WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher combined commercial

  1. Commercialization of higher education: characteristics and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Klyov

    2014-04-01

    Much attention is given to the variety of approaches to the study of higher education. Today, sociological discourses used to analyze modern innovation in the education sphere, such as multiculturalism, diversification, confessionalization, regionalization, cosmopolitan atmosphere in the modern world, including the global information technology to the higher education. In the course of innovation and modernization of higher education, commercialization becomes significantly prevalent a phenomenon and a social process of educational institutions, which requires considerable research. The review of the US and European models of higher education makes it possible to understand the essence of appearance in the literature of such concepts as «academic capitalism», «university of market­type» and «entrepreneurial University», analyze relation to the appearance of private education and income and define the priority of commercialization. Indisputably, with both positive and negative, as a result of the reform of higher education appeared the peculiar environment of business education, which requires the existence of new rules of interaction, status­role relationships, values and norms . In some extent, commercialization is a transformation of knowledge into a commodity (speaking in the context of consumer society; however, it is the growing influence of market relations on the purpose and objectives of higher education, the growth of the importance of knowledge as a resource for economic development that focuses on  the concept of an economy based on knowledge.

  2. Overview of Commercial Building Partnerships in Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, Glenn [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Higher education uses less energy per square foot than most commercial building sectors. However, higher education campuses house energy-intensive laboratories and data centers that may spend more than this average; laboratories, in particular, are disproportionately represented in the higher education sector. The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP), a public/private, cost-shared program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, its national laboratories, and private-sector technical experts. These teams explored energy-saving measures across building systems–including some considered too costly or technologically challenging–and used advanced energy modeling to achieve peak whole-building performance. Modeling results were then included in new construction or retrofit designs to achieve significant energy reductions.

  3. Commercialization Trends in Higher Education: The Costa Rican Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Maria de Los Angeles

    1999-01-01

    This case study of the commercialized teaching profession in Costa Rican higher education urges circumspection; the term "efficient and productive change" camouflages the state-sanctioned commodification of the instructional enterprise. Courses are becoming proprietary courseware, machinery for selling intellectual capital is emerging,…

  4. GLOBALIZATION’S ASPECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION COMMERCIALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhylinska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to higher education current trends in the context of commercialization under globalization. The paper analyzes dynamics of the global education market, identifies factors that influence the choice of university and educational programs abroad. The importance of world universities rankings as information products that reflect the quality of education is shown. The study characterizes Ukrainian realities of globalization’s activation in higher education.

  5. Commercial Buildings Partnerships - Overview of Higher education projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP), a public/private, cost-shared program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, its national laboratories, and private-sector technical experts. These teams explored energy-saving measures across building systems – including some considered too costly or technologically challenging – and used advanced energy modeling to achieve peak whole-building performance. Modeling results were then included in new construction or retrofit designs to achieve significant energy reductions. CBP design goals aimed to achieve 50 percent energy savings compared to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2004 for new construction, while retrofits are designed to consume at least 30 percent less energy than either Standard 90.1-2004 or current consumption. After construction and commissioning of the project, laboratory staff continued to work with partners to collect and analyze data for verification of the actual energy reduction. CBP projects represent diverse building types in commercial real estate, including lodging, grocery, retail, higher education, office, and warehouse/storage facilities. Partners also commit to replicating low-energy technologies and strategies from their CBP projects throughout their building portfolios. As a result of CBP projects, five sector overviews (Lodging, Food Sales, General Merchandise, Higher Education, Offices) were created to capture successful strategies and recommended energy efficiency measures that could broadly be applied across these sectors. These overviews are supplemented with individual case studies providing specific details on the decision criteria, modeling results, and lessons learned on specific projects. Sector overviews and CBP case studies will also be updated to reflect verified data and replication strategies as they become available.

  6. Beyond Commercialization: Science, Higher Education and the Culture of Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Daniel Lee; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Downey, Greg

    2013-10-01

    Since the 1980s, scholars and others have been engaged in a lively debate about the virtues and dangers of mingling commerce with university science. In this paper, we contend that the commercialization of academic science, and higher education more broadly, are best understood as pieces of a larger story. We use two cases of institutional change at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to shed light on the implications of neoliberalism for public research universities in the United States. We conclude that instead of neoliberalization being a timely strategy for the specific fiscal and other problems facing public universities today, it has become an omnibus solution available to be employed when any opportunity arises and, in fact, helps to define the "problems" of the university in the first place.

  7. Combining Service and Learning in Higher Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Maryann

    1999-01-01

    .... Hundreds of college and university presidents, most of the major higher education associations, and a number of highly influential scholars actively support the development of service-learning...

  8. Study on commercial FBR concepts by combining innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, M.; Inagaki, T.; Kuroha, M.; Hida, T.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on future prospects of FBR commercialization. Targets of further improving safety and economy were set to make commercial power plants that would be superior to future LWRs. Promising innovative technologies studied domestically and overseas were extracted by evaluating prospects for commercialization, effect, and plant applicability. Several commercial plants were conceptualized by introducing such technology to large-scale and oxide-fuel reactors. Estimates of construction cost, etc., proved that the targets could be achieved. A concept of long-term technological development was synthesized. (author)

  9. The second higher education and additional education as factors of development of commercialization in Ukrainian higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Strigul

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The attention in the article has been drawn to the nature and characteristics of commercialization in the higher education system of Ukraine. It has been noted that commercialization in the consumer society is a social process of transformation of knowledge into a product or service. It provides the growing influence of market relations on the goals and objectives of higher education, promotes the growing importance of knowledge as a source for economic development and focuses on the concept of rooting and academic capitalism and the creation of market-oriented and entrepreneurial universities, which provide dynamic development of economy based on knowledge. Defining the essence of the Ukrainian forms of commercialization, there is a significant role of further and second higher education (that is, the presence of a variety of educational forms, which allows the University receiving the profit in the monetary form. The model of commercialization, which is implemented in Ukrainian higher education, differs from the American and Western European ones, as it is focused on financial returns, not on the economization of intellectual profit. Secondly, a peculiar type of consumer behavior, consumerism, which provides growth of profitability of higher education institutions by a variety of additional services (training, additional courses, further education, developing classes, retaking tests, etc.. The factors of development and dynamics of the Ukrainian forms of commercialization, as well as recommendations for avoiding the negative consequences of the economization and commercialization in higher education structure of modern Ukraine have been considered in the article. It has been noted that the University lost its original purpose and became a huge supermarket, which offers various kinds of knowledge. Rational action considers in the desire to buy the most qualitative product – a diploma from a prestigious University. Nowadays, the higher

  10. Higher and Further Education Institution Policies on Student and Staff Involvement in Commercial Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Linda; Roberts, Ron; Paton, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns higher and further education institutions' policies as they relate to the interactions of their staff and students with the sex industry. In Scotland and England, consenting adults may legally buy and sell sex and commercial sexual entertainment, such as erotic dance and phone sex, provided that they do not do so in a public…

  11. Productization and Commercialization of IT-Enabled Higher Education in Computer Science: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Irja; Isomäki, Hannakaisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on the production and commercialization of IT-enabled higher education in computer science. Systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out in order to find out to what extent this area has been studied, more specifically how much it has been studied and to what detail. The results of this paper make a…

  12. Social mechanisms of development and dynamics of economism and commercialization of Ukrainian higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Strigul

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of respondents in fact doesn’t understand the concept of «economism», doesn’t consider the need for University to take part in the entrepreneurial activity and doesn’t recognize the need for the existence of the elements of the business structures in the higher education institutions. The University lost its primary purpose and becomes a huge supermarket, which offers various types of knowledge. Rational action is the desire to buy the most qualitative product – a diploma from a prestigious University, which can be successfully converted to the official and economic status. All this leads to the emergence of the Ukrainian form of commercialization, which differs from the Western one. Its significant difference lies in the bias, focus on profit, consumerism as a type of a consumer behavior. It has been mentioned in the article that in the educational system the principles of consumerism moved to the introduction of fees for various additional services (training, courses, testing classes, tests, etc.. The study of economism and the commercialization in the Ukrainian educational system is characterized by a peculiar relevance as it raises the issue of the dynamics and development of the modernization and transformation of the modern higher education. Commercialization is caused by a number of obstacles. The prioritative and harmonious development of the education system can be done only by the expense of state budget financing. In such circumstances, the University becomes a business entity for the provision of educational services. The attention in the article has been drawn to the nature and characteristics of the commercialization and economism. It has been noted that the state education policy as an integral part of social policy is one of the tools of state influence on the formation of social structures and is aimed at solving problems of societal level. This makes sociological examination of transformation processes in

  13. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF INTRODUCTION OF THE COMBINED TEACHING OF HIGHER MATHEMATICS ARE IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL MARINE ESTABLISHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dobroshtan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article essence of concept «blended learning» is reasonable in theory. The features of organization of the combined educating are considered in higher marine educational establishment.

  14. Combining the essential oil of Piper aduncum L. with commercial insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fazolin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of synergists is important to minimize the amount of chemical insecticide required for insect control. Their use may contribute to reducing environmental contamination and preserving beneficial insects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergy and uniformity of the response of Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae larvae to doses of an essential oil of an Amazon chemotype, Piper aduncum (Piperaceae, when combinationed with the following commercial insecticides: cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, permethrin and esfenvarelate, compared to piperonyl butoxide (PBO. Through the relationship between CL50 and DL50 of insecticides taken separately and their synergistic combinations with the essential oil and PBO, synergism factors (SF were obtained for comparison with each other. With residual contact, there was a significant enhancement of commercial insecticides formulated with cypermethrin (SF = 73.03, zeta-cypermethrin (SF = 16.51 and permethrin (SF = 8.46-17.22, when combined with the P. aduncum essential oil; in turn, with topical application, there was only an observed significant enhancement for zeta-cypermethrin (SF = 0.40-4.26, permethrin (SF = 2.10-4.79 and esfenvarelate (SF = 3.80 insecticides when combined with the essential oil. With the exception of esfenvarelate, the other synergistic combinations showed homogeneous responses for topical application and residual contact for at least one synergistic combination with P. aduncum essential oil. The significance of the SF values from combining P. aduncum essential oil with cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, permethrin and esfenvarelate insecticides may indicate that this essential oil is an alternative option to PBO.

  15. Bioequivalence Studies of a Reformulated Dutasteride and Tamsulosin Hydrochloride Combination Capsule and a Commercially Available Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczewski, Renee; Bowen, Chet; Collins, David; Zhu, John; Serbest, Gulyeter; Manyak, Michael

    2017-09-01

    A dutasteride 0.5 mg and tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.4 mg combination (DTC) capsule (Duodart ® ) was reformulated to reduce the capsule size and enhance product stability. Bioequivalence of the reformulated DTC capsule with the commercial formulation was evaluated in 2 single-dose, open-label, randomized, 2-way crossover studies in healthy adult male volunteers. Subjects in a fasted or fed state received a single oral dose of either the reformulated DTC or the commercial formulation followed by a 28-day washout period between treatments. Blood samples were taken predose and up to 72 hours postdose for pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of dutasteride and tamsulosin serum concentrations. From the serum concentration-vs-time data, a noncompartmental method was used to calculate the maximum observed serum concentration (C max ) and area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC 0-t ) for dutasteride and tamsulosin, and AUC 0-∞ for tamsulosin. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of the C max and AUC 0-t (for dutasteride and tamsulosin) and for AUC 0-∞ (for tamsulosin) were all completely contained within the range of 80% to 125%; therefore, the reformulated DTC capsule is bioequivalent to the commercial formulation under both fed and fasted states. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. Concepts, strategies and potentials using hypo-g and other features of the space environment for commercialization using higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Opportunities for releasing, capturing, constructing and/or fixing the differential expressions or response potentials of the higher plant genome in the hypo-g environment for commercialization are explored. General strategies include improved plant-growing, crop and forestry production systems which conserve soil, water, labor and energy resources, and nutritional partitioning and mobilization of nutrients and synthates. Tissue and cell culture techniques of commercial potential include the growing and manipulation of cultured plant cells in vitro in a bioreactor to produce biologicals and secondary plants of economic value. The facilitation of plant breeding, the cloning of specific pathogen-free materials, the elimination of growing point or apex viruses, and the increase of plant yield are other O-g applications. The space environment may be advantageous in somatic embryogenesis, the culture of alkaloids, and the development of completely new crop plant germ plasm.

  17. The acitretin and methotrexate combination therapy for psoriasis vulgaris achieves higher effectiveness and less liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jingang; Zhang, Dingwei; Wu, Jiawen; Li, Jiong; Teng, Xiu; Gao, Xiaomin; Li, Ruilian; Wang, Xiuying; Xia, Linlin; Xia, Yumin

    2017-07-01

    Both acitretin and methotrexate are effective in ameliorating psoriatic lesion. However, their combination has been seldom reported in the treatment of psoriasis because of the warning regarding the potential hepatotoxicity of the drug interactions. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of such combination therapy for psoriasis vulgaris, and the potential benefit as well as side effect during the treatment. Thirty-nine patients with psoriasis vulgaris were treated with acitretin, methotrexate or their combination or as control. Similarly, K14-VEGF transgenic psoriasis-like mice were treated with these drugs. Human primary keratinocytes and hepatic stellate cells were used for analyzing their effect in vitro. The results showed that the combination therapy exhibited higher effectiveness in remitting skin lesion, but did not significantly affect the liver function of both patients and mice. Moreover, the combination groups showed less elevation of profibrotic factors in sera when compared with methotrexate alone groups accordingly. Furthermore, primary keratinocytes expressed more involucrin as well as loricrin and proliferated more slowly on the combined stimulation. Interestingly, such combination treatment induced lower expression of profibrotic factors in hepatic stellate cells. In conclusion, the acitretin-methotrexate combination therapy for psoriasis vulgaris can achieve higher effectiveness and result in less liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Motivational Profiles as a Combination of Academic Goals in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José Carlos; Cabanach, Ramón G.; Rodríguez, Susana; Rosário, Pedro; Inglés, Cándido J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to obtain information from students in higher education on different motivational profiles that resulted from the combination of three academic goals (i.e. learning goals (LG), performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals). Moreover, information related to the relevance of each goal within each…

  19. Combined solitary-wave solution for coupled higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jinping; Tian Huiping; Li Zhonghao; Zhou Guosheng

    2004-01-01

    Coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations model several interesting physical phenomena. We used a trigonometric function transform method based on a homogeneous balance to solve the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equations. We obtained four pairs of exact solitary-wave solutions including a dark and a bright-soliton pair, a bright- and a dark-soliton pair, a bright- and a bright-soliton pair, and the last pair, a combined bright-dark-soliton pair

  20. Critical Combinations of Higher-Order Terms in Einstein-Maxwell Theory and Compactification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahomi Kan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the role of a particular combination of higher derivative terms in higher dimensional theories, particularly in the background of spontaneous compactification. Two classes of theories are proposed in this paper. The first model as a generalization of the critical gravity with the Maxwell field could have a de Sitter solution. We consider the Lanczos-Lovelock term and Horndeski term as well as the higher-order Maxwell term for the second model, which contains a possible longer expansion time for the inflationary phase. It is interesting that both models can be regarded as the generalization of the Randjbar-Daemi, Salam and Strathdee (RSS model and give the well behavior for inflation stage under the specific assumptions.

  1. Combining higher-order resummation with multiple NLO calculations and parton showers in GENEVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alioli, Simone; Bauer, Christian W.; Berggren, Calvin; Vermilion, Christopher K.; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zuberi, Saba [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Hornig, Andrew [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie

    2012-11-15

    We extend the lowest-order matching of tree-level matrix elements with parton showers to give a complete description at the next higher perturbative accuracy in {alpha}{sub s} at both small and large jet resolutions, which has not been achieved so far. This requires the combination of the higher-order resummation of large Sudakov logarithms at small values of the jet resolution variable with the full next-to-leading order (NLO) matrix-element corrections at large values. As a by-product, this combination naturally leads to a smooth connection of the NLO calculations for different jet multiplicities. In this paper, we focus on the general construction of our method and discuss its application to e{sup +}e{sup -} and pp collisions. We present first results of the implementation in the GENEVA Monte Carlo framework. We employ N-jettiness as the jet resolution variable, combining its next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic resummation with fully exclusive NLO matrix elements, and PYTHIA 8 as the backend for further parton showering and hadronization. For hadronic collisions, we take Drell-Yan production as an example to apply our construction. For e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} jets, taking {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1135 from fits to LEP thrust data, together with the PYTHIA 8 hadronization model, we obtain good agreement with LEP data for a variety of 2-jet observables.

  2. Heat losses and thermal performance of commercial combined solar and pellet heating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Frank; Persson, Tomas; Bales, Chris; Nordlander, Svante

    2004-01-01

    Various pellet heating systems are marketed in Sweden, some of them in combination with a solar heating system. Several types of pellet heating units are available and can be used for a combined system. This article compares four typical combined solar and pellet heating systems: System 1 and 2 two with a pellet stove, system 3 with a store integrated pellet burner and system 4 with a pellet boiler. The lower efficiency of pellet heaters compared to oil or gas heaters increases the primary en...

  3. Electrochemical behavior and stability of a commercial activated carbon in various organic electrolyte combinations containing Li-salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tong; Fuchs, Bettina; Secchiaroli, Marco; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Dsoke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 1 M LiPF 6 in PC displays the widest electrochemical stability window among others couples electrolyte/activated carbon. • Electrolytes based on EC-DMC show lower impedance than electrolytes containing PC. • 1 M LiPF 6 in PC has the highest cycling stability with 75% of capacitance retention after 20 000 cycles. - Abstract: The fast development of Li-ion capacitor (LIC) technologies requires the use of low resistance and stable electrolytes. An electrolyte for a LIC not only has to provide Li for the intercalation/deintercalation of the battery-type materials, but it also needs to be compatible with the supercapacitor material. Before designing a hybrid Li-ion capacitor device containing Li-insertion and double layer-type materials, it is necessary to understand and separate the contribution of each electrode material to the resistance, capacity and stability in the chosen electrolyte. Due to the intensive research on Li-ion batteries, the interactions of Li-salt containing electrolytes combined with Li insertion materials have been extensively investigated, and a lot of literature is available on this field. In contrast, there is only little knowledge about the exclusive interaction and compatibility of Li containing electrolytes with supercapacitor-type electrode materials (in absence of battery materials). With this purpose, this paper explores the electrochemical performance of electrodes based on commercial activated carbon (AC) in various lithium salt-containing electrolytes. A standard electrolyte for Li-ion batteries (1 M LiPF 6 in EC:DMC, 1:1) is evaluated and compared with an electrolyte prepared with the same salt dissolved in propylene carbonate (1 M LiPF 6 in PC) which is a solvent typically used in commercial supercapacitors. Furthermore, two new electrolyte solutions are proposed, based on a blend of salts 0.8 M LiPF 6 + 0.2 M NEt 4 BF 4 in EC:DMC (1:1) as well as in pure PC. The effect of the electrolyte composition is evaluated

  4. Pre-commercial scale preservation of garlic by gamma radiation in combination with cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Bunnak, J.

    1997-06-01

    Irradiation of garlic on a pilot scale and storage in cold room under commercial condition was carried out in co-operation with garlic trader in 1986-1987. Garlic bulbs from local cultivars were irradiated seven weeks after harvest with average dose of 70 Gy and stored for nine months at low (1-7 degrees C) and ambient (25-34 degrees C) temperatures. The treatment proved to be effective in controlling sprouting and in reducing weight loss and rotting. After 9 months of cold storage the weight loss and rotting of irradiated bulbs were reduced by 18 and 13 per cent. The radio inhibition process is technically feasible and economically justified as a profit can be made during the extended storage period. Small scale marketing trials of irradiated garlic conducted during and after termination of storage revealed no adverse comments from consumers

  5. A combined technique using SEM and TOPSIS for the commercialization capability of R&D project evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charttirot Karaveg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a high risk of R&D based innovation being commercialized, especially in the innovation transfer process which is a concern to many entrepreneurs and researchers. The purpose of this research is to develop the criteria of R&D commercialization capability and to propose a combined technique of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS for R&D project evaluation. The research utilized a mixed-method approach. The first phase comprised a qualitative study on commercialization criteria development though the survey research of 272 successful entrepreneurs and researchers in all industrial sectors in Thailand. The data was collected with a structured questionnaire and analyzed by SEM. The second phase was involved with SEM-TOPSIS technique development and a case study of 45 R&D projects in research institutes and incubators for technique validation. The research results reveal that there were six criteria for R&D project commercialization capability, these are arranged according to the significance; marketing, technology, finance, non-financial impact, intellectual property, and human resource. The holistic criteria is presented in decreasing order on the ambiguous subjectivity of the fuzzy-expert system, to help with effectively funding R&D and to prevent a resource meltdown. This study applies SEM to the relative weighting of hierarchical criteria. The TOPSIS approach is employed to rank the alternative performance. An integrated SEM-TOPSIS is proposed for the first time and applied to present R&D projects shown to be effective and feasible in evaluating R&D commercialization capacity.

  6. FAST: a combined NOC and transient fuel performance model using a commercial FEM environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudil, A.; Bell, J.; Oussoren, A.; Chan, P. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Lewis, B. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Fuel And Sheath modelling Tool (FAST) is a combined normal operating conditions (NOC) and transient fuel performance code developed on the COMSOL Multiphysics finite-element platform. The FAST code has demonstrated excellent performance in proof of concept validation tests against experimental data and comparison to the ELESIM, ELESTRES and ELOCA fuel performance codes. In this paper we discuss ongoing efforts to expand the capabilities of the code to include multiple pellet geometries, model stress-corrosion cracking phenomena and modelling of advanced fuels composed of mixed oxides of thorium, uranium, and plutonium for the Canadian Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR). (author)

  7. Combinative hardening effects of precipitation in a commercial aged Al–Cu–Li–X alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhongwei, E-mail: chzw@nwpu.edu.cn; Zhao, Kai; Fan, Li

    2013-12-20

    The combinative effects of precipitates on microstructure and hardness of an Al–Cu–Li–X alloy (X=Mg, Zn, Mn, Zr) in artificial ageing of 165 °C were investigated by a transmission electron microscopy and hardness test. Results show that the hardness appears at regression in early ageing stage and increases rapidly during subsequent ageing of 16 h. Hardening effects of as-quenched sample are mainly attributed to β′ (Al{sub 3}Zr) dispersoids, quenched-in vacancies and dislocations. Though most of the fine and uniform precipitates θ′ (Al{sub 2}Cu), δ′ (Al{sub 3}Li), σ (Al{sub 5}Cu{sub 6}Mg{sub 2}) and GP zone came into being in ageing of 0.5 h, annihilation of quenched-in vacancies and reduction of dislocation were ascribed to the hardening regression at early stages of ageing. As further ageing is in progress, all precipitates including T{sub 1} (Al{sub 2}CuLi), σ, δ′ and θ′ have appeared during the ageing of 16 h that follows, and their combinative hardening effects are responsible for the rapid hardness increase at peak-ageing.

  8. Vocal pedagogy and contemporary commercial music : reflections on higher education non-classical vocal pedagogy in the United States and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Keskinen, Anu Katri

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the discipline of higher education contemporary commercial music (CCM) vocal pedagogy through the experiences of two vocal pedagogy teachers, the other in the USA and the other in Finland. The aim of this study has been to find out how the discipline presently looks from a vocal pedagogy teacher's viewpoint, what has the process of building higher education CCM vocal pedagogy courses been like, and where is the field headed. The discussion on CCM pedagogy, also kn...

  9. Stochastic Reconstruction and Interpolation of Precipitation Fields Using Combined Information of Commercial Microwave Links and Rain Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haese, B.; Hörning, S.; Chwala, C.; Bárdossy, A.; Schalge, B.; Kunstmann, H.

    2017-12-01

    For the reconstruction and interpolation of precipitation fields, we present the application of a stochastic approach called Random Mixing. Generated fields are based on a data set consisting of rain gauge observations and path-averaged rain rates estimated using Commercial Microwave Link (CML) derived information. Precipitation fields are received as linear combination of unconditional spatial random fields, where the spatial dependence structure is described by copulas. The weights of the linear combination are optimized such that the observations and the spatial structure of the precipitation observations are reproduced. The innovation of the approach is that this strategy enables the simulation of ensembles of precipitation fields of any size. Each ensemble member is in concordance with the observed path-averaged CML derived rain rates and additionally reflects the observed rainfall variability along the CML paths. The ensemble spread allows additionally an estimation of the uncertainty of the reconstructed precipitation fields. The method is demonstrated both for a synthetic data set and a real-world data set in South Germany. While the synthetic example allows an evaluation against a known reference, the second example demonstrates the applicability for real-world observations. Generated precipitation fields of both examples reproduce the spatial precipitation pattern in good quality. A performance evaluation of Random Mixing compared to Ordinary Kriging demonstrates an improvement of the reconstruction of the observed spatial variability. Random Mixing is concluded to be a beneficial new approach for the provision of precipitation fields and ensembles of them, in particular when different measurement types are combined.

  10. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen.

  11. Examination of commercially available copper oxide wire particles in combination with albendazole for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Smyth, E; Acharya, M

    2016-01-15

    Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remains a critical issue due to the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. The objective of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) from three commercial sources and a combination of COWP and albendazole to control GIN and/or Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Naturally infected Katahdin lambs in early June 2014 and 2015 were randomly assigned to receive no COWP (CON; n=9 and 12) or 2g COWP in a gel capsule as Copasure(®) (COP; n=4 and 17; Animax Ltd.), copper oxide-wire form (AUS; n=7 in 2014 only; Pharmplex), Ultracruz™ (ULT; n=8 and 15; Santa Cruz Animal Health™), no COWP and albendazole (CON+alb; n=10 in 2015 only; 15mg/kg BW; Valbazen(®); Zoetis Animal Health), or COWP+alb (n=7 and 11; in 2014, lambs were administered alb on day 3). Lambs grazed grass pastures as a group and were supplemented with 227g/lamb daily of a commercial grain mix (15% crude protein) and the same amount of alfalfa pellets. Feces were collected on days 0 (day of COWP treatment), 7, and 14 for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC). Pooled (2014) or pooled treatment group feces were cultured on days 0, 7, and 14 (2015 only) to determine GIN genera. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in a mixed model, and FEC were log transformed. The predominant GIN on day 0 was H. contortus (87%) in 2014, and there was a mixed population in 2015. The mean FEC was reduced by day 7 in AUS and ULT lambs (treatment×day, P=0.001), and all of the COWP products were similar. By day 14, the AUS FEC were lower than the CON and COP groups. When examining the combination of COWP and synthetic anthelmintic, the FEC of COWP+alb were reduced to nearly 0eggs/g (back-transformed) and lower than the other groups (treatment×day, P=0.001). The percentage of H. contortus in cultured feces was reduced to a greater extent in the COWP than CON or CON+alb groups of lambs. In a mixed GIN population, the COWP products appeared to

  12. Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaozhao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Bian, Yinbing; Xu, Zhangyi

    2016-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom, and its dried sclerotia has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. However, long-term asexual reproduction of the breeding system in W. cocos results in a current universal degeneration of cultivated strains. To develop a W. cocos breeding program that will benefit commercial cultivation, we previously developed an optimum method for indoor induction of W. cocos fruiting bodies and clarified the nature of preponderant binuclear sexual basidiospores. In this paper, we first show that the majority of W. cocos single-spore isolates cannot form sclerotium in field cultivation. We then investigated the possibility of breeding new strains by crossbreeding. Three types of mating reactions were observed in both intra-strain pairings and inter-strain pairings, and a total of fifty-five hybrids were selected by antagonistic testing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Field cultivation of hybrids demonstrated that some hybrids can form sclerotium via two cultivated methods. Two new high-yield strains were identified. This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos.

  13. Managing the Tensions between Maintaining Academic Standards and the Commercial Imperative in a UK Private Sector Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Graham Simons

    2013-01-01

    In a changing landscape of higher education, universities have been moving towards a market-led approach to strategic management. This paper examines the case of a UK private sector education provider that gained degree-awarding powers following changes made in 2004 by the UK Government to the accreditation criteria for recognised degree-awarding…

  14. SU-D-BRB-02: Combining a Commercial Autoplanning Engine with Database Dose Predictions to Further Improve Plan Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, SP; Moore, JA; Hui, X; Cheng, Z; McNutt, TR [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); DeWeese, TL; Tran, P; Quon, H [John Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bzdusek, K [Philips, Fitchburg, WI (United States); Kumar, P [Philips India Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Database dose predictions and a commercial autoplanning engine both improve treatment plan quality in different but complimentary ways. The combination of these planning techniques is hypothesized to further improve plan quality. Methods: Four treatment plans were generated for each of 10 head and neck (HN) and 10 prostate cancer patients, including Plan-A: traditional IMRT optimization using clinically relevant default objectives; Plan-B: traditional IMRT optimization using database dose predictions; Plan-C: autoplanning using default objectives; and Plan-D: autoplanning using database dose predictions. One optimization was used for each planning method. Dose distributions were normalized to 95% of the planning target volume (prostate: 8000 cGy; HN: 7000 cGy). Objectives used in plan optimization and analysis were the larynx (25%, 50%, 90%), left and right parotid glands (50%, 85%), spinal cord (0%, 50%), rectum and bladder (0%, 20%, 50%, 80%), and left and right femoral heads (0%, 70%). Results: All objectives except larynx 25% and 50% resulted in statistically significant differences between plans (Friedman’s χ{sup 2} ≥ 11.2; p ≤ 0.011). Maximum dose to the rectum (Plans A-D: 8328, 8395, 8489, 8537 cGy) and bladder (Plans A-D: 8403, 8448, 8527, 8569 cGy) were significantly increased. All other significant differences reflected a decrease in dose. Plans B-D were significantly different from Plan-A for 3, 17, and 19 objectives, respectively. Plans C-D were also significantly different from Plan-B for 8 and 13 objectives, respectively. In one case (cord 50%), Plan-D provided significantly lower dose than plan C (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Combining database dose predictions with a commercial autoplanning engine resulted in significant plan quality differences for the greatest number of objectives. This translated to plan quality improvements in most cases, although special care may be needed for maximum dose constraints. Further evaluation is warranted

  15. Solar PV resource for higher penetration through a combined spatial aggregation with wind

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, ST

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available between wind and solar PV and how these would be reflected in the power system. The benefits of spatial distribution of renewables are well understood, but the impact of the combined spatial aggregation of wind and solar PV is central to the design...

  16. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  17. Combining higher-order resummation with multiple NLO calculations and parton showers in the Geneva Monte Carlo framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alioli, Simone; Bauer, Christian W.; Berggren, Calvin; Vermilion, Christopher K.; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zuberi, Saba; Hornig, Andrew; Tackmann, Frank J.

    2013-05-01

    We discuss the GENEVA Monte Carlo framework, which combines higher-order resummation (NNLL) of large Sudakov logarithms with multiple next-to-leading-order (NLO) matrix-element corrections and parton showering (using PYTHIA 8) to give a complete description at the next higher perturbative accuracy in α s at both small and large jet resolution scales. Results for e + e - →jets compared to LEP data and pp→(Z/γ * →l + l - )+jets are presented.

  18. Higher Stakes: Generational Differences in Mother and Daughters’ Feelings about Combining Motherhood with a Career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Armstrong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to illuminate differences in feelings and attitudes about managing motherhood and work between career women and their adult daughters. Intergenerational narrative interviews with 30 mother and daughter pairs are used to explore the relative influences of contemporary motherhood culture and the experience of being mothered by a woman who also worked full-time or close to full-time in a professional or managerial career. Almost all the daughters felt well-mothered and planned or had embarked upon a high-status career path. Despite this, a clear majority did not want to emulate their mothers and instead embraced a dominant idea that part-time work offers ‘the best of both worlds’. The daughters are strongly influenced by the contemporary culture of motherhood with its growing emphasis on ‘balance’ (measured by time, individualisation and parental determinism. It appears that the stakes have been raised to make it feel too risky to one’s child’s well-being and progress to emulate the more pragmatic attitude to combining work and motherhood demonstrated by many of their own mothers. Much research demonstrates that part-time work presents strong barriers both to career satisfaction and progress. This reinforces the need for organisations to offer more genuinely flexible ways of working in senior roles and for policy initiatives to facilitate the greater involvement of fathers in caring for their children. For individuals, I advocate challenging the idea of measuring good mothering by ‘balanced’ hours spent at work and at home.

  19. Degs and degu operon from Bacillus-brevis: a combination that enhances the production of commercially valuable enzymes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, M

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been developed for increasing the production of commercially valuable enzymes, such as proteases, beta-glucanases, alpha-amylases and levansucrase. It is dependent on two genes cloned from Bacillus brevis, expressed on a multicopy...

  20. Examination of commercially available copper oxide wire particles in combination with albendazole for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics remain critical due to the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. The objective of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) from three commercial sources to control Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Naturally infected Ka...

  1. A methodology for combining multiple commercial data sources to improve measurement of the food and alcohol environment: applications of geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara D. Mendez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Commercial data sources have been increasingly used to measure and locate community resources. We describe a methodology for combining and comparing the differences in commercial data of the food and alcohol environment. We used commercial data from two commercial databases (InfoUSA and Dun&Bradstreet for 2003 and 2009 to obtain infor- mation on food and alcohol establishments and developed a matching process using computer algorithms and manual review by applying ArcGIS to geocode addresses, standard industrial classification and North American industry classification tax- onomy for type of establishment and establishment name. We constructed population and area-based density measures (e.g. grocery stores and assessed differences across data sources and used ArcGIS to map the densities. The matching process resulted in 8,705 and 7,078 unique establishments for 2003 and 2009, respectively. There were more establishments cap- tured in the combined dataset than relying on one data source alone, and the additional establishments captured ranged from 1,255 to 2,752 in 2009. The correlations for the density measures between the two data sources was highest for alcohol out- lets (r = 0.75 and 0.79 for per capita and area, respectively and lowest for grocery stores/supermarkets (r = 0.32 for both. This process for applying geographical information systems to combine multiple commercial data sources and develop meas- ures of the food and alcohol environment captured more establishments than relying on one data source alone. This replic- able methodology was found to be useful for understanding the food and alcohol environment when local or public data are limited.

  2. Modified Mitchell osteotomy alone does not have higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than combined first and lesser metatarsal osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jung Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transfer metatarsalgia (TM is a common forefoot disorder secondary to hallux valgus (HV. Some authors suggest that a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while undergoing HV surgery improves metatarsalgia, whereas others concluded that isolated HV corrective osteotomy can improve symptomatic metatarsalgia. The main purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes in patients with and without combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while receiving HV correction surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent osteotomy for HV correction between January 2000 and December 2010. All patients underwent HV correction with modified Mitchell osteotomy. Clinical evaluations including the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score and residual metatarsalgia were assessed, and radiographic measurements were carried out. Sixty-five patients (83 feet meeting the selection criteria were enrolled. Thirty feet receiving a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy were classified as the combined surgery (CS group, and the others were classified as the control (CN group (53 feet. The overall rate of persistent symptomatic metatarsalgia was 19.28% after operative treatment. There were six feet with residual metatarsalgia in the CS group, and 10 feet in the CN group. There was no significant difference in the rate of persistent symptoms between the two groups (p = 0.9. According to this result, modified Mitchell osteotomy alone did not have a higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than CS. We also found that the average recovery rate of TM was about 80.7% and those patients whose preoperative HV angle was > 30° had the higher risk of residual metatarsalgia after surgery.

  3. Testing of Commercial Milk Production Technology Using A Combination of High Temperature Short Time and Pulsed Electric Field

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi A; Widjanarko SB; Kusnadi J

    2016-01-01

    The development of milk processing technology has grown excessively, and it contains advantage and disadvantage. This study used mixed between PEF (Pulsed Electric Field) and High Temperature Short Time (HTST) to produce milk processed product which is effective and efficient in killing milk microorganism without changing its color, scent, and nutrient content of processed product, therefore producing commercial sterile milk product in accord with milk Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The ...

  4. Combined effect of head down tilt (HDT) and gamma radiation on the higher nervous activity of the rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtemberg, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with a combined effect of 30-day head down tilt (HDT) and gamma-radiation at a dose of 3 Gy on the higher nervous activity of the rats. The 30-day HDT disturbs the process of forming the motor-drinking differentiated conditioned reflex coming to a reduction of internal inhibition, generalization and sluggishness of a stimulation process. Functionally, these processes are reflected by a behavioral pattern shifting to stable stereotype impeding the formation of differentiated inhibition. Against HDT the unidirectional gamma-radiation exposure increases this effects. In some cases, it leads to blocking the adaptational procesess showing in the development of neurotic responses or deep, beyond the limits, inhibition

  5. The integrated quality assessment of Chinese commercial dry red wine based on a method of online HPLC-DAD-CL combined with HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Xiang; Sun, Li-Qiong; Qi, Jin

    2014-07-01

    To apply an integrated quality assessment strategy to investigate the quality of multiple Chinese commercial dry red wine samples. A comprehensive method was developed by combining a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-chemiluminescence (HPLC-DAD-CL) online hyphenated system with an HPLC-ESI-MS technique. Chromatographic and H2O2-scavenging active fingerprints of thirteen batches of different, commercially available Chinese dry red wine samples were obtained and analyzed. Twenty-five compounds, including eighteen antioxidants were identified and evaluated. The dominant and characteristic antioxidants in the samples were identified. The relationships between antioxidant potency and the cultivated variety of grape, producing area, cellaring period, and trade mark are also discussed. The results provide the feasibility for an integrated quality assessment strategy to be efficiently and objectively used in quality (especially antioxidant activity) assessment and identification of dry red wine. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Commercial application of freezing-irradiation combination process for pasteurization of two specific batches of cooked, peeled shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    In 1978 microbiological standards for pre-cooked, peeled frozen shrimps imported into Australia were abruptly amended and made more stringent. Large consignments of shrimps failed to meet the new specifications and were placed in quarantine on arrival. Two importers affected by the change in policy obtained permission to investigate the feasibility of using ionizing radiation to reduce to an acceptable level the microbial load on two batches of frozen shrimps. Trial irradiations established that doses of 6 or 8 kGy (600 or 800 krad) reduced microbial levels at least 100-fold, thus enabling these batches to meet the new microbiological standard. Applications to State regulatory authorities resulted in approvals being granted to the importers to irradiate: (1) in New South Wales 47 tonnes of imported frozen shrimps at 6 kGy, using the Research Establishment's facilities; and (2) in Victoria 14.3 tonnes at 8 kGy using ICI Australia Operations Pty Ltd's commercial radiation plant at Dandenong. Approvals applied solely to these two batches and marketing of the irradiated shrimps were confined to the State in which they were irradiated. The microbiological basis for the choice of dose, dosimetry, technology, legal aspects, economics and public acceptance of this first limited commercial use in Australia of radiation for food preservation are described. It is suggested that in standards for irradiation of specific foods, dose limits should be flexible enough to take into account the relationships between the physical state of food, temperature during irradiation, the extent of chemical change likely to occur at that temperature, and the dose required to produce the desired microbiological effect. (author)

  7. Development of the protocol for purification of artemisinin based on combination of commercial and computationally designed adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Karim, Kal; Cutler, Malcolm; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2013-01-01

    A polymeric adsorbent for extraction of the antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua L. was computationally designed. This polymer demonstrated a high capacity for artemisinin (120 mg g(-1) ), quantitative recovery (87%) and was found to be an effective material for purification of artemisinin from complex plant matrix. The artemisinin quantification was conducted using an optimised HPLC-MS protocol, which was characterised by high precision and linearity in the concentration range between 0.05 and 2 μg mL(-1) . Optimisation of the purification protocol also involved screening of commercial adsorbents for the removal of waxes and other interfering natural compounds, which inhibit the crystallisation of artemisinin. As a result of a two step-purification protocol crystals of artemisinin were obtained, and artemisinin purity was evaluated as 75%. By performing the second stage of purification twice, the purity of artemisinin can be further improved to 99%. The developed protocol produced high-purity artemisinin using only a few purification steps that makes it suitable for large scale industrial manufacturing process. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Antibodies to parvovirus, distemper virus and adenovirus conferred to household dogs using commercial combination vaccines containing Leptospira bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, M; Namikawa, K; Maruo, T; Lynch, J; Sahara, H

    2010-12-11

    To examine how the inclusion (+) or exclusion (-) of inactivated Leptospira antigens in a vaccine for canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2) affects antibody titres to CPV-2, CDV and CAdV-1 antigens, household dogs were vaccinated with commercially available vaccines from one of three manufacturers. CPV-2, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titres were measured 11 to 13 months later and compared within three different age groups and three different bodyweight groups. There were significant differences between CPV-2 antibody titres in dogs vaccinated with (+) vaccine and those vaccinated with (-) vaccine for two products in the two-year-old group and for one product in the greater than seven-year-old group; no significant differences were seen that could be attributed to bodyweight. No differences in CDV antibody titres were observed within age groups, but a significant difference was seen in the 11 to 20 kg weight group for one product. Significant differences in CAdV-1 antibody titres were seen for one product in both the two-year-old group and the ≤10 kg weight group.

  9. Experimental substantiation of combined methods for designing processes for the commercial preparation of gas at gas condensate fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, G R; Karlinskii, E D; Posypkina, T V

    1977-04-01

    An analysis is made of the possibility of using two analytical methods for studying vapor--liquid equilibrium of hydrocarbon mixtures that are used in designing the separation of natural gas and the stabilization of condensate--the Chao and Sider method, which uses computations by equilibrium constants. A combined computational method is proposed for describing a unified process of natural gas separation and condensate stabilization. The method of preparing the original data for the computation of the separation and stabilization processes can be significantly simplified. 10 references, 1 table.

  10. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  11. Nuclear and cpDNA sequences combined provide strong inference of higher phylogenetic relationships in the phlox family (Polemoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leigh A; Chan, Lauren M; Weese, Terri L; Busby, Lisa D; McMurry, Samuel

    2008-09-01

    Members of the phlox family (Polemoniaceae) serve as useful models for studying various evolutionary and biological processes. Despite its biological importance, no family-wide phylogenetic estimate based on multiple DNA regions with complete generic sampling is available. Here, we analyze one nuclear and five chloroplast DNA sequence regions (nuclear ITS, chloroplast matK, trnL intron plus trnL-trnF intergeneric spacer, and the trnS-trnG, trnD-trnT, and psbM-trnD intergenic spacers) using parsimony and Bayesian methods, as well as assessments of congruence and long branch attraction, to explore phylogenetic relationships among 84 ingroup species representing all currently recognized Polemoniaceae genera. Relationships inferred from the ITS and concatenated chloroplast regions are similar overall. A combined analysis provides strong support for the monophyly of Polemoniaceae and subfamilies Acanthogilioideae, Cobaeoideae, and Polemonioideae. Relationships among subfamilies, and thus for the precise root of Polemoniaceae, remain poorly supported. Within the largest subfamily, Polemonioideae, four clades corresponding to tribes Polemonieae, Phlocideae, Gilieae, and Loeselieae receive strong support. The monogeneric Polemonieae appears sister to Phlocideae. Relationships within Polemonieae, Phlocideae, and Gilieae are mostly consistent between analyses and data permutations. Many relationships within Loeselieae remain uncertain. Overall, inferred phylogenetic relationships support a higher-level classification for Polemoniaceae proposed in 2000.

  12. The combination of quantitative PCR and western blot detecting CP4-EPSPS component in Roundup Ready soy plant tissues and commercial soy-related foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wu, Honghong; Zhou, Xinghu; Xu, Sheng; He, Jian; Shen, Wenbiao; Zhou, Guanghong; Huang, Ming

    2012-06-01

    With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soy (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the comprehensive detection of genetically modified component in foodstuffs is of significant interest, but few protein-based approaches have been found useful in processed foods. In this report, the combination of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot was used to detect cp4-epsps gene and its protein product in different RRS plant tissues and commercial soy-containing foodstuffs. The foods included those of plant origin produced by different processing procedures and also some products containing both meat and plant protein concentrates. The validity of the 2 methods was confirmed first. We also showed that the CP4-EPSPS protein existed in different RRS plant tissues. In certain cases, the results from the western blot and the qPCR were not consistent. To be specific, at least 2 degraded fragments of CP4-EPSPS protein (35.5 and 24.6 kDa) were observed. For dried bean curd crust and deep-fried bean curd, a degraded protein fragment with the size of 24.6 kDa appeared, while cp4-epsps gene could not be traced by qPCR. In contrast, we found a signal of cp4-epsps DNA in 3 foodstuffs, including soy-containing ham cutlet product, meat ball, and sausage by qPCR, while CP4-EPSPS protein could not be detected by western blot in such samples. Our study therefore concluded that the combination of DNA- and protein-based methods would compensate each other, thus resulting in a more comprehensive detection from nucleic acid and protein levels. The combination of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot was used to detect cp4-epsps gene and its protein product in different Roundup Ready soy (event 40-3-2) plant tissues and commercial soy-containing foodstuffs. The foods included those of plant origin produced by different processing procedures and also some products containing a combination of both meat and plant protein concentrates. This study indicated that the combination of DNA- and protein-based methods

  13. Efficacy of fipronil-(S)-methoprene, metaflumizone combined with amitraz, and pyriprole commercial spot-on products in preventing Culex pipiens pipiens from feeding on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhsira, E; Fysikopoulos, A; Franc, M

    2009-08-01

    A controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the effectiveness of pyriprole, metaflumizone combined with amitraz, and fipronil-(S)-methoprene commercial spot-on products in preventing adult female Culex pipiens pipiens from feeding on dogs. Twenty-four beagle dogs were tested for their attractiveness to the mosquitoes and ranked accordingly to produce four groups of equivalent sensitivity to mosquitoes; six were treated with the pyriprole spot-on, six with the metaflumizone combined with amitraz spot-on, six with the fipronil-(S)-methoprene spot-on, and six were left untreated. All the dogs were challenged with 50 unfed adult female Culex in cages for one hour seven days before the treatment, and one and seven days after it. The mosquitoes were checked for blood feeding after one hour and for mortality 24 hours after they had been released into the cages. There was a significant reduction in the number of engorged mosquitoes only with the fipronil-(S)-methoprene product and there were significantly more dead mosquitoes with this product and the pyriprole product, but their effects were too small for them to be recommended for use in a dirofilariosis prevention programme.

  14. Techno-economic process design of a commercial-scale amine-based CO_2 capture system for natural gas combined cycle power plant with exhaust gas recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Usman; Agbonghae, Elvis O.; Hughes, Kevin J.; Ingham, Derek B.; Ma, Lin; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • EGR is a way to enhance the CO_2 content with reduction in design variables and cost. • Both process and economic analyses are essential to reach the optimum design variables. • Commercial-scale NGCC with and without EGR is presented. • Process design of the amine-based CO_2 capture plant is evaluated for with and without EGR. - Abstract: Post-combustion CO_2 capture systems are gaining more importance as a means of reducing escalating greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, for natural gas-fired power generation systems, exhaust gas recirculation is a method of enhancing the CO_2 concentration in the lean flue gas. The present study reports the design and scale-up of four different cases of an amine-based CO_2 capture system at 90% capture rate with 30 wt.% aqueous solution of MEA. The design results are reported for a natural gas-fired combined cycle system with a gross power output of 650 MW_e without EGR and with EGR at 20%, 35% and 50% EGR percentage. A combined process and economic analysis is implemented to identify the optimum designs for the different amine-based CO_2 capture plants. For an amine-based CO_2 capture plant with a natural gas-fired combined cycle without EGR, an optimum liquid to gas ratio of 0.96 is estimated. Incorporating EGR at 20%, 35% and 50%, results in optimum liquid to gas ratios of 1.22, 1.46 and 1.90, respectively. These results suggest that a natural gas-fired power plant with exhaust gas recirculation will result in lower penalties in terms of the energy consumption and costs incurred on the amine-based CO_2 capture plant.

  15. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  16. Combining phylogenomics and fossils in higher-level squamate reptile phylogeny: molecular data change the placement of fossil taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Kuczynski, Caitlin A; Townsend, Ted; Reeder, Tod W; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Sites, Jack W

    2010-12-01

    Molecular data offer great potential to resolve the phylogeny of living taxa but can molecular data improve our understanding of relationships of fossil taxa? Simulations suggest that this is possible, but few empirical examples have demonstrated the ability of molecular data to change the placement of fossil taxa. We offer such an example here. We analyze the placement of snakes among squamate reptiles, combining published morphological data (363 characters) and new DNA sequence data (15,794 characters, 22 nuclear loci) for 45 living and 19 fossil taxa. We find several intriguing results. First, some fossil taxa undergo major changes in their phylogenetic position when molecular data are added. Second, most fossil taxa are placed with strong support in the expected clades by the combined data Bayesian analyses, despite each having >98% missing cells and despite recent suggestions that extensive missing data are problematic for Bayesian phylogenetics. Third, morphological data can change the placement of living taxa in combined analyses, even when there is an overwhelming majority of molecular characters. Finally, we find strong but apparently misleading signal in the morphological data, seemingly associated with a burrowing lifestyle in snakes, amphisbaenians, and dibamids. Overall, our results suggest promise for an integrated and comprehensive Tree of Life by combining molecular and morphological data for living and fossil taxa.

  17. A multivariable assessment quantifying effects of cohort-level factors associated with combined mortality and culling risk in cohorts of U.S. commercial feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, A H; Cernicchiaro, N; White, B J; Dubnicka, S R; Thomson, D U; Ives, S E; Scott, H M; Milliken, G A; Renter, D G

    2013-01-01

    Economic losses due to cattle mortality and culling have a substantial impact on the feedlot industry. Since criteria for culling may vary and may affect measures of cumulative mortality within cattle cohorts, it is important to assess both mortality and culling when evaluating cattle losses over time and among feedlots. To date, there are no published multivariable assessments of factors associated with combined mortality and culling risk. Our objective was to evaluate combined mortality and culling losses in feedlot cattle cohorts and quantify effects of commonly measured cohort-level risk factors (weight at feedlot arrival, gender, and month of feedlot arrival) using data routinely collected by commercial feedlots. We used retrospective data representing 8,904,965 animals in 54,416 cohorts from 16 U.S. feedlots from 2000 to 2007. The sum of mortality and culling counts for each cohort (given the number of cattle at risk) was used to generate the outcome of interest, the cumulative incidence of combined mortality and culling. Associations between this outcome variable and cohort-level risk factors were evaluated using a mixed effects multivariable negative binomial regression model with random effects for feedlot, year, month and week of arrival. Mean arrival weight of the cohort, gender, and arrival month and a three-way interaction (and corresponding two-way interactions) among arrival weight, gender and month were significantly (Prisk decreased, but effects of arrival weight were modified both by the gender of the cohort and the month of feedlot arrival. There was a seasonal pattern in combined mortality and culling risk for light and middle-weight male and female cohorts, with a significantly (Prisk for cattle arriving at the feedlot in spring and summer (March-September) than in cattle arriving during fall, and winter months (November-February). Our results quantified effects of covariate patterns that have been heretofore difficult to fully evaluate in

  18. Higher Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings with the Combined Use of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Maurice; Wang, Jiwen; Kumar, Rishi; Roth, Jeffery; Jiang, Chen; Jordan, Eric H.

    2018-02-01

    Gas-turbine engines are widely used in transportation, energy and defense industries. The increasing demand for more efficient gas turbines requires higher turbine operating temperatures. For more than 40 years, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been the dominant thermal barrier coating (TBC) due to its outstanding material properties. However, the practical use of YSZ-based TBCs is limited to approximately 1200 °C. Developing new, higher temperature TBCs has proven challenging to satisfy the multiple property requirements of a durable TBC. In this study, an advanced TBC has been developed by using the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process that generates unique engineered microstructures with the higher temperature yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) to produce a TBC that can meet and exceed the major performance standards of state-of-the-art air plasma sprayed YSZ, including: phase stability, sintering resistance, CMAS resistance, thermal cycle durability, thermal conductivity and erosion resistance. The temperature improvement for hot section gas turbine materials (superalloys & TBCs) has been at the rate of about 50 °C per decade over the last 50 years. In contrast, SPPS YAG TBCs offer the near-term potential of a > 200 °C improvement in temperature capability.

  19. Higher Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings with the Combined Use of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Maurice; Wang, Jiwen; Kumar, Rishi; Roth, Jeffery; Jiang, Chen; Jordan, Eric H.

    2018-04-01

    Gas-turbine engines are widely used in transportation, energy and defense industries. The increasing demand for more efficient gas turbines requires higher turbine operating temperatures. For more than 40 years, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been the dominant thermal barrier coating (TBC) due to its outstanding material properties. However, the practical use of YSZ-based TBCs is limited to approximately 1200 °C. Developing new, higher temperature TBCs has proven challenging to satisfy the multiple property requirements of a durable TBC. In this study, an advanced TBC has been developed by using the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process that generates unique engineered microstructures with the higher temperature yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) to produce a TBC that can meet and exceed the major performance standards of state-of-the-art air plasma sprayed YSZ, including: phase stability, sintering resistance, CMAS resistance, thermal cycle durability, thermal conductivity and erosion resistance. The temperature improvement for hot section gas turbine materials (superalloys & TBCs) has been at the rate of about 50 °C per decade over the last 50 years. In contrast, SPPS YAG TBCs offer the near-term potential of a > 200 °C improvement in temperature capability.

  20. Combination of Pharmacophore Matching, 2D Similarity Search, and In Vitro Biological Assays in the Selection of Potential 5-HT6 Antagonists from Large Commercial Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobi, Krisztina; Flachner, Beáta; Pukáncsik, Mária; Máthé, Enikő; Bognár, Melinda; Szaszkó, Mária; Magyar, Csaba; Hajdú, István; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Simon, István; Fülöp, Ferenc; Cseh, Sándor; Dormán, György

    2015-10-01

    Rapid in silico selection of target-focused libraries from commercial repositories is an attractive and cost-effective approach. If structures of active compounds are available, rapid 2D similarity search can be performed on multimillion compound databases, but the generated library requires further focusing. We report here a combination of the 2D approach with pharmacophore matching which was used for selecting 5-HT6 antagonists. In the first screening round, 12 compounds showed >85% antagonist efficacy of the 91 screened. For the second-round (hit validation) screening phase, pharmacophore models were built, applied, and compared with the routine 2D similarity search. Three pharmacophore models were created based on the structure of the reference compounds and the first-round hit compounds. The pharmacophore search resulted in a high hit rate (40%) and led to novel chemotypes, while 2D similarity search had slightly better hit rate (51%), but lacking the novelty. To demonstrate the power of the virtual screening cascade, ligand efficiency indices were also calculated and their steady improvement was confirmed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Commercial lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  2. Study on inclusion of probiotic, prebiotic and its combination in broiler diet and their effect on carcass characteristics and economics of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Saiyed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In today era, broiler industry facing a problem of price hiking of feed of broiler, also in competitive era there should be lower feed cost, lower feed conversion ratio, low feed consumption yet good body weight at marketable age. Materials and Methods: Day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=200 were distributed randomly into 5 dietary treatment groups viz. control (T1, probiotic in the feed @ 100 g/tonne of feed (T2, prebiotic in the feed @ 500 g/tonne of feed (T3, probiotic + prebiotic @ 100 g/tonne and 500 g/tonne of feed, respectively (T4 and probiotic + prebiotic @ 50 g/tonne and 250 g/tonne of feed (T5. The growth of broilers and dressing weight along with the weight of giblet (liver without gall bladder, gizzard without serous layer, and heart without pericardium, Kidney, Abdominal fat, Length of Intestine and dressing percentage were measured. Economics in terms of Return Over Feed Cost (ROFC and European Performance Efficiency Index (EPEI was calculated. Results: Among all carcass traits, dressing percentage, abdominal fat weight and abdominal fat percentage (as a percentage of dressed weight were recorded significant (p<0.05 difference among different treatment groups. The income from selling of the birds was significantly (p<0.05 higher in all treatment groups than the control group but there was a non-significant difference between supplemented groups. Feed cost during whole experimental period was significantly (p<0.05 lower in synbiotic supplemented groups (T4 and T5 than other groups. ROFC of all treatment group found significantly (p<0.05 higher than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the diet supplemented with synbiotic (100% level was most efficient in terms of EPEI and synbiotic (50% level in terms of ROFC. Hence, as feed supplement, synbiotic has a beneficial effect over probiotic and prebiotic when used alone.

  3. Combined electromagnetic and permanent magnet undulator to achieve higher field and easier field variation without mechanical movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogachenkov, V.A.; Papadichev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Hybrid or pure permanent magnet undulators (PMU) are widely used because they have high field quality, allow easy field correction and do not consume power. Their main drawback is the necessity of moving one half of the magnet relative to the other to change field value, which requires a high precision, remotely controlled (and thus costly) driving system On the other hand, electromagnetic undulatory (EMU) have no problem with field variation, but consume too much power (100 - 400 kW) for high fields. Adding permanent magnets to EMU results in a considerable decrease of power consumption, while retaining the advantage of easily changing field level. A model of a CW combined EM+PM plane undulator having a 4.8 cm period and 8 periods long is described. It is simple in design and cheap in manufacturing: magnet yokes are made of soft steel rings in which 1.6 cm air gaps were cut to form pole faces. Odd yokes are placed to one side of the undulator axis and even yokes to the other with the air gaps on the axis. Each set of yokes is excited by its own separate winding of simple racetrack shape. Undulator deflection parameter K = 1.1 (B = 2.4 kG) can be reached at a 0.78kW power level, i.e., less than 100 W per period, while without PM only a maximum K = 0.8 can be obtained and requires 4 kW power. No water cooling is needed, which greatly simplifies undulator design. The undulator was not optimized relative to the axial-air-gap to ring-width ratio: one might expect some increase in field level for thinner rings. Field amplitude depends also on relative transverse position of odd and even pole faces.

  4. Combined electromagnetic and permanent magnet undulator to achieve higher field and easier field variation without mechanical movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogachenkov, V.A.; Papadichev, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid or pure permanent magnet undulators (PMU) are widely used because they have high field quality, allow easy field correction and do not consume power. Their main drawback is the necessity of moving one half of the magnet relative to the other to change field value, which requires a high precision, remotely controlled (and thus costly) driving system On the other hand, electromagnetic undulatory (EMU) have no problem with field variation, but consume too much power (100 - 400 kW) for high fields. Adding permanent magnets to EMU results in a considerable decrease of power consumption, while retaining the advantage of easily changing field level. A model of a CW combined EM+PM plane undulator having a 4.8 cm period and 8 periods long is described. It is simple in design and cheap in manufacturing: magnet yokes are made of soft steel rings in which 1.6 cm air gaps were cut to form pole faces. Odd yokes are placed to one side of the undulator axis and even yokes to the other with the air gaps on the axis. Each set of yokes is excited by its own separate winding of simple racetrack shape. Undulator deflection parameter K = 1.1 (B = 2.4 kG) can be reached at a 0.78kW power level, i.e., less than 100 W per period, while without PM only a maximum K = 0.8 can be obtained and requires 4 kW power. No water cooling is needed, which greatly simplifies undulator design. The undulator was not optimized relative to the axial-air-gap to ring-width ratio: one might expect some increase in field level for thinner rings. Field amplitude depends also on relative transverse position of odd and even pole faces

  5. Changes in higher order aberrations after wavefront guided FS-LASIK for myopia combined with moderate to high astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cang-Yu Guan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the changes in higher order aberrations after wavefront guided femtosecond laser assisted laser in situ keratomileusis(FS-LASIKfor moderate to high astigmatism. METHODS: Eighty-eight eyes of 50 myopia patients with moderate to high astigmatism were included in this prospective study. There were 51 eyes with moderate astigmatism(≥-1.50D and RESULTS: At the 3mo after operation, the mean UDVA of all eyes was above 20/20, better than before operation(PP=0.36and no eyes lost ≥2 lines of CDVA. Mean astigmstism of 85 eyes(97%was reduced below -1.00D, mean astigmatism of 70 eyes(80%was reduced below -0.50D(PPP=0.078, 0.065. The spherical aberration, secondary astigmatism and the HOA root mean square(RMSincreased from 0.19±0.06, 0.05±0.02 and 0.42±0.12, preoperatively to 0.32±0.17, 0.26±0.08 and 0.78±0.28(PCONCLUSION: Wavefront-guided FS-LASIK is a safe and effective option for the patients with moderate to high astigmstism although parts of HOAs increased.

  6. Effects of single and combined Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccinations on blood electrolytes and acid-base balance in commercial egg-laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju, H A; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2011-02-01

    A previous study from our laboratory on F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum-inoculated layers showed a significant increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)), which is generally associated with an oxygen-dependent improvement in tissue oxygenation. The aim of this study was to determine whether a killed (bacterin) and live TS-11-strain M. gallisepticum (TS-11-MG) vaccine treatment combination could further enhance the arterial pO(2) levels in layer chickens. The experiment was conducted in 2 trials and arranged in a completely randomized experimental design with 4 treatments. The treatments consisted of a control M. gallisepticum, bacterin, TS-11-MG, and bacterin + TS-11-MG combined, with all treatments receiving the R low strain of MG at 30 wk of age (WOA). In each of the 2 trials, 160 one-day-old MG-free pullets were raised to 10 WOA and were transported to a poultry disease isolation facility. Sixteen isolation units were divided into 4 treatment groups, and each of the 4 treatment groups had 4 replication units, with 10 birds/unit (40 birds/treatment). Venous blood samples were collected at the termination of the study at 56 WOA. The TS-11-MG-vaccinated chickens had a higher (P ≤ 0.05) blood pO(2) and a lower (P ≤ 0.05) partial pressure of CO(2) when compared with the control and combined MG-vaccinated groups. However, no significant blood pO(2) differences were observed between the bacterin and TS-11-MG treatment groups. Hematocrit and blood concentrations of hemoglobin were not statistically different among treatments, but were numerically higher in the TS-11-MG treatment group. There was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) treatment effect on blood concentrations of Na(+), Ca(2+), and anion, but no significant effect on glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, or osmolality. These data suggest that the inoculation of layers with TS-11-MG was more effective in elevating pO(2) than was inoculation with TS-11-MG + bacterin combined.

  7. Commercial Toilets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether you are looking to reduce water use in a new facility or replace old, inefficient toilets in commercial restrooms, a WaterSense labeled flushometer-valve toilet is a high-performance, water-efficient option worth considering.

  8. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  9. Effects of combined action of γ-irradiation and sulfur dioxide or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidin on bacteria and higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'chenko, V.A.; Lotareva, O.V.; Spirin, D.A.; Karaban', R.T.; Mal'tseva, L.N.; Ignat'ev, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of combined action of of gamma-irradiation and sulfur dioxide or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidin on baceria (Bacillus subtilis) and higher plants (Hordeum vulgare L., Pinus sylvestris L.) have been studied. The number of barley germ root cells with chromosomal aberrations depends on the order of treatment with the studied agents. The coefficients of SO 2 and gamma-irradiation correlation fluctuate from 1,3 to 2,6 in the above experiments. In experiments with pine seedlings, these correlation coefficients were similar to additive ones. The data obtained suggest that the pattern of action of the agents is determined by the radiation sensitivity of objects and the order of action of the agents

  10. A combined Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)/UV-vis approach for the investigation of dye content in commercial felt tip pens inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviello, Daniela; Trabace, Maddalena; Alyami, Abeer; Mirabile, Antonio; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero; Iacopino, Daniela

    2018-05-01

    The development of protocols for the protection of the large patrimony of works of art created by felt tip pen media since the 1950's requires detailed knowledge of the main dyes constituting commercial ink mixtures. In this work Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and UV-vis spectroscopy were used for the first time for the systematic identification of dye composition in commercial felt tip pens. A large selection of pens comprising six colors of five different brands was analyzed. Intense SERS spectra were obtained for all colors, allowing identification of main dye constituents. Poinceau 4R and Eosin dyes were found to be the main constituents of red and pink colors; Rhodamine and Tartrazine were found in orange and yellow colors; Erioglaucine was found in green and blue colors. UV-vis analysis of the same inks was used to support SERS findings but also to unequivocally assign some uncertain dye identifications, especially for yellow and orange colors. The spectral data of all felt tip pens collected through this work were assembled in a database format. The data obtained through this systematic investigation constitute the basis for the assembly of larger reference databases that ultimately will support the development of conservation protocols for the long term preservation of modern art collections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. We will also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  12. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. The authors also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA

  13. Combined effects of cooled EGR and a higher geometric compression ratio on thermal efficiency improvement of a downsized boosted spark-ignition direct-injection engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Jianye; Xu, Min; Li, Tie; Gao, Yi; Wang, Jiasheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments for the effects of cooled EGR and two compression ratios (CR) on fuel efficiency were conducted. • The mechanism for the observed fuel efficiency behaviors by cooled EGR and high CR was clarified. • Cooled EGR offers more fuel efficiency improvement than elevating CR from 9.3 to 10.9. • Combining 18–25% cooled EGR with 10.9 CR lead to 2.1–3.5% brake thermal efficiency improvements. - Abstract: The downsized boosted spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine has proven to be one of the most promising concepts to improve vehicle fuel economy. However, the boosted engine is typically designed at a lower geometric compression ratio (CR) due to the increased knock tendency in comparison to naturally aspirated engines, limiting the potential of improving fuel economy. On the other hand, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has drawn attention due to the potential to suppress knock and improve fuel economy. Combing the effects of boosting, increased CR and cooled EGR to further improve fuel economy within acceptable knock tolerance has been investigated using a 2.0 L downsized boosted SIDI engine over a wide range of engine operating conditions from 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm at low to high loads. To clarify the mechanism of this complicated effects, the first law of thermodynamics analysis was conducted with the inputs from GT-Power® engine simulation. Experiment results indicate that cooled EGR provides more brake thermal efficiency improvement than increasing geometric CR from 9.3 to 10.9. The benefit of brake thermal efficiency from the higher CR is limited to low load conditions. The attributes for improving brake thermal efficiency by cooled EGR include reduced heat transfer loss, reduced pumping work and increased ratio of specific heats for all the engine operating conditions, as well as higher degree of constant volume heat release only for the knock-limited high load conditions. The combined effects of 18–25% cooled EGR

  14. Zooming into local active galactic nuclei: the power of combining SDSS-IV MaNGA with higher resolution integral field unit observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Schnorr Müller, Allan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Greene, Jenny E.; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Kelly, Michael; Liu, Guilin; Law, David R.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Thomas, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are ubiquitous in high-luminosity AGN with outflow speeds apparently correlated with the total bolometric luminosity of the AGN. This empirical relation and theoretical work suggest that in the range Lbol ˜ 1043-45 erg s-1 there must exist a threshold luminosity above which the AGN becomes powerful enough to launch winds that will be able to escape the galaxy potential. In this paper, we present pilot observations of two AGN in this transitional range that were taken with the Gemini North Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU). Both sources have also previously been observed within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. While the MaNGA IFU maps probe the gas fields on galaxy-wide scales and show that some regions are dominated by AGN ionization, the new Gemini IFU data zoom into the centre with four times better spatial resolution. In the object with the lower Lbol we find evidence of a young or stalled biconical AGN-driven outflow where none was obvious at the MaNGA resolution. In the object with the higher Lbol we trace the large-scale biconical outflow into the nuclear region and connect the outflow from small to large scales. These observations suggest that AGN luminosity and galaxy potential are crucial in shaping wind launching and propagation in low-luminosity AGN. The transition from small and young outflows to galaxy-wide feedback can only be understood by combining large-scale IFU data that trace the galaxy velocity field with higher resolution, small-scale IFU maps.

  15. Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asosheh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information systems outsourcing issues has been attracted in recent years because many information systems projects in organizations are done in this case. On the other hand, failure rate of this kind of projects is also high. The aim of this article is to find success factors in risk management of information systems outsourcing in commercial banks using these factors leads to increase the success rate of risk management of information systems outsourcing projects. Research methods in the present article based on purpose are applied and descriptive- survey. In addition, research tool is questionnaire which was used among commercial bank experts. For this purpose, First information systems outsourcing risks were identified and then ranked. In the next step, the information systems outsourcing reasons were surveyed and the most important reasons were identified. Then the risks which have not any relationship with the most important reasons were removed and success factors in managing residual risks were extracted.

  16. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  17. A combined simple bubbling method with high performance liquid chromatography purification strategy, higher radiochemical yield and purity and faster preparation of carbon-11-raclopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huacheng; Ning, Yanli; Zhang, Bucheng; Lou, Cen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-11-raclopride (¹¹C-R) is a positron-emitting radiotracer successfully used for the study of cognitive control and widely applied in PET imaging. A simple automated preparation of ¹¹C-R by using the reaction of carbon-(11)-methyl triflate (¹¹C-MeOTF) or ¹¹C-methyl iodide (¹¹C-MeI) with demethylraclopride is described. Specifically we used a simple setup applied an additional "U" reaction vessel for ¹¹C-MeOTf compared with ¹¹C-MeI and assessed the influence of several solvents and of the amount of the percussor for ¹¹C-methylation of demethylraclopride by the bubbling method. The reversal of retention order between product and its precursor has been achieved for ¹¹C-R, enabling collection of the purified ¹¹C-R by using the HPLC column after shorter retention time. By the improved radiosynthesis and purification strategy, ¹¹C-R could be prepared with higher radiochemical yield than that of the previous studies. The yield for ¹¹C-MeOTf was 76% and for ¹¹C-CH3I >26% and with better radiochemical purity (>99% based on both ¹¹C-MeOTf and ¹¹C-MeI) as compared to the previously obtained purity of ¹¹C-R using HPLC method with acetonitrile as a part of mobile phase. Furthermore, by using ethanol as the organic modifier, residual solvent analysis prior to human injection could be avoided and ¹¹C-R could be injected directly following simple dilution and sterile filtration. Improved radiosynthesis and HPLC purification in combination with ethanol containing eluent, extremely shortened the time for preparation of ¹¹C-R, gave a higher radiochemical yield and purity for ¹¹C-R and can be used for multiple and faster synthesis of ¹¹C-R and probably for other ¹¹C-labeled radiopharmaceuticals.

  18. Combination of the Auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 Improves the Commercial Seed-Tuber Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under In Vitro Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25–5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L−1  GA3 + 1 mg L−1 NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L−1  NAA + 0.25 mg L−1 GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  19. Diversification or Homogenization: How Governments and Markets Have Combined to (Re)Shape Chinese Higher Education in Its Recent Massification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The expansion and diversification of higher education are twin phenomena that have been associated with the development of higher education in many countries around the world. This study attempts to use enrolment expansion as a lens to examine the effects of governmental intervention and market forces on diversification of the Chinese system,…

  20. Integrating Sustainable Development in Higher Education through Experience-Based Learning: Insights from Experts in Team (EiT) for Developing a Combined Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Pia Piroschka

    2016-01-01

    Universities are understood to play an essential role in the promotion of sustainable development. However, the recognition of sustainable development in higher education poses multiple challenges to the traditional higher education system. This article introduces a course concept called "Experts in Teams" (EiT) as a new platform of…

  1. Comparison of Placido disc and Scheimpflug image-derived topography-guided excimer laser surface normalization combined with higher fluence CXL: the Athens Protocol, in progressive keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis11Laservision.gr Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2New York University School of Medicine, Department of Opthalmology, NY, NY, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of two alternative corneal topography data sources used in topography-guided excimer laser normalization, combined with corneal collagen cross-linking in the management of keratoconus using the Athens protocol, ie, a Placido disc imaging device and a Scheimpflug imaging device.Methods: A total of 181 consecutive patients with keratoconus who underwent the Athens protocol between 2008 and 2011 were studied preoperatively and at months 1, 3, 6, and 12 postoperatively for visual acuity, keratometry, and anterior surface corneal irregularity indices. Two groups were formed, depending on the primary source used for topoguided photoablation, ie, group A (Placido disc and group B (Scheimpflug rotating camera. One-year changes in visual acuity, keratometry, and seven anterior surface corneal irregularity indices were studied in each group.Results: Changes in visual acuity, expressed as the difference between postoperative and preoperative corrected distance visual acuity were +0.12 ± 0.20 (range +0.60 to -0.45 for group A and +0.19 ± 0.20 (range +0.75 to -0.30 for group B. In group A, K1 (flat keratometry changed from 45.202 ± 3.782 D to 43.022 ± 3.819 D, indicating a flattening of -2.18 D, and K2 (steep keratometry changed from 48.670 ± 4.066 D to 45.865 ± 4.794 D, indicating a flattening of -2.805 D. In group B, K1 (flat keratometry changed from 46.213 ± 4.082 D to 43.190 ± 4.398 D, indicating a flattening of -3.023 D, and K2 (steep keratometry changed from 50.774 ± 5.210 D to 46.380 ± 5.006 D, indicating a flattening of -4.394 D. For group A, the index of surface variance decreased to -5.07% and the index of height decentration to -26.81%. In group B, the index of surface variance

  2. Commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the near term (one-to-five-year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered in this assessment. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low-radiation-dose thyroid scan. The word could in the preceding sentence is underlined because an alternative source of enriched stable isotopes does exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States

  3. Commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  4. Next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of combined data for xF3 structure function and higher-twist contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous QCD analysis of the xF 3 structure function measured in deep-inelastic scattering by several collaborations is done up to 3-loop order of QCD. The x dependence of the higher-twist contribution is evaluated and turns out to be in a qualitative agreement with the results of 'old' CCFR data analysis and with renormalon approach predictions. The Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule and its higher-twist corrections are evaluated. 32 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab

  5. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of prot...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  6. Assessment of genetic integrity, splenic phagocytosis and cell death potential of (Z-4-((1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl amino-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid and its effect when combined with commercial chemotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increased incidence of cancer and its high treatment costs have encouraged the search for new compounds to be used in adjuvant therapies for this disease. This study discloses the synthesis of (Z-4-((1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl amino-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid (IR-01 and evaluates not only the action of this compound on genetic integrity, increase in splenic phagocytosis and induction of cell death but also its effects in combination with the commercial chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin, cisplatin and cyclophosphamide. IR-01 was designed and synthesized based on two multifunctionalyzed structural fragments: 4-aminoantipyrine, an active dipyrone metabolite, described as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent; and the pharmacophore fragment 1,4-dioxo-2-butenyl, a cytotoxic agent. The results indicated that IR-01 is an effective chemoprotector because it can prevent clastogenic and/or aneugenic damage, has good potential to prevent genomic damage, can increase splenic phagocytosis and lymphocyte frequency and induces cell death. However, its use as an adjuvant in combination with chemotherapy is discouraged since IR-01 interferes in the effectiveness of the tested chemotherapeutic agents. This is a pioneer study as it demonstrates the chemopreventive effects of IR-01, which may be associated with the higher antioxidant activity of the precursor structure of 4-aminoantipyrine over the effects of the 1,4-dioxo-2-butenyl fragment.

  7. Older Adults With a Combination of Vision and Hearing Impairment Experience Higher Rates of Cognitive Impairment, Functional Dependence, and Worse Outcomes Across a Set of Quality Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jacob G S; Guthrie, Dawn M

    2017-08-01

    Hearing and vision impairment were examined across several health-related outcomes and across a set of quality indicators (QIs) in home care clients with both vision and hearing loss (or dual sensory impairment [DSI]). Data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) were analyzed in a sample of older home care clients. The QIs represent the proportion of clients experiencing negative outcomes (e.g., falls, social isolation). The average age of clients was 82.8 years ( SD = 7.9), 20.5% had DSI and 8.5% had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clients with DSI were more likely to have a diagnosis of dementia (not AD), have functional impairments, report loneliness, and have higher rates across 20 of the 22 QIs, including communication difficulty and cognitive decline. Clients with highly impaired hearing, and any visual impairment, had the highest QI rates. Individuals with DSI experience higher rates of adverse events across many health-related outcomes and QIs. Understanding the unique contribution of hearing and vision in this group can promote optimal quality of care.

  8. Randomized Phase II Study of Azacitidine Alone or in Combination With Lenalidomide or With Vorinostat in Higher-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia: North American Intergroup Study SWOG S1117.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeres, Mikkael A; Othus, Megan; List, Alan F; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Stone, Richard M; Gore, Steven D; Litzow, Mark R; Buckstein, Rena; Fang, Min; Roulston, Diane; Bloomfield, Clara D; Moseley, Anna; Nazha, Aziz; Zhang, Yanming; Velasco, Mario R; Gaur, Rakesh; Atallah, Ehab; Attar, Eyal C; Cook, Elina K; Cull, Alyssa H; Rauh, Michael J; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Erba, Harry P

    2017-08-20

    Purpose Azacitidine is standard, first-line therapy in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Whether azacitidine-based combinations with lenalidomide or vorinostat produce superior overall response rates (ORRs) to azacitidine is not known. Patients and Methods North American Intergroup Study S1117 is a phase II/III trial that randomly assigned patients with higher-risk MDS and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) 1:1:1 to azacitidine (75 mg/m 2 /day on days 1 to 7 of a 28-day cycle); azacitidine plus lenalidomide (10 mg/day on days 1 to 21); or azacitidine plus vorinostat (300 mg twice daily on days 3 to 9). The primary phase II end point was improved ORR. Results Of 277 patients from 90 centers, 92 received azacitidine, 93 received azacitidine plus lenalidomide, and 92 received azacitidine plus vorinostat. Median age was 70 years (range, 28 to 93 years), 85 patients (31%) were female, and 53 patients (19%) had CMML. Serious adverse events were similar across arms, although combination-arm patients were more likely to undergo nonprotocol-defined dose modifications ( P vorinostat ( P = .16 v azacitidine). For patients with CMML, ORR was higher for azacitidine plus lenalidomide versus azacitidine (68% v 28%, P = .02) but similar for all arms across cytogenetic subgroups, as was remission duration and overall survival. ORR was higher with mutations in DNMT3A and lower for SRSF2, whereas ORR duration improved with fewer mutations. Lenalidomide dose reduction was associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.30; P = .05). Conclusion Patients with higher-risk MDS treated with azacitidine-based combinations had similar ORR to azacitidine monotherapy, although patients with CMML benefitted from azacitidine plus lenalidomide. The efficacy of combination regimens may have been affected by dose modifications.

  9. Higher dose intra-arterial milrinone and intra-arterial combined milrinone-nimodipine infusion as a rescue therapy for refractory cerebral vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Enes; Karakoç, Fatma; Pinar, H Ulas; Dogan, Rafi; Fırat, Ali; Yıldırım, Erkan

    2017-12-01

    Background Cerebral vasospasm (CV) is a major cause of delayed morbidity and mortality in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Various cerebral protectants have been tested in patients with aneurysmal SAH. We aimed to research the success rate of treatment of CV via intra-arterial milrinone injection and aggressive pharmacological therapy for refractory CV. Methods A total of 25 consecutive patients who received intra-arterial milrinone and nimodipine treatment for CV following SAH between 2014 and 2017 were included in the study. Patients who underwent surgical clipping were excluded. Refractory vasospasm was defined as patients with CV refractory to therapies requiring ≥3 endovascular interventions. Overall, six patients had refractory CV. Long-term neurological outcome was assessed 6-18 months after SAH using a modified Rankin score and Barthel index. Results The median modified Rankin scores were 1 (min: 0, max: 3) and Barthel index scores were 85 (min: 70, max: 100) From each vasospastic territory maximal 10-16 mg milrinone was given to patients; a maximum of 24 mg milrinone was given to each patient in a session and a maximum of 42 mg milrinone was given to a patient in a day. Both milrinone and nimodipine were given to three patients. There was a large vessel diameter increase after milrinone and nimodipine injections. No patient died due to CV; only one patient had motor dysfunction on the right lower extremity. Conclusion Higher doses of milrinone can be used effectively to control refractory CV. For exceptional patients with refractory CV, high dose intra-arterial nimodipine and milrinone infusion can be used as a rescue therapy.

  10. Azacitidine-lenalidomide (ViLen) combination yields a high response rate in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)-ViLen-01 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Moshe; Filanovsky, Kalman; Ofran, Yishai; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Raanani, Pia; Braester, Andrei; Goldschmidt, Neta; Kirgner, Ilya; Herishanu, Yair; Perri, Chava; Ellis, Martin; Oster, Howard S

    2016-10-01

    Azacitidine treatment is effective in higher risk MDS (HR-MDS), with less than 50 % response, lasting 2 years. Aza and lenalidomide (Len) have a potential synergistic effect. ViLen-01 phase IIa trial includes 6-month induction (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, Len 10 mg/day, days 6-21, every 28 days), 6-month consolidation (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, every 28 days), and 12-month maintenance (Len 10 mg/day, days 1-21, every 28 days). Response was evaluated according to IWG criteria. Totally, 25 patients enrolled, with an average of 76.3 years old (60-87), and 88 % with major comorbidities. Thirteen patients completed induction, 7 proceeded for consolidation, and 2 for maintenance. The overall response rate (ORR) was 72 % (18/25), with 6 (24 %) for CR, 3 (12 %) for marrow CR, and 9 (36 %) for hematologic improvement (HI). The 7 non-responding patients were on the study 3 days to 4.1 months. At 6 months, 4 of 6 evaluable patients achieved complete cytogenetic response and 2 with del (5q) at diagnosis. Adverse events (AEs) were as expected in these patients: grades III-IV, mainly hematologic-thrombocytopenia (20 patients) and neutropenia (13 patients). The common non-hematologic AEs were infections (14 patients), nausea (7), vomiting (7), diarrhea (7), and skin reactions (5). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12 ± 1.36 months, with median overall survival (OS) of 12 ± 1.7 months. Quality of life (FACT questionnaire) data were available for 12 patients with a tendency towards improved QoL. This trial with elderly HR-MDS patients with an expected poor prognosis demonstrates a high (72 %) response rate and a reasonable expected safety profile but a relatively short PFS and OS.

  11. On Account--table Combined Method for Education Cost Calculation of Higher Vocational Colleges%高职院校教育成本帐表结合法的探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩征

    2012-01-01

    随着高职院校各项教育费用支出的增加,教育成本逐渐受到人们的关注.为了科学核算高职院校教育成本,分析了高职院校现行核算方法不能客观反映教育成本的原因,明确了教育成本核算的基本会计假设和原则.以高职院校经费预算项目核算为基础,结合高职院校财务现状和办学特点,提出了帐表结合法核算高职院校教育成本.该方法采用项目帐和费用分配表相结合的模式,可科学核算高职院校教育成本.%With the increase of various education expenses of higher vocational colleges, educa-tion cost is gradually getting noticed by people. In order to calculate education cost of higher vo-cational colleges scientifically, this paper puts forward that current calculation method can not re-flect the education cost of higher vocational colleges objectively and clarifies basic accounting pos-tulate as well as principles of education cost calculation. Based on calculation of fund budget i-tems of higher vocational colleges, this paper puts forward account table combined method to calculate education cost of higher vocational colleges according to their financial situation and school-running characteristics. This method adopts the model combining item account with cost allocation table, which can calculate education cost of higher vocational colleges scientifically.

  12. Combining Service and Learning in Higher Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Maryann

    1999-01-01

    The Policy Debate In the past decade, colleges and universities have made greater efforts to involve students in community service, particularly service-learning, a special form of community service...

  13. Commercialism - the growth prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.K.R.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to ensure good business proposals for the future British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) is making a number of international initiatives. Likely markets for expansion include the United States, Japan and Western Europe, to whom the company can offer activities such as oxide fuel reprocessing, uranium hexafluoride conversion, fabrication of oxide and mixed oxide fuels, uranium enrichment and the safe transport of nuclear materials. The creation of International Nuclear Fuels Limited will expand overseas business and ensure security of fuel supply for the international nuclear industry. Working jointly with AEA Technology, BNFL will seek to market their combined decommissioning experience on the international market. The author concludes the BNFL is in a strong position to supply an increasing world-wide need for nuclear waste management and increased commercial awareness within the company will ensure a good section of the market is secured. U.K

  14. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  15. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  16. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  17. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  18. MHD channel performance for potential early commercial MHD power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallom, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The commercial viability of full and part load early commercial MHD power plants is examined. The load conditions comprise a mass flow of 472 kg/sec in the channel, Rosebud coal, 34% by volume oxygen in the oxidizer preheated to 922 K, and a one percent by mass seeding with K. The full load condition is discussed in terms of a combined cycle plant with optimized electrical output by the MHD channel. Various electrical load parameters, pressure ratios, and magnetic field profiles are considered for a baseload MHD generator, with a finding that a decelerating flow rate yields slightly higher electrical output than a constant flow rate. Nominal and part load conditions are explored, with a reduced gas mass flow rate and an enriched oxygen content. An enthalpy extraction of 24.6% and an isentropic efficiency of 74.2% is predicted for nominal operation of a 526 MWe MHD generator, with higher efficiencies for part load operation

  19. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs

  20. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  1. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    separation of functions between stack convention and fuel processing, i.e. external reforming using low-cost, non-catalytic under-oxidized burners. Even for fuel cell technologies capable of internal reforming, the separation of functions offers the advantage of separate optimization of the fuel cell stack and fuel processor, leading to fuel flexibility and lower systems costs. The combination of small size fuel cells, high market values, low development and demonstration costs, low market entry costs, and availability of off-the-shelf balance-of-system components, provides a low financial and technical risk scenario for fuel cell commercialization.

  2. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  3. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  4. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... are discussed and compared with results from an earlier study1 covering the recrystallization behavior of commercial aluminum of the same purity deformed at higher degrees of deformation (50 to 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling)....

  5. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  6. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  7. Combination of the inclusive DIS e"±p cross sections from HERA, QCD and EW analyses and the need for low-Q"2 higher-twist corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myronenko, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    A combination of the inclusive lepton-proton cross sections from the ZEUS and H1 experiments is presented. The data are combined taking into account correlations of the systematic uncertainties of the measurements. The resulting combined inclusive neutral- and charged-current e"±p cross sections derived from ∝1 fb"-"1 of data, cover the kinematic region of 0.045≤Q"2≤50000 GeV"2 and 6.10"-"7≤x_B_j≤0.65. The combined data is an unique legacy of the HERA collider and the core of any parton-density-function extraction. The parton distribution functions are essential ingredients in the evaluation of QCD predictions for the high-energy processes, studied at modern proton colliders. The methodology of HERAPDF fits is used as an ansatz for the global QCD fit. The charm- and beauty-quark mass parameters in the analyses at next-next-to-leading order were found to be M"o"p"t_c=1.43 GeV and M"o"p"t_b=4.5 GeV, respectively. HERAPDF2.0 sets give reasonable DIS data description. The effect of higher-twist corrections on the DIS structure functions was studied. The twist-4 corrections were introduced to the F_2 and F_L structure functions. A minimal improvement in the data description was found for the F_2 correction. The introduction of a higher-twist correction to the F_L structure function improved the QCD fit quality by up to Δχ"2=47, predominantly affecting the low-x_B_j and low-Q"2 regions. The twist-4 correction causes an unphysical rise of the predicted F_L in the low x_B_j region. The results indicate a need for further investigations. The electroweak parameters and PDFs are determined simultaneously using the HERA inclusive cross sections together with information on the lepton beam polarisation. The vector- and axial-vector couplings of the u- and d-type quarks to the Z"0 boson are determined simultaneously. The u-type quark couplings were found to be a_u=0.532"+"0"."1"0"7_-_0_._0_6_3, v_u.144"+"0"."0"6"6_-_0_._0_5_8, which are the most precise measurements

  8. Combination of the inclusive DIS e{sup ±}p cross sections from HERA, QCD and EW analyses and the need for low-Q{sup 2} higher-twist corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myronenko, Volodymyr

    2017-01-15

    A combination of the inclusive lepton-proton cross sections from the ZEUS and H1 experiments is presented. The data are combined taking into account correlations of the systematic uncertainties of the measurements. The resulting combined inclusive neutral- and charged-current e{sup ±}p cross sections derived from ∝1 fb{sup -1} of data, cover the kinematic region of 0.045≤Q{sup 2}≤50000 GeV{sup 2} and 6.10{sup -7}≤x{sub Bj}≤0.65. The combined data is an unique legacy of the HERA collider and the core of any parton-density-function extraction. The parton distribution functions are essential ingredients in the evaluation of QCD predictions for the high-energy processes, studied at modern proton colliders. The methodology of HERAPDF fits is used as an ansatz for the global QCD fit. The charm- and beauty-quark mass parameters in the analyses at next-next-to-leading order were found to be M{sup opt}{sub c}=1.43 GeV and M{sup opt}{sub b}=4.5 GeV, respectively. HERAPDF2.0 sets give reasonable DIS data description. The effect of higher-twist corrections on the DIS structure functions was studied. The twist-4 corrections were introduced to the F{sub 2} and F{sub L} structure functions. A minimal improvement in the data description was found for the F{sub 2} correction. The introduction of a higher-twist correction to the F{sub L} structure function improved the QCD fit quality by up to Δχ{sup 2}=47, predominantly affecting the low-x{sub Bj} and low-Q{sup 2} regions. The twist-4 correction causes an unphysical rise of the predicted F{sub L} in the low x{sub Bj} region. The results indicate a need for further investigations. The electroweak parameters and PDFs are determined simultaneously using the HERA inclusive cross sections together with information on the lepton beam polarisation. The vector- and axial-vector couplings of the u- and d-type quarks to the Z{sup 0} boson are determined simultaneously. The u-type quark couplings were found to be a{sub u}=0

  9. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  10. Combination of a higher-tier flow-through system and population modeling to assess the effects of time-variable exposure of isoproturon on the green algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Denis; Schaefer, Dieter; Dorgerloh, Michael; Bruns, Eric; Goerlitz, Gerhard; Hammel, Klaus; Preuss, Thomas G; Ratte, Hans Toni

    2012-04-01

    A flow-through system was developed to investigate the effects of time-variable exposure of pesticides on algae. A recently developed algae population model was used for simulations supported and verified by laboratory experiments. Flow-through studies with Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under time-variable exposure to isoproturon were performed, in which the exposure patterns were based on the results of FOrum for Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS) model calculations for typical exposure situations via runoff or drain flow. Different types of pulsed exposure events were realized, including a whole range of repeated pulsed and steep peaks as well as periods of constant exposure. Both species recovered quickly in terms of growth from short-term exposure and according to substance dissipation from the system. Even at a peak 10 times the maximum predicted environmental concentration of isoproturon, only transient effects occurred on algae populations. No modified sensitivity or reduced growth was observed after repeated exposure. Model predictions of algal growth in the flow-through tests agreed well with the experimental data. The experimental boundary conditions and the physiological properties of the algae were used as the only model input. No calibration or parameter fitting was necessary. The combination of the flow-through experiments with the algae population model was revealed to be a powerful tool for the assessment of pulsed exposure on algae. It allowed investigating the growth reduction and recovery potential of algae after complex exposure, which is not possible with standard laboratory experiments alone. The results of the combined approach confirm the beneficial use of population models as supporting tools in higher-tier risk assessments of pesticides. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  11. Is radurisation commercially feasible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    In November 1980 an international expert committee, convened by the three organisations sponsoring the International Food Irradiation Project, viz the World Health Organisation, the Food and Agricultural Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, declared all radurised foods irradiated up to a dose of 10 kGy (1 Mrad) as unconditionally safe and nutritionally adequate (ie wholesome) for humans. However, the application of this new food-processing technique on a full commercial scale will undoubtedly be determined by factors such as the efficacy of the process in comparison with existing techniques, cost of operation, and finally, acceptance by the food handler and consumer. Studies in various countries, including South Africa, during the past decade have demonstrated that radiation in most cases in combination with pre-irradiation heat treatment or post irradiation cold storage, could play an important role in improving the quality of fresh produce by extension of shelf life (sometimes dramatic), by hygienisation (eg the elimination of harmful pathogens or a reduction of potentially harmful chemical residues) and lastly by improved quarantine control. Cost and energy-comsumption analyses indicate that radurisation is an energy-saving process in comparison with both heating and cooling and, even though the process is capital intensive, that substantial cost benefits can accrue when large quantities of certain foodstuffs are processed. Consumer acceptance trials, both locally and abroad, have shown that if the consumer is properly informed, he can be convinced of the advantages which radurised foods could offer. A National Steering Committee was recently consituted. This committee acts in an advisory capacity to the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and co-ordinates all aspects of the test marketing of radurised food on a national level

  12. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  13. The commercialization of natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wray, P.

    1997-01-01

    A successful NGV industry depends upon the skilled use of prime geographic and economic drivers. But a vital ingredient to a sustained and profitable industry is the pioneering example of the gas suppliers and the combined commercial skills of fleet operators equipment suppliers and government. The use of natural gas for vehicles must be long-term commercially viable both for the vehicles whole life cost and the refuelling stations capital investment. (au)

  14. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  15. Cognitive functions and health-related quality of life in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia and symptoms of overactive bladder when treated with a combination of tamsulosin and solifenacin in a higher dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosilov, Kirill; Kuzina, Irina; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Gainullina, Yuliya; Kosilova, Liliya; Prokofyeva, Alexandra; Loparev, Sergey

    2017-11-07

    To study the cognitive functions and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in individuals taking a combination of tamsulosin and solifenacin in a higher dosage. All patients (n = 262) were assigned to group A (N = 93, tamsulosin 0.4 mg + solifenacin 10 mg per day), group B (N = 83, tamsulosin 0.4 mg + solifenacin 20 mg), and control group C (N = 86; tamsulosin 0.4 mg + placebo). The lower urinary tract (LUT) condition was assessed on the scales International Prostate Symptom Score, Over Active Bladder Awareness Tool and uroflowmetry. The state of cognitive status was assessed on the scales Mini-mental State Examination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, Wechsler III, Color Trails Test, California Verbal Learning Test. The values of cognitive function indicators in the individuals from all groups after treatment did not significantly differ from the respective values at the baseline (p > .05). The values of most HRQoL parameters of the functional state of the LUT significantly improved in groups A and B. A significant correlation between the state of cognitive status and HRQoL, as well as LUT was absent (r tamsulosin can be recommended for elderly benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with overactive bladder symptoms.

  16. Commercialization in Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    For any firm, the ultimate purpose of new product development is the commercialization of the new offerings. Despite its regular use in the product innovation and general management science literature, commercialization is only loosely defined and applied. This lack of conceptual clarity about...... the processes at the interface between product development and customer application is noteworthy as it hinders the theoretical development of the field. In this paper, we explore how research has advanced our understanding of commercialization in product innovation over a 30 year period by mapping different...

  17. Commercial off-the-shelf software dedication process based on the commercial grade survey of supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. S.; Chon, S. W.; Lee, G. Y.; Park, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    Commercial Off-The-Shelf(COTS) software dedication process can apply to a combination of methods like the hardware commercial grade item dedication process. In general, these methods are : methods 1(special test and inspection), method 2(commercial grade survey of supplier), method 3(source verification), and method 4(acceptance supplier/item performance record). In this paper, the suggested procedure-oriented dedication process on the basis of method 2 for COTS software is consistent with EPRI/TR-106439 and NUREG/CR-6421 requirements. Additional tailoring policy based on code and standards related to COTS software may be also founded in the suggested commercial software dedication process. Suggested commercial software dedication process has been developed for a commercial I and C software dedication who performs COTS qualification according to the dedication procedure

  18. Towards commercial aquaponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, Harry W.; Knaus, Ulrich; Appelbaum, Samuel; Goddek, Simon; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Vermeulen, Tycho; Haїssam Jijakli, M.; Kotzen, Benz

    2018-01-01

    Aquaponics is rapidly developing as the need for sustainable food production increases and freshwater and phosphorous reserves shrink. Starting from small-scale operations, aquaponics is at the brink of commercialization, attracting investment. Arising from integrated freshwater aquaculture, a

  19. NASA commercial programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  20. Commercial Landing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Statistics Division of the NOAA Fisheries has automated data summary programs that anyone can use to rapidly and easily summarize U.S. commercial...

  1. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  2. Performance properties of commercial explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.N.; Mader, C.L.; Goldstein, S.

    1983-01-01

    The aquarium test is a proven means of obtaining nonidial performance property data for commercial blasting agents. Optical data on the detonation velocity, shock wave in water, and expansion rate of the pipe enclosing the detonation products (in combination with the equilibrium thermodynamic chemistry code BKW) give the C-J state and degree of chemical reaction at the detonation front, as well as information on additional chemical reaction that occurs as the detonation products expand. Specific explosive systems that are studied are ammonium nitrate-fuel oil mixture (ANFO), aluminized ANFO, flaked trinitrotoluene (TNT), and several other commercial products in 10-cm diam and 20-cm-diam pipes of Plexiglas and clay. Experimental shock-pressure data are obtained with lithium niobate transducers placed in the water surrounding the explosive charge. These data show that the addition of approx.100-..mu..m aluminum particles to ANFO significantly increases the initial peak shock pressure delivered to the surrounding medium. Peak shock pressures in the water, calculated from the shock-wave orientation, are also useful in comparing performance properties of various commercial explosives. 20 references, 17 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Commodification and commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Richard J

    1992-01-01

    ... In this article I shall argue tentatively for the claim that commercial surrogacy should be legally permissible. I am more strongly convinced that a commitment to feminism should not predispose anyone against surrogacy. At least, no arguments offered so far should persuade anyone who is committed to equal rights for women and men and the dismantling of gender-based hierarchies to favor either legal prohibition or moral condemnation of commercial surrogacy.

  4. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  5. A Strategy Combining Higher Energy C-Trap Dissociation with Neutral Loss- and Product Ion-Based MSn Acquisition for Global Profiling and Structure Annotation of Fatty Acids Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Qi-Rui; Hou, Jin-Jun; Yang, Min; Shen, Yao; Qi, Peng; Feng, Rui-Hong; Dai, Zhuo; Yan, Bing-Peng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Shi, Xiao-Jian; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2017-03-01

    Fatty acids conjugates (FACs) are ubiquitous but found in trace amounts in the natural world. They are composed of multiple unknown substructures and side chains. Thus, FACs are difficult to be analyzed by traditional mass spectrometric methods. In this study, an integrated strategy was developed to global profiling and targeted structure annotation of FACs in complex matrix by LTQ Orbitrap. Dicarboxylic acid conjugated bufotoxins (DACBs) in Venenum bufonis (VB) were used as model compounds. The new strategy (abbreviated as HPNA) combined higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) with product ion- (PI), neutral loss- (NL) based MS n (n ≥ 3) acquisition in both positive-ion mode and negative-ion mode. Several advantages are presented. First, various side chains were found under HCD in negative-ion mode, which included both known and unknown side chains. Second, DACBs with multiple side chains were simultaneously detected in one run. Compared with traditional quadrupole-based mass method, it greatly increased analysis throughput. Third, the fragment ions of side chain and steroids substructure could be obtained by PI- and NL-based MS n acquisition, respectively, which greatly increased the accuracy of the structure annotation of DACBs. In all, 78 DACBs have been discovered, of which 68 were new compounds; 25 types of substructure formulas and seven dicarboxylic acid side chains were found, especially five new side chains, including two saturated dicarboxylic acids [(azelaic acid (C 9 ) and sebacic acid (C 10 )] and three unsaturated dicarboxylic acids (u-C 8 , u-C 9 , and u-C 10 ). All these results greatly enriched the structures of DACBs in VB. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Prospective evaluation of commercial antibody-based rapid tests in combination with a loop-mediated isothermal amplification PCR assay for detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi during the acute phase of scrub typhus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Teeratakul, Achara; Kantipong, Pacharee; Day, Nicholas P J

    2012-03-01

    Samples from 160 prospectively recruited febrile patients with typhus-like illness in an area of Thailand (Chiang Rai, northern Thailand) where scrub typhus is endemic were used to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of four rapid immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi IgM and total antibodies during acute scrub typhus infection. Of the 160 cases, 54 (34%) had been confirmed to have scrub typhus using the reference scrub typhus infection criteria (STIC), i.e., positive cell culture isolation, an admission IgM antibody titer of ≥1:12,800, a 4-fold rising IgM antibody titer, and/or positivity for ≥2 out of 3 PCR gene targets). The ICTs gave the following sensitivities and specificities: the Panbio IgM ICT, 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 60) and 95% (95% CI, 89 to 98), respectively; the Standard Diagnostics IgM ICT, 68% (95% CI, 60 to 75) and 73% (95% CI, 68 to 78), respectively; the AccessBio IgM ICT, 56% (95% CI, 48 to 63) and 90% (95% CI, 87 to 94), respectively; and the AccessBio total antibody ABt ICT, 61% (95% CI, 53 to 68) and 68% (95% CI, 63 to 73), respectively. An isothermal loop amplification (LAMP) PCR assay for scrub typhus demonstrated a sensitivity of 52% (95% CI, 38 to 66) and a specificity of 94% (95% CI, 88 to 98). This study has revealed the diagnostic limitations of antibody-based assays in an acute care setting. However, the combination of ICTs with LAMP usually increased sensitivity with a minimal reduction in specificity. The best combination, the Panbio IgM ICT and LAMP, resulted in a sensitivity of 67% (95% CI, 53 to 79) and a specificity of 91% (95% CI, 83 to 95). The combination of antibody-based assays with DNA- or antigen-based tests shows promise for improved diagnostic sensitivity.

  7. Test results and commercialization plans for long life Stirling generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbeznik, R.M.; White, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Many optimistic predictions regarding commercialization of Stirling engines have been announced over the years, but to date no real successes have emerged. STC is excited to announce the availability of beta prototypes for its RemoteGen trademark family of free-piston Stirling generators. STC is working with suppliers, manufacturers, and beta customers to commercialize the RemoteGen family of generators. STC is proving that these machines overcome previously inhibiting barriers by providing long life, high reliability, cost effective mass production, and market relevance. Stirling power generators are generally acknowledged to offer much higher conversion efficiencies than direct energy conversion systems. Life and reliability, on the other hand, are generally considered superior for direct conversion systems, as established by the exceptional endurance records (though with degradation) for thermoelectric (TE) and photovoltaic (PV) systems. STC's unique approaches combine dynamic system efficiency with static system reliability. The RemoteGen family presently includes a 10-watt RG-10, a 350-watt RG-350, and with 1-kW and 3-kW sizes planned for the future. They all use the same basic configuration with flexure bearings, clearance seals, and moving iron linear alternators. The third generation RG-10 has entered limited production with a radioisotope-fueled version, and a niche market for a propane-fueled version has been identified. Market analysis has led STC to focus on early commercial production of the RG-350. The linear alternator power module portion of the RG-350 is also used in its sister BeCool trademark family of coolers as the linear motor. By using a common power module, both programs will benefit by each other's commercialization efforts. The technology behind the RemoteGen generators, test results, and plans for commercialization are described in this paper

  8. Commercialization of NESSUS: Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Millwater, Harry R.

    1991-01-01

    A plan was initiated in 1988 to commercialize the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) probabilistic structural analysis software. The goal of the on-going commercialization effort is to begin the transfer of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) developed technology into industry and to develop additional funding resources in the general area of structural reliability. The commercialization effort is summarized. The SwRI NESSUS Software System is a general purpose probabilistic finite element computer program using state of the art methods for predicting stochastic structural response due to random loads, material properties, part geometry, and boundary conditions. NESSUS can be used to assess structural reliability, to compute probability of failure, to rank the input random variables by importance, and to provide a more cost effective design than traditional methods. The goal is to develop a general probabilistic structural analysis methodology to assist in the certification of critical components in the next generation Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  9. Commercial Conspiracy Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eFurnham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs.The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed.

  10. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  11. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  12. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  13. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  14. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  15. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  16. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence

  17. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  18. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  19. Future trends in commercial and military systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, F. E.

    Commercial and military satellite communication systems are addressed, with a review of current applications and typical communication characteristics of the space and earth segments. Drivers for the development of future commercial systems include: the pervasion of digital techniques and services, growing orbit and frequency congestion, demand for more entertainment, and the large potential market for commercial 'roof-top' service. For military systems, survivability, improved flexibility, and the need for service to small mobile terminals are the principal factors involved. Technical trends include the use of higher frequency bands, multibeam antennas and a significant increase in the application of onboard processing. Military systems will employ a variety of techniques to counter both physical and electronic threats. The use of redundant transmission paths is a particularly effective approach. Successful implementation requires transmission standards to achieve the required interoperability among the pertinent networks. For both the military and commercial sectors, the trend toward larger numbers of terminals and more complex spacecraft is still persisting.

  20. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  1. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  2. Commercial nuclear power 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents historical data on commercial nuclear power in the United States, with projections of domestic nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2020. The report also gives country-specific projections of nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2010 for other countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information is also presented regarding operable reactors and those under construction in countries with centrally planned economies. 39 tabs

  3. International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Hlušička, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to analyse one of the most used type of extrajudicial procedures, the International commercial arbitration. The reason for my research is the progress and elevation of use of the arbitration and not only on international field. The thesis is composed of six chapters, each of them dealing with different aspects of Arbitration. Chapter One is introductory and defines basic terminology used in the thesis. The chapter is subdivided into two parts. Part One describes in...

  4. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  7. Secondary Metabolites from Higher Fungi: Discovery, Bioactivity, and Bioproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xiao, Jian-Hui

    Medicinal higher fungi such as Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum have been used as an alternative medicine remedy to promote health and longevity for people in China and other regions of the world since ancient times. Nowadays there is an increasing public interest in the secondary metabolites of those higher fungi for discovering new drugs or lead compounds. Current research in drug discovery from medicinal higher fungi involves a multifaceted approach combining mycological, biochemical, pharmacological, metabolic, biosynthetic and molecular techniques. In recent years, many new secondary metabolites from higher fungi have been isolated and are more likely to provide lead compounds for new drug discovery, which may include chemopreventive agents possessing the bioactivity of immunomodulatory, anticancer, etc. However, numerous challenges of secondary metabolites from higher fungi are encountered including bioseparation, identification, biosynthetic metabolism, and screening model issues, etc. Commercial production of secondary metabolites from medicinal mushrooms is still limited mainly due to less information about secondary metabolism and its regulation. Strategies for enhancing secondary metabolite production by medicinal mushroom fermentation include two-stage cultivation combining liquid fermentation and static culture, two-stage dissolved oxygen control, etc. Purification of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as ganoderic acids from G. lucidum, is also very important to pharmacological study and future pharmaceutical application. This review outlines typical examples of the discovery, bioactivity, and bioproduction of secondary metabolites of higher fungi origin.

  8. Electronic evaluation for video commercials by impression index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wanzeng; Zhao, Xinxin; Hu, Sanqing; Vecchiato, Giovanni; Babiloni, Fabio

    2013-12-01

    How to evaluate the effect of commercials is significantly important in neuromarketing. In this paper, we proposed an electronic way to evaluate the influence of video commercials on consumers by impression index. The impression index combines both the memorization and attention index during consumers observing video commercials by tracking the EEG activity. It extracts features from scalp EEG to evaluate the effectiveness of video commercials in terms of time-frequency-space domain. And, the general global field power was used as an impression index for evaluation of video commercial scenes as time series. Results of experiment demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to track variations of the cerebral activity related to cognitive task such as observing video commercials, and help to judge whether the scene in video commercials is impressive or not by EEG signals.

  9. Layered Thermal Insulation Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2015-01-01

    From the high performance arena of cryogenic equipment, several different layered thermal insulation systems have been developed for industrial and commercial applications. In addition to the proven areas in cold-work applications for piping and tanks, the new Layered Composite Insulation for Extreme Environments (LCX) has potential for broader industrial use as well as for commercial applications. The LCX technology provides a unique combination of thermal, mechanical, and weathering performance capability that is both cost-effective and enabling. Industry applications may include, for example, liquid nitrogen (LN2) systems for food processing, liquefied natural gas (LNG) systems for transportation or power, and chilled water cooling facilities. Example commercial applications may include commercial residential building construction, hot water piping, HVAC systems, refrigerated trucks, cold chain shipping containers, and a various consumer products. The LCX system is highly tailorable to the end-use application and can be pre-fabricated or field assembled as needed. Product forms of LCX include rigid sheets, semi-flexible sheets, cylindrical clam-shells, removable covers, or flexible strips for wrapping. With increasing system control and reliability requirements as well as demands for higher energy efficiencies, thermal insulation in harsh environments is a growing challenge. The LCX technology grew out of solving problems in the insulation of mechanically complex cryogenic systems that must operate in outdoor, humid conditions. Insulation for cold work includes equipment for everything from liquid helium to chilled water. And in the middle are systems for LNG, LN2, liquid oxygen (LO2), liquid hydrogen (LH2) that must operate in the ambient environment. Different LCX systems have been demonstrated for sub-ambient conditions but are capable of moderately high temperature applications as well.

  10. Healthcare costs of ICU survivors are higher before and after ICU admission compared to a population based control group: A descriptive study combining healthcare insurance data and data from a Dutch national quality registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beusekom, Ilse; Bakhshi-Raiez, Ferishta; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; van der Schaaf, Marike; Busschers, Wim B.; Dongelmans, Dave A.

    2017-01-01

    To identify subgroups of ICU patients with high healthcare utilization for healthcare expenditure management purposes such as prevention and targeted care. We conducted a descriptive cohort study, combining a national health insurance claims database and a national quality registry database for

  11. Altitude exposures during commercial flight: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B; Kregenow, David A; Mahoney, Anne M; Kirtland, Steven H; Horan, Kathleen L; Holm, James R; Gerbino, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia during commercial air travel has the potential to cause or worsen hypoxemia in individuals with pre-existing cardiopulmonary compromise. Knowledge of cabin altitude pressures aboard contemporary flights is essential to counseling patients accurately about flying safety. The objective of the study was to measure peak cabin altitudes during U.S. domestic commercial flights on a variety of aircraft. A handheld mountaineering altimeter was carried by the investigators in the plane cabin during commercial air travel and peak cabin altitude measured. The values were then compared between aircraft models, aircraft classes, and distances flown. The average peak cabin altitude on 207 flights aboard 17 different aircraft was 6341 +/- 1813 ft (1933 m +/- 553 m), significantly higher than when measured in a similar fashion in 1988. Peak cabin altitude was significantly higher for flights longer than 750 mi (7085 +/- 801 ft) compared to shorter flights (5160 +/- 2290 ft/1573 +/- 698 m). Cabin altitude increased linearly with flight distance for flights up to 750 mi in length, but was independent of flight distance for flights exceeding 750 mi. Peak cabin altitude was less than 5000 ft (1524 m) in 70% of flights shorter than 500 mi. Peak cabin altitudes greater than 8000 ft (2438 m) were measured on approximately 10% of the total flights. Peak cabin altitude on commercial aircraft flights has risen over time. Cabin altitude is lower with flights of shorter distance. Physicians should take these factors into account when determining an individual's need for supplemental oxygen during commercial air travel.

  12. Evaluation and demonstration of commercialization potential of CCSI tools within gPROMS advanced simulation platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Adekola [Process Systems Enterprise Inc., Cedar Knolls, NJ (United States); Schmal, Pieter [Process Systems Enterprise Inc., Cedar Knolls, NJ (United States); Ramos, Alfredo [Process Systems Enterprise Inc., Cedar Knolls, NJ (United States); Cano, Alejandro [Process Systems Enterprise Inc., Cedar Knolls, NJ (United States); Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Mebane, David [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Sahinidis, Nikolaos [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Chowdhury, Ananya [Process Systems Enterprise Inc., Cedar Knolls, NJ (United States); Liu, Xiaohui [Process Systems Enterprise Inc., Cedar Knolls, NJ (United States); Bellinghausen, Stefan [Process Systems Enterprise Inc., Cedar Knolls, NJ (United States)

    2017-05-29

    PSE, in the first phase of the CCSI commercialization project, set out to identify market opportunities for the CCSI tools combined with existing gPROMS platform capabilities and develop a clear technical plan for the proposed commercialization activities.

  13. Commercial microwave space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.; Gregorwich, W.; Walmsley, S.; Shockey, K.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on central commercial space power, generating power via large scale solar arrays, and distributing power to satellites via docking, tethering or beamed power such as microwave or laser beams, that is being investigated as a potentially advantageous alternative to present day technology where each satellite carries its own power generating capability. The cost, size and weight for electrical power service, together with overall mission requirements and flexibility are the principal selection criteria, with the case of standard solar array panels based on the satellite, as the reference point. This paper presents and investigates a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30% overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design point are: An efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central space power station end, a reliable and efficient cw microwave tube. Design trades to optimize the proposed near term design point and to explore characteristics of future systems were performed. Future development for making the beamed microwave space power approach more competitive against docking and tethering are discussed

  14. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  15. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  16. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  17. 0.1 Trend analysis of δ18O composition of precipitation in Germany: Combining Mann-Kendall trend test and ARIMA models to correct for higher order serial correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Julian; Pan Chun, Kwok; Stumpp, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Spatio-temporal dynamics of stable oxygen (18O) and hydrogen (2H) isotopes in precipitation can be used as proxies for changing hydro-meteorological and regional and global climate patterns. While spatial patterns and distributions gained much attention in recent years the temporal trends in stable isotope time series are rarely investigated and our understanding of them is still limited. These might be a result of a lack of proper trend detection tools and effort for exploring trend processes. Here we make use of an extensive data set of stable isotope in German precipitation. In this study we investigate temporal trends of δ18O in precipitation at 17 observation station in Germany between 1978 and 2009. For that we test different approaches for proper trend detection, accounting for first and higher order serial correlation. We test if significant trends in the isotope time series based on different models can be observed. We apply the Mann-Kendall trend tests on the isotope series, using general multiplicative seasonal autoregressive integrate moving average (ARIMA) models which account for first and higher order serial correlations. With the approach we can also account for the effects of temperature, precipitation amount on the trend. Further we investigate the role of geographic parameters on isotope trends. To benchmark our proposed approach, the ARIMA results are compared to a trend-free prewhiting (TFPW) procedure, the state of the art method for removing the first order autocorrelation in environmental trend studies. Moreover, we explore whether higher order serial correlations in isotope series affects our trend results. The results show that three out of the 17 stations have significant changes when higher order autocorrelation are adjusted, and four stations show a significant trend when temperature and precipitation effects are considered. Significant trends in the isotope time series are generally observed at low elevation stations (≤315 m a

  18. Evaluation of TV commercials using neurophysiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-04-24

    In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to marketers. Here, this study develops a method to analyze temporal patterns of EEG data and extract affective and cognitive indices such as happiness, surprise, and attention for TV commercial evaluation. Twenty participants participated in the study. We developed the neurophysiological indices for TV commercial evaluation using classification model. Specifically, these model-based indices were customized using individual EEG features. We used a video game for developing the index of attention and four video clips for developing indices of happiness and surprise. Statistical processes including one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the cross validation scheme were used to select EEG features for each index. The EEG features were composed of the combinations of spectral power at selected channels from the cross validation for each individual. The Fisher's linear discriminant classifier (FLDA) was used to estimate each neurophysiological index during viewing four different TV commercials. Post hoc behavioral responses of preference, short-term memory, and recall were measured. Behavioral results showed significant differences for all preference, short-term memory rates, and recall rates between commercials, leading to a 'high-ranked' commercial group and a 'low-ranked' group (P < 0.05). Neural estimation of happiness results revealed a significant difference between the high-ranked and the low-ranked commercials in happiness index (P < 0.01). The order of rankings based on happiness and

  19. The commercialization of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrera-mangahas, M A

    1989-01-01

    International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the

  20. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  1. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  2. The commercialization of SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlan, Megan M.; Enkerlin, Walther

    2003-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of sterile insects for sterile insect technique (SIT) programs have been supplied by government facilities, although the private sector often participates in the field programs and sometimes provides substantial funding. As the demand for SIT has grown, government production facilities have sold sterile insects to other governments to use in their own programs. However, most of the production facilities are not organized as commercial ventures and have not been accounting for capital or possibly other fixed costs on top of the direct (variable) costs such as diet and transport. The biological nature of the product influences the best methods for figuring operational costs. Furthermore, unlike other liabilities and losses, a business cannot recover quickly from the unlikely but serious event of a lost breeding colony through an insurance claim, even if such insurance could be obtained. (author)

  3. Year 2000 commercial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers' obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs

  4. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  5. Transnational Degree Program Franchising and the Challenge of Commercial Franchisees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juusola, Katariina; Rensimer, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the interrelationship of branding practices and legitimacy-building of commercial degree program franchising within transnational higher education (TNHE). It aims to understand how commercial franchisees' branding practices employ discursive and symbolic strategies for building legitimacy, and how…

  6. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Radiometric analysis of Chinese commercial granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinwei, L.; Lingqing, W.; Xiaodan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of granites as building and ornamental materials, measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activities in commercial granites have been carried out using a NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer with a matrix-inversion-based spectral stripping technique. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in Chinese commercial granite range from 14.5 to 204.7 Bq x kg -1 , 16.7 to 186.7 Bq x kg -1 and 185.7 to 1745.6 Bq x kg -1 , respectively. The mean values of the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in red and pink commercial granites are all higher than those in black and gray commercial ones. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), the external hazard index (H ex ), the internal hazard index (H in ) and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) were also calculated and compared to the international recommended values. Six types of red commercial granites (CBR, MLR, QXR, PBR, JXR, LQR, YDR and TSR) of China do not satisfy the universal standards. (author)

  8. The Integrated Complex of Marketing of Higher Education Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhehus Olena V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article, on the basis of generalization of scientific views of foreign and domestic scientists, substantiates the integrated model of marketing of higher education products and services with consideration of their specificities. The obtained result is the «5Р + S» model, which includes the newly introduced poli-element «proposition», combining the interrelated and indivisible elements of «product», «people» and «process», as well as the traditional elements of the service marketing complex: «price», «place», «promotion», «physical evidence». The «social-marketing» element has been added to the integrated model on the basis of the high societal importance of educational services. Altogether, the proposed integrated model of the complex of marketing of higher education products and services is a symbiosis of commercial and non-commercial marketing, which will enhance social and economic efficiency of functioning of higher educational institution.

  9. Commercialization of DOE isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflin, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the business structure and operations of MAC Isotopes (MACI) L.L.C., a newly created business resulting from the commercialization of a former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). MACI began its commercial operations on October 1, 1996, and is the first U.S. commercial isotope production business to result from the commercialization of DOE facilities or programs. The commercialization was the culmination of an -2-yr competitive procurement process by the DOE and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). MACI was selected from this competitive process as the commercial business of choice on the basis of providing the best value to the DOE/LMITCO and having the greatest potential for commercial success

  10. Ma2 antibodies: an evaluation of commercially available detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannis, Wibke; Renno, Joerg H; Wielckens, Klaus; Voltz, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Ma2 antibodies belong to the onconeuronal antibodies which define a "definite" paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS). Because of the clinical relevance, use of two separate methods (indirect immunofluorescence technique--IFT--and immunoblot) is advocated; however, with an increasing number of commercially available assay systems, usually only one assay is performed. We compared IFT and three commercially available immunoblots (ravo Diagnostika, Euroimmun, Milenia Biotec) on sera from 35 patients with clinically suspected PNS. 17 were Ma2 antibody associated as defined by consensus result (showing positive reactivity in 2 assays), 18 were Ma2 antibody negative controls. Sensitivity/specificity for single assays were for IFT 94%/94%, for ravo Diagnostika PNS blot 88%/100%, for Euroimmun Neuronal Antigens Profile blot 100%/89%, and for Milenia Biotec MTR blot 94%/100%. Our data confirm, although all tests performed well, a combination of 2 independent assays is still advisable for Ma2 antibody detection in order to achieve higher sensitivity and specificity rates.

  11. Commercializing medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore

  12. ETHICS AND COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu MEGHIŞAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern economic science was built around the concept of efficiency. In economy the notion of equality is strongly correlated with the notion of balance, such as the market balance when the demand equals the offer. In a broader view, the economy cannot contribute to a reflection on equity unless it re-became a moral and political science or even a philosophical economy. At present, when there is an effervescence of international transactions, we all adulate the need for morality. Everyday, all around the world, regular people are affected by the costs of ethical issues. The profit and social responsibility do not exclude reciprocally. The social value of a company is given by the well-being and the work-places generated, by the products and services offered to the consumers at a fair price in correlation with the quality. The sentimental value represents the value that a person is giving to a good, based on feelings and emotions and not on monetary values. In many cases the passions and the interests are more powerful than the moral value that animates us. A lot of commercials, if they are to say the truth, would recognize that, for them, not the clients are important but the profits.

  13. Forecast Combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Allan G

    2005-01-01

    Forecast combinations have frequently been found in empirical studies to produce better forecasts on average than methods based on the ex-ante best individual forecasting model. Moreover, simple combinations that ignore correlations between forecast errors often dominate more refined combination schemes aimed at estimating the theoretically optimal combination weights. In this paper we analyse theoretically the factors that determine the advantages from combining forecasts (for example, the d...

  14. Stroke in Commercial Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Velasco, Rodrigo; Masjuan, Jaime; DeFelipe, Alicia; Corral, Iñigo; Estévez-Fraga, Carlos; Crespo, Leticia; Alonso-Cánovas, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Stroke on board aircraft has been reported in retrospective case series, mainly focusing on economy class stroke syndrome. Data on the actual incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis of stroke in commercial flights are lacking. A prospective registry was designed to include all consecutive patients referred from an international airport (40 million passengers a year) to our hospital with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and onset of symptoms during a flight or immediately after landing. Forty-four patients (32 ischemic strokes and 12 transient ischemic attacks) were included over a 76-month period (January 2008 to April 2014). The estimated incidence of stroke was 1 stroke in 35 000 flights. Pathogeneses of stroke or transient ischemic attack were atherothrombotic in 16 (36%), economy class stroke syndrome in 8 (18%), cardioembolic in 7 (16%), arterial dissection in 4 (9%), lacunar stroke in 4 (9%), and undetermined in 5 (12%) patients. Carotid stenosis >70% was found in 12 (27%) of the patients. Overall prognosis was good, and thrombolysis was applied in 44% of the cases. The most common reason for not treating patients who had experienced stroke onset midflight was the delay in reaching the hospital. Only 1 patient with symptom onset during the flight prompted a flight diversion. We found a low incidence of stroke in the setting of air travel. Economy class stroke syndrome and arterial dissection were well represented in our sample. However, the main pathogenesis was atherothrombosis with a high proportion of patients with high carotid stenosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Nanomaterials Commercialization Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    sot11-ce ( uGt metllod). the fibers are fully cmed aud have shear stret~ths comparable with l.he high inten~ity Pusion ~ystem. Fat· farge V<Jlun1e...2491 tibers for a given force. /\\t 1l1e eo <I of the quarter, it was the goal to combine our uewly proven ewing theory with techniques to harden the...mold, thus euabling the use of opaque backing materials such as fabric. In order to test this theory , the team used small miJTors to reflect the UV

  16. Stealth Advertising: The Commercialization of Television News Broadcasts in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Chernov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-phase study deals with the phenomenon of “stealth advertising” in Canada. This concept refers to the encroachment of commercially tinted messages into broadcast news segments. Different theories of commercial speech were used as a theoretical framework. The study combined mixed methods, content analysis and in-depth interviews. The first phase concentrated on the frequency and actual time spent airing commercially influenced messages in television newscast segments. The sample consisted of eight randomly selected English-language markets across Canada including news stations affiliated with CBC, CTV and Global. Seventy-five newscasts were recorded and content-analyzed. The analysis demonstrated that private television stations used more explicit and aggressive stealth advertising than publicly owned ones. In subsequent interviews, the news directors and sales managers of some of these stations denied that they yield to outside commercial pressures but admitted they may include messages with commercial content if these have public interest value. In the second phase thirty-nine newscasts of a news station affiliated with Global were recorded and content-analyzed, showing high numbers of commercially influenced messages and corroborating previous research findings. Subsequent interviews showed some news decision-makers accept the inclusion of commercially tinted news segments, thus eroding the divide between editorial and commercial contents. This study is intended to contribute to the empirical basis for pursuing the question of corruption of news by surreptitious commercial content.

  17. Decentralised energy supply in 2020 - Commercial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimaier, M.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive article summarises the commercial aspects of a study made by the German Association of Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies VDE on the topic of decentralised energy supply in the year 2020. In a previous article, the technical aspects were examined. This article looks at the findings in connection with commercial aspects of the production of power in decentralised facilities including those using renewable sources of energy. The potential of these forms of electricity generation for the year 2020 is looked at both from the political and economical points of view. The general conditions prevailing for the implementation of decentralised power production in Germany such as the Renewable Energy Law and legislation on combined heat and power generation are discussed. The influence of electricity tariffs and competition in the market is examined, as are various scenarios and concepts for the supply of both power and heating energy. Ways of providing a sustainable energy supply without having to subsidise particular concepts are discussed

  18. Genetic Diversity in Commercial Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Varieties from Turkey as Revealed by RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem ÖZBEK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In cultivated commercial crop species, genetic diversity tends to decrease because of the extensive breeding processes. Therefore, germplasm of commercial crop species, such as Brassica napus L. should be evaluated and the genotypes, which have higher genetic diversity index, should be addressed as potential parental cross materials in breeding programs. In this study, the genetic diversity was analysed by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD technique in nine Turkish commercial rapeseed varieties. The RAPD primers (10-mer oligonucleotides produced 51 scorable loci, 31 loci of which were polymorphic (60.78% and 20 loci (39.22% were monomorphic The RAPD bands were scored as binary matrix data and were analysed using POPGENE version 1.32. At locus level, the values of genetic diversity within population (Hs and total (HT were 0.15 and 0.19 respectively. The genetic differentiation (GST and the gene flow (Nm values between the populations were 0.20 and 2.05 respectively. The mean number of alleles (na, the mean number of effective alleles (nae, and the mean value of genetic diversity (He were 2.00, 1.26, and 0.19 respectively. According to Pearson’s correlation, multiple regression and principal component analyses, eco-geographical conditions in combination had significant effect on genetic indices of commercial B. napus L. varieties were discussed.

  19. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  20. Commercially available video motion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended

  1. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  2. Effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols for the Growth and Yield of Caisim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1 on the growth and yield of caisim (Brassica sp. was examined in the greenhouse of Indonesian Soil Research Institute in Bogor. The completely randomized design (CRD was performed to examine the effects of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1 on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols. The treatments were consists of 10 combinations between NPK-recommendation (NPK-rec and CBF1, with six replications. The experiment was conducted from August to October 2009. The result showed that CBF I increased the yields of caisim when combining by fertilizer NPK-rec, while giving CBF1 alone did not significantly increases yields compare to control (without fertilizer. Giving ¾ dosage NPK-rec. + CBF1 had RAE value 163%, indicating the effectiveness of CBF1 was optimum, that it reduce the need of NPK fertilizer by 25% by providing the increasing of yield 63% compared to NPK rec. The higher the level of NPK-rec. the lower the efficiency of fertilization. CBF1 had given effectives on yields when it was combined by inorganic fertilizer. However, when it was not combined with inorganic fertilizers, it would harm plants and decreased the soil nutrients. The influence of biofertilizer in plants were predictable unpredictable, while the influent of inorganic fertilizers were predictable.

  3. Commercialization of sustainable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.; Kristle Nathan, Hippu Salk; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2010-01-01

    Commercialization efforts to diffuse sustainable energy technologies (SETs) have so far remained as the biggest challenge in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Limited success of diffusion through government driven pathways urges the need for market based approaches. This paper reviews the existing state of commercialization of SETs in the backdrop of the basic theory of technology diffusion. The different SETs in India are positioned in the technology diffusion map to reflect their slow state of commercialization. The dynamics of SET market is analysed to identify the issues, barriers and stakeholders in the process of SET commercialization. By upgrading the 'potential adopters' to 'techno-entrepreneurs', the study presents the mechanisms for adopting a private sector driven 'business model' approach for successful diffusion of SETs. This is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development with innovative regulatory, marketing, financing, incentive and delivery mechanisms leading to SET commercialization. (author)

  4. Food and nutrition in Canadian "prime time" television commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostbye, T; Pomerleau, J; White, M; Coolich, M; McWhinney, J

    1993-01-01

    Television is, arguably, the most influential mass medium and "prime time" viewing attracts the largest audiences. To assess the type, number and nutritional content of foods advertised on TV, commercial breaks during "prime time" (7:00 to 11:00 p.m.) on five Canadian channels (CBC-English, CBC-French, CTV, CFPL, Much Music) were recorded and analyzed. A similar analysis of Saturday morning children's TV commercials was also performed. Commercials for foods and food products constituted between 24-35% of all commercials, the largest advertising output for any group of products. The combination of food presented in commercials reflected average current consumption patterns. Of special concern was the emphasis on low nutrition beverages, especially beer, as well as snacks and candy on Much Music. While further government intervention to restrict advertising practices may be an impractical option, there is scope for increasing the alternative promotion of healthy dietary choices.

  5. Data management and dissemination challenges for commercial remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straeter, Terry A.

    1996-12-01

    Looking toward 2000, the ways by which commercial satellite imagery and imagery products are managed by the various remote sensing companies will be dictated by financial considerations, not technical feasibility. In the convergence of technologies that will shape the commercial companies in 2000, the most influential will likely be electronic commerce via the Internet. This paper discusses the character of these combined forces and speculates on how the industry might respond.

  6. Residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend; Furbo, S.

    2012-11-15

    Low-energy buildings can make a major contribution to general sustainable development by providing a solution to problems related to the use of fossil fuels. The EPBD (EU Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings) requirements that by 2020 new building shall be constructed to use nearly zero energy, and no fossil fuels, can be accomplished by combining low-energy buildings with renewable energy via low-temperature district heating in cities and suburbs, and via heat pumps for low-density settlements. Based on experience with passive houses, low-energy buildings meeting the energy performance requirements of 2020 are expected to cost only a few percent more than conventional buildings. The very large and rapid changes needed in the energy performance of buildings is a challenge for the building sector, but one that can be overcome by better methods of developing products and designing, constructing and operating buildings. Simulation-based analysis and optimisation, and considerations of durability, will be important here. Building may thus be transformed from an experience-based sector to one based on knowledge and research, with high-quality sustainable products and good business opportunities. (Author)

  7. Commercial wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, G.W.; Smith, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990 the 23,000 wind turbines in the world connected to utility grids were rated at a total of 2200 MW and produced 3,353,000,000 kWh of electricity. This represents the residential use of a city with population of 1,000,000 at US energy use rates, or 2,000,000 at European rates. Denmark produced about 2% of its electricity from the wind, while California and Hawaii produced about 1% of theirs. California wind farms produced 76% of the world total, and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) received nearly half of this. In addition to these grid-connected turbines, more than 50,000 smaller turbines (averaging about 100 watts each) supplied electricity to remote areas, such as Mongolia. Such non-grid-connected turbines can be components of hybrid generation systems when combined with energy storage and/or complementary power sources. However, the emphasis of this paper is on utility-connected wind turbines. Wind also supplies mechanical energy, such as for water pumping

  8. Higher Education: New Models, New Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louis; Eaton, Judith S.; Smith, Burck

    2013-01-01

    The Internet enables new models. In the commercial world, for example, we have eBay, Amazon.com, and Netflix. These new models operate with a different set of rules than do traditional models. New models are emerging in higher education as well--for example, competency-based programs. In addition, courses that are being provided from outside the…

  9. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  10. ERAST: Scientific Applications and Technology Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunley, John D. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This is a conference publication for an event designed to inform potential contractors and appropriate personnel in various scientific disciplines that the ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) vehicles have reached a certain level of maturity and are available to perform a variety of missions ranging from data gathering to telecommunications. There are multiple applications of the technology and a great many potential commercial and governmental markets. As high altitude platforms, the ERAST vehicles can gather data at higher resolution than satellites and can do so continuously, whereas satellites pass over a particular area only once each orbit. Formal addresses are given by Rich Christiansen, (Director of Programs, NASA Aerospace Technology Ent.), Larry Roeder, (Senior Policy Advisor, U.S. Dept. of State), and Dr. Marianne McCarthy, (DFRC Education Dept.). The Commercialization Workshop is chaired by Dale Tietz (President, New Vista International) and the Science Workshop is chaired by Steve Wegener, (Deputy Manager of NASA ERAST, NASA Ames Research Center.

  11. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  12. This is Commercial Titan Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensselaer, F. L.; Slovikoski, R. D.; Abels, T. C.

    Out of a quarter-century heritage of eminently successful expendable launch vehicle history with the U.S. government, a commercial launch services enterprise which challenges the corporation as well as the competition has been launched within the Martin Marietta Corporation. This paper is an inside look at the philosophy, structure, and success of the new subsidiary, Commercial Titan Inc., which is taking on its U.S. and foreign rocket-making competitors to win a share of the international communication satellite market as well as the U.S. government commercial launch services market.

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  16. Intitutional constraints to fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The major thrust of this report is that the long time frame associated with the development of commercial fusion systems in the context of the commercialization and institutional history of an allied technology, fission-power, suggests that fusion commercialization will not occur without active and broad-based support on the part of the Nation's political leaders. Its key recommendation is that DOE fusion planners devote considerable resources to analytical efforts aimed at determining the need for fusion and the timing of that need, in order to convince policymakers that they need do more than preserve fusion as an option for application at some indefinite point in the future. It is the thesis of the report that, in fact, an act of political vision on the part of the Nation's leaders will be required to accomplish fusion commercialization

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  18. Les entreprises commerciales (Commercial Enterprises).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace

    1979-01-01

    Examines the legal concept of "corporate body" in French and English law, as well as that of the "company," the "corporation," and the "society"; and discusses the manifestations of a dual legal heritage in commercial enterprises in Quebec. (AM)

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...

  20. Towards a commercially potential process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the industrial potential to indirectly isolate phytosterols from deodoriser distillates (DODs), enzymatic transesterification of an industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD mixture with bioethanol was investigated using commercial lipases and a few newly immobilised preparations...

  1. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  2. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... used in connection with any business. (b) The use of government roads within park areas by commercial...

  3. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29). Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination. PMID:27891157

  4. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie de Rapper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29. Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination.

  5. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  6. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  7. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  8. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-11-27

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import, and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms, the median minimum root-mean-square deviations measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit distance geometry algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the midranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parametrize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  9. combination Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    of the idiomatic expression as a whole" (Crystal 2003: 225-226). Idiomatic .... nations and idioms.11 Nonetheless, free combinations of words have not been .... those who thronged Emmett place last night wanted to see the film, and they.

  10. Winning Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscuolo, Paola; Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke

    2018-01-01

    examine the effectiveness of different combinations of knowledge sources for achieving innovative performance. We suggest that combinations involving integrative search strategies – combining internal and external knowledge – are the most likely to generate product and process innovation. In this context......, we present the idea that cognitively distant knowledge sources are helpful for innovation only when used in conjunction with knowledge sources that are closer to the focal firm. We also find important differences between product and process innovation, with the former associated with broader searches......Searching for the most rewarding sources of innovative ideas remains a key challenge in management of technological innovation. Yet, little is known about which combinations of internal and external knowledge sources are triggers for innovation. Extending theories about searching for innovation, we...

  11. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  12. New Phenomenon of Commercial Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.

  13. 76 FR 126 - Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial Public Key Information (PKI) Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial..., SDDC will require all commercial accounts accessing transportation systems and applications to use a commercial PKI certificate or Transportation Workers Identification Credential (TWIC). This requirement will...

  14. Recovery Act: Training Program Development for Commercial Building Equipment Technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leah Glameyer

    2012-07-12

    The overall goal of this project has been to develop curricula, certification requirements, and accreditation standards for training on energy efficient practices and technologies for commercial building technicians. These training products will advance industry expertise towards net-zero energy commercial building goals and will result in a substantial reduction in energy use. The ultimate objective is to develop a workforce that can bring existing commercial buildings up to their energy performance potential and ensure that new commercial buildings do not fall below their expected optimal level of performance. Commercial building equipment technicians participating in this training program will learn how to best operate commercial buildings to ensure they reach their expected energy performance level. The training is a combination of classroom, online and on-site lessons. The Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) developed curricula using subject matter and adult learning experts to ensure the training meets certification requirements and accreditation standards for training these technicians. The training targets a specific climate zone to meets the needs, specialized expertise, and perspectives of the commercial building equipment technicians in that zone. The combination of efficient operations and advanced design will improve the internal built environment of a commercial building by increasing comfort and safety, while reducing energy use and environmental impact. Properly trained technicians will ensure equipment operates at design specifications. A second impact is a more highly trained workforce that is better equipped to obtain employment. Organizations that contributed to the development of the training program include TEEX and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) (both members of The Texas A&M University System). TEES is also a member of the Building Commissioning Association. This report includes a description of the project

  15. COMMERCIAL FUND, RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOREL TRIF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the immaterial investments within companies nowadays urges the specialists in accounting to find the ways to present more in the elements. In their studies researchers face the controversy reinvestments, as an asset in the balance sheet or an expense in the profit or loss account. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the difficulties in commercial fund. In the first part we will analyze various definitions of the problems concerning the commercial fund’s recognition and assessment. The paper also suggests that investments are really social and economic problems.

  16. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an interim status report on the STARFIRE project for the period of May to September 1979. The basic objective of the STARFIRE project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor

  17. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  18. Commercialization project of Ulchin vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Won

    2011-01-01

    The Ulchin Vitrification Facility (UVF), to be used for the vitirification of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) generated by nuclear power plants (NPPs), is the world's first commercial facility using Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology. The construction of the facility was begun in 2005 and was completed in 2007. From December 2007 to September 2009, all key performance tests, such as the system functional test, the cold test, the hot test, and the real waste test, were successfully carried out. The UVF commenced commercial operation in October 2009 for the vitrification of radioactive waste. (author)

  19. Commercial IEC portable neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sved, J.

    1997-01-01

    The inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion grade plasma devices are being developed as a commercial industrial product by Daimler-Benz Aerospace (DASA), Center Trauen, which has an exclusive license from the University of Illinois (UI) to manufacture the commercial implementation of the Miley et al. IEC inventions. DASA is funding the UI Fusion Studies Laboratory basic IEC research and the intellectual property protection process. The association of the DASA Space Infrastructure division with an apparently unrelated technology has arisen from the perception that IEC technology may benefit from certain aerospace technologies and eventually create a market for space infrastructure services. In addition, DASA Center Trauen has a number of environmental technology businesses

  20. Commercial applications of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The fact that industry is now willing to pay the full commercial cost for certain neutron scattering experiments aimed at solving its urgent materials - related problems is a true testimony to the usefulness of neutrons as microscopic probes. This paper gives examples of such use of three techniques drawn mainly from our experience at AEA Technology Harwell Laboratory. These are diffraction to measure residual stress, small angle neutron scattering to examine hardening precipitates in ferritic steels brought about by irradiation, and reflectivity to study amorphous diamond layers deposited on silicon. In most cases it is the penetrative power of the neutron which proves to be its best asset for commercial industrial applicaitons. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the lateral dynamics of complex articulated commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, I.J.M.; Isiklar, G.; Pinxteren, van T.E.L.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    By increasing the overall length and weight of commercial vehicles, the transport efficiency and road utilization will be improved and the C02 emissions can be reduced by some 30%. Over the past years experiments are carried out in the Netherlands with special vehicle combinations having an overall

  2. Tritium and plutonium production as a step toward ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of a combined special nuclear materials (SNM) production plant/engineering test facility (ETF) with reduced pellet and driver performance requirements as a step toward commercialization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is examined. Blanket design and tritium production cost studies, the status of R and D programs, and the ETF role are emphasized

  3. Tritium and plutonium production as a step toward ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of a combined special nuclear materials (SNM) production plant/engineering test facility (ETF) with reduced pellet and driver performance requirements as a step toward commercialization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is examined. Blanket design and tritium production cost studies, the status of RandD programs, and the ETF role are emphasized

  4. 19 CFR 113.67 - Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.67 Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions. Commercial Gauger Bond Conditions (a) Commercial gauger bond...

  5. The 14 Faces of Commercialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas

    The ultimate purpose of new product development is commercialization of the results. That is, creating returns for the investment. The authors investigate to what degree research published in Journal of Product Innovation Management has contributed to further our understanding of the concept...

  6. NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Coordination/Integration of government program; 2) Achievement of seamless interoperable satellite and terrestrial networks; 3) Establishment of program to enhance Satcom professional and technical workforce; 4) Precompetitive technology development; and 5) Effective utilization of spectrum and orbit assets.

  7. What Is Commercial Social Marketing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Stead, Martine

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of commercial social marketing (CSM) and discuss some major ethical aspects of CSM. In the first section, we introduce 6 social marketing benchmark criteria. Against this background, we demonstrate Dove’s ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’ to be an instance...

  8. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  9. The Battle over Commercialized Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David

    2006-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the Education Policy Studies Laboratory has studied trends in schoolhouse commercialism and has found that this practice is increasingly pervasive and diverse. The manifestations of marketing in public schools include incentive programs, such as Pizza Hut's "Book It!" program; contracts that grant soft drink and junk food…

  10. Strategy development marketing commercial enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Shatalov D. S.; Hamidova O. M.

    2016-01-01

    in the scientific article the necessity of development and implementation of marketing strategies in the activity of any commercial enterprise, we give a meaningful description of the concept of «marketing strategy» and develop requirements for the selection strategy of trade enterprise.

  11. Commercialization of technology in MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud Mohamad; Razali Hamzah

    2005-01-01

    Full text:The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), was officially established in 1972 (PUSPATI as it was known then) and has progressed leaps and bounds to become one of the country's leading research organization particularly in the field of nuclear science and technology. Primarily set up as a full fledge research and development entity with one of the initial aims was looking into the possibility of embarking in the generation of power via the use of nuclear technology as an alternative source of energy for the nation. MINTs role has somewhat changed in tandem with her stage of development and national priorities. In line with the Government's policy on sustainability and self-reliance and a drive to commercialize R and D findings, the R and D institutions are expected to be self sufficiency at 30% of institutional operating budget. MINT has embarked on the commercialization program since in 1987 even before the the policy was instituted. Unlike other corporate R and D institutions and universities which do have some liberty and flexibility in the management of the organizations, MINT as a full fledge government R and D institute faces a number of challenges in the commercialization exercise. The paper describes the technologies developed at MINT, our product and services, and challenges and limitations in commercializing our R and D endeavors. (Author)

  12. International agreements on commercial representation

    OpenAIRE

    Slanař, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to describe the possibilities for fixing the position of a company in the market through contracts for commercial representation with a focus to finding legal and economic impact on the company that contracted for exclusive representation.

  13. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  14. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  15. Flaws in Commercial Reading Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Jerome

    Three flaws found in commercial reading materials, such as workbooks and kits, are discussed in this paper, and examples of the flaws are taken from specific materials. The first problem noted is that illustrations frequently provide the information that the learner is supposed to supply through phonetic or structural analysis; the illustrations…

  16. Commercial Art: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a commercial art vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  17. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  18. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  19. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  20. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  1. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  2. Energy Factors in Commercial Mortgages: Gaps and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coleman, Philip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wallace, Nancy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Issler, Paulo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kolstad, Lenny [Inst. for Market Transformation, Washington, DC (United States); Sahadi, Robert [Inst. for Market Transformation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The commercial real estate mortgage market is enormous, with almost half a trillion dollars in deals originated in 2015. Relative to other energy efficiency financing mechanisms, very little attention has been paid to the potential of commercial mortgages as a channel for promoting energy efficiency investments. The valuation and underwriting elements of the business are largely driven by the “net operating income” (NOI) metric – essentially, rents minus expenses. While NOI ostensibly includes all expenses, energy factors are in several ways given short shrift in the underwriting process. This is particularly interesting when juxtaposed upon a not insignificant body of research revealing that there are in fact tangible benefits (such as higher valuations and lower vacancy and default rates) for energy-efficient and “green” commercial buildings. This scoping report characterizes the current status and potential interventions to promote greater inclusion of energy factors in the commercial mortgage process.

  3. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but...

  4. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing... species. (1) Notwithstanding the prohibitions in § 404.7(a) and (h), commercial fishing for bottomfish and...

  5. 36 CFR 272.4 - Commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial use. 272.4 Section... OWLâ SYMBOL § 272.4 Commercial use. (a) General. The Chief may authorize the Commercial manufacture... charge, royalty charge, or payment in kind which is reasonably related to the commercial value has been...

  6. 36 CFR 271.4 - Commercial license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial license. 271.4... BEARâ SYMBOL § 271.4 Commercial license. (a) The Chief may authorize the commercial manufacture... a use or royalty charge which is reasonably related to the commercial enterprise has been...

  7. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21 Section 10.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It is...

  8. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  9. Higher-Order Program Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    for OCaml, a dialect of ML, that provides run-time code generation for OCaml programs. We apply these byte-code combinators in semantics-directed compilation for an imperative language and in run-time specialization using type-directed partial evaluation. Finally, we present an approach to compiling goal......This dissertation addresses the challenges of embedding programming languages, specializing generic programs to specific parameters, and generating specialized instances of programs directly as executable code. Our main tools are higher-order programming techniques and automatic program generation....... It is our thesis that they synergize well in the development of customizable software. Recent research on domain-specific languages propose to embed them into existing general-purpose languages. Typed higher-order languages have proven especially useful as meta languages because they provide a rich...

  10. Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notestein, J.E.

    1990-06-01

    This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  12. Advert for higher education

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Provozin; А.S. Teletov

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  13. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  14. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  15. Forecast combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Aiolfi, Marco; Capistrán, Carlos; Timmermann, Allan

    2010-01-01

    We consider combinations of subjective survey forecasts and model-based forecasts from linear and non-linear univariate specifications as well as multivariate factor-augmented models. Empirical results suggest that a simple equal-weighted average of survey forecasts outperform the best model-based forecasts for a majority of macroeconomic variables and forecast horizons. Additional improvements can in some cases be gained by using a simple equal-weighted average of survey and model-based fore...

  16. Using commercial amateur astronomical spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers interested in learning more about astronomical spectroscopy now have the guide they need. It provides detailed information about how to get started inexpensively with low-resolution spectroscopy, and then how to move on to more advanced  high-resolution spectroscopy. Uniquely, the instructions concentrate very much on the practical aspects of using commercially-available spectroscopes, rather than simply explaining how spectroscopes work. The book includes a clear explanation of the laboratory theory behind astronomical spectrographs, and goes on to extensively cover the practical application of astronomical spectroscopy in detail. Four popular and reasonably-priced commercially available diffraction grating spectrographs are used as examples. The first is a low-resolution transmission diffraction grating, the Star Analyser spectrograph. The second is an inexpensive fiber optic coupled bench spectrograph that can be used to learn more about spectroscopy. The third is a newcomer, the ALPY ...

  17. SHORT ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.

  18. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 3rd Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009....

  19. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 4th Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009, and the EU Brussels Regulation (recast), 2012....

  20. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  1. Commercial nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    This report is primarily concerned with nuclear waste generated by commercial power operations. It is clear, however, that the total generation of commercial nuclear waste does not tell the whole story, there are sizeable stockpiles of defense nuclear wastes which will impact areas such as total nuclide exposure to the biosphere and the overall economics of waste disposal. The effects of these other nuclear waste streams can be factored in as exogenous inputs. Their generation is essentially independent of nuclear power operations. The objective of this report is to assess the real-world problems associated with nuclear waste management and to design the analytical framework, as appropriate, for handling nuclear waste management issues in the International Nuclear Model. As such, some issues that are not inherently quantifiable, such as the development of environmental Impact Statements to satisfy the National Environmental Protection Act requirements, are only briefly mentioned, if at all

  2. Starfire: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Abdou, M.A.; DeFreece, D.A.; Trachsel, C.A.; Graumann, D.; Kokoszenski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic objective of the STARFIRE Project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor. The STARFIRE Project was initiated in May 1979, with the goal of completing the design study by October 1980. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the major parameters and design features that have been tentatively selected for STARFIRE

  3. Commercial green energy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalweit, B.

    1998-11-01

    Firms offering a Green electricity product have discovered that residential customers are willing to pay extra for the assurance that their electricity is generated through the use of non-polluting or renewable resources. This research investigated the market potential for Green energy at the next level of the energy consuming chain, commercial establishments at which small and medium sized businesses interface with customers. Green energy is proving to be an attractive proposition to some consumers in the residential marketplace. Is there a possibility that Green energy can also be sold to commercial enterprises? This research project sought to answer this question and to investigate the factors that might lead small business people to opt for Green. Answers to these questions will help energy companies target the businesses most likely to accept Green power with the right product set and product features

  4. Combined homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slović Živana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Combined homicide is a combination of two or more different modes of killing. These homicides occur when multiple perpetrators have different mode of killing, to hide the true manner of death, or when an initially unsuccessful attack with one weapon is abandoned and changed by another mode which is more successful, or due to availability of weapons at the scene of homicide, or unexpected appearance of possible eyewitness, or else. Case report: This case report is about 65-year old woman who was found in her residence on the floor next to the bed lying on her back with two kitchen knives in her neck. Autopsy revealed an abrasion on the frontal part of the neck and a bruise of the soft tissues of the neck with a double fracture of both greater horns of the hyoid bone and a fracture of both superior horns of the thyroid cartilage. The cause of death was exsanguination into right half of the thoracic cavity from the left subclavian artery which was cut, on the spot of stab wound in the neck. Conclusion: Hemorrhage in the soft tissue near broken hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage indicate that the victim was first strangulated and then stabbed with kitchen knives. Combined homicides are caused by one or more killers in order to accelerate the killing, or to be sure to provide the fatal outcome. This case is also interesting because the killer left weapon in the victim's neck.

  5. Competition and Commercial Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Andrea; Sobbrio, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on commercial media bias (i.e., advertisers influence over media accuracy) and then introduces a simple model to summarize the main elements of the theoretical literature. The analysis provides three main policy insights for media regulators: i) Media regulators should target their monitoring efforts towards news contents upon which advertisers are likely to share similar preferences; ii) In advertising industries characterized by high correlation in ...

  6. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  7. Recommender Systems in Commercial Use

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial recommender systems are deployed by marketing teams to increase revenue and/or personalize user experience. Marketers evaluate recommender systems not on its algorithms but on how well the vendor‘s expertise and interfaces will support achieving business goals. Driven by a business model that pays based on recommendation success, vendors guide clients through continuous optimization of recommendations. While recommender technology is mature, the solutions and market are still young...

  8. FIRST STEP towards ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Production of tritium for weapons and fusion R and D programs and successful development of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technologies are important national goals. A conceptual design for an ICF facility to meet these goals is presented. FIRST STEP (Fusion, Inertial, Reduced-Requirements Systems Test for Special Nuclear Material, Tritium, and Energy Production) is a concept for a plant to produce SNM, tritium, and energy while serving as a test bed for ICF technology development. A credible conceptual design for an ICF SNM and tritium production facility that competes favorably with fission technology on the bases of cost, production quality, and safety was sought. FIRST STEP is also designed to be an engineering test facility that integrates systems required for an ICF power plant and that is intermediate in scale between proof-of-principle experiment and commercial power plant. FIRST STEP driver and pellet performance requirements are moderate and represent reasonable intermediate goals in an R and D plan for ICF commercialization. Repetition rate requirements for FIRST STEP are similar to those of commercial size plants and FIRST STEP can be used to integrate systems under realistic ICF conditions

  9. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  10. Prospects for commercial fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.O.

    1993-01-01

    There are a number of issues associated with whether or not, and when, fusion will become commercial. One of the largest factors is cost of development. Development is being delayed by the need to work with other countries to share these costs. Other aspects have to do with the capital costs of the reactors themselves. The ITER reactor may cost 6-7 billion dollars, which is a sizeable investment for a test reactor. The safety and environmental aspects of fusion are other factors which have delayed commercialization. Public acceptance of this form of nuclear power and the licensing and regulatory procedures must be resolved before electric utilities are willing to invest heavily in fusion. The Department of Energy has developed a plan as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, wherein a first demonstration power plant will be operating around the year 2025. Much of the ongoing effort is directed toward reducing the size and cost of Tokamak reactors. While Tokamaks are not the only game in town, it is the primary thrust of the world effort and it is the technology which is expected to lead into the first generation of commercial fusion reactors

  11. Commercial developments in food irradiation in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, F. [MDS Nordion International Inc. 447 March Road, Kanata, Ontario K2k 1x8 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 s mark significant progress in the commercialization of food irradiation in the USA. This progress is, to a large extent, the result of a long list of approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which started in earnest in 1986 by the approval of pork, fruits, vegetables, grains, enzymes and dry ingredients. With the establishment of the first dedicated food irradiator in Florida and the subsequent approval by FDA and USDA of fresh and frozen raw poultry, as well as the pending approvals of red meat and seafood, combine into a complete set of positive conditions for a successful commercial launch. (Author)

  12. Commercial developments in food irradiation in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, F.

    1997-01-01

    The 1990 s mark significant progress in the commercialization of food irradiation in the USA. This progress is, to a large extent, the result of a long list of approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which started in earnest in 1986 by the approval of pork, fruits, vegetables, grains, enzymes and dry ingredients. With the establishment of the first dedicated food irradiator in Florida and the subsequent approval by FDA and USDA of fresh and frozen raw poultry, as well as the pending approvals of red meat and seafood, combine into a complete set of positive conditions for a successful commercial launch. (Author)

  13. Commercial developments in food irradiation in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, F [MDS Nordion International Inc. 447 March Road, Kanata, Ontario K2k 1x8 (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The 1990 s mark significant progress in the commercialization of food irradiation in the USA. This progress is, to a large extent, the result of a long list of approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which started in earnest in 1986 by the approval of pork, fruits, vegetables, grains, enzymes and dry ingredients. With the establishment of the first dedicated food irradiator in Florida and the subsequent approval by FDA and USDA of fresh and frozen raw poultry, as well as the pending approvals of red meat and seafood, combine into a complete set of positive conditions for a successful commercial launch. (Author)

  14. Audit Fee Determinants and Audit Quality in Ethiopian Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    auditor derives a high proportion of revenue from a particular client creates economic ... identified in prior bank audit fee studies holds for Ethiopian commercial .... firms as smaller firms have fewer clients and so each client represents a larger ...... higher level of liquid assets relative to their total assets pay lower audit fees.

  15. Role and organization of industrial and commercial departments - a region's view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankley, W E; Parsons, B D

    1981-01-01

    BGC's West Midlands Region possesses substantial industrial and commercial markets that offer sales opportunities in the tariff and contract areas. Growth in these markets is spurring an increase in BGC's nonresidential gas sales. Specific departments within BGC cater to the commercial and industrial sectors and provide engineering support services, thus bolstering the upward sales trend. Recent market changes have led BGC to combine its industrial and commercial departments to streamline the overall marketing and service activities.

  16. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual ...

  17. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  18. Feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. Phase II final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Uchikawa, Sadao; Okubo, Tsutomu; Ono, Kiyoshi; Kato, Atsushi; Kurisaka, Kenichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Sato, Kazujiro; Sato, Koji; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Nakai, Ryodai; Nakabayashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Namekawa, Takashi; Niwa, Hajime; Nomura, Kazunori; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Hayafune, Hiroki; Hirao, Kazunori; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Ando, Masato; Ono, Katsumi; Ogata, Takanari; Kubo, Shigenobu; Kotake, Shoji; Sagayama, Yutaka; Takakuma, Katsuyuki; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Namba, Takashi; Fujii, Sumio; Muramatsu, Kazuyoshi

    2006-06-01

    A joint project team of Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the Japan Atomic Power Company (as the representative of the electric utilities) started the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems (F/S) in July 1999 in cooperation with Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry and vendors. On the major premise of safety assurance, F/S aims to present an appropriate picture of commercialization of fast reactor (FR) cycle system which has economic competitiveness with light water reactor cycle systems and other electricity base load systems, and to establish FR cycle technologies for the future major energy supply. In the period from Japanese fiscal year (JFY) 1999 to 2000, the phase-I of F/S was carried out to screen our representative FR, reprocessing and fuel fabrication technologies. In the phase-II (JFY 2001-2005), the design study of FR cycle concepts, the development of significant technologies necessary for the feasibility evaluation, and the confirmation of key technical issues were performed to clarify the promising candidate concepts toward the commercialization. In this final phase-II report clarified the most promising concept, the R and D plan until around 2015, and the key issues for the commercialization. Based on the comprehensive evaluation in F/S, the combination of the sodium-cooled FR with MOX fuel core, the advanced-aqueous reprocessing process and the simplified-pelletizing fuel fabrication process was recommended as the mainline choice for the most promising concept. The concept exceeds in technical advancement, and the conformity to the development targets was higher compared with that of the others. Alternative technologies are prepared to be decrease the development risk of innovative technologies in the mainline choice. (author)

  19. Do television food commercials target children in Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, Tobias; Wilcke, Ann-Christin

    2012-08-01

    To examine whether the German food industry directs commercials for unhealthy products to children and whether self-administered voluntary restrictions on the promotion of less healthy foods (the EU Pledge) are effective to mitigate this exposure. By analysing German data from television (TV) channels, advertised products were categorized and food products classified as core foods (healthy) and non-core foods (less healthy). Marketing techniques were documented. Food commercials were furthermore compared with commercials for toy products, and comparisons were made between advertising patterns before and after the EU Pledge. Data for ten German TV channels were recorded for two weekdays and two weekend days from 06.00 to 22.00 hours in 2007 and 2008. A second sample containing one weekday and one weekend day of three German TV channels was recorded again in 2010 for comparison in the same time period. In total 16 062 advertisements from 2007-2008 and 2657 from 2010 were analysed. In 2007-2008 19·9 % of TV commercials were for food products, of which 73 % were for non-core foods, 21 % for core foods and 6 % not classified. In three specified channels widely viewed by children and youth, 14·5 % of commercials were for food products, of which 88·2 % were for non-core foods. Commercials for unhealthy foods were broadcast significantly more often during children's peak viewing and in children's programmes, with a higher use of promotional characters and premiums than found in commercials for non-food products. In 2010, analysis of the three specified channels found that 18·5 % of commercials were for food products, of which 98·2 % were for non-core foods. While the use of premiums decreased compared with other commercials, the use of promotional characters in non-core food commercials increased, especially during children's programmes. Children in Germany are exposed to large numbers of food commercials. The exposure to commercials for non-core foods and the use of

  20. Money, Power, Equity and Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Enjoo

    2018-03-01

    commercialism of knowledge and education which is contrary to their culture and also against fair distribution of educational opportunities is probable. (4-6 In this condition the pressure of stigma on the student with lower scores in theentrance and the other examinations is not ethically acceptable either.The other problem of this type of private financial support in higher education is the matter of distinguishing the clear border between public sector incomes regarding the private one. Some similar studies in combining public and private healthcare services showed that it is the private sector that finally has income from the public one contrary to the presuppositions. (7From another view supporters of self-governing branch (previously called international branch, while it doesn’t have real international students, faculty members or staffs could state some benefits for private contribution to public sector higher education such as taking financial resources from private to the public, preventing capital leakage of rich people in the country to abroad. More over, It is said that “it is better to spend your money to attain knowledge and degree comparing with thosewho spend their talents and academic knowledge and degree to attain money in an unethical way”; namely if rich persons tend to spend their money to improve their family members knowledge and to help the scientific sector of the public, it would be appreciated as a good practiceand act. on the other hand, could see some talent students or graduates who committed immoral practices such as a case in which a doctor explicitly states to the laboratory or other Para clinics colleague: “how much do Iget if I send you patients?” (8Conclusion: Entering best fields of best universities by the lower cut off scores comparing other similar applicant merely because of parents’ economic status could consider as an exemplary of unequal opportunity for equal ones. Helping public science sector of the society via paid

  1. Commercialization of a DOE Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, Barry A.

    2008-01-01

    On April 1, 1998, Materials and Chemistry Laboratory, Inc. (MCLinc) began business as an employee-owned, commercial, applied research laboratory offering services to both government and commercial clients. The laboratory had previously been a support laboratory to DoE's gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge (K-25). When uranium enrichment was halted at the site, the laboratory was expanded to as an environmental demonstration center and served from 1992 until 1997 as a DOE Environmental User Facility. In 1997, after the laboratory was declared surplus, it was made available to the employee group who operated the laboratory for DOE as a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. This paper describes briefly the process of establishing the business. Attributes that contributed to the success of MCLinc are described. Some attention is given to lessons learned and to changes that could facilitate future attempts to make similar transitions. Lessons learnt: as with any business venture, operation over time has revealed that some actions taken by the laboratory founders have contributed to its successful operation while others were not so successful. Observations are offered in hopes that lessons learned may suggest actions that will facilitate future attempts to make similar transitions. First, the decision to vest significant ownership of the business in the core group of professionals operating the business is key to its success. Employee-owners of the laboratory have consistently provided a high level of service to its customers while conducting business in a cost-efficient manner. Secondly, an early decision to provide business support services in-house rather than purchasing them from support contractors on site have proven cost-effective. Laboratory employees do multiple tasks and perform overhead tasks in addition to their chargeable technical responsibilities. Thirdly, assessment of technical capabilities in view of market needs and a decision to offer these

  2. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  3. INTERNATIONALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  4. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  5. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    leaders of higher education institutions to set strategic directions and support their decisions in an effort to create even better study programmes with a better reputation. Finally, managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.Keywords: Reputation, image, corporate identity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a reputation model for higher education programmes, provide empirical evidence for the model and illustrate its application by using Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as the recurrent case. The developed model is a cause-and-effect model linking image...

  6. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...

  7. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur...

  8. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  9. 77 FR 30919 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ..., and 385 [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's... published a final rule titled ``Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit... additional drivers, primarily those transporting certain tanks temporarily attached to the commercial motor...

  10. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  11. Detection of adulterated commercial Spanish beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Bonvehi, J; Orantes Bermejo, F J

    2012-05-01

    The physical and chemical parameters (melting point and saponification number), and the fraction of hydrocarbons, monoesters, acids and alcohols have been determined in 90 samples of Spanish commercial beeswax from Apis mellifera L. The adulteration with paraffins of different melting point, cow tallow, stearic acid, and carnauba wax were determined by HTGC-FID/MS detection, and the research was focussed mainly on paraffins and microcrystallines waxes. In general, the added adulterant can be identified by the presence of non-naturally beeswax components, and by the differences of values of selected components between pure and adulterated beeswax. The detection limits were determined using pure and adulterated beeswax with different amounts of added waxes (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Percentages higher than 1-5% of each adulterant can be detected in the mixtures. Paraffin waxes were confirmed in 33 of the 90 samples analysed at concentrations between 5% and 30%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Economic Governance to Expand Commercial Wetlands: Within- and Cross-Scale Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaeij, de A.T.; Polman, N.B.P.; Reinhard, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial wetlands are defined as wetlands directed by an entrepreneur with the intention of making a profit. The combination of ecosystem services that commercial wetlands can provide seems to be an attractive societal perspective. Nevertheless, these wetlands are not developed on a large scale in

  13. Exploring Higher Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Willis M.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that the social studies reform movement includes a call for the de-emphasis of rote memory and more attention to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Discusses the "thinking tasks" concept derived from the work of Hilda Taba and asserts that the tasks can be used with almost any social studies topic. (CFR)

  14. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  15. Inflation from higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1987-01-01

    We argue that an inflationary phase in the very early universe is related to the transition from a higher dimensional to a four-dimensional universe. We present details of a previously considered model which gives sufficient inflation without fine tuning of parameters. (orig.)

  16. Higher Education Funding Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

  17. Liberty and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  18. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  19. Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  20. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  1. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  2. Creativity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  3. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  4. Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Maria A.; Smith, Gina S.; Brashen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has extended beyond the schoolyard into online forums in the form of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a growing concern due to the effect on its victims. Current studies focus on grades K-12; however, cyberbullying has entered the world of higher education. The focus of this study was to identify the existence of cyberbullying in higher…

  5. Fuel cell APU for commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daggett, D.L. [Boeing Commercial Airplane, Seattle, WA (United States); Lowery, N. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Wittmann, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Boeing Company has always sought to improve fuel efficiency in commercial aircraft. An opportunity now exists to explore technology that will allow fuel efficiency improvements to be achieved while simultaneously reducing emissions. Replacing the current aircraft gas turbine-powered Auxiliary Power Unit with a hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is anticipated to greatly improve fuel efficiency, reduce emissions and noise as well as improve airplane performance. However, there are several technology hurdles that need to be overcome. If SOFC technology is to be matured for the betterment of the earth community, the fuel cell industry, aerospace manufacturers and other end users all need to work together to overcome these challenges. Aviation has many of the same needs in fuel cell technology as other sectors, such as reducing cost and improving reliability and fuel efficiency in order to commercialize the technology. However, there are other distinct aerospace needs that will not necessarily be addressed by the industrial sector. These include development of lightweight materials and small-volume fuel cell systems that can reform hydrocarbon fuels. Aviation also has higher levels of safety requirements. Other transportation modes share the same requirement for vibration and shock tolerant fuel cell stacks. Lastly, as fuel cells are anticipated to be operated in flight, they must be capable of operating over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. By itself, the aviation sector does not appear to offer enough of a potential market to justify the investment required by any one manufacturer to develop fuel cells for APU replacements. Therefore, means must be found to modularize components and make SOFC stacks sufficiently similar to industrial units so that manufacturing economy of scales can be brought to bear. Government R and D and industry support are required to advance the technology. Because aerospace fuel cells will be higher performing units, the benefits of

  6. Business Models Associated with Distance Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Textbook prices are continuously rising in higher education. This paper analyzes a business model which makes commercial textbooks more expensive, and explains why this issue tends to be more severe in the field of distance learning in higher education. It reports a case of adoption of open educational resources (OER) textbook for an online course…

  7. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  8. The coating layer structure of commercial chrome plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • AES and XPS depth profiling analysis were used in the experiment. • The detailed coating layer structure of the commercial chrome plate was obtained. • Peak fitting method was used to investigate the chemical states of Cr in the coating. - Abstract: The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of the commercial chrome plate coating layer with the thickness of dozens of nanometers have been observed. To investigate the detailed structure of the coating layer, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with the low energy Ar + sputtering technique have been employed. Through careful analysis of experimental data, it can be obtained that the coating layer of commercial chrome plates is composed of four layers from top to bottom with different compositions

  9. Dilemmas within Commercial Involvement in Open Source Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciesielska, Malgorzata; Westenholz, Ann

    2016-01-01

    to free-riding. There are six levels of commercial involvement in open source communities, and each of them is characterized by a different dilemma. Originality/value – The paper sheds light on the various level of involvement of business in open source movement and emphasize that the popularized “open......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature about the commercial involvement in open source software, levels of this involvement and consequences of attempting to mix various logics of action. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses the case study approach based...... on mixed methods: literature reviews and news searches, electronic surveys, qualitative interviews and observations. It combines discussions from several research projects as well as previous publications to present the scope of commercial choices within open source software and their consequences...

  10. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS SPECIFIC TO COUNTERPART COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia PALIU - POPA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the lack of availability of funds in foreign currency, felt in many countries, especially in the developing and developed countries and the economic or financial crisis in the global foreign exchange, counterpart commercial transactions were imposed as a “disarming” condition of the international trade. In the counterpart a purchase transaction is combined with a sale transaction, an import with an export in order to ensure balanced trade between the partners, trade that involves eliminating or reducing the currency as a payment source and its replacement with trade of goods and services. Thus, in the context of an acute need to export of greatly industrialized countries, where the overproduction phenomenon tends to have a chronic character, the counterpart has become a highly complex and sustainable phenomenon, which has seen a steady increase in the volume of amounts, with a geographical area and large variety of forms and mechanisms of implementation. Based on the characteristics and structure of counterpart transactions, we shall describe in this paper the accounting models specific to international trade, as part of the combined foreign trade transactions without neglecting the tax treatments that influence the entry in the accounts

  11. Interactions between resin monomers and commercial composite resins with human saliva derived esterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, F; Finer, Y; Santerre, J P

    2002-04-01

    Cholesterol esterase (CE) and pseudocholinesterase (PCE) have been reported to degrade commercial and model composite resins containing bisphenylglycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) or the latter in combination with urethane modified BisGMA monomer systems. In addition, human saliva has been shown to contain esterase like activities similar to CE and PCE. Hence, it was the aim of the current study to determine to what extent human saliva could degrade two common commercial composite resins (Z250 from 3M Inc. and Spectrum TPH from L.D. Caulk) which contain the above monomer systems. Saliva samples from different volunteers were collected, processed, pooled, and freeze-dried. TEGDMA and BisGMA monomers were incubated with human saliva derived esterase activity (HSDEA) and their respective hydrolysis was monitored using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both monomers were completely hydrolyzed within 25 h by HSDEA. Photopolymerized composites were incubated with buffer or human saliva (pH 7.0 and 37 C) for 2, 8 and 16 days. The incubation solutions were analyzed using HPLC and mass spectrometry. Surface morphology characterization was carried out using scanning electron microscopy. Upon biodegradation, the Z250 composite yielded higher amounts of BisGMA and TEGDMA related products relative to the TPH composite. However, there were higher amounts of ethoxylated bis-phenol A released from the TPH material. In terms of total mass of products released, human saliva demonstrated a greater ability to degrade Z250. In summary, HSDEA has been shown to contain esterase activities that can readily catalyze the biodegradation of current commercial composite resins.

  12. The Commercial Challenges Of Pacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Brink, John A.

    1984-08-01

    The increasing use of digital imaging techniques create a need for improved methods of digital processing, communication and archiving. However, the commercial opportunity is dependent on the resolution of a number of issues. These issues include proof that digital processes are more cost effective than present techniques, implementation of information system support in the imaging activity, implementation of industry standards, conversion of analog images to digital formats, definition of clinical needs, the implications of the purchase decision and technology requirements. In spite of these obstacles, a market is emerging, served by new and existing companies, that may become a $500 million market (U.S.) by 1990 for equipment and supplies.

  13. Commercial application of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of laser-induced fusion, some laser-fusion reactor concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation are discussed. Theoretical fusion-pellet microexplosion energy release characteristics are described and the effects of pellet design options on pellet-microexplosion characteristics are discussed. The results of analyses to assess the engineering feasibility of reactor cavities for which protection of cavity components is provided either by suitable ablative materials or by diversion of plasmas by magnetic fields are presented. Two conceptual laser-fusion electric generating stations, based on different laser-fusion reactor concepts, are described

  14. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  15. Access of Digitized Print Originals in US and UK Higher Education Libraries Combined with Print Circulation Indicates Increased Usage of Traditional Forms of Reading Materials. A Review of: Joint, Nicholas. “Is Digitisation the New Circulation?: Borrowing Trends, Digitisation and the nature of reading in US and UK Libraries.” Library Review 57.2 (2008: 87-95.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Blythe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To discern the statistical accuracy of reports that print circulation is in decline in libraries, particularly higher education libraries in the United States (USand United Kingdom (UK, and to determine if circulation patterns reflect a changing dynamic in patron reading habits.Design – Comparative statistical analysis.Setting – Library circulation statistics from as early as 1982 to as recent as 2006, culled from various sources with specific references to statistics gathered by the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA, the Library and Information Statistics Unit (LISU, the Association of Research Libraries (ARL, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES, and the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL.Subjects – Higher education institutions in the United States and United Kingdom, along with public libraries to a lesser extent.Methods – This study consists of an analysis of print circulation statistics in public and higher education libraries in the US and UK, combined with data on multimedia circulation in public libraries and instances of digital access in university libraries. Specifically, NEA statistics provided data on print readership levels in the US from 1982 to 2002; LISU statistics were analyzed for circulation figures and gate counts in UK public libraries; ARL statistics from 1996 to 2006 provided circulation data for large North American research libraries; NCES statistics from 1990 to 2004 contributed data on circulation in “tertiary level” US higher education libraries; and ACRL statistics were analyzed for more circulation numbers for US post-secondary education libraries. The study further includes data on UK trends in print readership and circulation in UK higher education libraries, and trends in US public library circulation of non-print materials.Main Results – Analysis of the data indicates that print circulation is down in US and UK public libraries and in ARL member

  16. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  17. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  18. Commercial aspects of rapid thermal processing (RTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R G; Huffman, D R [Ensyn Technologies Inc., Greely, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    In its broadest sense, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{sup TM}) covers the conversion of all types of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuels, high quality fuel gases, and chemicals. Scientifically, it is based on the general premise that products which result from the extremely rapid application of heat to a given feedstock are inherently more valuable than those which are produced when heat is applied much more slowly over longer periods of processing time. Commercial RTP{sup TM} activities (including the actual implementation in the market as well as the short-term R and D initiatives) are much narrower in scope, and are focused on the production of high yields of light, non-tarry liquids (i.e. `bio-crude`) from biomass for fuel and chemical markets. Chemicals are of significant interest from an economical point of view since they typically have a higher value than fuel products. Liquid fuels are of interest for many reasons: (1) Liquid fuels do not have to be used immediately after production, such as is the case with hot combustion gases or combustible gases produced via gasification. This allows the decoupling of fuel production from the end-use (ie. the conversion of fuel to energy). (2) The higher energy density of liquid fuels vs. that of fuel gases and solid biomass results in a large reduction in the costs associated with storage and transportation. (3) The costs to retrofit an existing gas or oil fired combustion system are much lower than replacement with a solid fuel combustor. (4) In general, liquid fuel combustion is much more efficient, controllable, and cleaner than the combustion of solid fuels. (5) The production of liquid `bio-crude` permits the removal of ash from the biomass prior to combustion or other end-use applications. (6) Gas or liquid fuel-fired diesel or turbine engines cannot operate commercially on solid fuels. Although wood represents the biomass which is of principal commercial interest (including a vast array of wood residues

  19. Commercial aspects of rapid thermal processing (RTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.G.; Huffman, D.R. [Ensyn Technologies Inc., Greely, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    In its broadest sense, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{sup TM}) covers the conversion of all types of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuels, high quality fuel gases, and chemicals. Scientifically, it is based on the general premise that products which result from the extremely rapid application of heat to a given feedstock are inherently more valuable than those which are produced when heat is applied much more slowly over longer periods of processing time. Commercial RTP{sup TM} activities (including the actual implementation in the market as well as the short-term R and D initiatives) are much narrower in scope, and are focused on the production of high yields of light, non-tarry liquids (i.e. `bio-crude`) from biomass for fuel and chemical markets. Chemicals are of significant interest from an economical point of view since they typically have a higher value than fuel products. Liquid fuels are of interest for many reasons: (1) Liquid fuels do not have to be used immediately after production, such as is the case with hot combustion gases or combustible gases produced via gasification. This allows the decoupling of fuel production from the end-use (ie. the conversion of fuel to energy). (2) The higher energy density of liquid fuels vs. that of fuel gases and solid biomass results in a large reduction in the costs associated with storage and transportation. (3) The costs to retrofit an existing gas or oil fired combustion system are much lower than replacement with a solid fuel combustor. (4) In general, liquid fuel combustion is much more efficient, controllable, and cleaner than the combustion of solid fuels. (5) The production of liquid `bio-crude` permits the removal of ash from the biomass prior to combustion or other end-use applications. (6) Gas or liquid fuel-fired diesel or turbine engines cannot operate commercially on solid fuels. Although wood represents the biomass which is of principal commercial interest (including a vast array of wood residues

  20. Research achievements and commercial interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    ANSTO, in partnership with Australian and overseas organisations, continues to make significant contributions to selected fields of research and development. Major revenue for ANSTO is generated through sales of radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes for medical, industrial, environmental and research purposes and through neutron irradiation services. Further, ANSTO is actively trying to generate maximum value from its knowledge and know-how through protection and exploitation of its intellectual property. Strategic alliances have been developed to further the commercial utilisation of ANSTO know-how in, for example, delivery systems for tumour treatments, commercial waste remediation and applications of plasma implantation. The 2000-2001 financial year saw the establishment of an ANSTO business unit called Sulfide Solutions targeted at better management of environmental issues arising from mining operations. Overall, ANSTO's capacity to generate value from the application of its knowledge and know-how is being increasingly acknowledged, the organisation attaining credibility as an international leader in the application of nuclear science and technology in targeted areas

  1. Commercial Space with Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2013-01-01

    To provide affordable space transportation we must be capable of using common fixed assets and the infrastructure for multiple purposes simultaneously. The Space Shuttle was operated for thirty years, but was not able to establish an effective continuous improvement program because of the high risk to the crew on every mission. An unmanned capability is needed to provide an acceptable risk to the primary mission. This paper is intended to present a case where a commercial space venture could share the large fixed cost of operating the infrastructure with the government while the government provides new advanced technology that is focused on reduced operating cost to the common launch transportation system. A conceivable commercial space venture could provide educational entertainment for the country's youth that would stimulate their interest in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through access at entertainment parks or the existing Space Visitor Centers. The paper uses this example to demonstrate how growing public-private space market demand will re-orient space transportation industry priorities in flight and ground system design and technology development, and how the infrastructure is used and shared.

  2. Commercialization of solar space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  3. International Commercial Arbitration in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the above article author describes evolution of legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Venezuela. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Venezuela activities. In past two decades many Latin American countries have reformed their arbitration law. In an effort to modernize its arbitral institutions several Latin American countries adopted Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL. In addition, many Latin American countries have adopted the monistic system. Author pays detailed attention to this issue, discusses concept of a monistic system - a system in which a unique set of rules governs both domestic and international arbitration. Author argues that legal system of Venezuela fits this definition. Venezuelan law on arbitration in 1998 makes no distinction between domestic and international arbitration. Arbitration was included in judicial system under the Constitution of Venezuela of the 1999. Art. 258 of the Venezuelan Constitution states that arbitration, conciliation and mediation are alternative ways of resolving disputes.

  4. Commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    The commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning is presented as a step in the commercialization of nuclear energy. Opportunities for technology application advances are identified. Utility planning needs are presented

  5. Opteren voor de Netherlands Commercial Court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, J.; Keirse, A.L.M.; Reijneveld, M.D.

    Internationale contracten leiden tot internationale handelsgeschillen. Deze kunnen onder meer worden beslecht bij een commercial court. In Nederland wordt momenteel een Netherlands Commercial Court (NCC) opgericht. Dit introduceert een keuze voor (contracts)partijen voor een nieuw forum voor

  6. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising. ...

  7. Guam Commercial Fisheries BioSampling (CFBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Guam Commercial Fisheries Biosampling program, which collects length and weight frequency data for whole commercial catches, and samples 4-8 species for in-depth...

  8. Treatment of DOE mixed wastes using commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.F.; Ross, M.A.; Dilday, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    In a demonstration program, Department of Energy (DOE) solid mixed wastes generated during uranium processing operations are characterized to define the unit operations required for treatment. The objectives included the implementation of these treatment operations utilizing a commercial Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF). In contracting for commercial hazardous and mixed waste treatment, it is important to characterize the waste beyond the identification of toxicity characteristic (TC) and radiological content. Performing treatability studies and verification of all the unit operations required for treatment is critical. The stream selected for this program was TC hazardous for barium (D005) and contaminated with both depleted and low enriched uranium. The program resulted in the generation of characterization data and treatment strategies. The characterization and treatability studies indicated that although a common unit operation was required to remove the toxic characteristic, multiple pretreatment operations were needed. Many of these operations do not exist at available TSDF's, rendering some portions of the stream untreatable using existing commercial TSDF's. For this project the need for pretreatment operations resulted in only a portion of the waste originally targeted for treatment being accepted for treatment at a commercial TSDF. The majority of the targeted stream could not be successfully treated due to lack of an off-site commercial treatment facility having the available equipment and capacity or with the correct combination of RCRA permits and radioactive material handling licenses. This paper presents a case study documenting the results of the project

  9. Commercial Discount Rate Estimation for Efficiency Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Underlying each of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) federal appliance and equipment standards are a set of complex analyses of the projected costs and benefits of regulation. Any new or amended standard must be designed to achieve significant additional energy conservation, provided that it is technologically feasible and economically justified (42 U.S.C. 6295(o)(2)(A)). A proposed standard is considered economically justified when its benefits exceed its burdens, as represented by the projected net present value of costs and benefits. DOE performs multiple analyses to evaluate the balance of costs and benefits of commercial appliance and equipment e efficiency standards, at the national and individual building or business level, each framed to capture different nuances of the complex impact of standards on the commercial end user population. The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis models the combined impact of appliance first cost and operating cost changes on a representative commercial building sample in order to identify the fraction of customers achieving LCC savings or incurring net cost at the considered efficiency levels.1 Thus, the choice of commercial discount rate value(s) used to calculate the present value of energy cost savings within the Life-Cycle Cost model implicitly plays a key role in estimating the economic impact of potential standard levels.2 This report is intended to provide a more in-depth discussion of the commercial discount rate estimation process than can be readily included in standard rulemaking Technical Support Documents (TSDs).

  10. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-15

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project.

  11. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project

  12. Program Incubation and Commercialization Best Practices Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Shannon

    2018-04-06

    As a reminder, the primary task of the 4C Program is to increase the commercialization rate of cleantech companies in California. Commercialization, broadly defined, is the innovation continuum of developing and introducing a new product or service into the market. For measurability, the 4C Program defines commercialization as encompassing a startup’s: (a) preparation, (b) incubation, (c) commercial-scale pilot / demonstration, and (d) first customer.

  13. Urban rainfall estimation employing commercial microwave links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire

    2015-04-01

    Urban areas often lack rainfall information. To increase the number of rainfall observations in cities, microwave links from operational cellular telecommunication networks may be employed. Although this new potential source of rainfall information has been shown to be promising, its quality needs to be demonstrated more extensively. In the Rain Sense kickstart project of the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS), sensors and citizens are preparing Amsterdam for future weather. Part of this project is rainfall estimation using new measurement techniques. Innovative sensing techniques will be utilized such as rainfall estimation from microwave links, umbrellas for weather sensing, low-cost sensors at lamp posts and in drainage pipes for water level observation. These will be combined with information provided by citizens in an active way through smartphone apps and in a passive way through social media posts (Twitter, Flickr etc.). Sensor information will be integrated, visualized and made accessible to citizens to help raise citizen awareness of urban water management challenges and promote resilience by providing information on how citizens can contribute in addressing these. Moreover, citizens and businesses can benefit from reliable weather information in planning their social and commercial activities. In the end city-wide high-resolution rainfall maps will be derived, blending rainfall information from microwave links and weather radars. This information will be used for urban water management. This presentation focuses on rainfall estimation from commercial microwave links. Received signal levels from tens of microwave links within the Amsterdam region (roughly 1 million inhabitants) in the Netherlands are utilized to estimate rainfall with high spatial and temporal resolution. Rainfall maps will be presented and compared to a gauge-adjusted radar rainfall data set. Rainfall time series from gauge(s), radars and links will be compared.

  14. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005.5 Section 1005.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound...

  15. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed or any...

  16. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY.... SUMMARY: DoD has updated its Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business strategies for procuring commercial items. DoD is seeking industry input on...

  17. Selling Violence: Television Commercials Targeted to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerton, Patricia R.; Judas, Jeff

    Noting that little research has addressed the question of violence in commercials directed to children, a study examined commercials aired during the 21 top-rated children's cartoons during one broadcast week in late spring 1993. Commercials were analyzed for violent content, gender of primary actors and recipients of violent action, primary…

  18. Commercial lumber, round timbers, and ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    When sawn, a log yields round timber, ties, or lumber of varying quality. This chapter presents a general discussion of grading, standards, and specifications for these commercial products. In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types...

  19. 76 FR 43218 - Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    .... EERE-2011-BT-STD-0031] RIN 1904-AC54 Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Department of Energy... efficient product designs for commercial and industrial pumps. The comment period closed on July 13, 2011... commercial and industrial pumps. The comment period is extended to September 16, 2011. DATES: The comment...

  20. 77 FR 41331 - Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 [PS Docket No. 07-287; FCC 08-164] Commercial... with the Commission's Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMS), Second Report and Order (``CMAS Second..., for a period of three years, the information collection requirements relating to the Commercial Mobile...

  1. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm... does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace. ...

  2. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 1812 RIN 2700-AD64 Commercial... consistent with NASA's authority under Section 401 of the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial space goods or services. Anchor...

  3. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  4. Characteristics of Commercial Motorcyclists in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the characteristics of commercial motorcyclists in Ugbowo, Benin-city. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out among commercial motorcyclists in Ugbowo, Benin-city, Edo State. A total of 252 commercial motorcyclists were involved in the study. A cluster sampling method ...

  5. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  6. Gravitating multidefects from higher dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Warped configurations admitting pairs of gravitating defects are analyzed. After devising a general method for the construction of multidefects, specific examples are presented in the case of higher-dimensional Einstein-Hilbert gravity. The obtained profiles describe diverse physical situations such as (topological) kink-antikink systems, pairs of non-topological solitons and bound configurations of a kink and of a non-topological soliton. In all the mentioned cases the geometry is always well behaved (all relevant curvature invariants are regular) and tends to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time for large asymptotic values of the bulk coordinate. Particular classes of solutions can be generalized to the framework where the gravity part of the action includes, as a correction, the Euler-Gauss-Bonnet combination. After scrutinizing the structure of the zero modes, the obtained results are compared with conventional gravitating configurations containing a single topological defect.

  7. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...

  8. Higher engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics principles required at higher engineering levelJohn Bird's approach to mathematics, based on numerous worked examples and interactive problems, is ideal for vocational students that require an advanced textbook.Theory is kept to a minimum, with the emphasis firmly placed on problem-solving skills, making this a thoroughly practical introduction to the advanced mathematics engineering that students need to master. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for upper level vocational courses. Now in

  9. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  10. Enlightenment of Qilou Street Space Intelligence to Pedestrian System Design in Commercial District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at those generally existing problems in urban commercial pedestrian districts, through the design methods of extracting separation of man from vehicle in traditional Qilou pedestrian street space, continuous pedestrian space with shelter, and the behavior paths with combination of commercial activities, this thesis sets about from the behaviors of pedestrians in walking state, and finds that the traditional Qilou pedestrian street space can satisfy pedestrians’ physiological and psychological demands in shopping better. At the same time, combining current urban commercial districts developing demands, and the successful experience from traditional Qilou, this thesis also proposes relevant improvement measures. The improvements in design means are expected to improve pedestrian environment for, and achieve the commercial values of these districts, as well as the win-win of environment improvement and commercial activity development.

  11. Advanced commercial Tokamak optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, R.H.; Berwald, D.H.; Gordon, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Our recent studies have concentrated on developing optimal high beta (bean-shaped plasma) commercial tokamak configurations using TRW's Tokamak Reactor Systems Code (TRSC) with special emphasis on lower net electric power reactors that are more easily deployable. A wide range of issues were investigated in the search for the most economic configuration: fusion power, reactor size, wall load, magnet type, inboard blanket and shield thickness, plasma aspect ratio, and operational β value. The costs and configurations of both steady-state and pulsed reactors were also investigated. Optimal small and large reactor concepts were developed and compared by studying the cost of electricity from single units and from multiplexed units. Multiplexed units appear to have advantages because they share some plant equipment and have lower initial capital investment as compared to larger single units

  12. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  13. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G. C.; Bentley, R. D.; Horwood, N. A.; Hunter, R.; Iles, R. H.; Jones, J. B. L.; Powell, D.; Thomas, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%. (authors)

  14. Hydrogen's financial and commercial challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, W. W.

    1997-01-01

    The experiences of Proton Energy Systems Inc., in commercializing PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) technology were explored as an example of what is involved in bringing new technology to market. The venture capital market as distinct from major capital markets was described. The article pointed out the generally high risk nature of, and the low interest by venture capitalists in hydrogen projects, and the high cost of such capital in terms of ownership and control. Some of the reasons for the difficulties in finding venture capital were outlined (one of them is that hydrogen has generated a lot more 'hype' than heat). The strategies used by Proton Energy Systems to find an investor for their particular project were described

  15. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment......We present a declarative language for compositional specification of contracts governing the exchange of resources. It extends Eber and Peyton Jones’s declarative language for specifying financial contracts (Jones et al. in The Fun of Programming. 2003) to the exchange of money, goods and services...... amongst multiple parties and complements McCarthy’s Resources, Events and Agents (REA) accounting model (McCarthy in Account Rev. LVII(3), 554–578, 1982) with a view- independent formal contract model that supports definition of user-defined contracts, automatic monitoring under execution and user...

  16. EPRI instruments reach commercial market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has developed instruments capable of verifying time responses of power plant pressure sensors and temperature sensors. A patent is pending on the pressure-sensor device, and the temperature-sensor device is already commercially available. The devices, EPRI's first hardware products to be marketed, are the result of research to find technological solutions to the problems of knowing the time period when temperature and pressure changes occur in light water reactors. The hydraulic pressure-sensor device is a portable unit that can conveniently test equipment in place. Utilities can obtain detailed information from EPRI's project report to construct their own. The loop current step response (LCSR), measuring resistance temperature, is also a compact system suitable for in-plant testing

  17. Radon investigations - Soil and commercial projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The liability issues of radon exposure have prompted potential purchasers of vacant land for commercial/industrial development, and commercial landlords, renting large commercial buildings, to determine the radon gas levels at such sites. This paper deals with both pre-construction sites subject to freezing conditions and to large commercial structures. A correlation of radon gas levels within a commercial building and a sister pre-construction site confirms the validity of using activated charcoal canisters as a cost effective means to combating radon in large structures

  18. Teaching at higher levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see http://www.aapt.org/programs/rupc.html). Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of £60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials

  19. Commercial aspects of rapid thermal processing (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.G.; Huffman, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    In its broadest sense, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP TM ) covers the conversion of all types of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuels, high quality fuel gases, and chemicals. Commercial RTP TM activities (including the actual implementation in the market as well as the short-term R and D initiatives) are much narrower in scope, and are focused on the production of high yields of light, non-tarry liquids (i.e. 'bio-crude') from biomass for fuel and chemical markets. RTP TM is not an incineration process. In commercial applications, it is simply the liquification of biomass by the addition of heat at atmospheric pressure in the absence of air or oxygen. There is no direct combustion in the conversion unit. In effect, wood is converted to liquid wood, bagasse to liquid bagasse, straw to liquid straw, etc. The liquid is pourable and pumpable at room temperature, and has approximately the same heating value as the feedstock entering the conversion unit. The typical liquid yield from a representative hardwood at 10 - 15 % moisture content is about 73 % by mass in industrial operations. In general, the yield increases slightly with an increase in feedstock cellulose composition and slightly decreases with an increase in feedstock lignin composition. However, the energy yield remains approximately constant since lignin-derived liquids have a higher energy content than cellulose-derived liquids. RTP TM was commercialised in 1989 after about 10 years of research, development and demonstration. Current product applications include boiler fuel and food chemicals. It is important to note that the primary liquid product or 'bio-crude' is essentially the same whether it is destined for the fuel or the food chemicals markets. refs

  20. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  1. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1990-10-01

    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)

  2. Home-made and commercial complementary meals in German infants: results of the DONALD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, A; Foterek, K; Kersting, M; Alexy, U

    2015-12-01

    Infant complementary food can be home-made or bought as ready-to-eat commercial products. The nutrient composition of commercial products is regularised in a European Commission guideline, whereas the preparation of home-made complementary meals is the responsibility of caregivers. In the present study, the composition of commercial and home-made complementary meals as eaten by healthy German infants was compared. Of 8226 complementary meals (74% commercial and 26% home-made) recorded in 1083, 3-day weighed dietary records from 396 participants (6-12 months old) of the German DONALD (DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) study were analysed. Median energy density (kcal 100 g(-1)) was highest in commercial and home-made cereal-milk meals (89 kcal 100 g(-1)). In home-made savoury and cereal-fruit meals, the energy density was significantly higher compared to their commercial counterparts. Median protein contents were highest in savoury and cereal-milk meals (>2.5 g 100 g(-1)) and dairy-fruit meals (2-4 g 100 g(-1)). Added sugars were found in less than a quarter of meals. Highest median sodium contents were found not only in commercial savoury meals (median 38 mg 100 g(-1)) and vegetable meals (32 mg 100 g(-1)), but also in home-made cereal-milk meals (36 mg 100 g(-1)). Both median fat and iron contents were higher in home-made meals compared to commercial savoury and cereal-fruit meals. With the exception of the higher sodium content in commercial savoury meals for older infants, the lower fat content in commercial savoury and cereal-fruit meals, and the added sugar content in some commercial dairy-fruit meals, a comparison of commercial and home-made complementary meals did not reveal any serious inadequacy. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. 78 FR 17875 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB59 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's.... The 2011 final rule amended the commercial driver's license (CDL) knowledge and skills testing standards and established new minimum Federal standards for States to issue the commercial learner's permit...

  4. 77 FR 26989 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB02 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's... effective on July 8, 2011. That final rule amended the commercial driver's license (CDL) knowledge and skills testing standards and established new minimum Federal standards for States to issue the commercial...

  5. 76 FR 39018 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB02 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's..., 2011, that will be effective on July 8, 2011. This final rule amends the commercial driver's license... to issue the commercial learner's permit (CLP). Since the final rule was published, FMCSA identified...

  6. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carvalho Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class. The experiment consisted of28 genotypes, 18 hybrids from a partial diallel crossobtained from crossing two groups of tomato lines (Group I, with 9 parents, and Group II, with 2 parents, 8 F1 experimental hybrids, and 2 commercial checks. Traits evaluated were total yield, mean fruit mass, fruit shelf life, shape and percentsoluble solids. Additive genetic effects were generally more important than non-additive effects for all traits evaluated. The TOM-542 and TOM-734 lines, from group I, and the TOM-720 line, from group II, presented high general combining ability (GCA estimates for most of the traits of importance for saladette tomatoes, and were therefore considered suitable parents of hybrids of this class. Higher fruit shelf life of TOM-723 as a parental line compared with TOM-720 (Group II, was mainly attributed to the presence in the former of the norA allele, which controls longer fruit shelf life. F1 hybrids (TOM-542 x TOM-720, (TOM-580 x TOM-720, (TOM-734 x TOM-720, and (TOM-727 x TOM-720 showed good performance and fruit quality and thus constitute possible commercial varieties.

  7. Learning higher mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontrjagin, Lev Semenovič

    1984-01-01

    Lev Semenovic Pontrjagin (1908) is one of the outstanding figures in 20th century mathematics. In a long career he has made fundamental con­ tributions to many branches of mathematics, both pure and applied. He has received every honor that a grateful government can bestow. Though in no way constrained to do so, he has through the years taught mathematics courses at Moscow State University. In the year 1975 he set himself the task of writing a series of books on secondary school and beginning university mathematics. In his own words, "I wished to set forth the foundations of higher mathematics in a form that would have been accessible to myself as a lad, but making use of all my experience as a scientist and a teacher, ac­ cumulated over many years. " The present volume is a translation of the first two out of four moderately sized volumes on this theme planned by Pro­ fessor Pontrjagin. The book begins at the beginning of modern mathematics, analytic ge­ ometry in the plane and 3-dimensional space. Refin...

  8. Methodical Approaches to Risk Management in a Regional Commercial Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Altukhova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research of the methodological and information infrastructure of the integrated risk management in a regional commercial bank. Within the study of the general development tendencies of the regional banking services market, the most significant risks for a regional bank are revealed. The analysis is carried out on the basis of the stress testing technique developed at the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. It is based on a technique of dynamic economic and mathematical modeling with the application of information technologies. The created combination of the methodological and instrumental tools allows to carry out the dynamic scenario analysis of the activity of a commercial bank for the identification of potential risks and for the development of the strategy of financial management reducing the potential risks and leveling the consequences of their realization. The received tool allows during the computer test to watch the predicted dynamics of the condition of the key indicators of the activity of a regional commercial bank changing under the influence of the exogenous regulatory measures and instruments of bank management applied to decrease risk and at the same time to introduce adjustments in the perspective strategy of management. As the result of the analysis, the universal management model of the main bank risks in a regional commercial bank within three alternative scenarios is created. The software product allowing to develop and acquire the practical skills of the students in banking is developed. It also may help to develop the methodological support for the regulation of the organizational procedures of risk management in a regional commercial bank. The received software product may be used in a system of the improving the professional skills, and also for obtaining the expected data in a risk management system in a regional commercial bank.

  9. Implementation of a low-cost, commercial orbit determination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Jim

    1994-01-01

    Traditional satellite and launch control systems have consisted of custom solutions requiring significant development and maintenance costs. These systems have typically been designed to support specific program requirements and are expensive to modify and augment after delivery. The expanding role of space in today's marketplace combined with the increased sophistication and capabilities of modern satellites has created a need for more efficient, lower cost solutions to complete command and control systems. Recent technical advances have resulted in commercial-off-the-shelf products which greatly reduce the complete life-cycle costs associated with satellite launch and control system procurements. System integrators and spacecraft operators have, however, been slow to integrate these commercial based solutions into a comprehensive command and control system. This is due, in part, to a resistance to change and the fact that many available products are unable to effectively communicate with other commercial products. The United States Air Force, responsible for the health and safety of over 84 satellites via its Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN), has embarked on an initiative to prove that commercial products can be used effectively to form a comprehensive command and control system. The initial version of this system is being installed at the Air Force's Center for Research Support (CERES) located at the National Test Facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The first stage of this initiative involved the identification of commercial products capable of satisfying each functional element of a command and control system. A significant requirement in this product selection criteria was flexibility and ability to integrate with other available commercial products. This paper discusses the functions and capabilities of the product selected to provide orbit determination functions for this comprehensive command and control system.

  10. The commercial potential of Nova Scotian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, M.; Jewkes, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Scotian Shelf has estimated potential natural gas reserves of 18 trillion ft 3 . A project cash flow analysis of the development and production from Nova Scotia's discovered natural gas pools is presented to determine the commercial potential of these resources. The modelling framework proposed by Power and Jewkes (1990) is used in the analysis. This framework consists of three sub-models: a drilling model, a pool-cost model, and a filtration model. The model was run 84 times, once for each combination of the 21 price levels and 4 discount rates used in the study. It was assumed that exploration and delineation drilling, project construction, and operation were completed in 35 years. The sensitivity of commercial declarations to the discount rate is most clearly seen in the measure of commercially recoverable volumes calculated by the model. Gas prices below $1.80 per thousand ft 3 (MCF) do not result in any of the significant discoveries being declared as commercially viable. As prices rise above this level, a 6% discount rate results in the largest of the discovered pools being assessed as commercial. When prices have risen sufficiently to offset the discount rate effect, the differences in commercial declarations fall progressively as prices continue to rise. The financial variables (profit and fiscal take) both exhibit increasing sensitivity to the discount rate. The results suggest a limited role for Scotian Shelf gas in Canada's energy future. Landed prices must be in the range of $2.80-$4.00/MCF before sufficient quantities of gas are made available. It is likely that the market for such gas will be small and limited primarily to an interfuel substitution role. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Modified Aggressive Packet Combining Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2010-06-01

    In this letter, a few schemes are presented to improve the performance of aggressive packet combining scheme (APC). To combat error in computer/data communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Several modifications to improve the performance of ARQ are suggested by recent research and are found in literature. The important modifications are majority packet combining scheme (MjPC proposed by Wicker), packet combining scheme (PC proposed by Chakraborty), modified packet combining scheme (MPC proposed by Bhunia), and packet reversed packet combining (PRPC proposed by Bhunia) scheme. These modifications are appropriate for improving throughput of conventional ARQ protocols. Leung proposed an idea of APC for error control in wireless networks with the basic objective of error control in uplink wireless data network. We suggest a few modifications of APC to improve its performance in terms of higher throughput, lower delay and higher error correction capability. (author)

  12. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accreditation and Expansion in Danish Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, an accreditation system for higher education has been introduced in Denmark. Accreditation partly represents continuity from an earlier evaluation system, but it is also part of a government policy to increasingly define higher education institutions as market actors....... The attempts of universities to increase their student enrolments have combined with the logic of accreditation to produce an increasing number of higher education degrees, often overlapping in content. Students’ scope for choice has been widened, but the basis for and the consequences of choice have become...

  14. Work and Leisure in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is commonly described as offering combinations of work and leisure, but the implied relationship is often limited. Different conceptions of leisure, especially leisure as pleasurable experience, raise new possibilities for seeing academic activity itself as leisure in several important senses. The importance of identifying…

  15. DSM Pocket Guidebook: Commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    It has been estimated that if electricity were used more efficiently with commercially available end-use technologies, 24%endash 44% of the nation's current demand for electricity could be eliminated. Almost all major electric utilities in the west are investigating such demand-side management (9DSM) opportunities. In some service territories, for example, improved efficiency could soon produce as much power as that from new coal-fired plants and produce it at a lower cost. Even utilities that currently have excess capacity are finding that DSM offers an opportunity to build efficient end-use stock to help them meet their future load shape objectives. Utility DSM programs typically consist of several measures designed to modify the utility's load shape (for example, innovative rate structures, direct utility control of loads, promotion of energy-efficient technologies, and customer education). The coordinated implementation of such measures requires planning, analysis of options, engineering, marketing, monitoring, and other coordination activities (Figure P1). This guidebook addresses one facet of an overall DSM program: selectrion of end-use technologies within the electrical utilities

  16. Commercial Parts Technology Qualification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Many high-reliability systems, including space systems, use selected commercial parts (including Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics or PEMs) for unique functionality, small size, low weight, high mechanical shock resistance, and other factors. Predominantly this usage is subjected to certain 100% tests (typically called screens) and certain destructive tests usually (but not always) performed on the flight lot (typically called qualification tests). Frequently used approaches include those documented in EEE-INST-002 and JPL DocID62212 (which are sometimes modified by the particular aerospace space systems manufacturer). In this study, approaches from these documents and several space systems manufacturers are compared to approaches from a launch systems manufacturer (SpaceX), an implantable medical electronics manufacturer (Medtronics), and a high-reliability transport system process (automotive systems). In the conclusions section, these processes are outlined for all of these cases and presented in tabular form. Then some simple comparisons are made. In this introduction section, the PEM technology qualification process is described, as documented in EEE-INST-002 (written by the Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC), as well as the somewhat modified approach employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Approaches used at several major NASA contractors are also described

  17. The commercialization of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Currently there are ten large collective biogas plants and ten smaller farm plants operating in Denmark. During the last five years, biogas technology has undergone extensive technological development. The developmental process is supported by a public R and D programme and a follow-up programme for full-scale demonstration plants. Most plants still need considerable income increases before a final conclusion can be reached as to whether it is possible to achieve a profit from a corporate economic viewpoint. All plants have received investment grants. Gas production is in most cases reliable, especially due to the admixture of easily convertible organic waste as a supplement to the slurry supplies. Profitable collective biogas plants are within reach, even without investment grants. The total intake of biomass must be supplemented by 10 to 25 per cent easily convertible organic waste so that the minimum gas production reaches 30 to 35 m 3 per m 3 of biomass. Plants based solely on animal manure are not profitable. Energy from the biogas has to be sold at prices corresponding to consumer prices, which include Danish energy taxes. Collective biogas plants in Denmark appear to be approaching a commercial breakthrough. The concept of a collective biogas plant has been developed to address the energy-related, environmentally-related and agricultural problems. (AB)

  18. Commercial scale irradiation for insect disinfestation preserves peach quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Heather; McCulloch, Mary; Caporaso, Fred; Winborne, Ian; Oubichon, Michon; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is approved as a generic quarantine treatment by the US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Due to the effectiveness of irradiation in controlling insects on commodities, there is a growing need to understand the effects of low dose irradiation on fruit quality. The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of peaches (Prunus persica) to irradiation, and secondly, to determine the effect of commercial scale treatment on shelf-life, overall quality and consumer liking. Six varieties of peaches were irradiated in small batches at 0.29, 0.49, 0.69 and 0.90 kGy to observe the sensitivity of peaches at different dose levels. Changes in quality were evaluated by 8 trained panelists using descriptive analysis. Sensory characteristics (color, smoothness, aroma, touch firmness, mouth firmness, graininess, overall flavor and off-flavor) were evaluated at 2–4 day intervals and untreated samples served as control. To simulate commercial treatment, peaches were irradiated in pallet quantities at a target dose level of 0.4 kGy. The average absorbed dose was 0.66 kGy with an average dose uniformity ratio of 1.57. Commercially treated peaches were evaluated by 40–80 untrained consumers for acceptability routinely throughout the shelf life. Titratable acidity, Brix, texture and weight loss were also monitored for both commercial and small scale irradiated peaches. There was no dose effect on TA, Brix and weight loss due to irradiation. Peaches irradiated at 0.69 and 0.90 kGy were darker in flesh color, more juicy and less firm as determined by the trained panel and analytical pressure tests. Commercial scale irradiation did not adversely affect shelf life but was seen to enhance ripening. This, however, was perceived as a positive change by consumers. Overall, consumers rated the acceptability of irradiated peaches higher than untreated peaches. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed models to find

  19. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed

    1999-12-01

    According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct

  20. Commercialization of education: world experience and ukrainian context

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Khomeriki

    2015-01-01

    The world popularity and effectiveness of the American system of higher education encourages other countries to use its borrowed elements in the national education systems. The issues of integration within a single reform, within a single national education system cannot be solved because it is accompanied by the need to overcome a number of related conceptual problems. One of the major conceptual problems of national education is its commercialization. The example of education is where comme...

  1. Problems of intangible assets commercialization accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Legenchyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing role of intangible assets in conditions of global economy postindustrialization is grounded. The problems of intangible assets accounting are singled out. The basic tasks of the intangible assets accounting commercialization process are determined. The difference between the commercialization of intellectual property and intangible assets is considered. The basic approaches to understanding the essence of the intangible assets commercialization are singled out and grounded. The basic forms and methods of intangible assets commercialization researched by the author are analyzed. The order of accounting reflection of licensee royalties is considered. The factors of influence on the accounting process of intangible assets commercialization are determined. The necessity of solving the problem of accounting of lease payments for computer program by providing access to SaaS environment is grounded. The prospects of further studies of intangible assets accounting commercialization are determined.

  2. The investment strategy of commercial banks on the financial markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercegovac Dajana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary market conditions classical deposit-loan strategy is not enough anymore in order to ensure survival of the commercial banks on the financial market and to reach profit that is high enough. Besides the loan placements strategy, it is necessary to adopt an adequate investment strategy which will contribute to the profitability, liquidity and safety of gross asset portfolio. Commercial banks, unlike investment banks, invest smaller part of their resources into securities of diverse maturity on financial markets. However, with the harsh competition of banks and other non-banking institutions, significance of investment portfolio grows as an alternative that ensures additional sources of revenue, assures liquidity, diversification of placements and decreases risk exposure. Banks have at their disposal vast range of investment strategies that can be combined depending on their investment objectives and risk aversion, such as passive and active strategy, strategy of ladder, weights strategy etc. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present the significance of investment portfolio in commercial banks and the basic management strategies of investment portfolio that can be used by commercial banks.

  3. Commercializing Government-sponsored Innovations: Twelve Successful Buildings Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. A.; Berry, L. G.; Goel, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies.

  4. Are high penetrations of commercial cogeneration good for society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jeremy F.; Apt, Jay

    2016-12-01

    Low natural gas prices, market reports and evidence from New York State suggest that the number of commercial combined heat and power (CHP) installations in the United States will increase by 2%-9% annually over the next decade. We investigate how increasing commercial CHP penetrations may affect net emissions, the distribution network, and total system energy costs. We constructed an integrated planning and operations model that maximizes owner profit through sizing and operation of CHP on a realistic distribution feeder in New York. We find that a greater penetration of CHP reduces both total system energy costs and network congestion. Commercial buildings often have low and inconsistent heat loads, which can cause low fuel utilization efficiencies, low CHP rates-of-return and diminishing avoided emissions as CHP penetration increases. In the northeast, without policy intervention, a 5% penetration of small commercially owned CHP would increase CO2 emissions by 2% relative to the bulk power grid. Low emission CHP installations can be encouraged with incentives that promote CHP operation only during times of high heat loads. Time-varying rates, such as time-of-day and seasonal rates, are one option and were shown to reduce customer emissions without reducing profits. In contrast, natural gas rate discounts, a common incentive for industrial CHP in some states, can encourage CHP operation during low heat loads and thus increase emissions.

  5. Accelerating Clean Energy Commercialization. A Strategic Partnership Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Locklin, Ken [Impax Asset Management Group (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    Technology development in the clean energy and broader clean tech space has proven to be challenging. Long-standing methods for advancing clean energy technologies from science to commercialization are best known for relatively slow, linear progression through research and development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D); and characterized by well-known valleys of death for financing. Investment returns expected by traditional venture capital investors have been difficult to achieve, particularly for hardware-centric innovations, and companies that are subject to project finance risks. Commercialization support from incubators and accelerators has helped address these challenges by offering more support services to start-ups; however, more effort is needed to fulfill the desired clean energy future. The emergence of new strategic investors and partners in recent years has opened up innovative opportunities for clean tech entrepreneurs, and novel commercialization models are emerging that involve new alliances among clean energy companies, RDD&D, support systems, and strategic customers. For instance, Wells Fargo and Company (WFC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have launched a new technology incubator that supports faster commercialization through a focus on technology development. The incubator combines strategic financing, technology and technical assistance, strategic customer site validation, and ongoing financial support.

  6. Strategies for commercializing customer thermal-energy storage. [64 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.H.

    1976-12-01

    This report presents strategies for commercializing customer thermal storage. Four storage techniques are evaluated: space heating, air conditioning, hot-water heating, and interruptible hot-water heating. The storage systems involved store off-peak electric energy for thermal applications during peak load hours. Analyses of both storage techniques and principal parties affected by storage indicate four barriers: the absence of (1) commercially available air conditioning storage devices, (2) appropriate rates, (3) information on both rates and devices, and (4) widespread utility support. Development of appropriate rates is the key to commercialization. The criteria used to evaluate rate types are: maximum combined utility and customer benefits, ease of commercialization, and practical feasibility. Four rate types--demand charges, time-of-use rates, and two forms of load management rates (a monthly credit and an off-peak discount)--plus the possibility of utility ownership are considered. The best rate types for each storage option are: for hot-water heating, a monthly credit for allowing utility interruptions or an off-peak price discount for storage; for space heating, an off-peak discount contingent upon meeting utility requirements; and for air conditioning, an off-peak discount plus monthly credit.

  7. Determinants of Commercial Banks' Profitability in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Trofimov, Ivan D.; Md. Aris, Nazaria; Ying Ying, Jovena Kho

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between non-performing loans (NPLs) and commercial banks' performance in Malaysia, alongside other factors. It considers the effect of NPLs, cost efficiency and bank size on commercial banks' profitability by using panel data regression (Pooled OLS model), covering the period of 2010-2015. The findings of the study show that NPLs and cost efficiency have a significant negative relationship with commercial banks' performances in Malaysia. On the othe...

  8. Accounting and Tax Issues Concerning Commercial Discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Raluca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial discounts accounting presents a particular importance because, on the one hand, of their widely spread on a large scale in the commercial activity and on the second hand, due to the influence of the accounting and reporting method over the value added tax. The paper theoretically addresses commercial reductions and also their reflection in the accounting according with the latest regulations in force.

  9. The hasty British ban on commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1987-02-01

    While commercial surrogate parenting arrangements continue to flourish in the U.S., Britain has made it a criminal offense for third parties to benefit from surrogacy. Voluntary surrogacy, however, is still within the law. Banning commercial surrogacy while leaving voluntary surrogacy lawful seems neither logical nor fair. A more equitable solution would be to license stringently and control both commercial and nonprofit agencies to provide these services.

  10. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial...

  11. Food claims and nutrition facts of commercial infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu-Chin; Chang, Jung-Su; Chen, Yi Chun

    2018-01-01

    Composition claim, nutrition claim and health claim are often found on the commercial complementary food packaging. The introduction of complementary foods (CFs) to infants is a turning point in the development of their eating behavior, and their commercial use for Taiwanese infants is growing. In Taiwan, lots of the advertisements for CFs employed health or nutrition claims to promote the products, but the actual nutritional content of these CFs is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the food claims of commercial complementary food products with their actual nutrition facts. A sample of 363 commercial CFs was collected from websites, local supermarkets, and other food stores, and their nutrition-related claims were classified into composition, nutrition, and health categories. Although the World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, 48.2% of the commercial CFs were targeted at infants younger than 6 months. Therefore, marketing regulations should be implemented to curb early weaning as a result of products targeted at infants younger than 6 months. More than 50% of Taiwanese commercial CFs have high sugar content and more than 20% were high in sodium. Products with health claims, such as "provides good nutrition to children" or "improves appetite," have higher sodium or sugar content than do those without such claims. Moreover, products with calcium or iron content claims did not contain more calcium or iron than products without such claims. Additionally, a significantly greater proportion of the products with "no added sugar" claims were classified as having high sugar content as compared to those without such claims. Parents cannot choose the healthiest food products for their children by simply focusing on food claims. Government should regulate the labeling of nutrition facts and food claims for foods targeted at infants younger than 12 months.

  12. Creep in commercially pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabarro, F.R.N.

    2006-01-01

    The creep of commercially pure polycrystalline metals under constant stress has four stages: a virtually instantaneous extension, decelerating Andrade β creep, almost steady-state Andrade κ creep, and an acceleration towards failure. Little is known about the first stage, and the fourth stage has been extensively reviewed elsewhere. The limited experimental evidence on the physical mechanism of the second stage is reviewed and a critical discussion is given of various theories of this stage. The dependence of strain rate on stress in the third, steady-state, period seems to fall into two regimes, a power law with an exponent of about 4-5, and a rather closely exponential law. The limits of the parameters within which a simple theory of the exponential dependence can be expected to be valid are discussed, and found to be compatible with experiments. Theories of the power-law dependence are discussed, and, appear to be unconvincing. The theoretical models do not relate closely to the metallographic and other physical observations. In view of the weakness of theory, experiments which may indicate the physical processes dominant in steady-state creep are reviewed. It is usually not clear whether they pertain to the power-law or the exponential regime. While the theories all assume that most of the deformation occurs homogeneously within the grains, most experimental observations point strongly to a large deformation at or close to the grain boundaries. However, a detailed study of dislocation processes in a single grain of polycrystalline foil strained in the electron microscope shows that most of the observed strain can be accounted for by the motion of single dislocations through the subgrain structure. There is no clear reconciliation of these two sets of observations. Grain-boundary sliding cannot occur without intragranular deformation. One or other process may dominate the overall deformation; the geometrically dominant process may not be the rate

  13. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  14. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  15. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  16. The commercial home enterprise: Labour with love

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Candice; McIntosh, Alison; Lewis, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Within the wider context of critical discourse, this paper examines the personal experiences of commercial home hosts in New Zealand, focusing on issues of copreneurship and work-life balance. When the home has a commercial domain, the impact of hosting on a host’s life can be immense; hence the commercial home provides a unique context in which to examine the issue of work-life balance. This paper presents the findings of a study of 12 commercial home hosts conducted to explore the strategie...

  17. Economic considerations of commercial tokamak options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabiri, A.E.

    1986-05-01

    Systems studies have been performed to assess commercial tokamak options. Superconducting, as well as normal, magnet coils in either first or second stability regimes have been considered. A spherical torus (ST), as well as an elongated tokamak (ET), is included in the study. The cost of electricity (COE) is selected as the figure of merit, and beta and first-wall neutron wall loads are selected to represent the physics and technology characteristics of various options. The results indicate that an economical optimum for tokamaks is predicted to require a beta of around 10%, as predicted to be achieved in the second stability regime, and a wall load of about 5 MW/m 2 , which is assumed to be optimum technologically. This tokamak is expected to be competitive with fission plants if efficient, noninductive current drive is developed. However, if this regime cannot be attained, all other tokamaks operating in the first stability regime, including spherical torus and elongated tokamak and assuming a limiting wall load of 5 MW/m 2 , will compete with one another with a COE of about 50 mill/kWh. This 40% higher than the COE for the optimum reactor in the second stability regime with fast-wave current drive. The above conclusions pertain to a 1200-MW(e) net electric power plant. A comparison was also made between ST, ET, and superconducting magnets in the second stability regime with fast-wave current drive at 600 MW(e)

  18. Wild Bee Community Composition and Foraging Behaviour in Commercial Strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Erica Juel

    possibly due to the low biodiversity offered by many commercially driven, single species, Danish forests. At field scale (I) bee species richness was higher in field margins compared to field centres but there was no difference between centre and margin in body-size or activity-density. Sampling time had...... an effect on wild bee community composition with higher activity-density and species richness in late May and late June than in early and mid-June (II). Results thus indicate that functional diversity of visiting wild bee assemblages in strawberry differs depending on the spatial and time scale...

  19. COMMUNITARIAN INSTITUTIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION: CURRENT ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Radke Bittencourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the Brazilian communitarian institutions for higher education are not included officially under this designation in the INEP’s microdata, with the extinction of the category “communitarian, religious and philanthropic”. Since then, the Brazilian private’s higher education institutions are classified according to their legal nature: for-profit or non-profit. Nevertheless, the new law 12.881 of 2013, enacted in November 2013, has changed this reality after the approval by the National Congress, establishing the definition and purpose of the Community institutions, and confirming, in particular, their characteristics of non-profit institutions belonging to civil society, and their organization into associations or foundations (BRAZIL, 2013. The recent expansion of the federal and for-profit higher education institutions has directly affected the so far called communitarian institutions, which present differentiated characteristics compared to forprofit private higher education institutions as well as public education. In this article, data and contemporary aspects related to the new scenario of Brazilian higher education are analyzed, with special focus on higher education institutions members of the Association of Community Universities (ABRUC, and were found better performance of these ones in comparison to the private for-profit higher education institutions. The obtained results, combined with the regional impact of the communitarian higher education institutions, justify the importance of these institutions to improve the consolidation of higher education in Brazil.

  20. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kirubakaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., garlic (Allium sativum, and black pepper (Piper nigrum powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.

  1. Commercialization of education: world experience and ukrainian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Khomeriki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The world popularity and effectiveness of the American system of higher education encourages other countries to use its borrowed elements in the national education systems. The issues of integration within a single reform, within a single national education system cannot be solved because it is accompanied by the need to overcome a number of related conceptual problems. One of the major conceptual problems of national education is its commercialization. The example of education is where commercialization is the mechanism and the result of the reform American education. In American society there are two approaches to the issue of obtaining higher education. First, the so­called “Jeffersonville”, provides for equality of access to higher education, but subject to the production of high demands for qualities (abilities. Second, the so­called “Jacksonville”, also recognized the equality of access to higher education, but it is believed that the University should be free for everyone who has completed secondary education, regardless of ability. Despite the undeniable efficiency, impressive achievements in science, structural diversity and structure on democratic principles of the higher education system, the last few decades in American society does not cease its criticism, because universities and colleges are only indirectly fulfill the function of serving society.

  2. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  3. Commercial application of rainfall simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Rob J.

    2010-05-01

    Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: • wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; • careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; • strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and • detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: • For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected

  4. Entrepreneur-Managers in Higher Education: (How) Do They Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birds, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Policy-makers in the United Kingdom increasingly emphasise the contribution of innovation and entrepreneurialism to the economy. Drawing on a recent ethnographic study of a university commercial enterprise, this article examines the notion of entrepreneurialism in a higher education institution as understood and practised by its employees. The…

  5. Economic feasibility prediction of the commercial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yan; Karady, George G.; Winston, Anthony; Gilbert, Palomino; Hess, Robert; Pelley, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a prediction method and corresponding Visual Basic program to evaluate the economic feasibility of the commercial fuel cells in utility systems. The economic feasibility of a fuel cell is defined as having a net present value (NPV) greater than zero. The basic process of the method is to combine fuel cell specifications and real energy market data to calculate yearly earning and cost for obtaining the NPV of fuel cells. The Fuel Cell Analysis Software was developed using Visual Basic based on the proposed method. The investigation of a 250 kW molten carbonate fuel cell (FuelCell Energy DFC300A) predicted that, for application specifically in Arizona, United States, no profit would result from the installation of this fuel cell. The analysis results indicated that the efficiency, investment cost, and operation cost are three key factors affecting potential feasibility of the commercial fuel cells

  6. Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

    2014-05-01

    Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Commercial aspects of semi-reusable launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obersteiner, M. H.; Müller, H.; Spies, H.

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a business planning model for a commercial space launch system. The financing model is based on market analyses and projections combined with market capture models. An operations model is used to derive the annual cash income. Parametric cost modeling, development and production schedules are used for quantifying the annual expenditures, the internal rate of return, break even point of positive cash flow and the respective prices per launch. Alternative consortia structures, cash flow methods, capture rates and launch prices are used to examine the sensitivity of the model. Then the model is applied for a promising semi-reusable launcher concept, showing the general achievability of the commercial approach and the necessary pre-conditions.

  8. Commercial green electricity products; Zakelijke groenestroomproducten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielders, L.M.L.; Afman, M.R.

    2012-12-15

    The Dutch 100% Sustainable Energy: Green ICT campaign initiated by Hivos targets data centres, appealing to these companies to consider the environmental footprint of the electricity they use. Hivos is keen for a debate on greener alternatives and wanted a review of the sustainability of the various options available for buying 'green power' on the commercial market in the Netherlands, with a reasoned discussion of each. That review, laid down in this report, examines and discusses the various 'green power products' for the commercial market, providing a springboard for data centres to switch to a 'greener' product. To that end 'green power products' were categorized to highlight the differences between them. The highest score was given to renewable energy produced without any operating subsidy (the so-called SDE+ scheme), or with the higher price being paid for entirely by customers. Supply in these two categories is still fairly negligible, as this essentially represents an energy market in which renewables are cost-competitive with 'grey' electricity, or one in which customers are willing to pay (far) more for their electricity. The lowest scores were assigned to renewable power sourced in other countries and to 'grey' electricity [Dutch] De Hivos-bedrijvencampagne 100% Sustainable Energy: Green ICT richt zich op de datacenterbedrijven. De datacenterbedrijven worden aangesproken op de duurzaamheid van hun keuze voor de ingekochte elektriciteit. Hivos wil het gesprek aangaan over meer duurzame alternatieven. Hiervoor heeft Hivos behoefte aan een overzicht van de duurzaamheid van de verschillende opties voor de afname van duurzame elektriciteit (groene stroom) zoals die op de zakelijke markt in Nederland worden aangeboden, inclusief een onderbouwing. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht en inzicht in de verschillende groenestroomproducten voor de zakelijke markt zodat de datacenters kunnen overstappen op een

  9. Technology review of commercial food service equipment - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, S; Krsikapa, S [Canadian Gas Research Inst., Don Mills, ON (Canada); Fisher, D; Nickel, J; Ardley, S; Zabrowski, D [Fisher Consultants (Canada); Barker, R F [ed.

    1996-05-15

    Market and technical information on gas fired equipment used in the commercial food service sector in Canada and in each province or territory was presented. Results of a market study and technology review were integrated to establish energy consumption and energy saving potential in this sector. Eight categories of commercial cooking appliances were studied. They were: fryers, griddles, broilers, ranges, ovens, tilting skillets, steam kettles and steamers. Focus was on gas fired appliances, although electric appliances were also included. The total energy consumption of the appliances was estimated at 76,140.37 GBtu in 1994. Gas appliances accounted for 63 per cent of the total inventory and consumed 83 per cent of the total energy used. Cooking energy efficiencies for the gas fired commercial cooking equipment ranged from 10 per cent to 60 per cent. The electric appliances had cooking energy efficiencies ranging from 35 per cent to 95 per cent. A list of recommendations were made for the many opportunities to introduce higher efficiency commercial cooking appliances, essential to slow down or to stabilize the energy consumption of cooking appliances over the next decade. 66 refs., 14 tabs., 18 figs.

  10. Hepatic differentiation potential of commercially available human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Shin-Yeu; Dai, Hui; Leong, Kam W

    2006-12-01

    The ready availability and low immunogenicity of commercially available mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) render them a potential cell source for the development of therapeutic products. With cell source a major bottleneck in hepatic tissue engineering, we investigated whether commercially available human MSC (hMSC) can transdifferentiate into the hepatic lineage. Based on previous studies that find rapid gain of hepatic genes in bone marrow-derived stem cells cocultured with liver tissue, we used a similar approach to drive hepatic differentiation by coculturing the hMSC with rat livers treated or untreated with gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3)). After a 24-hour coculture period with liver tissue injured by GdCl(3) in a Transwell configuration, approximately 34% of the cells differentiated into albumin-expressing cells. Cocultured cells were subsequently maintained with growth factors to complete the hepatic differentiation. Cocultured cells expressed more hepatic gene markers, and had higher metabolic functions and P450 activity than cells that were only differentiated with growth factors. In conclusion, commercially available hMSC do show hepatic differentiation potential, and a liver microenvironment in culture can provide potent cues to accelerate and deepen the differentiation. The ability to generate hepatocyte-like cells from a commercially available cell source would find interesting applications in liver tissue engineering.

  11. Genetic divergence for high-molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in indigenous landraces and commercial cultivars of bread wheat of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmeen, F; Khurshid, H; Ghafoor, A

    2015-05-11

    Wheat flour quality is an important consideration in the breeding and development of new cultivars. A strong association between high-molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and bread making quality has resulted in the widespread utilization of HMW-GS in wheat breeding. In this study, we analyzed 242 lines of wheat, including landraces from the provinces of Punjab and Baluchistan, as well as the commercial varieties of Pakistan, to determine allelic variation in the Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1 loci encoding HMW-GS. Higher genetic diversity was observed for HMW-GS in landraces from Baluchistan, followed by landraces collected from Punjab and then commercial varieties. Rare and uncommon subunits were observed in Glu-B1, whereas Glu-A1 was less polymorphic. However, Glu-B1 was the highest contributor to overall diversity (78%), with a total of 31 rare alleles, followed by Glu-D1 (20%) with the high quality 5+10 allele and other variants. Commercial cultivars possessed favorable alleles, potentially from indirect selection for wheat flour quality by the breeders; however, this indirect selection has decreased the pedigree base of commercial cultivars. The allelic combinations, including 2*, 5+10, and 17+18, showing high quality scores were frequent among landraces, indicating their usefulness in future crop improvement and breeding programs.

  12. Gene transformation potential of commercial canola ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of efficient transformation methods in commercial varieties. In this research transformation potential of 8 commercial cultivars; Licord, SLM046, RGS003, Zarfam, Okapi, Sarigol, Modena and Opera adapted to different regions of Iran was studied using cotyledon and hypocotyl explants. Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain AGL0 ...

  13. Edible TV: Your Child and Food Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Robert B., Comp.; Engle, Pamela C., Comp.

    This document reports on the impact of television food commercials on children under 12, focusing specifically on how commercials influence children's food preferences and concepts, how they affect children's knowledge of nutrition, and how they contribute to obesity. Part I is a compilation of short excerpts from relevant testimony before the…

  14. The UK commercial demonstration fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on the UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor design was presented to the seminar on 'European Commercial Fast Reactor Programme, London 1987. The design is discussed under the topic headings:- primary circuit, intermediate heat exchangers and pumps, fuel and core, refuelling, steam generators, and nuclear island layout. (U.K.)

  15. 77 FR 65496 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... FY 1993 Authorization Act, 15 U.S.C. 5806 was added to the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA...; and (6) Private capital is at risk in the venture. The purpose of this final rule is to reconcile the... in the commercial space sector. During the comment period, NASA recognized a need to clarify the rule...

  16. Commercial Buildings Energy Performance within Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Existing commercial buildings represent a challenge in the energy efficiency domain. Energy efficiency of a building, very often equalized to a building’s performance should not be observed as a standalone issue. For commercial buildings, energy efficiency needs to be observed and assessed within...

  17. Regional vegetation management standards for commercial pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the understanding gained from these trials allowed for the development of vegetation management standards, their operational and economic viability need to be tested on a commercial basis. Four pine trials were thus initiated to test the applicability of these standards when utilised on a commercial scale. Two of ...

  18. Addendum waarde commerciële radiovergunningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, J.; Kerste, M.; Akker, I.; Prins, J.

    2011-01-01

    Op 18 mei 2010 stuurde de Minister van Economische Zaken het SEO-rapport Waarde commerciële radiovergunningen naar de Tweede Kamer. Dat rapport doet verslag van een onderzoek naar de waarde van de commerciële radiovergunningen. Het vormde de grondslag voor het financieel instrument in de

  19. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  20. TV Commercials as Achievement Scripts for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, F. L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Women who viewed four current, sex-stereotyped commercials emphasized homemaking over other achievement concerns in imagining their lives 10 years hence. Women who saw same commercials with sex roles reversed put significantly greater emphasis on their own achievement aspirations. Their more equal weighting of home and career matched men's. (CMG)

  1. CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-07-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  2. The Rise and Demise of Commercial Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.

    1982-01-01

    Commercial geography, originally taught in 18th-century trading schools, reached its zenith in the mid-1920s because it was stimulated by the development of the British Empire, noted for its commercial applications, and popularized through information disseminated by geographical societies. Demise factors include America's isolationist attitudes,…

  3. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.13 Commercial advertising. (a) The Navy... personnel, facilities, equipment or supplies for advertising purposes must be referred to the Chief of...

  4. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  5. Commercial kidney transplantation: Trends, outcomes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to determine the trends, outcomes and challenges of commercial living unrelated renal transplants (LURT) as .... Commercial kidney transplants: Trends and outcomes. (22,2%), diabète post-greffe dans sept (15 .... (42.2%) with UTI as the commonest infection, which is in keeping with the known fact that UTI.

  6. Progress commercializing solar-electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracker, R.; De Laquil, P. III

    1996-01-01

    The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies -- photovoltaic and solar thermal -- is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed

  7. Combustion properties of wood impregnated with commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine some combustion properties of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood specimens impregnated with aqueous solutions of commercial fertilizers. Ammonium sulphate (AS) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were used as commercial fertilizers. Diammonium phosphate and ...

  8. Rapid and accurate evaluation of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Huang, Chichao; Qian, Jian; Xiao, Jian; Li, Huan; Wen, Yongli; He, Xinhua; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The composting industry has been growing rapidly in China because of a boom in the animal industry. Therefore, a rapid and accurate assessment of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers is of the utmost importance. In this study, a novel technique that combines near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS) analysis is developed for rapidly and accurately assessing commercial organic fertilizers quality. A total of 104 commercial organic fertilizers were collected from full-scale compost factories in Jiangsu Province, east China. In general, the NIR-PLS technique showed accurate predictions of the total organic matter, water soluble organic nitrogen, pH, and germination index; less accurate results of the moisture, total nitrogen, and electrical conductivity; and the least accurate results for water soluble organic carbon. Our results suggested the combined NIR-PLS technique could be applied as a valuable tool to rapidly and accurately assess the quality of commercial organic fertilizers.

  9. Rapid and accurate evaluation of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wang

    Full Text Available The composting industry has been growing rapidly in China because of a boom in the animal industry. Therefore, a rapid and accurate assessment of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers is of the utmost importance. In this study, a novel technique that combines near infrared (NIR spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS analysis is developed for rapidly and accurately assessing commercial organic fertilizers quality. A total of 104 commercial organic fertilizers were collected from full-scale compost factories in Jiangsu Province, east China. In general, the NIR-PLS technique showed accurate predictions of the total organic matter, water soluble organic nitrogen, pH, and germination index; less accurate results of the moisture, total nitrogen, and electrical conductivity; and the least accurate results for water soluble organic carbon. Our results suggested the combined NIR-PLS technique could be applied as a valuable tool to rapidly and accurately assess the quality of commercial organic fertilizers.

  10. EEG Spectral Dynamics of Video Commercials: Impact of the Narrative on the Branding Product Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W Y; Chang, Yu-Ching; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2016-11-07

    Neuromarketing has become popular and received a lot of attention. The quality of video commercials and the product information they convey to consumers is a hotly debated topic among advertising agencies and product advertisers. This study explored the impact of advertising narrative and the frequency of branding product exposures on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. We performed electroencephalography (EEG) experiments on 30 subjects while they watched video commercials. The behavioral data indicated that commercials with a structured narrative and containing multiple exposures of the branding products had a positive impact on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. The EEG spectral dynamics showed that the narratives of video commercials resulted in higher theta power of the left frontal, bilateral occipital region, and higher gamma power of the limbic system. The narratives also induced significant cognitive integration-related beta and gamma power of the bilateral temporal regions and the parietal region. It is worth noting that the video commercials with a single exposure of the branding products would be indicators of attention. These new findings suggest that the presence of a narrative structure in video commercials has a critical impact on the preference for branding products.

  11. Consumer Travel Behaviors and Transport Carbon Emissions: A Comparative Study of Commercial Centers in Shenyang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current literature highlights the role of commercial centers in cities in generating shopping trips and transport carbon emissions. However, the influence of the characteristics of commercial centers on consumer travel behavior and transport carbon emissions is not well understood. This study addresses this knowledge gap by examining shopping trips to eight commercial centers in Shenyang, China, and the CO2 emissions of these trips. We found that the locations and types of commercial centers strongly influence CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions per trip to commercial centers in the suburbs of Shenyang were on average 6.94% and 26.92% higher than those to commercial centers in the urban core and the inner city, respectively. CO2 emissions induced by wholesale centers were nearly three times higher than the lowest CO2 emissions of commercial centers in the inner city. These empirical results enhance our understanding of shopping-related transport carbon emissions and highlight the importance of optimizing urban space structure, in particular, the layout of commercial centers.

  12. EEG Spectral Dynamics of Video Commercials: Impact of the Narrative on the Branding Product Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W. Y.; Chang, Yu-Ching; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Neuromarketing has become popular and received a lot of attention. The quality of video commercials and the product information they convey to consumers is a hotly debated topic among advertising agencies and product advertisers. This study explored the impact of advertising narrative and the frequency of branding product exposures on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. We performed electroencephalography (EEG) experiments on 30 subjects while they watched video commercials. The behavioral data indicated that commercials with a structured narrative and containing multiple exposures of the branding products had a positive impact on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. The EEG spectral dynamics showed that the narratives of video commercials resulted in higher theta power of the left frontal, bilateral occipital region, and higher gamma power of the limbic system. The narratives also induced significant cognitive integration-related beta and gamma power of the bilateral temporal regions and the parietal region. It is worth noting that the video commercials with a single exposure of the branding products would be indicators of attention. These new findings suggest that the presence of a narrative structure in video commercials has a critical impact on the preference for branding products. PMID:27819348

  13. Rethinking Canada's Higher Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polster, Claire

    2002-01-01

    Rather than a public good that is freely shared, Canadian university research is increasingly privatized and commercialized and thus rendered accessible only to those who can pay for it. The effects include erosion of collegiality, institutional democracy, curiosity-driven basic research, objectivity, and consideration of disadvantaged groups. All…

  14. NASA's commercial research plans and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ray J.

    One of the primary goals of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) commercial space development plan is to encourage the development of space-based products and markets, along with the infrastructure and transportation that will support those products and markets. A three phased program has been instituted to carry out this program. The first phase utilizes government grants through the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) for space-related, industry driven research; the development of a technology data base; and the development of commercial space transportation and infrastructure. The second phase includes the development of these technologies by industry for new commercial markets, and features unique industry/government collaborations such as Joint Endeavor Agreements. The final phase will feature technical applications actually brought to the marketplace. The government's role will be to support industry required infrastructure to encourage start-up markets and industries through follow-on development agreements such as the Space Systems Development Agreement. The Office of Commercial Programs has an aggressive flight program underway on the Space Shuttle, suborbital rockets, orbital expendable launch vehicles, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module with SPACEHAB Inc. The Office of Commercial Program's has been allocated 35 percent of the U.S. share of the Space Station Freedom resources for 1997 utilization. A utilization plan has been developed with the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space and has identified eleven materials processing and biotechnology payloads occupying 5 double racks in the pressurized module as well as two payloads external to the module in materials exposure and environment monitoring. The Office of Commercial Programs will rely on the Space Station Freedom to provide the long duration laboratory component for space-based commercial research.

  15. The Faceless Masters of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katja Brøgger

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to research on international higher education reform by offering an empirical and theoretical account of the mode of governance that characterizes the Bologna Process and by demonstrating how the reform materializes and is translated in everyday working life, including......, and c) professors and managers’ translations of the Bologna Process, including the ways in which the reform processes alter professional working life in higher education organizations. The research project employs a combination of qualitative methods and materials, including interviews, observations...... of higher education despite the fact that education falls outside EU’s legislative reach. The dissertation further argues that the spread and continuous development and production of higher education standards in Europe depends on the infrastructure of the Bologna Process, which consists of an explosion...

  16. Financial Health of a Commercial Insurance Company and its Coherences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Nečas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The main purpose of the article is to define the term “financial health of a commercial insurance company” and identify the factors that influence management and its economic results of a commercial insurance company. The above mentioned term will be faced with other similar terms such as financial stability, financial strength, solvency, liquidity or profitability (always with emphasis on the insurance sector. Related to this purpose, this hypothesis is formulated: “Financial health of a commercial insurance company can be identified in the long perspective with the term financial stability and as its synonym the concept of solvency can be stated.” Methodology/methods: The methods of description, analysis, deduction and induction will be used in the article. The research part is based on a qualitative basis. It combines three methods of qualitative research: interviews with experts, a structured interview with open questions, a questionnaire with open questions. Its subject is a managed conversation with leading experts in the field of insurance and related branches, who answered questions related to the topic. Evaluation of interviews was done by method of interview analysis, respectively thematic analysis and subsequent synthesis based on respondents’ answers. The synthesis is used as a method to gain new knowledge. The conclusions are the basis for discussion for the theory completion in the case of the term mentioned above and for statements to other contexts that are defined in the objectives of the article. Synthetic approach is applied in the formulation of conclusions of the research. Significant findings for the theory are obtained by abstraction, as derived from observations of the issues, i.e. financial health of a commercial insurance company. The evaluation also includes a summary of significant matters and it reflects the opinion of the author devised throughout literature and based on interviews

  17. Airbreathing combined cycle engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, John

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force and NASA share a common interest in developing advanced propulsion systems for commercial and military aerospace vehicles which require efficient acceleration and cruise operation in the Mach 4 to 6 flight regime. The principle engine of interest is the turboramjet; however, other combined cycles such as the turboscramjet, air turborocket, supercharged ejector ramjet, ejector ramjet, and air liquefaction based propulsion are also of interest. Over the past months careful planning and program implementation have resulted in a number of development efforts that will lead to a broad technology base for those combined cycle propulsion systems. Individual development programs are underway in thermal management, controls materials, endothermic hydrocarbon fuels, air intake systems, nozzle exhaust systems, gas turbines and ramjet ramburners.

  18. Sponsored Schools and Commercialized Classrooms: Schoolhouse Commercializing Trends in the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex

    This report analyzes commercializing trends in America's schools and classrooms, using data from database searches in seven categories of schoolhouse commercialism in the period 1990-97. The number of citations relating to commercializing activities can provide only a rough approximation of the scope and development of the phenomenon. The number…

  19. STRUCTURE OF MODELS FOR AGGREGATE ASSESSMENT OF FINANCIAL RISK COMMERCIAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    G. Kryshtal

    2016-01-01

    Conceptual approaches use a structural model for assessment of financial risk commercial banks, namely the risk measurement in combination: a comparison of its capital, calculated based on the standard approach of Basel II advanced approaches of Basel II and the structural model. Analysis of the application of the model in a economics crisis situation, such as the capital adequacy of the commercial banks. Deals with a unified approach to the choice of measure and its risk parameters to measur...

  20. How to pass higher French for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Get your best grade with this guide to Higher French for CfE. We are working with SQA to gain endorsement for this title. This book contains all the advice and support you need to revise successfully for your Higher (for CfE) exam. It combines an overview of the course syllabus with advice from a top expert on how to improve exam performance, so you have the best chance of success. - Refresh your knowledge with complete course notes - Prepare for the exam with top tips and hints on revision techniques - Get your best grade with advice on how to gain those vital extra marks

  1. Comparison of commercial exosome isolation kits for circulating exosomal microRNA profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Wang, Cheng; Lu, Xiaolan; Zhang, Cuiping; Zhou, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chunni

    2018-06-01

    Circulating exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are valuable biomarker candidates; however, information on the characterization and mutual agreement of commercial kits for circulating exosomal miRNA profiling is scarce. Here, we analyzed the advantages and weaknesses of four commonly used commercial kits for exosomal miRNA profiling and their application to the sample of serum and/or plasma, respectively. NanoSight and Western blotting were conducted to evaluate the efficiency and purity of the isolated exosomes. In our conditions, the size distribution of the isolated particles was appropriate (40-150 nm), and ExoQuick™ Exosome Precipitation Solution (EXQ) generated a relatively high yield of exosomes. Nevertheless, albumin impurity was ubiquitous for all the four kits, and Total Exosome Isolation for serum or plasma (TEI) yielded a relatively pure isolation. We further performed Illumina sequencing combined with RT-qPCR to determine the ability of these kits for miRNA profiling. There was significant correlation of the exosomal miRNA profile and specific miRNAs between kits, but with differences depending on methods. exoRNeasy Serum/Plasma Midi Kit (EXR) and EXQ performed better in the specific exosomal miRNAs recovery. Intraassay CVs for specific miRNA measurement were 0.88-3.82, 1.19-3.77, 0-2.70, and 1.23-9.11% for EXR, TEI, EXQ, and RIBO™ Exosome Isolation Reagent (REI), respectively. In each kit, serum yielded a higher abundance of exosomes and exosomal miRNAs than plasma, yet with more albumin impurity. In conclusion, our data provide some valuable guidance for the methodology of disease biomarker identification of circulation exosomal miRNAs. Graphical abstract Circulating exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are valuable biomarker candidates; however, information on the characterization and mutual agreement of commercial kits for circulating exosomal miRNA profiling is scarce. In this study, we compared four commonly used commercially available kits for exosomal mi

  2. Commercialization of IGCC technology looks promising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a major focus of the latest round of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program was three large-scale, high-efficiency electricity generating projects which will rely on coal gasification rather than burning the coal directly. The three projects are: Toms Creek integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) demonstration project. The aim of the project is to demonstrate improved coal-to-power efficiencies in an integrated gasification combined-cycle process. According to the DOE, the Toms Creek project will show that significant reductions in SO 2 and NO x emissions can be accomplished through the use of IGCC technology. On completion of the project, 107 MW of electric capacity will be added to the grid. Pinon Pine IGCC power project. The project's aim is to demonstrate that IGCC plants can be constructed at significantly lower capital costs, and with higher thermal efficiencies, than conventional power generation technologies. It will also demonstrate the effectiveness of hot gas cleanup for low-sulfur western coals. Wasbash River coal gasification repowering project

  3. COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED STUFF FOR ADDITIONAL FEEDING IN INFANTS’ NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Ya. Kon’

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a problem of rational nutrition of infants with commercially produced additional feeding stuff containing fruits and vegetables. Equally with traditional form of fruits and vegetables in infants’ nutrition (juices, nectars, mashed products, there are new types of food — combined mush products containing fruits, cereals and milk. The article analyzes compound, properties of these products and peculiarities of their use in infants’ nutrition. Authors give recommendations on terms of inclusion these products in diet of infants.Key words: infants, nutrition, additional feeding, mashed products.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:119-123

  4. Using DOE Commercial Reference Buildings for Simulation Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, K.; Deru, M.; Studer, D.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed 256 EnergyPlus models for use in studies that aim to characterize about 70% of the U.S. commercial building stock. Sixteen building types - including restaurants, health care, schools, offices, supermarkets, retail, lodging, and warehouses - are modeled across 16 cities to represent the diversity of U.S. climate zones. Weighting factors have been developed to combine the models in proportions similar to those of the McGraw-Hill Construction Projects Starts Database for 2003-2007. This paper reviews the development and contents of these models and their applications in simulation studies.

  5. An evaluation of the impact of state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) on retail, commercial, and industrial electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puram, Rakesh

    The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular mechanism for states to promote renewable energy and its popularity has spurred a potential bill within Congress for a nationwide Federal RPS. While RPS benefits have been touted by several groups, it also has detractors. Among the concerns is that RPS standards could raise electricity rates, given that renewable energy is costlier than traditional fossil fuels. The evidence on the impact of RPS on electricity prices is murky at best: Complex models by NREL and USEIA utilize computer programs with several assumptions which make empirical studies difficult and only predict slight increases in electricity rates associated with RPS standards. Recent theoretical models and empirical studies have found price increases, but often fail to comprehensively include several sets of variables, which in fact could confound results. Utilizing a combination of past papers and studies to triangulate variables this study aims to develop both a rigorous fixed effects regression model as well as a theoretical framework to explain the results. This study analyzes state level panel data from 2002 to 2008 to analyze the effect of RPS on residential, commercial, and industrial electricity prices, controlling for several factors including amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, customer incentives for renewable energy, macroeconomic and demographic indicators, and fuel price mix. The study contrasts several regressions to illustrate important relationships and how inclusions as well as exclusion of various variables have an effect on electricity rates. Regression results indicate that the presence of RPS within a state increases the commercial and residential electricity rates, but have no discernable effect on the industrial electricity rate. Although RPS tends to increase electricity prices, the effect has a small impact on higher electricity prices. The models also indicate that jointly all

  6. Commercial applications of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.; Frank, T.G.

    1977-05-01

    This report describes the fundamentals of inertial-confinement fusion, some laser-fusion reactor (LFR) concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation. In addition, other commercial energy-related applications, such as the production of fissionable fuels, of synthetic hydrocarbon-based fuels, and of process heat for a variety of uses, as well as the environmental and safety aspects of fusion energy, are discussed. Finally, the requirements for commercialization of laser fusion technologies are described

  7. Commercial application of fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosetti, P.A.; Bruce, R.A.

    1970-01-01

    The potential for general application of Fault Tree Analysis to commercial products appears attractive based not only on the successful extension from the aerospace safety technology to the nuclear reactor reliability and availability technology, but also because combinatorial hazards are common to commercial operations and therefore lend themselves readily to evaluation by Fault Tree Analysis. It appears reasonable to conclude that the technique has application within the commercial industrial community where the occurrence of a specified consequence or final event would be of sufficient concern to management to justify such a rigorous analysis as an aid to decision making. (U.S.)

  8. R and M practices in commercial aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    During 1982-83, Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA) and American Management Systems (AMS) conducted an extensive review of design and operations practices in the commercial air transport industry focused on reliability and maintenance for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The genesis of this review was a discussion of the technical and environmental similarities of the commercial air transport and commercial nuclear power communities and the potential opportunities for experience transfer from air transport to nuclear power. This paper focuses on those similarities believed to be of particular interest to the nuclear power community

  9. Environmental management technology demonstration and commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Energy ampersand Environmental Research Center (EERC), a contract-supported organization focused on technology research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD ampersand C), is entering its second year of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to facilitate the development, demonstration, and commercialization of innovative environmental management (EM) technologies in support of the activities of DOE's Office of Environmental Science and Technology (EM-50) under DOE's EM Program. This paper reviews the concept and approach of the program under the METC-EERC EM Cooperative Agreement and profiles the role the program is playing in the commercialization of five EM technologies

  10. Thermal comfort in commercial kitchens (RP-1469)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Stoops, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory, and working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type of establishment (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, the size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., further complicate an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in commercial kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are stipulated in international standards (e.g., ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN 7730), but are these standardized methods applicable...... dissatisfied (PMV/PPD) index is not directly appropriate for all thermal conditions in commercial kitchens....

  11. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  12. The commercial evolution of the Titan program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakowitz, Steven

    1988-07-01

    The present status evaluation of proprietary efforts to turn the once exclusively government-requirements-oriented Titan launch vehicle into a successful commercial competitor is divided into three phases. The first phase notes recent changes in U.S. space transportation policy and the Titan configurations evaluated for commercial feasibility. The second phase is a development history for the current vehicle's marketing organization and the right-to-use agreement for a launch site. Phase three projects the prospective marketing climate for a commercial Titan vehicle and its planned improvements.

  13. Commercialization of Innovations and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...

  14. A commercial space technology testbed on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a significant and growing commercial market for new, more capable communications and remote sensing satellites. Competition in this market strongly motivates satellite manufacturers and spacecraft component developers to test and demonstrate new space hardware in a realistic environment. External attach points on the International Space Station allow it to function uniquely as a space technology testbed to satisfy this market need. However, space industry officials have identified three critical barriers to their commercial use of the ISS: unpredictable access, cost risk, and schedule uncertainty. Appropriate NASA policy initiatives and business/technical assistance for industry from the Commercial Space Center for Engineering can overcome these barriers. .

  15. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  16. Gas-cooled reactor commercialization study: introduction scenario and commercialization analyses for process heat applications. Final report, July 8, 1977--November 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This report identifies and presents an introduction scenario which can lead to the operation of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor demonstration plants for combined process heat and electric power generation applications, and presents a commercialization analysis relevant to the organizational and management plans which could implement a development program

  17. Gas-cooled reactor commercialization study: introduction scenario and commercialization analyses for process heat applications. Final report, July 8, 1977--November 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This report identifies and presents an introduction scenario which can lead to the operation of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor demonstration plants for combined process heat and electric power generation applications, and presents a commercialization analysis relevant to the organizational and management plans which could implement a development program.

  18. Trends in energy use in commercial buildings -- Sixteen years of EIA's commercial buildings energy consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.; Swenson, A.

    1998-07-01

    The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects basic statistical information on energy consumption and energy-related characteristics of commercial buildings in the US. The first CBECS was conducted in 1979 and the most recent was completed in 1995. Over that period, the number of commercial bindings and total amount of floorspace increased, total consumption remained flat, and total energy intensity declined. By 1995, there were 4.6 million commercial buildings and 58.8 billion square feet of floorspace. The buildings consumed a total of 5.3 quadrillion Btu (site energy), with a total intensity of 90.5 thousand Btu per square foot per year. Electricity consumption exceeded natural gas consumption (2.6 quadrillion and 1.9 quadrillion Btu, respectively). In 1995, the two major users of energy were space heating (1.7 quadrillion Btu) and lighting (1.2 quadrillion Btu). Over the period 1979 to 1995, natural gas intensity declined from 71.4 thousand to 51.0 thousand Btu per square foot per year. Electricity intensity did not show a similar decline (44.2 thousand Btu per square foot in 1979 and 45.7 thousand Btu per square foot in 1995). Two types of commercial buildings, office buildings and mercantile and service buildings, were the largest consumers of energy in 1995 (2.0 quadrillion Btu, 38% of total consumption). Three building types, health care, food service, and food sales, had significantly higher energy intensities. Buildings constructed since 1970 accounted for half of total consumption and a majority (59%) of total electricity consumption.

  19. Technical and clinical evaluation of an improved-contrast screen-film combination for radiation therapy portal localization imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, Arthur G.; Dickerson, Robert E.; Huff, Kenneth E.; Monte, Suzanne; Schlager, Barbara A.; Atanas, Meri; Matloubieh, Ahmad

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: A problem with conventional radiation therapy portal images is low image contrast, due in part to the low attenuation of the exposing radiation by the anatomical parts being imaged and the contrast capabilities of the film or screen-film combination. The purpose of this study was to design, develop and clinically evaluate a new screen-film combination for portal localization imaging which provides significantly higher contrast and therefore improved image quality. Materials and Methods: Comparison phantom and clinical images were made at two radiation oncology facilities with the new prototype screen-film combination and a commercial screen-film combination currently used for portal localization imaging. All images were made with linear accelerators at 6MV. Sensitometric data was also obtained. The prototype combination features a 1.0mm copper front screen plus front and back gadolinium oxysulfide fluorescent intensifying screens and a very-slow-speed film having inherently high contrast. The film emulsion layers are coated on a 7 mil Estar base which allows processing in a conventional rapid process film processor. For this combination, the film is exposed primarily by light from the intensifying screens. The current, commercially available screen-film combination was a Kodak X-Omatic L Radiation Therapy Cassette with a 1.0mm copper front screen and a 0.25mm lead back screen and Kodak X-Omat RP film in ready pack envelope. With this combination, the film emulsion is exposed by electrons generated in the metal screens. All films were processed in a Kodak M35A X-Omat processor. Radiation oncologists reviewed the phantom and clinical images. Results: Sensitometric data indicate that the film contrast (average gradient) of the new prototype combination is approximately 4 times higher than the conventional commercially available combination. Phantom and clinical comparisons at St. Mary Cancer Center, Langhorne PA. and the Daisy Marquis Jones

  20. Makerere Journal of Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makerere Journal of Higher Education (MAJOHE) is the official publication of ... management and improvement of higher education from an international viewpoint. ... Historical Development of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria: ...

  1. Comparative studies of perceived vibration strength for commercial mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Siak Piang

    2014-05-01

    A mobile phone, also known as cell phone or hand phone, is among the most popular electrical devices used by people all over the world. The present study examines the vibration perception of mobile phones by co-relating the relevant design parameters such as excitation frequency, and size and mass of mobile phones to the vibration perception survey by volunteers. Five popular commercially available mobile phone models were tested. The main findings for the perception surveys were that higher vibration frequency and amplitude of the peak acceleration would result in stronger vibration perception of the mobile phones. A larger contact surface area with the palms and figures, higher peak acceleration and the associated larger peak inertia force may be the main factors for the relatively higher vibration perception. The future design for the vibration alert of the mobile phones is likely to follow this trend. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Multicentre evaluation of commercial kit methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Declerck, P J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved in...... of the plasma samples, which was PAI-1 depleted. The laboratories involved in the testing reported for this sample a mean value of 6.1 IU/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved...... in the production of data from each of the commercial kits tested. A considerable variation of PAI activity results reported from the laboratories testing the same commercial kits was observed. The range of reported results could in individual samples exceed the median value indicating an interlaboratory variation...

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ice Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers that are...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  5. Redefining commercial vehicle permitting and credentialing violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze enforcement and adjudication of common commercial vehicle tax, credentialing, and safety offenses. This study examined violations of the International Fuel Tax Agreement and the Kentucky Intrastate Tax, Kent...

  6. Commercial truck parking and other safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Commercial truck parking is a safety issue, since trucks are involved in approximately 10% of all fatal accidents on interstates and : parkways in Kentucky. Drivers experience schedule demands and long hours on the road, yet they cannot easily determ...

  7. Commercial Concession: Issues of Conceptual Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomonov E. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the theoretical issues of correlation of terms used to refer to the agreement of commercial concession, as well as related issues arising from legal practice and theory of civil law

  8. The Commercial Open Source Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Dirk

    Commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software. Commercial open source at first glance represents an economic paradox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free as open source? This paper presents the core properties of com mercial open source business models and discusses how they work. Using a commercial open source approach, firms can get to market faster with a superior product at lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The paper shows how these benefits accrue from an engaged and self-supporting user community. Lacking any prior comprehensive reference, this paper is based on an analysis of public statements by practitioners of commercial open source. It forges the various anecdotes into a coherent description of revenue generation strategies and relevant business functions.

  9. Commercial vehicle route tracking using video detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-31

    Interstate commercial vehicle traffic is a major factor in the life of any road surface. The ability to track : these vehicles and their routes through the state can provide valuable information to planning : activities. We propose a method using vid...

  10. A Commercial Architecture for Satellite Imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Didier, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    .... This study focuses on the concept of the U.S. government purchasing proven and successful commercial satellites with minimal non-recurring engineering costs to help augment current national systems...

  11. Defining Commercial Space's Place in the Battlespace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeMello, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    ... (to include ALLIED FORCE, ENDURING FREEDOM and IRAQI FREEDOM), the U.S. has needed to extend beyond the capabilities of dedicated DoD and national space assets, relying on the commercial space sector to provide...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  13. Notes on Commercialization of Biotechnology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy Jakobsen, Palle

    This book introduces aspects of commercialization of biomedical & biotech research including pharmaceutical drug and medical device development, innovation concepts, patent protection & commercialisation of research by securing investments in new companies and by licensing of the commersialisatio...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Steam Cookers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Steam Cookers that are effective as...

  15. Denying Access to Commercial Communications Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Washington, Tania

    1999-01-01

    .... Commercial systems such as Orion, Panamsat, Iridium and Globalstar will provide the U.S. military and its potential adversaries with a relatively inexpensive and highly effective means to increase the command, control and communications (C3...

  16. Missouri commercial vehicle operations : state business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-15

    This business plan is intended to assist this state in improving its commercial vehicle operation regulation, guide the deployment and installation of intelligent transportation systems and to implement these systems in an efficient and cost effectiv...

  17. Commercialization of Innovations and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...... in innovation and marketing making R&D and marketing complements in their investment decision. However, there is only week evidence for the hypothesis that commercialization of innovations also creates more value for the firms in the short run....

  18. Guide to commercially available wind machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-03

    Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) commercially available in the United States are described. The terms used to describe these wind systems are defined and their significance discussed. Lists of manufacturers and distributors, subsystem components and suppliers, and references are provided.

  19. Psychological Strategies in Managing Television Commercial Efficacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    familiar versus novel), and information source (credible versus non-credible) as psychological strategies of managing television commercial efficacy. Subject's total score on recall of advert information, attitude to an advert, and intention to buy an ...

  20. Farm-Level Determinants of output Commercialization:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARC-AB

    Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research. አኀፅሮተ- ... haricot bean output commercialization among smallholder farmers in moisture-stress areas of ..... the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, July.

  1. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    the compensation due to the agent upon the termination of the commercial .... Virginia School of Law Legal Studies Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. ..... grant up to a one year commission if they find the circumstances equitable.67 In.

  2. Northeast Commercial Fishing Vessel Cost Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Typically, commercial fishing businesses incur three major types of costs: fixed or annual costs; which are incurred annually irrespective of whether any fishing...

  3. Commercial Fisheries Database Biological Sample (CFDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Age and length frequency data for finfish and invertebrate species collected during commercial fishing vessels. Samples are collected by fisheries reporting...

  4. Professionalism and Commercialism on Cosmetic Surgeons' Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Yeon; Park, SangHee

    2017-07-01

    This study analyzed the homepages of 250 cosmetic surgeons' websites by focusing on the representation of cosmetic surgery providers, cosmetic surgery recipients, and cosmetic surgery practice itself. Based on a literature review, some common elements of the webpages were preidentified as the indicators of professionalism or commercialism. Subsequently, each homepage was scrutinized for their presence and salience. Overall, cosmetic surgeons' websites were high in professionalism and low in commercialism in their representation of the service providers. In depicting the recipients, the websites were moderate in both professionalism and commercialism. The representation of practice was low in professionalism and moderate in commercialism. Implications of these findings for doctors, regulators, and consumer advocates are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.

  5. Industrial Property in the Commercialization of Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanchuk, G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the investigations on creation of industrial property rights, the reasons which constrained their development and their role in the commercialization of innovation are presented.

  6. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelburn, Bryan H

    2002-01-01

    .... Among those elements susceptible to these vulnerabilities are the operations of commercial air carriers that are essential to the military's ability to wage war and project power wherever needed in the world...

  7. Exploitation of commercial remote sensing images: reality ignored?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul C.

    1999-12-01

    The remote sensing market is on the verge of being awash in commercial high-resolution images. Market estimates are based on the growing numbers of planned commercial remote sensing electro-optical, radar, and hyperspectral satellites and aircraft. EarthWatch, Space Imaging, SPOT, and RDL among others are all working towards launch and service of one to five meter panchromatic or radar-imaging satellites. Additionally, new advances in digital air surveillance and reconnaissance systems, both manned and unmanned, are also expected to expand the geospatial customer base. Regardless of platform, image type, or location, each system promises images with some combination of increased resolution, greater spectral coverage, reduced turn-around time (request-to- delivery), and/or reduced image cost. For the most part, however, market estimates for these new sources focus on the raw digital images (from collection to the ground station) while ignoring the requirements for a processing and exploitation infrastructure comprised of exploitation tools, exploitation training, library systems, and image management systems. From this it would appear the commercial imaging community has failed to learn the hard lessons of national government experience choosing instead to ignore reality and replicate the bias of collection over processing and exploitation. While this trend may be not impact the small quantity users that exist today it will certainly adversely affect the mid- to large-sized users of the future.

  8. Commercial air travel and in-flight pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas G; Chang, Rae W; Robbins, Peter A; Dorrington, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been shown that commercial air travel triggers hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and modestly increases pulmonary artery pressure in healthy passengers. There is large interindividual variation in hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity, and some passengers may be at risk of developing flight-induced pulmonary hypertension, with potentially dangerous consequences. This study sought to determine whether it is possible for a susceptible passenger to develop pulmonary hypertension in response to a routine commercial flight. Using in-flight echocardiography, a passenger was studied during a 6-h commercial flight from London to Dubai. The passenger was generally well and frequently traveled by air, but had been diagnosed with Chuvash polycythemia, a genetic condition that is associated with increased hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity. Hematocrit had been normalized with regular venesection. During the flight, arterial oxygen saturation fell to a minimum of 96% and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) rapidly increased into the pulmonary hypertensive range. The in-flight increase in sPAP was 50%, reaching a peak of 45 mmHg. This study has established that an asymptomatic but susceptible passenger can rapidly develop in-flight pulmonary hypertension even during a medium-haul flight. Prospective passengers at risk from such responses, including those who have cardiopulmonary disease or increased hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity, could benefit from preflight evaluation with a hypoxia altitude simulation test combined with simultaneous echocardiography (HAST-echo). The use of in-flight supplementary oxygen should be considered for susceptible individuals, including all patients diagnosed with Chuvash polycythemia.

  9. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  10. A Tax for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  11. Commercial refrigeration - An overview of current status

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Babiloni, Adrián; Navarro Esbri, Joaquin; BARRAGÁN CERVERA, ÁNGEL; Moles, Francisco; Peris, Bernardo; Verdú Martín, Gumersindo Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Commercial Refrigeration comprises food freezing and conservation in retail stores and supermarkets, so, it is one of the most relevant energy consumption sectors, and its relevance is increasing. This paper reviews the most recent developments in commercial refrigeration available in literature and presents a good amount of results provided these systems, covering some advantages and disadvantages in systems and working fluids. Latest researches are focused on energy savings to reduce CO2 in...

  12. Technical and commercial aspects of MHTGR development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northup, T.E.; Simon, W.A.; Wistrom, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is under development by industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Passive safety and design simplicity make the MHTGR an attractive option for future nuclear power generation, but deployment faces many challenges. Economic competitiveness, public acceptance, licensing approval and first-of-a-kind (FOAK) development funding represent some of the prerequisites to commercialization. Successful commercialization hinges on a prototype and a subsequent Lead Plant Project. (author)

  13. Automatic control of commercial computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvov, B.A.; Artem'ev, A.N.; Maevskij, A.G.; Demkiv, A.A.; Kirillov, B.F.; Belyaev, A.D.; Artem'ev, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The way of automatic control of commercial computer programs is presented. The developed connection of the EXAFS spectrometer automatic system (which is managed by PC for DOS) is taken with the commercial program for the CCD detector control (which is managed by PC for Windows). The described complex system is used for the automation of intermediate amplitude spectra processing in EXAFS spectrum measurements at Kurchatov SR source

  14. Opteren voor de Netherlands Commercial Court

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeben, J.; Keirse, A.L.M.; Reijneveld, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Internationale contracten leiden tot internationale handelsgeschillen. Deze kunnen onder meer worden beslecht bij een commercial court. In Nederland wordt momenteel een Netherlands Commercial Court (NCC) opgericht. Dit introduceert een keuze voor (contracts)partijen voor een nieuw forum voor beslechting van internationale handelsgeschillen in de Engelse taal, waarbij de belangen van snelheid, efficiëntie en goede financierbaarheid centraal staan. Dit artikel verkent de positieve aspecten van ...

  15. KWU's modular approach to HTR commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frewer, H.; Weisbrodt, I.

    1983-01-01

    As a way of avoiding the uncertainties, delays and unacceptable commercial risks which have plagued advanced reactor projects in Germany, KWU is advocating a modular approach to commercialization of the high-temperature reactor (HTR), using small size standard reactor units. KWU has received a contract for the study of a co-generation plant based on this modular system. Features of the KWU modular HTR, process heat, gasification, costs and future development are discussed. (UK)

  16. Commercial Titan program - Status and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensselaer, F. L.; Browne, E. M.

    Out of a quarter-century heritage of eminently successful expendable launch vehicle history with the U.S. government, a commercial launch services enterprise which challenges the corporation as well as the competition has been launched within the Martin Marietta Corporation. This paper is an inside look at the philosophy, structure, and success of the new subsidiary, which is attempting to win a share of the international communication satellite market as well as the U.S. government commercial launch services market.

  17. Enabling alternate fuels for commercial aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Daggett, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the past four years of work to examine the feasibility, sustainability and economic viability of developing a renewable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, liquid biofuel for commercial aircraft. The sharp increase in environmental concerns, such as global warming, as well as the volatile price fluctuations of fossil fuels, has ignited a search for alternative transportation fuels. However, commercial aircraft can not use present alternative fuels that are designed for ground...

  18. Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios The WEA Project Team May 2012 SPECIAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2012-SR-020 CERT® Division, Software ...Homeland Security under Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0003 with Carnegie Mellon University for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally...DISTRIBUTES IT “AS IS.” References herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trade mark, manufacturer, or otherwise

  19. MARKETING STRATEGY OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savelyeva Irina Petrovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop an original approach to the formation of a marketing strategy of commercialization of innovations. The existing views on the process of creating marketing strategies were examined and classified and the algorithm of building marketing strategies for the processes commercialization of innovations was offered. The results can be used by industrial companies and in the educational process of marketing, strategic marketing and innovation management disciplines.

  20. Commercial mixed waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    At the South Clive, Utah, site, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., (Envirocare), currently operates a commercial low-activity, low-level radioactive waste facility, a mixed waste RCRA Part B storage and disposal facility, and an 11e.(2) disposal facility. Envirocare is also in the process of constructing a Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. As the nation's first and only commercial treatment and disposal facility for such waste, the information presented in this segment will provide insight into their current and prospective operations