oolite Limestone group. A previously unknown fault of 50 m throw was identified and delineated by electrical resistivity profiling; the subsequent development of a technique utilising measurements of total resistance improved the resolution of the fault 'location' to an accuracy of better than one metre. Marked anisotropy of the clay resistivities complicates conventional geophysical interpretation, but gives rise to a characteristic anomaly across the steeply inclined strata in the fault zone. After exploratory core drilling, an array of 13 boreholes was designed and completed for cross-hole seismic tomography and hydrogeological measurement and testing. The groundwater heads in the clays were found to be in disequilibrium with those in the aquifers, as a result of water supply abstraction. The indication is that the hydraulic conductivity of the fault zone is higher than that of the surrounding clay by between one and two orders of magnitude. Methodologies for the general investigation of faults in clay are discussed. (Author)

  2. The mathematical knowledge of physics graduates: Primary data and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenberger, Ernst

    1992-04-01

    Systematic observations were made of the mathematical knowledge of physics students from the U.S. and other countries during their first years of graduate study at Ohio University. It was found that all were deficient in general and in ``modern'' mathematical concepts, and in problem-solving skills. Sizable fractions of them did not even possess adequate concepts of ``derivative,'' ``integration,'' and ``truth.'' Nearly all were limited to some familiarity with rather elementary calculus, and with equally elementary differential and linear equations, but they showed some ability and a pronounced willingness to perform manipulations. Roughly, they regarded mathematics as mechanical method, not as constructive thinking. In view of the significantly higher levels of mathematical fluency demanded by contemporary advances in physics and in computer usage, none of these students was adequately prepared for future-oriented study, or for research and employment in physics and related areas at the close of the 20th century. It is intended to discuss the likely causes of this state of affairs elsewhere with a view toward remedial actions.

  3. Working memory capacity in social anxiety disorder: Revisiting prior conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, Stephanie; Moscovitch, David A; Vidovic, Vanja; Bielak, Tatiana; Rowa, Karen; McCabe, Randi E

    2018-04-01

    In one of the few studies examining working memory processes in social anxiety disorder (SAD), Amir and Bomyea (2011) recruited participants with and without SAD to complete a working memory span task with neutral and social threat words. Those with SAD showed better working memory performance for social threat words compared to neutral words, suggesting an enhancement in processing efficiency for socially threatening information in SAD. The current study sought to replicate and extend these findings. In this study, 25 participants with a principal diagnosis of SAD, 24 anxious control (AC) participants with anxiety disorders other than SAD, and 27 healthy control (HC) participants with no anxiety disorder completed a working memory task with social threat, general threat, and neutral stimuli. The groups in the current study demonstrated similar working memory performance within each of the word type conditions, thus failing to replicate the principal findings of Amir and Bomyea (2011). Post hoc analyses revealed a significant association between higher levels of anxiety symptomatology and poorer overall WM performance. These results inform our understanding of working memory in the anxiety disorders and support the importance of replication in psychological research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Implementation of severe accident management measures - Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    implemented in various ways in many plants, but not yet in all plants. A systematic approach, which is based upon a clearly defined decision-making process, is one of the features implemented in many cases. Available means are determined and priorities are set. This approach is made up of strategies intended to become an optimum approach to prevent or mitigate the consequences of beyond-design basis accidents. It is based upon a prepared information package about plant-specific behaviour to be expected in beyond design scenarios. The approaches followed in the different countries do not fit one single pattern. Harmonization, to the extent it is desirable, does not seem feasible at this stage. As a rule, the responsibility of the plant owner for the safety of his plant remains untouched. Also, safety goals may vary between countries. This report presents the general conclusion and recommendations of the workshop and the summaries of the sessions

  5. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  6. CSNI/NEA Rasplav seminar 2000. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    various boundary conditions were investigated. The work involved a combination of integral and separate effect tests including molten-salt tests to investigate non-eutectic mixtures and the effects of stratification, extension of the material property database to allow interpretation and modelling of the experimental data. The CSNI decided to hold a seminar where the major outcome of the RASPLAV Project could be presented and discussed also in the context of other experienced activities on Severe Accidents. The objectives of the seminar are: - to review the experimental results of the RASPLAV Project; - to exchange information on complementary research; - to discuss the progress made on understanding severe accident progression; - to discuss the applicability to nuclear power plants and use of the results. The Seminar was intended to provide an in-depth review of the RASPLAV Project in terms of the technical capabilities, results and analyses produced during the project execution. The application of the results and their significance for power plant applications were addressed. Relevant results of the complementary research carried out at various laboratories were also presented. The seminar consisted of five sessions organised as follows: - Opening and overview; - Experimental results; - Theoretical Analyses; - Application and complementary research; - Conclusion

  7. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Clearest-Ever Evidence from VLT Spectra of Powerful Event Summary A very bright burst of gamma-rays was observed on March 29, 2003 by NASA's High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE-II) , in a sky region within the constellation Leo. Within 90 min, a new, very bright light source (the "optical afterglow") was detected in the same direction by means of a 40-inch telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory (Australia) and also in Japan. The gamma-ray burst was designated GRB 030329 , according to the date. And within 24 hours, a first, very detailed spectrum of this new object was obtained by the UVES high-dispersion spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It allowed to determine the distance as about 2,650 million light-years (redshift 0.1685). Continued observations with the FORS1 and FORS2 multi-mode instruments on the VLT during the following month allowed an international team of astronomers [1] to document in unprecedented detail the changes in the spectrum of the optical afterglow of this gamma-ray burst . Their detailed report appears in the June 19 issue of the research journal "Nature". The spectra show the gradual and clear emergence of a supernova spectrum of the most energetic class known, a "hypernova" . This is caused by the explosion of a very heavy star - presumably over 25 times heavier than the Sun. The measured expansion velocity (in excess of 30,000 km/sec) and the total energy released were exceptionally high, even within the elect hypernova class. From a comparison with more nearby hypernovae, the astronomers are able to fix with good accuracy the moment of the stellar explosion. It turns out to be within an interval of plus/minus two days of the gamma-ray burst. This unique conclusion provides compelling evidence that the two events are directly connected. These observations therefore indicate a common physical process behind the hypernova explosion and the associated emission of strong gamma

  8. CSNI/NEA Rasplav seminar 2000. Summary and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-15

    various boundary conditions were investigated. The work involved a combination of integral and separate effect tests including molten-salt tests to investigate non-eutectic mixtures and the effects of stratification, extension of the material property database to allow interpretation and modelling of the experimental data. The CSNI decided to hold a seminar where the major outcome of the RASPLAV Project could be presented and discussed also in the context of other experienced activities on Severe Accidents. The objectives of the seminar are: - to review the experimental results of the RASPLAV Project; - to exchange information on complementary research; - to discuss the progress made on understanding severe accident progression; - to discuss the applicability to nuclear power plants and use of the results. The Seminar was intended to provide an in-depth review of the RASPLAV Project in terms of the technical capabilities, results and analyses produced during the project execution. The application of the results and their significance for power plant applications were addressed. Relevant results of the complementary research carried out at various laboratories were also presented. The seminar consisted of five sessions organised as follows: - Opening and overview; - Experimental results; - Theoretical Analyses; - Application and complementary research; - Conclusion.

  9. Medical irradiation of children. Beware of too fast conclusion; Irradiation medicale de l'enfant. Attention aux conclusions hatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, H. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Imagerie, 75 - Paris (France); Sirinelli, D. [Hopital Clocheville, Service de Radiologie et Echographie, 37 - Tours (France); Adamsbaum, C. [Hopital Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Chateil, J.F. [Hopital Pellegrin, Unite de Radiopediatrie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Claudon, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Nancy-Hopital Brabois Enfants, Service de Radiologie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Geoffray, A. [Fondation Lenval, Service de Radiologie, 06 - Nice (France); Petit, P. [Hopital de la Timone, Service de Radiologie, 13 - Marseille (France); Rausin, L. [Centre Hospitalier Regional de la Citadelle, Service de Radiologie, Liege (Belgium); Panuel, M. [Hopital Nord, Service de Radiologie, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2004-10-01

    The publication in january 2004 in the British medical journal of the article of P. Hall and coll. 'Effect of low doses of ionizing irradiation in infancy on cognitive function in adulthood: Swedish population based cohort study, has been noticed by the Radiation protection group of the French speaking society of pediatrics imaging. The authors evaluate the psycho-motor development of less eighteen months years old children and irradiated between 1930 and 1959 for a face angioma. They study for each dose of irradiation ( from 0 to 250 m Gy) the level of school attendance and their results to the psycho-motor tests made during conscription medical examination. They noticed a diminution of 50% of the access success rate to university for the children having received an irradiation dose of 250 mG. No effect is noticed under the irradiation dose of 100 mGy. In their conclusions the authors compare these irradiation doses to these ones delivered in brain scanner examination. These results seem overestimated compared with the work made on fetuses ( publication 84 of ICRP) then the fetus is considered as more sensitive to ionizing radiations than the infant. The dose of 120 mGy is found in the literature and now the dose delivered in pediatrics are in the area of 0 and 100 mGy where no effect has been revealed in the cohort of irradiated children. The article does not include the principle of justification that is used nowadays and the replacement by the trans fontanel echography has allowed to reduce the number of brain scanner, used only for limited cases where the benefit is superior the the risk of irradiation. (N.C.)

  10. Debris impact on emergency coolant recirculation - summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Bhagwat; Hsia, Anthony; Armand, Yves; Mattei, Jean-Marie; Hyvaerinen, Juhani; Maqua, Michael; Puetter, Bernhard; Sandervaag, Oddbjoern; Vandewalle, Andre; Tombuyses, Beatrice; Pyy, Pekka; Royen, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    to two orders of magnitude because of strainer clogging. Consequently, the CSNI decided to continue its previous efforts in the area. The overall purpose of the 2004 Workshop was to discuss the impact of new information made available since 1996 and to promote consensus among member countries on identification of remaining technical issues important to safety, and on possible paths for their resolution. The specific purposes of the Workshop were: a. To review the knowledge base and in particular information developed after 1999, and to consider the validity of the conclusions drawn. b. To exchange information on the current status of research related to debris generation, debris transportation, and sump strainer clogging and penetration phenomena, in particular for PWRs, and to assess uncertainties. c. To exchange and disseminate information on recent and current activities and practices in these areas. d. To identify and discuss differences between approaches relevant to reactor safety. e. To identify technical issues and programs of interest for international collaborative research and develop an Action Plan outlining activities that CSNI should undertake in the area of strainer or sump screen clogging during the next few years. Summary of the main findings: a. The safety significance of the sump strainer clogging depends on the plant design (e.g. sump strainer, ECCS) and backfitting measures performed. b. The following are examples of PWR design features that could influence the debris impact on the ECCS sump performance: - Type of insulation (material, combination of materials, protection). - Break size to be postulated. - Transport in containment with or without containment spray system (CSS). - Degree of turbulence and flow velocities in the sump influenced by CSS, water level, break flow location and sump geometry. - Redundancy of sumps and residual heat removal system (RHRS). - Strainer design (area, mesh size). - Positioning of recirculation pumps and vortex

  11. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: lessons and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edwin B.

    1970-01-01

    local waves. Better earthquake-hazard maps, based on improved knowledge of regional geology, fault behavior, and earthquake mechanisms, are needed for the entire country. Their preparation will require the close collaboration of engineers, seismologists, and geologists. Geologic maps of all inhabited places in earthquake-prone parts of the country are also needed by city planners and others, because the direct relationship between local geology and potential earthquake damage is now well understood. Improved and enlarged nets of earthquake-sensing instruments, sited in relation to known geology, are needed, as are many more geodetic and hydrographic measurements. Every large earthquake, wherever located, should be regarded as a full-scale laboratory experiment whose study can give scientific and engineering information unobtainable from any other source. Plans must be made before the event to insure staffing, funding, and coordination of effort for the scientific and engineering study of future earthquakes. Advice of earth scientists and engineers should be used in the decision-making processes involved in reconstruction after any future disastrous earthquake, as was done after the Alaska earthquake. The volume closes with a selected bibliography and a comprehensive index to the entire series of U.S. Geological Survey Professional Papers 541-546. This is the last in a series of six reports that the U.S. Geological Survey published on the results of a comprehensive geologic study that began, as a reconnaissance survey, within 24 hours after the March 27, 1964, Magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake and extended, as detailed investigations, through several field seasons. The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was the largest earthquake in the U.S. since 1700. Professional Paper 546, in 1 part, describes Lessons and Conclusions.

  12. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  13. 5. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Beerli, Monique Jo

    2013-01-01

    Attracted by conflict and war, starvation and disease, natural disasters and underdevelopment, discrimination and injustice, solidarity organizations and their supporters engage themselves in struggles for the acquisition of benefits that they themselves will not receive. In the absence of political solutions addressing the demands of a given people, non-state actors are capable of appropriating functions and responsibilities upon themselves which the state is unwilling or unable to perform. ...

  14. Conclusion conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are the basis of spectacular advancements in biology, but also in medicine, not only indirectly with progress in disease and human body understanding, but also directly through nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The important role of the Cea in the development of French radiotherapy, dosimetry and radioactive isotopes (especially cobalt) is reviewed

  15. Effect of enforced physical inactivity induced by 60-day of bed rest on hepatic markers of NAFLD in healthy normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudwill, Floriane; Bergouignan, Audrey; Gastebois, Caroline; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Lefai, Etienne; Blanc, Stéphane; Simon, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    Physical inactivity leads to a cluster of metabolic disorders that have been associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. We tested whether physical inactivity increases hepatic biomarkers of NAFLDs. Sixteen normal-weight healthy women (body mass index = 21.2 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) ) were studied under controlled energy balance conditions during a previous 60-day bed rest with (n = 8) or without (n = 8) a combined aerobic/resistive exercise protocol. Stored samples were retrospectively used to measure plasma hepatic markers, i.e. steatosis-related alanine and aspartate transaminases, cytokeratin 18 and angiopoietin-like 3, at baseline, after 30 and 60 days of bed rest. Fasting insulin and triglycerides were measured at baseline and after 30 days of bed rest. Two indexes were calculated, one combining alanine and aspartate transaminase and cytokeratin 18 and another cytokeratin 18, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and aspartate aminotransferase. Sixty days of bed rest increased all hepatic markers (P inactive conditions. Physical inactivity increases, independent of fat mass, hepatic markers of steatosis and steatohepatitis. Regular exercise can limit these physical inactivity-induced metabolic alterations. Future studies need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on In-Hospital and Long-Term Outcomes in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Muhammed; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Uzun, Ahmet Okan; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Şahin, Sinan; Kozan, Ömer

    2017-11-15

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. We investigated the effect of NAFLD grade on in-hospital and long-term outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The study group consisted of 360 patients with STEMI. The patients were classified according to the grade of the NAFLD using ultrasonography. Based on this classification, all patients were divided into 4 subgroups as grade 0 (no fatty liver disease), grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3. Hierarchical logistic regression and Cox proportional regression analysis were used to establish the relation between NAFLD grade and outcomes. In-hospital mortality for grade 0, 1, 2, and 3 NAFLDs were 4.7%, 8.3%, 11.3%, and 33.9%, respectively. Three-year mortality for grade 0, 1, 2, and 3 NAFLDs were 5.6%, 7.8%, 9.5%, and 33.3%, respectively. In the multivariable hierarchical logistic regression analysis, in-hospital mortality risks were higher for patients with grade 3 NAFLD (odds ratio 4.2). In a multivariable Cox proportional regression analysis, the mortality risk was higher for patients with grade 3 NAFLD (hazard ratio 4.0). In conclusion, in patients with STEMI, the presence of NAFLD is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Among these patients, grade 3 NAFLD had the highest mortality rates. The present study supports NAFLD screening in patients with STEMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. INTERNATIONALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  18. "Jumping to conclusions" in delusion-prone participants: an experimental economics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leer, Leslie; McKay, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    That delusional and delusion-prone individuals "jump to conclusions" on probabilistic reasoning tasks is a key finding in cognitive neuropsychiatry. Here we focused on a less frequently investigated aspect of "jumping to conclusions" (JTC): certainty judgments. We incorporated rigorous procedures from experimental economics to eliminate potential confounds of miscomprehension and motivation and systematically investigated the effect of incentives on task performance. Low- and high-delusion-prone participants (n = 109) completed a series of computerised trials; on each trial, they were shown a black or a white fish, caught from one of the two lakes containing fish of both colours in complementary ratios. In the betting condition, participants were given £4 to distribute over the two lakes as they wished; in the control condition, participants simply provided an estimate of how probable each lake was. Deviations from Bayesian probabilities were investigated. Whereas high-delusion-prone participants in both the control and betting conditions underestimated the Bayesian probabilities (i.e. were conservative), low-delusion-prone participants in the control condition underestimated but those in the betting condition provided accurate estimates. In the control condition, there was a trend for high-delusion-prone participants to give higher estimates than low-delusion-prone participants, which is consistent with previous reports of "jumping to conclusions" in delusion-prone participants. However, our findings in the betting condition, where high-delusion-prone participants provided lower estimates than low-delusion-prone participants (who were accurate), are inconsistent with the jumping-to-conclusions effect in both a relative and an absolute sense. Our findings highlight the key role of task incentives and underscore the importance of comparing the responses of delusion-prone participants to an objective rational standard as well as to the responses of non

  19. Role of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 in the Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics of Silymarin Flavonolignans in Patients with HCV and NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silymarin is the most commonly used herbal medicine by patients with chronic liver disease. Silymarin flavonolignans undergo rapid first-pass metabolism primarily by glucuronidation. The aims of this investigation were: (1 to determine the association of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism with the area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs for silybin A (SA and silybin B (SB; (2 to evaluate the effect of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism on the profile of flavonolignan glucuronide conjugates found in the plasma; and (3 to investigate the role of UGT1A1 enzyme kinetics on the pharmacokinetics of SA and SB. AUCs and metabolic ratios for thirty-three patients with chronic liver disease administered oral doses of silymarin were compared between different UGT1A1*28 genotypes. The AUCs, metabolic ratios, and the profiles of major SA and SB glucuronides did not differ significantly among the three UGT1A1 genotypes. In contrast, an increase in the proportion of sulfated flavonolignan conjugates in plasma was observed in subjects with UGT1A1*28/*28 genotype compared to subjects carrying wild type alleles. Differences in SA and SB in vitro intrinsic clearance estimates for UGTIA1 correlated inversely with SA and SB exposures observed in vivo indicating a major role for UGT1A1 in silymarin metabolism. In addition, a significant difference in the metabolic ratio observed between patients with NAFLD and HCV suggests that any effect of UGT1A1 polymorphism may be obscured by a greater effect of liver disease on the pharmacokinetics of silymarin. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of the UGT1A1*28 allele does not contribute significantly to a large inter-subject variability in the pharmacokinetics of silybin A and silybin B which may obscure the ability to detect beneficial effects of silymarin in patients with liver disease.

  20. How often do sensitivity analyses for economic parameters change cost-utility analysis conclusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R; Gold, Heather Taffet; Stone, Patricia W; Neumann, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    -utility threshold above the base-case results (n = 25) were of somewhat higher quality, and were more likely to justify their sensitivity analysis parameters, than those that did not (n = 45), but the overall quality rating was only moderate. Sensitivity analyses for economic parameters are widely reported and often identify whether choosing different assumptions leads to a different conclusion regarding cost effectiveness. Changes in HR-QOL and cost parameters should be used to test alternative guideline recommendations when there is uncertainty regarding these parameters. Changes in discount rates less frequently produce results that would change the conclusion about cost effectiveness. Improving the overall quality of published studies and describing the justifications for parameter ranges would allow more meaningful conclusions to be drawn from sensitivity analyses.

  1. Attaining and Maintaining a Continuity of Knowledge to Draw Safeguards Conclusions with Confidence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, Robert [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Blair, Dianna S. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pickett, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    As the 21st century progresses, new nuclear facilities and the expansion of nuclear activities into new countries will require the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to place a higher reliance on attaining and maintaining a Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) of its safeguards information than is currently practiced. Additionally, a conceptual view of where and how CoK can be applied will need to evolve to support improved efficiency and efficacy of drawing a safeguards conclusion for each Member State. The ability to draw a safeguards conclusion for a Member State will be predicated on the confidence that CoK has been attained and subsequently maintained with respect to the data and information streams used by the IAEA. This confidence can be described as a function of factors such as elapsed time since the measurement, surveillance of attributes, authentication of information, historic knowledge of potential system failures, and the number and type of data collections. A set of general scenarios are further described for determining what is required to attain CoK and whether CoK has been maintained. A high-level analysis of example scenarios is presented to identify failures or gaps that could cause a loss of CoK. Potential areas for technological research and development are discussed for the next generation of CoK tools.

  2. What Is NAFLD and NASH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  3. Risk for development of severe liver disease in lean patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Hannes; Nasr, Patrik; Ekstedt, Mattias; Hammar, Ulf; Stål, Per; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Kechagias, Stergios

    2018-01-01

    Most patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are overweight or obese. However, a significant proportion of patients have a normal body mass index (BMI), denoted as lean NAFLD. The long-term prognosis of lean NAFLD is unclear. We conducted a cohort study of 646 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Patients were defined as lean (BMI lean and nonlean NAFLD. Lean NAFLD was seen in 19% of patients, while 52% were overweight and 29% were obese. Patients with lean NAFLD were older, had lower transaminases, lower stages of fibrosis, and lower prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at baseline compared to patients with a higher BMI. During a mean follow-up of 19.9 years (range 0.4-40 years) representing 12,631 person years and compared to patients who were overweight, patients with lean NAFLD had no increased risk for overall mortality (hazard ratio 1.06; P =  0.73) while an increased risk for development of severe liver disease was found (hazard ratio 2.69; P =  0.007). Conclusion : Although patients with lean NAFLD have lower stages of fibrosis, they are at higher risk for development of severe liver disease compared to patients with NAFLD and a higher BMI, independent of available confounders. ( Hepatology Communications 2018;2:48-57).

  4. Sampling season affects conclusions on soil arthropod community structure responses to metal pollution in Mediterranean urban soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santorufo, L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Maisto, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess if the period of sampling affected conclusions on the responses of arthropod community structure to metal pollution in urban soils in the Mediterranean area. Higher temperature and lower precipitation were detected in autumn than in spring. In both samplings, the most

  5. No Conclusive Evidence for Transits of Proxima b in MOST Photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipping, David M.; Chen, Jingjing; Sandford, Emily [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W. 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Cameron, Chris [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Geology, Cape Breton University, 1250 Grand Lake Road, Sydney, NS B1P 6L2 (Canada); Hartman, Joel D.; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Penev, Kaloyan; Csubry, Zoltan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Davenport, James R. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, 516 High Street, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States); Matthews, Jaymie M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Sasselov, Dimitar [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rowe, Jason [Observatoire Astronomque du Mont Mégantic, Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal C. P. 6128, Succursale, Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Jordán, Andrés [Instituto de Astrofísica, Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Bayliss, Daniel [Observatoire Astronomique de Universite de Genéve, 51 ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Henning, Thomas; Mancini, Luigi [Max Plank Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2017-03-01

    The analysis of Proxima Centauri’s radial velocities recently led Anglada-Escudé et al. to claim the presence of a low-mass planet orbiting the Sun’s nearest star once every 11.2 days. Although the a priori probability that Proxima b transits its parent star is just 1.5%, the potential impact of such a discovery would be considerable. Independent of recent radial velocity efforts, we observed Proxima Centauri for 12.5 days in 2014 and 31 days in 2015 with the Microwave and Oscillations of Stars space telescope. We report here that we cannot make a compelling case that Proxima b transits in our precise photometric time series. Imposing an informative prior on the period and phase, we do detect a candidate signal with the expected depth. However, perturbing the phase prior across 100 evenly spaced intervals reveals one strong false positive and one weaker instance. We estimate a false-positive rate of at least a few percent and a much higher false-negative rate of 20%–40%, likely caused by the very high flare rate of Proxima Centauri. Comparing our candidate signal to HATSouth ground-based photometry reveals that the signal is somewhat, but not conclusively, disfavored (1 σ –2 σ ), leading us to argue that the signal is most likely spurious. We expect that infrared photometric follow-up could more conclusively test the existence of this candidate signal, owing to the suppression of flare activity and the impressive infrared brightness of the parent star.

  6. Gulf War Illnesses: DOD's Conclusions about U.S. Troops' Exposure Cannot Be Adequately Supported

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, Keith

    2004-01-01

    ... (MOD) conclusions about troops' exposure. The GAO found that DoD's and MOD's conclusions about troops' exposure to CW agents, based on DoD and CIA plume modeling, cannot be adequately supported...

  7. Move Analysis of the Conclusion Sections of Research Papers in Persian and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Gerannaz; Ebadi, Saman

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the conclusion sections in Research Papers (RPs) is of significance in academic writing. The conclusion section in spite of providing an outline of the article, states other essential components, such as recommendations, implications and statements of possible lines of future research. This paper analyses the conclusion parts of…

  8. Conclusiveness of the Cochrane reviews in gynaecological cancer: A systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shande; Chuai, Yunhai; Wang, Aiming; Zhang, Lanmei

    2015-06-01

    To assess the conclusiveness of Cochrane reviews in the field of gynaecological cancer. The Cochrane Library was searched for reviews regarding gynaecological cancer published between 1 January 2000 and 1 November 2014. Data were extracted from each paper and the conclusiveness of each review was assessed. The study included 66 reviews, 41 (62.1%) of which were conclusive. Of these, 58 included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 37 (63.8%) of which were conclusive. Conclusive reviews of RCTs included significantly more patients than inconclusive reviews, but there was no difference in the number of included studies. Of the eight reviews of nonrandomized studies, four (50.0%) were conclusive. The majority of reviews recognized the need for additional studies. In the field of gynaecological cancer, reviews are more likely to be conclusive when they include RCTs, as well as large numbers of patients. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Radioactive-waste ocean dumping will have negligible enviromental impact. Conclusion of draft assessment of NSB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    This draft report is the result of extensive studies based on the best available information in the field of oceanography, marine radiobiology and health physics. On various basic considerations, assessment was undertaken, and the following conclusion was reached. The quantity of radioactivity to be dumped at one time is assumed to be 500 Ci in the case of test dumping, and 10/sup 5/ Ci/year in the case of full-scale dumping. The conditions required for the dumping sea area are that the bottom water flow and upwelling amount are limited, and that the sea bottom is flat. The horizontal dispersion coefficient of 10/sup 7/ cm/sup 2//sec and the vertical dispersion coefficient of 2 x 10/sup 2/ cm/sup 2//sec are assumed. It is assumed that the radionuclides in the disposed package would leached out as soon as it reaches the sea bottom, and would not show any physicochemical behavior. Typycal radionuclides are classified into 5 groups in terms of their half lives, and their estimated concentrations at 1 km depth are tabulated. The maximum level of individual dose and the magnitude of population dose were assessed on the fishermen working in the dumping sea area, and the adults, children and infants who were expected to receive higher dose on account of the larger intake of fish products than average. The dose level given with the dose assessment model and various panamentors under the dumping conditions is much lower than natural radiation and the permissible level recommended by ICRP.

  10. Evaluation of Basal Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels and Their Relationship with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Patients with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy controls. NAFLD was an independent associated factor for ACTH levels in male IHH patients. These preliminary findings provided evidence of the relationship between basal serum ACTH and NAFLD in male IHH patients.

  11. Relationship between funding source and conclusion among nutrition-related scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Ebbeling, Cara B; Goozner, Merrill; Wypij, David; Ludwig, David S

    2007-01-01

    Industrial support of biomedical research may bias scientific conclusions, as demonstrated by recent analyses of pharmaceutical studies. However, this issue has not been systematically examined in the area of nutrition research. The purpose of this study is to characterize financial sponsorship of scientific articles addressing the health effects of three commonly consumed beverages, and to determine how sponsorship affects published conclusions. Medline searches of worldwide literature were used to identify three article types (interventional studies, observational studies, and scientific reviews) about soft drinks, juice, and milk published between 1 January, 1999 and 31 December, 2003. Financial sponsorship and article conclusions were classified by independent groups of coinvestigators. The relationship between sponsorship and conclusions was explored by exact tests and regression analyses, controlling for covariates. 206 articles were included in the study, of which 111 declared financial sponsorship. Of these, 22% had all industry funding, 47% had no industry funding, and 32% had mixed funding. Funding source was significantly related to conclusions when considering all article types (p = 0.037). For interventional studies, the proportion with unfavorable conclusions was 0% for all industry funding versus 37% for no industry funding (p = 0.009). The odds ratio of a favorable versus unfavorable conclusion was 7.61 (95% confidence interval 1.27 to 45.73), comparing articles with all industry funding to no industry funding. Industry funding of nutrition-related scientific articles may bias conclusions in favor of sponsors' products, with potentially significant implications for public health.

  12. Conclusiveness of fine needle aspiration in 2419 histologically confirmed benign and malignant breast lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, B.; Wauters, C.; Wobbes, T.; Strobbe, L.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to retrospectively assess (1) the conclusiveness of breast fine needle aspiration (FNA) in a histologically confirmed population and (2) the clinical and radiologic determinants of a conclusive diagnosis. Aspirates were diagnosed as inadequate, benign, atypical, suspicious or malignant. We

  13. 20 CFR 410.471 - Conclusion by physician regarding miner's disability or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conclusion by physician regarding miner's disability or death. 410.471 Section 410.471 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.471 Conclusion...

  14. Diffusion versus linear ballistic accumulation: different models but the same conclusions about psychological processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkin, C.; Brown, S.; Heathcote, A.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative models for response time and accuracy are increasingly used as tools to draw conclusions about psychological processes. Here we investigate the extent to which these substantive conclusions depend on whether researchers use the Ratcliff diffusion model or the Linear Ballistic

  15. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conclusions of the presidency. European council of Barcelona, March 15 and 16 2002; Conclusions de la presidence. Conseil europeen de Barcelone 15 et 16 mars 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document summarizes the conclusions of the European Council held in Barcelona (Spain) on March 15 and 16, 2002. Among the priority actions listed by the council figure the integration of energy, transportation and communication networks at the European scale. In particular, the council commits the Parliament and itself to start the final phase of opening of gas and electricity markets: free choice of a supplier, obligation of public utility, security of supplies, separation between transmission and distribution and between production and supply, non-discriminatory access of consumers and suppliers to networks with transparent tariffs, establishment of a regulatory agency in each member state, agreement for a tariffing system for the international electricity trades etc.. Concerning the sustainable development strategy of the European union, the council is pressing the member states for the completion of the national procedures of ratification of the Kyoto protocol. However, new measures need to be taken to develop technologies respectful for the environment, in particular in the domain of energy and transports. (J.S.)

  17. Three Mile Island unit 2 vessel investigation project. Conclusions and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    At the conclusion of the TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project, additional insights about the accident have been gained, specifically in the area of reactor vessel integrity and the conditions of the lower head of the reactor vessel. This paper discusses three topics: the evolving views about the TMI-2 accident scenario over time, the technical conclusions of the TMI-2 VIP (recovery of samples from the vessel lower head), and the broad significance of these findings (accident management). 4 refs

  18. Funding source, conflict of interest and positive conclusions in neuro-oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Fabio Y; Mendez, Lucas C; Taunk, Neil K; Raman, Srinivas; Suh, John H; Souhami, Luis; Slotman, Ben; Weltman, Eduardo; Spratt, Daniel E; Berlin, Alejandro; Marta, Gustavo N

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to test any association between authors' conclusions and self-reported COI or funding sources in central nervous system (CNS) studies. A review was performed for CNS malignancy clinical trials published in the last 5 years. Two investigators independently classified study conclusions according to authors' endorsement of the experimental therapy. Statistical models were used to test for associations between positive conclusions and trials characteristics. From February 2010 to February 2015, 1256 articles were retrieved; 319 were considered eligible trials. Positive conclusions were reported in 56.8% of trials with industry-only, 55.6% with academia-only, 44.1% with academia and industry, 77.8% with none, and 76.4% with not described funding source (p = 0.011). Positive conclusions were reported in 60.4% of trials with unrelated COI, 60% with related COI, and 60% with no COI reported (p = 0.997). Factors that were significantly associated with the presence of positive conclusion included trials design (phase 1) [OR 11.64 (95 CI 4.66-29.09), p source [OR 2.45 (95 CI 1.22-5.22), p = 0.011]. In a multivariable regression model, all these factors remained significantly associated with trial's positive conclusion. Funding source and self-reported COI did not appear to influence the CNS trials conclusion. Funding source information and COI disclosure were under-reported in 14.1 and 17.2% of the CNS trials. Continued efforts are needed to increase rates of both COI and funding source reporting.

  19. Application of Artificial Neural Networks in the Heart Electrical Axis Position Conclusion Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakanovskaya, L. N.

    2016-08-01

    The article touches upon building of a heart electrical axis position conclusion model using an artificial neural network. The input signals of the neural network are the values of deflections Q, R and S; and the output signal is the value of the heart electrical axis position. Training of the network is carried out by the error propagation method. The test results allow concluding that the created neural network makes a conclusion with a high degree of accuracy.

  20. A fallacious jar? The peculiar relation between descriptive premises and normative conclusions in neuroethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nils-Frederic; Northoff, Georg

    2015-06-01

    Ethical questions have traditionally been approached through conceptual analysis. Inspired by the rapid advance of modern brain imaging techniques, however, some ethical questions appear in a new light. For example, hotly debated trolley dilemmas have recently been studied by psychologists and neuroscientists alike, arguing that their findings can support or debunk moral intuitions that underlie those dilemmas. Resulting from the wedding of philosophy and neuroscience, neuroethics has emerged as a novel interdisciplinary field that aims at drawing conclusive relationships between neuroscientific observations and normative ethics. A major goal of neuroethics is to derive normative ethical conclusions from the investigation of neural and psychological mechanisms underlying ethical theories, as well as moral judgments and intuitions. The focus of this article is to shed light on the structure and functioning of neuroethical arguments of this sort, and to reveal particular methodological challenges that lie concealed therein. We discuss the methodological problem of how one can--or, as the case may be, cannot--validly infer normative conclusions from neuroscientific observations. Moreover, we raise the issue of how preexisting normative ethical convictions threaten to invalidate the interpretation of neuroscientific data, and thus arrive at question-begging conclusions. Nonetheless, this is not to deny that current neuroethics rightly presumes that moral considerations about actual human lives demand empirically substantiated answers. Therefore, in conclusion, we offer some preliminary reflections on how the discussed methodological challenges can be met.

  1. Acceleration toward the conclusion negotiation of bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements indispensable for globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumata, Hiroki; Hattori, Takuya; Ake, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    According to Japan's basic policies of new growth strategy, it would be one option of the economic growth to increase exports of nuclear power plant system or its equipments. However, bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements are indispensable for business activities on nuclear power. Recently signature of agreement with Jordan, agreed conclusion negotiation with Vietnam and Korea, under negotiation with India and expected negotiation with Indonesia and Malaysia. Signed agreements with Russia and Kazakhstan will be coming into effect and contribute nuclear fuel supply at export of nuclear power system. This special article consists of four expert's papers titled as (1) necessity of conclusion negotiation of nuclear cooperation agreements with several countries simultaneously and in parallel, (2) Japan's nuclear cooperation in new era, (3) desirable acceleration of conclusion negotiation of nuclear cooperation agreements and (4) insurance of nuclear fuel supply fundamental for global business activities of Japan's nuclear industries-best choice to establish cooperative relations with US and Russia. (T. Tanaka)

  2. The grand leap of the whale up the Niagara Falls: converting philosophical conclusions into policy prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Søren

    2015-04-01

    This article analyzes a neat conjuring trick employed in bioethics, that is, the immediate conversion of a philosophical conclusion into a policy prescription, and compares it to the "grand leap of the whale up the Niagara Falls" mentioned by Benjamin Franklin. It is shown that there is no simple and easy way to achieve the conversion, by considering arguments falling under four headings: (1) reasonable disagreement about values and theories, (2) general jurisprudential arguments, (3) the differences between policymaking and philosophy, and (4) the messy world of implementation. The particular issue used to illustrate the difficulties in moving from philosophical conclusion to policy description is infanticide of healthy infants, but the analysis is general, and the conclusion that the immediate move to policy is illegitimate is quite general.

  3. N Reactor Production Assurance Program blance of plant evaluation: report of findings and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, E.N.; Bitten, E.J.

    1985-03-01

    Fourteen tasks were identified by UNC Nuclear Industries for evaluating the life expectancy of N Reactor structures, systems and components in the Balance of Plant portion of the Production Assurance Program. A Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) evaluation team was assigned to each of these fourteen tasks. A uniform set of criteria was used by all teams in evaluating the problems that may be encountered during the extended plant operating lifetime. The overall conclusion is that extended life to those Balance of Plant components and systems studied can be achieved. Problems with the potential for compromising that conclusion are identified, and feasible solutions are provided

  4. Optimal conclusive teleportation of a d-dimensional two-particle unknown quantum state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan; Zhu Fu-Chen

    2006-01-01

    A conclusive teleportation protocol of a d-dimensional two-particle unknown quantum state using three ddimensional particles in an arbitrary pure state is proposed. A sender teleports the unknown state conclusively to a receiver by using the positive operator valued measure(POVM) and introducing an ancillary qudit to perform the generalized Bell basis measurement. We calculate the optimal teleportation fidelity. We also discuss and analyse the reason why the information on the teleported state is lost in the course of the protocol.

  5. Benchmark exercises on PWR level-1 PSA (step 3). Analyses of accident sequence and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Yuji; Takahashi, Hideaki.

    1996-01-01

    The results of level 1 PSA generate fluctuations due to the assumptions based on several engineering judgements set in the stages of PSA analysis. On the purpose of the investigation of uncertainties due to assumptions, three kinds of a standard problem, what we call benchmark exercise have been set. In this report, sensitivity studies (benchmark exercise) of sequence analyses are treated and conclusions are mentioned. The treatment of inter-system dependency would generate uncertainly of PSA. In addition, as a conclusion of the PSA benchmark exercise, several findings in the sequence analysis together with previous benchmark analyses in earlier INSS Journals are treated. (author)

  6. The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Jaarsma, Thomas; Dewhurst, Richard; Boshuizen, Els

    2013-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Jaarsma, T., Dewhurst, R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, October). The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine. Paper presented at the New tools and practices for seeing and learning in medicine ’12, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

  7. Jumping to the wrong conclusions? An investigation of the mechanisms of reasoning errors in delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Suzanne; Thompson, Claire; Hurley, James; Medin, Evelina; Butler, Lucy; Bebbington, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Freeman, Daniel; Fowler, David; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa

    2014-10-30

    Understanding how people with delusions arrive at false conclusions is central to the refinement of cognitive behavioural interventions. Making hasty decisions based on limited data ('jumping to conclusions', JTC) is one potential causal mechanism, but reasoning errors may also result from other processes. In this study, we investigated the correlates of reasoning errors under differing task conditions in 204 participants with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis who completed three probabilistic reasoning tasks. Psychotic symptoms, affect, and IQ were also evaluated. We found that hasty decision makers were more likely to draw false conclusions, but only 37% of their reasoning errors were consistent with the limited data they had gathered. The remainder directly contradicted all the presented evidence. Reasoning errors showed task-dependent associations with IQ, affect, and psychotic symptoms. We conclude that limited data-gathering contributes to false conclusions but is not the only mechanism involved. Delusions may also be maintained by a tendency to disregard evidence. Low IQ and emotional biases may contribute to reasoning errors in more complex situations. Cognitive strategies to reduce reasoning errors should therefore extend beyond encouragement to gather more data, and incorporate interventions focused directly on these difficulties. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. 19 CFR 210.63 - Proposed findings and conclusions and briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions and briefs. 210.63 Section 210.63 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.63 Proposed findings...

  9. 19 CFR 210.40 - Proposed findings and conclusions and briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions and briefs. 210.40 Section 210.40 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Prehearing Conferences and Hearings § 210...

  10. Conclusions and recommendations. [for problems in energy situation, air transportation, and hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented for an analysis of the total energy situation; the effect of the energy problem on air transportation; and hydrogen fuel for aircraft. Properties and production costs of fuels, future prediction for energy and transportation, and economic aspects of hydrogen production are appended.

  11. 20 CFR 220.112 - Conclusions by physicians concerning the claimant's disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or which has... may have to consider such factors as age, education and past work experience. Such vocational factors... opinion by a treating source will be conclusive as to the medical issues of the nature and severity of a...

  12. Oklo: The fossil nuclear reactors. Physics study - Translation of chapters 6, 13 and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudet, R [CEA, Paris (France)

    1996-09-01

    Three parts of the 1991 book `Oklo: reacteurs nucleaires fossiles. Etude physique` have been translated in this report. The chapters bear the titles `Study of criticality`(45 p.), `Some problems with the overall functioning of the reactor zones`(45 p.) and `Conclusions` (15 p.), respectively.

  13. Oklo: The fossil nuclear reactors. Physics study - Translation of chapters 6, 13 and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, R.

    1996-09-01

    Three parts of the 1991 book 'Oklo: reacteurs nucleaires fossiles. Etude physique' have been translated in this report. The chapters bear the titles 'Study of criticality'(45 p.), 'Some problems with the overall functioning of the reactor zones'(45 p.) and 'Conclusions' (15 p.), respectively

  14. Tritium in precipitation of Vostok (Antarctica): conclusions on the tritium latitude effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Detlef

    2011-09-01

    During the Antarctic summer of 1985 near the Soviet Antarctic station Vostok, firn samples for tritium measurements were obtained down to a depth of 2.40 m. The results of the tritium measurements are presented and discussed. Based on this and other data, conclusions regarding the tritium latitude effect are derived.

  15. Relationship between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Psoriasis: A Novel Hepato-Dermal Axis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Alessandro; Gisondi, Paolo; Lonardo, Amedeo; Targher, Giovanni

    2016-02-05

    Over the past 10 years, it has become increasingly evident that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multisystem disease that affects multiple extra-hepatic organ systems and interacts with the regulation of several metabolic and immunological pathways. In this review we discuss the rapidly expanding body of clinical and epidemiological evidence supporting a strong association between NAFLD and chronic plaque psoriasis. We also briefly discuss the possible biological mechanisms underlying this association, and discuss treatment options for psoriasis that may influence NAFLD development and progression. Recent observational studies have shown that the prevalence of NAFLD (as diagnosed either by imaging or by histology) is remarkably higher in psoriatic patients (occurring in up to 50% of these patients) than in matched control subjects. Notably, psoriasis is associated with NAFLD even after adjusting for metabolic syndrome traits and other potential confounding factors. Some studies have also suggested that psoriatic patients are more likely to have the more advanced forms of NAFLD than non-psoriatic controls, and that psoriatic patients with NAFLD have more severe psoriasis than those without NAFLD. In conclusion, the published evidence argues for more careful evaluation and surveillance of NAFLD among patients with psoriasis.

  16. Pentraxin 3 Is a Predictor for Fibrosis and Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ozturk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether pentraxin 3 (PTX3 can be a new noninvasive marker for prediction of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. We also aimed to evaluate the relationship between PTX3 and atherosclerosis in patients with NAFLD. Method. Fifty-four male patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 20 apparently healthy male volunteers were included. PTX3 levels were determined, using an ELISA method (R&D Sysytems, Quantikine ELISA, USA. To detect the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in NAFLD, measurements of CIMT, FMD, and cf-PWV levels were performed. Results. PTX3 levels in NAFLD patients with fibrosis were higher than both NAFLD patients without fibrosis and controls (P=0.032 and P=0.028, respectively, but there was no difference between controls and NAFLD patients without fibrosis in terms of PTX3 levels (P=0.903. PTX3 levels were strongly correlated with cf-PWV (r=0.359, P=0.003, whereas no significant correlation was found with other atherosclerosis markers, CIMT and FMD. Conclusion. Elevated plasma PTX3 levels are associated with the presence of fibrosis in patients with NAFLD, independently of metabolic syndrome components. This study demonstrated that for the first time there is a close association between elevated PTX3 levels and increased arterial stiffness in patients with NAFLD.

  17. Energy 2000: effects of the program and conclusions from its evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balthasar, A.

    2000-01-01

    The action program Energy 2000 has been continually reviewed by independent experts in view of its effects. This resulted in around 50 scientific studies between 1991 and 1999, dealing with different aspects of the program. In the book 'Energy 2000: effects of the program and conclusions from its evaluation', the results of these evaluations are summarised, and conclusions for the design of the follow-up program are drawn. The organisational frame of the program is presented and the question answered whether the determining principles of the program proved practical. Besides, the effects of state intervention, of the conflict solving groups and the voluntary actions of Energy 2000 are appraised. A separate chapter is dedicated to the evaluation strategy of the program, its implementation and the benefits of the evaluations. Propositions for the evaluation of the follow-up program are formulated as well. Dr. Andreas Balthasar is President of the Swiss Evaluation Society. (author)

  18. The 1993 Finnish Interdisciplinary Seminar on SETI - A review of aims, approaches and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppanen, Jouko

    1993-10-01

    The communications of the International Interdisciplinary Seminar on SETI, held on March 6-7, 1993 in Vantaa, Finland, are reviewed and the contents and conclusions of papers summarized. The seminar was organized jointly by the Finnish Artificial Intelligence Society (FAIS), Finnish Astronomical Society, Ursa Astronomical Association and Heureka - The Finnish Science Centre. As the ninth in a series of intelligence-related seminars of FAIS, SETI was chosen as the topic for spring 1993, noting the new ten year NASA SETI program HRMS (High Resolution Micro-wave Survey), commenced on Columbus Day, October 12, 1992. The aims and the interdisciplinary format of the seminar are described, the main results and conclusions of papers are restated, and the seminar publications introduced. The summaries of papers are based on their abstracts and contain excerpts from texts.

  19. Secondhand tobacco exposure is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Connie; Rountree, Carl B.; Methratta, Sosamma; LaRusso, Salvatore; Kunselman, Allen R.; Spanier, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver disease in children in the United States, and prevalence rates are rising. Smoking is associated with NAFLD, but the association of secondhand smoke exposure with NAFLD is unknown. Aims: To investigate the association of secondhand tobacco exposure with NAFLD in children. Methods: We surveyed parents/guardians of 304 children aged 3–12 years who had received an abdominal ultrasound at Penn State Hershey Medical Center. The survey addressed demographics, medical history, secondhand tobacco exposure, activity level, screen viewing time and other environmental exposures. A pediatric radiologist and sonographer reviewed the ultrasounds to grade the presence of bight liver compatible with NAFLD. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the association of secondhand tobacco exposure and NAFLD. Results: 54% of eligible potential participants responded to the survey. Fatty liver was present in 3% of the children. Increasing child age was associated with increased odds of NAFLD (OR 1.63 95% CI 1.1, 2.4). Reported child obesity was associated with increased odds of NAFLD (OR 44.5 95% CI 5.3, 371.7). The rate of NAFLD was higher in the smoke exposed group (6.7% vs. 1.7%). For every extra pack per day smoked at home, the odds of a child having NAFLD increased 1.8 times (AOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2, 2.8), and any exposure increased a child's odds of NAFLD four-fold (AOR 4.0, 95% CI 1.02, 15.8). Conclusion: We found an association of secondhand smoke exposure and NAFLD in children. This may represent an area for future prevention efforts. - Highlights: • We evaluated the relation of tobacco exposure with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. • Tobacco smoke exposure was associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. • Tobacco smoke exposure may be an addressable risk factor

  20. Secondhand tobacco exposure is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Connie [College of Medicine, Penn State University Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033-0850 (United States); Rountree, Carl B. [Department of Pediatrics, Penn State University Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033-0850 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Bon Secour St. Mary' s Hospital, 5801 Bremo Rd, Richmond, VA 23226 (United States); Methratta, Sosamma [Department of Pediatrics, Penn State University Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033-0850 (United States); Department of Radiology, Penn State University Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033-0850 (United States); LaRusso, Salvatore [Department of Radiology, Penn State University Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033-0850 (United States); Kunselman, Allen R. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State University Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033-0850 (United States); Spanier, Adam J., E-mail: aspanier@hmc.psu.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Penn State University Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033-0850 (United States); Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State University Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033-0850 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver disease in children in the United States, and prevalence rates are rising. Smoking is associated with NAFLD, but the association of secondhand smoke exposure with NAFLD is unknown. Aims: To investigate the association of secondhand tobacco exposure with NAFLD in children. Methods: We surveyed parents/guardians of 304 children aged 3–12 years who had received an abdominal ultrasound at Penn State Hershey Medical Center. The survey addressed demographics, medical history, secondhand tobacco exposure, activity level, screen viewing time and other environmental exposures. A pediatric radiologist and sonographer reviewed the ultrasounds to grade the presence of bight liver compatible with NAFLD. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the association of secondhand tobacco exposure and NAFLD. Results: 54% of eligible potential participants responded to the survey. Fatty liver was present in 3% of the children. Increasing child age was associated with increased odds of NAFLD (OR 1.63 95% CI 1.1, 2.4). Reported child obesity was associated with increased odds of NAFLD (OR 44.5 95% CI 5.3, 371.7). The rate of NAFLD was higher in the smoke exposed group (6.7% vs. 1.7%). For every extra pack per day smoked at home, the odds of a child having NAFLD increased 1.8 times (AOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2, 2.8), and any exposure increased a child's odds of NAFLD four-fold (AOR 4.0, 95% CI 1.02, 15.8). Conclusion: We found an association of secondhand smoke exposure and NAFLD in children. This may represent an area for future prevention efforts. - Highlights: • We evaluated the relation of tobacco exposure with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. • Tobacco smoke exposure was associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. • Tobacco smoke exposure may be an addressable risk factor.

  1. Conclusions on the two technical panels on HLW-disposal and waste treatment processes respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkespiller, J.A.; Dejonghe, P.; Feates, F.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reports the concluding panel session at the European Community Conference on radioactive waste management and disposal, Luxembourg 1985. The panel considered the conclusions of two preceeding technical panels on high level waste (HLW) disposal and waste treatment processes. Geological disposal of HLW, waste management, safety assessment of waste disposal, public opinion, public acceptance of the manageability of radioactive wastes, international cooperation, and waste management in the United States, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 3. Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    Expert conclusion is presented on the Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus. Problems of ground and food contamination, medical and biological radiation effects on the population are considered. Attention is paid to the radiation monitoring and radiometric gages. Scale of the damage for forestry and agriculture is described and recommendations on the agriculture is described and recommendations on the agricultural production and forest utilization at contaminated areas are given. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 24 tabs

  3. Cognitive control in belief-laden reasoning during conclusion processing: An ERP study

    OpenAIRE

    Junlong Luo, Xiumin Du , Edward J. N. Stupple, Xiao Xiao, Lei Jia , Qinglin Zhang ,

    2012-01-01

    Belief-bias is the tendency to accept conclusions that are compatible with existing beliefs more frequently than those that contradict beliefs. It is one of the most replicated behavioral findings in the reasoning literature. Recently, neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) have provided a new perspective and have demonstrated neural correlates of belief bias that have been viewed as supportive of dual process theories of be...

  4. International senior expert symposium on electricity and the environment: Highlights and conclusions from Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes briefly the Senior Expert Symposium on Electricity and the Environment, held in May 1991. Four Expert Groups considered key issues: the implications for the global environment of energy and electricity supply and demand; energy sources and technologies for electricity generation; comparative environmental and health effects of different energy sources for electricity generation; and the incorporation of environmental and health impacts into policy, planning and decision making for the electricity sector. The conclusions of these groups are presented

  5. ANCLI's conclusions and recommendations made after the ANCLI colloquium 'Tritium, discrete, but present everywhere'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly state the conclusions of the colloquium about the presence of tritium in the environment, its sanitary impact, the re-examination of a management based on release, the need to reduce tritium production. The recommendations are also indicated: to continue researches on organically bound tritium, not to allow any release increase as long as effects are not better known. The role of the ANCLI is outlined

  6. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities

    OpenAIRE

    M?rsdorf, Martin A.; Ravolainen, Virve T.; St?vern, Leif Einar; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; J?nsd?ttir, Ingibj?rg Svala; Br?then, Kari Anne

    2015-01-01

    In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is ...

  7. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  8. Regret and Responsibility Resolved? Evaluating Ordóñez and Connolly's (2000) Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg; van Dijk WW; Manstead

    2000-01-01

    T. Connolly, L. D. Ordo;aan;atez, and R. Coughlan (1997, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 70, 73-85) argued, on the basis of 5 experiments, that regret need not be related to a sense of responsibility for the regretted outcome. We (M. Zeelenberg, W. W. van Dijk, & A. S. R. Manstead, 1998, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 74, 254-272) showed in 2 experiments that this conclusion was premature, because it was based on an indirect measure of regret (i.e., overall happiness with the decision outcome). When regret was directly measured, the predicted effects of responsibility were found. L. D. Ordo;aan;atez and T. Connolly (2000, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 81, 132-142) replicated our findings in 2 experiments. Based on their findings they arrived at 4 conclusions. In this rejoinder we first discuss Ordóñez and Connolly's new studies and we then discuss the validity of their 4 conclusions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Jumping to the wrong conclusions? An investigation of the mechanisms of reasoning errors in delusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Suzanne; Thompson, Claire; Hurley, James; Medin, Evelina; Butler, Lucy; Bebbington, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Freeman, Daniel; Fowler, David; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how people with delusions arrive at false conclusions is central to the refinement of cognitive behavioural interventions. Making hasty decisions based on limited data (‘jumping to conclusions’, JTC) is one potential causal mechanism, but reasoning errors may also result from other processes. In this study, we investigated the correlates of reasoning errors under differing task conditions in 204 participants with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis who completed three probabilistic reasoning tasks. Psychotic symptoms, affect, and IQ were also evaluated. We found that hasty decision makers were more likely to draw false conclusions, but only 37% of their reasoning errors were consistent with the limited data they had gathered. The remainder directly contradicted all the presented evidence. Reasoning errors showed task-dependent associations with IQ, affect, and psychotic symptoms. We conclude that limited data-gathering contributes to false conclusions but is not the only mechanism involved. Delusions may also be maintained by a tendency to disregard evidence. Low IQ and emotional biases may contribute to reasoning errors in more complex situations. Cognitive strategies to reduce reasoning errors should therefore extend beyond encouragement to gather more data, and incorporate interventions focused directly on these difficulties. PMID:24958065

  10. Workshop on iodine aspects of severe accident management. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    Following a recommendation of the OECD Workshop on the Chemistry of Iodine in Reactor Safety held in Wuerenlingen (Switzerland) in June 1996 [Summary and Conclusions of the Workshop, Report NEA/CSNI/R(96)7], the CSNI decided to sponsor a Workshop on Iodine Aspects of Severe Accident Management, and their planned or effective implementation. The starting point for this conclusion was the realization that the consolidation of the accumulated iodine chemistry knowledge into accident management guidelines and procedures remained, to a large extent, to be done. The purpose of the meeting was therefore to help build a bridge between iodine research and the application of its results in nuclear power plants, with particular emphasis on severe accident management. Specifically, the Workshop was expected to answer the following questions: - what is the role of iodine in severe accident management? - what are the needs of the utilities? - how can research fulfill these needs? The Workshop was organized in Vantaa (Helsinki), Finland, from 18 to 20 May 1999, in collaboration with Fortum Engineering Ltd. It was attended by forty-six specialists representing fifteen Member countries and the European Commission. Twenty-eight papers were presented. These included four utility papers, representing the views of Electricite de France (EDF), Teollisuuden Voima Oy and Fortum Engineering Ltd (Finland), the Nuclear Energy Institute (USA), and Japanese utilities. The papers were presented in five sessions: - iodine speciation; - organic compound control; - iodine control; - modeling; - iodine management; A sixth session was devoted to a general discussion on iodine management under severe accident conditions. This report summarizes the content of the papers and the conclusions of the workshop

  11. Specialist meeting on selected containment severe accident management strategies. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The CSNI Specialist Meeting on Selected Containment Severe Accident Management Strategies held in Stockholm, Sweden in June 1994 was organised by the Task Group on Containment Aspects of Severe Accident Management (CAM) of CSNI's Principal Working Group on the Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4) in collaboration with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). Conclusions and recommendations are given for each of the sessions of the workshops: Containment accident management strategies (general aspects); hydrogen management techniques and other containment accident management techniques; surveillance and protection of containment function

  12. Some conclusions about the concrete strength of the bored piles of Angra 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomaz, E.C.S.; Joia, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The concrete of the bored piles of Angra 2 was submitted to a deep control, so more than five thousand core samples were analyzed to verify the quality of the concrete. Based on these samples and using statistics regression theory some conclusions could be done. It was analyzed the dependence of the concrete strength upon the depth of the pile. Also based on these samples some probability distribution functions that could simulate the concrete strength were studied applying the Kolmogorov - Smirnov fitness test. Finally, a method for evaluating a confidence interval of one of the probability function (Weibull distribution) was developed adopting the Monte Carlo simulation technique. (Author) [pt

  13. One metric does not tell the whole story of scientific production. III. Management and conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves GONZÁLEZ-FERNÁNDEZ-VILLAVICENCIO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are different strategies for scientific publication that can be addressed from the perspective of management, ahead of the assessment by national agencies. Rising of alternative metrics, services and suppliers. Method: Narrative review. Results: the characteristic features of the evaluation criteria of scientific publications by Spanish agencies evaluation are presented and described altmetrics services. Conclusions: The need for national evaluation systems of scientific production to avoid the current bias and ignorance of the publishing sector which suffer WoS and Scopus arises. And also the need for other altmetric systems, complementary to traditional, to expand the type of scientific products and evaluate the scientific social impact.

  14. The successful conclusion of the Deep Space 1 Mission: important results without a flashy title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    In September 2001, Deep Space 1 (DS1) completed a high-risk and flawless encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly. Its data provide a detailed view of this comet and offere surprising and exciting insights. With this successful conclusion of its extended mission, DS1 undertook a hyperextended mission. Following this period of extremely agressive testing, with no further technology or science objectives, the mission was terminated on December 18, 2001, with the powering off of the spacecraft's trnasmitter, although the receiver was left on. By the end of its mission, DS1 had returned a wealth of important science data and engineering data for future missions.

  15. Epidemiology, biology and therapy of Merkel cell carcinoma: conclusions from the EU project IMMOMEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Juergen C.; Stang, Andreas; zur Hausen, Axel

    2018-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive, often lethal neuroendocrine cancer. Its carcinogenesis may be either caused by the clonal integration of the Merkel cell polyomavirus into the host genome or by UV-induced mutations. Notably, virally-encoded oncoproteins and UV-induced mutations...... knowledge on epidemiology, biology and therapy of MCC as conclusion of the project 'Immune Modulating strategies for treatment of Merkel Cell Carcinoma', which was funded over a 5-year period by the European Commission to investigate innovative immunotherapies for MCC....

  16. The prospects for nuclear power in the UK. Conclusions of the Government's nuclear review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The conclusions of the United Kingdom government's review of the nuclear industry in Britain were presented to Parliament in May 1995. The provision of public sector support for a new nuclear power station is deemed unwarranted against the background of the current electricity market. In reaching this conclusion the government considered possible environmental and strategic advantages, the question of diversity of fuel sources, and wider economic benefits. It is intended to privatize parts of Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear in 1996 as subsidiaries of a single holding company to take over the UK's AGR and PWR stations together with a significant level of their associated liabilities. A publicly owned company will continue to run the magnox stations and retain their liabilities. British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) will continue to offer nuclear fuel services and to receive government support in developing business in overseas markets. Since their formation in 1990, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear have improved their financial performance significantly. At privatisation the nuclear component of the fossil fuel levy will cease to be paid to Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear will no longer receive the current premium price paid under the Nuclear Energy Agreement. The current regulatory regime and rigorous safety standards for nuclear power will remain substantially unchanged. (UK)

  17. Comparative analysis of sustainable consumption and production in Visegrad region - conclusions for textile and clothing sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszewska, M.; Militki, J.; Mizsey, P.; Benda-Prokeinova, R.

    2017-10-01

    Gradual environmental degradation, shrinking of non-renewable resources, and lower quality of life are directly or indirectly arising from snowballing consumption. These unfavorable processes concern increasingly textile and clothing sector and are increasingly being felt in Visegrad Region (V4). The objective of the article was to access current consumption patterns in V4 countries, identify the factors that influence those patterns and finally to draw the conclusions for more sustainable consumption and production models as well as to make a comparative analysis of the results across V4 countries. A consumer survey was conducted to examine V4 citizens’ attitudes and behaviors in the context of sustainable consumption. To ensure sample size and comparability across countries 2000 randomly-selected V4 citizens, aged 18 and over, were interviewed. To analyze the supply side of the market and legal framework, the desk research was used. The results allowed to give some guidelines for the joint V4 strategy for solving ecological and social problems of V4 countries as well as the conclusions for textile and clothing sector.

  18. [Sexual child abuse: correlation between medical certificates' conclusions and judiciary sanctions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumah, M M; Bah, H; Mbaye, I; Fall, M C; Yetognon, C; Sow, M L

    2005-01-01

    Sexual child abuse, comprises of indecency attitudes and physical misbehaviours, directed towards children are dominated by rape. The objective of our study was to assess in sexual child abuse the relation between the conclusion of medical certificates and court decision. It is a retrospective study carried out from 1994 to 1998 on the clerk's office correctional repertories in Dakar regional court. An overall number of 79 cases of child abuse were collected in 5 years period. Children under 18 years old of of both sex, were concerned. Data found were correlated with a review of requisition cases received by the of gynaecology and obstetrics clinic of Aristide Dantec Hospital. This facilitates the establishement of the relationship between the offences and the pronounced sanctions, as well as the initial medical certificate and these sanctions. The sanctions were severe whenever rape had been retained. Some cases were disqualified in indecent assault and were judged as such. The judge decision, which follow the medical certificate conclusions in 11 cases out of 14 shows the importance and reliability of this medical document. All files reviewed at the medical and legal level were incomplete. The difficulty of the materiality of the rape and the psychological consequences in the long run and especially HIV infection should invite to a multidisciplinary, specialized and organized management of sexual child abuse. This study has shown the importance of a correct and complete drafting of the medical certificate, to enable the establishment by the judge the materiality of the facts.

  19. Recent investigations and conclusions on radiation exposure from radon and its daughters in rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willau, E.

    1984-04-01

    Radon and its daughters emanate from structural materials and are concentrated in closed rooms. Measurements were first made in Vienna in concrete and brick buildings. The difference between these two materials is explained by the effect of different window tightness this being lower in the older brick buildings. It is conjectured that plaster is more important than the bulk wall material. In order to test the influence of the geological ground these measurement in Vienna (rubble ground) were complemented by those in Wagrain (shale ground) and the difference again explained by different window tightness. With regard to height above the ground the radon and daughter concentration was found to 2-3 times higher in cellars and at ground flour than at higher levels. The variation of concentration during and after airing was also investigated. (G.Q.)

  20. Electricity demand and energy consumption in horticulture and conclusions bearing on energy economy. AEL-Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The studies demonstrate that horticultural entreprises, esp. those with a higher electricity consumption, have often not settled for a more favourable electricity tariff. Nor do they use cheaper electricity at slack periods (night current) to the extent possible. Substantial improvement could be obtained above all by fully utilizing the installed capacity through purposeful utilization of machinery and interlocking of major consumers. Measures appropriate to this end are listed allowing a possible economic utilization of electric energy.

  1. Innovations in higher medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the innovations in the higher medical education. Particular attention in this sphere is paid to the detailed analysis of the subject as a mechanism of cognition and psycho-emotional aspect. It should be noticed that the development of the university education demands the integration of functional systems to study the general medicine and the art of healing. In conclusion it has been found out that the new methodological approach is necessary to bring the teacher closer to the subject particularly to integrate the relation of the opposites.

  2. Analysing and exemplifying forensic conclusion criteria in terms of Bayesian decision theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Bozza, S; Taroni, F

    2018-03-01

    There is ongoing discussion in forensic science and the law about the nature of the conclusions reached based on scientific evidence, and on how such conclusions - and conclusion criteria - may be justified by rational argument. Examples, among others, are encountered in fields such as fingermarks (e.g., 'this fingermark comes from Mr. A's left thumb'), handwriting examinations (e.g., 'the questioned signature is that of Mr. A'), kinship analyses (e.g., 'Mr. A is the father of child C') or anthropology (e.g., 'these are human remains'). Considerable developments using formal methods of reasoning based on, for example (Bayesian) decision theory, are available in literature, but currently such reference principles are not explicitly used in operational forensic reporting and ensuing decision-making. Moreover, applied examples, illustrating the principles, are scarce. A potential consequence of this in practical proceedings, and hence a cause of concern, is that underlying ingredients of decision criteria (such as losses quantifying the undesirability of adverse decision consequences), are not properly dealt with. There is merit, thus, in pursuing the study and discussion of practical examples, demonstrating that formal decision-theoretic principles are not merely conceptual considerations. Actually, these principles can be shown to underpin practical decision-making procedures and existing legal decision criteria, though often not explicitly apparent as such. In this paper, we will present such examples and discuss their properties from a Bayesian decision-theoretic perspective. We will argue that these are essential concepts for an informed discourse on decision-making across forensic disciplines and the development of a coherent view on this topic. We will also emphasize that these principles are of normative nature in the sense that they provide standards against which actual judgment and decision-making may be compared. Most importantly, these standards are

  3. Status of maintenance in the US nuclear power industry 1985. Volume 1. Findings and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This report presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations derived from activities performed under Phase I of the NRC Maintenance and Surveillance Program (MSP). Findings are based on trends and patterns derived from operational data compiled by the NRC for the period 1980 through 1985, site surveys conducted at eight plants, and questionnaires administered to NRC Resident Inspectors to characterize nuclear power plant maintenance programs and practices. These activities have shown that plant maintenance programs and practices are highly variable from plant-to-plant and are currently undergoing major changes. While measured plant performance has improved overall since 1980, the maintenance-related contribution to reportable events and challenges to safety systems remains high and is increasing by some measures. The findings of Phase I of the MSP confirmed a number of problems in nuclear power plant maintenance which warrant further NRC and industry attention

  4. The international INTRAVAL project. Summary and conclusions by the TVO/VTT Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautojaervi, A.

    1994-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) participated the international cooperation project INTRAVAL and VTT Energy acted as a project team. The Finnish participation focused on flow and transport in crystalline fractured rock and six test cases out of thirteen were tackled. The experimental results were evaluated mainly by means of analytical transport models. The report presents a short review of the experience obtained in the course of the project. It concentrates on the issues revealed in the discussions and analyses of the six test cases in which the TVO/VTT team actively participated but some of the conclusions are even more general in nature. Some suggestions are made for future experimental and theoretical work in the field of geosphere. (15 refs., 2 tabs.)

  5. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue. Part 4: general conclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the conclusion to this multi-part article I first review the discussions carried out around the six essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis – the position taken by Allen Frances on each question, the commentaries on the respective question along with Frances’ responses to the commentaries, and my own view of the multiple discussions. In this review I emphasize that the core question is the first – what is the nature of psychiatric illness – and that in some manner all further questions follow from the first. Following this review I attempt to move the discussion forward, addressing the first question from the perspectives of natural kind analysis and complexity analysis. This reflection leads toward a view of psychiatric disorders – and future nosologies – as far more complex and uncertain than we have imagined.

  6. Conclusive evidence of abrupt coagulation inside the void during cyclic nanoparticle formation in reactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetering, F. M. J. H. van de; Nijdam, S.; Beckers, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we present scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results that confirm in a direct way our earlier explanation of an abrupt coagulation event as the cause for the void hiccup. In a recent paper, we reported on the fast and interrupted expansion of voids in a reactive dusty argon–acetylene plasma. The voids appeared one after the other, each showing a peculiar, though reproducible, behavior of successive periods of fast expansion, abrupt contraction, and continued expansion. The abrupt contraction was termed “hiccup” and was related to collective coagulation of a new generation of nanoparticles growing in the void using relatively indirect methods: electron density measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. In this letter, we present conclusive evidence using SEM of particles collected at different moments in time spanning several growth cycles, which enables us to follow the nanoparticle formation process in great detail.

  7. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  8. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  9. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  10. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  11. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  12. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  13. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report: Development and Major Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Barbara E; Abrams, Steve; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Anderson, Cheryl Am; Brenna, J Thomas; Campbell, Wayne W; Clinton, Steven; Hu, Frank; Nelson, Miriam; Neuhouser, Marian L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Story, Mary; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-05-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) is published every 5 y jointly by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the USDA and provides a framework for US-based food and nutrition programs, health promotion and disease prevention initiatives, and research priorities. Summarized in this report are the methods, major conclusions, and recommendations of the Scientific Report of the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC). Early in the process, the DGAC developed a conceptual model and formulated questions to examine nutritional risk and determinants and impact of dietary patterns in relation to numerous health outcomes among individuals aged ≥2 y. As detailed in the report, an expansive, transparent, and comprehensive process was used to address each question, with multiple opportunities for public input included. Consensus was reached on all DGAC's findings, including each conclusion and recommendation, and the entire report. When research questions were answered by original systematic literature reviews and/or with existing, high-quality expert reports, the quality and strength of the evidence was formally graded. The report was organized around the following 5 themes: 1) food and nutrient intakes and health: current status and trends; 2) dietary patterns, foods and nutrients, and health outcomes; 3) diet and physical activity behavior change; 4) food and physical activity environments; and 5) food sustainability and food safety. The following 3 cross-cutting topics were addressed: 1) sodium, 2) saturated fat, and 3) added sugars. Physical activity recommendations from recent expert reports were endorsed. The overall quality of the American diet was assessed to identify overconsumed and underconsumed nutrients of public health concern. Common food characteristics of healthy dietary patterns were determined. Features of effective interventions to change individual and population diet and physical activity behaviors in clinical, public

  14. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörsdorf, Martin A; Ravolainen, Virve T; Støvern, Leif Einar; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2015-01-01

    In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in ecology as only rules

  15. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Mörsdorf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in

  16. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  17. Relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Xiaoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and serum level of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP. MethodsA total of 160 patients who underwent physical examination in the Affiliated Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from July to November 2010 were included in our study. These subjects were divided into two groups according to the diagnostic criteria for NAFLD formulated by the Chinese Medical Association: control group (n=71 and NAFLD group (n=89. The two groups were compared with respect to general condition, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, AFABP, serum insulin, and other serological indices. The relationship of serum AFABP with NAFLD and other metabolic parameters was analyzed using the Spearman linear correlation coefficient. Comparison of measurement data was made by t test and rank sum test; comparison of enumeration data was made by chi-square test. ResultsThere were more males than females in the NAFLD group. Compared with the control group, the NAFLD group had higher BMI and levels of blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and uric acid and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL level; in addition, the NAFLD group had significantly higher serum AFABP and insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that serum AFABP was positively correlated with NAFLD, BMI, HOMA-IR, serum insulin, blood glucose, TG, ALT, AST, and uric acid but negatively correlated with HDL. After adjustment for sex, age, and BMI, serum AFABP was positively correlated with NAFLD, HOMA-IR, serum insulin, blood glucose, TG, ALT, and uric acid, but had no significant correlation with HDL and AST. ConclusionSerum AFABP is closely associated with NAFLD and may be an independent plasma marker of this disease. AFABP plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  18. OECD/CSNI Workshop on In-Vessel Core Debris Retention and Coolability - Summary and Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behbahani, Ali-Reza; Drozd, Andrzej; Kim, Sang-Baik; Micaelli, Jean-Claude; Okkonen, Timo; Sugimoto, Jun; Trambauer, Klaus; Tuomisto, Harri

    1999-01-01

    In the spring of 1994 an OECD Workshop on Large Pool Heat transfer was held in Grenoble. The scope of this workshop was the investigation of (1) molten pool heat transfer, (2) heat transfer to the surrounding water, and (3) the feasibility of in-vessel core debris cooling through external cooling of the vessel. Since this time, experimental test series have been completed (e.g., COPO, ULPU, CORVIS) and new experimental programs (e.g., BALI, SONATA, RASPLAV, debris and gap heat transfer) have been established to consolidate and expand the data base for further model development and to improve the understanding of in-vessel debris retention and coolability in a nuclear power plant. Discussions within the CSNI's PWG-2 and the Task Group on Degraded Core Cooling (TG-DCC) have led to the conclusion that the time was ripe for organizing a new international Workshop with the objectives: - to review the results of experimental research that has been conducted in this area; - to exchange information on the results of member countries experiments and model development on in-vessel core debris retention and coolability; - to discuss areas where additional experimental research is needed in order to provide an adequate data base for analytical model development for core debris retention and coolability. The scope of this workshop was limited to the phenomena connected to in-vessel core debris retention and coolability and did not include steam explosion and fission product issues. The workshop was structured into the following sessions: Key note papers; Experiments and model development; Debris bed heat transfer; Corium properties, molten pool convection and crust formation; Gap formation and gap cooling; Creep behaviour of reactor pressure vessel lower head; Ex-vessel boiling and critical heat flux phenomena; Scaling to reactor severe accident conditions and reactor applications. Compared to the previous workshop held in Grenoble in 1994, large progress has been made in the

  19. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  20. On an experimental curiosity that if undetected may lead to erroneous far-reaching conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noninski, V.C.; Ciottone, J.L.; White, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    This letter gives a brief discussion of the possibilities of inducing nuclear effects by carrying out only chemical reactions. Undoubtedly, this interest is a result of the still unresolved problem of 'cold fusion,' and some colleagues tend to see a clear connection, and even an extension of the studies, between cold fusion and the alleged chemical transmutation of elements. While we have already published thorough reports (negative so far) of our studies with regard to the claimed increase of gamma-ray emission and beta decay after burning of a mixture of chemicals, this letter informs the Fusion Technology readership of an experimental curiosity that is encountered during similar studies that initially led us to an erroneous conclusion. As in previous studies, we compared certain radiochemical properties of a mixture of chemicals before and after a chemical reaction (burning). Under discussion here is a peak that we observed in the range of 412 keV in the gamma spectrum in one of the burned samples after neutron activating it for 3 min at 1 kW. This peak was ostensibly not present in the same sample unburned. 4 refs., 2 figs

  1. Why do different criteria for 'cure' yield different conclusions in comparing two treatments for bacterial vaginosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katherine K; Sanchez, Sixto; Garcia, Patricia J; Holmes, King K

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine why different criteria for response to treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) led to markedly different conclusions about treatment efficacy in a randomized trial comparing metronidazole gel versus metronidazole/nystatin ovules. We compared the impact of two treatment regimens on individual components of Amsel and Nugent criteria at follow-up visits 14, 42, and 104 days after initiating treatment. Compared with gel, ovules more effectively eliminated amines, clue cells, and Gardnerella, Prevotella, or Mobiluncus morphotypes from vaginal fluid, thus achieving cure based on "usual" criteria (absence of BV by Amsel or Nugent criteria), but did not more effectively restore Lactobacillus morphotypes or lower vaginal pH, thus not meeting Federal Drug Administration (FDA) criteria for cure. Because early vaginal recolonization by lactobacilli was poor after both gel and ovules, FDA draft criteria for cure missed marked differences in treatment efficacies against Gardnerella, clue cells, and amines. Cure defined more "usually" may give more useful information.

  2. Development integration via real and technological convergence. Experience of Poland and conclusions for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał G. Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes main achievements, losses and gains during the first decade of Poland's membership in the EU, while also aiming at development of suggestions for the Polish economic policy in the years to come, as well as draws conclusions for Ukraine, which has now elected the strategy of international economic cooperation. The first part of the paper presents an empirical analysis of Poland's both real and technological convergence with the developed EU countries. These data show that since 1994, as the process of Poland integration with the EU commenced, our country significantly reduced the income and technology gap as compared to the EU. During the financial crisis, Poland 'felt' better than most European countries. In the second part of the paper we attempt to answer the question as to the current conditions of Polish economy development. It is demonstrated that Poland's economic success was due to multiple factors such as endogenous and exogenous, historical and those derived from present events. However, it can be assumed that integration with the EU has been an important positive factor in development of Poland during recent 20 years. Great importance was also vested in the implementation of economic reforms in Poland as well as in policy of the government, although not faultless. The last section of the paper identifies problems now faced by the EU and individual member states, including Poland as regards future years till 2020

  3. Paradigm, experiment and conclusion: La Casa by Bernard Rudofsky in three acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor García-Diego Villarías

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available La Casa –or in English, the house– that Bernard Rudofsky built on the Spanish Mediterranean coast in 1971 is a valuable case study on the operational possibilities of popular architecture in the practice of this contemporary discipline. It is a repository of theoretical references typical of the vernacular world; its author, known for the exhibition Architecture without Architects, is emblematic of this type of architecture to which he dedicated much of his efforts as a theorist and polemicist throughout the course of his life. Additionally, La Casa is a unique architectural feat as it involves the practical materialization of its implicated theoretical position. It is possible that a concrete conclusion can be drawn from this case, which may shed light on the possible operability of a type of architecture that presents more than a few difficulties for the current context of the discipline, despite being habitually admired and praised. Additionally, the text presented here brings to light unpublished information found in the personal diaries of the architect that allows for the recreation of the circumstances surrounding the ideation and construction of this piece of architecture.

  4. Permutation entropy based time series analysis: Equalities in the input signal can lead to false conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunino, Luciano, E-mail: lucianoz@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CONICET La Plata – CIC), C.C. 3, 1897 Gonnet (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Olivares, Felipe, E-mail: olivaresfe@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso (PUCV), 23-40025 Valparaíso (Chile); Scholkmann, Felix, E-mail: Felix.Scholkmann@gmail.com [Research Office for Complex Physical and Biological Systems (ROCoS), Mutschellenstr. 179, 8038 Zurich (Switzerland); Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Rosso, Osvaldo A., E-mail: oarosso@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), BR 104 Norte km 97, 57072-970, Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires (ITBA) and CONICET, C1106ACD, Av. Eduardo Madero 399, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Complex Systems Group, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad de los Andes, Av. Mons. Álvaro del Portillo 12.455, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-06-15

    A symbolic encoding scheme, based on the ordinal relation between the amplitude of neighboring values of a given data sequence, should be implemented before estimating the permutation entropy. Consequently, equalities in the analyzed signal, i.e. repeated equal values, deserve special attention and treatment. In this work, we carefully study the effect that the presence of equalities has on permutation entropy estimated values when these ties are symbolized, as it is commonly done, according to their order of appearance. On the one hand, the analysis of computer-generated time series is initially developed to understand the incidence of repeated values on permutation entropy estimations in controlled scenarios. The presence of temporal correlations is erroneously concluded when true pseudorandom time series with low amplitude resolutions are considered. On the other hand, the analysis of real-world data is included to illustrate how the presence of a significant number of equal values can give rise to false conclusions regarding the underlying temporal structures in practical contexts. - Highlights: • Impact of repeated values in a signal when estimating permutation entropy is studied. • Numerical and experimental tests are included for characterizing this limitation. • Non-negligible temporal correlations can be spuriously concluded by repeated values. • Data digitized with low amplitude resolutions could be especially affected. • Analysis with shuffled realizations can help to overcome this limitation.

  5. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  6. Pressure Measurement Techniques for Abdominal Hypertension: Conclusions from an Experimental Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Sascha Santosh; Wolf, Stefan; Rohde, Veit; Freimann, Florian Baptist

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement is an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of abdominal hypertension. Different techniques have been described in the literature and applied in the clinical setting. Methods. A porcine model was created to simulate an abdominal compartment syndrome ranging from baseline IAP to 30 mmHg. Three different measurement techniques were applied, comprising telemetric piezoresistive probes at two different sites (epigastric and pelvic) for direct pressure measurement and intragastric and intravesical probes for indirect measurement. Results. The mean difference between the invasive IAP measurements using telemetric pressure probes and the IVP measurements was -0.58 mmHg. The bias between the invasive IAP measurements and the IGP measurements was 3.8 mmHg. Compared to the realistic results of the intraperitoneal and intravesical measurements, the intragastric data showed a strong tendency towards decreased values. The hydrostatic character of the IAP was eliminated at high-pressure levels. Conclusion. We conclude that intragastric pressure measurement is potentially hazardous and might lead to inaccurately low intra-abdominal pressure values. This may result in missed diagnosis of elevated abdominal pressure or even ACS. The intravesical measurements showed the most accurate values during baseline pressure and both high-pressure plateaus.

  7. Micah 7:8-20: An apt conclusion to the book of Micah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W J Wessels

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available It is argued in this article that Micah 7:8-20 forms an apt conclusion to the book of Micah. As was the case with Micah 1, the concluding section also focusses on Yahweh and his dealings with the people of the earth. There is a universal tendency to be detected in this section as well. An important aspect to notice� is� the liturgical nature of chapters six and seven, especially 7:8-20. There is a vagueness, almost a timelessness, imbuing this section. This could be intended allowing later generations of believers to apply these words to� their� own� circumstances. With Micah 7:8-20 as the concluding section of the book, one is left with a sense of well-roundedness, of completeness. The collection of oracles attributed� to Micah in general has a sombre tone. For this very reason Micah� 7:8-20� seems� to� change� the mood. It breathes hope into a negative atmosphere of judgment. It ends with a strong emphasis on the power of Yahweh, the power of forgiveness.

  8. A conclusive scalable model for the complete actuation response for IPMC transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaid, A J; Aw, K C; Haemmerle, E; Xie, S Q

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a conclusive scalable model for the complete actuation response for ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC). This single model is proven to be able to accurately predict the free displacement/velocity and force actuation at varying displacements, with up to 3 V inputs. An accurate dynamic relationship between the force and displacement has been established which can be used to predict the complete actuation response of the IPMC transducer. The model is accurate at large displacements and can also predict the response when interacting with external mechanical systems and loads. This model equips engineers with a useful design tool which enables simple mechanical design, simulation and optimization when integrating IPMC actuators into an application. The response of the IPMC is modelled in three stages: (i) a nonlinear equivalent electrical circuit to predict the current drawn, (ii) an electromechanical coupling term and (iii) a segmented mechanical beam model which includes an electrically induced torque for the polymer. Model parameters are obtained using the dynamic time response and results are presented demonstrating the correspondence between the model and experimental results over a large operating range. This newly developed model is a large step forward, aiding in the progression of IPMCs towards wide acceptance as replacements to traditional actuators

  9. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  10. Conclusions from working group 2 - the analyses of the WIPP-2 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The INTRAVAL WIPP-2 test case is based on data from site investigations carried out at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico, USA. The site has been chosen as a potential location for a radioactive waste repository. Extensive investigations have been carried out, focused mainly on groundwater flow and transport in the Culebra Dolomite, the main pathway for transport of radionuclides off the site by groundwater in the case of an accidental borehole intrusion into the repository. Five teams studied the test case. Two teams addressed issues involved in the treatment of heterogeneity. Stochastic models and a Monte Carlo approach were used. One team quantified the increased uncertainty resulting from fewer data and explored the issues involved in validation of stochastic models. A second team developed a new method for conditioning stochastic models on head data. Two other teams examined issues relating to the choice of conceptual models. Two-dimensional vertical cross-section models were used to explore the importance of vertical flow. The fifth team advocate the use of a variety of models to highlight the most important processes and parameters. Conclusions from each team experiment are analysed. (J.S.). 4 refs., 11 figs

  11. A fine-grained analysis of the jumping-to-conclusions bias in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Moritz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Impaired decision behavior has been repeatedly observed in schizophrenia patients. We investigated several cognitive mechanisms that might contribute to the jumping-to-conclusions bias (JTC seen in schizophrenia patients: biases in information-gathering, information weighting and integration, and overconfidence, using the process tracing paradigm Mouselab. Mouselab allows for an in-depth exploration of various decision-making processes in a structured information environment. A total of 37 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy controls participated in the experiment. Although showing less focused and systematic information search, schizophrenia patients practically considered all pieces of information and showed no JTC in the sense of collecting less pieces of evidence. Choices of patients and controls both approximated a rational solution quite well, but patients showed more extreme confidence ratings. Both groups mainly used weighted additive decision strategies for information integration and only a small proportion relied on simple heuristics. Under high stress induced by affective valence plus time pressure, however, schizophrenia patients switched to equal weighting strategies: less valid cues and more valid ones were weighted equally.

  12. Methodology and conclusions of activation calculations of WWER-440 type nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcsány, Boglárka, E-mail: boglarka.babcsany@reak.bme.hu; Czifrus, Szabolcs; Fehér, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Activation calculation of two WWER-440 type nuclear power plants. • Detailed description of the applied activation calculation methodology. • Graphical results for total activity and waste index categorization. • General conclusions for activation applicable in the case of PWR reactors. - Abstract: Activation calculations for two nuclear power plants of WWER-440 type have been performed by the authors in order to assist the decommissioning planning by assessing the radioactive inventory present at the time of and at different times after the final shutdown. According to related international literature and studies performed earlier by the authors, considering the activity more than 99% of this inventory is concentrated in the materials directly surrounding the reactor core, where the predominant evolution of radionuclides is generated by neutron induced nuclear reactions. In order to obtain the highest possible accuracy in modelling, three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations were performed. Besides the methods and models applied to these analyses, the paper also summarizes the results that can be generally applied to such nuclear power plant types. At the time of shutdown, the total activity of the stainless steel components is about 6 × 10{sup 16} Bq and 1.3 × 10{sup 17} Bq for the two NPPs considered. The biological shielding concrete constitutes approximately 7 × 10{sup 13} Bq and 1.1 × 10{sup 14} Bq.

  13. Iron deficiency anaemia: with the conclusion of a need for iron reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Feng; Yap, Boon Kar; Lai, Mei I.; Talik, Noorazrina; Nasser, Ammar Ahmed; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed Mubarak Ahmed; Sankar Krishnan, Prajindra

    2017-10-01

    In our bloodstream, there are plenty of red blood cells (RBC), which function as an important oxygen carrier in our bodies. Each RBC consists of millions of haemoglobin (Hb), which is made up from globin and iron. If any deficiency/malfunction of any globin, it will lead to anaemia as indicated in low Hb level while iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is anaemic due to the lacking of iron as indicated in low Hb and ferritin levels. IDA affects almost two billion people globally while anaemia without iron deficiency, such as thalassaemia, affects almost 4.5% in Malaysian population. These anaemic conditions have similar clinical symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, in which disturb their cognitive development and productivity in workplace. In areas without proper medical access, many anaemic individuals were misdiagnosed and treated with iron tablets because they were thought to have iron deficiency anaemia due to low Hb content. But, excess iron is toxic to the body. Misdiagnosis can be avoided by iron status assessment. We hereby review the currently available iron status parameters in laboratory and field study with the conclusion of demonstrating the importance of a need for iron reader, in the effort to reduce the prevalence of IDA globally.

  14. Total Knee Arthroplasty for Knee Osteoarthritis: Support for a Foregone Conclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Michael E; Christ, Alexander B; Cross, Michael B

    2017-07-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is generally accepted as the definitive treatment for advanced knee arthritis after patients fail nonoperative treatments; however, the safety and efficacy of TKA compared to continued nonoperative treatment has never been proven in high-quality, randomized controlled trials. Recently, a 2015 Danish study published a 12-month follow-up on a cohort of patients randomized to either a TKA or continued nonsurgical management for advanced knee osteoarthritis (OA). The authors reported significantly greater improvement in the TKA group in functional outcome scores such as the overall Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS 4 score), the KOOS subscales, EQ-5D descriptive index, and timed get up-and-go and 20-m walk tests; however, patients in the TKA did suffer significantly more serious adverse events (SAE). The authors concluded that TKA combined with additional nonoperative care postoperatively is more efficacious than nonsurgical treatment alone in terms of improving pain, function, and quality of life at 12 months but is associated with more SAE. The purpose of this review is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of this trial, interpret its outcomes within the context of prior literature, and evaluate the validity of its conclusions.

  15. Blast Testing Issues and TBI; Experimental Models that Lead to Wrong Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Needham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years we have noticed an increase in the number of blast injury studies published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals that have utilized improperly conceived experiments. Data from these studies will lead to false conclusions and more confusion than advancement in the understanding of blast injury, particularly blast neurotrauma. Computational methods to properly characterize the blast environment have been available for decades. These methods, combined with a basic understanding of blast wave phenomena enable researchers to extract useful information from well documented experiments. This basic understanding must include the differences and interrelationships of static pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and total or stagnation pressure in transient shockwave flows, how they relate to loading of objects, and how they are properly measured. However, it is critical that the research community effectively overcomes the confusion that has been compounded by a misunderstanding of the differences between the loading produced by a free field explosive blast and loading produced by a conventional shock tube. The principles of blast scaling have been well established for decades and when properly applied will do much to repair these problems.This paper provides guidance regarding proper experimental methods and offers insights into the implications of improperly designed and executed tests. Through application of computational methods, useful data can be extracted from well documented historical tests, and future work can be conducted in a way to maximize the effectiveness and use of valuable biological test data.

  16. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial fusion power plant designs - summary, conclusions, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Wayne R.

    1994-01-01

    An 18 month study to evaluate the potential of inertial fusion energy (IFE) for electric power production has been completed. The primary objective of the study was to provide the US Department of Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The study included the conceptual design of two inertial fusion power plants. Osiris uses an induction linac heavy ion beam driver, and SOMBRERO uses a krypton fluoride laser driver. Conceptual designs were completed for the reactors, power conversion and plant facilities, and drivers. Environmental and safety aspects, technical issues, technology development needs, and economics of the final point designs were assessed and compared. This paper summarizes the results and conclusions of the conceptual designs and results of the assessment studies. We conclude that IFE has the potential of producing technically credible designs with environmental, safety, and economics characteristics that are just as attractive as magnetic fusion. Realizing this potential will require additional research and development on target physics, chamber design, target production and injection systems, and drivers. ((orig.))

  17. Conclusions from some unusual events in the field of ionizing radiation in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.; Koenig, W.

    1977-01-01

    In the GDR all unusual events in the field of ionizing radiation have been recorded and analysed since 1963. This is done by a central governmental institution, the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection established in 1962, and responsible for all relevant measures throughout the country. An unusual event is defined by radiation protection legislation as an event which deviates from the planned operation programme whether the incident has caused injury or not. The obligation to report such events rests on all licensed users, from users of X-ray machines to operators of reactors in research and nuclear power production. The listed events are continually assessed by the Board. The results of the assessment are evaluated in summary. There has not been a single event with a fatal outcome arising from ionizing radiation. Over the same period there were only seventeen occurrences which resulted in permanent injury to persons, mainly effected by acute external irradiation of parts of the body, especially of hands and forearms. Among the detected causes of unusual events described in detail, human failure predominates by far. Finally, conclusions are drawn from these results. The measures suggested all aim to reduce the frequency of radiation accidents and to minimize their consequences. The main measures concern ways of reducing human error in all fields of radiation protection. Among these, the education and training and the medical examination of radiation workers are discussed in somewhat more detail. (author)

  18. KiKK: An endless story or the long way to come to a conclusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Rolf; Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    More than one year after the publication of the KiKK-Study (Epidemiological Study on Childhood Cancer in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants), which reported a statistical correlation between the proximity of a person's residence to the nearest nuclear power plant, at the time of diagnosis, and the person's risk of contracting cancer (or leukaemia) prior to his or her fifth birthday, the SSK presented its assessment and the related scientific explanatory statement to the public on the occasion of an expert discussion in Bonn on February 26, 2009, This article describes the background of the SSK deliberations and gives a survey of its essential results and conclusions. In total, the results are unsatisfactory, since the SSK was not able to explain the findings of the KiKK-Study. However, this was not unexpected considering the international state of knowledge regarding the development of childhood cancer. Considering the fact, that the radiation exposure of members of the public, originating from the nuclear power plants even at the locations of the potentially highest exposures, is by orders of magnitude lower than the natural radiation exposures, the SSK was able to exclude the radiation from the nuclear power plants as cause of the observed increased relative risks. Any more far-reaching explanation attempts would be mere speculation. It is still a long way to know how childhood cancer develops and how the results of the KiKK-Study or other small-scale enhancements of the cancer risk can be explained. (orig.)

  19. Summary and conclusions of the specialist meeting on severe accident management programme development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The CSNI Specialist meeting on severe accident management programme development was held in Rome and about seventy experts from thirteen countries attended the meeting. A total of 27 papers were presented in four sessions, covering specific aspects of accident management programme development. It purposely focused on the programmatic aspects of accident management rather than on some of the more complex technical issues associated with accident management strategies. Some of the major observations and conclusions from the meeting are that severe accident management is the ultimate part of the defense in depth concept within the plant. It is function and success oriented, not event oriented, as the aim is to prevent or minimize consequences of severe accidents. There is no guarantee it will always be successful but experts agree that it can reduce the risks significantly. It has to be exercised and the importance of emergency drills has been underlined. The basic structure and major elements of accident management programmes appear to be similar among OECD member countries. Dealing with significant phenomenological uncertainties in establishing accident management programmes continues to be an important issue, especially in confirming the appropriateness of specific accident management strategies

  20. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  1. Advert for higher education

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Provozin; А.S. Teletov

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  2. ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL OF TEACHING SKILLS IN THE CONCLUSION PROFORDEMS ITSON AND IMPACT ON SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Nallely López-Lugo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Teacher Training Program of Higher Education Media (PROFORDEMS, aims to contribute to the educational profile in skills development. This study aims to determine the level of achievement reached graduates considered teachers regarding teaching skills training process to conclude the paragraph after performing the analysis of as it impacts on society. The method was quantitative, applied for UN compound instrument teaching skills and attributes, with Likert scale Establishing the four levels of Tobon, 76 graduate teachers of the seventh generation of the Technological Institute of Sonora, of which Were Significantly of the headquarters of Navojoa and Obregón, Navojoa Being 47 with the participation of 20 women and 27 men, regarding Obregon Participants were 17 women and 12 men. Were the results satisfactory, over 65% of graduates found in the teachers considered autonomous and strategic levels, competition four is the one that obtained the lowest percentage. To conclude that the PROFORMDES contributes to teaching skills.

  3. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  4. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  5. Proteomics Analysis to Identify and Characterize the Molecular Signatures of Hepatic Steatosis in Ovariectomized Rats as a Model of Postmenopausal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal women are particularly at increased risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Here we aimed to determine the impact of postmenopausal-induced NAFLD (PM-NAFLD in an ovariectomized rat model. Sixteen six-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into two groups (eight per group, for sham-operation (Sham or bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx. Four months after surgery, indices of liver damage and liver histomorphometry were measured. Both serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotranferease (ALT levels were significantly higher in the Ovx than Sham group. We performed quantitative LC-MS/MS-based proteomic profiling of livers from rats with PM-NAFLD to provide baseline knowledge of the PM-NAFLD proteome and to investigate proteins involved in PM-NAFLD by ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA to provide corroborative evidence for differential regulation of molecular and cellular functions affecting metabolic processes. Of the 586 identified proteins, the levels of 59 (10.0% and 48 (8.2% were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the Ovx group compared to the Sham group. In conclusion, the changes in regulation of proteins implicated in PM-NAFLD may affect other vital biological processes in the body apart from causing postmenopause-mediated liver dysfunction. Our quantitative proteomics analysis may also suggest potential biomarkers and further clinical applications for PM-NAFLD.

  6. Twenty years of children’s health monitoring: organization, results, conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep understanding of human potential reproduction, presenting it as a continuous cycle and reflecting the continuity of generations, is significant for the formation of health and development of children. Today’s children will determine the future of Russian society. It is they who in 10–15 years will be a major part of the labor and creative population, a demographic base of the country. The research into children’s problems through the prism of socio-economic development helps identify targets of the state many-sided policy. The article presents results of the long-term medical sociological monitoring on the formation of child health carried out by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS with the support of the Vologda Oblast Healthcare Department since 1995. The special monitoring study of health dynamics in real time is unique not only for the Vologda Oblast, but for Russia as well. It reveals the transformation of a personality and the dependence of these changes on direct and indirect factors. The work’s feature is that it addresses an extremely important and wide range of issues: whether man was born healthy or not, if he/she is unhealthy, then why and why he/she was born unhealthy; whether his/her health after the birth is improving or deteriorating; if health is changing, what causes the changes. The 15 year observations disclose the dynamics of child health in the conditions of transformation processes taking place in the country. If the official statistics only records certain health trends, the monitoring results allow us to talk about them at a qualitatively new level. They reveal the underlying causes of demographic processes. The conclusion is, on the one hand, obvious and, on the other hand, it can not be neglected: economic stability and orderly development of the social sphere are critical for family well-being and child health. The reverse situation leads to the destruction of the family

  7. [Domestic elder abuse and neglect--conclusions from the evaluation of a model project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgen, T; Nägele, B

    2005-02-01

    The main task of a federally funded model project in the German city of Hannover was to develop approaches for prevention and intervention in the field of domestic elder abuse. Over a three year period (1998-2001), different approaches--like a telephone helpline for senior citizens, and social workers operating as counsellors for elderly people and their relatives--were tested at a local level. The paper presents results from the evaluation of the project and draws conclusions for future prevention and intervention in the field. The authors argue that the explicit use of the conceptual framework of "violence"/"abuse" creates potentials for scandalizing the issue and is therefore supportive for media appearance, whereas it can impede the approach to the main target groups (elderly people and their relatives) and reduce accessibility of counselling services for potential clients. In the light of evaluation results the focus of the project ("domestic elder abuse" or "violence against elderly people in close relationships") was too narrow for a local project. Counselling services were used in a relatively small number of cases; analyses of cases show that incidents of domestic elder abuse are often embedded in complex problem constellations. Cases brought to the attention of the model project were multifaceted and not limited to incidents of neglect and abuse of elderly care recipients caused by caregiver overload. Cases of intimate violence in partnerships and of intergenerational violence without any of the participants being dependent on care show the need to develop a broader concept of domestic elder abuse. Integration of the concepts of domestic violence, violence against women, elder abuse/neglect and abuse/neglect in caregiving relationships is necessary on a conceptual level as well as on the level of interagency cooperation of institutions dealing with cases of "elder abuse".

  8. On the challenges of drawing conclusions from p-values just below 0.05

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have attempted to provide an indication of the prevalence of inflated Type 1 error rates by analyzing the distribution of p-values in the published literature. De Winter & Dodou (2015) analyzed the distribution (and its change over time) of a large number of p-values automatically extracted from abstracts in the scientific literature. They concluded there is a ‘surge of p-values between 0.041–0.049 in recent decades’ which ‘suggests (but does not prove) questionable research practices have increased over the past 25 years.’ I show the changes in the ratio of fractions of p-values between 0.041–0.049 over the years are better explained by assuming the average power has decreased over time. Furthermore, I propose that their observation that p-values just below 0.05 increase more strongly than p-values above 0.05 can be explained by an increase in publication bias (or the file drawer effect) over the years (cf. Fanelli, 2012; Pautasso, 2010, which has led to a relative decrease of ‘marginally significant’ p-values in abstracts in the literature (instead of an increase in p-values just below 0.05). I explain why researchers analyzing large numbers of p-values need to relate their assumptions to a model of p-value distributions that takes into account the average power of the performed studies, the ratio of true positives to false positives in the literature, the effects of publication bias, and the Type 1 error rate (and possible mechanisms through which it has inflated). Finally, I discuss why publication bias and underpowered studies might be a bigger problem for science than inflated Type 1 error rates, and explain the challenges when attempting to draw conclusions about inflated Type 1 error rates from a large heterogeneous set of p-values. PMID:26246976

  9. Beads task vs. box task: The specificity of the jumping to conclusions bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzan, Ryan P; Ephraums, Rachel; Delfabbro, Paul; Andreou, Christina

    2017-09-01

    Previous research involving the probabilistic reasoning 'beads task' has consistently demonstrated a jumping-to-conclusions (JTC) bias, where individuals with delusions make decisions based on limited evidence. However, recent studies have suggested that miscomprehension may be confounding the beads task. The current study aimed to test the conventional beads task against a conceptually simpler probabilistic reasoning "box task" METHODS: One hundred non-clinical participants completed both the beads task and the box task, and the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI) to assess for delusion-proneness. The number of 'draws to decision' was assessed for both tasks. Additionally, the total amount of on-screen evidence was manipulated for the box task, and two new box task measures were assessed (i.e., 'proportion of evidence requested' and 'deviation from optimal solution'). Despite being conceptually similar, the two tasks did not correlate, and participants requested significantly less information on the beads task relative to the box task. High-delusion-prone participants did not demonstrate hastier decisions on either task; in fact, for box task, this group was observed to be significantly more conservative than low-delusion-prone group. Neither task was incentivized; results need replication with a clinical sample. Participants, and particularly those identified as high-delusion-prone, displayed a more conservative style of responding on the novel box task, relative to the beads task. The two tasks, whilst conceptually similar, appear to be tapping different cognitive processes. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to the JTC bias and the theoretical mechanisms thought to underlie it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Managing nuclear waste: a better idea (Excerpt of conclusions and recommendations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The panel concludes that an immediate effort must be made to improve the credibility, internal flexibility and cost-effectiveness of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). However, in recognition that no modification to DOE/OCRWM organization would necessarily provide adequate stability and continuity, it is our principal recommendation that investigation of the specific steps necessary to implement, for example, a dedicated federally chartered corporation (the first choice of the Panel voting on organizational tests), should be undertaken immediately so that Congress can have a precise understanding of the legislative changes required to bring about such an organization. The main thrust of the Panel study has dealt with the structure and capabilities of various organizational alternatives for managing the high-level radioactive waste management program. The Panel also gave consideration to the financing processes of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), and to certain financing alternatives which might be substituted for the existing mechanisms. In doing so, the Panel encountered an array of financial uncertainties which confront the radioactive waste management program as it moves forward over the next two decades. At this juncture, it is extremely difficult to predict how future events, programmatic developments, and economic influences will affect the financing structure and cost level over the term of the program. It is the Panel's conclusion that the financing mechanism provided by Congress under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act appears to be fair, amenable to administrative implementation and cost controls, and sufficiently flexible to accommodate the full-recovery requirement of the legislation. Under NWPA, utilities are assessed a fee of 1 mill per kilowatthour of nuclear-generated electricity, plus a one-time fee for spent fuel accumulated prior to April 7, 1983

  11. The chooz a expert survey program and its main conclusions for plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelet, B.; Heuze, A.; Hennart, J.C.; Havard, P.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the importance of PWR components life management represents for Electricity Companies, significant R and D programs are dedicated to identifying and analysing mechanisms and damage rates of the different degradation modes of these components, systems and structures. To assess R and D assumptions and to validate non destructive test results through reviews, expert survey programs on in-situ equipment may enhance the knowledge about most of the various phenomena involved. In this regard, an extensive program was launched after the Chooz A NPP was decommissioned in 1991, after 24 years in operation. This program gathered EDF, IPSN, FRAMATOME, ELECTRABEL and TRACTEBEL into partnership. The expert survey program was performed in various laboratories between 1995 and 1999 and includes: - on-site non destructive testing before sampling, - and metallurgical and mechanical tests performed on samples taken from the nuclear and non nuclear part of the unit. The expert survey program performed by Utilities in various laboratories involved the following equipment: - reactor vessel and internal equipment, - reactor coolant system (dissimilar metal welds, SS welds, cast austenitic ferritic steels), - feedwater plant piping (erosion-corrosion), - electric cables susceptible of temperature and irradiation induced ageing, - anchoring in civil engineering structures, - main primary circuit concerning activation measurement. In conclusion, the extensive Chooz A expert survey program yields numerous significant results. The main outcomes will contribute to validate non destructive tests and enhance our knowledge of some degradation mechanisms of often quite similar components present in units in operation. It is worthy to note that this program is of prime importance for operation feedback; the cost of the whole study amounts to approximately 10 Million Euros. (author)

  12. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  13. Conference on abuse liability and appeal of tobacco products: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningfield, Jack E; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Zeller, Mitch; Peters, Ellen

    2011-07-01

    The rate of initiation and progression to dependence and premature mortality are higher for tobacco products than for any other dependence producing substance. This is not explained simply by the addictiveness ("abuse liability") or by enticing product designs ("product appeal") alone, but rather by both of these factors in combination with marketing and social influences that also influence "product appeal". A working meeting of leading experts in abuse liability (AL) and product appeal was convened to examine how these disciplines could be more effectively applied to the evaluation of tobacco products for the purposes of regulation that would include setting standards for designs and contents intended to reduce the risk of initiation and dependence. It was concluded that abuse liability assessment (ALA) is a validated approach to testing pharmaceutical products but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products: such application has demonstrated feasibility, but special challenges include the diverse range of products, product complexity, and the absence of satisfactory placebo products. Consumer testing for product appeal is widely used by consumer product marketers as well as by researchers in their efforts to understand consumer product preferences and use but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products except by the tobacco industry. Recommendations for testing, methods development, and research were developed. A major recommendation was that tobacco products should be tested for AL and product appeal, and the results integrated and evaluated so as to more accurately predict risk of initiation, dependence, and persistence of use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Conference on Abuse Liability and Appeal of Tobacco Products: Conclusions and Recommendations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Zeller, Mitch; Peters, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The rate of initiation and progression to dependence and premature mortality are higher for tobacco products than for any other dependence producing substance. This is not explained simply by the addictiveness (“abuse liability”) or by enticing product designs (“product appeal”) alone, but rather by both of these factors in combination with marketing and social influences that also influence “product appeal”. A working meeting of leading experts in abuse liability (AL) and product appeal was convened to examine how these disciplines could be more effectively applied to the evaluation of tobacco products for the purposes of regulation that would include setting standards for designs and contents intended to reduce the risk of initiation and dependence. It was concluded that abuse liability assessment (ALA) is a validated approach to testing pharmaceutical products but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products: such application has demonstrated feasibility, but special challenges include the diverse range of products, product complexity, and the absence of satisfactory placebo products. Consumer testing for product appeal is widely used by consumer products marketers as well as by researchers in their efforts to understand consumer product preferences and use but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products except by the tobacco industry. Recommendations for testing, methods development, and research were developed. A major recommendation was that tobacco products should be tested for AL and product appeal, and the results integrated and evaluated so as to more accurately predict risk of initiation, dependence, and persistence of use. PMID:21376479

  15. Advanced thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes: current and future applications. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    An OECD Workshop on Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic and Neutronic Codes Applications was held from 10 to 13 April 2000, in Barcelona, Spain, sponsored by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It was organised in collaboration with the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) and hosted by CSN and the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) in collaboration with the Spanish Electricity Association (UNESA). The objectives of the Workshop were to review the developments since the previous CSNI Workshop held in Annapolis [NEA/CSNI/ R(97)4; NUREG/CP-0159], to analyse the present status of maturity and remnant needs of thermal-hydraulic (TH) and neutronic system codes and methods, and finally to evaluate the role of these tools in the evolving regulatory environment. The Technical Sessions and Discussion Sessions covered the following topics: - Regulatory requirements for Best-Estimate (BE) code assessment; - Application of TH and neutronic codes for current safety issues; - Uncertainty analysis; - Needs for integral plant transient and accident analysis; - Simulators and fast running codes; - Advances in next generation TH and neutronic codes; - Future trends in physical modeling; - Long term plans for development of advanced codes. The focus of the Workshop was on system codes. An incursion was made, however, in the new field of applying Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes to nuclear safety analysis. As a general conclusion, the Barcelona Workshop can be considered representative of the progress towards the targets marked at Annapolis almost four years ago. The Annapolis Workshop had identified areas where further development and specific improvements were needed, among them: multi-field models, transport of interfacial area, 2D and 3D thermal-hydraulics, 3-D neutronics consistent with level of details of thermal-hydraulics. Recommendations issued at Annapolis included: developing small pilot/test codes for

  16. LEAping to conclusions: A computational reanalysis of late embryogenesis abundant proteins and their possible roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise Michael J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins cover a number of loosely related groups of proteins, originally found in plants but now being found in non-plant species. Their precise function is unknown, though considerable evidence suggests that LEA proteins are involved in desiccation resistance. Using a number of statistically-based bioinformatics tools the classification of a large set of LEA proteins, covering all Groups, is reexamined together with some previous findings. Searches based on peptide composition return proteins with similar composition to different LEA Groups; keyword clustering is then applied to reveal keywords and phrases suggestive of the Groups' properties. Results Previous research has suggested that glycine is characteristic of LEA proteins, but it is only highly over-represented in Groups 1 and 2, while alanine, thought characteristic of Group 2, is over-represented in Group 3, 4 and 6 but under-represented in Groups 1 and 2. However, for LEA Groups 1 2 and 3 it is shown that glutamine is very significantly over-represented, while cysteine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and tryptophan are significantly under-represented. There is also evidence that the Group 4 LEA proteins are more appropriately redistributed to Group 2 and Group 3. Similarly, Group 5 is better found among the Group 3 LEA proteins. Conclusions There is evidence that Group 2 and Group 3 LEA proteins, though distinct, might be related. This relationship is also evident in the overlapping sets of keywords for the two Groups, emphasising alpha-helical structure and, at a larger scale, filaments, all of which fits well with experimental evidence that proteins from both Groups are natively unstructured, but become structured under stress conditions. The keywords support localisation of LEA proteins both in the nucleus and associated with the cytoskeleton, and a mode of action similar to chaperones, perhaps the cold shock chaperones

  17. Summary of the workshop robustness of electrical systems - Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The workshop included an opening session, seven sessions with participant presentations followed by short discussions, and a facilitated discussion session. The contributions presented were devoted to discussions of national post-Fukushima regulatory programme developments, methods to determine allowable coping time for electric power recovery, electric power system simulation methods development and benchmarking efforts, analysis of component capability, and approaches to facilitate electric power system recovery from extended loss of AC power. The following conclusions and recommendations are made based on workshop presentations, discussions during particular sessions, and facilitated discussions: - Based upon the panel discussions at the end of the workshop, a majority of the participants suggested the need for continuing efforts after the ROBELSYS workshop and particularly the importance of launching a more permanent international working group on modeling tools and methods related to nuclear power plant electrical power system studies. The working group would be modelled on WGRISK. (It is recognized that creating such a permanent working group would require a multi-year commitment of CSNI and the participants). - It will be very beneficial to continue international information sharing of the following items, eventually leading to development of suitable international electrical standards: System and component requirements for addressing beyond design basis external events; Recommended practice for incorporating diversity in the onsite electrical power system; Recommended practice for relaxing electric power protection features used in emergency situations (assuring margin against spurious electrical shutdowns); Recommended practice for qualification requirements for existing systems and portable components used to cope with AC station blackout. - There is a need for further development and improvements in the analysis and simulation of the following

  18. Involvement of a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis on the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoneda Masato

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome that is closely associated with multiple factors such as obesity, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, other risk factors for the development of NAFLD are unclear. With the association between periodontal disease and the development of systemic diseases receiving increasing attention recently, we conducted this study to investigate the relationship between NAFLD and infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis, a major causative agent of periodontitis. Methods The detection frequencies of periodontal bacteria in oral samples collected from 150 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients (102 with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and 48 with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL patients and 60 non-NAFLD control subjects were determined. Detection of P. gingivalis and other periodontopathic bacteria were detected by PCR assay. In addition, effect of P. gingivalis-infection on mouse NAFLD model was investigated. To clarify the exact contribution of P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis, non-surgical periodontal treatments were also undertaken for 3 months in 10 NAFLD patients with periodontitis. Results The detection frequency of P. gingivalis in NAFLD patients was significantly higher than that in the non-NAFLD control subjects (46.7% vs. 21.7%, odds ratio: 3.16. In addition, the detection frequency of P. gingivalis in NASH patients was markedly higher than that in the non-NAFLD subjects (52.0%, odds ratio: 3.91. Most of the P. gingivalis fimbria detected in the NAFLD patients was of invasive genotypes, especially type II (50.0%. Infection of type II P. gingivalis on NAFLD model of mice accelerated the NAFLD progression. The non-surgical periodontal treatments on NAFLD patients carried out for 3 months ameliorated the liver function parameters, such as the serum levels of AST and ALT. Conclusions Infection with high-virulence P

  19. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  20. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  1. Chester 2, Summary and Way Forward, Plenary Session Outputs, Summary Presentation and Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The workshop ended with a summary session. The Workshop Chair and Technical Reporter summarised the main findings, and provided the opportunity for further discussion and comment. There was a discussion on the way forward, including reporting, future meetings and other means of networking. Participants provided feedback on the workshop to assist with the planning and conduct of future events. The main conclusions arising from the workshop were as follows: - Licensees are generally positive about engaging with regulators to raise awareness about and support improvements in LMfS/SC. - More active and visible senior regulatory leadership increases the effectiveness of LMfS/SC interventions. Examples of practical actions that senior regulatory leaders can take include raising LMfS/SC matters at senior levels within licensee organisations and feeding back results of discussions to regulatory staff so that priorities and expectations are aligned. - A common 'language', and trust between regulators and licensees are fundamental factors for effective oversight of LMfS/SC. - The message from the previous workshop in 2007 on the importance of integrating LMfS/SC into normal regulatory business was reinforced. - A combination of integrated and targeted LMfS/SC interventions is considered to be effective to take account of the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches. - In line with the conclusions from the previous workshop, influence is preferred to 'enforcement'. Where enforcement action is required, this is likely to be associated with tangible manifestations of LMfS/SC safety culture issues, such as license condition violations. - A fundamental principle of regulatory oversight of LMfS/SC is to encourage licensees to understand and take ownership of issues and solutions. Strategies include: Discussion of regulatory perceptions to test for shared regulator/licensee understanding, - Working together with licensees to develop guidance and understanding (e.g., through

  2. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    leaders of higher education institutions to set strategic directions and support their decisions in an effort to create even better study programmes with a better reputation. Finally, managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.Keywords: Reputation, image, corporate identity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a reputation model for higher education programmes, provide empirical evidence for the model and illustrate its application by using Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as the recurrent case. The developed model is a cause-and-effect model linking image...

  3. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...

  4. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur...

  5. Conclusion of the Preliminary Safety report for the LILW Repository on Trgovska Gora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokner, V.; Levanat, I.; Schaller, A.; Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Cerskov Klika, M.; Subasic, D.

    2002-01-01

    For more than a decade, APO d.o.o. has been engaged in preparations which might lead to establishment of a radioactive waste repository on Trgovska Gora, suitable for disposal of low and intermediate level waste (LILW) from the nuclear power plant Krsko. A recent product of theses activities is the preliminary safety assessment report (PSAR) for the proposed repository. In addition to an extensive overview of the repository project status, this preliminary SAR describes how the safety assessment methodology is used to demonstrate that a LILW facility will comply with radiological protection and safety requirements after the repository closure. LILW repository is designed to isolate waste from the environment for a couple hundred years in a reasonably efficient manner. It is generally not practicable to grant full waste containment throughout that period, because it suffices to demonstrate that radionuclide release and migration will remain below acceptable levels, which is achieved through safety assessment scenarios, modeling and calculations. However, with very limited repository specific data, safety assessment can only produce a conservative estimate of the upper bounds of potential exposures the repository could inflict. This PSAR arrives at such estimates in two different ways: (a) by simple bounding calculations and (b) through more sophisticated modeling and application of dedicated computer codes, but with similar conservative assumptions. Both approaches conservatively estimate that the highest potential dose to a nearby resident cannot significantly exceed the dose constraint of 0.2 mSv per year. Only in case of inadvertent intrusion into the near-surface disposal vault, much higher doses might be inflicted immediately after the planned institutional control of 250 years expires, but that can be prevented by a longer control period. Despite the preliminary and bounding style of the calculations, the PSAR has identified most important assumptions and

  6. Aerobic interval exercise improves parameters of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and other alterations of metabolic syndrome in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Andrade, Ana M; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aparicio, Virginia A; Lopez-Jurado, Maria; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Fernandez-Segura, Eduardo; Bermano, Giovanna; Goua, Marie; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesus M

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a group of metabolic alterations that increase the susceptibility to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been described as the liver manifestation of MS. We aimed to test the beneficial effects of an aerobic interval training (AIT) protocol on different biochemical, microscopic, and functional liver alterations related to the MS in the experimental model of obese Zucker rat. Two groups of lean and obese animals (6 weeks old) followed a protocol of AIT (4 min at 65%-80% of maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 3 min at 50%-65% of maximal oxygen uptake for 45-60 min, 5 days/week, 8 weeks of experimental period), whereas 2 control groups remained sedentary. Obese rats had higher food intake and body weight (P metabolism and increased the liver protein expression of PPARγ, as well as the gene expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (P < 0.001). The training protocol also showed significant effects on the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, although this action was greatly influenced by rat phenotype. The present data suggest that AIT protocol is a feasible strategy to improve some of the plasma and liver alterations featured by the MS.

  7. Severe accident management (SAM), operator training and instrumentation capabilities - Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Workshop on Operator Training for Severe Accident Management (SAM) and Instrumentation Capabilities During Severe Accidents was organised in collaboration with Electricite de France (Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires). There were 34 participants, representing thirteen OECD Member countries, the Russian Federation and the OECD/NEA. Almost half the participants represented utilities. The second largest group was regulatory authorities and their technical support organisations. Basically, the Workshop was a follow-up to the 1997 Second Specialist Meeting on Operator Aids for Severe Accident Management (SAMOA-2) [Reports NEA/CSNI/R(97)10 and 27] and to the 1992 Specialist Meeting on Instrumentation to Manage Severe Accidents [Reports NEA/CSNI/R(92)11 and (93)3]. It was aimed at sharing and comparing progress made and experience gained from these two meetings, emphasizing practical lessons learnt during training or incidents as well as feedback from instrumentation capability assessment. The objectives of the Workshop were therefore: - to exchange information on recent and current activities in the area of operator training for SAM, and lessons learnt during the management of real incidents ('operator' is defined hear as all personnel involved in SAM); - to compare capabilities and use of instrumentation available during severe accidents; - to monitor progress made; - to identify and discuss differences between approaches relevant to reactor safety; - and to make recommendations to the Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents and the CSNI (GAMA). The Workshop was organised into five sessions: - 1: Introduction; - 2: Tools and Methods; - 3: Training Programmes and Experience; - 4: SAM Organisation Efficiency; - 5: Instrumentation Capabilities. It was concluded by a Panel and General Discussion. This report presents the summary and conclusions: the meeting confirmed that only limited information is needed for making required decisions

  8. The Successful Conclusion of the Deep Space 1 Mission: Important Results without a Flashy Title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Marc D.

    2002-01-01

    direct scientific return, the comet encounter is of engineering value to other missions planning comet encounters. With the successful conclusion of its extended mission, DS1 undertook a hyperextended mission. This phase of its flight was dedicated to final testing of the advanced technologies on board. With the mission at more than three times its planned lifetime, this offered an excellent opportunity to obtain unplanned data on the effects of long-term operation in space. All nine of the hardware technologies were used during the hyperextended mission, with a focus on the ion propulsion system. Following this period of extremely aggressive testing, with no further technology or science objectives, the mission was terminated on December 18, 2001, with the powering off of the spacecraft s transmitter, although the receiver was left on. By the end of its mission, DS1 had returned a wealth of important science data and engineering data for future missions. It did so following the shortest time from pre-phase A through launch of any NASA interplanetary mission in the modern era and the lowest cost of any NASA interplanetary mission ever conducted (measured in same year dollars, including the launch cost). This paper will describe the encounter with comet Borrelly, the hyperextended mission, and summarize the overall results of the Deep Space 1 project.

  9. Exploring Higher Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Willis M.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that the social studies reform movement includes a call for the de-emphasis of rote memory and more attention to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Discusses the "thinking tasks" concept derived from the work of Hilda Taba and asserts that the tasks can be used with almost any social studies topic. (CFR)

  10. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  11. Inflation from higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1987-01-01

    We argue that an inflationary phase in the very early universe is related to the transition from a higher dimensional to a four-dimensional universe. We present details of a previously considered model which gives sufficient inflation without fine tuning of parameters. (orig.)

  12. Higher Education Funding Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

  13. Liberty and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  14. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  15. Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  16. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  17. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  18. Creativity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  19. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  20. Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Maria A.; Smith, Gina S.; Brashen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has extended beyond the schoolyard into online forums in the form of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a growing concern due to the effect on its victims. Current studies focus on grades K-12; however, cyberbullying has entered the world of higher education. The focus of this study was to identify the existence of cyberbullying in higher…

  1. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  2. Overview of physics results from the conclusive operation of the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, S. A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Allain, J.; Andre, R.; Balbaky, A.; Bastasz, R.; Battaglia, D.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Boedo, J.; Bonoli, P.; Boozer, A.; Bortolon, A.; Boyle, D.; Brennan, D.; Breslau, J.; Buttery, R.; Canik, J.; Caravelli, G.; Chang, C.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Davis, B.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diallo, A.; Ding, S.; D'Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Ethier, S.; Evans, T.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fonck, R.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Gray, T.; Guo, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hirooka, Y.; Hooper, E. B.; Hosea, J.; Humphreys, D.; Indireshkumar, K.; Jaeger, F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.; Kolemen, E.; Kramer, G.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R. J.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Lore, J.; Luhmann, N., Jr.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; McLean, A.; McCune, D.; McGeehan, B.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Meier, E.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nelson, B.; Nishino, N.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Park, H.; Park, J.; Park, Y. S.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Raman, R.; Ren, Y.; Rewoldt, G.; Rognlien, T.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scotti, F.; Shaing, K.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C. H.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, D.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, H.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Umansky, M.; Urban, J.; Untergberg, E.; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.; Wang, W.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K. L.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Youchison, D.; Yu, G.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zimmer, G.; Zweben, S. J.

    2013-10-01

    Research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment, NSTX, targets physics understanding needed for extrapolation to a steady-state ST Fusion Nuclear Science Facility, pilot plant, or DEMO. The unique ST operational space is leveraged to test physics theories for next-step tokamak operation, including ITER. Present research also examines implications for the coming device upgrade, NSTX-U. An energy confinement time, τE, scaling unified for varied wall conditions exhibits a strong improvement of BTτE with decreased electron collisionality, accentuated by lithium (Li) wall conditioning. This result is consistent with nonlinear microtearing simulations that match the experimental electron diffusivity quantitatively and predict reduced electron heat transport at lower collisionality. Beam-emission spectroscopy measurements in the steep gradient region of the pedestal indicate the poloidal correlation length of turbulence of about ten ion gyroradii increases at higher electron density gradient and lower Ti gradient, consistent with turbulence caused by trapped electron instabilities. Density fluctuations in the pedestal top region indicate ion-scale microturbulence compatible with ion temperature gradient and/or kinetic ballooning mode instabilities. Plasma characteristics change nearly continuously with increasing Li evaporation and edge localized modes (ELMs) stabilize due to edge density gradient alteration. Global mode stability studies show stabilizing resonant kinetic effects are enhanced at lower collisionality, but in stark contrast have almost no dependence on collisionality when the plasma is off-resonance. Combined resistive wall mode radial and poloidal field sensor feedback was used to control n = 1 perturbations and improve stability. The disruption probability due to unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) was surprisingly reduced at very high βN/li > 10 consistent with low frequency magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy measurements of mode stability. Greater

  3. Long term behavior of radiocaesium in moose: conclusions from 25 years of monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, R.; Sonesten, L.; Goedkoop, W. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment (Sweden); Sundell-Bergman, S.; Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden); Wikenros, C. [Department of Ecology (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    follow up of {sup 137}Cs-measurements in moose confirm previous findings, pointing to large variations of the activity concentrations in moose both within and between the years. The average variation coefficient (CV) was found to be 0.68. There were significant differences between calves and adults where, on average, the activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs was higher in calves (+50 % in 2010). The results further show that the effective ecological half-life of {sup 137}Cs in moose is long, approximately 20 years, and close to the physical half-life of {sup 137}Cs (30.17 years). The mean activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in moose in the study area have declined from around 700 Bq kg{sup -1} (f.w.) the first ten years to around 300 Bq kg{sup -1} (f.w.) in recent years. Calculated average Tag values (aggregated transfer factor) in the area of study have slowly declined from 0.020-0.030 to 0.010-0.020 m{sup 2}/kg. This investigation is unique in the sense of long-term follow up, cost effectiveness and unchanging conditions. A further multivariate analysis, including the pre-hunting season weather conditions, will be performed on the data set. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  4. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  5. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  6. Nonlinearity management in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevrekidis, P G; Pelinovsky, D E; Stefanov, A

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, we revisit nonlinearity management of the time-periodic nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the related averaging procedure. By means of rigorous estimates, we show that the averaged nonlinear Schroedinger equation does not blow up in the higher dimensional case so long as the corresponding solution remains smooth. In particular, we show that the H 1 norm remains bounded, in contrast with the usual blow-up mechanism for the focusing Schroedinger equation. This conclusion agrees with earlier works in the case of strong nonlinearity management but contradicts those in the case of weak nonlinearity management. The apparent discrepancy is explained by the divergence of the averaging procedure in the limit of weak nonlinearity management

  7. Synthesis of the Constructing Memory Conference. Conclusions from the Constructing Memory Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    'Constructing Memory: An International Conference and Debate on the Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory of Radioactive Waste across Generations' was met with a great deal of enthusiasm by participants. The wealth of new topics, the presence of both specialists and of interested stakeholders, and the structure of the conference that allowed both scholarly presentations and group discussions, were particularly appreciated. Academics found that it laid the basis for new academic research. One participant expressed his appreciation in this way: 'It gave me food for thought not only on the issue of nuclear waste information but also on other preservation issues'. Overall, the conference upheld the findings of the RK and M initiative's Phase I and its main work directions. Namely, it confirmed the RK and M overarching findings that: There is no single mechanism or technique that would achieve, alone, the preservation of RK and M over centuries and millennia. An RK and M preservation method is needed whose components offer a variety of RK and M transmission mechanisms that are integrated with one another or that complement one another with a view to maximising information accessibility, understandability and survivability over the timescales considered. The RK and M initiative is thus well advised to continue working on a systemic approach for RK and M preservation and to map its various components and highlight their internal synergies. At a higher level, the RK and M also found confirmation that: There should be no intention to forgo, at any time, records, knowledge and memory (RK and M) of the repository and of the waste it contains. Enabling future members of society to make informed decisions is part of responsible, ethically sound and sustainable radioactive waste management. During the conference's long-term session, its Rapporteur, Fabrice Boissier (Andra), emphasised the idea that the medium term should last as long as

  8. 43 CFR 4.452-8 - Findings and conclusions; decision by administrative law judge; submission to Board for decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... after the time allowed for presenting proposed findings and conclusions, the administrative law judge... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Findings and conclusions; decision by... Findings and conclusions; decision by administrative law judge; submission to Board for decision. (a) At...

  9. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...

  10. Higher engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics principles required at higher engineering levelJohn Bird's approach to mathematics, based on numerous worked examples and interactive problems, is ideal for vocational students that require an advanced textbook.Theory is kept to a minimum, with the emphasis firmly placed on problem-solving skills, making this a thoroughly practical introduction to the advanced mathematics engineering that students need to master. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for upper level vocational courses. Now in

  11. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  12. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping

  13. Teaching at higher levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see http://www.aapt.org/programs/rupc.html). Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of £60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials

  14. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  15. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1990-10-01

    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)

  16. Conclusion Dokter en digter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-08-17

    Aug 17, 1994 ... Effects of srmvastatin and cholestyramine in familial and non-familial hypercholesterolaemia. .... in 1993, total and tobacco advertising expenditure, brand ..... luxury market, and through funding of accessories such as ...

  17. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of a clinical session on 'High dose-rate afterloading in the treatment of cancer of the uterus' at the International Workshop, London in April 1978 are discussed. The results of high dose-rate afterloading treatment were at least as good as those of conventional low dose-rate therapy. However, there is still a need to optimize dose fractionation and technique according to the type and stage of the disease to achieve the best results with the least distress for the patient. It would appear that, at the doses used, side effects with high dose-rate afterloading were few and probably related to the external rather than to the intracavitary therapy. High dose-rate afterloading therapy has obvious social and economic advantages and is thus of interest to all countries. (U.K.)

  18. Prospects and conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present issue of 'Les Cahiers de COGEMAGAZINE', dedicated to role played by Cogema in the nuclear fuel cycling, ends with a short account on perspectives and concluding considerations. In the world nuclear fuel industry the most active zones appear to be France, Japan, China, Taiwan and Korea. A real expansion is to be expected in UO 2 market for PWRs. Also rapid development will be recorded by the production of MOF (mixed oxide fuels) especially due to the inception of British reprocessing plant at Thorp and the increase of number of MOF-fuelled reactors. The most significant lines of progress related to the new fuels are estimated to be: high burn-up (by increasing the resistance to fission gas pressure and irradiation), improvement of response to power excursions, fuel matrices of stronger retention, increase in the plutonium content of MOF, 100% MOF-fuelled reactors, optimizing the utilization of consumable poisons (for PWR) and very high burn-up and very long service lifetimes (for Breeders). In a nuclear environment, now in a rather low expansion rate, the French nuclear fuel industry enjoys the benefit of: an important national market, industrial experimented teams able to tackle all the steps from design to realization of a diversity of nuclear fuel types, fabrication facilities combining suppleness to clients' demands with requirements for high quality, a highly-rated worldwide position, and important capabilities of technological further development. An annex is added showing the percentage involvement of COGEMA and FRAMATOME in the fields of UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel production for PWR, fuels for Breeder, WER and experimental reactors and transport. Also participation of other European companies like PECHINEY, BELGONUCLEAIRE and SIEMENS is indicated

  19. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, A.

    1996-01-01

    This Air Concerted Action successfully developed a standard methodology to help integrate non-food crop production in rural areas with niche energy markets. The project developed and used a common methodology for comparing the costs of different energy crop production and conversion options across the six participating nations. The partners tested the methodology and ran examples in each of the two heat and one liquid biofuel niche markets. The examples demonstrated that at the current crop yields and with the current conversion technology, the delivered heat and liquid fuel from biomass were not competitive with that from fossil fuels, even in the three niche markets. It was confirmed, however, that biomass was important non only as a potential ''clean'' alternative fuel, but as an alternative crop for farmers which could additionally boost employment in rural communities. Following the inclusion of grants, subsidies and co-firing options, the partners tested the extended methodology and then ran another series of examples in the selected niche markets. (Author)

  20. Conclusion. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj and Zana-Semej. Population of these districts have been exposed to ionizing radiation influence in doses from 35 up to 100 rem. Third zone is zone of increased risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts of Semipalatinsk region: Chybartau, Novo-Shul'ba, Borodulikha, Charsk, Zharmy, Ayaguz. Effective equivalent doses for population during all these years made up from 7 to 35 rem. Forth zone is zone of minimal radiation risk. To this zone the inhabited settlements of Makanchi, Urdzhary, Taskesken, Kokpekty, Aksuat districts belongs. Effective equivalent doses of population irradiation made up from 0.1 to 7 rem. Measures on compensation payment for caused harm to suffered peoples health in result of nuclear weapon test have been carried out with taking into consideration of living duration in different zones

  1. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  2. Conclusions [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne J. Ho; David L. Peterson; Natalie J. Little

    2018-01-01

    The Intermountain Adaptation Partnership (IAP) provided significant contributions to assist climate change response in national forests and national parks of the region. The effort synthesized the best available scientific information to assess climate change vulnerability, develop adaptation options, and catalyze a collaboration of land management agencies and...

  3. Conclusions [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Karen Dante-Wood; Linh Hoang

    2018-01-01

    The Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnership (NRAP) provided significant contributions to assist climate change response in national forests and national parks of the Northern Rockies region. The effort synthesized the best available scientific information to assess climate change vulnerability, develop adaptation options, and catalyze a collaboration of land management...

  4. Instead of a Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The findings of the book are summarised and commented upon. The concept of 'martyrdom' and the reluctance in the use of violence are discussed......The findings of the book are summarised and commented upon. The concept of 'martyrdom' and the reluctance in the use of violence are discussed...

  5. Geomagnetic field: Conclusions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gorodnitsky, A; Subrahmanyam, A

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_38.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_38.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Chernobyl - consequences and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Chernobyl accident has taught mankind very plainly that nuclear energy bears a deadly potential and thus is to be ranked as a key problem of future decisions in the sector of power engineering. Decisions to be taken in future have to be seen in the context of the ecological, economic, and social needs. The statements given reflect the FEST's opinion on nuclear energy and the biological, economic, political, and ethical implications. (DG) [de

  7. Summary and conclusions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G; Murthy, K.S; Neprochnov, Y.P; Subrahmanyam, C.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_233.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_233.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. Chernobyl - facts and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaefer, H

    1986-07-01

    The article summarizes and comments on the activities started in the FRG after the Chernobyl MCA, and tries to assess whether the legal provisions currently applicable, or emergency plans available, are apt to efficiently cope with such an emergency situation. The author discusses the Soviet Union's initial efforts towards minimizing the disastrous significance of events, the lack of preparedness of German authorities and provisions, the non-availability of persons responsible during weekends and night hours, the confounding mess of measured data and units published by the information media and authorities, and the lack of a suitable information scheme and infrastructure supported both by the Land governments and the Federal Government. (HSCH).

  9. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The international workshop on 'Nuclear Power Plant Life Management in a Changing Business World' was held in Washington, DC, on 26-27 June 2000. This workshop was attended by more than 50 experts from 12 countries and three international organisations. The workshop included a series of presentations to a plenary session of all participants. A spectrum of experiences in plant life extension activities as well as experiences in operating a nuclear power plant (NPP) in a 'free-market' electricity environment were presented: The workshop also included three working groups in which major issues facing PLIM activities for NPPs were identified and discussed. The three working groups covered technology, regulation and business. The following sections of this report consist of summaries of the discussions that took place in each of the three working groups. (author)

  10. Different Teams, Same Conclusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuller, Thomas E; Haider, Haula F; Kikidis, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Background: Though clinical guidelines for assessment and treatment of chronic subjective tinnitus do exist, a comprehensive review of those guidelines has not been performed. The objective of this review was to identify current clinical guidelines, and compare their recommendations for the asses......Background: Though clinical guidelines for assessment and treatment of chronic subjective tinnitus do exist, a comprehensive review of those guidelines has not been performed. The objective of this review was to identify current clinical guidelines, and compare their recommendations...... for the assessment and treatment of subjective tinnitus in adults. Method: We systematically searched a range of sources for clinical guidelines (as defined by the Institute of Medicine, United States) for the assessment and/or treatment of subjective tinnitus in adults. No restrictions on language or year......, use of a validated questionnaire(s) to assess tinnitus related distress, and referral to a psychologist when required. Cognitive behavioral treatment for tinnitus related distress, use of hearing aids in instances of hearing loss and recommendations against the use of medicines were consistent across...

  11. Conclusions and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents general problems of countries Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan-leakage of dangerous matters and industry pollutions, transboundary pollutions of environment, the problems of tailing pits, climate change, public health

  12. Conclusion du titre II

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Minh Hang

    2013-01-01

    La qualification de la conciliation et de la médiation judiciaires en contrats de pourparlers judiciaires emporte d’importantes conséquences. 216. Consécration d’une nouvelle famille de contrats : les contrats de pourparlers judiciaires - Elle consacre tout d’abord une nouvelle famille de contrats : les contrats de pourparlers judiciaires. Ce faisant, elle apporte une pierre supplémentaire à l’édifice des figures hybrides qui mêlent le conventionnel et le judiciaire. 217. Les contrats de pour...

  13. The Cramster Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a recent "TPT" article, I wrote about a website called "Cramster" (www.cramster.com), which provides students with solutions to homework problems from many textbooks in math and science. I proposed the following question: Could giving students the answers to their assigned homework problems be an effective way of teaching them physics? This…

  14. Proposals, conclusions and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    MISE EN PLACE OU CONSOLIDATION DES OUTILS DE GESTION Des modèles de simulation Les connaissances scientifiques doivent être mieux intégrées et plus accessibles aux décideurs. L’une des options possibles serait d’utiliser des modèles permettant de simuler des scénarios afin d’aider les décideurs dans leurs choix stratégiques. Trois types de modèles nous semblent particulièrement souhaitables : un modèle hydraulique simulant les écoulements et permettant notamment de faire des études d’impact d...

  15. How Do Doctors Treat NAFLD and NASH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  16. How Do Doctors Diagnose NAFLD and NASH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  17. Learning higher mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontrjagin, Lev Semenovič

    1984-01-01

    Lev Semenovic Pontrjagin (1908) is one of the outstanding figures in 20th century mathematics. In a long career he has made fundamental con­ tributions to many branches of mathematics, both pure and applied. He has received every honor that a grateful government can bestow. Though in no way constrained to do so, he has through the years taught mathematics courses at Moscow State University. In the year 1975 he set himself the task of writing a series of books on secondary school and beginning university mathematics. In his own words, "I wished to set forth the foundations of higher mathematics in a form that would have been accessible to myself as a lad, but making use of all my experience as a scientist and a teacher, ac­ cumulated over many years. " The present volume is a translation of the first two out of four moderately sized volumes on this theme planned by Pro­ fessor Pontrjagin. The book begins at the beginning of modern mathematics, analytic ge­ ometry in the plane and 3-dimensional space. Refin...

  18. 16 CFR 5.63 - Evidence; transcript; in camera orders; proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence; transcript; in camera orders; proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. 5.63 Section 5.63 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... findings of fact and conclusions of law. Sections 3.43, 3.44, 3.45, and 3.46 of the Commission's Rules of...

  19. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    failure prone capacitors from the power stage. Q-Sync’s simpler electronics also result in higher efficiency because it eliminates the power required by the PCB to perform the obviated power conversions and PWM processes after line synchronous operating speed is reached in the first 5 seconds of operation, after which the PWM circuits drop out and a much less energy intensive “pass through” circuit takes over, allowing the grid-supplied AC power to sustain the motor’s ongoing operation.

  20. COMPARISON OF CLINICAL PROFILE OF DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS WITH OR WITHOUT NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents a spectrum of conditions, which is characterised histologically by significant macrovesicular hepatic steatosis that occurs in those who do not consume alcohol in amounts considered to be harmful to liver and in the absence of known toxins, drugs, viral disease, etc. This disease is quite frequently seen in diabetes especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is probably related to altered glucose metabolism. The spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is quite variable from mild alteration of transaminases, which is a benign disease to one with high morbidity and mortality. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for NAFLD and the prevalence of NAFLD in diabetic patients have been shown to be between 30-80%. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, normative survey technique was selected. Duration of the study was one year. The sample comprised of 100 diabetic patients age ranged 31-70 years. The sample was selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The tools such as clinical profile and checklist were administered. RESULTS The study found out that NAFLD is very common in diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients with NAFLD has a longer duration of diabetes compared to that of diabetic patients without NAFLD diabetic patients with NAFLD had higher BMI, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure than that of patients without NAFLD. CONCLUSION All the patients within the spectrum of NAFLD should be considered potentially affected not only by a liver disease, but by a multisystem disease. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of a complete clinical evaluation for early diagnosis and treatment of liver disease as well as the different manifestations. All type 2 diabetic patients should be monitored for the development of NAFLD. Early diagnosis of NAFLD can prevent the progression to NASH and its complications.

  1. Non-alcoholic and alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - two Diseases of Affluence associated with the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: the FIN-D2D Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltevo Juha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is known to be associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS and abnormal glucose tolerance. Whether alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD is associated with similar metabolic abnormalities has not been examined in a population-based study. We aimed at assessing the prevalences of NAFLD and AFLD, and to examine to what extent these conditions are associated with MetS and abnormal glucose tolerance. Methods The cohort included 2766 Finnish subjects (45-74 years from the population-based FIN-D2D survey. Features of insulin resistance, components of the MetS, glucose tolerance status by oral glucose tolerance test, serum liver enzyme concentrations, and daily alcohol consumption were assessed. Results Subjects with NAFLD and AFLD were equally obese and had similar fasting and insulin concentrations. The prevalences of NAFLD and AFLD were 21% (95% CI: 19%-22% and 7% (95% CI: 6%-8%. The MetS was slightly more prevalent in AFLD (73% than in NAFLD (70%, p = 0.028, and type 2 diabetes was similarly prevalent in NAFLD and AFLD (24-25%. The MetS and type 2 diabetes were more prevalent in subjects with NAFLD or AFLD compared to subjects with normal LFTs (53% and 14%, p Discussion and conclusion In Finnish middle-aged population, the prevalence of NAFLD is 3-fold higher than that of AFLD. The prevalences of MetS and type 2 diabetes are, however, significantly increased in both NAFLD and AFLD compared to subjects with normal LFTs. Subjects with AFLD are thus similarly metabolically unhealthy as subjects with NAFLD.

  2. Impact of Apolipoprotein B on Hepatosteatosis in a Population Infected with Hepatitis C Virus: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shyan Lin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an established risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, antiviral treatment resistance, and progression of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection to fibrosis. Apolipoprotein-B 100 (ApoB-100 is a dyslipidemia marker and steatosis predictor. We assess the correlation between ApoB-100 and hepatosteatosis. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 1,218 HCV-seropositive participants from a 2012-2013 health checkup in Taiwan. NAFLD was detected using ultrasound. All anthropometric and laboratory studies that included ApoB-100 were evaluated whether or not ApoB-100 predicts NAFLD. Logistic regression was also used to examine the association between ApoB-100 and NAFLD. Results: Participants were 47.16 ± 16.08 years old (mean age. The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 35.8% (n = 436; 32.8% men, 38.1% women. Participants with ApoB-100 ≥ 8 had a significantly higher incidence of NAFLD (39.4 vs. 29.4%; 95% CI 0.044-0.156; p Conclusion: ApoB-100 is strongly associated with NAFLD in people with non-genotype 3 HCV; greater ApoB-100 content is significantly correlated with higher-grade hepatosteatosis.

  3. We've looked at care from both sides now: the effects of alternative evaluation strategies on study conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert L; Kane, Rosalie A

    2009-01-01

    This study uses two studies about the role of managed-care programs in serving Medicaid long-term care clients in Florida to illustrate how different research designs can reach divergent conclusions. Two reports from different groups using essentially the same database to assess the impact of managed care on a group of older Medicaid clients served by a Nursing Home Diversion Program reached different conclusions. The report from Florida's Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability concluded that the Diversion program saved money, whereas the report from the Florida Policy Exchange Center on Aging at the University of South Florida reached basically the opposite conclusion. Both agreed that the capitation rate was too high. How the policy questions are framed and analyzed can affect the conclusions reached. A variety of factors can influence the apparent effects of programmatic interventions. Evaluations must take relevant confounding variables into account.

  4. Misrepresentation of neuroscience data might give rise to misleading conclusions in the media: the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Gonon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is often a huge gap between neurobiological facts and firm conclusions stated by the media. Data misrepresentation in the conclusions and summaries of neuroscience articles might contribute to this gap. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, we identified three types of misrepresentation. The first relies on prominent inconsistencies between results and claimed conclusions and was observed in two scientific reports dealing with ADHD. Only one out of the 61 media articles echoing both scientific reports adequately described the results and, thus questioned the claimed conclusion. The second type of misrepresentation consists in putting a firm conclusion in the summary while raw data that strongly limit the claim are only given in the results section. To quantify this misrepresentation we analyzed the summaries of all articles asserting that polymorphisms of the gene coding for the D4 dopaminergic receptor are associated with ADHD. Only 25 summaries out of 159 also mentioned that this association confers a small risk. This misrepresentation is also observed in most media articles reporting on ADHD and the D4 gene. The third misrepresentation consists in extrapolating basic and pre-clinical findings to new therapeutic prospects in inappropriate ways. Indeed, analysis of all ADHD-related studies in mice showed that 23% of the conclusions were overstated. The frequency of this overstatement was positively related with the impact factor of the journal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Data misrepresentations are frequent in the scientific literature dealing with ADHD and may contribute to the appearance of misleading conclusions in the media. In synergy with citation distortions and publication biases they influence social representations and bias the scientific evidence in favor of the view that ADHD is primarily caused by biological factors. We discuss the social consequences and

  5. E-Policy and higher education: from formulation to implementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In so doing, I provide a basis for discourse about current international trends influencing e-policy in higher education. In conclusion an analysis of the government's (South Africa) e-policy and its impact on the e-policy of higher education is also provided. South African Journal of Higher Education Vol. 21 (6) 2008: pp. 643- ...

  6. Could inherited predisposition drive non-obese fatty liver disease? Results from German tertiary referral centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Bantel, Heike; Rau, Monika; Schattenberg, Jörn M; Grünhage, Frank; Pathil, Anita; Demir, Münevver; Kluwe, Johannes; Boettler, Tobias; Weber, Susanne N; Geier, Andreas; Lammert, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequent among obese individuals with metabolic syndrome. Variants PNPLA3 p.I148M, TM6SF2 p.E167K and MBOAT7 rs641738 are associated with higher liver fat contents. Here we analyzed 63 biopsied non-obese, non-diabetic patients with NAFLD (39 men, age: 20-72 years) recruited within the German NAFLD CSG program. The frequencies of the PNPLA3, TM6SF2 and MBOAT7 polymorphisms were compared with the remaining patients in the NAFLD CSG cohort and with a control population (n = 174). Serum CK18-M30 was measured by ELISA. In non-obese NAFLD patients, the frequency of the PNPLA3 p.I148M allele (74.6%), but not of the TM6SF2 or MBOAT7 polymorphisms, was significantly (P < 0.05) higher as compared to the other patients in the NAFLD CSG cohort (54.9%) or controls (40.2%). The presence of the minor PNPLA3 p.I148M risk allele increased the risk of developing NAFLD (OR = 3.29, P < 0.001) and was associated with higher steatosis, fibrosis, and serum CK18-M30 levels (all P < 0.05). According to the population attributable fraction (PAF), 49.8% of NAFLD cases could be eliminated if the PNPLA3 mutation was absent. The MBOAT7 polymorphism was more frequent (P = 0.019) in patients with severe hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, PNPLA3, and to a lesser extent, MBOAT7 variants are associated with NAFLD risk and modulate liver injury in non-obese patients without diabetes.

  7. Misrepresentation of neuroscience data might give rise to misleading conclusions in the media: the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonon, Francois; Bezard, Erwan; Boraud, Thomas

    2011-01-31

    There is often a huge gap between neurobiological facts and firm conclusions stated by the media. Data misrepresentation in the conclusions and summaries of neuroscience articles might contribute to this gap. Using the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we identified three types of misrepresentation. The first relies on prominent inconsistencies between results and claimed conclusions and was observed in two scientific reports dealing with ADHD. Only one out of the 61 media articles echoing both scientific reports adequately described the results and, thus questioned the claimed conclusion. The second type of misrepresentation consists in putting a firm conclusion in the summary while raw data that strongly limit the claim are only given in the results section. To quantify this misrepresentation we analyzed the summaries of all articles asserting that polymorphisms of the gene coding for the D4 dopaminergic receptor are associated with ADHD. Only 25 summaries out of 159 also mentioned that this association confers a small risk. This misrepresentation is also observed in most media articles reporting on ADHD and the D4 gene. The third misrepresentation consists in extrapolating basic and pre-clinical findings to new therapeutic prospects in inappropriate ways. Indeed, analysis of all ADHD-related studies in mice showed that 23% of the conclusions were overstated. The frequency of this overstatement was positively related with the impact factor of the journal. Data misrepresentations are frequent in the scientific literature dealing with ADHD and may contribute to the appearance of misleading conclusions in the media. In synergy with citation distortions and publication biases they influence social representations and bias the scientific evidence in favor of the view that ADHD is primarily caused by biological factors. We discuss the social consequences and the causes of data misrepresentations and suggest a few corrective actions.

  8. Evaluation of an IPCC climate report. An analysis of conclusions on the possible regional consequences of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study of the reliability of the regional chapters (H9-16) of the contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Climate Report of the IPCC (the sub report on consequences, adaptation and vulnerability). Moreover an assessment was made of the possible consequences of errors for the conclusions in the high level summaries of that report. The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency did not detect any errors that may undermine the main conclusions of the scientific UN Climate Panel IPCC of 2007 on the possible future consequences of climate change. However, some of the substantiations of the conclusions lack clarity. To prevent lack of clarity and inaccuracies the IPCC needs to invest more in quality checks. [nl

  9. Alternative global goodness metrics and sensitivity analysis: heuristics to check the robustness of conclusions from studies comparing virtual screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Robert P

    2008-02-01

    We introduce two ways of testing the robustness of conclusions from studies comparing virtual screening methods: alternative "global goodness" metrics and sensitivity analysis. While the robustness tests cannot eliminate all biases in virtual screening comparisons, they are useful as a "reality check" for any given study. To illustrate this, we apply them to a set of enrichments published in McGaughey et al. (J. Chem. Inf. Model. 2007, 47, 1504-1519) where 11 target protein/ligand combinations are tested on 2D and 3D similarity methods, plus docking. The major conclusions in that paper, for instance, that ligand-based methods are better than docking methods, hold up. However, some minor conclusions, such as Glide being the best docking method, do not.

  10. Effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on carotid artery intima-media thickness as a risk factor for atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahandi, Maryam Zaare; Ramazanzadeh, Elham; Abbaszadeh, Leili; Javadrashid, Reza; Shirazi, Koorosh Masnadi; Gholami, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to evaluate the effect of NAFLD on CIMT as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Background The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide due to rise of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence. Non-invasive assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by high-resolution carotid B-mode ultrasonography is widely used for determining the atherosclerosis. Patients and methods In this case-control setting, 151 subjects were categorized in three groups: group I including 49 patients with NAFLD and DM; group II including 50 non-diabetic NAFLD patients; and the control including 52 normal subjects as group III. The right and left CIMTs and its maximum reading (CIMTmax) were measured by a skilled sonographist blind to the groups. The sonographic grading of the NAFLD was determined in group I and II. Results Median CIMTmax was significantly higher in group I comparing with group II and control group (pliver enzymes (in both groups, 0.6 mm, p= 0.402). Conclusion Based on our findings, there is a significant association between the presence of NAFLD and atherosclerosis. This association was independent to the DM presence. The grade of NAFLD and elevated liver function tests had no effect on severity of atherosclerosis. PMID:25436098

  11. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa S. Gibson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK. Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ, a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD, in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006 and BMI centiles (p = 0.002 than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001. Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15. Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005, who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01. In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management.

  12. It Is Incorrect To Say "The Test Is Reliable": Bad Language Habits Can Contribute to Incorrect or Meaningless Research Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce

    Researchers too frequently consider the reliability of the scores they analyze, and this may lead to incorrect conclusions. Practice in this regard may be negatively influenced by telegraphic habits of speech implying that tests possess reliability and other measurement characteristics. Styles of speaking in journal articles, in textbooks, and in…

  13. Makerere Journal of Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makerere Journal of Higher Education (MAJOHE) is the official publication of ... management and improvement of higher education from an international viewpoint. ... Historical Development of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria: ...

  14. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  15. A Tax for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  16. An Investigation of the "Jumping to Conclusions" Data-Gathering Bias and Paranoid Thoughts in Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänsch, Claire; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2014-01-01

    The existence of a data-gathering bias, in the form of jumping to conclusions, and links to paranoid ideation was investigated in Asperger syndrome (AS). People with AS (N = 30) were compared to a neurotypical control group (N = 30) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes and the Beads tasks, with self-report measures of depression, general anxiety,…

  17. Investigation of the role of the jumping-to-conclusions bias for short-term functional outcome in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Christina; Treszl, András; Roesch-Ely, Daniela; Köther, Ulf; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Moritz, Steffen

    2014-08-30

    Symptom severity and neuropsychological deficits negatively influence functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. Recent research implicates specific types of biased thinking styles (e.g. jumping-to-conclusions) in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This is the first study to test the impact of jumping-to-conclusions on functional outcome in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of psychopathology, neuropsychology and JTC with subjective quality of life, vocational outcome and housing status in schizophrenia. Analyses were carried out both cross-sectionally at baseline, and longitudinally over the course of symptomatic improvement in the immediate aftermath of a psychotic exacerbation. Seventy-nine patients with schizophrenia were included in the study. Data concerning the variables of interest were collected at baseline, after one month, and after six months. Positive symptomatology was the most significant predictor of subjective and vocational outcome and changes across time. Verbal memory deficits were associated with functional status cross-sectionally, whereas general cognitive capacity significantly predicted functional changes over time. Improvement of the jumping-to-conclusions bias positively affected vocational outcome. Though limited, the observed effect of this bias on real-world functioning highlights the possible usefulness of interventions aimed at improving (meta)cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Decision-making when data and inferences are not conclusive: risk-benefit and acceptable regret approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozo, Iztok; Schell, Michael J; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2008-07-01

    The absolute truth in research is unobtainable, as no evidence or research hypothesis is ever 100% conclusive. Therefore, all data and inferences can in principle be considered as "inconclusive." Scientific inference and decision-making need to take into account errors, which are unavoidable in the research enterprise. The errors can occur at the level of conclusions that aim to discern the truthfulness of research hypothesis based on the accuracy of research evidence and hypothesis, and decisions, the goal of which is to enable optimal decision-making under present and specific circumstances. To optimize the chance of both correct conclusions and correct decisions, the synthesis of all major statistical approaches to clinical research is needed. The integration of these approaches (frequentist, Bayesian, and decision-analytic) can be accomplished through formal risk:benefit (R:B) analysis. This chapter illustrates the rational choice of a research hypothesis using R:B analysis based on decision-theoretic expected utility theory framework and the concept of "acceptable regret" to calculate the threshold probability of the "truth" above which the benefit of accepting a research hypothesis outweighs its risks.

  19. Clinical spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in diabetic and non-diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Boon-Bee Goh

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Patients with DM have more severe NAFLD based on histology. However, NASH and advanced fibrosis also occur in a considerable proportion of NAFLD patients without DM. The lower utility of the NFS in NAFLD patients without DM emphasises the heterogeneous nature of the NAFLD phenotype.

  20. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION GRADUATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovici (Barbulescu Adina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the dynamics of in Romanian higher education graduates in the 2006-2010 period, both in Romania and by the Romanian development regions. After highlighting the importance of human capital and its education, the paper analyzes the dynamics of Romanian higher education graduates in the targeted period, at both of the above-mentioned levels. The conclusions reveal that, during the analysed period: 2006-2010, the number of female, and, respectively, male higher education graduates, as well as the total number of higher education graduates, continuously increased in the 2006-2010 period at the whole country level and registered an increase trend, as well, by the eight development regions of Romania in the 2006-2010 period, with very few exceptions in some years of the period, in some of the the eight development regions of Romania. Therefore, the Romanian higher education system must correlate the graduates number with the number of work places in the Romanian economy, and take into account the necessities imposed by the participation at international competition.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Interactional Metadiscourse Markers in the Introduction and Conclusion Sections of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaji, Masoomeh; Vafaeimehr, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Academic writing, particularly writing research articles, is an indispensable part of every major in higher education. Hyland (2004) argued that a valuable means of exploring academic writing, and comparing the rhetorical features and preferences of different discourse communities, is through the metadiscourse analysis of the text. The present…

  2. Conclusions to the first Baxter-Senpe workshop on: ready-to-use (RTU) products for parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    García de Lorenzo Mateos, A.; Bermejo Vicedo, T.; Gómez Candela, C.; Planas Vila, M.

    2005-01-01

    Conclusiones de la Mesa de Trabajo sobre productos listos para su uso (RTU) en nutrición parenteral. Se efectúa una aproximación a la definición y a las ventajas en comparación con otros modelos de nutrición parenteral. Destacan los aspectos relacionados con la gestión, composición de la RTU e indicaciones tanto intrahospitalarias como domiciliarias.Conclusions to the workshop on ready-to use (RTU) products for parenteral nutrition. An approximation is done to the definition and advantages in...

  3. Legal Nature of the Investor’s Consent to the Conclusion of the Agreement with Sub-contractor

    OpenAIRE

    Sławomir Szejna

    2013-01-01

    Author of present article presents and comments on the divergent views of doctrine and judicature concerning the legal nature of the investor’s consent to the conclusion of the agreement for subcontracting, arose from the introduction of the provisions of Article 6471 § 2 and 3 to the Polish Civil Code with Act dated 14 February 2003 amending the Act – the Civil Code and other acts. Author refers also to the joint responsibility of the investor and the contractor towards further subcontractor...

  4. Electron attachment in F2 - Conclusive demonstration of nonresonant, s-wave coupling in the limit of zero electron energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    Dissociative electron attachment to F2 has been observed in the energy range 0-140 meV, at a resolution of 6 meV (full width at half maximum). Results show conclusively a sharp, resolution-limited threshold behavior consistent with an s-wave cross section varying as sq rt of epsilon. Two accurate theoretical calculations predict only p-wave behavior varying as the sq rt of epsilon. Several nonadiabatic coupling effects leading to s-wave behavior are outlined.

  5. Bioenergy. The Impact of Indirect Land Use Change. Summary and Conclusions from the IEA Bioenergy ExCo63 Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Tustin, J.

    2009-09-01

    This publication provides the summary and conclusions from the title workshop, held in conjunction with he meeting of the Executive Committee of IEA Bioenergy in Rotterdam, Netherlands, on 12 May 2009. The purpose of the workshop was to inform the Executive Committee on the rapidly evolving international debate on bioenergy and land use - particularly the thorny issue of indirect land use change. The aim was to stimulate discussion between the Executive Committee and invited experts and thereby enhance the new policy-oriented work within IEA Bioenergy.

  6. Ranking Quality in Higher Education: Guiding or Misleading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergseth, Brita; Petocz, Peter; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    The study examines two different models of measuring, assessing and ranking quality in higher education. Do different systems of quality assessment lead to equivalent conclusions about the quality of education? This comparative study is based on the rankings of 24 Swedish higher education institutions. Two ranking actors have independently…

  7. Secondary Data Analyses of Conclusions Drawn by the Program Implementers of a Positive Youth Development Program in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. H. Siu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes is designed for adolescents with significant psychosocial needs, and its various programs are designed and implemented by social workers (program implementers for specific student groups in different schools. Using subjective outcome evaluation data collected from the program participants (Form C at 207 schools, the program implementers were asked to aggregate data and write down five conclusions (n = 1,035 in their evaluation reports. The conclusions stated in the evaluation reports were further analyzed via secondary data analyses in this study. Results showed that the participants regarded the Tier 2 Program as a success, and was effective in enhancing self-understanding, interpersonal skills, and self-management. They liked the experiential learning approach and activities that are novel, interesting, diversified, adventure-based, and outdoor in nature. They also liked instructors who were friendly, supportive, well-prepared, and able to bring challenges and give positive recognition. Most of the difficulties encountered in running the programs were related to time constraints, clashes with other activities, and motivation of participants. Consistent with the previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received by the participants and that it was beneficial to the development of the program participants.

  8. Do recent data from the Seychelles Islands alter the conclusions of the NRC Report on the toxicological effects of methylmercury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Joseph L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2000, the National Research Council (NRC, an arm of the National Academy of Sciences, released a report entitled, "Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury." The overall conclusion of that report was that, at levels of exposure in some fish- and marine mammal-consuming communities (including those in the Faroe Islands and New Zealand, subtle but significant adverse effects on neuropsychological development were occurring as a result of in utero exposure. Since the release of that report, there has been continuing discussion of the public health relevance of current levels of exposure to Methylmercury. Much of this discussion has been linked to the release of the most recent longitudinal update of the Seychelles Island study. It has recently been posited that these findings supercede those of the NRC committee, and that based on the Seychelles findings, there is little or no risk of adverse neurodevelopmental effects at current levels of exposure. In this commentary, members of the NRC committee address the conclusions from the NRC report in light of the recent Seychelles data. We conclude that no evidence has emerged since the publication of the NRC report that alters the findings of that report.

  9. Conclusions drawn from actions implemented within the first stage of the Cracow program of energy conservation and clean fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1992 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), acting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, executed the first stage of the Cracow Program of Energy Conservation and Clean Fossil Fuels, called also American-Polish Program of Actions for Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. The main contractor for BNL and PNL was the Cracow Development Office (BRK). The interest in improving the condition of Cracow air results from the fact that the standard for permissible air pollution was exceeded several times in Cracow and especially within the central part of the town. Therefore, air pollution appeared one of the most important problems that faced the municipal authorities. It followed from monitoring investigations that the high level of air pollutant concentration is caused by in-home coal-fired tile stoves operated in winter seasons and by coal- and coke-fired boiler houses simulated mainly in the central part of the town. The results obtained in first stage are presented. This paper is an attempt to formulate conclusions drawn from these works and recommendations with regard to the future policy of the town authorities; selected results are presented to clarify or illustrate the conclusions.

  10. Towards inclusive governance of hazardous activities, synthesis of the conclusions of the 2001-2003 Trustnet activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.

    2004-01-01

    TRUSTNET is a European pluralistic think tank network on the governance of hazardous activities since 1997. It is involving the participation of some 150 key decision makers, stakeholders and experts at European, national and local levels in activities having impact on health and the environment. The participants of TRUSTNET are representatives of public authorities at national and European levels, industry, trade unions, local governments, NGOs. They are also consumers or lay citizens, together with a multidisciplinary group of experts in risk management, public health, political sciences, sociology, psychology, economics, law and ethics. TRUSTNET is supported by the European Commission (DG- Research - Radiation protection) as a Concerted Action. The work programme of TRUSTNET is based on a participatory methodology and a co-expertise of actual case studies involving experts and non-experts. From 1997 to 1999, TRUSTNET has identified the severe difficulties and multiple social blockages affecting the credibility, effectiveness and legitimacy of traditional regulatory framework of hazardous activities. It has also identified emerging features of inclusive risk governance as a major opportunity for overcoming the observed difficulties. The conclusions of the 1997-1999 exercise have been reported in 2000 in the 'TRUSTNET Framework: a New Perspective on Risk Governance'. From 2001 to 2003, TRUSTNET has carried on the reflection and more specifically investigated the possible strategies for implementing in Europe inclusive governance in the various activities entailing risks for health and the environment. The presentation ('Towards Inclusive Governance') will outline presenting the main conclusions of this 2001-2003 exercise. (author)

  11. Conclusive meta-analyses on antenatal magnesium may be inconclusive! Are we underestimating the risk of random error?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Huusom, Lene D; Thorlund, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Results from meta-analyses significantly influence clinical practice. Both simulation and empirical studies have demonstrated that the risk of random error (i.e. spurious chance findings) in meta-analyses is much higher than previously anticipated. Hence, authors and users of systematic reviews a...... about the investigated intervention effect(s). We outline the rationale for conducting trial sequential analysis including some examples of the meta-analysis on antenatal magnesium for women at risk of preterm birth....

  12. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  13. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  14. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  15. Women in Higher Education Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    Two papers are presented that examine the barriers to women in academic decision making and identify a variety of effective strategies for improving the status of women in higher education administration. "Strategies for Advancing Women in Higher Education Administration," by Garry D. Hays, proposes that commitment to increasing the…

  16. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  17. Higher Education and Ethical Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the importance of ethical value in higher education as well as the relevance between ethical value and higher education. In order to examine the study logically, three research questions are addressed: First, what is value, ethical value, and Asiatic ethical value? Second, for whom and what is higher…

  18. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  19. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  20. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  1. Learning Entrepreneurship in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatila, Vesa P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There is a constant need to produce more entrepreneurial graduates from higher education institutions. This paper aims to present and discuss several successful cases of entrepreneurial learning environments in order to suggest some important aspects that higher education institutions should consider. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  2. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  3. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  4. Leading Change in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoy, Ian; Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the situation in the UK higher education system and investigates specifically the leadership practice in a cluster of UK institutions as they changed their status. The research goes further to advocate a form of contextualized leadership that is relevant to higher institutions under change. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Higher Education: Open for Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  6. Polish Higher Education: Intersectoral Distinctiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes degrees of differences between the private and public sectors of Polish higher education. It finds them to be strong: Polish private institutions function very differently from Polish public institutions and these differences correspond with those found in the literature on higher education elsewhere in the world. Polish…

  7. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  8. Fact Book on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about…

  9. Higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Igusa, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The book is devoted to the theory of topological higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion in K-theory. The author defines the higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion based on Volodin's K-theory and Borel's regulator map. He describes its properties and generalizations and studies the relation between the higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion and other torsions used in K-theory: Whitehead torsion and Ray-Singer torsion. He also presents methods of computing higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion, illustrates them with numerous examples, and describes various applications of higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion, particularly for the study of homology of mapping class groups. Packed with up-to-date information, the book provides a unique research and reference tool for specialists working in algebraic topology and K-theory.

  10. Determinants of physician empathy during medical education: hypothetical conclusions from an exploratory qualitative survey of practicing physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy is an outcome-relevant physician characteristic and thus a crucial component of high-quality communication in health care. However, the factors that promote and inhibit the development of empathy during medical education have not been extensively researched. Also, currently there is no explicit research on the perspective of practicing physicians on the subject. Therefore the aim of our study was to explore physicians’ views of the positive and negative influences on the development of empathy during their medical education, as well as in their everyday work as physicians. Method We administered a written Qualitative Short Survey to 63 physicians in seven specialties. They were able to respond anonymously. Our open-ended question was: “What educational content in the course of your studies and/or your specialist training had a positive or negative effect on your empathy?” We analyzed the data using thematic content analysis following Mayring’s approach. Results Forty-two physicians took part in our survey. All together, they mentioned 68 specific factors (37 positive, 29 negative, 2 neutral) from which six themes emerged: 1. In general, medical education does not promote the development of empathy. 2. Recognizing the psycho-social dimensions of care fosters empathy. 3. Interactions with patients in medical practice promote empathy. 4. Physicians’ active self-development through reflective practice helps the development of empathy. 5. Interactions with colleagues can both promote and inhibit empathy through their role modeling of empathic and non-empathic behavior. 6. Stress, time pressure, and adverse working conditions are detrimental to empathy development. Conclusions Our results provide an overview of what might influence the development of clinical empathy, as well as hypothetical conclusions about how to promote it. Reflective practice seems to be lacking in current medical curricula and could be incorporated. Raising physicians

  11. 1st International Experts’ Meeting on Agitation: Conclusions Regarding the Current and Ideal Management Paradigm of Agitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martínez-Raga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Agitation is a heterogeneous concept without a uniformly accepted definition, however, it is generally considered as a state of cognitive and motor hyperactivity characterized by excessive or inappropriate motor or verbal activity with marked emotional arousal. Not only the definition but also other aspects of agitated patients’ care are still unsolved and need consensus and improvement. To help the discussion about agitation among experts and improve the identification, management, and treatment of agitation, the 1st International Experts’ Meeting on Agitation was held in October 2016 in Madrid. It was attended by 20 experts from Europe and Latin America with broad experience in the clinical management of agitated patients. The present document summarizes the key conclusions of this meeting and highlights the need for an updated protocol of agitation management and treatment, the promotion of education and training among healthcare professionals to improve the care of these patients and the necessity to generate clinical data of agitated episodes.

  12. IAEA specialists' meeting on Environmental factors causing cracks and degradation in primary system components: conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlkopf, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    The phenomenon of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in BWR stainless steel piping joints is well understood, and does not present a safety hazard as leak before break can be shown. It is recommended that work should proceed to reduce the probability of stress corrosion cracking by changing the BWR environment by hydrogen feedwater additions to remove oxygen. The cause of LWR pipe cracking is understood to be thermal fatigue caused by thermal stratifications at low flow rates during operation (PWR) and thermal mixing in piping tees (PWR). Recommendations include, research on corrosion fatigue crack propagation, evaluation of compressive stress state, design changes, and additional development of NDT methods for detection and sizing of cracks. Conclusions drawn steam generator tube degradation suggest that this is a potentially large problem. Recommendation include the use of stress corrosion resistant materials, oxygen reduction through use of deaeration feed banks, and inclusion in future design of inspection access to evaluate conditions of steam generators. (author)

  13. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 5. Summary - Piping Review Committee conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This document summarizes a comprehensive review of NRC requirements for Nuclear Piping by the US NRC Piping Review Committee. Four topical areas, addressed in greater detail in Volumes 1 through 4 of this report, are included: (1) Stress Corrosion Cracking in Piping of Boiling Water Reactor Plants; (2) Evaluation of Seismic Design; (3) Evaluation of Potential for Pipe Breaks; and (4) Evaluation of Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations. This volume summarizes the major issues, reviews the interfaces, and presents the Committee's conclusions and recommendations for updating NRC requirements on these issues. This report also suggests research or other work that may be required to respond to issues not amenable to resolution at this time

  14. Hospital ventilation standards and energy conservation: a summary of the literature with conclusions and recommendations. Final report, FY 78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowell, C.; Rosenfeld, A.

    1978-09-01

    This research examines the basis of current hospital HVAC standards and determines if they can be relaxed on criteria that do not compromise the health, safety, and comfort of patients and staff and has acceptance of the health care community. Chapter 2 summarizes existing standards in use throughout the United States governing hospital ventilation systems and the thermal environment. Chapter 3 explores the role of air in hospital-acquired infections. Chapter 4 explores the realm of indoor air quality within the hospital. Chapter 5 contains a discussion concerning the influence of thermal factors on patient comfort. Chapter 6 discusses the hospital odor problem with regards to ventilation rates. The final chapter includes conclusions and recommendations developed from the literature review and from a small working conference sponsored by the University of Minnesota School of Public Health.

  15. Executive summary and conclusions from the European Hydration Institute Expert Conference on human hydration, health, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D; Braun, H; Cobo, J C; Edmonds, C; Elmadfa, I; El-Sharkawy, A; Feehally, J; Gellert, R; Holdsworth, J; Kapsokefalou, M; Kenney, W L; Leiper, J B; Macdonald, I A; Maffeis, C; Maughan, R J; Shirreffs, S M; Toth-Heyn, P; Watson, P

    2015-09-01

    On April 7-8, 2014, the European Hydration Institute hosted a small group of experts at Castle Combe Manor House, United Kingdom, to discuss a range of issues related to human hydration, health, and performance. The meeting included 18 recognized experts who brought a wealth of experience and knowledge to the topics under review. Eight selected topics were addressed, with the key issues being briefly presented before an in-depth discussion. Presented here is the executive summary and conclusions from this meeting. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Neurocognitive deficits are relevant for the jumping-to-conclusions bias, but not for delusions: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Andreou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with delusions exhibit an increased tendency to arrive at decisions based on very limited evidence (jumping-to-conclusions; JTC, making this reasoning bias relevant for the treatment of delusions. Neurocognitive deficits contribute to JTC, but it is not known whether this has any bearing on the clinical syndrome of delusions. We addressed this question by reanalyzing data from an efficacy study of non-pharmacological interventions as adjunctive treatments in schizophrenia. We investigated the longitudinal associations of cognitive functioning, JTC and delusions in patients with psychotic disorders receiving either a metacognitive intervention addressing reasoning biases (n = 59, or cognitive remediation (n = 58. Both interventions improved JTC; in the cognitive remediation group, tentative evidence suggested that better neurocognitive performance contributed to this improvement. However, JTC gains were associated with delusion improvement only in the metacognitive intervention group, suggesting a content-specific mechanism of action.

  17. Specifics of marketing in the higher education system

    OpenAIRE

    Motekaitienė, Aistė; Juščius, Vytautas

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents evaluation the possibilities and effectiveness of applying marketing principles in a higher education context. By comparing business and higher education marketing we can draw one clear conclusion: in both sectors the marketing processes can only be evaluated according to how successfully consumer needs are perceived and fullfilled with the help ofthe marketing mix. Higher educational institutions must develop a different marketing mix so they could satisfy the different ne...

  18. Epidemiological analysis of demographic characteristics and type of injuries in patients with multiple trauma with respect to conclusive treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagorac Slaviša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Multiple trauma is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the population of people under 45 years of age. The consequences of multiple trauma have huge epidemiological, social and economic significance. Objective The aim of the paper was to analyze the conclusive treatment outcome of multiply traumatized patients with respect to their sex, age, injury mechanism and type. METHOD This retrospective study included 100 patients with multiple injuries (ISS>16 treated in the Emergency Room of the Clinical Centre of Serbia in the course of 2004. Clinical, X-ray, laboratory and numerical presentation methods - scores (ISS and GCS were used to show the injury severity. Results Most of the injured were males (80%, and the average age was 40±20 (5-83. Out of the total number of patients who died, 23 (82% were males, and 5 (18% were females. The average age of the patients with fatal outcomes was 48±21 (8-86. Traffic accidents were the leading cause of injury (59%. The median GCS was 10±3 (3-15. The average ISS was 30 (20-66 in the surviving patients, and 53 (27-77 in those who died. Conclusion With respect to sex, in most cases multiple trauma affects males (p<0.01, with the average age of about 40. With respect to injury mechanism, the main cause of the occurrence of multiple trauma is traffic accidents (p<0.01. There is a statistically significant difference in the values of GCS and ISS relative to the definitive outcome (p<0.01. Statistical data processing indicated that there was a statistically significant correlation between mortality and type of injury in a given organic system (p<0.01, but that there was no statistically significant correlation between mortality and age. .

  19. Mestrado Profissional em História: o desafio do trabalho de conclusão final do curso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Radünz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O Mestrado Profissional, como modalidade de curso Stricto Sensu, está em processo de consolidação. Nesse sentido, temas como a avaliação de programas, considerando as especificidades da modalidade, e a questão do Trabalho de Conclusão estão na ordem do dia. O objetivo deste artigo é problematizar possíveis formas de trabalhos finais para além da dissertação, considerando-se sobretudo, o disposto na Portaria Normativa 17, de 28 de dezembro de 2009, da Capes. A base empírica leva em consideração as primeiras propostas do Trabalho de Conclusão Final do Mestrado Profissional em História da Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS. O Programa iniciou suas atividades em agosto de 2013 e, neste momento, passa pelo seu primeiro processo de qualificação. Dentre as propostas apresentadas nessa etapa estão a produção do material didático; o uso de quadrinhos em sala de aula, jogos e sua relação com documentos históricos; uso da pesquisa socioantropológica no ensino de história; análises de livros didáticos; propostas metodológicas do uso de fontes no ensino de história, entre outras. O que se pretende nesta análise é problematizar, com as experiências dos mestrandos do Programa de Pós-Graduação em História da UCS, as possibilidades do conhecimento acadêmico ter uma maior função social.

  20. Conclusive evidence for hexasomic inheritance in chrysanthemum based on analysis of a 183 k SNP array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geest, Geert; Voorrips, Roeland E; Esselink, Danny; Post, Aike; Visser, Richard Gf; Arens, Paul

    2017-08-07

    Cultivated chrysanthemum is an outcrossing hexaploid (2n = 6× = 54) with a disputed mode of inheritance. In this paper, we present a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) selection pipeline that was used to design an Affymetrix Axiom array with 183 k SNPs from RNA sequencing data (1). With this array, we genotyped four bi-parental populations (with sizes of 405, 53, 76 and 37 offspring plants respectively), and a cultivar panel of 63 genotypes. Further, we present a method for dosage scoring in hexaploids from signal intensities of the array based on mixture models (2) and validation of selection steps in the SNP selection pipeline (3). The resulting genotypic data is used to draw conclusions on the mode of inheritance in chrysanthemum (4), and to make an inference on allelic expression bias (5). With use of the mixture model approach, we successfully called the dosage of 73,936 out of 183,130 SNPs (40.4%) that segregated in any of the bi-parental populations. To investigate the mode of inheritance, we analysed markers that segregated in the large bi-parental population (n = 405). Analysis of segregation of duplex x nulliplex SNPs resulted in evidence for genome-wide hexasomic inheritance. This evidence was substantiated by the absence of strong linkage between markers in repulsion, which indicated absence of full disomic inheritance. We present the success rate of SNP discovery out of RNA sequencing data as affected by different selection steps, among which SNP coverage over genotypes and use of different types of sequence read mapping software. Genomic dosage highly correlated with relative allele coverage from the RNA sequencing data, indicating that most alleles are expressed according to their genomic dosage. The large population, genotyped with a very large number of markers, is a unique framework for extensive genetic analyses in hexaploid chrysanthemum. As starting point, we show conclusive evidence for genome-wide hexasomic inheritance.

  1. Treatments of Missing Values in Large National Data Affect Conclusions: The Impact of Multiple Imputation on Arthroplasty Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondeck, Nathaniel T; Fu, Michael C; Skrip, Laura A; McLynn, Ryan P; Su, Edwin P; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2018-03-01

    Despite the advantages of large, national datasets, one continuing concern is missing data values. Complete case analysis, where only cases with complete data are analyzed, is commonly used rather than more statistically rigorous approaches such as multiple imputation. This study characterizes the potential selection bias introduced using complete case analysis and compares the results of common regressions using both techniques following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Patients undergoing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty were extracted from the 2005 to 2015 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. As examples, the demographics of patients with and without missing preoperative albumin and hematocrit values were compared. Missing data were then treated with both complete case analysis and multiple imputation (an approach that reproduces the variation and associations that would have been present in a full dataset) and the conclusions of common regressions for adverse outcomes were compared. A total of 6117 patients were included, of which 56.7% were missing at least one value. Younger, female, and healthier patients were more likely to have missing preoperative albumin and hematocrit values. The use of complete case analysis removed 3467 patients from the study in comparison with multiple imputation which included all 6117 patients. The 2 methods of handling missing values led to differing associations of low preoperative laboratory values with commonly studied adverse outcomes. The use of complete case analysis can introduce selection bias and may lead to different conclusions in comparison with the statistically rigorous multiple imputation approach. Joint surgeons should consider the methods of handling missing values when interpreting arthroplasty research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changing conclusions on secondhand smoke in a sudden infant death syndrome review funded by the tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K; England, Lucinda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2005-03-01

    Prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke adversely affects maternal and child health. Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been linked causally with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in major health reports. In 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) first noted an association between SHS and SIDS, and both prenatal exposure and postnatal SHS exposure were listed as independent risk factors for SIDS in a 1997 California EPA report (republished in 1999 by the National Cancer Institute) and a 2004 US Surgeon General report. The tobacco industry has used scientific consultants to attack the evidence that SHS causes disease, most often lung cancer. Little is known about the industry's strategies to contest the evidence on maternal and child health. In 2001, a review was published on SIDS that acknowledged funding from the Philip Morris (PM) tobacco company. Tobacco industry documents related to this review were examined to identify the company's influence on the content and conclusions of this review. Tobacco industry documents include 40 million pages of internal memos and reports made available to the public as a result of litigation settlements against the tobacco industry in the United States. Between November 2003 and January 2004, we searched tobacco industry document Internet sites from the University of California Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and the Tobacco Documents Online website. Key terms included "SIDS" and names of key persons. Two authors conducted independent searches with similar key terms, reviewed the documents, and agreed on relevancy through consensus. Thirty documents were identified as relevant. Two drafts (an early version and a final version) of an industry-funded review article on SIDS were identified, and 2 authors independently compared these drafts with the final publication. Formal comments by PM executives made in response to the first draft were also reviewed. We used Science Citation Index in July 2004 to determine

  3. Some strategic conclusions from an economic analysis of wind power based on simple and innovative methods and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, B.

    2001-01-01

    The fast development of wind power is based on improved performance of wind turbines and on higher profitability of wind power projects. Therefore, an economic analysis is necessary to quantify past and future progress. In this respect, the paper presents a simplified economic analysis method in order to assess present and future wind energy costs and in order to determine wind tariffs able to ensure a sustainable development of this technology. Perspectives and scenarios for the development of wind power are described up to 2020 in the case of France and in the 21. century for the world. (author)

  4. Rodízio de firmas de auditoria: a experiência brasileira e as conclusões do mercado Rotation of audit firms: the brazilian experience and the market's conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Queiroz de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O rodízio de firmas de auditoria foi introduzido no Brasil por ocasião dos escândalos corporativos de instituições financeiras na emissão das demonstrações contábeis e adotado pela CVM - Comissão de Valores Mobiliários às empresas registradas na Bolsa de Valores do Brasil. Tendo como objetivo a preservação da independência do auditor e a diminuição dos erros contábeis e fraudes relacionados ao processo de auditoria das demonstrações contábeis, o rodízio de firmas é um assunto polêmico, pois afeta a relação comercial e profissional dos auditores com seus clientes bem como toda a estrutura de mercado das firmas de auditoria. O artigo foi desenvolvido com base na evolução histórica do conceito de rodízio de firmas de auditoria, na avaliação das pesquisas realizadas sobre o assunto em outros países e nas estruturas filosóficas que determinam os princípios éticos que são atrelados à Contabilidade e à Auditoria. Além disso, foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo sobre os aspectos inerentes do rodízio de firmas de auditoria. Essa pesquisa coletou a opinião de 127 profissionais do mercado financeiro, sendo 84 executivos de empresas que trabalham ou influenciam na elaboração das demonstrações contábeis e 43 auditores independentes que atuam diretamente no processo de auditagem das contas contábeis. A principal conclusão obtida foi a confirmação de que o rodízio de firmas de auditoria não tem capacidade de assegurar a independência do auditor no seu trabalho e não diminui os riscos de erros contábeis e de fraudes na elaboração das demonstrações contábeis.The rotation of audit firms was introduced in Brazil as a result of the corporate scandals involving financial institutions in the issue of their financial statements, and adopted by the CVM - Brazilian Securities Commission for publicly traded companies in Brazil. Aiming to preserve the independence of the auditor and to reduce frauds and

  5. Teaching Creatively in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana; Zhou, Chunfang

    The topic of this booklet is a synthesis of relevant research in the field of creativity in higher education, with focus on creative teaching methods. By means of literature review and research findings this booklet describes a wide range of contexts and effects on student learning and develop­me......­ment, together with teacher motivation and overall satisfaction. This booklet meets the need for renewal and creation in higher education, in order to address the challenges of the future, focusing on the benefits of teaching crea­tively at higher education.......The topic of this booklet is a synthesis of relevant research in the field of creativity in higher education, with focus on creative teaching methods. By means of literature review and research findings this booklet describes a wide range of contexts and effects on student learning and develop...

  6. Categorification and higher representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The emergent mathematical philosophy of categorification is reshaping our view of modern mathematics by uncovering a hidden layer of structure in mathematics, revealing richer and more robust structures capable of describing more complex phenomena. Categorified representation theory, or higher representation theory, aims to understand a new level of structure present in representation theory. Rather than studying actions of algebras on vector spaces where algebra elements act by linear endomorphisms of the vector space, higher representation theory describes the structure present when algebras act on categories, with algebra elements acting by functors. The new level of structure in higher representation theory arises by studying the natural transformations between functors. This enhanced perspective brings into play a powerful new set of tools that deepens our understanding of traditional representation theory. This volume exhibits some of the current trends in higher representation theory and the diverse te...

  7. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  8. Scientific collaboratories in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Li, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Scientific collaboratories hold the promise of providing students access to specialized scientific instruments, data and experts, enabling learning opportunities perhaps otherwise not available. However, evaluation of scientific collaboratories in higher education has lagged behind...

  9. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  10. Quality Management in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with quality management theory as an important part of management science. The primary objective of this work is an identification, formulation and analysis of such managerial issues in quality of higher education, which either are not known, or whose resolution is not considered fully sufficient. The thesis contains a bibliography of more than 200 related scientific works and presents selected issues of quality management in higher education, such as quality perception or it...

  11. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  12. Temporal Trends of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Veteran Affairs Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sahil; Sada, Yvonne H.; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Kanwal, Fasiha; Duan, Zhigang; Temple, Sarah; May, Sarah B.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Richardson, Peter A.; Davila, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, no systemic studies from the United States have examined temporal trends, HCC surveillance practices, and outcomes of NAFLD-related HCC. Methods We identified a national cohort of 1500 patients who developed HCC from 2005 through 2010 from Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. We reviewed patients’ full VA medical records; NAFLD was diagnosed based on histologic evidence for, or the presence of, metabolic syndrome in the absence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis B, or alcoholic liver disease. We compared annual prevalence values for the main risk factors (NAFLD, alcohol abuse, HCV), as well HCC surveillance and outcomes, among HCC patients. Results NAFLD was the underlying risk factor for HCC in 120 patients (8.0%); the annual proportion of NAFLD-related HCC remained relatively stable (7.5%–12.0%). In contrast, the proportion of HCC cases associated with HCV increased from 61.0% in 2005 (95% confidence interval, 53.1%–68.9%) to 74.9% in 2010 (95% confidence interval, 69.0%–80.7%). The proportion of HCC cases associated with only alcohol abuse decreased from 21.9% in 2005 to 15.7% in 2010, and the annual proportion of HCC cases associated with hepatitis B remained relatively stable (1.4%–3.5%). A significantly lower proportion of patients with NAFLD-related HCC had cirrhosis (58.3%) compared to patients with alcohol- or HCV-related HCC (72.4% and 85.6%, respectively; P<.05). A significantly higher percentage of patients with NAFLD-related HCC did not receive HCC surveillance in the 3 years before their HCC diagnosis, compared to patients with alcohol- or HCV-associated HCC. A lower proportion of patients with NAFLD-related HCC received HCC-specific treatment (61.5%) than of patients with HCV-related HCC (77.5%; P<.01). However, 1-year survival did not differ among patients with HCC related to different risk factors

  13. Conclusions and recommendations from the symposium, Beyond Cholesterol: Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with n-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckelbaum, Richard J; Leaf, Alexander; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Jacobson, Terry A; Harris, William S; Akabas, Sharon R

    2008-06-01

    After the symposium "Beyond Cholesterol: Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with n-3 Fatty Acids," faculty who presented at the conference submitted manuscripts relating to their conference topics, and these are presented in this supplement. The content of these manuscripts was reviewed, and 2 conference calls were convened. The objective was to summarize existing evidence, gaps in evidence, and future research needed to strengthen recommendations for specific intakes of n-3 fatty acids for different conditions relating to cardiovascular disease. The following 2 questions were the main items discussed. What are the roles of n-3 fatty acids in primary versus secondary prevention of coronary heart disease? What are the roles of n-3 fatty acids in hypertriglyceridemia, in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and in sudden cardiac death, cardiac arrhythmias, and vulnerable plaque? Each area was summarized by using 2 general categories: 1) current knowledge for which general consensus exists, and 2) recommendations for research and policy. Additional references for these conclusions can be found in the articles included in the supplement.

  14. A pesquisa na graduação em enfermagem: requisito para conclusão do curso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvana Totti Heyden

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto apresenta as diretrizes de implantação do Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso (TCC na graduação em Enfermagem do Centro Universitário Federal de Alfenas-MG, apontando as facilidades, dificuldades e os resultados destes quatro primeiros anos, utilizando-se dos registros de atas do Departamento e do Colegiado de Enfermagem e a vivência dos autores como coordenadores do processo. Relatam-se como pontos facilitadores: incentivo ao trabalho multidisciplinar; aumento das parcerias com os profissionais de campo; maior utilização da informática, da biblioteca e do banco de dados; aumento da participação em eventos de pesquisas. E, como dificultadores: estabelecimento de normas para apresentação de trabalhos científicos, uma vez que na época a Escola não tinha uma norma. Concluímos que apesar das dificuldades, a pesquisa é possível de acontecer, sendo um processo dinâmico em que o aprender a aprender está presente, tanto para os discentes como para os docentes.

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Platelet Count and Platelet Indices in Noninvasive Assessment of Fibrosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Milovanovic Alempijevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Keeping in mind the rising prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and the need to establish noninvasive tests for its detection, the aim of our study was to investigate whether platelet count (PC, mean platelet volume (MPV, and platelet distribution width (PDW can predict the presence of liver fibrosis in this group of patients. Methods. In 98 patients with NAFLD and 60 healthy volunteers, complete blood counts with automated differential counts were performed and values of PC, PDW, MPV, and PCT were analyzed. Results. Patients with NAFLD had lower PC and higher MPV, PCT, and PDW compared to the controls (P < 0.05. When NAFLD group was stratified according to severity of liver fibrosis, there was a statistically significant difference in the average values of PDW and PC between the groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion. Patients with NAFLD have significantly higher values of PCT, PDW, and MPV when compared to the healthy controls. Further studies are needed to establish their potential use for prediction of the degree of liver steatosis and fibrosis in NAFLD patients.

  16. Summer Epiphytic Diatoms from Terra Nova Bay and Cape Evans (Ross Sea, Antarctica) - A Synthesis and Final Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Roksana; Convey, Peter; De Stefano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in polar marine biology and related fields, many aspects of the ecological interactions that are crucial for the functioning of Antarctic shallow water habitats remain poorly understood. Although epiphytic diatoms play an essential role in the Antarctic marine food web, basic information regarding their ecology, biodiversity and biogeography is largely unavailable. Here, we synthesise studies on Ross Sea epiphytic diatoms collected during 11 summer Antarctic expeditions between the years 1989/90 and 2011/12, presenting a full list of diatom taxa associated with three macroalgal species (Iridaea cordata, Phyllophora antarctica, and Plocamium cartilagineum) and their epiphytic sessile fauna. Diatom communities found during the three summer months at various depths and sampling stations differed significantly in terms of species composition, growth form structure and abundances. Densities ranged from 21 to >8000 cells mm-2, and were significantly higher on the surface of epiphytic micro-fauna than on any of the macroalgal species examined. Generally, host organisms characterized by higher morphological heterogeneity (sessile microfauna, ramified Plocamium) supported richer diatom communities than those with more uniform surfaces (Iridaea). Differences between epiphytic communities associated with different macroalgae were reflected better in species composition than in growth form structure. The latter changed significantly with season, which was related strongly to the changing ice conditions. A general trend towards an increasing number of erect forms in deeper waters and tube-dwelling diatoms in the shallowest sites (2–5 m) was also observed. This study explores further important and largely previously unknown aspects of relationships and interactions between Antarctic epiphytic diatoms and their micro- and macro-environments. PMID:27078637

  17. Diverging Conclusions from the Same Meta-Analysis in Drug Safety: Source of Data (Primary Versus Secondary) Takes a Toll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada-Ramallal, Guillermo; Takkouche, Bahi; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2017-04-01

    Meta-analyses of observational studies represent an important tool for assessing efficacy and safety in the pharmacoepidemiologic field. The data from the individual studies are either primary (i.e., collected through interviews or self-administered questionnaires) or secondary (i.e., collected from databases that were established for other purposes). So far, the origin of the data (primary vs. secondary) has not been systematically assessed as a source of heterogeneity in pharmacoepidemiologic meta-analyses. The aim was to assess the impact of considering the source of exposure data as a criterion in sensitivity and subgroup analysis on the conclusions of drug safety meta-analyses. We selected meta-analyses published between 2013 and 2015 in which the intake of frequently used over-the-counter medicines was either the main exposure or a concomitant treatment and the outcome had short latency and induction periods. We stratified the results by origin of data (primary vs. secondary) and compared the new results to those presented originally in the meta-analyses. We used four meta-analyses that fulfilled our criteria of inclusion. The results were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: original estimate odds ratio (OR) = 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-2.04], OR primary data = 1.19 (95% CI 0.90-1.58), OR secondary data = 1.81 (95% CI 1.50-2.17); proton pump inhibitors and cardiac events: original estimate hazard ratio (HR) = 1.35 (95% CI 1.18-1.54), HR primary data = 1.05 (95% CI 0.87-1.26), HR secondary data = 1.43 (95% CI 1.23-1.66); non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and myocardial infarction: original estimate risk ratio (RR) = 1.08 (95% CI 0.95-1.22), RR primary data = 0.57 (95% CI 0.34-0.96), RR secondary data = 1.15 (95% CI 1.03-1.28); paracetamol during pregnancy and childhood asthma: original estimate OR = 1.32 (95% CI 1.14-1.52), OR primary data = 1.23 (95% CI 1.06-1.42), OR

  18. Unraveling uranium induced oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Part II: responses in the leaves and general conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Cuypers, Ann; Horemans, Nele; Remans, Tony; Opdenakker, Kelly; Smeets, Karen; Bello, Daniel Martinez; Havaux, Michel; Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2011-06-01

    The cellular redox balance seems an important modulator under heavy metal stress. While for other heavy metals these processes are well studied, oxidative stress related responses are also known to be triggered under uranium stress but information remains limited. This study aimed to further unravel the mechanisms by which plants respond to uranium stress. Seventeen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, grown on a modified Hoagland solution under controlled conditions, were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μM uranium for 1, 3 and 7 days. While in Part I of this study oxidative stress related responses in the roots were discussed, this second Part II discusses oxidative stress related responses in the leaves and general conclusions drawn from the results of the roots and the leaves will be presented. As several responses were already visible following 1 day exposure, when uranium concentrations in the leaves were negligible, a root-to-shoot signaling system was suggested in which plastids could be important sensing sites. While lipid peroxidation, based on the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds, was observed after exposure to 100 μM uranium, affecting membrane structure and function, a transient concentration dependent response pattern was visible for lipoxygenase initiated lipid peroxidation. This transient character of uranium stress responses in leaves was emphasized by results of lipoxygenase (LOX2) and antioxidative enzyme transcript levels, enzyme capacities and glutathione concentrations both in time as with concentration. The ascorbate redox balance seemed an important modulator of uranium stress responses in the leaves as in addition to the previous transient responses, the total ascorbate concentration and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate redox balance increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. This could represent either a slow transient response or a stable increase with regard to plant acclimation to uranium stress. Copyright

  19. Different partial volume correction methods lead to different conclusions: An (18)F-FDG-PET study of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Douglas N; Salat, David H; Bowen, Spencer L; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Schultz, Aaron P; Catana, Ciprian; Becker, J Alex; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte M; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A

    2016-05-15

    A cross-sectional group study of the effects of aging on brain metabolism as measured with (18)F-FDG-PET was performed using several different partial volume correction (PVC) methods: no correction (NoPVC), Meltzer (MZ), Müller-Gärtner (MG), and the symmetric geometric transfer matrix (SGTM) using 99 subjects aged 65-87years from the Harvard Aging Brain study. Sensitivity to parameter selection was tested for MZ and MG. The various methods and parameter settings resulted in an extremely wide range of conclusions as to the effects of age on metabolism, from almost no changes to virtually all of cortical regions showing a decrease with age. Simulations showed that NoPVC had significant bias that made the age effect on metabolism appear to be much larger and more significant than it is. MZ was found to be the same as NoPVC for liberal brain masks; for conservative brain masks, MZ showed few areas correlated with age. MG and SGTM were found to be similar; however, MG was sensitive to a thresholding parameter that can result in data loss. CSF uptake was surprisingly high at about 15% of that in gray matter. The exclusion of CSF from SGTM and MG models, which is almost universally done, caused a substantial loss in the power to detect age-related changes. This diversity of results reflects the literature on the metabolism of aging and suggests that extreme care should be taken when applying PVC or interpreting results that have been corrected for partial volume effects. Using the SGTM, significant age-related changes of about 7% per decade were found in frontal and cingulate cortices as well as primary visual and insular cortices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Different Partial Volume Correction Methods Lead to Different Conclusions: an 18F-FDG PET Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Douglas N.; Salat, David H.; Bowen, Spencer L.; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Schultz, Aaron P.; Catana, Ciprian; Becker, J. Alex; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional group study of the effects of aging on brain metabolism as measured with 18F-FDG PET was performed using several different partial volume correction (PVC) methods: no correction (NoPVC), Meltzer (MZ), Müller-Gärtner (MG), and the symmetric geometric transfer matrix (SGTM) using 99 subjects aged 65-87 from the Harvard Aging Brain study. Sensitivity to parameter selection was tested for MZ and MG. The various methods and parameter settings resulted in an extremely wide range of conclusions as to the effects of age on metabolism, from almost no changes to virtually all of cortical regions showing a decrease with age. Simulations showed that NoPVC had significant bias that made the age effect on metabolism appear to be much larger and more significant than it is. MZ was found to be the same as NoPVC for liberal brain masks; for conservative brain masks, MZ showed few areas correlated with age. MG and SGTM were found to be similar; however, MG was sensitive to a thresholding parameter that can result in data loss. CSF uptake was surprisingly high at about 15% of that in gray matter. Exclusion of CSF from SGTM and MG models, which is almost universally done, caused a substantial loss in the power to detect age-related changes. This diversity of results reflects the literature on the metabolism of aging and suggests that extreme care should be taken when applying PVC or interpreting results that have been corrected for partial volume effects. Using the SGTM, significant age-related changes of about 7% per decade were found in frontal and cingulate cortices as well as primary visual and insular cortices. PMID:26915497

  1. GHEP-ISFG collaborative exercise on mixture profiles (GHEP-MIX06). Reporting conclusions: Results and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, P A; Crespillo, M; Luque, J A; Aler, M; Baeza-Richer, C; Baldassarri, L; Carnevali, E; Coufalova, P; Flores, I; García, O; García, M A; González, R; Hernández, A; Inglés, V; Luque, G M; Mosquera-Miguel, A; Pedrosa, S; Pontes, M L; Porto, M J; Posada, Y; Ramella, M I; Ribeiro, T; Riego, E; Sala, A; Saragoni, V G; Serrano, A; Vannelli, S

    2018-07-01

    One of the main goals of the Spanish and Portuguese-Speaking Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG) is to promote and contribute to the development and dissemination of scientific knowledge in the field of forensic genetics. Due to this fact, GHEP-ISFG holds different working commissions that are set up to develop activities in scientific aspects of general interest. One of them, the Mixture Commission of GHEP-ISFG, has organized annually, since 2009, a collaborative exercise on analysis and interpretation of autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) mixture profiles. Until now, six exercises have been organized. At the present edition (GHEP-MIX06), with 25 participant laboratories, the exercise main aim was to assess mixture profiles results by issuing a report, from the proposal of a complex mock case. One of the conclusions obtained from this exercise is the increasing tendency of participating laboratories to validate DNA mixture profiles analysis following international recommendations. However, the results have shown some differences among them regarding the edition and also the interpretation of mixture profiles. Besides, although the last revision of ISO/IEC 17025:2017 gives indications of how results should be reported, not all laboratories strictly follow their recommendations. Regarding the statistical aspect, all those laboratories that have performed statistical evaluation of the data have employed the likelihood ratio (LR) as a parameter to evaluate the statistical compatibility. However, LR values obtained show a wide range of variation. This fact could not be attributed to the software employed, since the vast majority of laboratories that performed LR calculation employed the same software (LRmixStudio). Thus, the final allelic composition of the edited mixture profile and the parameters employed in the software could explain this data dispersion. This highlights the need, for each laboratory, to define through internal

  2. Reframing the science and policy of nicotine, illegal drugs and alcohol - conclusions of the ALICE RAP Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Berridge, Virginia; Conrod, Patricia; Dudley, Robert; Hellman, Matilda; Lachenmeier, Dirk; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Miller, David; Rehm, Jürgen; Room, Robin; Schmidt, Laura; Sullivan, Roger; Ysa, Tamyko; Gual, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, illegal drug use was responsible for 1.8% of years of life lost in the European Union, alcohol was responsible for 8.2% and tobacco for 18.2%, imposing economic burdens in excess of 2.5% of GDP. No single European country has optimal governance structures for reducing the harm done by nicotine, illegal drugs and alcohol, and existing ones are poorly designed, fragmented, and sometimes cause harm. Reporting the main science and policy conclusions of a transdisciplinary five-year analysis of the place of addictions in Europe, researchers from 67 scientific institutions addressed these problems by reframing an understanding of addictions.  A new paradigm needs to account for evolutionary evidence which suggests that humans are biologically predisposed to seek out drugs, and that, today, individuals face availability of high drug doses, consequently increasing the risk of harm.  New definitions need to acknowledge that the defining element of addictive drugs is 'heavy use over time', a concept that could replace the diagnostic artefact captured by the clinical term 'substance use disorder', thus opening the door for new substances to be considered such as sugar. Tools of quantitative risk assessment that recognize drugs as toxins could be further deployed to assess regulatory approaches to reducing harm. Re-designed governance of drugs requires embedding policy within a comprehensive societal well-being frame that encompasses a range of domains of well-being, including quality of life, material living conditions and sustainability over time; such a frame adds arguments to the inappropriateness of policies that criminalize individuals for using drugs and that continue to categorize certain drugs as illegal. A health footprint, modelled on the carbon footprint, and using quantitative measures such as years of life lost due to death or disability, could serve as the accountability tool that apportions responsibility for who and what causes drug-related harm.

  3. FACEBOOK COMMUNICATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Maria AVRAM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The social networks have been growing steadily in recent years. Facebook, one of the most popular social networks, is a modern means of communication and socialization that has taken lately more ground in higher education becoming an important academic tool in the communication process. Many universities have their own Facebook page, being used by both students and teachers, and creating Facebook groups increasingly facilitates communication with students. Thus, this paper aims to identify the importance that Facebook holds in the academic communication process and highlights the implications it has in higher education. The results reveal that this type of communication has gained more ground in academia creating real social communities, and students use it more and more for collaboration in various activities involved in the higher education system, but also for socializing and information.

  4. Issues in Moroccan Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Lazrak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, education has always been the springboard for socio-economic development of nations. Undoubtedly, education proved to be the catalyst of change and the front wagon that drives with it all the other wagons pertaining to other dynamic sectors. In effect, the role of education can be seen to provide pupils with the curriculum and hidden curriculum skills alike; teaching skills that will prepare them physically, mentally and socially for the world of work in later life. In Morocco, the country spends over 26% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP on education. Unfortunately, though this number is important, Moroccan education (primary, secondary and higher education alike still suffers from the mismatch between the state expenditures on education and the general product in reality. In this article, an attempt is made to touch on some relevant issues pertaining to higher education with special reference to Morocco. First, it provides some tentative definitions, mission and functions of university and higher education. Second, it gives a historical sketch of the major reforms that took place in Morocco as well as the major changes pertaining to these reforms respectively. Third, it provides a general overview of the history of higher education in Morocco, it also tackles an issue related to governance in higher education which is cost sharing. Fourth, it delves into the history of English Language Teaching (ELT, lists some characteristics of the English Departments in Morocco. Fifth, it discusses the issue of private vs. public higher education. Last, but not least, it tackles the issue of Brain Drain.

  5. A course of higher mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Vladimir Ivanovich; Lohwater, A J

    1964-01-01

    A Course of Higher Mathematics, I: Elementary Calculus is a five-volume course of higher mathematics used by mathematicians, physicists, and engineers in the U.S.S.R. This volume deals with calculus and principles of mathematical analysis including topics on functions of single and multiple variables. The functional relationships, theory of limits, and the concept of differentiation, whether as theories and applications, are discussed. This book also examines the applications of differential calculus to geometry. For example, the equations to determine the differential of arc or the parameter

  6. ERP for Romanian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Also most of the big ERP providers provide solutions for higher education, including SAP AG, Oracle, JD Eduards, Peoplesoft, universities preferr other specialized applications which better fit their specific needs. This paper presents the advantages of an integrated solution for higher education and analyzes the solutions offered for this sector by the Romanian ERP market. The conlusion is more like an invitation to discussion about possible solutions to the present Romanian university situation: low budgets, changing regulations, isolated, self-developed applications.

  7. Mergers in European Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Teixeira, Pedro N.; Biscaia, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, mergers have been widely used in higher education (HE) to achieve a variety of purposes, ranging from problems of institutional fragmentation to the lack of financial and academic viability, and low institutional efficiency and quality. However, despite a large stream of HE...... literature addressing those issues, there has been little attention to the link between funding-related problems and merger processes. Moreover, there is very little comparative research among different higher education systems experiencing those processes. In this paper, we map and characterize the recent...

  8. Optimal Admission to Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper constructs higher education admission rules that maximise graduation rates and thus increase the skill level of the work force. An application shows that students with a low level in mathematics in secondary school ought to find it easier to be admitted to an economics programme than...... to law or psychology programmes, even though economics is the most difficult programme from which to graduate without a strong background in mathematics. Indirect gains from optimal admission include the potential of making whole cohorts of students more able to graduate with a higher education degree....

  9. A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    of paraconsistent logics in knowledge-based systems, logical semantics of natural language, etc. Higher order logics have the advantages of being expressive and with several automated theorem provers available. Also the type system can be helpful. We present a concise description of a paraconsistent higher order...... of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...

  10. Non-invasive separation of alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease with predictive modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Peter Sowa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Currently, a major clinical challenge is to distinguish between chronic liver disease caused by metabolic syndrome (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD from that caused by long term or excessive alcohol consumption (ALD. The etiology of severe liver disease affects treatment options and priorities for liver transplantation and organ allocation. Thus we compared physiologically similar NAFLD and ALD patients to detect biochemical differences for improved separation of these mechanistically overlapping etiologies. METHODS: In a cohort of 31 NAFLD patients with BMI below 30 and a cohort of ALD patient with (ALDC n = 51 or without cirrhosis (ALDNC n = 51 serum transaminases, cell death markers and (adipo-cytokines were assessed. Groups were compared with One-way ANOVA and Tukey's correction. Predictive models were built by machine learning techniques. RESULTS: NAFLD, ALDNC or ALDC patients did not differ in demographic parameters. The ratio of alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase--common serum parameters for liver damage--was significantly higher in the NAFLD group compared to both ALD groups (each p<0.0001. Adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor(TNF-alpha were significantly lower in NAFLD than in ALDNC (p<0.05 or ALDC patients (p<0.0001. Significantly higher serum concentrations of cell death markers, hyaluronic acid, adiponectin, and TNF-alpha (each p<0.0001 were found in ALDC compared to ALDNC. Using machine learning techniques we were able to discern NAFLD and ALDNC (up to an AUC of 0.9118±0.0056 or ALDC and ALDNC (up to an AUC of 0.9846±0.0018, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning techniques relying on ALT/AST ratio, adipokines and cytokines distinguish NAFLD and ALD. In addition, severity of ALD may be non-invasively diagnosed via serum cytokine concentrations.

  11. Some conclusions from shipboard experiments on the radurization of whole fish in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Reinacher, E.

    1978-01-01

    Redfish and haddock were radurized (100krad) with the X-ray facility onboard the research vessel ''Anton Dohrn''. The whole fish were stored under crushed ice. In addition whole haddock packaged in plastic pouches under vacuum were studied. In general, during the first 16 days of storage no marked difference in the sensory quality between irradiated and unirradiated samples was observed. Bacteriological and chemical analyses proved the effectiveness of radurization to reduce the microbial flora usually responsible for spoilage. When compared with the results from other shipboard experiments and laboratory studies, the results of sensory evaluation are also in general accordance - if the same criterion for the judgement of final quality is used. After a storage period longer than 16 days occasionally the irradiated samples were scored higher than the unirradiated ones, but then the quality was no longer acceptable. If a lower criterion for shelf-life extension is used, it may be stated that a considerable shelf-life extension results from irradiation. By the standards used in our experiments, it is not possible to preserve an acceptable quality and to extend the shelf-life of ocean fish under the conditions prevailing in practical fishing. Taking into account the many factors that influence the results of such studies, it is not excluded that under other conditions the beneficial effects of radiation processing may be observed. (author)

  12. Evaluation of individual dosimetry in mixed neutron and photon radiation fields (EVIDOS). Part II: conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhmacher, H.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Reginatto, M.; Bartlett, D.; Tanner, R.; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Lacoste, V.; Boschung, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Coeck, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Curzio, G.; Errico d', F.; Kylloenen, J.-E.; Lindborg, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The EVIDOS project, supported by the European Commission within the 5th Framework Programme, aims at evaluating state of the art dosimetry techniques in representative work-places of the nuclear industry. Seven European institutes with recognized expertise in radiation protection instruments and methods joined efforts with end users at nuclear power plants, at fuel processing and reprocessing plants, and at transport and storage facilities. A particular task of the project was to develop methods to characterize the neutron component of mixed radiation fields at workplaces and to derive reference values of radiation protection quantities from energy and direction distributions of the neutron fluence. While other presentations at this workshop describe the methods developed and the instruments used, this presentation will summarize the main results, draw conclusions and discuss recommendations relevant to routine monitoring. The final results from the project include a catalogue with spectra and dosimetric data for 14 different workplace fields (boiling water reactor, pressurized water reactor, research reactor, fuel processing, storage of spent fuel), instruments and procedures to derive reference values for personal dose equivalent and other radiation protection quantities, and novel personal dosemeters for mixed radiation and results on their dosimetric and technical performance. A number of questions will be addressed in the presentation, including: which methods allow to determine H*(10) and H p (10) in complex mixed n/γ radiation fields with acceptable uncertainty?; what is the influence of the energy and direction distributions of neutrons on the ratios between H*(10), H p (10) and E?; how much do the readings of area monitors deviate from H*(10) and do they give conservative estimates of H p (10) and E?; how much do the readings of personal dosemeters deviate from H p (10) and do they give conservative estimates of E?; do new active (electronic

  13. Unraveling uranium induced oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Part II: responses in the leaves and general conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie, E-mail: nvanhoud@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Cuypers, Ann [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Horemans, Nele [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Remans, Tony; Opdenakker, Kelly; Smeets, Karen [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Bello, Daniel Martinez [Hasselt University, Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Havaux, Michel [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA)/Cadarache, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie, Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie de la Photosynthese, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    The cellular redox balance seems an important modulator under heavy metal stress. While for other heavy metals these processes are well studied, oxidative stress related responses are also known to be triggered under uranium stress but information remains limited. This study aimed to further unravel the mechanisms by which plants respond to uranium stress. Seventeen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, grown on a modified Hoagland solution under controlled conditions, were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 {mu}M uranium for 1, 3 and 7 days. While in Part I of this study oxidative stress related responses in the roots were discussed, this second Part II discusses oxidative stress related responses in the leaves and general conclusions drawn from the results of the roots and the leaves will be presented. As several responses were already visible following 1 day exposure, when uranium concentrations in the leaves were negligible, a root-to-shoot signaling system was suggested in which plastids could be important sensing sites. While lipid peroxidation, based on the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds, was observed after exposure to 100 {mu}M uranium, affecting membrane structure and function, a transient concentration dependent response pattern was visible for lipoxygenase initiated lipid peroxidation. This transient character of uranium stress responses in leaves was emphasized by results of lipoxygenase (LOX2) and antioxidative enzyme transcript levels, enzyme capacities and glutathione concentrations both in time as with concentration. The ascorbate redox balance seemed an important modulator of uranium stress responses in the leaves as in addition to the previous transient responses, the total ascorbate concentration and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate redox balance increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. This could represent either a slow transient response or a stable increase with regard to plant acclimation to uranium stress

  14. Influenza immunization rates in children and teenagers in Polish cities: conclusions from the 2009/2010 season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, Ernest; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Zycinska, Katarzyna; Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Szenborn, Leszek; Wardyn, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine influenza vaccine coverage among children aged 0-18 years in inner city practices in Poland in the 2009/2010 season and factors that might have influenced low vaccination coverage. A retrospective review of 11,735 vaccination charts of children aged 0-18 from seven randomly selected general practices in the capital city of Warsaw and one large practice in the city of Wroclaw was performed. We calculated the numbers of children who were vaccinated in the 2009/2010 season and analyzed the age distribution of vaccinated children. We also reviewed the vaccination history in patients who were vaccinated against influenza including: previous influenza vaccinations, modification (widening) of standard immunization scheme, and a proportion of children who completed the recommended two-dose schedule of vaccination. In the calculations, 95% confidence intervals were used. Out of the total of 11,735 children surveyed, 362 (3.1%, CI: 2.8-3.4%) were vaccinated against influenza in the 2009/2010 season. For 115 of these 362 (31.8%, CI: 27.0-36.6%) children it was their first vaccination against influenza. The mean age of a vaccinated child was 6.0 ± 4.3 years. Children aged 2-5 were most commonly vaccinated (153/362, 42.3%, CI: 37.2-47.4%), while infants (aged 6-12 months) were vaccinated rarely (15/362, 4.4%, CI: 2.2-6.2%). In the group of children younger than 8 years (86/362 children) who were vaccinated for the first time in their life only 29/86 (33.7%, CI: 23.7-43.7%) completed the recommended two-dose schedule. In conclusion, the importance of vaccinating children against influenza is hugely understated in Poland. General physicians should actively recommend annual influenza immunization of children. Recommendations of National Immunization Program concerning influenza vaccine should be clearer, simpler, and easier to implement.

  15. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  16. Assessing Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to expose information educators to various aspects of cyberbullying for the purpose of policy development in an environment of higher education. The preponderance of nation-wide research on cyberbullying is concentrated on adolescents; such efforts in college campuses are limited to individual endeavors. Cyberbullying research on…

  17. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove

  18. Higher Education and European Regionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Speculates about the relationship between two fundamental social changes occurring in Europe: the development of a mass higher education system and the slow decay of the old states that were inherited from the 19th century, eroded from below by various movements for national and regional autonomy, and eroded from above by the growing power and…

  19. Information technologies in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, F.

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the use of Information Technologies in modern Higher Education. The author describes possible means of its application in the process of teaching English for students of Language Departments. Diverse online resources, advanced methods, progressive approaches are integral parts of modern teaching learning process in contemporary world and essential in strengthening language awareness and professional skills.

  20. OSHA: Implications for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Presented in this document are several articles concerning recommendations about the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) and its implications for higher education. It is time for an educated look at facilities and programs and the beginning of plans which, in the long run, will bring colleges and universities into compliance with…