WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher cognitive processes

  1. Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition: Advancing the Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Stanovich, Keith E

    2013-05-01

    Dual-process and dual-system theories in both cognitive and social psychology have been subjected to a number of recently published criticisms. However, they have been attacked as a category, incorrectly assuming there is a generic version that applies to all. We identify and respond to 5 main lines of argument made by such critics. We agree that some of these arguments have force against some of the theories in the literature but believe them to be overstated. We argue that the dual-processing distinction is supported by much recent evidence in cognitive science. Our preferred theoretical approach is one in which rapid autonomous processes (Type 1) are assumed to yield default responses unless intervened on by distinctive higher order reasoning processes (Type 2). What defines the difference is that Type 2 processing supports hypothetical thinking and load heavily on working memory. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Motivation, Cognitive Processing and Achievement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Marjon

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the question of whether a student's expectancy, values and negative affect influenced their deep information processing approach and achievement at the end of the first and second academic year. Five hundred and sixty-five first-year students completed a self-report questionnaire on three different occasions. The…

  3. Motivation, cognitive processing and achievement in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the question of whether a student's expectancy, values and negative affect influenced their deep information processing approach and achievement at the end of the first and second academic year. Five hundred and sixty-five first-year students completed a self-report

  4. A Case Study: Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition-Commentary on Evans & Stanovich (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda

    2013-05-01

    Dual-process theories of higher order cognition (DPTs) have been enjoying much success, particularly since Kahneman's 2002 Nobel prize address and recent book Thinking, Fast and Slow (2009). Historically, DPTs have attempted to provide a conceptual framework that helps classify and predict differences in patterns of behavior found under some circumstances and not others in a host of reasoning, judgment, and decision-making tasks. As evidence has changed and techniques for examining behavior have moved on, so too have DPTs. Killing two birds with one stone, Evans and Stanovich (2013, this issue) respond to five main criticisms of DPTs. Along with addressing each criticism in turn, they set out to clarify the essential defining characteristics that distinguish one form of higher order cognition from the other. The aim of this commentary is to consider the defining characteristics of Type 1 and Type 2 processing that have been proposed and to suggest that the evidence can be taken to support quantitative differences rather than qualitatively distinct processes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Psilocybin disrupts sensory and higher order cognitive processing but not pre-attentive cognitive processing-study on P300 and mismatch negativity in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravermanová, Anna; Viktorinová, Michaela; Tylš, Filip; Novák, Tomáš; Androvičová, Renáta; Korčák, Jakub; Horáček, Jiří; Balíková, Marie; Griškova-Bulanova, Inga; Danielová, Dominika; Vlček, Přemysl; Mohr, Pavel; Brunovský, Martin; Koudelka, Vlastimil; Páleníček, Tomáš

    2018-02-01

    Disruption of auditory event-related evoked potentials (ERPs) P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN), electrophysiological markers of attentive and pre-attentive cognitive processing, is repeatedly described in psychosis and schizophrenia. Similar findings were observed in a glutamatergic model of psychosis, but the role of serotonergic 5-HT 2A receptors in information processing is less clear. We studied ERPs in a serotonergic model of psychosis, induced by psilocybin, a psychedelic with 5-HT 2A/C agonistic properties, in healthy volunteers. Twenty subjects (10M/10F) were given 0.26 mg/kg of psilocybin orally in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. ERPs (P300, MMN) were registered during the peak of intoxication. Correlations between measured electrophysiological variables and psilocin serum levels and neuropsychological effects were also analyzed. Psilocybin induced robust psychedelic effects and psychotic-like symptoms, decreased P300 amplitude (p = 0.009) but did not affect the MMN. Psilocybin's disruptive effect on P300 correlated with the intensity of the psychedelic state, which was dependent on the psilocin serum levels. We also observed a decrease in N100 amplitude (p = 0.039) in the P300 paradigm and a negative correlation between P300 and MMN amplitude (p = 0.014). Even though pre-attentive cognition (MMN) was not affected, processing at the early perceptual level (N100) and in higher-order cognition (P300) was significantly disrupted by psilocybin. Our results have implications for the role of 5-HT 2A receptors in altered information processing in psychosis and schizophrenia.

  6. Failing to Get the Gist of What’s Being Said: Background Noise Impairs Higher Order Cognitive Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Everett Marsh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. At such low signal-to-noise ratios when listeners could identify words, those participants could not necessarily remember those words. These investigations supported a view that there is a gap between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg, Ljung, & Hallman, 2008. Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore… was associated with a critical lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep. Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. Failing to get the gist of what's being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E; Ljung, Robert; Nöstl, Anatole; Threadgold, Emma; Campbell, Tom A

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a "gap" between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a "critical" lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  8. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  9. Failing to Get the Gist of What’s Being Said: Background Noise Impairs Higher Order Cognitive Processing

    OpenAIRE

    John Everett Marsh; John Everett Marsh; Robert eLjung; Anatole eNöstl; Emma eThreadgold; Tom A Campbell

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. At such low signal-to-noise ratios when listeners could identify words, those participants could not necessarily remember those words. These investigations supported a view th...

  10. Failing to get the gist of what's being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, John E.; Ljung, Robert; N?stl, Anatole; Threadgold, Emma; Campbell, Tom A.

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a "gap" between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between sp...

  11. Cognitive Processing Hardware Elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Widrow, Bernard; Eliashberg, Victor; Kamenetsky, Max

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify and develop cognitive information processing systems and algorithms that can be implemented with novel architectures and devices with the goal of achieving...

  12. Overriding Moral Intuitions – Does It Make Us Immoral? Dual-Process Theory of Higher Cognition Account for Moral Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Białek; Simon J. Handley

    2013-01-01

    Moral decisions are considered as an intuitive process, while conscious reasoning is mostly used only to justify those intuitions. This problem is described in few different dual-process theories of mind, that are being developed e.g. by Frederick and Kahneman, Stanovich and Evans. Those theories recently evolved into tri-process theories with a proposed process that makes ultimate decision or allows to paraformal processing with focal bias.. Presented experiment compares...

  13. What can autism teach us about the role of sensorimotor systems in higher cognition? New clues from studies on language, action semantics, and abstract emotional concept processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2018-03-01

    Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of many higher cognitive functions. We review a literature of functional motor abnormalities in ASC, following this with discussion of their neural correlates and aberrancies in language development, explaining how these might arise with reference to the typical formation of cell assemblies linking action and perceptual brain regions. This model gives rise to clear hypotheses regarding language comprehension, and we highlight a recent set of studies reporting differences in brain activation and behaviour in the processing of action-related and abstract-emotional concepts in individuals with ASC. At the neuroanatomical level, we discuss structural differences in long-distance frontotemporal and frontoparietal connections in ASC, such as would compromise information transfer between sensory and motor regions. This neurobiological model of action perception integration may shed light on the cognitive and social-interactive symptoms of ASC, building on and extending earlier proposals linking autistic symptomatology to motor disorder and dysfunction in action perception integration. Further investigating the contribution of motor dysfunction to higher cognitive and social impairment, we suggest, is timely and promising as it may advance both neurocognitive theory and the development of new clinical interventions for this population and others characterised by early and pervasive motor disruption. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  14. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry Is Enhanced by the Goal of Inferring Emotional States: Evidence for Moderation of "Automatic" Mimicry by Higher Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Aiko; Saito, Hisamichi; Schug, Joanna; Ogawa, Kenji; Kameda, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that individuals often spontaneously mimic the facial expressions of others, a tendency known as facial mimicry. This tendency has generally been considered a reflex-like "automatic" response, but several recent studies have shown that the degree of mimicry may be moderated by contextual information. However, the cognitive and motivational factors underlying the contextual moderation of facial mimicry require further empirical investigation. In this study, we present evidence that the degree to which participants spontaneously mimic a target's facial expressions depends on whether participants are motivated to infer the target's emotional state. In the first study we show that facial mimicry, assessed by facial electromyography, occurs more frequently when participants are specifically instructed to infer a target's emotional state than when given no instruction. In the second study, we replicate this effect using the Facial Action Coding System to show that participants are more likely to mimic facial expressions of emotion when they are asked to infer the target's emotional state, rather than make inferences about a physical trait unrelated to emotion. These results provide convergent evidence that the explicit goal of understanding a target's emotional state affects the degree of facial mimicry shown by the perceiver, suggesting moderation of reflex-like motor activities by higher cognitive processes.

  15. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired...... by the Higher-Order Π-calculus. The key to our calculus is that sequents are asymmetric: one side types sessions as in CP and the other types process variables, which can be instantiated with process values. The controlled interaction between the two sides ensures that process variables can be used at will......, but always respecting the linear usage of sessions expected by the environment....

  16. Information processing, computation, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Gualtiero; Scarantino, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both - although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use 'computation' and 'information processing' to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are the same thing. In this paper, we address this unsatisfactory state of affairs by presenting a general and theory-neutral account of computation and information processing. We also apply our framework by analyzing the relations between computation and information processing on one hand and classicism, connectionism, and computational neuroscience on the other. We defend the relevance to cognitive science of both computation, at least in a generic sense, and information processing, in three important senses of the term. Our account advances several foundational debates in cognitive science by untangling some of their conceptual knots in a theory-neutral way. By leveling the playing field, we pave the way for the future resolution of the debates' empirical aspects.

  17. Scaffolding Cognitive Processes in a Marketing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, John

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of improving the cognitive processes of students in business studies today. When developing a curriculum in business studies at higher education level, thorough consideration should be given to all components of the learning and assessment processes. They should be tailored to real world dynamics so that they…

  18. Beyond behaviorism: on the automaticity of higher mental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, J A; Ferguson, M J

    2000-11-01

    The first 100 years of experimental psychology were dominated by 2 major schools of thought: behaviorism and cognitive science. Here the authors consider the common philosophical commitment to determinism by both schools, and how the radical behaviorists' thesis of the determined nature of higher mental processes is being pursued today in social cognition research on automaticity. In harmony with "dual process" models in contemporary cognitive science, which equate determined processes with those that are automatic and which require no intervening conscious choice or guidance, as opposed to "controlled" processes which do, the social cognition research on the automaticity of higher mental processes provides compelling evidence for the determinism of those processes. This research has revealed that social interaction, evaluation and judgment, and the operation of internal goal structures can all proceed without the intervention of conscious acts of will and guidance of the process.

  19. Emotion and Cognition: An Intricately Bound Developmental Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Martha Ann; Wolfe, Christy D.

    2004-01-01

    Regulatory aspects of development can best be understood by research that conceptualizes relations between cognition and emotion. The neural mechanisms associated with regulatory processes may be the same as those associated with higher order cognitive processes. Thus, from a developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective, emotion and cognition…

  20. Resource-adaptive cognitive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Crocker, Matthew W

    2010-01-01

    This book investigates the adaptation of cognitive processes to limited resources. The central topics of this book are heuristics considered as results of the adaptation to resource limitations, through natural evolution in the case of humans, or through artificial construction in the case of computational systems; the construction and analysis of resource control in cognitive processes; and an analysis of resource-adaptivity within the paradigm of concurrent computation. The editors integrated the results of a collaborative 5-year research project that involved over 50 scientists. After a mot

  1. Falling Head Over Heels: Investigating the higher-level cognitive and electrophysiological processes underlying gait control and falls in older adults and stroke survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Walshe, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Falls are a common problem for Ireland’s older adults and stroke survivors, which have severe consequences for the individual and high care costs for the state. Current clinical interventions that focus solely on musculoskeletal function are not evidenced to be consistently effective in the long term, or in those older adults without muscle and bone impairments (Cadore, Rodríguez-Mañas, Sinclair, & Izquierdo, 2013; Teasell, McRae, Foley, & Bhardwaj, 2002). The role of cognition in gait contro...

  2. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired by ...

  3. Signal processing for cognitive radios

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaweera, Sudharman K

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, and it can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces the specific type of CR that has gained the most research attention in recent years: the CR for Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). Provides signal processing solutions to each task by relating the tasks to materials covered in Part II. Specialized chapters then discuss specific signal processing algorithms required for DSA and DSS cognitive radios  

  4. The impact of moods and cognitive processing on framing effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ravndal, Mathias; Sjøbakken, Hallvard

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mood and cognitive processing on risky choice framing. A mixed between- and within-subject lab experimental design was conducted to investigate our hypotheses. As predicted, the results indicate that cognitive processing moderated the effects of scenario framing, with higher levels of intuitive processing leading to classical framing effects, whereas higher levels of analytical processing leading to no such framing effects. Self-reported valence, as in self-...

  5. Chicken or the Egg: Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Dilemma between Goal Orientation, Self-Regulation and Cognitive Processing Strategies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Mikael; Galand, Benoit; Frenay, Mariane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the direction of the effect between goal orientation, self-regulation and deep processing strategies in order to understand the impact of these three constructs on students' achievement. The participants were 110 freshmen from the engineering faculty at the Universite catholique de Louvain in Belgium, who…

  6. Cognitive load effects on early visual perceptual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Forte, Jason; Sewell, David; Carter, Olivia

    2018-05-01

    Contrast-based early visual processing has largely been considered to involve autonomous processes that do not need the support of cognitive resources. However, as spatial attention is known to modulate early visual perceptual processing, we explored whether cognitive load could similarly impact contrast-based perception. We used a dual-task paradigm to assess the impact of a concurrent working memory task on the performance of three different early visual tasks. The results from Experiment 1 suggest that cognitive load can modulate early visual processing. No effects of cognitive load were seen in Experiments 2 or 3. Together, the findings provide evidence that under some circumstances cognitive load effects can penetrate the early stages of visual processing and that higher cognitive function and early perceptual processing may not be as independent as was once thought.

  7. Music cognition: Learning and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmeier, M.; Rebuschat, P.; Honing, H.; Loui, P.; Wiggins, G.; Pearce, M.T.; Müllensiefen, D.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the study of music perception and cognition has witnessed an enormous growth of interest. Music cognition is an intrinsically interdisciplinary subject which combines insights and research methods from many of the cognitive sciences. This trend is clearly reflected, for example, in

  8. RPL as cognitive praxis in linking higher education, the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argues that we can use the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) to reconceptualise the project of bridging the articulation gap between further and higher education in South Africa by framing the cognitive praxis of this project simultaneously within the African Renaissance and within a progressive global project ...

  9. Meditation in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…

  10. Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…

  11. Effects of chewing on cognitive processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and cognitive processing speed, testing the hypothesis that this effect induces higher cognitive performance. Seventeen healthy adults (20-34 years old) were studied during attention task with blood oxygenation level-dependent functional (fMRI) at 3.0 T MRI. The attentional network test (ANT) within a single task fMRI containing two cue conditions (no cue and center cue) and two target conditions (congruent and incongruent) was conducted to examine the efficiency of alerting and executive control. Participants were instructed to press a button with the right or left thumb according to the direction of a centrally presented arrow. Each participant underwent two back-to-back ANT sessions with or without chewing gum, odorless and tasteless to remove any effect other than chewing. Behavioral results showed that mean reaction time was significantly decreased during chewing condition, regardless of speed-accuracy trade-off, although there were no significant changes in behavioral effects (both alerting and conflict effects). On the other hand, fMRI analysis revealed higher activations in the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus for the executive network and motor-related regions for both attentional networks during chewing condition. These results suggested that chewing induced an increase in the arousal level and alertness in addition to an effect on motor control and, as a consequence, these effects could lead to improvements in cognitive performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Constructive processes in person cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, K

    1993-12-01

    The notion of constructive memory processes is imported from research on eyewitness memory to the area of social cognition. Mere questioning about the applicability of personality attributes to a target person is shown to affect subsequent memory-based judgements of that person. These constructive influences are to be distinguished, conceptually, from the global notion of priming effects. In Expt 1, the target person was first described as an extravert; afterwards, subjects had to indicate whether either desirable aspects of extraversion (self-confidence) or undesirable aspects (exhibitionism) apply to the target or not. Mere questioning resulted in a congruent judgment bias towards the questioned attributes that did not generalize to a global halo effect. Experiment 2 replicated the basic finding and demonstrated that this phenomenon is independent of a generation effect (i.e. the memory advantage of self-generated inferences). These results are interpreted in terms of (a) a reframing of the categorical distribution representing the information about the target person in memory and (b) a regressive tendency to assume intermediate default values rather than extreme values for questioned attributes under uncertainty. Alternative explanations in terms of demand effects or a conformation bias cannot provide sufficient accounts. The relevance of constructive processes to understanding self-fulfilling prophecies and other phenomena in social interaction is discussed.

  13. Higher incidence of mild cognitive impairment in familial hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambón, D.; Quintana, M.; Mata, P.; Alonso, R.; Benavent, J.; Cruz-Sánchez, F.; Gich, J.; Pocoví, M.; Civeira, F.; Capurro, S.; Bachman, D.; Sambamurti, K.; Nicholas, J.; Pappolla, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Hypercholesterolemia is an early risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors may be involved in this disorder. Our objective was to determine the risk of mild cognitive impairment in a population of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, a condition involving LDL receptors dysfunction and life long hypercholesterolemia. Methods Using a cohort study design, patients with (N=47) meeting inclusion criteria and comparison patients without familial hypercholesterolemia (N=70) were consecutively selected from academic specialty and primary care clinics respectively. All patients were older than 50 years. Those with disorders which could impact cognition, including history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks, were excluded from both groups. Thirteen standardized neuropsychological tests were performed in all subjects. Mutational analysis was performed in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and brain imaging was obtained in those with familial hypercholesterolemia and mild cognitive impairment. Results Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia showed a very high incidence of mild cognitive impairment compared to those without familial hypercholesterolemia (21.3% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.00). This diagnosis was unrelated to structural pathology or white matter disease. There were significant differences between the familial hypercholesterolemia and the no-familial hypercholesterolemia groups in several cognitive measures, all in the direction of worse performance for familial hypercholesterolemia patients, independent of apoE4 or apoE2 status. Conclusions Because prior studies have shown that older patients with sporadic hypercholesterolemia do not show higher incidence of mild cognitive impairment, the findings presented here suggest that early exposure to elevated cholesterol or LDL receptors dysfunction may be risk factors for mild cognitive impairment. PMID:20193836

  14. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews a diverse set of proposals for dual processing in higher cognition within largely disconnected literatures in cognitive and social psychology. All these theories have in common the distinction between cognitive processes that are fast, automatic, and unconscious and those that are slow, deliberative, and conscious. A number of authors have recently suggested that there may be two architecturally (and evolutionarily) distinct cognitive systems underlying these dual-process accounts. However, it emerges that (a) there are multiple kinds of implicit processes described by different theorists and (b) not all of the proposed attributes of the two kinds of processing can be sensibly mapped on to two systems as currently conceived. It is suggested that while some dual-process theories are concerned with parallel competing processes involving explicit and implicit knowledge systems, others are concerned with the influence of preconscious processes that contextualize and shape deliberative reasoning and decision-making.

  15. A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian influences on higher-order cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Tina M; Scheer, Frank A J L; Ronda, Joseph M; Czeisler, Charles A; Wright, Kenneth P

    2015-08-01

    Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-day-long study that included two 14-day-long 28-h forced desynchrony protocols to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selective visual attention. Cognitive performance for most measures was impaired immediately after scheduled awakening and improved during the first ~2-4 h of wakefulness (decreasing sleep inertia); worsened thereafter until scheduled bedtime (increasing sleep homeostasis); and was worst at ~60° and best at ~240° (circadian modulation, with worst and best phases corresponding to ~09:00 and ~21:00 hours, respectively, in individuals with a habitual wake time of 07:00 hours). The relative influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase depended on the specific higher-order cognitive function task examined. Inhibitory control appeared to be modulated most strongly by circadian phase, whereas selective visual attention for a spatial-configuration search task was modulated most strongly by sleep inertia. These findings demonstrate that some higher-order cognitive processes are differentially sensitive to different sleep-wake regulatory processes. Differential modulation of cognitive functions by different sleep-wake regulatory processes has important implications for understanding mechanisms contributing to performance impairments during adverse circadian phases, sleep deprivation and/or upon awakening from sleep. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Visual Acuity does not Moderate Effect Sizes of Higher-Level Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, James R.; Bennett, Ilana J.; Allen, Philip A.; Madden, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Declining visual capacities in older adults have been posited as a driving force behind adult age differences in higher-order cognitive functions (e.g., the “common cause” hypothesis of Lindenberger & Baltes, 1994). McGowan, Patterson and Jordan (2013) also found that a surprisingly large number of published cognitive aging studies failed to include adequate measures of visual acuity. However, a recent meta-analysis of three studies (LaFleur & Salthouse, 2014) failed to find evidence that visual acuity moderated or mediated age differences in higher-level cognitive processes. In order to provide a more extensive test of whether visual acuity moderates age differences in higher-level cognitive processes, we conducted a more extensive meta-analysis of topic. Methods Using results from 456 studies, we calculated effect sizes for the main effect of age across four cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, and perception/language) separately for five levels of visual acuity criteria (no criteria, undisclosed criteria, self-reported acuity, 20/80-20/31, and 20/30 or better). Results As expected, age had a significant effect on each cognitive domain. However, these age effects did not further differ as a function of visual acuity criteria. Conclusion The current meta-analytic, cross-sectional results suggest that visual acuity is not significantly related to age group differences in higher-level cognitive performance—thereby replicating LaFleur and Salthouse (2014). Further efforts are needed to determine whether other measures of visual functioning (e.g. contrast sensitivity, luminance) affect age differences in cognitive functioning. PMID:27070044

  18. Neuropsychological and cognitive processes in reading

    CERN Document Server

    Pirozzolo, Francis J

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychological and Cognitive Processes in Reading explores reading and reading disabilities within the context of cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. Emphasis is on the roles of brain mechanisms in reading and reading disturbances. In the areas of perception and cognition, theoretical models of the reading process are used to highlight the various psychological processes involved in the act of skilled reading. Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental processes of reading, giving particular attention to a psychological theory that builds on two concepts: that the basic processes of reading are few in number, and that they are separable from one another. A useful and testable information-processing model of reading that consists of three separable, fundamental processes - decoding, word meaning, and sentence comprehension - is described. Subsequent chapters deal with some of the external and internal factors involved in reading; a model of disorders of readi...

  19. Positive emotion impedes emotional but not cognitive conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Obermeier, Christian; Kanske, Philipp; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive control enables successful goal-directed behavior by resolving a conflict between opposing action tendencies, while emotional control arises as a consequence of emotional conflict processing such as in irony. While negative emotion facilitates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, it is unclear how emotional conflict processing is affected by positive emotion (e.g., humor). In 2 EEG experiments, we investigated the role of positive audiovisual target stimuli in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. Participants categorized either spoken vowels (cognitive task) or their emotional valence (emotional task) and ignored the visual stimulus dimension. Behaviorally, a positive target showed no influence on cognitive conflict processing, but impeded emotional conflict processing. In the emotional task, response time conflict costs were higher for positive than for neutral targets. In the EEG, we observed an interaction of emotion by congruence in the P200 and N200 ERP components in emotional but not in cognitive conflict processing. In the emotional conflict task, the P200 and N200 conflict effect was larger for emotional than neutral targets. Thus, our results show that emotion affects conflict processing differently as a function of conflict type and emotional valence. This suggests that there are conflict- and valence-specific mechanisms modulating executive control.

  20. Rhythms of EEG and cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova S.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of cognitive processes is regarded to be more effective if it combines a psychological approach with a neurophysiological one. This approach makes it possible to come closer to understanding of the basic mechanisms of different cognitive processes, to describe the patterns of forming these mechanisms in ontogenesis, to investigate the origin of cognitive impairments, and to develop intervention techniques. The promising way of investigating the mechanisms of cognitive functions is the electroencephalography (EEG. This is a non-invasive, safe, and relatively cheap method of research of the functional condition of the brain. The characteristics of EEG rhythms, recorded with different cognitive loads, reflect the processes of functional modulation of neural network activity of the cortex, which serves the neurophysiologic basis for attention, memory and other cognitive processes. The article provides an overview of works containing the analysis of the alpha and theta rhythms’ dynamics in various states of wakefulness. It also introduces the substantiation of methodology of functional regulatory approach to the interpretation of behaviors of EEG rhythms.

  1. Cognitive processes in anesthesiology decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Marjorie Podraza; Tung, Avery

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety of health care are under increasing scrutiny. Recent studies suggest that medical errors, practice variability, and guideline noncompliance are common, and that cognitive error contributes significantly to delayed or incorrect diagnoses. These observations have increased interest in understanding decision-making psychology.Many nonrational (i.e., not purely based in statistics) cognitive factors influence medical decisions and may lead to error. The most well-studied include heuristics, preferences for certainty, overconfidence, affective (emotional) influences, memory distortions, bias, and social forces such as fairness or blame.Although the extent to which such cognitive processes play a role in anesthesia practice is unknown, anesthesia care frequently requires rapid, complex decisions that are most susceptible to decision errors. This review will examine current theories of human decision behavior, identify effects of nonrational cognitive processes on decision making, describe characteristic anesthesia decisions in this context, and suggest strategies to improve decision making.

  2. Functional MR mapping of higher cognitive brain functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellemann, M.E.; Spitzer, M.; Brix, G.; Kammer, T.; Loose, R.; Schwartz, A.; Gueckel, F.

    1995-01-01

    Fifteen normal subjects were examined on a conventional 1.5-T MR system to visualize cortical activation during the performance of high-level cognitive tasks. A computer-controlled videoprojector was employed to present psychometrically optimized activation paradigms. Reaction times and error rates of the volunteers were acquired online during stimulus presentation. The time course of cortical activation was measured in a series of strongly T 2 *-weighted gradient-echo images from three or four adjacent slices. For anatomical correlation, picture elements showing a stimulus-related significant signal increase were color-coded and superimposed on T 1 -weighted spin-echo images. Analysis of the fMRI data revealed a subtle (range 2-5%), but statistically significant increase in signal intensity during the periods of induced cortical activation. Judgment of semantic relatedness of word pairs, for example, activated selectively cortical areas in left frontal and left temporal brain regions. The strength of cortex activation in the semantic task decreased significantly in the course of stimulus presentation and was paralleled by a decrease in the corresponding reaction times. With its move into the area of cognitive neuroscience, fMRI calls both for the careful design of activation schemes and for the acquisition of behavioral data. For example, brain regions involved in language processing could only be identified clearly when psychometrically matched activation paradigms were employed. The reaction time data correlated well with selective learning and thus helped to facilitate interpretation of the fMRI data sets. (orig.) [de

  3. Cognitive processing of a child with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Čížková, Kristýna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe cognitive processing of a child with autistic spectrum disorder, to pause on its mechanisms and causes. The first part of the work presents a theoretical background for following interpretation of the data acquired in the research. Firstly it briefly defines autistic spectrum disorders, cognitive functioning of individuals with the disorder and above all two main psychological theories of autism: Theory of Mind (S. B. Cohen) and Weak Central Coherence Theor...

  4. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Lien; Bonato, Mario; Fias, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right) hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM) load are discussed.

  5. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean J. Hsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses, yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor. Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., uh or umm and filler words (e.g., like or you know. Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods.

  6. Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2008-01-01

    In this review we consider research on social cognition in which implicit processes can be compared and contrasted with explicit, conscious processes. In each case, their function is distinct, sometimes complementary and sometimes oppositional. We argue that implicit processes in social interaction...... are automatic and are often opposed to conscious strategies. While we are aware of explicit processes in social interaction, we cannot always use them to override implicit processes. Many studies show that implicit processes facilitate the sharing of knowledge, feelings, and actions, and hence, perhaps...

  7. Does higher education hone cognitive functioning and learning efficacy? Findings from a large and diverse sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Carrillo, Belén; Katovich, Kiefer

    2017-01-01

    Attending school is a multifaceted experience. Students are not only exposed to new knowledge but are also immersed in a structured environment in which they need to respond flexibly in accordance with changing task goals, keep relevant information in mind, and constantly tackle novel problems. To quantify the cumulative effect of this experience, we examined retrospectively and prospectively, the relationships between educational attainment and both cognitive performance and learning. We analyzed data from 196,388 subscribers to an online cognitive training program. These subscribers, ages 15–60, had completed eight behavioral assessments of executive functioning and reasoning at least once. Controlling for multiple demographic and engagement variables, we found that higher levels of education predicted better performance across the full age range, and modulated performance in some cognitive domains more than others (e.g., reasoning vs. processing speed). Differences were moderate for Bachelor’s degree vs. High School (d = 0.51), and large between Ph.D. vs. Some High School (d = 0.80). Further, the ages of peak cognitive performance for each educational category closely followed the typical range of ages at graduation. This result is consistent with a cumulative effect of recent educational experiences, as well as a decrement in performance as completion of schooling becomes more distant. To begin to characterize the directionality of the relationship between educational attainment and cognitive performance, we conducted a prospective longitudinal analysis. For a subset of 69,202 subscribers who had completed 100 days of cognitive training, we tested whether the degree of novel learning was associated with their level of education. Higher educational attainment predicted bigger gains, but the differences were small (d = 0.04–0.37). Altogether, these results point to the long-lasting trace of an effect of prior cognitive challenges but suggest that new

  8. Does higher education hone cognitive functioning and learning efficacy? Findings from a large and diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Carrillo, Belén; Katovich, Kiefer; Bunge, Silvia A

    2017-01-01

    Attending school is a multifaceted experience. Students are not only exposed to new knowledge but are also immersed in a structured environment in which they need to respond flexibly in accordance with changing task goals, keep relevant information in mind, and constantly tackle novel problems. To quantify the cumulative effect of this experience, we examined retrospectively and prospectively, the relationships between educational attainment and both cognitive performance and learning. We analyzed data from 196,388 subscribers to an online cognitive training program. These subscribers, ages 15-60, had completed eight behavioral assessments of executive functioning and reasoning at least once. Controlling for multiple demographic and engagement variables, we found that higher levels of education predicted better performance across the full age range, and modulated performance in some cognitive domains more than others (e.g., reasoning vs. processing speed). Differences were moderate for Bachelor's degree vs. High School (d = 0.51), and large between Ph.D. vs. Some High School (d = 0.80). Further, the ages of peak cognitive performance for each educational category closely followed the typical range of ages at graduation. This result is consistent with a cumulative effect of recent educational experiences, as well as a decrement in performance as completion of schooling becomes more distant. To begin to characterize the directionality of the relationship between educational attainment and cognitive performance, we conducted a prospective longitudinal analysis. For a subset of 69,202 subscribers who had completed 100 days of cognitive training, we tested whether the degree of novel learning was associated with their level of education. Higher educational attainment predicted bigger gains, but the differences were small (d = 0.04-0.37). Altogether, these results point to the long-lasting trace of an effect of prior cognitive challenges but suggest that new learning

  9. Effects of Chewing on Cognitive Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and…

  10. Cognitive Process of Development in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddington, Eulalee N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

  11. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Sexual Assault Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.; Schnicke, Monica K.

    1992-01-01

    Nineteen sexual assault survivors received cognitive processing therapy in group format to help deal with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following rape. Compared to 20-subject waiting list control group, participants improved significantly from pre- to posttreatment on PTSD and depression measures and maintained their improvement for 6…

  12. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research.

  13. Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMPEAU, SERGE; LIBERZON, ISRAEL; MORILAK, DAVID; RESSLER, KERRY

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects. PMID:21790481

  14. Development of cognitive processing and judgments of knowledge in medical students : Analysis of progress test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Kerdijk, Wouter; Jaarsma, A. D. (Debbie) C.; Tio, Rene A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beside acquiring knowledge, medical students should also develop the ability to apply and reflect on it, requiring higher-order cognitive processing. Ideally, students should have reached higher-order cognitive processing when they enter the clinical program. Whether this is the case, is

  15. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Naert

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM load are discussed.

  16. Engineering design: A cognitive process approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Greg Joseph

    The intent of this dissertation was to identify the cognitive processes used by advanced pre-engineering students to solve complex engineering design problems. Students in technology and engineering education classrooms are often taught to use an ideal engineering design process that has been generated mostly by educators and curriculum developers. However, the review of literature showed that it is unclear as to how advanced pre-engineering students cognitively navigate solving a complex and multifaceted problem from beginning to end. Additionally, it was unclear how a student thinks and acts throughout their design process and how this affects the viability of their solution. Therefore, Research Objective 1 was to identify the fundamental cognitive processes students use to design, construct, and evaluate operational solutions to engineering design problems. Research Objective 2 was to determine identifiers within student cognitive processes for monitoring aptitude to successfully design, construct, and evaluate technological solutions. Lastly, Research Objective 3 was to create a conceptual technological and engineering problem-solving model integrating student cognitive processes for the improved development of problem-solving abilities. The methodology of this study included multiple forms of data collection. The participants were first given a survey to determine their prior experience with engineering and to provide a description of the subjects being studied. The participants were then presented an engineering design challenge to solve individually. While they completed the challenge, the participants verbalized their thoughts using an established "think aloud" method. These verbalizations were captured along with participant observational recordings using point-of-view camera technology. Additionally, the participant design journals, design artifacts, solution effectiveness data, and teacher evaluations were collected for analysis to help achieve the

  17. Transdiagnostic cognitive processes in high trait anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John M

    2011-03-01

    Trait anger is a personality construct that refers to stable individual differences in the propensity to experience anger as an emotional state. The objective of this paper is to review relevant empirical studies in order to determine whether the transdiagnostic cognitive processes that have been identified across the DSM-IV Axis I disorders (specifically, selective attention, memory biases, reasoning biases and recurrent negative thinking) are also an underlying characteristic of high trait anger. On the basis of the review it is concluded that, whilst the research base is limited, there is good evidence that high trait anger is associated with selective attention to hostile social cues, the tendency to interpret the behaviour of others as indicating potential hostility and the tendency to ruminate over past anger-provoking experiences. The range of cognitive processes identified in high trait anger is consistent with those identified in the Axis I disorders. It is concluded that these findings provide support for (i) the broad applicability of the transdiagnostic approach as a theoretical framework for understanding a range of psychological conditions, not limited to the Axis I disorders, and (ii) the validity of conceptualising high trait anger as an aspect of personality functioning that is maintained, at least in part, by cognitive processes. Cognitive and motivational factors (specifically, beliefs and goals) that may underlie the hostile information-processing biases and recurrent negative thinking associated with high trait anger are discussed, and consideration is given to the clinical relevance of the findings of the review. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hormones as Difference Makers in Cognitive and Socioemotional Aging Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eEbner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as difference makers in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: 1 examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; 2 exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and 3 considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.

  19. 1st International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Dewen; Liu, Huaping

    2014-01-01

    "Foundations and Practical Applications of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing" presents selected papers from the First International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, held in Beijing, China on December 15-17, 2012 (CSIP2012). The aim of this conference is to bring together experts from different fields of expertise to discuss the state-of-the-art in artificial cognitive systems and advanced information processing, and to present new findings and perspectives on future development. This book introduces multidisciplinary perspectives on the subject areas of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, including cognitive sciences and technology, autonomous vehicles, cognitive psychology, cognitive metrics, information fusion, image/video understanding, brain-computer interfaces, visual cognitive processing, neural computation, bioinformatics, etc. The book will be beneficial for both researchers and practitioners in the fields of Cognitive Science, Computer Science and Cogni...

  20. Cognitive facilities of governance of transformations processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Reshetnichenko

    2014-03-01

    For example, each of levels of organization of the both realized and subconscious, facilities of cognition includes the dependent numerical, voice, coloured and concept facilities correlative. As for the system of the realized and subconscious facilities of transformations, their basis is made by the ascending and descending forms of organization of motion of matter, energy, information and organization of elements of life. Fixed in basis of research of mul’timodal’na logician allowed to expose dialectical nature of mechanisms of bifurcations, synthesis, freymuvannya and clusterizations as main condition of forming on principle of new control system by processes development of man, state and society, on the way of mastering of space.

  1. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon eHeald

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processingd with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or

  2. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  3. Cognitive Processes Underlying the Artistic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Wah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the field of aesthetics, for centuries philosophers and more recently scientists have been concerned with understanding the artistic experience focusing on emotional responses to the perception of artworks. By contrast, in the last decades, evolutionary biology has been concerned with explaining the artistic experience by focusing on the cognitive processes underlying this experience. Up until now, the cognitive mechanisms that allow humans to experience objects and events as art remain largely unexplored and there is still no conventional use of terms for referring to the processes which may explain why the artistic experience is characteristically human and universal to human beings (Dissanayake, 1992, p. 24; Donald, 2006, p. 4. In this paper, I will first question whether it is productive to understand the artistic experience in terms of perception and emotion, and I will subsequently propose a possible alternative explanation to understand this experience. Drawing upon the work of Ellen Dissanayake (1992, 2000, 2015, Merlin Donald (2001, 2006, 2013, Antonio Damasio (1994, 2000, 2003, 2010, Barend van Heusden (2004, 2009, 2010, and Alejandra Wah (2014, I will argue that this experience is characterized by particular degrees of imagination and consciousness.

  4. Cognitive Load Alters Neuronal Processing of Food Odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Hensel, Sonja Maria; Sijben, Rik; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Freiherr, Jessica

    2017-10-31

    Obesity is a major health concern in modern societies. Although decreased physical activity and enhanced intake of high-caloric foods are important risk factors for developing obesity, human behavior during eating also plays a role. Previous studies have shown that distraction while eating increases food intake and leads to impaired processing of food stimuli. As olfaction is the most important sense involved in flavor perception, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques to investigate the influence of cognitive memory load on olfactory perception and processing. Low- and high-caloric food odors were presented in combination with either low or high cognitive loads utilizing a memory task. The efficacy of the memory task was verified by a decrease in participant recall accuracy and an increase in skin conductance response during high cognitive load. Our behavioral data reveal a diminished perceived intensity for low- but not high-caloric food odors during high cognitive load. For low-caloric food odors, bilateral orbitofrontal (OFC) and piriform cortices (pirC) showed significantly lower activity during high compared with low cognitive load. For high-caloric food odors, a similar effect was established in pirC, but not in OFC. Insula activity correlates with higher intensity ratings found during the low cognitive load condition. We conclude lower activity in pirC and OFC to be responsible for diminished intensity perception, comparable to results in olfactory impaired patients and elderly. Further studies should investigate the influence of olfactory/gustatory intensities on food choices under distraction with special regards to low-caloric food. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Toward cognitively constrained models of language processing : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, Margreet; Mills, Anne C.; Reitter, David; van Rij, Jacolien; Hendriks, Petra; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2017-01-01

    Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained

  6. Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Nievelstein, Fleurie; Giesbers, Bas; Fred, Paas

    2009-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., Nievelstein, F., Giesbers, B., & Paas, F. (2009). Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 325-331.

  7. Cognitive diffusion model with user-oriented context-to-text recognition for learning to promote high level cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yuin Hwang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of studies on how to promote students’ cognitive processes and learning achievements through various learning activities supported by advanced learning technologies. However, not many of them focus on applying the knowledge that students learn in school to solve authentic daily life problems. This study aims to propose a cognitive diffusion model called User-oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL to facilitate and improve students’ learning and cognitive processes from lower levels (i.e., Remember and Understand to higher levels (i.e., Apply and above through an innovative approach, called User-Oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL. With U-CTRL, students participate in learning activities in which they capture the learning context that can be scanned and recognized by a computer application as text. Furthermore, this study proposes the use of an innovative model, called Cognitive Diffusion Model, to investigate the diffusion and transition of students’ cognitive processes in different learning stages including pre-schooling, after-schooling, crossing the chasm, and higher cognitive processing. Finally, two cases are presented to demonstrate how the U-CTRL approach can be used to facilitate student cognition in their learning of English and Natural science.

  8. Unequal Classrooms: Online Higher Education and Non-Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I reflect on the changing role of higher education by focusing on the case of online education. I consider the promise of online education as a means to mitigate educational inequalities. Based on the available empirical evidence, I argue that this promise is unlikely to be fulfilled because online education is not well-suited to…

  9. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, John A.; Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of v...

  10. Cognitive processes associated with child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildyard, Kathryn; Wolfe, David

    2007-08-01

    To compare neglectful and non-neglectful mothers on information processing tasks related to child emotions, behaviors, the caregiving relationship, and recall of child-related information. A natural group design was used. Neglectful mothers (N=34) were chosen from active, chronic caseloads; non-neglectful comparison mothers (N=33) were obtained from community agencies serving families. Participants were administered the IFEEL Picture task to assess maternal perceptions of infant emotions, eight vignettes of young children's behavior to assess attributions for child behavior across different scenarios, and a passage recall task to assess information processing problems. A measure of depression was used as a covariate to control for this variable. Neglectful mothers were significantly less likely to recognize infants' feelings of interest, more likely to see sadness and shame, more inaccurate at labeling infants' emotions, and had a more limited emotion vocabulary. They also made more internal and stable attributions for children's behaviors in situations where it was not clear whether a child was at risk of harm, and had poor recall of information. Depressive symptoms had little effect on these findings with the exception of information recall. Neglectful mothers show significant problems in information processing concerning their child's emotions and behaviors, which may affect their childrearing behavior. Cognitive-behavioral interventions to improve parents' abilities to recognize their child's emotions and to address maladaptive attributions may be of value.

  11. Toward Cognitively Constrained Models of Language Processing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Vogelzang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained computational models, which simulate the cognitive processes involved in language processing. The theoretical claims implemented in cognitive models interact with general architectural constraints such as memory limitations. This way, it generates new predictions that can be tested in experiments, thus generating new data that can give rise to new theoretical insights. This theory-model-experiment cycle is a promising method for investigating aspects of language processing that are difficult to investigate with more traditional experimental techniques. This review specifically examines the language processing models of Lewis and Vasishth (2005, Reitter et al. (2011, and Van Rij et al. (2010, all implemented in the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought—Rational (Anderson et al., 2004. These models are all limited by the assumptions about cognitive capacities provided by the cognitive architecture, but use different linguistic approaches. Because of this, their comparison provides insight into the extent to which assumptions about general cognitive resources influence concretely implemented models of linguistic competence. For example, the sheer speed and accuracy of human language processing is a current challenge in the field of cognitive modeling, as it does not seem to adhere to the same memory and processing capacities that have been found in other cognitive processes. Architecture-based cognitive models of language processing may be able to make explicit which language-specific resources are needed to acquire and process natural language. The review sheds light on cognitively constrained models of language processing from two angles: we

  12. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  13. Confronting Social Injustice: Cognitive Dissonance and Civic Development in Higher Education Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leslie Cohen

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, insider account of student civic development in a university service-learning course has two primary goals. One is to propose frameworks for describing the process of civic development of service-learning students that are situated in theories of civic identity, cognitive development, and cognitive dissonance. The other is to…

  14. Information processing speed as a mediator between psychosocial stress and global cognition in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Hui F; Hamid, Tengku A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Haron, Sharifah A

    2018-01-01

    The link between psychosocial stress and cognitive function is complex, and previous studies have indicated that it may be mediated by processing speed. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine whether processing speed mediates the association between psychosocial stress and global cognition in older adults. Moreover, the moderating role of gender in this model is examined as well. The study included 2322 community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia who were randomly selected through a multistage proportional cluster random sampling technique. Global cognition construct was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment; psychosocial stress construct was measured by perceived stress, depression, loneliness, and neuroticism; and processing speed was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the mediation and moderation tests. Processing speed was found to partially mediate the relationship between psychosocial stress and global cognition (β in the direct model = -0.15, P cognition was found to be significant in men only, whereas the association between processing speed and global cognition was significant in men and women. Psychosocial stress may increase the likelihood that older adults will experience poor processing capacity, which could reduce their higher level cognition. Results indicate that there is a need to develop processing capacity intervention programmes for psychologically distressed older adults to prevent them from suffering cognitive decline. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  15. The Role of Cognitive Content and Cognitive Processes in Chronic Pain: An Important Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Thorn, Beverly E; Carmody, James; Keefe, Francis J; Burns, John W

    2018-05-01

    Pain-related cognitive content (what people think about pain) and cognitive processes (how people think about pain; what they do with their pain-related thoughts) and their interaction are hypothesized to play distinct roles in patient function. However, questions have been raised regarding whether it is possible or practical to assess cognitive content and cognitive process as distinct domains. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which measures that seem to assess mostly pain-related cognitive content, cognitive processes, and content and process, are relatively independent from each other and contribute unique variance to the prediction of patient function. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N=165) participating in an ongoing RCT were administered measures of cognitions, pain, and function (depressive symptoms and pain interference) pretreatment. Analyses provided support for the hypothesis that cognitive content and cognitive process, while related, can be assessed as distinct components. However, the measure assessing a cognitive process-mindfulness-evidenced relatively weak associations with function, especially compared with the stronger and more consistent findings for the measures of content (catastrophizing and self-efficacy). The results provide preliminary evidence for the possibility that mindfulness could have both benefits and costs. Research to evaluate this possibility is warranted.

  16. Cognitive marital therapy : the process of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.; van Linden van den Heuvell, C.; Sanderman, R.; Scholing, A.

    1988-01-01

    Responds to comments made by N. Epstein and D. H. Baucom (see record 1989-16434-001) concerning the present authors' (see record 1989-16433-001) study of communication skills training and cognitive therapy for distressed couples. The reliable assessment of cognitions in outcome studies is discussed.

  17. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  18. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition During Math Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eBertrams

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158 completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition five months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  19. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance – Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Andersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    % of expected learning within one school year (P breakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three...

  20. Strategic Learning in Youth with Traumatic Brain Injury: Evidence for Stall in Higher-Order Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Cook, Lori G.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about strategic learning ability in preteens and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Strategic learning is the ability to combine and synthesize details to form abstracted gist-based meanings, a higher-order cognitive skill associated with frontal lobe functions and higher classroom performance. Summarization tasks were…

  1. Cognitive Processing of Fear-Arousing Message Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jerold L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates two models (the Elaboration Likelihood Model and the Heuristic-Systematic Model) of the cognitive processing of fear-arousing messages in undergraduate students. Finds in three of the four conditions (low fear, high fear, high trait anxiety) that cognitive processing appears to be antagonistic. Finds some evidence of concurrent…

  2. Intellectualization of educational process in higher educational establishments in the conditions of development of informatization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apshay N.I.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of new information technologies is examined on the educational environment of higher educational establishments. The main tendency of further informatization of educational activity is determine intellectualization. Intellectualization is a process of satiation of informative environment of education due to activation of intellectual assets. Concrete measures are offered on passing to the use of intellectual technologies and technologies of management knowledges. To the primary concerns it is possible to take structuring informative cognitive resource of higher educational establishments.

  3. Technology as Teammate: Examining the Role of External Cognition in Support of Team Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we advance team theory by describing how cognition occurs across the distribution of members and the artifacts and technology that support their efforts. We draw from complementary theorizing coming out of cognitive engineering and cognitive science that views forms of cognition as external and extended and integrate this with theorizing on macrocognition in teams. Two frameworks are described that provide the groundwork for advancing theory and aid in the development of more precise measures for understanding team cognition via focus on artifacts and the technologies supporting their development and use. This includes distinctions between teamwork and taskwork and the notion of general and specific competencies from the organizational sciences along with the concepts of offloading and scaffolding from the cognitive sciences. This paper contributes to the team cognition literature along multiple lines. First, it aids theory development by synthesizing a broad set of perspectives on the varied forms of cognition emerging in complex collaborative contexts. Second, it supports research by providing diagnostic guidelines to study how artifacts are related to team cognition. Finally, it supports information systems designers by more precisely describing how to conceptualize team-supporting technology and artifacts. As such, it provides a means to more richly understand process and performance as it occurs within sociotechnical systems. Our overarching objective is to show how team cognition can both be more clearly conceptualized and more precisely measured by integrating theory from cognitive engineering and the cognitive and organizational sciences.

  4. Cognitive process-based subtypes of developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the cognitive subtypes demonstrated by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using the Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive Processing (PASS) theory and the Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS). Participants were 108 children aged 5- and 6-years old, 54 with DCD and 54 without DCD, all attending typical kindergartens. They were examined on 31 cognitive-motor variables. Hierarchical-agglomerative and iterative partitioning cluster analyses including 9 motor and 7 cognitive variables revealed the following six subtypes: o C1 = children at risk (having considerable difficulty with jumping and minor difficulty with manual dexterity and simultaneous coding); o C2 = children on the mean (all cognitive-motor scores close to the mean); o C3 = free from cognitive-motor problems (all scores above average); o C4 = manual dexterity, planning and simultaneous coding difficulties; o C5 = manual dexterity, dynamic balance, and planning difficulties; o C6 = generalized cognitive-motor dysfunction (all scores considerably below average). It is well known that DCD is a heterogeneous condition. However, whenever cognitive processes were lower than average, cognitive-motor relationship was evident in subgroups C1, C4, C5 and C6. Early identification of task-specific cognitive-motor difficulties may be essential for early educational intervention practices in order to anticipate and improve learning, academic and performing difficulties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Impacts of Bologna Process on European Higher Education Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer ÇELİK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of Bologna Process on European higher education systems. It focuses on the influences of the main components of Bologna Process (i.e., implementing two-cycle system, increasing the student and academic staffs' mobility, European Credit Transfer System, quality assurance and qualification framework on the transformation of higher education systems. Although Bologna Process is perceived as a move to increase the quality of higher education system in Turkey, there are very serious criticisms from academics, students, and businessmen to the Bologna Process in various European countries. This study claims that the Process did not achieve its goals, more importantly the main instruments of the Process (qualifications, quality assurance agency etc. brought about hyper-bureaucratization, hierarchization and standardization of European higher education systems.

  6. Sensory processing and cognitive development of preterm and full term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Ribeiro Cavalcanti Buffone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current studies show the repercussion of sensory processing disorder in infant neurodevelopment. Little is known about the influence of these disorders in the infant’s cognitive development, however, it is known that they negatively interfere on daily life activities and remain during life course. Objective:To evaluate the relationship between sensory processing and cognitive development in infants and the association between prematurity and sensory processing in this population. Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Childcare Outpatient Department of the Hospital das Clínicas, Federal Universidade de Pernambuco, from December 2009 to August 2010. The sample consisted of 182 infants from 8 to 15 months, of which 54 (29.7% were born preterm with the prematurity age correction made to 40 weeks of gestational age. We used the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants (TSFI to evaluate the sensory processing and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III to assess cognitive development. Results: There was a significantly higher frequency of at risk and deficient sensory processing among preterm infants (37% when compared to term infants (21.9%. Cognitive delay was significantly higher (8.3% in infants with at risk and deficient sensory processing when compared to those with normal sensory processing (1.5%. Conclusion: Prematurity was a risk factor for sensory processing disorder, and infants diagnosed with this disorder showed cognitive delay more frequently. Prematurity alone was not associated with cognitive delay.

  7. Cognitive profile of students who enter higher education with an indication of dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Callens

    Full Text Available For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d = 1 and d = 2, arithmetic (d≈1, and phonological processing (d>0.7. Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined.

  8. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Facial affect processing and depression susceptibility: cognitive biases and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistricky, Steven L; Ingram, Rick E; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2011-11-01

    Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal experience, cognition, and social behavior. We therefore review the burgeoning depressive facial affect processing literature and examine its potential for integrating disciplines, theories, and research. In particular, we evaluate studies in which information processing or cognitive neuroscience paradigms were used to assess facial affect processing in depressed and depression-susceptible populations. Most studies have assessed and supported cognitive models. This research suggests that depressed and depression-vulnerable groups show abnormal facial affect interpretation, attention, and memory, although findings vary based on depression severity, comorbid anxiety, or length of time faces are viewed. Facial affect processing biases appear to correspond with distinct neural activity patterns and increased depressive emotion and thought. Biases typically emerge in depressed moods but are occasionally found in the absence of such moods. Indirect evidence suggests that childhood neglect might cultivate abnormal facial affect processing, which can impede social functioning in ways consistent with cognitive-interpersonal and interpersonal models. However, reviewed studies provide mixed support for the social risk model prediction that depressive states prompt cognitive hypervigilance to social threat information. We recommend prospective interdisciplinary research examining whether facial affect processing abnormalities promote-or are promoted by-depressogenic attachment experiences, negative thinking, and social dysfunction.

  10. Knowledge and cognitive process dimensions of Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further research is also needed on the reasons why low cognitive demands are made in the teaching of Technology. .... the NCS (Department of Basic Education, 2011), and the topics ..... In the quantitative phase each lesson objective was classified according .... involves the retrieving (listing) of knowledge from memory (at.

  11. Meaning of cognitive processes for creating artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Pangrác, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis brings an integral view at cognitive processes connected with artificial intelligence systems, and makes a comparison with the processes observed in nature, including human being. A historical background helps us to look at the whole issue from a certain point of view. The main axis of interest comes after the historical overview and includes the following: environment -- stimulations -- processing -- reflection in the cognitive system -- reaction to stimulation; I balance...

  12. Organizational Change, Leadership and Learning: Culture as Cognitive Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakomski, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    Examines the claim that it is necessary to change an organization's culture in order to bring about organizational change. Considers the purported causal relationship between the role of the leader and organizational learning and develops the notion of culture as cognitive process based on research in cultural anthropology and cognitive science.…

  13. Neurobiological correlates of cognitions in fear and anxiety: a cognitive-neurobiological information-processing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Ellard, Kristen K; Siegle, Greg J

    2012-01-01

    We review likely neurobiological substrates of cognitions related to fear and anxiety. Cognitive processes are linked to abnormal early activity reflecting hypervigilance in subcortical networks involving the amygdala, hippocampus, and insular cortex, and later recruitment of cortical regulatory resources, including activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal cortex to implement avoidant response strategies. Based on this evidence, we present a cognitive-neurobiological information-processing model of fear and anxiety, linking distinct brain structures to specific stages of information processing of perceived threat.

  14. Plant operator performance evaluation based on cognitive process analysis experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Fukuda, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment to clarify plant operators' cognitive processes that has been performed, to improve the man-machine interface which supports their diagnoses and decisions. The cognitive processes under abnormal conditions were evaluated by protocol analyses interviews, etc. in the experiment using a plant training simulator. A cognitive process model is represented by a stochastic network, based on Rasmussen's decision making model. Each node of the network corresponds to an element of the cognitive process, such as observation, interpretation, execution, etc. Some observations were obtained as follows, by comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results with the experiment results: A process to reconfirm the plant parameters after execution of a task and feedback paths from this process to the observation and the task definition of next task were observed. The feedback probability average and standard deviation should be determined for each incident type to explain correctly the individual differences in the cognitive processes. The tendency for the operator's cognitive level to change from skill-based to knowledge-based via rule-based behavior was observed during the feedback process

  15. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  16. Reauthorization Ready: How NASFAA Influences the Higher Education Policymaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean Coval, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The Higher Education Act (HEA) is due to be reauthorized by Congress and the higher education policy community is working hard to be a part of those efforts. The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) plays a unique role in this process, as the HEA contains the legislation behind all of the federal student financial…

  17. Nursing's ways of knowing and dual process theories of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John; Cheyne, Helen; Dalgleish, Len; Duncan, Edward A S; Niven, Catherine A

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a comparison of nursing's patterns of knowing with the systems identified by cognitive science, and evaluates claims about the equal-status relation between scientific and non-scientific knowledge. Ever since Carper's seminal paper in 1978, it has been taken for granted in the nursing literature that there are ways of knowing, or patterns of knowing, that are not scientific. This idea has recently been used to argue that the concept of evidence, typically associated with evidence-based practice, is inappropriately restricted because it is identified exclusively with scientific research. The paper reviews literature in psychology which appears to draw a comparable distinction between rule-based, analytical cognitive processes and other forms of cognitive processing which are unconscious, holistic and intuitive. There is a convincing parallel between the 'patterns of knowing' distinction in nursing and the 'cognitive processing' distinction in psychology. However, there is an important difference in the way the relation between different forms of knowing (or cognitive processing) is depicted. In nursing, it is argued that the different patterns of knowing have equal status and weight. In cognitive science, it is suggested that the rule-based, analytical form of cognition has a supervisory and corrective function with respect to the other forms. Scientific reasoning and evidence-based knowledge have epistemological priority over the other forms of nursing knowledge. The implications of this claim for healthcare practice are briefly indicated.

  18. Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education (NICHE, 1: Teaching Faculty How to Improve Students' Quantitative Reasoning Skills through Cognitive Illusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe one of the eight units of a professional development program, the Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education (NICHE, which introduces research on cognition, including dual-processing theories, to university faculty. Under the dual-processing framework, System 1 (intuition quickly proposes intuitive answers to judgment problems as they arise, while System 2 (deliberation monitors the quality of these proposals, which it may endorse, correct, or override. We present several classic questions that demonstrate the pitfalls of overreliance on intuition without analytical thinking, then describe faculty participants’ responses to these questions and their ideas on how to apply cognitive illusion research to quantitative reasoning instruction. The unit has helped generate excellent ideas for quantitative reasoning instruction. A persistent concern shared by many participants, however, is that weakness in basic mathematics and language comprehension among urban public university students might present a challenge in implementing these ideas.

  19. Instructional Style, Cognitive Processing, and Achievement Behavior Patterns of Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the performance characteristics and differences between English and Oriya medium school children on various cognitive processing, reading, academic achievement, and teacher perception measures. The sample consists of 243 schoolchildren, 120 from Grade IV and 123 from Grade VII from three different schools of Cuttack city in Orissa, India. The children were individually administered the Figure-Copying, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Matching Familiar Figure Task, Serial Recall, Digit-Span, Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children, Block Design, Cloze Reading Comprehension, and Oral Reading tasks. Classroom Achievement scores on different subjects and the teachers’ ratings about their students were also taken. Results revealed that children reading in English medium schools outperformed their Oriya medium counterparts in some cognitive measures such as Figure Copying, MFFT, RPM, and Digit-Span tasks irrespective of levels. However, the children studying in Oriya medium schools scored higher in Reading Comprehension task and commit less error compared with their English medium counterparts. However, in case of academic achievement measures at primary level, the Oriya medium children performed better in social science, whereas the English medium students excelled in first language and mathematics. The teachers of Oriya medium schools also rated their children better in general conduct, motivation, and effort in schoolwork, whereas, at the secondary level, there was no difference between these two groups in academic achievement or teacher perception measures.

  20. EFFECT OF FLIPPED LEARNING ON COGNITIVE LOAD: A HIGHER EDUCATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal Karaca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the flipped learning method on the cognitive load of the students. The study was conducted with a sample of 160 people who were trained in Department of Mechanical Engineering for algorithms and programming courses at a higher education level. The study, which lasted for 8 weeks, has a semi-experimental design. A 9-point scale developed by Paas and Van Merrienboer (1993 was used for cognitive load measurements. At the end of the weekly courses, the scale was filled by the experimental and control groups. Independent sample t test was applied through SPSS 24 program to the obtained data. In both instances, the cognitive load in the experimental group in which the flipped learning method was applied was found to be lower than the cognitive load in the control group in which traditional face-to-face training was applied. As a result, it can be said that flipped learning, if well structured, is a method reducing cognitive load.

  1. Higher BMI Is Associated with Reduced Cognitive Performance in Division I Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fedor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Poor cardiovascular fitness has been implicated as a possible mechanism for obesity-related cognitive decline, though no study has examined whether BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in persons with excellent fitness levels. The current study examined the relationship between BMI and cognitive function by the Immediate Post Concussion and Cognitive Test (ImPACT in Division I collegiate athletes. Methods: Participants had an average age of 20.14 ± 1.78 years, were 31.3% female, and 53.9% football players. BMI ranged from 19.04 to 41.14 and averaged 26.72 ± 4.62. Results: Regression analyses revealed that BMI incrementally predicted performance on visual memory (R2 change = 0.015, p = 0.026 beyond control variables. Follow-up partial correlation analyses revealed small but significant negative correlations between BMI and verbal memory (r = -0.17, visual memory (r = -0.16, and visual motor speed (r = -0.12. Conclusions: These results suggest that higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive function, even in a sample expected to have excellent levels of cardiovascular fitness. Further work is needed to better understand mechanisms for these associations.

  2. Higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive performance in division I athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Poor cardiovascular fitness has been implicated as a possible mechanism for obesity-related cognitive decline, though no study has examined whether BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in persons with excellent fitness levels. The current study examined the relationship between BMI and cognitive function by the Immediate Post Concussion and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) in Division I collegiate athletes. Participants had an average age of 20.14 ± 1.78 years, were 31.3% female, and 53.9% football players. BMI ranged from 19.04 to 41.14 and averaged 26.72 ± 4.62. Regression analyses revealed that BMI incrementally predicted performance on visual memory (R(2) change = 0.015, p = 0.026) beyond control variables. Follow-up partial correlation analyses revealed small but significant negative correlations between BMI and verbal memory (r = -0.17), visual memory (r = -0.16), and visual motor speed (r = -0.12). These results suggest that higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive function, even in a sample expected to have excellent levels of cardiovascular fitness. Further work is needed to better understand mechanisms for these associations. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  3. Volumetric image interpretation in radiology: scroll behavior and cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Larissa; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; Vincken, Koen L; Mol, Chris P; Stuijfzand, Bobby G; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2018-05-16

    The interpretation of medical images is a primary task for radiologists. Besides two-dimensional (2D) images, current imaging technologies allow for volumetric display of medical images. Whereas current radiology practice increasingly uses volumetric images, the majority of studies on medical image interpretation is conducted on 2D images. The current study aimed to gain deeper insight into the volumetric image interpretation process by examining this process in twenty radiology trainees who all completed four volumetric image cases. Two types of data were obtained concerning scroll behaviors and think-aloud data. Types of scroll behavior concerned oscillations, half runs, full runs, image manipulations, and interruptions. Think-aloud data were coded by a framework of knowledge and skills in radiology including three cognitive processes: perception, analysis, and synthesis. Relating scroll behavior to cognitive processes showed that oscillations and half runs coincided more often with analysis and synthesis than full runs, whereas full runs coincided more often with perception than oscillations and half runs. Interruptions were characterized by synthesis and image manipulations by perception. In addition, we investigated relations between cognitive processes and found an overall bottom-up way of reasoning with dynamic interactions between cognitive processes, especially between perception and analysis. In sum, our results highlight the dynamic interactions between these processes and the grounding of cognitive processes in scroll behavior. It suggests, that the types of scroll behavior are relevant to describe how radiologists interact with and manipulate volumetric images.

  4. Some Cognitive Components of the Diagnostic Thinking Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Identifies 14 cognitive components of the diagnostic thinking process in clinical problem solving. Analyzes the differences between medical students, hospital house officers, and hospital registrars in London, England, on the relative use of such thinking processes. Suggests that diagnostic thinking processes cannot be incorporated into medical…

  5. The cognitive viewpoint on information science and processing information in cognitive psychology - a vision for interdisciplinary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Guimarães Pimenta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction amongst the ‘user’, ‘information’, and ‘text’ is of interest to Information Science although it has deserved insufficient attention in the literature. This issue is addressed by this paper whose main purpose is to contribute to the discussion of theoretical affinity between the cognitive viewpoint in Information Science and the information processing approach in Cognitive Psychology. Firstly, the interdisciplinary nature of Information Science is discussed and justified as a means to deepen and strengthen its theoretical framework. Such interdisciplinarity helps to avoid stagnation and keep pace with other disciplines. Secondly, the discussion takes into consideration the cognitive paradigm, which originates the cognitive viewpoint approach in Information Science. It is highlighted that the cognitive paradigm represented a change in the Social Sciences due to the shift of focus from the object and the signal to the individual. Besides that, it sheds light to the notion of models of worlds, i.e., the systems of categories and concepts that guide the interaction between the individual and his/her environment. Thirdly, the theoretical assumptions of the cognitive viewpoint approach are discussed, with emphasis on the concept of ‘information’, as resulting of cognitive processes and as related to the notion of ‘text’. This approach points out the relevance of understanding the interaction amongst users, information, and text. However, it lacks further development. Using notions which are common to both approaches, some of the gaps can be fulfilled. Finally, the concept of ‘text’, its constituents and structures are presented from the perspective of text comprehension models and according to the information processing approach. As a concluding remark, it is suggested that bringing together the cognitive viewpoint and the information processing approach can be enriching and fruitful to the both Information

  6. How visual cognition influences process model comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusel, Razvan; Mendling, Jan; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2017-01-01

    Process analysts and other professionals extensively use process models to analyze business processes and identify performance improvement opportunities. Therefore, it is important that such models can be easily and properly understood. Previous research has mainly focused on two types of factors

  7. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

    2007-01-01

    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual's cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a 'good-enough' response instead of deliberating for the 'best' response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included

  8. Developmental maturation of dynamic causal control signals in higher-order cognition: a neurocognitive network model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Supekar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills undergo protracted developmental changes resulting in proficiencies that are a hallmark of human cognition. One skill that develops over time is the ability to problem solve, which in turn relies on cognitive control and attention abilities. Here we use a novel multimodal neurocognitive network-based approach combining task-related fMRI, resting-state fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to investigate the maturation of control processes underlying problem solving skills in 7-9 year-old children. Our analysis focused on two key neurocognitive networks implicated in a wide range of cognitive tasks including control: the insula-cingulate salience network, anchored in anterior insula (AI, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, and the fronto-parietal central executive network, anchored in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex (PPC. We found that, by age 9, the AI node of the salience network is a major causal hub initiating control signals during problem solving. Critically, despite stronger AI activation, the strength of causal regulatory influences from AI to the PPC node of the central executive network was significantly weaker and contributed to lower levels of behavioral performance in children compared to adults. These results were validated using two different analytic methods for estimating causal interactions in fMRI data. In parallel, DTI-based tractography revealed weaker AI-PPC structural connectivity in children. Our findings point to a crucial role of AI connectivity, and its causal cross-network influences, in the maturation of dynamic top-down control signals underlying cognitive development. Overall, our study demonstrates how a unified neurocognitive network model when combined with multimodal imaging enhances our ability to generalize beyond individual task-activated foci and provides a common framework for elucidating key features of brain and cognitive

  9. Higher fasting glucose is associated with poorer cognition among healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Misty A W; Gunstad, John; Calvo, Dayana; Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with cognitive deficits; however, the mechanisms are unclear, especially among otherwise healthy adults. Our objectives were to examine (a) whether obesity is linked to elevations in fasting glucose and (b) whether these elevations are associated with cognitive impairment among otherwise healthy young adults. Participants were 35 normal weight adults and 35 young adults with obesity who completed a task from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4 (ANAM-4). Measured body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dL) were examined. Persons with obesity had higher fasting glucose levels than normal weight persons (p = .03). After applying Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, higher fasting glucose predicted less accurate performance on tests of inhibitory control: Go/No-Go Commission Errors (β = .33, p = .004). No effects were observed for sustained attention or working memory (ps ≥. 049). Persons with glucose levels in the prediabetes range had nearly twice as many errors as those with normal glucose, a large effect that was independent of BMI. Young adults who were obese but otherwise healthy had higher fasting glucose levels compared with normal weight peers. Higher glucose levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance on tests of inhibitory control, especially among individuals with prediabetes levels. Thus, subclinical elevations in blood glucose may contribute to cognitive impairment and, ultimately, greater impulsivity-well in advance of the development of chronic disease states (e.g., insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes) and independently of excess adiposity--though prospective studies are needed to determine directionality of this relationship. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A Functional Examination of Intermediate Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    in terms of levels of processing models (e.g., Craik and Lockhart , 1972; Craik and Tulving, 1975). A similarly counter-intuitive result from a novel...NJ.: Erlbaum. Craik ,F.I.M. & Lockhart ,R.S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal... processes or at least, a recognition of the correspondence betveen these symbols and external events. ( Craik , 1943, p. 50) Craik thus provides a

  11. Chronnectome fingerprinting: Identifying individuals and predicting higher cognitive functions using dynamic brain connectivity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Liao, Xuhong; Xia, Mingrui; He, Yong

    2018-02-01

    The human brain is a large, interacting dynamic network, and its architecture of coupling among brain regions varies across time (termed the "chronnectome"). However, very little is known about whether and how the dynamic properties of the chronnectome can characterize individual uniqueness, such as identifying individuals as a "fingerprint" of the brain. Here, we employed multiband resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the Human Connectome Project (N = 105) and a sliding time-window dynamic network analysis approach to systematically examine individual time-varying properties of the chronnectome. We revealed stable and remarkable individual variability in three dynamic characteristics of brain connectivity (i.e., strength, stability, and variability), which was mainly distributed in three higher order cognitive systems (i.e., default mode, dorsal attention, and fronto-parietal) and in two primary systems (i.e., visual and sensorimotor). Intriguingly, the spatial patterns of these dynamic characteristics of brain connectivity could successfully identify individuals with high accuracy and could further significantly predict individual higher cognitive performance (e.g., fluid intelligence and executive function), which was primarily contributed by the higher order cognitive systems. Together, our findings highlight that the chronnectome captures inherent functional dynamics of individual brain networks and provides implications for individualized characterization of health and disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nicholas D; Seal, Marc L; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A

    2009-11-10

    Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our data suggest that MDD patients are able to perform high

  13. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In “Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions,” published in Psychological Bulletin, Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so the authors outline a series of links between various constructs, such as fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, absorption, suggestibility, altered information-processin...

  14. Hierarchical Categorical Perception in Sensing and Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2008-01-01

    This article considers categorical perception (CP) as a crucial process involved in all sort of communication throughout the biological hierarchy, i.e. in all of biosemiosis. Until now, there has been consideration of CP exclusively within the functional cycle of perception-cognition-action and i...... of categorical sensing and perception with the equally hierarchical issues of the "binding problem", "triadic causality", the "emergent interpretant" and the increasing semiotic freedom observed in biological and cognitive systems....

  15. Neural processes underlying cultural differences in cognitive persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Qu, Yang; Lin, Lynda C

    2017-08-01

    Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. In Study 1, 71 American (47 females, M=19.68 years) and 68 Chinese (38 females, M=19.37 years) students completed a behavioral cognitive control task that required cognitive persistence across time. In Study 2, 14 American and 15 Chinese students completed the same cognitive persistence task during an fMRI scan. Across both studies, American students showed significant declines in cognitive performance across time, whereas Chinese participants demonstrated effective cognitive persistence. These behavioral effects were explained by cultural differences in self-improvement motivation and paralleled by increasing activation and functional coupling between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral striatum (VS) across the task among Chinese participants, neural activation and coupling that remained low in American participants. These findings suggest a potential neural mechanism by which the VS and IFG work in concert to promote cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. Thus, frontostriatal circuitry may be a neurobiological signal representing intrinsic motivation for self-improvement that serves an adaptive function, increasing Chinese students' motivation to engage in cognitive persistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Modeling the Competence Acquiring Process in Higher Education Institution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowska, Magdelena; Kusztina, Emma; Zaikin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Changes in human capital management, new requirements regarding knowledge and skills of employees compel higher education institutions to redefine their learning programmes. This requires evaluation of the didactic process realization, which should be oriented on competences. In the article authors...... presents an approach to competence modeling. New tools and collaboration mechanisms are proposed, which allow defining the structure of competence, analyzing the level of competence development, and assessing the competence process realization in relation “expected benefit-required expense”....

  17. Cognitive and Emotion Regulation Change Processes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia S; Mennin, Douglas S; Hougaard, Esben; Zachariae, Robert; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate variables, derived from both cognitive and emotion regulation conceptualizations of social anxiety disorder (SAD), as possible change processes in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for SAD. Several proposed change processes were investigated: estimated probability, estimated cost, safety behaviours, acceptance of emotions, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants were 50 patients with SAD, receiving a standard manualized CBT program, conducted in groups or individually. All variables were measured pre-therapy, mid-therapy and post-therapy. Lower level mediation models revealed that while a change in most process measures significantly predicted clinical improvement, only changes in estimated probability and cost and acceptance of emotions showed significant indirect effects of CBT for SAD. The results are in accordance with previous studies supporting the mediating role of changes in cognitive distortions in CBT for SAD. In addition, acceptance of emotions may also be a critical component to clinical improvement in SAD during CBT, although more research is needed on which elements of acceptance are most helpful for individuals with SAD. The study's lack of a control condition limits any conclusion regarding the specificity of the findings to CBT. Change in estimated probability and cost, and acceptance of emotions showed an indirect effect of CBT for SAD. Cognitive distortions appear relevant to target with cognitive restructuring techniques. Finding acceptance to have an indirect effect could be interpreted as support for contemporary CBT approaches that include acceptance-based strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Cognitive aging on latent constructs for visual processing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Wilms, Inge Linda

    2015-01-01

    processing speed compared to visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity (Model 2). These results are consistent with some studies reporting selective ageing effects on processing speed, and inconsistent with other studies reporting ageing effects on both processing speed and VSTM capacity. In the discussion we......We examined the effects of normal ageing on visual cognition in a sample of 112 healthy adults aged 60-75. A testbattery was designed to capture high-level measures of visual working memory and low-level measures of visuospatial attention and memory. To answer questions of how cognitive ageing...

  19. Cognitive compensatory processes of older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Yves; Borghgraef, Cindy; Beguin, Yves; Delvaux, Nicole; Devos, Martine; Doyen, Chantal; Dubruille, Stéphanie; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Liénard, Aurore; Merckaert, Isabelle; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Straetmans, Nicole; Van Den Neste, Eric; Bron, Dominique; Razavi, Darius

    2017-12-01

    Despite the well-known negative impacts of cancer and anticancer therapies on cognitive performance, little is known about the cognitive compensatory processes of older patients with cancer. This study was designed to investigate the cognitive compensatory processes of older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. We assessed 89 consecutive patients (age ≥ 65 y) without severe cognitive impairment and 89 age-, sex-, and education level-matched healthy controls. Cognitive compensatory processes were investigated by (1) comparing cognitive performance of patients and healthy controls in novel (first exposure to cognitive tasks) and non-novel (second exposure to the same cognitive tasks) contexts, and (2) assessing psychological factors that may facilitate or inhibit cognitive performance, such as motivation, psychological distress, and perceived cognitive performance. We assessed cognitive performance with the Trail-Making, Digit Span and FCSR-IR tests, psychological distress with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and perceived cognitive performance with the FACT-Cog questionnaire. In novel and non-novel contexts, average cognitive performances of healthy controls were higher than those of patients and were associated with motivation. Cognitive performance of patients was not associated with investigated psychological factors in the novel context but was associated with motivation and psychological distress in the non-novel context. Older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy demonstrated lower cognitive compensatory processes compared to healthy controls. Reducing distress and increasing motivation may improve cognitive compensatory processes of patients in non-novel contexts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Predicting perceptual learning from higher-order cortical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Huang, Jing; Lv, Yaping; Ma, Xiaoli; Yang, Bin; Wang, Encong; Du, Boqi; Li, Wu; Song, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning has been shown to be highly specific to the retinotopic location and attributes of the trained stimulus. Recent psychophysical studies suggest that these specificities, which have been associated with early retinotopic visual cortex, may in fact not be inherent in perceptual learning and could be related to higher-order brain functions. Here we provide direct electrophysiological evidence in support of this proposition. In a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from human adults over the course of learning in a texture discrimination task (TDT). The results consistently showed that the earliest C1 component (68-84ms), known to reflect V1 activity driven by feedforward inputs, was not modulated by learning regardless of whether the behavioral improvement is location specific or not. In contrast, two later posterior ERP components (posterior P1 and P160-350) over the occipital cortex and one anterior ERP component (anterior P160-350) over the prefrontal cortex were progressively modified day by day. Moreover, the change of the anterior component was closely correlated with improved behavioral performance on a daily basis. Consistent with recent psychophysical and imaging observations, our results indicate that perceptual learning can mainly involve changes in higher-level visual cortex as well as in the neural networks responsible for cognitive functions such as attention and decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Information Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Craik . F.I.M., & Lockhart , R.S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11...task at both levels of performance, then one would, in both cases, postulate systems that had the ability to process symbols at the microscopic level ...821760s and early 70s. (cf. Atkinson & Shiffrin. 1968: Craik & Lockhart . 1972: Norman, Rumelhart, & LNR, 1975). This architecture is comprised of several

  2. Information Processing and Dynamics in Minimally Cognitive Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Randall D.; Williams, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in the literature about the relative merits of information processing versus dynamical approaches to understanding cognitive processes. In this article, we explore the relationship between these two styles of explanation using a model agent evolved to solve a relational categorization task. Specifically, we…

  3. The Process of Student Cognition in Constructing Mathematical Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astawa, I. Wayan Puja; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Juniati, Dwi

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to describe the process of student cognition in constructing mathematical conjecture. Many researchers have studied this process but without giving a detailed explanation of how students understand the information to construct a mathematical conjecture. The researchers focus their analysis on how to construct and prove the…

  4. THE INTERNAL AUDIT AS COGNITIVE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Petrascu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The term AUDIT generally comes from the Latin word "audire" to listen and to inform others, from today's Anglo-Saxon countries, this term has the meaning of a revision of the accounting information and of those of a different nature, realized by an independent professional, in view of expressing an opinion regarding the regularity and honesty of the audited information (1 §tefan Craciun, Audit financiar §i audit intern, The Economic Publishing House, Bucharest, 2004, page 22. In a general register, an audit has the purpose to grant an entity added value by a systematic and methodic approach, evaluating the risk management processes, the control processes and the governing processes, all of which are materialized within an objective and professional report.

  5. Cognitive processes, models and metaphors in decision research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Newell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision research in psychology has traditionally been influenced by the extit{homo oeconomicus} metaphor with its emphasis on normative models and deviations from the predictions of those models. In contrast, the principal metaphor of cognitive psychology conceptualizes humans as `information processors', employing processes of perception, memory, categorization, problem solving and so on. Many of the processes described in cognitive theories are similar to those involved in decision making, and thus increasing cross-fertilization between the two areas is an important endeavour. A wide range of models and metaphors has been proposed to explain and describe `information processing' and many models have been applied to decision making in ingenious ways. This special issue encourages cross-fertilization between cognitive psychology and decision research by providing an overview of current perspectives in one area that continues to highlight the benefits of the synergistic approach: cognitive modeling of multi-attribute decision making. In this introduction we discuss aspects of the cognitive system that need to be considered when modeling multi-attribute decision making (e.g., automatic versus controlled processing, learning and memory constraints, metacognition and illustrate how such aspects are incorporated into the approaches proposed by contributors to the special issue. We end by discussing the challenges posed by the contrasting and sometimes incompatible assumptions of the models and metaphors.

  6. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Cognitive processing of currency: Euros and Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis

    2015-11-01

    In the current study, we evaluated whether the processing of currency was determined by familiarity of people with banknotes. In Experiment 1, participants who used the Euro currency named sequences of Euro banknotes and Dollar banknotes blocked by category or mixed with exemplars of other categories. The participants showed an interference effect in the blocked context with Dollar banknotes but not with Euro banknotes. In Experiment 2, the interference effect was observed with Euro banknotes when participants were not familiar with the Euro currency. These results suggest that the semantic processing of banknotes depends on the participants' familiarity with currency. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Cognitive conflict increases processing of negative, task-irrelevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, Tomasz S; Wyczesany, Miroslaw

    2017-10-01

    The detection of cognitive conflict is thought to trigger adjustments in executive control. It has been recently shown that cognitive conflict increases processing of stimuli that are relevant to the ongoing task and that these modulations are exerted by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, it is still unclear whether such control influences are unspecific and might also affect the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. The aim of the study was to examine if cognitive conflict affects processing of neutral and negative, task-irrelevant pictures. Participants responded to congruent (non-conflict) or to incongruent (conflict-eliciting) trials of a modified flanker task. Each response was followed by a presentation of a neutral or negative picture. The late positive potential (LPP) in response to picture presentation was used to assess the level of picture processing after conflict vs non-conflict trials. Connectivity between the DLPFC and attentional and perceptual areas during picture presentation was analysed to check if the DLPFC might be a source of these modulations. ERP results showed an effect of cognitive conflict only on processing of negative pictures: LPP in response to negative pictures was increased after conflict trials, whereas LPP in response to neutral pictures remained unchanged. Cortical connectivity analysis showed that conflict trials intensified information flow from the DLPFC towards attentional and perceptual regions. Results suggest that cognitive conflict increases processing of task-irrelevant stimuli; however, they must display high biological salience. Increase in cognitive control exerted by the DLPFC over attentional and perceptual regions is a probable mechanism of the effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive profile and disorders affecting higher brain functions in paediatric patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucheret Paz, E; López Ballent, A; Puga, C; García Basalo, M J; Baliarda, F; Ekonen, C; Ilari, R; Agosta, G

    2017-04-18

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous syndrome often associated with specific cognitive deficits that are rarely monitored during follow-up of these patients. The purpose of our study is two-fold. First, we aimed to describe the cognitive profile of patients with NF1 and detect disorders in higher brain functions associated with the disease. Second, we identified the reasons for consultation associated with school performance in these patients. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 24 paediatric patients (ages 5 to 16) with NF1 who underwent neuropsychological assessment. The most frequent reasons for consultation were attention deficits (58.33%), learning disorders (25%), poor motor coordination (25%), and language impairment (0.8%). Although 96% of the patients displayed impairments in at least one of the assessed areas, only 83.34% of the parents had reported such impairments. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was present in 58.33% of the patients, whereas 33.33% had nonverbal learning disabilities, 20.83% had expressive language disorder, 8.33% had borderline intellectual functioning, 4.16% had mental retardation, and only 4.16% showed no cognitive impairment. Higher brain functions are frequently impaired in paediatric patients with NF1. Although many parents report such disorders, they can go undetected in some cases. Neuropsychological assessment is recommended for all paediatric patients with NF1 to detect cognitive impairment and provide early, effective rehabilitation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Higher-order Cognitive Strategy Training on Gist Reasoning and Fact Learning in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn F Gamino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students’ native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enrolled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist reasoning and fact learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist

  11. Literacy processes cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Cartwright, Kelly B

    2015-01-01

    Reading and writing instruction require individuals--both students and teachers--to flexibly process many kinds of information, from a variety of sources. This is the first book to provide an in-depth examination of cognitive flexibility: how it develops across the lifespan; its role in specific literacy processes, such as phonemic awareness, word recognition, and comprehension; and implications for improving literacy instruction and teacher education. The contributors include leading researchers in literacy, psychology, and cognitive development, who summarize the current state of the science

  12. Individual differences in the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal predict the reward-related processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Liyang; Wang, Sisi; Ward, Anne; Ku, Yixuan; Sang, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life is related to brain activity involved in reward processing. In the present study, participants' neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a gambling task and their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN) than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e., amplified FN difference between losses and gains). This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal is associated with increased neural processing of reward.

  13. Visualization of decision processes using a cognitive architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Mark A.; Murugesan, Arthi; Brock, Derek; Frost, Wende K.; Perzanowski, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive architectures are computational theories of reasoning the human mind engages in as it processes facts and experiences. A cognitive architecture uses declarative and procedural knowledge to represent mental constructs that are involved in decision making. Employing a model of behavioral and perceptual constraints derived from a set of one or more scenarios, the architecture reasons about the most likely consequence(s) of a sequence of events. Reasoning of any complexity and depth involving computational processes, however, is often opaque and challenging to comprehend. Arguably, for decision makers who may need to evaluate or question the results of autonomous reasoning, it would be useful to be able to inspect the steps involved in an interactive, graphical format. When a chain of evidence and constraint-based decision points can be visualized, it becomes easier to explore both how and why a scenario of interest will likely unfold in a particular way. In initial work on a scheme for visualizing cognitively-based decision processes, we focus on generating graphical representations of models run in the Polyscheme cognitive architecture. Our visualization algorithm operates on a modified version of Polyscheme's output, which is accomplished by augmenting models with a simple set of tags. We provide example visualizations and discuss properties of our technique that pose challenges for our representation goals. We conclude with a summary of feedback solicited from domain experts and practitioners in the field of cognitive modeling.

  14. The Promise of Process. Learning through Enterprise in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    Entrepreneurial process increasingly attracts attention as an opportunity to learn in higher education. Students learn “through” enterprise, when they actively engage in an entrepreneurial process while reflecting on their actions and experiences. In this qualitative field study, I investigate how...... postgraduate students pursued opportunities to learn in a process-driven entrepreneurship module. Drawing on situated learning theory, I find that students tried to access learning opportunities through a constant dynamic of participation which involved contradictory participatory stances. The learning through...... paradigm in enterprise education imposes conditions on the learning environment and involves images of a particular learner, who is able to take advantage of this learning opportunity. The findings indicate a contradictory process of becoming a legitimate entrepreneurial learner which is more uncertain...

  15. Cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulation of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Tomec

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences among secondary school students in cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulated learning (SRL according to year of education, learning program, sex and achievement. Beside this, the autors were interested in the relationship between (metacognitive components of self-regulated learning. The theoretical framework of the research was the four-component model of self-regulated learning by Hofer, Yu and Pintrich (1998. The focus was on the first part of the model which is about cognitive structure and cognitive strategies.Metacognitive awareness inventory (Shraw and Sperling Dennison, 1994 and Cognitive strategies awareness questionnaire (Pečjak, 2000, in Peklaj and Pečjak, 2002 were applied. In a sample of 321 students, differences in perception of importance of cognitive strategies among students attending different grades (1st and 4th, students attending different learning programs, students of different gender and students with different achievements emerged. Students' achievement in the whole sample was related to amount of metacognitive awareness. In the sample of 4-year students and students attending professional secondary schools, students' achievement was additionally related to appraisal of importance elaboration and organizational strategies. Further statistical analyses of relationship between components in SRL showed high positive correlation between cognitive and metacognitive components.

  16. Information processing and dynamics in minimally cognitive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Randall D; Williams, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in the literature about the relative merits of information processing versus dynamical approaches to understanding cognitive processes. In this article, we explore the relationship between these two styles of explanation using a model agent evolved to solve a relational categorization task. Specifically, we separately analyze the operation of this agent using the mathematical tools of information theory and dynamical systems theory. Information-theoretic analysis reveals how task-relevant information flows through the system to be combined into a categorization decision. Dynamical analysis reveals the key geometrical and temporal interrelationships underlying the categorization decision. Finally, we propose a framework for directly relating these two different styles of explanation and discuss the possible implications of our analysis for some of the ongoing debates in cognitive science. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. N-3 PUFAs and neuroinflammatory processes in cognitive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyrolle Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ageing population and increased cases of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a crucial need for the development of new nutritional approaches to prevent and delay the onset of cognitive decline. Neuroinflammatory processes contribute to neuronal damage that underpins neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence sheds light on the use of dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to improve cognitive performances and reduce the neuroinflammatory responses occurring with age and neurodegenerative pathologies. This review will summarise the most recent information related to the impact and mechanisms underlying the neuroinflammatory processes in cognitive disorders. We will also discuss the mechanisms underlying n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids effect on neuroinflammation and memory decline.

  18. Conceptualization, Cognitive Process between Image and Word

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    Aurel Ion Clinciu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the process of constituting and organizing the system of concepts. After a comparative analysis of image and concept, conceptualization is reconsidered through raising for discussion the relations of concept with image in general and with self-image mirrored in body schema in particular. Taking into consideration the notion of mental space, there is developed an articulated perspective on conceptualization which has the images of mental space at one pole and the categories of language and operations of thinking at the other pole. There are explored the explicative possibilities of the notion of Tversky’s diagrammatic space as an element which is necessary to understand the genesis of graphic behaviour and to define a new construct, graphic intelligence.

  19. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Influence of empathetic pain processing on cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kesong; Lijffijt, Marijn; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Fan, Zhiwei; Shi, Hui; He, Shuchang

    2015-10-01

    Deficits in both empathy and cognition have been reported widely in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about how these deficits interact among such patients. In the present study, we used pain portraying pictures preceding a color-word Stroop task to investigate the effect of empathetic pain observation on cognition among patients with schizophrenia. Twenty patients with schizophrenia and twenty healthy controls were included. The control group showed increased Stroop facilitation and decreased interference during the empathetic pain condition compared with the non-empathetic condition. Although patients with schizophrenia exhibited deficits in cognition, they demonstrated a similar empathy effect to controls on Stroop facilitation, but a somewhat larger empathy effect on Stroop interference (a more decreased effect). In particular, the groups did not differ in either automatic or controlled processing during the non-empathetic condition, suggesting general rather than specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Together, we interpret our findings in terms of two opposing effects of empathy on cognition in schizophrenia, with possible neuromodulatory mechanism. Whereas prior studies showed empathy to be impaired, our outcomes indicate that at least some components of empathetic pain processing are preserved in such patients.

  1. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. PMID:24493837

  2. Predictive information processing in music cognition. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin A; Koelsch, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Expectation and prediction constitute central mechanisms in the perception and cognition of music, which have been explored in theoretical and empirical accounts. We review the scope and limits of theoretical accounts of musical prediction with respect to feature-based and temporal prediction. While the concept of prediction is unproblematic for basic single-stream features such as melody, it is not straight-forward for polyphonic structures or higher-order features such as formal predictions. Behavioural results based on explicit and implicit (priming) paradigms provide evidence of priming in various domains that may reflect predictive behaviour. Computational learning models, including symbolic (fragment-based), probabilistic/graphical, or connectionist approaches, provide well-specified predictive models of specific features and feature combinations. While models match some experimental results, full-fledged music prediction cannot yet be modelled. Neuroscientific results regarding the early right-anterior negativity (ERAN) and mismatch negativity (MMN) reflect expectancy violations on different levels of processing complexity, and provide some neural evidence for different predictive mechanisms. At present, the combinations of neural and computational modelling methodologies are at early stages and require further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: A review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.; Wiers, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  4. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: a review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  5. Developmental Dynamics of Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.; Weaver, Jennifer Miner

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic relations during the preschool years across processes of control and understanding in the domains of emotion and cognition were examined. Participants were 263 children (42% non-White) and their mothers who were seen first when the children were 3 years old and again when they were 4. Results indicated dynamic dependence among the…

  6. Big Questions Facing Vocational Psychology: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…

  7. Eye Contact Modulates Cognitive Processing Differently in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck-Ytter, Terje; Carlström, Christoffer; Johansson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In humans, effortful cognitive processing frequently takes place during social interaction, with eye contact being an important component. This study shows that the effect of eye contact on memory for nonsocial information is different in children with typical development than in children with autism, a disorder of social communication. Direct…

  8. Cognitive Process as a Basis for Intelligent Retrieval Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Dhar, Vasant

    1991-01-01

    Two studies of the cognitive processes involved in online document-based information retrieval were conducted. These studies led to the development of five computational models of online document retrieval which were incorporated into the design of an "intelligent" document-based retrieval system. Both the system and the broader implications of…

  9. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In their recent review "Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions," published in "Psychological Bulletin", Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so,…

  10. On Dual Processing and Heuristic Approaches to Moral Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the implications of dual-processing theories of cognition for the moral domain, with particular emphasis upon "System 1" theories: the Social Intuitionist Model (Haidt), moral heuristics (Sunstein), fast-and-frugal moral heuristics (Gigerenzer), schema accessibility (Lapsley & Narvaez) and moral expertise (Narvaez). We argue that these…

  11. Working memory span in mild cognitive impairment. Influence of processing speed and cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facal, David; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Pereiro, Arturo X; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often includes episodic memory impairment, but can also involve other types of cognitive decline. Although previous studies have shown poorer performance of MCI patients in working memory (WM) span tasks, different MCI subgroups were not studied. In the present exploratory study, 145 participants underwent extensive cognitive evaluation, which included three different WM span tasks, and were classified into the following groups: multiple-domain amnestic MCI (mda-MCI), single-domain amnestic MCI (sda-MCI), and controls. General linear model was conducted by considering the WM span tasks as the within-subject factor; the group (mda-MCI, sda-MCI, and controls) as the inter-subject factor; and processing speed, vocabulary and age as covariates. Multiple linear regression models were also used to test the influence of processing speed, vocabulary, and other cognitive reserve (CR) proxies. Results indicate different levels of impairment of WM, with more severe impairment in mda-MCI patients. The differences were still present when processing resources and CR were controlled. Between-group differences can be understood as a manifestation of the greater severity and widespread memory impairment in mda-MCI patients and may contribute to a better understanding of continuum from normal controls to mda-MCI patients. Processing speed and CR have a limited influence on WM scores, reducing but not removing differences between groups.

  12. Increase of EEG spectral theta power indicates higher risk of the development of severe cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease after 3 years

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    Vitalii V Cozac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG and clinical parameters as potential risk factors of severe cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease.Methods: We prospectively investigated 37 patients with Parkinson’s disease at baseline and follow-up (after 3 years. Patients had no severe cognitive impairment at baseline. We used a summary score of cognitive tests as the outcome at follow-up. At baseline we assessed motor, cognitive, and psychiatric factors; qEEG variables (global relative median power spectra were obtained by a fully automated processing of high-resolution EEG (256-channels. We used linear regression models with calculation of the explained variance to evaluate the relation of baseline parameters with cognitive deterioration.Results: The following baseline parameters significantly predicted severe cognitive decline: global relative median power theta (4-8 Hz, cognitive task performance in executive functions and working memory.Conclusions: Combination of neurocognitive tests and qEEG improves identification of patients with higher risk of cognitive decline in PD.

  13. Change Processes in Residential Cognitive and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Social Phobia: A Process-Outcome Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were…

  14. Visualizing complex processes using a cognitive-mapping tool to support the learning of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Grotzer, Tina A; Liu, Jun; Johnson, Janice M

    2016-08-22

    Practical experience with clinical cases has played an important role in supporting the learning of clinical reasoning. However, learning through practical experience involves complex processes difficult to be captured by students. This study aimed to examine the effects of a computer-based cognitive-mapping approach that helps students to externalize the reasoning process and the knowledge underlying the reasoning process when they work with clinical cases. A comparison between the cognitive-mapping approach and the verbal-text approach was made by analyzing their effects on learning outcomes. Fifty-two third-year or higher students from two medical schools participated in the study. Students in the experimental group used the computer-base cognitive-mapping approach, while the control group used the verbal-text approach, to make sense of their thinking and actions when they worked with four simulated cases over 4 weeks. For each case, students in both groups reported their reasoning process (involving data capture, hypotheses formulation, and reasoning with justifications) and the underlying knowledge (involving identified concepts and the relationships between the concepts) using the given approach. The learning products (cognitive maps or verbal text) revealed that students in the cognitive-mapping group outperformed those in the verbal-text group in the reasoning process, but not in making sense of the knowledge underlying the reasoning process. No significant differences were found in a knowledge posttest between the two groups. The computer-based cognitive-mapping approach has shown a promising advantage over the verbal-text approach in improving students' reasoning performance. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of the cognitive-mapping approach in improving the construction of subject-matter knowledge on the basis of practical experience.

  15. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

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    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  16. Commentary: cognitive-affective mechanisms and processes in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A

    2003-03-01

    This commentary highlights some of the interesting points to emerge from the preceding papers about the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory. Additionally some cognitive functions are also considered and especially the way in which autobiographical memory supports, constrains, and maintains the goals of the self. Directions for future research into the self, social, directive, and cognitive-affective functions and processes of autobiographical memory are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on future research into the function of autobiographical memory in representations of attachment.

  17. Cognitive processing of orientation discrimination in anisometropic amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglan Wang

    Full Text Available Cognition is very important in our daily life. However, amblyopia has abnormal visual cognition. Physiological changes of the brain during processes of cognition could be reflected with ERPs. So the purpose of this study was to investigate the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing in orientation discrimination task during monocular and binocular viewing conditions of amblyopia and normal control as well as the corresponding eyes of the two groups with ERPs. We also sought to investigate whether the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing vary with target stimuli at different spatial frequencies (3, 6 and 9 cpd in amblyopia and normal control as well as between the corresponding eyes of the two groups. Fifteen mild to moderate anisometropic amblyopes and ten normal controls were recruited. Three-stimulus oddball paradigms of three different spatial frequency orientation discrimination tasks were used in monocular and binocular conditions in amblyopes and normal controls to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs. Accuracy (ACC, reaction time (RT, the latency of novelty P300 and P3b, and the amplitude of novelty P300 and P3b were measured. Results showed that RT was longer in the amblyopic eye than in both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye in control. Novelty P300 amplitude was largest in the amblyopic eye, followed by the fellow eye, and smallest in both eyes of amblyopia. Novelty P300 amplitude was larger in the amblyopic eye than non-dominant eye and was larger in fellow eye than dominant eye. P3b latency was longer in the amblyopic eye than in the fellow eye, both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye of control. P3b latency was not associated with RT in amblyopia. Neural responses of the amblyopic eye are abnormal at the middle and late stages of cognitive processing, indicating that the amblyopic eye needs to spend more time or integrate more resources to process

  18. The process of clinical assessment: cognitions of the evaluator

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    Carmelo Ibáñez Aguirre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive paradigm of the past few decades opens several new possibilities for psychological evaluation.  The objective of this essay is to emphasize the possibilities related to the quality of self-evaluation, specifically professional self-assessment, meaning a critical analysis of one’s own evaluation process. In this essay, metacognition activities and strategies are examined, as are the ways in which these activities and strategies relate to metacognition and cognitive skills. The intent of this theoretical essay is to offer answers to the clinical evaluator’s professional experience. The results indicate that the clinical professional must consider strategies to improve metacognition and cognitive skills through reflection, self-analysis and self-criticism to improve the quality and efficiency of their work.

  19. Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Processes in Psychosis: Refining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Persistent Positive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Psychosis used to be thought of as essentially a biological condition unamenable to psychological interventions. However, more recent research has shown that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are on a continuum with normality and therefore might also be susceptible to adaptations of the cognitive behavioral therapies found useful for anxiety and depression. In the context of a model of cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis, the latest evidence for the putative psychological mechanisms that elicit and maintain symptoms is reviewed. There is now good support for emotional processes in psychosis, for the role of cognitive processes including reasoning biases, for the central role of appraisal, and for the effects of the social environment, including stress and trauma. We have also used virtual environments to test our hypotheses. These developments have improved our understanding of symptom dimensions such as distress and conviction and also provide a rationale for interventions, which have some evidence of efficacy. Therapeutic approaches are described as follows: a collaborative therapeutic relationship, managing dysphoria, helping service users reappraise their beliefs to reduce distress, working on negative schemas, managing and reducing stressful environments if possible, compensating for reasoning biases by using disconfirmation strategies, and considering the full range of evidence in order to reduce high conviction. Theoretical ideas supported by experimental evidence can inform the development of cognitive behavior therapy for persistent positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:16885206

  20. COGNITIVE SCIENCE DAN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT DALAM PEMROSESAN INFORMASI (INFORMATION PROCESSING PADAANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Prima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive science is a science which studies how human mental processes to influence one’s behavior. Principal major issue that needs to be known in the understanding of cognitive science and their development is related to how the initial state of cognitive science itself, the mind is adapted, the development process starting from the concrete to the abstract, the conceptual nature of the change, the difference between learning and development, format representation of the underlying changes in development, the role of implicit and explicit cognitions in the development, the role of the association and the rules in the development, the universal development, cognitive domain and how to influence the development of brain structure. There are three difference in the cognitive domain of the most common sense that domain as a module, as the domain of expertise, and domain as a model of mind.   Ilmu kognitif adalah suatu pengetahuan yang mempelajari tentang bagaimana proses mental manusia dalam mempengaruhi perilaku seseorang. Pokok pembahasan utama yang perlu diketahui dalam memahami ilmu kognitif dan perkembangannya yaitu terkait dengan bagaimana keadaan awal dari ilmu kognitif itu sendiri, pikiran yang teradaptasi, proses perkembangan mulai dari hal yang kongkrit sampai dengan abstrak, sifat konseptual dalam perubahan, perbedaan antara belajar dan pengembangan, format representasi yang mendasari perubahan dalam perkembangan, peran kognisi implisit dan eksplisit dalam perkembangan, peran asosiasi dan aturan dalam perkembangan, perkembangan secara universal, domain kognitif dan bagaimana struktur otak mempengaruhi perkembangan. Ada tiga perbedaan domain kognitif dari indera yang paling umum yaitu domain sebagai modul, domain sebagai bidang keahlian, dan domain sebagai model pikiran.

  1. The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Alison Saricks

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the

  2. Association of Higher Cortical Amyloid Burden With Loneliness in Cognitively Normal Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Nancy J; Okereke, Olivia I; Vannini, Patrizia; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Rentz, Dorene M; Marshall, Gad A; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A

    2016-12-01

    Emotional and behavioral symptoms in cognitively normal older people may be direct manifestations of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology at the preclinical stage, prior to the onset of mild cognitive impairment. Loneliness is a perceived state of social and emotional isolation that has been associated with cognitive and functional decline and an increased risk of incident AD dementia. We hypothesized that loneliness might occur in association with elevated cortical amyloid burden, an in vivo research biomarker of AD. To determine whether cortical amyloid burden is associated with greater loneliness in cognitively normal older adults. Cross-sectional analyses using data from the Harvard Aging Brain Study of 79 cognitively normal, community-dwelling participants. A continuous, aggregate measure of cortical amyloid burden, determined by Pittsburgh Compound B-positron emission tomography (PiB-PET), was examined in association with loneliness in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOEε4), socioeconomic status, depression, anxiety, and social network (without and with the interaction of amyloid and APOEε4). We also quantified the association of high amyloid burden (amyloid-positive group) to loneliness (lonely group) using logistic regression, controlling for the same covariates, with the amyloid-positive group and the lonely group, each composing 32% of the sample (n = 25). Loneliness, as determined by the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (possible range, 3-12, with higher score indicating greater loneliness). The 79 participants included 43 women and 36 men with a mean (SD) age of 76.4 (6.2) years. Mean (SD) cortical amyloid burden via PiB-PET was 1.230 (0.209), and the mean (SD) UCLA-3 loneliness score was 5.3 (1.8). Twenty-two (28%) had positive APOEε4 carrier status, and 25 (32%) were in the amyloid-positive group with cortical PiB distribution volume ratio greater than 1.2. Controlling for age, sex, APOEε4, socioeconomic

  3. Consequences of Stimulus Type on Higher-Order Processing in Single-Sided Deaf Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Mareike; Sandmann, Pascale; Bönitz, Hanna; Kral, Andrej; Büchner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Single-sided deaf subjects with a cochlear implant (CI) provide the unique opportunity to compare central auditory processing of the electrical input (CI ear) and the acoustic input (normal-hearing, NH, ear) within the same individual. In these individuals, sensory processing differs between their two ears, while cognitive abilities are the same irrespectively of the sensory input. To better understand perceptual-cognitive factors modulating speech intelligibility with a CI, this electroencephalography study examined the central-auditory processing of words, the cognitive abilities, and the speech intelligibility in 10 postlingually single-sided deaf CI users. We found lower hit rates and prolonged response times for word classification during an oddball task for the CI ear when compared with the NH ear. Also, event-related potentials reflecting sensory (N1) and higher-order processing (N2/N4) were prolonged for word classification (targets versus nontargets) with the CI ear compared with the NH ear. Our results suggest that speech processing via the CI ear and the NH ear differs both at sensory (N1) and cognitive (N2/N4) processing stages, thereby affecting the behavioral performance for speech discrimination. These results provide objective evidence for cognition to be a key factor for speech perception under adverse listening conditions, such as the degraded speech signal provided from the CI. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The cognitive processing of the allomorphy in Serbian

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    Jovanović Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explored cognitive status of suffix allomorphy of the masculine nouns in instrumental singular in Serbian language (eg. mišom-mišem; pužom-pužem. Allomorphy represents distinct variations in form of the morpheme which does not influence it’s function and meaning (cf. Lyons, 1968. Despite it’s frequent appearance in speech and language production, it has rarely been a subject of psycholinguistic explorations. First goal of this research was to determine whether the cognitive processing of allomorphic nouns has it’s specificities and second goal was to create the base for making and testing hypothesis regarding morphological and/or phonological factors that influence suffix alternation in forming of instrumental singular of masculine nouns. We conducted visual lexical decision experiment and applied a questionnaire created for the needs of investigating allomorphy in language production. Results showed that at least two processes influence cognitive processing of masculine nouns in instrumental singular: (a certain morpho-phonological restrictions that influence appearance of the suffix-em, and (b allomorphy - variations in suffix in instrumental singular. In addition, the findings indicate that allomorphy could be the consequence of the tendency to use more frequent suffix (-om, that eases the processing, and blocks the influence of the morpho-phonological restrictions.

  5. Social Cognition and Executive Functions As Key Factors for Effective Pedagogy in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Rut; Navarrete, Gorka

    2017-01-01

    Higher education (HE) faces the challenge of responding to an increasing diversity. In this context, more attention is being paid to teachers and teaching skills positively related to students learning. Beyond the knowledges identified as key components of an effective teacher, teachers also need to be capable of unraveling what their students think and believe, and how they accommodate the new information. More importantly, teachers need to be able to adapt their own teaching to their audience's needs. In learners, social cognition (SC) has been related to a better receptivity to the different teacher-student interactions. Since these interactions are bidirectional, SC could also help to explain teachers' receptiveness to the information available in feedback situations. However, little is known about how SC is related to teacher development, and therefore teaching effectiveness, in HE. In addition, executive functions (EFs), closely related to SC, could play a key role in the ability to self-regulate their own teaching to better answering their students emerging needs. Although there is wide evidence regarding the association of EFs to performance in high demanding settings, as far as we know, there are no studies exploring the relationship between teachers' EFs and teaching effectiveness in HE. Establishing a positive association between teaching effectiveness and these socio-cognitive functions could be a promising first step in designing professional development programs that promote HE academics' ability to understand and care about students thoughts and emotions, to eventually adapt their teaching to their students needs for a better learning.

  6. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Eva; Sebold, Miriam; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Nebe, Stephan; Veer, Ilya M; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Smolka, Michael N; Rapp, Michael; Walter, Henrik; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative) on one side, and habitual (automatic) decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding. Acute stress reactivity is known to impair model-based but not model-free choice behavior, with higher working memory capacity protecting the model-based system from acute stress. However, it is not clear which impact accumulated real life stress has on model-free and model-based decision systems and how this influence interacts with cognitive abilities. Methods: We used a sequential decision-making task distinguishing relative contributions of both learning strategies to choice behavior, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale questionnaire to assess accumulated real life stress, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to test cognitive speed in 95 healthy subjects. Results: Individuals reporting high stress exposure who had low cognitive speed showed reduced model-based but increased model-free behavioral control. In contrast, subjects exposed to accumulated real life stress with high cognitive speed displayed increased model-based performance but reduced model-free control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that accumulated real life stress exposure can enhance reliance on cognitive speed for model-based computations, which may ultimately protect the model-based system from the detrimental influences of accumulated real life stress. The combination of accumulated real life stress exposure

  7. Positive affect improves working memory: implications for controlled cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwajin; Yang, Sujin; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of positive affect on working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Given that WM involves both storage and controlled processing and that STM primarily involves storage processing, we hypothesised that if positive affect facilitates controlled processing, it should improve WM more than STM. The results demonstrated that positive affect, compared with neutral affect, significantly enhanced WM, as measured by the operation span task. The influence of positive affect on STM, however, was weaker. These results suggest that positive affect enhances WM, a task that involves controlled processing, not just storage processing. Additional analyses of recall and processing times and accuracy further suggest that improved WM under positive affect is not attributable to motivational differences, but results instead from improved controlled cognitive processing.

  8. Behavioral and social cognitive processes in preschool children's social dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Roseth, Cary; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine; Dupuis, Danielle; Hickey, Meghan; Peshkam, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, naturalistic study addressed behavioral and social cognitive processes implicated in preschool children's social dominance. In the first objective, we examined the degree to which peer aggression, affiliation, and postaggression reconciliation predicted social dominance across a school year. Consistent with predictions, all three predicted dominance early in the year while only affiliation predicted dominance later in the year, suggesting that aggression, affiliation, and reconciliation were used to establish social dominance where affiliation was used to maintain it. In the second, exploratory, objective we tested the relative importance of social dominance and reconciliation (the Machiavellian and Vygotskian intelligence hypotheses, respectively) in predicting theory of mind/false belief. Results indicated that social dominance accounted for significant variance, beyond that related to reconciliation and affiliation, in predicting theory of mind/false belief status. Results are discussed in terms of specific behavioral and social cognitive processes employed in establishing and maintaining social dominance. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Dual-task and electrophysiological markers of executive cognitive processing in older adult gait and fall-risk

    OpenAIRE

    Walshe, Elizabeth A.; Patterson, Matthew R.; Commins, Se?n; Roche, Richard A. P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of cognition is becoming increasingly central to our understanding of the complexity of walking gait. In particular, higher-level executive functions are suggested to play a key role in gait and fall-risk, but the specific underlying neurocognitive processes remain unclear. Here, we report two experiments which investigated the cognitive and neural processes underlying older adult gait and falls. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task (DT) paradigm in young and older adults, to assess the...

  10. Posttraumatic Stress and Cognitive Processes in Patients with Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Sveen, Josefin

    2011-01-01

    A severe burn is one of the most traumatic injuries a person can experience. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is relatively common after burns, and can be devastating for the individual’s possibilities for recovery. The principal aims were to gain knowledge regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms and cognitive processes after burn and to evaluate methods for assessing symptoms of PTSD up to one year after burn. The psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Impact of Event Scale-...

  11. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment: a multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuser, Mieke; Willekens, Frans J; Bonneux, Luc

    2011-05-01

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992-2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic groups. We define multistate life tables by the transition rates to cognitive impairment, recovery and death and estimate Cox proportional hazard ratios for the studied determinants. 95% confidence intervals are obtained by bootstrapping. 55 year old white men and women expect to live 25.4 and 30.0 years, of which 1.7 [95% confidence intervals 1.5; 1.9] years and 2.7 [2.4; 2.9] years with cognitive impairment. Both black men and women live 3.7 [2.9; 4.5] years longer with cognitive impairment than whites, Hispanic men and women 3.2 [1.9; 4.6] and 5.8 [4.2; 7.5] years. BMI makes no difference. Smoking decreases the duration of cognitive impairment with 0.8 [0.4; 1.3] years by high mortality. Highly educated men and women live longer, but 1.6 years [1.1; 2.2] and 1.9 years [1.6; 2.6] shorter with cognitive impairment than lowly educated men and women. The effect of education is more pronounced among ethnic minorities. Higher life expectancy goes together with a longer period of cognitive impairment, but not for higher levels of education: that extends life in good cognitive health but shortens the period of cognitive impairment. The increased duration of cognitive impairment in minority ethnic groups needs further study, also in Europe.

  12. Contribution to fundraising process at higher education institutions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Riscarolli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The target of this paper is to verify the usefulness of fundraising strategies of North-American Higher Education Institutions in the context of their Brazilian counterparts, in the view of latest managers. The research, qualitative in nature, was carried out within three North-American institutions and three Brazilian ones, using the multi-case research method, at an exploratory level. Twelve social subjects were interviewed and data were complemented through official documents. Main results indicate that fundraising in the researched North-American institutions is centralized, favored by proper culture and legislation, focuses individuals, is independent on geographical location of donors and is aligned to institutional attributes such as credibility, flexibility, convenience and interest of donors. Also, we found that volunteers are an essential ingredient to fundraising activities. In the Brazilian researched institutions, fundraising is still incipient, focuses on corporations, is still not a budget itemand volunteers are not used in the process. Due to the fundraising nature in the view of the Brazilian managers interviewed, there is no restriction to the use of the fundraising strategies from North-American institutions at Brazilian counterparts. We proposed, as a contribution, a model displaying the elements and its implications for the success of the fundraising process

  13. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Herrera, Perfecto; Grachten, Maarten; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    We present a review on perception and cognition models designed for or applicable to music. An emphasis is put on computational implementations. We include findings from different disciplines: neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and musicology. The article summarizes the methodology that these disciplines use to approach the phenomena of music understanding, the localization of musical processes in the brain, and the flow of cognitive operations involved in turning physical signals into musical symbols, going from the transducers to the memory systems of the brain. We discuss formal models developed to emulate, explain and predict phenomena involved in early auditory processing, pitch processing, grouping, source separation, and music structure computation. We cover generic computational architectures of attention, memory, and expectation that can be instantiated and tuned to deal with specific musical phenomena. Criteria for the evaluation of such models are presented and discussed. Thereby, we lay out the general framework that provides the basis for the discussion of domain-specific music models in Part II.

  14. The Bologna process - governing higher education in Europe through standardisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fejes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the rationalities of governing that makes it possible to govern higher education in Europe through a voluntarily process such as the Bologna process. 45 nations have signed it and try to accommodate to the ideas in it without anyone telling them they have to. Drawing on the Foucaultian notion of governmentality official documents concerning the Bologna process, higher- and adult education on the European and Swedishlevels are analysed. In the first part «planetspeak» discourses such asknowledge society, employability, lifelong learning, quality assurance and mobility are analysed. They create a configuration of thought that makes following the Bologna process a rational way to act. In the second part we analyse this process as a standardisation technique which creates a tension related to the idea of freedom. The narratives create exclusion; those nations who chose not to participate are created as «the other», in need of remedy. Inthe third part we problematize how these ideas mesh with, and challenge local ideas about education. Even though the narratives produced in Sweden to major parts seem to adapt to the process, there is a creation of the«specific» Swedish. It acts as a persuasive technique for implement the ideas in the Bologna declaration.Este artículo analiza las razones de gobierno o gubernamentalidad que hacen posible la legislación de la educación superior en Europa, a través de su configuración en una suerte de proceso voluntario como el de Bolonia, cuarenta y cinco países han ratificado tal proceso e intentan acomodarse a las ideas en él expuestas, sin que nadie les haya dicho que deban hacerlo. Partiendo de la noción foucaultiana de gubernamentabilidad, se analizan los documentos oficiales referentes al proceso de Bolonia y la educación superior y de adultos a niveles europeos y suecos. En su primera parte, se estudian discursos y términos mundialmente aceptados tales como la saciedad del

  15. Processing approaches to cognition: the impetus from the levels-of-processing framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L; Gallo, David A; Geraci, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Processing approaches to cognition have a long history, from act psychology to the present, but perhaps their greatest boost was given by the success and dominance of the levels-of-processing framework. We review the history of processing approaches, and explore the influence of the levels-of-processing approach, the procedural approach advocated by Paul Kolers, and the transfer-appropriate processing framework. Processing approaches emphasise the procedures of mind and the idea that memory storage can be usefully conceptualised as residing in the same neural units that originally processed information at the time of encoding. Processing approaches emphasise the unity and interrelatedness of cognitive processes and maintain that they can be dissected into separate faculties only by neglecting the richness of mental life. We end by pointing to future directions for processing approaches.

  16. Effects of low doses of caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and thirst in low and higher caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, H J; Rogers, P J

    2000-10-01

    Caffeine is present in many widely consumed drinks and some foods. In the fairly extensive literature on the psychostimulant effects of caffeine, there are few dose-response studies and even fewer studies of the effects of doses of caffeine lower than 50 mg (the range of the amounts of caffeine contained in, for example, a typical serving of tea or cola). This study measured the effects of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and thirst in adults with low and moderate to high habitual caffeine intakes. This was a double-blind, within-subjects study. Following overnight caffeine abstinence, participants (n=23) completed a test battery once before and three times after placebo or caffeine administration. The test battery consisted of two performance tests, a long duration simple reaction time task and a rapid visual information processing task, and a mood questionnaire (including also an item on thirst). Effects on performance and mood confirmed a psychostimulant action of caffeine. All doses of caffeine significantly affected cognitive performance, and the dose-response relationships for these effects were rather flat. The effects on performance were more marked in individuals with a higher level of habitual caffeine intake, whereas caffeine increased thirst only in low caffeine consumers. After overnight caffeine abstinence, caffeine can significantly affect cognitive performance, mood and thirst at doses within and even lower than the range of amounts of caffeine contained in a single serving of popular caffeine-containing drinks. Regular caffeine consumers appear to show substantial tolerance to the thirst-increasing but not to the performance and mood effects of caffeine.

  17. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  18. Cognitive processes in criminal profile construction: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Middledorp, Jenny; Try, Andrew C

    2005-12-01

    This study undertook an empirically based examination of the cognitive processes associated with the accurate construction of a criminal psychological profile. This was accomplished by comparing the abilities of profilers and nonprofilers in two simulated profiling exercises that measured both profile accuracy and an individual's performance on various tests of memory and comprehension related to the case materials presented in each exercise. The results of these experiments suggest that an incremental relationship exists between comprehension of the case materials and accuracy of the profiles generated. In addition, the findings provide some tentative indications that the comprehension of case material in a narrative (i.e., written) format is an integral cognitive function to proficient profiling.

  19. Evolution in Mind: Evolutionary Dynamics, Cognitive Processes, and Bayesian Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchow, Jordan W; Bourgin, David D; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2017-07-01

    Evolutionary theory describes the dynamics of population change in settings affected by reproduction, selection, mutation, and drift. In the context of human cognition, evolutionary theory is most often invoked to explain the origins of capacities such as language, metacognition, and spatial reasoning, framing them as functional adaptations to an ancestral environment. However, evolutionary theory is useful for understanding the mind in a second way: as a mathematical framework for describing evolving populations of thoughts, ideas, and memories within a single mind. In fact, deep correspondences exist between the mathematics of evolution and of learning, with perhaps the deepest being an equivalence between certain evolutionary dynamics and Bayesian inference. This equivalence permits reinterpretation of evolutionary processes as algorithms for Bayesian inference and has relevance for understanding diverse cognitive capacities, including memory and creativity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioinformation processing a primer on computational cognitive science

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, James K

    2016-01-01

    This book shows how mathematics, computer science and science can be usefully and seamlessly intertwined. It begins with a general model of cognitive processes in a network of computational nodes, such as neurons, using a variety of tools from mathematics, computational science and neurobiology. It then moves on to solve the diffusion model from a low-level random walk point of view. It also demonstrates how this idea can be used in a new approach to solving the cable equation, in order to better understand the neural computation approximations. It introduces specialized data for emotional content, which allows a brain model to be built using MatLab tools, and also highlights a simple model of cognitive dysfunction.

  1. Cognitive components of regularity processing in the auditory domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koelsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Music-syntactic irregularities often co-occur with the processing of physical irregularities. In this study we constructed chord-sequences such that perceived differences in the cognitive processing between regular and irregular chords could not be due to the sensory processing of acoustic factors like pitch repetition or pitch commonality (the major component of 'sensory dissonance'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two groups of subjects (musicians and nonmusicians were investigated with electroencephalography (EEG. Irregular chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs. The ERAN had a latency of around 180 ms after the onset of the music-syntactically irregular chords, and had maximum amplitude values over right anterior electrode sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because irregular chords were hardly detectable based on acoustical factors (such as pitch repetition and sensory dissonance, this ERAN effect reflects for the most part cognitive (not sensory components of regularity-based, music-syntactic processing. Our study represents a methodological advance compared to previous ERP-studies investigating the neural processing of music-syntactically irregular chords.

  2. Cognitive load disrupts implicit theory-of-mind processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dana; Lam, Rebecca; Bayliss, Andrew P; Dux, Paul E

    2012-08-01

    Eye movements in Sally-Anne false-belief tasks appear to reflect the ability to implicitly monitor the mental states of other individuals (theory of mind, or ToM). It has recently been proposed that an early-developing, efficient, and automatically operating ToM system subserves this ability. Surprisingly absent from the literature, however, is an empirical test of the influence of domain-general executive processing resources on this implicit ToM system. In the study reported here, a dual-task method was employed to investigate the impact of executive load on eye movements in an implicit Sally-Anne false-belief task. Under no-load conditions, adult participants displayed eye movement behavior consistent with implicit belief processing, whereas evidence for belief processing was absent for participants under cognitive load. These findings indicate that the cognitive system responsible for implicitly tracking beliefs draws at least minimally on executive processing resources. Thus, even the most low-level processing of beliefs appears to reflect a capacity-limited operation.

  3. The number processing and calculation system: evidence from cognitive neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Alcañiz, M P; Alameda-Bailén, J R

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology focuses on the concepts of dissociation and double dissociation. The performance of number processing and calculation tasks by patients with acquired brain injury can be used to characterise the way in which the healthy cognitive system manipulates number symbols and quantities. The objective of this study is to determine the components of the numerical processing and calculation system. Participants consisted of 6 patients with acquired brain injuries in different cerebral localisations. We used Batería de evaluación del procesamiento numérico y el cálculo, a battery assessing number processing and calculation. Data was analysed using the difference in proportions test. Quantitative numerical knowledge is independent from number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Recodification is independent from qualitative numerical knowledge and calculation. Quantitative numerical knowledge and calculation are also independent functions. The number processing and calculation system comprises at least 4 components that operate independently: quantitative numerical knowledge, number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Therefore, each one may be damaged selectively without affecting the functioning of another. According to the main models of number processing and calculation, each component has different characteristics and cerebral localisations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcranial alternating current stimulation: A review of the underlying mechanisms and modulation of cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph S Herrmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain oscillations of different frequencies have been associated with a variety of cognitive functions. Convincing evidence supporting those associations has been provided by studies using intracranial stimulation, pharmacological interventions and lesion studies. The emergence of novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS now allows to modulate brain oscillations directly. Particularly, tACS offers the unique opportunity to causally link brain oscillations of a specific frequency range to cognitive processes, because it uses sinusoidal currents that are bound to one frequency only. Using tACS allows to modulate brain oscillations and in turn to influence cognitive processes, thereby demonstrating the causal link between the two. Here, we review findings about the physiological mechanism of tACS and studies that have used tACS to modulate basic motor and sensory processes as well as higher cognitive processes like memory, ambiguous perception, and decision making.

  5. Need for Cognition and False Memory: Can One's Natural Processing Style Be Manipulated by External Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootan, Samantha S; Leding, Juliana K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to provide an enhanced understanding of need for cognition (NFC) and its influence on one's memory accuracy. People who are high in NFC tend to put more cognitive effort into their mental processes than their low-NFC counterparts. To determine whether one's natural processing tendencies, as determined by NFC, can be influenced by external factors, manipulations to levels of processing were added. Participants viewed word lists from the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and were instructed to process half of the DRM lists deeply and the other half shallowly. After all the lists were presented, participants completed 3 successive recall tests. The deep processing condition produced higher rates of false memories for both NFC groups than the shallow processing condition. In addition, the high-NFC group produced higher rates of target recall in both the deep and shallow conditions than the low-NFC group. However, the high-NFC group also produced higher rates of false recall for the shallowly processed lists. These data indicate that high-NFC people exhibit enhanced target recall for word lists, which may come at the expense of overall accuracy due to the increase of false recall.

  6. Affective and cognitive processes and the development and maintenance of anxiety and its disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.; Silverman, W.K.; Treffers, P.D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selective review of research related to cognitive hypotheses and models of childhood anxiety. The cognitive behavioral approach and the information processing approach to childhood anxiety are explored. Cognitive developmental aspects of anxiety-related cognition, the typical patterns of

  7. Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization.

  8. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Ravona Springer, Ramit; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (levels may have an impact on cognitive function.

  9. Cognitive and emotional demands of black humour processing: the role of intelligence, aggressiveness and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Hergovich, Andreas; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Stoettner, Susanne; Bunda, Iris; Witting, Andrea; Seidler, Melanie; Moser, Reinhilde; Kacena, Stefanie; Jaeckle, David; Loader, Benjamin; Mueller, Christian; Auff, Eduard

    2017-05-01

    Humour processing is a complex information-processing task that is dependent on cognitive and emotional aspects which presumably influence frame-shifting and conceptual blending, mental operations that underlie humour processing. The aim of the current study was to find distinctive groups of subjects with respect to black humour processing, intellectual capacities, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. A total of 156 adults rated black humour cartoons and conducted measurements of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. Cluster analysis yields three groups comprising following properties: (1) moderate black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence; low mood disturbance and moderate aggressiveness; (2) low black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence, high mood disturbance and high aggressiveness; and (3) high black humour preference and high comprehension; high nonverbal and verbal intelligence; no mood disturbance and low aggressiveness. Age and gender do not differ significantly, differences in education level can be found. Black humour preference and comprehension are positively associated with higher verbal and nonverbal intelligence as well as higher levels of education. Emotional instability and higher aggressiveness apparently lead to decreased levels of pleasure when dealing with black humour. These results support the hypothesis that humour processing involves cognitive as well as affective components and suggest that these variables influence the execution of frame-shifting and conceptual blending in the course of humour processing.

  10. The Process of Change in Higher Education Institutions. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Report, No. 7, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, Robert C.

    Conditions that inhibit change in higher education institutions and various models of the change process are described. Attention is also directed to: organizational character, structural features, planning procedures, key individuals in the change process, and practical advice about change. The major change models for higher education…

  11. [Chang of cognitions and feelings during the process of procrastination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohama, Shun

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated change of cognitions and feelings before, during, and after the process of procrastination. A questionnaire was administered to 358 undergraduate students asking them to recall and rate their experience of procrastinating. The results revealed that negative feelings which take place during procrastination interfere with task performance. Planning before procrastination is associated with positive feelings after procrastination, and these positive feelings assist task performance. Optimistic thinking is positively related to both positive and negative feelings; the former take place during procrastination, and the latter take place after procrastination.

  12. A Distributed Leadership Change Process Model for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra; Harvey, Marina

    2017-01-01

    The higher education sector operates in an increasingly complex global environment that is placing it under considerable stress and resulting in widespread change to the operating context and leadership of higher education institutions. The outcome has been the increased likelihood of conflict between academics and senior leaders, presaging the…

  13. Emotion and persuasion: cognitive and meta-cognitive processes impact attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Richard E; Briñol, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the multiple ways in which emotions can influence attitudes and persuasion via primary and secondary (meta-) cognition. Using the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion as a guide, we review evidence for five fundamental processes that occur at different points along the elaboration continuum. When the extent of thinking is constrained to be low, emotions influence attitudes by relatively simple processes that lead them to change in a manner consistent with the valence of the emotion. When thinking is constrained to be high, emotions can serve as arguments in favour of a proposal if they are relevant to the merits of the advocacy or they can bias thinking if the emotion precedes the message. If thinking is high and emotions become salient after thinking, they can lead people to rely or not rely on the thoughts generated either because the emotion leads people to like or dislike their thoughts (affective validation) or feel more confident or doubtful in their thoughts (cognitive validation). When thinking is unconstrained, emotions influence the extent of thinking about the persuasive communication. Although prior theories have addressed one or more of these fundamental processes, no other approach has integrated them into one framework.

  14. Examining Cognitive Processes and Drinking Urge in PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Rachel L.; Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2018-01-01

    Despite their centrality to learning theories, strikingly little attention has been paid to the role of cognitions in efforts to understand associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol drinking. In the present study, we sought to examine information processing pathways for trauma and alcohol information, and the effects of posttraumatic stress and trauma cue exposure on these pathways. Participants were college students (N = 232; 49% female; Mage = 19.56,SD = 1.44) categorized into three diagnostic groups based on current PTSD status determined by structured clinical interview. These students then were exposed to a personalized trauma or neutral cue script, followed by a Stroop task modified to include trauma, alcohol, and contrast words. Indices of mood and urge to drink alcohol were administered throughout the task. Findings revealed that those with PTSD who were exposed to the personalized trauma cue showed a general response slowing across all stimuli types on the Stroop task. Intriguingly, this slowing effect was significantly associated with urge to drink alcohol for only those PTSD participants who were exposed to the trauma cues. In contrast, we did not find support for the hypothesis that trauma cues would lead to attention bias to trauma and alcohol specific Stroop stimuli among participants with PTSD, nor did slower RT for specific word types predict unique variance in urge to drink alcohol. Findings suggest that individual (PTSD) and environmental (cue) circumstances may work conjointly to precipitate changes in cognitive processing - changes that may have implications for drinking motivation. Given the importance of cognition in the etiology of both PTSD and drinking, this is a mechanism that warrants further investigation. PMID:28073047

  15. Missing in Action: Writing Process-Based Instructional Practices and Measures of Higher-Order Literacy Achievement in Predominantly Urban Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briddell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study of 1,974 fifth grade students investigated potential relationships between writing process-based instruction practices and higher-order thinking measured by a standardized literacy assessment. Writing process is defined as a highly complex, socio-cognitive process that includes: planning, text production, review, metacognition, writing…

  16. Taking the Perfect Selfie: Investigating the Impact of Perspective on the Perception of Higher Cognitive Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias M. Schneider

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking selfies is now becoming a standard human habit. However, as a social phenomenon, research is still in the fledgling stage and the scientific framework is sparse. Selfies allow us to share social information with others in a compact format. Furthermore, we are able to control important photographic and compositional aspects, such as perspective, which have a strong impact on the assessment of a face (e.g., demonstrated by the height-weight illusion, effects of gaze direction, faceism-index. In Study 1, we focused on the impact of perspective (left/right hemiface, above/below vs. frontal presentation on higher cognitive variables and let 172 participants rate the perceived attractiveness, helpfulness, sympathy, dominance, distinctiveness, and intelligence, plus important information on health issues (e.g., body weight, on the basis of 14 3D faces. We could show that lateral snapshots yielded higher ratings for attractiveness compared to the classical frontal view. However, this effect was more pronounced for left hemifaces and especially female faces. Compared to the frontal condition, 30° right hemifaces were rated as more helpful, but only for female faces while faces viewed from above were perceived as significant less helpful. Direct comparison between left vs. right hemifaces revealed no effect. Relating to sympathy, we only found a significant effect for 30° right male hemifaces, but only in comparison to the frontal condition. Furthermore, female 30° right hemifaces were perceived as more intelligent. Relating to body weight, we replicated the so-called “height-weight illusion.” Other variables remained unaffected. In Study 2, we investigated the impact of a typical selfie-style condition by presenting the respective faces from a lateral (left/right and tilted (lower/higher vantage point. Most importantly, depending on what persons wish to express with a selfie, a systematic change of perspective can strongly optimize their

  17. Application of Quantum Process Calculus to Higher Dimensional Quantum Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Gay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the use of quantum process calculus to describe and analyze quantum communication protocols, following the successful field of formal methods from classical computer science. We have extended the quantum process calculus to describe d-dimensional quantum systems, which has not been done before. We summarise the necessary theory in the generalisation of quantum gates and Bell states and use the theory to apply the quantum process calculus CQP to quantum protocols, namely qudit teleportation and superdense coding.

  18. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Springer, Ramit Ravona; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (

  19. Monitoring cognitive and emotional processes through pupil and cardiac response during dynamic versus logical task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Mickaël; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Démonet, Jean François; Pastor, Josette

    2010-06-01

    The paper deals with the links between physiological measurements and cognitive and emotional functioning. As long as the operator is a key agent in charge of complex systems, the definition of metrics able to predict his performance is a great challenge. The measurement of the physiological state is a very promising way but a very acute comprehension is required; in particular few studies compare autonomous nervous system reactivity according to specific cognitive processes during task performance and task related psychological stress is often ignored. We compared physiological parameters recorded on 24 healthy subjects facing two neuropsychological tasks: a dynamic task that require problem solving in a world that continually evolves over time and a logical task representative of cognitive processes performed by operators facing everyday problem solving. Results showed that the mean pupil diameter change was higher during the dynamic task; conversely, the heart rate was more elevated during the logical task. Finally, the systolic blood pressure seemed to be strongly sensitive to psychological stress. A better taking into account of the precise influence of a given cognitive activity and both workload and related task-induced psychological stress during task performance is a promising way to better monitor operators in complex working situations to detect mental overload or pejorative stress factor of error.

  20. Consumer Attitudes to the Higher Education Application Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Geraldine; Brown, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    A survey investigated the feelings and beliefs of British university applicants at one point in the application process: after the application is acknowledged but before offers or examination results are available. Results suggest many see the process as straightforward, helpful, friendly, but a sizeable group consider it slow and complex. Many…

  1. Enabling Process Improvement and Control in Higher Education Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Gary; Warwick, Jon; Kennedy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of "managerialism" in the governance and direction of UK higher education (HE) institutions has been led by government demands for greater accountability in the quality and cost of universities. There is emerging anecdotal evidence indicating that the estimation performance of HE spreadsheets and regression models are poor.…

  2. An analysis of processes that can shape higher education research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is not only about African postgraduates at University of Natal: it is also an attempt to delineate what shapes research into Higher Education done under differing conditions and for different purposes (part 1). As material to illustrate this research metamorphosis, the material from an investigation into postgraduates ...

  3. Effect of Cognitive Processing Therapy and Holographic Reprocessing on Reduction of Posttraumatic Cognitions in Students Exposed to Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz molavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: This research was conducted to examine the effect of cognitive processing therapy and holographic reprocessing on the reduction of posttraumatic cognitions in students exposed to trauma. "nMethod: This was an experimental study with spread pretest-posttest randomized groups design. Statistical society of this research consisted of male freshman, junior and senior high school students of Uremia (N=10286. Utilizing Traumatic Events Screening Inventory, and SCL-90 R on 1000 randomly selected high school students, 129 students were recognized as having experienced traumatic events. Of the subjects, 60 were selected randomly. Then, clinical interview was conducted, and the selected sample was randomly assigned in to three groups of cognitive processing therapy, holographic reprocessing and control. These groups responded to Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory in pretest and post test. Differences of pre-post test scores were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Scheffe test. "nResults: The results demonstrated significant differences between the three groups in total score of the Posttraumatic Cognition Inventory. Difference was also observed in negative cognitions on self and self-blame dimensions. Furthermore, these two therapeutic methods were equally effective in the reduction of posttraumatic cognitions.   "nConclusion: It appears that cognitive processing therapy and holographic reprocessing which had been originally developed and tested for sexually assaulted females, can also be applied for the victims of other traumatic events, particularly  adolescents.

  4. Excel Template For Processing Examination Results For Higher

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria. ... examination result processing template for all the Postgraduate ... Though the last two parameters of the IF function are optional,.

  5. Engaging Students Emotionally: The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Predicting Cognitive and Affective Engagement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Rebecca; Egan, Arlene; Hyland, Philip; Maguire, Phil

    2017-01-01

    Student engagement is a key predictor of academic performance, persistence and retention in higher education. While many studies have identified how aspects of the college environment influence engagement, fewer have specifically focused on emotional intelligence (EI). In this study, we sought to explore whether EI could predict cognitive and/or…

  6. Philosophical and Socio-Cognitive Foundations for Teaching in Higher Education through Collaborative Approaches to Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the implications for higher education of recent work on narrative theory, distributed cognition and artificial intelligence. These perspectives are contrasted with the educational implications of Heidegger's ontological phenomenology [being-there and being-aware (Da-sein)] and with the classic and classical foundations of…

  7. INARCH(1) processes: Higher-order moments and jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Weiß , Christian H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The INARCH(1) model is a simple but practically relevant, two-parameter model for processes of overdispersed counts with an autoregressive serial dependence structure. We derive closed-form expressions for the joint (central) moments and cumulants of the INARCH(1) model up to order 4. These expressions are applied to derive moments of jumps in INARCH(1) processes. We illustrate this kind of application with a real-data example, and outline further potential applications. ...

  8. Aging of theory of mind: the influence of educational level and cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Kai; Wang, Fan; Tao, Qian; Xie, Yu; Cheng, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of theory of mind (ToM) in old age have provided mixed results. We predicted that educational level and cognitive processing are two factors influencing the pattern of the aging of ToM. To test this hypothesis, a younger group who received higher education (mean age 20.46 years), an older group with an education level equal to that of the young group (mean age 76.29 years), and an older group with less education (mean age 73.52 years) were recruited. ToM tasks included the following tests: the second-order false-belief task, the faux-pas task, the eyes test, and tests of fundamental aspects of cognitive function that included two background tests (memory span and processing speed) and three subcomponents of executive function (inhibition, updating, and shifting). We found that the younger group and the older group with equally high education outperformed the older group with less education in false-belief and faux-pas tasks. However, there was no significant difference between the two former groups. The three groups of participants performed equivalently in the eyes test as well as in control tasks (false-belief control question, faux-pas control question, faux-pas control story, and Eyes Test control task). The younger group outperformed the other two groups in the cognitive processing tasks. Mediation analyses showed that difficulties in inhibition, memory span, and processing speed mediated the age differences in false-belief reasoning. Also, the variables of inhibition, updating, memory span, and processing speed mediated age-related variance in faux-pas. Discussion focused on the links between ToM aging, educational level, and cognitive processing. Supported by Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (number: 30870766) and Anhui Province Natural Science Foundation (number: 11040606M166).

  9. HIGHER PREVALENCE OF TDP-43 PROTEINOPATHY IN COGNITIVELY NORMAL ASIANS: A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY ON A MULTIETHNIC SAMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Camila; Suemoto, Claudia K.; Rodriguez, Roberta D.; Di Lorenzo Alho, Ana Tereza; Leite, Renata P.; Farfel, Jose Marcelo; Pasqualucci, Carlos Alberto; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Grinberg, Lea T.

    2015-01-01

    Transactive response DNA binding-protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy is the major hallmark of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is also present in a subset of Alzheimer’s disease cases. Recently, few reports showed TDP-43 changes in cognitively normal elderly. In Caucasians, TDP-43 proteinopathy independently correlate with cognitive decline. However, it is challenging to establish direct links between cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms and protein inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases because individual cognitive reserves modify the threshold for clinical disease expression. Cognitive reserve is influenced by demographic, environmental and genetic factors. We investigated the relationships between demographic, clinical, and neuropathological variables and TDP-43 proteinopathy in a large multiethnic sample of cognitively normal elderly. TDP-43 proteinopathy were identified in 10.5%, independently associated with older age (p = 0.03) and Asian ethnicity (p = 0.002). Asians showed a higher prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy than Caucasians, even after adjustment for sex, age, Braak stage, and schooling (odds ratio = 3.50, confidence interval 1.41–8.69, p = 0.007). These findings suggested Asians older adults may be protected from the clinical manifestation of brain TDP-43 proteinopathy. Future studies are needed to identify possible race-related protective factors against clinical expression of TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:26260327

  10. Bilingualism in older Mexican-American immigrants is associated with higher scores on cognitive screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Claudia; Mendez, Mario F; Jimenez, Elvira E; Teng, Edmond

    2016-11-24

    Bilingualism may protect against cognitive aging and delay the onset of dementia. However, studies comparing monolinguals and bilinguals on such metrics have produced inconsistent results complicated by confounding variables and methodological concerns. We addressed this issue by comparing cognitive performance in a more culturally homogeneous cohort of older Spanish-speaking monolingual (n = 289) and Spanish-English bilingual (n = 339) Mexican-American immigrants from the Sacramento Longitudinal Study on Aging. After adjusting for demographic differences and depressive symptoms, both groups performed similarly at baseline on verbal memory but the bilingual group performed significantly better than the monolingual group on a cognitive screening test, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS; p bilingual group, neither language of testing nor degree of bilingualism was significantly associated with 3MS or verbal memory scores. Amongst individuals who performed in the normal or better range on both tests at baseline and were followed for an average of 6 years, both monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar rates of cognitive decline on both measures. These findings suggest that bilingualism is associated with modest benefits in cognitive screening performance in older individuals in cross-sectional analyses that persist across longitudinal analyses. The effects of bilingualism should be considered when cognitively screening is performed in aging immigrant populations.

  11. Bilingualism in older Mexican-American immigrants is associated with higher scores on cognitive screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Padilla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilingualism may protect against cognitive aging and delay the onset of dementia. However, studies comparing monolinguals and bilinguals on such metrics have produced inconsistent results complicated by confounding variables and methodological concerns. Methods We addressed this issue by comparing cognitive performance in a more culturally homogeneous cohort of older Spanish-speaking monolingual (n = 289 and Spanish-English bilingual (n = 339 Mexican-American immigrants from the Sacramento Longitudinal Study on Aging. Results After adjusting for demographic differences and depressive symptoms, both groups performed similarly at baseline on verbal memory but the bilingual group performed significantly better than the monolingual group on a cognitive screening test, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS; p < 0.001. Group differences on the 3MS were driven by language/executive and language/praxis factors. Within the bilingual group, neither language of testing nor degree of bilingualism was significantly associated with 3MS or verbal memory scores. Amongst individuals who performed in the normal or better range on both tests at baseline and were followed for an average of 6 years, both monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar rates of cognitive decline on both measures. Conclusions These findings suggest that bilingualism is associated with modest benefits in cognitive screening performance in older individuals in cross-sectional analyses that persist across longitudinal analyses. The effects of bilingualism should be considered when cognitively screening is performed in aging immigrant populations.

  12. The cognitive processing of film and musical soundtracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2004-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that musical soundtracks can influence the interpretation, emotional impact, and remembering of film information. The intent here was to examine how music is encoded into the cognitive system and subsequently represented relative to its accompanying visual action. In Experiment 1, participants viewed a set of music/film clips that were either congruent or incongruent in their emotional affects. Selective attending was also systematically manipulated by instructing viewers to attend to and remember the music, film, or both in tandem. The results from tune recognition, film recall, and paired discrimination tasks collectively revealed that mood-congruent pairs lead to a joint encoding of music/film information as well as an integrated memory code. Incongruent pairs, on the other hand, result in an independent encoding in which a given dimension, music or film, is only remembered well if it was selectively attended to at the time of encoding. Experiment 2 extended these findings by showing that tunes from mood-congruent pairs are better recognized when cued by their original scenes, while those from incongruent pairs are better remembered in the absence of scene information. These findings both support and extend the "Congruence Associationist Model" (A. J. Cohen, 2001), which addresses those cognitive mechanisms involved in the processing of music/film information.

  13. Cholinergic modulation of cognitive processing: insights drawn from computational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehren L Newman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine plays an important role in cognitive function, as shown by pharmacological manipulations that impact working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory function. Acetylcholine also shows striking modulatory influences on the cellular physiology of hippocampal and cortical neurons. Modeling of neural circuits provides a framework for understanding how the cognitive functions may arise from the influence of acetylcholine on neural and network dynamics. We review the influences of cholinergic manipulations on behavioral performance in working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory tasks, the physiological effects of acetylcholine on neural and circuit dynamics, and the computational models that provide insight into the functional relationships between the physiology and behavior. Specifically, we discuss the important role of acetylcholine in governing mechanisms of active maintenance in working memory tasks and in regulating network dynamics important for effective processing of stimuli in attention and episodic memory tasks. We also propose that theta rhythm play a crucial role as an intermediary between the physiological influences of acetylcholine and behavior in episodic and spatial memory tasks. We conclude with a synthesis of the existing modeling work and highlight future directions that are likely to be rewarding given the existing state of the literature for both empiricists and modelers.

  14. Developmental lead exposure has mixed effects on butterfly cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Kinsey H; Kobiela, Megan E; Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of lead pollution have been well studied in vertebrates, it is unclear to what extent lead may negatively affect insect cognition. Lead pollution in soils can elevate lead in plant tissues, suggesting it could negatively affect neural development of insect herbivores. We used the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a model system to study the effect of lead pollution on insect cognitive processes, which play an important role in how insects locate and handle resources. Cabbage white butterfly larvae were reared on a 4-ppm lead diet, a concentration representative of vegetation in polluted sites; we measured eye size and performance on a foraging assay in adults. Relative to controls, lead-reared butterflies did not differ in time or ability to search for a food reward associated with a less preferred color. Indeed, lead-treated butterflies were more likely to participate in the behavioral assay itself. Lead exposure did not negatively affect survival or body size, and it actually sped up development time. The effects of lead on relative eye size varied with sex: lead tended to reduce eye size in males, but increase eye size in females. These results suggest that low levels of lead pollution may have mixed effects on butterfly vision, but only minimal impacts on performance in foraging tasks, although follow-up work is needed to test whether this result is specific to cabbage whites, which are often associated with disturbed areas.

  15. Cognitive Representations and Cognitive Processing of Team-Specific Tactics in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans’ long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study. PMID:25714486

  16. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Lex

    Full Text Available Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  17. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  18. Addressing the Need for Management Processes for Higher Education Accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Linda L.; Austin, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    The accreditation standards of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB International) ask business schools to describe consistent processes that provide for operational consistency and continuous improvement in support of the schools' stated missions. This article addresses the identification of requisite quality…

  19. Differences in cognitive and emotional processes between persecutory and grandiose delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garety, Philippa A; Gittins, Matthew; Jolley, Suzanne; Bebbington, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive models propose that cognitive and emotional processes, in the context of anomalies of experience, lead to and maintain delusions. No large-scale studies have investigated whether persecutory and grandiose delusions reflect differing contributions of reasoning and affective processes. This is complicated by their frequent cooccurrence in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that persecutory and grandiose subtypes would differ significantly in their associations with psychological processes. Participants were the 301 patients from the Psychological Prevention of Relapse in Psychosis Trial (ISRCTN83557988). Persecutory delusions were present in 192 participants, and grandiose delusions were present in 97, while 58 were rated as having delusions both of persecution and grandiosity. Measures of emotional and reasoning processes, at baseline only, were employed. A bivariate response model was used. Negative self-evaluations and depression and anxiety predicted a significantly increased chance of persecutory delusions whereas grandiose delusions were predicted by less negative self-evaluations and lower anxiety and depression, along with higher positive self and positive other evaluations. Reasoning biases were common in the whole group and in categorically defined subgroups with only persecutory delusions and only grandiose delusions; however, jumping to conclusions, and belief flexibility were significantly different in the 2 groups, the grandiose group having a higher likelihood of showing a reasoning bias than the persecutory group. The significant differences in the processes associated with these 2 delusion subtypes have implications for etiology and for the development of targeted treatment strategies.

  20. Moderate, Regular Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Older Community-Dwelling Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, E T; Laughlin, G A; Kritz-Silverstein, D; Barrett-Connor, E; McEvoy, L K

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. A research visit between 1988-1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements: Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be achieved with low levels of drinking that are unlikely to be

  1. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Friedel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative on one side, and habitual (automatic decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding. Acute stress reactivity is known to impair model-based but not model-free choice behavior, with higher working memory capacity protecting the model-based system from acute stress. However, it is not clear which impact accumulated real life stress has on model-free and model-based decision systems and how this influence interacts with cognitive abilities.Methods: We used a sequential decision-making task distinguishing relative contributions of both learning strategies to choice behavior, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale questionnaire to assess accumulated real life stress, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to test cognitive speed in 95 healthy subjects.Results: Individuals reporting high stress exposure who had low cognitive speed showed reduced model-based but increased model-free behavioral control. In contrast, subjects exposed to accumulated real life stress with high cognitive speed displayed increased model-based performance but reduced model-free control.Conclusion: These findings suggest that accumulated real life stress exposure can enhance reliance on cognitive speed for model-based computations, which may ultimately protect the model-based system from the detrimental influences of accumulated real life stress. The combination of accumulated real life

  2. Relationship between individual differences in speech processing and cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po; Fung, Roxana

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that cognitive abilities may play a role in individual differences in speech processing. The present study took advantage of a widespread linguistic phenomenon of sound change to systematically assess the relationships between speech processing and various components of attention and working memory in the auditory and visual modalities among typically developed Cantonese-speaking individuals. The individual variations in speech processing are captured in an ongoing sound change-tone merging in Hong Kong Cantonese, in which typically developed native speakers are reported to lose the distinctions between some tonal contrasts in perception and/or production. Three groups of participants were recruited, with a first group of good perception and production, a second group of good perception but poor production, and a third group of good production but poor perception. Our findings revealed that modality-independent abilities of attentional switching/control and working memory might contribute to individual differences in patterns of speech perception and production as well as discrimination latencies among typically developed speakers. The findings not only have the potential to generalize to speech processing in other languages, but also broaden our understanding of the omnipresent phenomenon of language change in all languages.

  3. Developmental Steps in Metaphorical Language Abilities: The Influence of Age, Gender, Cognitive Flexibility, Information Processing Speed, and Analogical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Deckert, Matthias; Schmöger, Michaela; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Formann, Anton K; Auff, Eduard

    2017-12-01

    Metaphor is a specific type of figurative language that is used in various important fields such as in the work with children in clinical or teaching contexts. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental course, developmental steps, and possible cognitive predictors regarding metaphor processing in childhood and early adolescence. One hundred sixty-four typically developing children (7-year-olds, 9-year-olds) and early adolescents (11-year-olds) were tested for metaphor identification, comprehension, comprehension quality, and preference by the Metaphoric Triads Task as well as for analogical reasoning, information processing speed, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure. Metaphor identification and comprehension consecutively increased with age. Eleven-year-olds showed significantly higher metaphor comprehension quality and preference scores than seven- and nine-year-olds, whilst these younger age groups did not differ. Age, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, information processing speed, analogical reasoning, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure significantly predicted metaphor comprehension. Metaphorical language ability shows an ongoing development and seemingly changes qualitatively at the beginning of early adolescence. These results can possibly be explained by a greater synaptic reorganization in early adolescents. Furthermore, cognitive flexibility under time pressure and information processing speed possibly facilitate the ability to adapt metaphor processing strategies in a flexible, quick, and appropriate way.

  4. Examination of the suitability of collecting in event cognitive processes using Think Aloud protocol in golf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Elizabeth Whitehead

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined the use of think aloud (TA protocol as a means for collecting data of cognitive processes during performance in golf. In study 1, TA was employed to examine if different verbalisation (Level 2 or Level 3 TA instructions influence performance of high and low skilled golfers. Participants performed 30 putts using TA at either Level 2, Level 3, or no verbalization condition. Although Level 3 verbalization produced a higher volume of verbal data than Level 2, TA at either level 2 or 3 did not impair putting performance compared to no verbalization. Study 2 examined the congruence between data collected via TA at Level 3 and cued retrospective recall of cognitive processes during golf performance. Experienced golfers performed six holes of golf whilst engaging in Level 3 TA. After performance, three semi-structured retrospective interviews were conducted (ten minutes after performance, 24 hours after performance and 48 hours after performance. A comparison of the themes identified large discrepancies between the information reported during TA and at interview, with only 38-41% similarity in variables reported to influence decision making on each hole. Both studies suggest TA is a valuable method for recording cognitive processes of individuals during task performance. TA provides richer verbal data regarding decisions than cued retrospective recall, and TA does not negatively impact performance.

  5. Cognitive control processes in paranoia: the impact of threat induction on strategic cognition and self-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Laura; Newman-Taylor, Katherine; Stopa, Lusia

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical models emphasize certain cognitive processes in the maintenance of distressing paranoia. While a number of these processes have been examined in detail, the role of strategic cognition and self-focused attention remain under-researched. This study examined the deployment of cognitive strategies and self-focused attention in people with non-clinical paranoia. An experimental design was used to examine the impact of a threat activation task on these processes, in participants with high and low non-clinical paranoia. Twenty-eight people were recruited to each group, and completed measures of anxiety, paranoid cognition, strategic cognition and self-focused attention. The threat activation task was effective in increasing anxiety in people with high and low non-clinical paranoia. The high paranoia group experienced more paranoid cognitions following threat activation. This group also reported greater use of thought suppression, punishment and worry, and less use of social control strategies when under threat. No differences were found between the groups on measures of self-focused attention. This study shows that the threat activation task increased anxiety in people with high non-clinical paranoia, leading to increased paranoid thinking. The use of strategic cognition following threat activation varied dependent on level of non-clinical paranoia. If these differences are replicated in clinical groups, the strategies may be implicated in the maintenance of distressing psychosis, and may therefore be a valuable target for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Journey into the Problem-Solving Process: Cognitive Functions in a PBL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, B. L.; Tan, O. S.; Liu, W. C.

    2016-01-01

    In a PBL environment, learning results from learners engaging in cognitive processes pivotal in the understanding or resolution of the problem. Using Tan's cognitive function disc, this study examines the learner's perceived cognitive functions at each stage of PBL, as facilitated by the PBL schema. The results suggest that these learners…

  7. Neural predictors and mechanisms of cognitive behavioral therapy on threat processing in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Heide; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Phan, K Luan

    2013-08-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is "gold standard" psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Cognitive models posit that preferential processing of threat mediates excessive forms of anxiety, which is supported by exaggerated amygdala, insula, and cortical reactivity to threatening socio-emotional signals in SAD. However, little is known about neural predictors of CBT success or the mechanisms by which CBT exerts its therapeutic effects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted during responses to social signals of threat (fearful/angry faces) against positive signals (happy faces) in 14 patients with SAD before and after 12 weeks of CBT. For comparison, 14 healthy control (HC) participants also underwent two fMRI scans, 12 weeks apart. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses showed therapeutic success was predicted by enhanced pre-treatment activation to threatening faces in higher-order visual (superior and middle temporal gyrus), cognitive, and emotion processing areas (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex). Moreover, a group by time interaction was revealed in prefrontal regions (dorsomedial, medial gyrus) and insula. The interaction was driven by relatively greater activity during threat processing in SAD, which significantly reduced after CBT but did not significantly predict response to CBT. Therefore, pre-treatment cortical hyperactivity to social threat signals may serve as a prognostic indicator of CBT success in SAD. Collectively, CBT-related brain changes involved a reduction in activity in insula, prefrontal, and extrastriate regions. Results are consistent with cognitive models, which associate decreases in threat processing bias with recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Process management tools in higher education e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Online education is a growing trend world wide - eg. in-service training in large, especially trans- and multinational organizations (Turban et al. 2006); online and blended mode educations at universities (J. Drummond Bone 2004, OECD-report 2004); and educational programmes in developing countries...... (Daniel et al. 2005, D'Antoni 2005). Concurrently sharing of knowledge and online community building in general are acknowledged as important drivers in informal learning processes, while online learning in formalized educations tend towards an increasing adoption of collaborative learning...... as the pedagogic frame (Laurillard 2002, Salmon 2003). However, as one major driver in the general adoption of online education is economy, yet another trend is to raise the volume of learners passing through any education pr. time unit....

  9. Research on the Training of Higher Cognitive Learning and Thinking Skills. Final Report. Report No. 5560.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, R. S.

    The technical reports summarized in this paper were prepared as part of a project designed to determine what is known about the teaching of cognitive skills and to formulate questions relating to such teaching for further research. Topics discussed in the 22 reports include the following: (1) teaching thinking; (2) Aristotle's logic; (3) a…

  10. Decline in Cognitive Functioning Is Associated with a Higher Mortality Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van B.M.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Kalmijn, S.; Giampaoli, S.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the association between 5-year change in cognitive functioning and subsequent mortality. Methods:Four hundred and ninety-three Dutch and Italian men from the Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands Elderly (FINE) Study, born between 1900 and 1920, participated in the

  11. Unravelling the influence of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on cognitive-linguistic processing: a comparative group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Caroline H S; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive-linguistic deficits often accompany traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can negatively impact communicative competency. The linguistic sequelae underpinning mild TBI (MTBI) remain largely unexplored in contemporary literature. The present research methods aim to provide group evidence pertaining to the influence of MTBI on linguistic and higher-level language processing. Extrapolating on the findings of recent case reports, it is hypothesized that performance of the MTBI patients will be significantly reduced compared to normal controls performance on the employed high-level linguistic tasks. Sixteen patients with MTBI and 16 age- and education-matched normal control participants were assessed using a comprehensive battery of cognitive-linguistic assessments. The results demonstrated statistically significant differences between MTBI and normal control group performance across a number of higher-level linguistic, general cognitive and general language tasks. MTBI group performance was significantly lower than the normal control group on tasks requiring complex lexical semantic operations and memory demands, including: Recall, organization, making inferences, naming and perception/discrimination. These outcomes confer that post-MTBI, cognitive, high-level language and isolated general language performance (e.g. naming) is significantly reduced in MTBI patients, compared to normal controls. Furthermore, the detailed cognitive-linguistic profile offered provides a necessary direction for the identification of areas of linguistic decline in MTBI and targets for therapeutic intervention of impaired cognitive-linguistic processes to ultimately improve communicative outcomes in MTBI.

  12. Levels of integration in cognitive control and sequence processing in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Korb, Franziska M; Gratton, Caterina; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive control is necessary to flexibly act in changing environments. Sequence processing is needed in language comprehension to build the syntactic structure in sentences. Functional imaging studies suggest that sequence processing engages the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In contrast, cognitive control processes additionally recruit bilateral rostral lateral PFC regions. The present study aimed to investigate these two types of processes in one experimental paradigm. Sequence processing was manipulated using two different sequencing rules varying in complexity. Cognitive control was varied with different cue-sets that determined the choice of a sequencing rule. Univariate analyses revealed distinct PFC regions for the two types of processing (i.e. sequence processing: left ventrolateral PFC and cognitive control processing: bilateral dorsolateral and rostral PFC). Moreover, in a common brain network (including left lateral PFC and intraparietal sulcus) no interaction between sequence and cognitive control processing was observed. In contrast, a multivariate pattern analysis revealed an interaction of sequence and cognitive control processing, such that voxels in left lateral PFC and parietal cortex showed different tuning functions for tasks involving different sequencing and cognitive control demands. These results suggest that the difference between the process of rule selection (i.e. cognitive control) and the process of rule-based sequencing (i.e. sequence processing) find their neuronal underpinnings in distinct activation patterns in lateral PFC. Moreover, the combination of rule selection and rule sequencing can shape the response of neurons in lateral PFC and parietal cortex.

  13. What the CERAD Battery Can Tell Us about Executive Function as a Higher-Order Cognitive Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle E. Tractenberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF is believed to control or influence the integration and application of cognitive functions such as attention and memory and is an important area of research in cognitive aging. Recent studies and reviews have concluded that there is no single test for EF. Results from first-order latent variable modeling have suggested that little, if any, variability in cognitive performance can be directly (and uniquely attributed to EF; so instead, we modeled EF, as it is conceptualized, as a higher-order function, using elements of the CERAD neuropsychological battery. Responses to subtests from two large, independent cohorts of nondemented elderly persons were modeled with three theoretically plausible structural models using confirmatory factor analysis. Robust fit statistics, generated for the two cohorts separately, were consistent and support the conceptualization of EF as a higher-order cognitive faculty. Although not specifically designed to assess EF, subtests of the CERAD battery provide theoretically and empirically robust evidence about the nature of EF in elderly adults.

  14. A content review of cognitive process measures used in pain research within adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M A; Lang, C P; Newton-John, T R O; Ehde, D M; Jensen, M P

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that measures of cognitive process may be confounded by the inclusion of items that also assess cognitive content. The primary aims of this content review were to: (1) identify the domains of cognitive processes assessed by measures used in pain research; and (2) determine if pain-specific cognitive process measures with adequate psychometric properties exist. PsychInfo, CINAHL, PsycArticles, MEDLINE, and Academic Search Complete databases were searched to identify the measures of cognitive process used in pain research. Identified measures were double coded and the measure's items were rated as: (1) cognitive content; (2) cognitive process; (3) behavioural/social; and/or (4) emotional coping/responses to pain. A total of 319 scales were identified; of these, 29 were coded as providing an un-confounded assessment of cognitive process, and 12 were pain-specific. The cognitive process domains assessed in these measures are Absorption, Dissociation, Reappraisal, Distraction/Suppression, Acceptance, Rumination, Non-Judgment, and Enhancement. Pain-specific, un-confounded measures were identified for: Dissociation, Reappraisal, Distraction/Suppression, and Acceptance. Psychometric properties of all 319 scales are reported in supplementary material. To understand the importance of cognitive processes in influencing pain outcomes as well as explaining the efficacy of pain treatments, valid and pain-specific cognitive process measures that are not confounded with non-process domains (e.g., cognitive content) are needed. The findings of this content review suggest that future research focused on developing cognitive process measures is critical in order to advance our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie effective pain treatment. Many cognitive process measures used in pain research contain a 'mix' of items that assess cognitive process, cognitive content, and behavioural/emotional responses. Databases searched: PsychInfo, CINAHL, Psyc

  15. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD: processing speed, temporal processing, and working memory. Since attention problems frequently co-occur with learning disorders, the study examined whether these three factors, which are known to be associated with attention problems, account for the comorbidity between these disorders. The sample comprised 99 primary school children in four groups: children with RD, children with MD, children with both disorders (RD+MD), and typically developing children (TD controls). Measures of processing speed, temporal processing, and memory were analyzed in a series of ANCOVAs including attention ratings as covariate. All three risk factors were associated with poor attention. After controlling for attention, associations with RD and MD differed: Although deficits in verbal memory were associated with both RD and MD, reduced processing speed was related to RD, but not MD; and the association with RD was restricted to processing speed for familiar nameable symbols. In contrast, impairments in temporal processing and visuospatial memory were associated with MD, but not RD. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  16. Cognitive alterations in motor imagery process after left hemispheric ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after

  17. Eye movement analysis and cognitive processing: detecting indicators of conversion to Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marta LG Freitas; Camargo, Marina von Zuben A; Aprahamian, Ivan; Forlenza, Orestes V

    2014-01-01

    A great amount of research has been developed around the early cognitive impairments that best predict the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Given that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is no longer considered to be an intermediate state between normal aging and AD, new paths have been traced to acquire further knowledge about this condition and its subtypes, and to determine which of them have a higher risk of conversion to AD. It is now known that other deficits besides episodic and semantic memory impairments may be present in the early stages of AD, such as visuospatial and executive function deficits. Furthermore, recent investigations have proven that the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobe structures are not only involved in memory functioning, but also in visual processes. These early changes in memory, visual, and executive processes may also be detected with the study of eye movement patterns in pathological conditions like MCI and AD. In the present review, we attempt to explore the existing literature concerning these patterns of oculomotor changes and how these changes are related to the early signs of AD. In particular, we argue that deficits in visual short-term memory, specifically in iconic memory, attention processes, and inhibitory control, may be found through the analysis of eye movement patterns, and we discuss how they might help to predict the progression from MCI to AD. We add that the study of eye movement patterns in these conditions, in combination with neuroimaging techniques and appropriate neuropsychological tasks based on rigorous concepts derived from cognitive psychology, may highlight the early presence of cognitive impairments in the course of the disease. PMID:25031536

  18. Altered Topology in Information Processing of a Narrated Story in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Oren, Noga; Ash, Elissa L; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Lerner, Yulia

    2016-05-03

    The ability to store, integrate, and manipulate information declines with aging. These changes occur earlier, faster, and to a greater degree as a result of neurodegeneration. One of the most common and early characteristics of cognitive decline is difficulty with comprehension of information. The neural mechanisms underlying this breakdown of information processing are poorly understood. Using functional MRI and natural stimuli (e.g., stories), we mapped the neural mechanisms by which the human brain accumulates and processes information with increasing duration and complexity in participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy older adults. To explore the mechanisms of information processing, we measured the reliability of brain responses elicited by listening to different versions of a narrated story created by segmenting the story into words, sentences, and paragraphs and then scrambling the segments. Comparing healthy older adults and participants with aMCI revealed that in both groups, all types of stimuli similarly recruited primary auditory areas. However, prominent differences between groups were found at the level of processing long and complex stimuli. In healthy older adults, parietal and frontal regions demonstrated highly synchronized responses in both the paragraph and full story conditions, as has been previously reported in young adults. Participants with aMCI, however, exhibited a robust functional shift of long time scale processing to the pre- and post-central sulci. Our results suggest that participants with aMCI experienced a functional shift of higher order auditory information processing, possibly reflecting a functional response to concurrent or impending neuronal or synaptic loss. This observation might assist in understanding mechanisms of cognitive decline in aMCI.

  19. Driving to learn in a powered wheelchair: the process of learning joystick use in people with profound cognitive disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lisbeth; Eklund, Mona; Nyberg, Per; Thulesius, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The Driving to Learn project explored ways to help people with profound cognitive disabilities practice operating a joystick-operated powered wheelchair. The project used a grounded theory approach with constant comparative analysis and was carried out over 12 yr. The participants were 45 children and adults with profound cognitive disabilities. Reference groups included 17 typically developing infants and 64 participants with lesser degrees of cognitive disability. The data sources included video recordings, field notes, open interviews, and a rich mixture of literature. The findings that emerged yielded strategies for facilitating achievements, an 8-phase learning process, an assessment tool, and a grounded theory of deplateauing explaining the properties necessary for participants to exceed expected limitations and plateaus. Eight participants with profound cognitive disabilities reached goal-directed driving or higher. Participants were empowered by attaining increased control over tool use, improving their autonomy and quality of life.

  20. From cognitive motor preparation to visual processing: The benefits of childhood fitness to brain health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchicci, M; Pontifex, M B; Drollette, E S; Pesce, C; Hillman, C H; Di Russo, F

    2015-07-09

    The association between a fit body and a fit brain in children has led to a rise of behavioral and neuroscientific research. Yet, the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness on premotor neurocognitive preparation with early visual processing has received little attention. Here, 41 healthy, lower and higher fit preadolescent children were administered a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were recorded. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to the stimulus onset with an earlier than usual baseline (-900/-800 ms) allowed investigation of both the usual post-stimulus (i.e., the P1, N1 and P2) as well as the pre-stimulus ERP components, such as the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and the prefrontal negativity (pN component). At the behavioral level, aerobic fitness was associated response accuracy, with higher fit children being more accurate than lower fit children. Fitness-related differences selectively emerged at prefrontal brain regions during response preparation, with larger pN amplitude for higher than lower fit children, and at early perceptual stages after stimulus onset, with larger P1 and N1 amplitudes in higher relative to lower fit children. Collectively, the results suggest that the benefits of being aerobically fit appear at the stage of cognitive preparation prior to stimulus presentation and the behavioral response during the performance of a task that challenges cognitive control. Further, it is likely that enhanced activity in prefrontal brain areas may improve cognitive control of visuo-motor tasks, allowing for stronger proactive inhibition and larger early allocation of selective attention resources on relevant external stimuli. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On the expressiveness and decidability of higher-order process calculi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanese, Ivan; Perez, Jorge A.; Sangiorgi, Davide; Schmitt, Alan

    In higher-order process calculi, the values exchanged in communications may contain processes. A core calculus of higher-order concurrency is studied; it has only the operators necessary to express higher-order communications: input prefix, process output, and parallel composition. By exhibiting a

  3. Medication adherence as a learning process: insights from cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Marcum, Zachary A; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Gellad, Walid F

    2017-03-01

    Non-adherence to medications is one of the largest contributors to sub-optimal health outcomes. Many theories of adherence include a 'value-expectancy' component in which a patient decides to take a medication partly based on expectations about whether it is effective, necessary, and tolerable. We propose reconceptualising this common theme as a kind of 'causal learning' - the patient learns whether a medication is effective, necessary, and tolerable, from experience with the medication. We apply cognitive psychology theories of how people learn cause-effect relations to elaborate this causal-learning challenge. First, expectations and impressions about a medication and beliefs about how a medication works, such as delay of onset, can shape a patient's perceived experience with the medication. Second, beliefs about medications propagate both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up', from experiences with specific medications to general beliefs about medications and vice versa. Third, non-adherence can interfere with learning about a medication, because beliefs, adherence, and experience with a medication are connected in a cyclic learning problem. We propose that by conceptualising non-adherence as a causal-learning process, clinicians can more effectively address a patient's misconceptions and biases, helping the patient develop more accurate impressions of the medication.

  4. Explicit and implicit cognition: a preliminary test of a dual-process theory of cognitive vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffel, Gerald J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Brazy, Paige C; Shah, James Y; Teachman, Bethany A; Nosek, Brian A

    2007-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to test a dual-process theory of cognitive vulnerability to depression. According to this theory, implicit and explicit cognitive processes have differential effects on depressive reactions to stressful life events. Implicit processes are hypothesized to be critical in determining an individual's immediate affective reaction to stress whereas explicit cognitions are thought to be more involved in long-term depressive reactions. Consistent with hypotheses, the results of study 1 (cross-sectional; N=237) showed that implicit, but not explicit, cognitions predicted immediate affective reactions to a lab stressor. Study 2 (longitudinal; N=251) also supported the dual-process model of cognitive vulnerability to depression. Results showed that both the implicit and explicit measures interacted with life stress to predict prospective changes in depressive symptoms, respectively. However, when both implicit and explicit predictors were entered into a regression equation simultaneously, only the explicit measure interacted with stress to remain a unique predictor of depressive symptoms over the five-week prospective interval.

  5. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Perez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1 to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2 to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3 to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28–79 years of age were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations.

  6. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alison M; Spence, Jeffrey Scott; Kiel, L D; Venza, Erin E; Chapman, Sandra B

    2018-01-01

    Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1) to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2) to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3) to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28-79 years of age) were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations.

  7. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alison M.; Spence, Jeffrey Scott; Kiel, L. D.; Venza, Erin E.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2018-01-01

    Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1) to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2) to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3) to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28–79 years of age) were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations. PMID:29867641

  8. Engagement with the auditory processing system during targeted auditory cognitive training mediates changes in cognitive outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Neilands, Torsten B; Loewy, Rachel; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia who engage in targeted cognitive training (TCT) of the auditory system show generalized cognitive improvements. The high degree of variability in cognitive gains maybe due to individual differences in the level of engagement of the underlying neural system target. 131 individuals with schizophrenia underwent 40 hours of TCT. We identified target engagement of auditory system processing efficiency by modeling subject-specific trajectories of auditory processing speed (APS) over time. Lowess analysis, mixed models repeated measures analysis, and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine whether APS trajectories were moderated by age and illness duration, and mediated improvements in cognitive outcome measures. We observed significant improvements in APS from baseline to 20 hours of training (initial change), followed by a flat APS trajectory (plateau) at subsequent time-points. Participants showed interindividual variability in the steepness of the initial APS change and in the APS plateau achieved and sustained between 20 and 40 hours. We found that participants who achieved the fastest APS plateau, showed the greatest transfer effects to untrained cognitive domains. There is a significant association between an individual's ability to generate and sustain auditory processing efficiency and their degree of cognitive improvement after TCT, independent of baseline neurocognition. APS plateau may therefore represent a behavioral measure of target engagement mediating treatment response. Future studies should examine the optimal plateau of auditory processing efficiency required to induce significant cognitive improvements, in the context of interindividual differences in neural plasticity and sensory system efficiency that characterize schizophrenia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

  10. Circadian Rhythms in Cognitive Processes: Implications for School Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Pablo; Ramírez, Candelaria; García, Aída

    2014-01-01

    Circadian variations have been found in cognitive processes, such as attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. These cognitive processes improve during the day and decrease during the night and early hours of the morning. Sleep deprivation further decreases these cognitive…

  11. Enhancement of Cognitive Processing by Multiple Sclerosis Patients Using Liquid Cooling Technology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Leslie D.; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Richard W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    strongly in reduced energy in the occipital region during the initial processing of the precooling period visual stimulus which may indicate impaired early visual processing; and (3) increased postcooling activation in the le ft angular gyrus may result in enhanced higher-level reasoning related to processing visual task information. By this hypothesis the superior performance of Subject Two following body cooling may be a result of increased neural activation in his early visual recognition and processing centers.

  12. Cognitive Task Analysis of the Battalion Level Visualization Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leedom, Dennis K; McElroy, William; Shadrick, Scott B; Lickteig, Carl; Pokorny, Robet A; Haynes, Jacqueline A; Bell, James

    2007-01-01

    ... position or as a battalion Operations Officer or Executive Officer. Bases on findings from the cognitive task analysis, 11 skill areas were identified as potential focal points for future training development...

  13. Dual-task and electrophysiological markers of executive cognitive processing in older adult gait and fall-risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Walshe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of cognition is becoming increasingly central to our understanding of the complexity of walking gait. Here, we report two experiments which investigated the cognitive and neural processes underlying older adult gait and fall-risk. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task paradigm in young and older adults, to assess the relative effects of higher-level executive function tasks (n-Back, Serial Subtraction and visuo-spatial Clock task in comparison to non-executive distracter tasks (motor response task and alphabet recitation on gait. All dual-tasks elicited changes in gait for both young and older adults, relative to baseline walking. Significantly greater dual-task costs were observed for the executive tasks in the older adult group, as hypothesized. Experiment 2 compared normal walking gait, seated cognitive performances and concurrent event-related brain potentials (ERPs in healthy young and older adults, to older adult fallers. No significant differences in cognitive performances were found between fallers and non-fallers. However, a clear P3a peak was evident on the Stroop task for older non-fallers, which was notably absent in older fallers. This may be indicative of the presence of some cortically-based compensatory process in this group, contributing to their reduced risk of falling. We argue that executive functions play a prominent role in walking and gait, but the role of higher cognition as a predictor of fall-risk needs further investigation.

  14. Redesigning a course to help students achieve higher-order cognitive thinking skills: from goals and mechanics to student outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrand, Janet; Semsar, Katharine

    2017-06-01

    Here we describe a 4-yr course reform and its outcomes. The upper-division neurophysiology course gradually transformed from a traditional lecture in 2004 to a more student-centered course in 2008, through the addition of evidence-based active learning practices, such as deliberate problem-solving practice on homework and peer learning structures, both inside and outside of class. Due to the incremental nature of the reforms and absence of pre-reform learning assessments, we needed a way to retrospectively assess the effectiveness of our efforts. To do this, we first looked at performance on 12 conserved exam questions. Students performed significantly higher post-reform on questions requiring lower-level cognitive skills and those requiring higher-level cognitive skills. Furthermore, student performance on conserved questions was higher post-reform in both the top and bottom quartiles of students, although lower-quartile student performance did not improve until after the first exam. To examine student learning more broadly, we also used Bloom's taxonomy to quantify a significant increase in the Bloom's level of exams, with students performing equally well post-reform on exams that had over twice as many questions at higher cognitive skill levels. Finally, we believe that four factors provided critical contributions to the success of the course reform, including: transformation efforts across multiple course components, alignment between formative and evaluative course materials, student buy-in to course instruction, and instructional support. This reform demonstrates both the effectiveness of incorporating student-centered, active learning into our course, and the utility of using Bloom's level as a metric to assess course reform. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Initial Steps to inform selection of continuation cognitive therapy or fluoxetine for higher risk responders to cognitive therapy for recurrent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Anna Clark, Lee; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2017-07-01

    Responders to acute-phase cognitive therapy (A-CT) for major depressive disorder (MDD) often relapse or recur, but continuation-phase cognitive therapy (C-CT) or fluoxetine reduces risks for some patients. We tested composite moderators of C-CT versus fluoxetine's preventive effects to inform continuation treatment selection. Responders to A-CT for MDD judged to be at higher risk for relapse due to unstable or partial remission (N=172) were randomized to 8 months of C-CT or fluoxetine with clinical management and assessed, free from protocol treatment, for 24 additional months. Pre-continuation-treatment characteristics that in survival analyses moderated treatments' effects on relapse over 8 months of continuation-phase treatment (residual symptoms and negative temperament) and on relapse/recurrence over the full observation period's 32 months (residual symptoms and age) were combined to estimate the potential advantage of C-CT versus fluoxetine for individual patients. Assigning patients to optimal continuation treatment (i.e., to C-CT or fluoxetine, depending on patients' pre-continuation-treatment characteristics) resulted in absolute reduction of relapse or recurrence risk by 16-21% compared to the other non-optimal treatment. Although these novel results require replication before clinical application, selecting optimal continuation treatment (i.e., personalizing treatment) for higher risk A-CT responders may decrease risks of MDD relapse and recurrence substantively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of visual representation style in problem-solving: a perspective from cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A

    2013-01-01

    Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving.

  17. The Effect of Visual Representation Style in Problem-Solving: A Perspective from Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2013-01-01

    Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving. PMID:24260415

  18. The effect of visual representation style in problem-solving: a perspective from cognitive processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkhbold Nyamsuren

    Full Text Available Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving.

  19. Eye movement analysis and cognitive processing: detecting indicators of conversion to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira ML

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marta LG Freitas Pereira, Marina von Zuben A Camargo, Ivan Aprahamian, Orestes V ForlenzaLaboratory of Neuroscience (LIM-27, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAbstract: A great amount of research has been developed around the early cognitive ­impairments that best predict the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Given that mild cognitive impairment (MCI is no longer considered to be an intermediate state between normal aging and AD, new paths have been traced to acquire further knowledge about this condition and its subtypes, and to determine which of them have a higher risk of conversion to AD. It is now known that other deficits besides episodic and semantic memory impairments may be present in the early stages of AD, such as visuospatial and executive function deficits. Furthermore, recent investigations have proven that the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobe structures are not only involved in memory functioning, but also in visual processes. These early changes in memory, visual, and executive processes may also be detected with the study of eye movement patterns in pathological conditions like MCI and AD. In the present review, we attempt to explore the existing literature concerning these patterns of oculomotor changes and how these changes are related to the early signs of AD. In particular, we argue that deficits in visual short-term memory, specifically in iconic memory, attention processes, and inhibitory control, may be found through the analysis of eye movement patterns, and we discuss how they might help to predict the progression from MCI to AD. We add that the study of eye movement patterns in these conditions, in combination with neuroimaging techniques and appropriate neuropsychological tasks based on rigorous concepts derived from cognitive psychology, may highlight the early presence of cognitive impairments in the course of the disease

  20. Cognitive Processes and Learner Strategies in the Acquisition of Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    children: Capacity or processing deficits? Memory and Cognition, 1976, 4, 559-S72. Craik , F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework...learning and memory research. In F. I. M. Craik & L. S. Cermak (Eds.), Levels of processing and theories of memory. Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1978...functions. Cognitive activities are described at a highly theoretical (technical) level as well as in a pragmatic manner. Differences in processing

  1. Computational models of music perception and cognition II: Domain-specific music processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Grachten, Maarten; Herrera, Perfecto; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    In Part I [Purwins H, Herrera P, Grachten M, Hazan A, Marxer R, Serra X. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain. Physics of Life Reviews 2008, in press, doi:10.1016/j.plrev.2008.03.004], we addressed the study of cognitive processes that underlie auditory perception of music, and their neural correlates. The aim of the present paper is to summarize empirical findings from music cognition research that are relevant to three prominent music theoretic domains: rhythm, melody, and tonality. Attention is paid to how cognitive processes like category formation, stimulus grouping, and expectation can account for the music theoretic key concepts in these domains, such as beat, meter, voice, consonance. We give an overview of computational models that have been proposed in the literature for a variety of music processing tasks related to rhythm, melody, and tonality. Although the present state-of-the-art in computational modeling of music cognition definitely provides valuable resources for testing specific hypotheses and theories, we observe the need for models that integrate the various aspects of music perception and cognition into a single framework. Such models should be able to account for aspects that until now have only rarely been addressed in computational models of music cognition, like the active nature of perception and the development of cognitive capacities from infancy to adulthood.

  2. Decision Making under Ambiguity and Objective Risk in Higher Age - A Review on Cognitive and Emotional Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherr, Magnus; Schiebener, Johannes; Averbeck, Heike; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors - responsible for age-related differences in decision making - are additionally pointed out.

  3. Decision Making under Ambiguity and Objective Risk in Higher Age – A Review on Cognitive and Emotional Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Liebherr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors – responsible for age-related differences in decision making – are additionally pointed out.

  4. Decision Making under Ambiguity and Objective Risk in Higher Age – A Review on Cognitive and Emotional Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherr, Magnus; Schiebener, Johannes; Averbeck, Heike; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors – responsible for age-related differences in decision making – are additionally pointed out. PMID:29270145

  5. Study of efficacy of the combination of carbamazepine with nootropics on cognitive processes in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov A.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the efficacy of combination of carbamazepine with nootropic drugs on cognitive processes in patients with epilepsy in experiment in order to reduce the side effects of anticonvulsant therapy. Analysis of anticonvulsant effect of the combination of drugs was carried out on 36 white nonlinear rats of both sexes weighing 160-180 g by the method of maximum electroshock, and the analysis of antiamnestic effect - using a model of retrograde amnesia on 80 white adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g. For studying the mnemotropic activity of drug, the method of the conditioned reflex of active avoidance was used. The authors discovered that the isolated use of carbamazepine has the most negative influence on cognitive processes in animals, namely the formation of skill, memory engrams and consolidating memory trace as compared with the combined use of carbamazepine with neuroprotective drugs. It was found that the use of combinations of carbamazepine and nootropics in the experiment does not prevent the development of seizures completely, however, these combination can significantly reduce the duration of seizures (p <0.0001. Study of the effectiveness of the combined use of carbamazepine with nootropic drugs, revealed, that the tested drug combinations have a positive effect on cognitive processes and show neuroprotective effect on the brain structures of animals. The revealed effects of combined use of carbamazepine with nootropic drugs by the strength and intensity of the impact is much higher than isolated, while using carbamazepine. It was found, that the most effective combination is a combination of carbamazepine with Gliatilin.

  6. Cognitive Processes in Discourse Comprehension: Passive Processes, Reader-Initiated Processes, and Evolving Mental Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne

    2017-01-01

    As readers move through a text, they engage in various types of processes that, if all goes well, result in a mental representation that captures their interpretation of the text. With each new text segment the reader engages in passive and, at times, reader-initiated processes. These processes are strongly influenced by the readers'…

  7. Analysis of operators' diagnosis tasks based on cognitive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yong; Zhang Li

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis tasks in nuclear power plants characterized as high-dynamic uncertainties are complex reasoning tasks. Diagnosis errors are the main causes for the error of commission. Firstly, based on mental model theory and perception/action cycle theory, a cognitive model for analyzing operators' diagnosis tasks is proposed. Then, the model is used to investigate a trip event which occurred at crystal river nuclear power plant. The application demonstrates typical cognitive bias and mistakes which operators may make when performing diagnosis tasks. They mainly include the strong confirmation tendency, difficulty to produce complete hypothesis sets, group mindset, non-systematic errors in hypothesis testing, and etc. (authors)

  8. Effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention for patients with stress-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Stenlund, Therese; Järvholm, Lisbeth Slunga; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter

    2015-01-01

    Stress-related exhaustion has been linked to a pattern of selective cognitive impairments, mainly affecting executive functioning, attention and episodic memory. Little is known about potential treatments of these cognitive deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention, designed to target the specific cognitive impairments associated with stress-related exhaustion. To this end, patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED) were randomized to either a multimodal stress rehabilitation program with the addition of a process-based cognitive training intervention (training group, n = 27) or a treatment-as-usual control condition, consisting of multimodal stress rehabilitation with no additional training (control group, n = 32). Treatment effects were evaluated through an extensive cognitive test battery, assessing both near and far transfer effects, as well as self-report forms regarding subjective cognitive complaints and burnout levels. Results showed pronounced training-related improvements on the criterion updating task (p effects to updating (p = 0.01) and episodic memory (p = 0.04). Also, the trained group reported less subjective memory complaints (p = 0.02) and levels of burnout decreased for both groups, but more so for the trained group (p = 0.04), following the intervention. These findings suggest that process-based cognitive training may be a viable method to address the cognitive impairments associated with ED.

  9. Individual differences in cognitive processing of interdependency information. The influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information in interdependency situations and the reflection on the temporal aspects of decision-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, Francine Marie Jean

    1993-01-01

    The present thesis describes research on the influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information underlying decisions in interdependency situations. The research is based on the assumption that the cognitive processes are reflected in decision times. ... Zie: Summary

  10. Brain insulin signaling: a key component of cognitive processes and a potential basis for cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ewan C.; Recknagel, Andrew K.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding of the role of insulin in the brain has gradually expanded, from initial conceptions of the brain as insulin-insensitive through identification of a role in regulation of feeding to recent demonstration of insulin as a key component of hippocampal memory processes. Conversely, systemic insulin resistance such as that seen in type 2 diabetes is associated with a range of cogntive and neural deficits. Here we review the evidence for insulin as a cognitive and neural modulator, including potential effector mechanisms, and examine the impact that type 2 diabetes has on these mechanisms in order to identify likely bases for the cognitive impairments seen in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:21907815

  11. Passion’s Slave? : Conscious and Unconscious Cognitive Processes in Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.; Field, M.; Stacy, A.W.; Sher, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on cognitive processes in substance use disorders from a dual-process perspective. In dual-process models, behavior is viewed as the joint outcome of "impulsive" and "reflective" processes. Reflective processes rely on a single limited capacity mechanism and can

  12. The Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Older Adults' Driving Mobility Across 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lesley A; Edwards, Jerri D; O'Connor, Melissa L; Ball, Karlene K; Wadley, Virginia G; Vance, David E

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel models assessed the effects of cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) on older adults' self-reported driving using intention-to-treat (ITT, randomization to training or control conditions) and dosage (treatment-received via number of training sessions) analyses across 5 years. Participants randomized to SPT (n = 598) were compared with those randomized to either the no-contact control (n = 598) or memory training, which served as an active control (n = 610). Driving mobility (frequency, exposure, and space) was assessed over time. No significant effects were found within the ITT analyses. However, number of SPT sessions did affect driving mobility outcomes. In the full sample (N = 1,806), higher SPT doses were associated with maintained driving frequency as compared with both control groups, but no effects were found for driving exposure or space. Subsample analyses (n = 315) revealed that persons at-risk for mobility declines (i.e., poor initial processing speed) who received additional booster SPT sessions reported greater maintenance of both driving frequency and exposure over time as compared with the no-contact and active control groups. These results and prior research indicate that cognitive SPT transfers to prolonged driving mobility among older adults. Future research should investigate the mechanisms behind transfer effects to real-world activities, such as driving. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Older Adults’ Driving Mobility Across 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jerri D.; O’Connor, Melissa L.; Ball, Karlene K.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Vance, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Multilevel models assessed the effects of cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) on older adults’ self-reported driving using intention-to-treat (ITT, randomization to training or control conditions) and dosage (treatment-received via number of training sessions) analyses across 5 years. Method. Participants randomized to SPT (n = 598) were compared with those randomized to either the no-contact control (n = 598) or memory training, which served as an active control (n = 610). Driving mobility (frequency, exposure, and space) was assessed over time. Results. No significant effects were found within the ITT analyses. However, number of SPT sessions did affect driving mobility outcomes. In the full sample (N = 1,806), higher SPT doses were associated with maintained driving frequency as compared with both control groups, but no effects were found for driving exposure or space. Subsample analyses (n = 315) revealed that persons at-risk for mobility declines (i.e., poor initial processing speed) who received additional booster SPT sessions reported greater maintenance of both driving frequency and exposure over time as compared with the no-contact and active control groups. Discussion. These results and prior research indicate that cognitive SPT transfers to prolonged driving mobility among older adults. Future research should investigate the mechanisms behind transfer effects to real-world activities, such as driving. PMID:25878053

  14. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  15. Conceptual Transformation and Cognitive Processes in Origami Paper Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbrink, Thora; Taylor, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on problem solving typically does not address tasks that involve following detailed and/or illustrated step-by-step instructions. Such tasks are not seen as cognitively challenging problems to be solved. In this paper, we challenge this assumption by analyzing verbal protocols collected during an Origami folding task. Participants…

  16. Short-Term Limb Immobilization Affects Cognitive Motor Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a brief period of limb immobilization on the cognitive level of action control. A splint placed on the participants' left hand was used as a means of immobilization. We used a hand mental rotation task to investigate the immobilization-induced effects on motor imagery performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and a number mental…

  17. Exploring Flipped Classroom Effects on Second Language Learners' Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-eun; Park, Hyunjin; Jang, Mijung; Nam, Hosung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive effects of the flipped classroom approach in a content-based instructional context by comparing second language learners' discourse in flipped vs. traditional classrooms in terms of (1) participation rate, (2) content of comments, (3) reasoning skills, and (4) interactional patterns. Learners in two intact…

  18. Comparison of the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the tested functions was observed in both groups. However, in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits the degree of recovery of most language functions and some cognitive functions was higher. A significantly greater correlation was revealed within language and cognitive functions, as well as between language functions and other aspects of cognition in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits than in patients with aphasia following a stroke. Our results show that patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits have a different recovery pattern and a different pattern of correlation between language and cognitive functions compared to patients with aphasia following a stroke. (1) Better understanding of the differences in recovery of language and cognitive functions in patients who have suffered strokes and those who have experienced traumatic brain injury. (2) Better understanding of the relationship between language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. (3) Better understanding of the factors influencing recovery.

  19. Assessing cognitive processes related to insomnia: A review and measurement guide for Harvey's cognitive model for the maintenance of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M; Johnston, Anna; Dohnt, Hayley; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive processes play an important role in the maintenance, and treatment of sleep difficulties, including insomnia. In 2002, a comprehensive model was proposed by Harvey. Since its inception the model has received >300 citations, and provided researchers and clinicians with a framework for understanding and treating insomnia. The aim of this review is two-fold. First, we review the current literature investigating each factor proposed in Harvey's cognitive model of insomnia. Second, we summarise the psychometric properties of key measures used to assess the model's factors and mechanisms. From these aims, we demonstrate both strengths and limitations of the current knowledge of appropriate measurements associated with the model. This review aims to stimulate and guide future research in this area; and provide an understanding of the resources available to measure, target, and resolve cognitive factors that may maintain chronic insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Insights into numerical cognition: considering eye-fixations in number processing and arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, J; Huber, S; Klein, E; Moeller, K

    2016-05-01

    Considering eye-fixation behavior is standard in reading research to investigate underlying cognitive processes. However, in numerical cognition research eye-tracking is used less often and less systematically. Nevertheless, we identified over 40 studies on this topic from the last 40 years with an increase of eye-tracking studies on numerical cognition during the last decade. Here, we review and discuss these empirical studies to evaluate the added value of eye-tracking for the investigation of number processing. Our literature review revealed that the way eye-fixation behavior is considered in numerical cognition research ranges from investigating basic perceptual aspects of processing non-symbolic and symbolic numbers, over assessing the common representational space of numbers and space, to evaluating the influence of characteristics of the base-10 place-value structure of Arabic numbers and executive control on number processing. Apart from basic results such as reading times of numbers increasing with their magnitude, studies revealed that number processing can influence domain-general processes such as attention shifting-but also the other way round. Domain-general processes such as cognitive control were found to affect number processing. In summary, eye-fixation behavior allows for new insights into both domain-specific and domain-general processes involved in number processing. Based thereon, a processing model of the temporal dynamics of numerical cognition is postulated, which distinguishes an early stage of stimulus-driven bottom-up processing from later more top-down controlled stages. Furthermore, perspectives for eye-tracking research in numerical cognition are discussed to emphasize the potential of this methodology for advancing our understanding of numerical cognition.

  1. Applying pause analysis to explore cognitive processes in the copying of sentences by second language users

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkifli, Putri Afzan Maria Binti

    2013-01-01

    Pause analysis is a method that investigates processes of writing by measuring the amount of time between pen strokes. It provides the field of second language studies with a means to explore the cognitive processes underpinning the nature of writing. This study examined the potential of using free handwritten copying of sentences as a means of investigating components of the cognitive processes of adults who have English as their Second Language (ESL).\\ud \\ud A series of one pilot and three ...

  2. Heuristic and Analytic Processing: Age Trends and Associations with Cognitive Ability and Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokis, Judite V.; Macpherson, Robyn; Toplak, Maggie E.; West, Richard F.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined developmental and individual differences in tendencies to favor analytic over heuristic responses in three tasks (inductive reasoning, deduction under belief bias conditions, probabilistic reasoning) in children varying in age and cognitive ability. Found significant increases in analytic responding with development on first two tasks.…

  3. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  4. Reviewing the Role of Cognitive Load, Expertise Level, Motivation, and Unconscious Processing in Working Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abu Bakar, Zainudin

    2015-01-01

    Human cognitive capacity is unavailable for conscious processing of every amount of instructional messages. Aligning an instructional design with learner expertise level would allow better use of available working memory capacity in a cognitive learning task. Motivating students to learn consciously is also an essential determinant of the capacity…

  5. A Dual Coding Model of Processing Chinese as a Second Language: A Cognitive-Load Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Diana Po Lan

    2002-01-01

    The research was conducted in Sydney and Hong Kong using students, from grades 5 to 9, whose first language or teaching medium was English, learning to read Chinese as second language. According to cognitive load theory, the processing of single Chinese characters accompanied by pictures should impose extraneous cognitive load and thus hinders…

  6. Dancing Thoughts: An Examination of Children's Cognition and Creative Process in Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine children's cognition within the creative process in dance and to examine how dance making affects cognitive development in children. Data on children's thinking were gathered from fifth graders participating in an artist-in-residence program in a public school in Pennsylvania. Both the inquiry and the data…

  7. Parallel Distributed Processing at 25: Further Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T.; McClelland, James L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue of "Cognitive Science" initiated on the 25th anniversary of the publication of "Parallel Distributed Processing" (PDP), a two-volume work that introduced the use of neural network models as vehicles for understanding cognition. The collection surveys the core commitments of the PDP…

  8. The Cognitive Processing of Candidates during Reading Tests: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this article investigates test takers' cognitive processing while completing onscreen IELTS (International English Language Testing System) reading test items. The research aims, among other things, to contribute to our ability to evaluate the cognitive validity of reading test items (Glaser, 1991; Field, in press). The…

  9. Sex differences in social cognition: The case of face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado

    2017-01-02

    Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned. In addition, we investigated how 400 different human faces were evaluated for arousal and valence dimensions by a group of healthy male and female University students. Stimuli were carefully balanced for sensory and perceptual characteristics, age, facial expression, and sex. As a whole, women judged all human faces as more positive and more arousing than men. Furthermore, they showed a preference for the faces of children and the elderly in the arousal evaluation. Regardless of face aesthetics, age, or facial expression, women rated human faces higher than men. The preference for opposite- vs. same-sex faces strongly interacted with facial age. Overall, both women and men exhibited differences in facial processing that could be interpreted in the light of evolutionary psychobiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. EEG-based cognitive load of processing events in 3D virtual worlds is lower than processing events in 2D displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Alex; Reiner, Miriam

    2017-12-01

    Interacting with 2D displays, such as computer screens, smartphones, and TV, is currently a part of our daily routine; however, our visual system is built for processing 3D worlds. We examined the cognitive load associated with a simple and a complex task of learning paper-folding (origami) by observing 2D or stereoscopic 3D displays. While connected to an electroencephalogram (EEG) system, participants watched a 2D video of an instructor demonstrating the paper-folding tasks, followed by a stereoscopic 3D projection of the same instructor (a digital avatar) illustrating identical tasks. We recorded the power of alpha and theta oscillations and calculated the cognitive load index (CLI) as the ratio of the average power of frontal theta (Fz.) and parietal alpha (Pz). The results showed a significantly higher cognitive load index associated with processing the 2D projection as compared to the 3D projection; additionally, changes in the average theta Fz power were larger for the 2D conditions as compared to the 3D conditions, while alpha average Pz power values were similar for 2D and 3D conditions for the less complex task and higher in the 3D state for the more complex task. The cognitive load index was lower for the easier task and higher for the more complex task in 2D and 3D. In addition, participants with lower spatial abilities benefited more from the 3D compared to the 2D display. These findings have implications for understanding cognitive processing associated with 2D and 3D worlds and for employing stereoscopic 3D technology over 2D displays in designing emerging virtual and augmented reality applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. From higher order thinking to higher order behavior: exploring the relationship between early cognitive skills and social competence in black boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  12. Emotional and cognitive social processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease and are related to behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narme, Pauline; Mouras, Harold; Roussel, Martine; Duru, Cécile; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with behavioral disorders that can affect social functioning but are poorly understood. Since emotional and cognitive social processes are known to be crucial in social relationships, impairment of these processes may account for the emergence of behavioral disorders. We used a systematic battery of tests to assess emotional processes and social cognition in PD patients and relate our findings to conventional neuropsychological data (especially behavioral disorders). Twenty-three PD patients and 46 controls (matched for age and educational level) were included in the study and underwent neuropsychological testing, including an assessment of the behavioral and cognitive components of executive function. Emotional and cognitive social processes were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index caregiver-administered questionnaire (as a measure of empathy), a facial emotion recognition task and two theory of mind (ToM) tasks. When compared with controls, PD patients showed low levels of empathy (p = .006), impaired facial emotion recognition (which persisted after correction for perceptual abilities) (p = .001), poor performance in a second-order ToM task (p = .008) that assessed both cognitive (p = .004) and affective (p = .03) inferences and, lastly, frequent dysexecutive behavioral disorders (in over 40% of the patients). Overall, impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning was observed in 17% of patients and was related to certain cognitive dysexecutive disorders. In terms of behavioral dysexecutive disorders, social behavior disorders were related to impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning (p = .04) but were independent of cognitive impairments. Emotional and cognitive social processes were found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease. This impairment may account for the emergence of social behavioral disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. COMT val108/158 met genotype affects neural but not cognitive processing in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Nancy A; Need, Anna C; LaBar, Kevin S; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Kragel, James; Goldstein, David B; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural differences during cognition may be present, regardless of genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1) examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of healthy individuals (n = 496-1218) and multiple cognitive measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2) examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in functional connectivity associated with successful relational memory processing. Results revealed no significant group difference in cognitive performance between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures. However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased prefrontal activity during both successful relational encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together, the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in neural process underlying cognitive output.

  14. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Cobo, María José; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through “cool” (i.e., not emotionally laden) and “hot” (i.e., emotionally laden) laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool) and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test). We identified 26 eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests) is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals’ emotional information processing abilities. PMID:27303277

  15. The neural bases of cognitive processes in gambling disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Functional imaging is offering powerful new tools to investigate the neurobiology of cognitive functioning in people with and without psychiatric conditions like gambling disorder. Based on similarities between gambling and substance-use disorders in neurocognitive and other domains, gambling disorder has recently been classified in DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. Despite the advances in understanding, there exist multiple unanswered questions about the pathophysiology underlying gambling di...

  16. Cognitive processes in post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırımlı, Gamze; Tosun, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) consists of a pattern of symptoms that include cognitive, affective, sensory and behavioral systems. In PTSD, the individual experiences disturbing emotions and sensations such as anxiety, panic, depression, anger, tension, high startle response and hyper-vigilance as a result of re-experiencing traumatic memories, flashbacks, attention difficulties, memory loss, nightmares and intrusive thoughts. To get rid of these emotions, he avoids all stimuli that r...

  17. Process for Upgrading Cognitive Assessment Capabilities Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picano, J. J.; Seaton, K. A.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Spaceflight poses varied and unique risks to the brain and cognitive functioning including radiation exposure, sleep disturbance, fatigue, fluid shifts (increased intracranial pressure), toxin exposure, elevated carbon dioxide, and traumatic brain injury, among others. These potential threats to cognitive functioning are capable of degrading performance and compromising mission success. Furthermore, the threats may increase in severity, and new types of threats may emerge for longer duration exploration missions. This presentation will describe the process used to identify gaps in our current approach, evaluate best practices in cognitive assessment, and transition new cognitive assessment tools to operational use. OVERVIEW: Risks to brain health and performance posed by spaceflight missions require sensitive tools to assess cognitive functioning of astronauts in flight. The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is the automated cognitive assessment tool currently deployed onboard the International Space Station (ISS). WinSCAT provides astronauts and flight surgeons with objective data to monitor neurocognitive functioning. WinSCAT assesses 5 discrete cognitive domains, is sensitive to changes in cognitive functioning, and was designed to be completed in less than 15 minutes. However, WinSCAT does not probe other areas of cognitive functioning that might be important to mission success. Researchers recently have developed batteries that may expand current capabilities, such as increased sensitivity to subtle fluctuations in cognitive functioning. Therefore, we engaged in a systematic process review in order to improve upon our current capabilities and incorporate new advances in cognitive assessment. This process included a literature review on newer measures of neurocognitive assessment, surveys of operational flight surgeons at NASA regarding needs and gaps in our capabilities, and expert panel review of candidate cognitive

  18. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes; La radiotherapie affecte la cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-10-15

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  19. Identification of the social and cognitive processes underlying human cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L G; Kendal, R L; Schapiro, S J; Thierry, B; Laland, K N

    2012-03-02

    The remarkable ecological and demographic success of humanity is largely attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture, with knowledge and technology accumulating over time, yet the social and cognitive capabilities that have enabled cumulative culture remain unclear. In a comparative study of sequential problem solving, we provided groups of capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and children with an experimental puzzlebox that could be solved in three stages to retrieve rewards of increasing desirability. The success of the children, but not of the chimpanzees or capuchins, in reaching higher-level solutions was strongly associated with a package of sociocognitive processes-including teaching through verbal instruction, imitation, and prosociality-that were observed only in the children and covaried with performance.

  20. Dealing with feelings: characterization of trait alexithymia on emotion regulation strategies and cognitive-emotional processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Swart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core deficit, we tested our subjects on a wide range of emotional tasks. We expected the high alexithymics to underperform on all tasks. METHOD: Two groups of healthy individuals, high and low scoring on the cognitive component of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, completed questionnaires of emotion regulation and performed several emotion processing tasks including a micro expression recognition task, recognition of emotional prosody and semantics in spoken sentences, an emotional and identity learning task and a conflicting beliefs and emotions task (emotional mentalizing. RESULTS: The two groups differed on the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Empathy Quotient. Specifically, the Emotion Regulation Quotient showed that alexithymic individuals used more suppressive and less reappraisal strategies. On the behavioral tasks, as expected, alexithymics performed worse on recognition of micro expressions and emotional mentalizing. Surprisingly, groups did not differ on tasks of emotional semantics and prosody and associative emotional-learning. CONCLUSION: Individuals scoring high on the cognitive component of alexithymia are more prone to suppressive emotion regulation strategies rather than reappraisal strategies. Regarding emotional information processing, alexithymia is associated with reduced performance on measures of early processing as well as higher order mentalizing. However, difficulties in the processing of emotional language were not a core deficit in our alexithymic group.

  1. The impact of translation-memory (TM) technology on cognitive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The use of Translation-Memory (TM) technology and other translation software is bound to influence translators' cognitive processes. Unfortunately we still lack empirically founded knowledge of this. Our paper therefore presents and discusses the theoretical background, setup and preliminary...

  2. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees

  3. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitive study using cognitive interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees

  4. Insight in bipolar disorder : associations with cognitive and emotional processing and illness characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf - Eldering, Marieke; van der Meer, Lisette; Burger, Huibert; Holthausen, Esther; Nolen, W.A.; Aleman, Andre

    Objective: To investigate the multifactorial relationship between illness insight, cognitive and emotional processes, and illness characteristics in bipolar disorder patients. Methods: Data from 85 euthymic or mildly to moderately depressed bipolar disorder patients were evaluated. Insight was

  5. Multivariate analysis of correlation between electrophysiological and hemodynamic responses during cognitive processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Jan; Sudre, Gustavo; Vartiainen, Johanna; Liljeström, Mia; Mitchell, Tom; Salmelin, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Animal and human studies have frequently shown that in primary sensory and motor regions the BOLD signal correlates positively with high-frequency and negatively with low-frequency neuronal activity. However, recent evidence suggests that this relationship may also vary across cortical areas. Detailed knowledge of the possible spectral diversity between electrophysiological and hemodynamic responses across the human cortex would be essential for neural-level interpretation of fMRI data and for informative multimodal combination of electromagnetic and hemodynamic imaging data, especially in cognitive tasks. We applied multivariate partial least squares correlation analysis to MEG–fMRI data recorded in a reading paradigm to determine the correlation patterns between the data types, at once, across the cortex. Our results revealed heterogeneous patterns of high-frequency correlation between MEG and fMRI responses, with marked dissociation between lower and higher order cortical regions. The low-frequency range showed substantial variance, with negative and positive correlations manifesting at different frequencies across cortical regions. These findings demonstrate the complexity of the neurophysiological counterparts of hemodynamic fluctuations in cognitive processing. PMID:24518260

  6. Memory biases in remitted depression: the role of negative cognitions at explicit and automatic processing levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive models propose that depression is caused by dysfunctional schemas that endure beyond the depressive episode, representing vulnerability factors for recurrence. However, research testing negative cognitions linked to dysfunctional schemas in formerly depressed individuals is still scarce. Furthermore, negative cognitions are presumed to be linked to biases in recalling negative self-referent information in formerly depressed individuals, but no studies have directly tested this association. In the present study, we evaluated differences between formerly and never-depressed individuals in several experimental indices of negative cognitions and their associations with the recall of emotional self-referent material. Formerly (n = 30) and never depressed individuals (n = 40) completed measures of explicit (i.e., scrambled sentence test) and automatic (i.e., lexical decision task) processing to evaluate negative cognitions. Furthermore participants completed a self-referent incidental recall task to evaluate memory biases. Formerly compared to never depressed individuals showed greater negative cognitions at both explicit and automatic levels of processing. Results also showed greater recall of negative self-referent information in formerly compared to never-depressed individuals. Finally, individual differences in negative cognitions at both explicit and automatic levels of processing predicted greater recall of negative self-referent material in formerly depressed individuals. Analyses of the relationship between explicit and automatic processing indices and memory biases were correlational and the majority of participants in both groups were women. Our findings provide evidence of negative cognitions in formerly depressed individuals at both automatic and explicit levels of processing that may confer a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for a neural dual-process account for adverse effects of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Nicolas; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Colzato, Lorenza; Beste, Christian

    2018-06-09

    Advantageous effects of cognitive control are well-known, but cognitive control may also have adverse effects, for example when it suppresses the implicit processing of stimulus-response (S-R) bindings that could benefit task performance. Yet, the neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical structures associated with adverse effects of cognitive control are poorly understood. We used an extreme group approach to compare individuals who exhibit adverse effects of cognitive control to individuals who do not by combining event-related potentials (ERPs), source localization, time-frequency analysis and network analysis methods. While neurophysiological correlates of cognitive control (i.e. N2, N450, theta power and theta-mediated neuronal network efficiency) and task-set updating (P3) both reflect control demands and implicit information processing, differences in the degree of adverse cognitive control effects are associated with two independent neural mechanisms: Individuals, who show adverse behavioral effects of cognitive control, show reduced small-world properties and thus reduced efficiency in theta-modulated networks when they fail to effectively process implicit information. In contrast to this, individuals who do not display adverse control effects show enhanced task-set updating mechanism when effectively processing implicit information, which is reflected by the P3 ERP component and associated with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, BA 40) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG; BA 8). These findings suggest that implicit S-R contingencies, which benefit response selection without cognitive control, are always 'picked up', but may fail to be integrated with task representations to guide response selection. This provides evidence for a neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical "dual-process" account of adverse cognitive control effects.

  8. Research on Implementation of the Teaching Process in Higher Vocational Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Songjie Gong

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of the teaching process is the main channel to carry out good education. The aim of the implementation of the teaching process is to place emphasis on cultivating students’ innovation ability and take innovation education as the point to deepen higher vocational teaching reformation. The reform of project curriculum has become the main trend of course reform in higher vocational education. The traditional curriculum teaching process has shown some disadvantages in the teach...

  9. Improvement of Requirement Elicitation Process through Cognitive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Fatima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper requirement elicitation is necessary for client satisfaction along with the overall project success, but requirement engineers face problems in understanding user requirements and the users of the required system fail to make requirement engineering team understand what they actually want. It is then responsibility of requirement engineers to extract proper requirements. This paper discusses how to use cognitive psychology and learning style models (LSM to understand the psychology of clients. Moreover, it also discusses usage of proper elicitation technique according to one’s learning style and gather the right requirements.

  10. Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2016-07-01

    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as "gains" and risk seeking in problems framed as "losses," even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options (safe and risky) and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based decisions. Predictions of an Instance-Based Learning model suggest that objective probabilities as well as the number of samples taken are factors that contribute to the lack of framing effect. We test these two factors in Experiment 2 and find no framing effect when a few samples are taken but when large samples are taken, the framing effect appears regardless of the objective probability values. Implications of behavioral results and cognitive modeling are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Inhibitory processes and cognitive flexibility: evidence for the theory of attentional inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Introzzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to discriminate the differential contribution of different inhibitory processes -perceptual, cognitive and behavioral inhibition- to switching cost effect associated with alternation cognitive tasks. A correlational design was used. Several experimental paradigms (e.g., Stop signal, visual search, Stemberg´s experimental and Simon paradigm were adapted and included in a computerized program called TAC (Introzzi & Canet Juric, 2014 to the assessment of the different cognitive processes. The final sample consisted of 45 adults (18-50 years. Perceptual and behavioral inhibition shows moderate and low correlations with attentional cost, cognitive inhibition shows no relation with flexibility and only perceptual inhibition predicts switching costs effects, suggesting that different inhibitory processes contribute differentially to switch cost. This could be interpreted as evidence to Attentional Inertia Theory main argument which postulates that inhibition plays an essential role in the ability to flexibly switch between tasks and/or representations.

  12. Computer simulations in the high school: students' cognitive stages, science process skills and academic achievement in microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, J.; Michal Lomask, S.; Lazarowitz, R.

    2002-08-01

    Computer-assisted learning, including simulated experiments, has great potential to address the problem solving process which is a complex activity. It requires a highly structured approach in order to understand the use of simulations as an instructional device. This study is based on a computer simulation program, 'The Growth Curve of Microorganisms', which required tenth grade biology students to use problem solving skills whilst simultaneously manipulating three independent variables in one simulated experiment. The aims were to investigate the computer simulation's impact on students' academic achievement and on their mastery of science process skills in relation to their cognitive stages. The results indicate that the concrete and transition operational students in the experimental group achieved significantly higher academic achievement than their counterparts in the control group. The higher the cognitive operational stage, the higher students' achievement was, except in the control group where students in the concrete and transition operational stages did not differ. Girls achieved equally with the boys in the experimental group. Students' academic achievement may indicate the potential impact a computer simulation program can have, enabling students with low reasoning abilities to cope successfully with learning concepts and principles in science which require high cognitive skills.

  13. Cognitive processing of visual images in migraine populations in between headache attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickleborough, Marla J S; Chapman, Christine M; Toma, Andreea S; Handy, Todd C

    2014-09-25

    People with migraine headache have altered interictal visual sensory-level processing in between headache attacks. Here we examined the extent to which these migraine abnormalities may extend into higher visual processing such as implicit evaluative analysis of visual images in between migraine events. Specifically, we asked two groups of participants--migraineurs (N=29) and non-migraine controls (N=29)--to view a set of unfamiliar commercial logos in the context of a target identification task as the brain electrical responses to these objects were recorded via event-related potentials (ERPs). Following this task, participants individually identified those logos that they most liked or disliked. We applied a between-groups comparison of how ERP responses to logos varied as a function of hedonic evaluation. Our results suggest migraineurs have abnormal implicit evaluative processing of visual stimuli. Specifically, migraineurs lacked a bias for disliked logos found in control subjects, as measured via a late positive potential (LPP) ERP component. These results suggest post-sensory consequences of migraine in between headache events, specifically abnormal cognitive evaluative processing with a lack of normal categorical hedonic evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Structure of Social Cognition: In(ter)dependence of Sociocognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, Francesca; Cook, Jennifer L; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-01-03

    Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this review is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably autism spectrum disorder) groups: imitation, biological motion, empathy, and theory of mind. We consider the domain specificity/generality of core processes in social learning, reward, and attention, and we highlight the potential relevance of dual-process theories that distinguish systems for fast/automatic and slow/effortful processing. We conclude with methodological and conceptual suggestions for future progress in uncovering the structure of social cognition.

  15. A Conceptual Model of the Cognitive Processing of Environmental Distance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montello, Daniel R.

    I review theories and research on the cognitive processing of environmental distance information by humans, particularly that acquired via direct experience in the environment. The cognitive processes I consider for acquiring and thinking about environmental distance information include working-memory, nonmediated, hybrid, and simple-retrieval processes. Based on my review of the research literature, and additional considerations about the sources of distance information and the situations in which it is used, I propose an integrative conceptual model to explain the cognitive processing of distance information that takes account of the plurality of possible processes and information sources, and describes conditions under which particular processes and sources are likely to operate. The mechanism of summing vista distances is identified as widely important in situations with good visual access to the environment. Heuristics based on time, effort, or other information are likely to play their most important role when sensory access is restricted.

  16. The governance of higher education regionalisation: comparative analysis of the Bologna Process and MERCOSUR-Educativo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verger, A.; Hermo, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses two processes of higher education regionalisation, MERCOSUR‐Educativo in Latin America and the Bologna Process in Europe, from a comparative perspective. The comparative analysis is centered on the content and the governance of both processes and, specifically, on the reasons of

  17. Cognitive Processing Speed, Working Memory, and the Intelligibility of Hearing Aid-Processed Speech in Persons with Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliffe Kabaywe Yumba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that successful listening with advanced signal processing in digital hearing aids is associated with individual cognitive capacity, particularly working memory capacity (WMC. This study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive abilities (cognitive processing speed and WMC and individual listeners’ responses to digital signal processing settings in adverse listening conditions. A total of 194 native Swedish speakers (83 women and 111 men, aged 33–80 years (mean = 60.75 years, SD = 8.89, with bilateral, symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss who had completed a lexical decision speed test (measuring cognitive processing speed and semantic word-pair span test (SWPST, capturing WMC participated in this study. The Hagerman test (capturing speech recognition in noise was conducted using an experimental hearing aid with three digital signal processing settings: (1 linear amplification without noise reduction (NoP, (2 linear amplification with noise reduction (NR, and (3 non-linear amplification without NR (“fast-acting compression”. The results showed that cognitive processing speed was a better predictor of speech intelligibility in noise, regardless of the types of signal processing algorithms used. That is, there was a stronger association between cognitive processing speed and NR outcomes and fast-acting compression outcomes (in steady state noise. We observed a weaker relationship between working memory and NR, but WMC did not relate to fast-acting compression. WMC was a relatively weaker predictor of speech intelligibility in noise. These findings might have been different if the participants had been provided with training and or allowed to acclimatize to binary masking noise reduction or fast-acting compression.

  18. The neural bases of cognitive processes in gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N

    2014-08-01

    Functional imaging is offering powerful new tools to investigate the neurobiology of cognitive functioning in people with and without psychiatric conditions like gambling disorder. Based on similarities between gambling and substance-use disorders in neurocognitive and other domains, gambling disorder has recently been classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn) (DSM-5) as a behavioral addiction. Despite the advances in understanding, there exist multiple unanswered questions about the pathophysiology underlying gambling disorder and the promise for translating the neurobiological understanding into treatment advances remains largely unrealized. Here we review the neurocognitive underpinnings of gambling disorder with a view to improving prevention, treatment, and policy efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: a neuroimaging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Dream is a state of consciousness characterized by internally-generated sensory, cognitive and emotional experiences occurring during sleep. Dream reports tend to be particularly abundant, with complex, emotional, and perceptually vivid experiences after awakenings from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This is why our current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of dreaming, mainly derives from studies of REM sleep. Neuroimaging results show that REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. We demonstrate that this heterogeneous distribution of brain activity during sleep explains many typical features in dreams. Reciprocally, specific dream characteristics suggest the activation of selective brain regions during sleep. Such an integration of neuroimaging data of human sleep, mental imagery, and the content of dreams is critical for current models of dreaming; it also provides neurobiological support for an implication of sleep and dreaming in some important functions such as emotional regulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CREATIVE MEDITATION CENTERED ON NATURAL ELEMENTS: CONSEQUENCES ON COGNITIVE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores some of the effects of a creative meditation centered on a natural element (fire on different aspects of cognitive functioning, commonly associated with well-being, either positively (self-esteem, or negatively (automatic negative thinking and thought suppression. The results showed that while self-esteem improves after the creative meditation, automatic negative thinking and thought suppression do not decrease significantly. The conclusion is that the creative meditation helps in getting in touch with Self, supporting a healthy self-esteem when taking into consideration the social standards, but this also means accepting both positive and negative aspects of self, including the automatic negative thinking and thought suppression. This recommends the technique as a useful tool for psychotherapeutic and personal development use, as the vulnerabilities may become the focus without unnecessary self-blame, but with an intuitive solution in mind to turn them into personal resources.

  1. Cognition About the Creative Process – Interview With Dr Andrew P. Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between the creative process and cognition and perception? Lynda Loughnane, a master’s student in Art and Process in Crawford College of Art and Design, Cork, Ireland interviewed Dr Andrew P. Allen about the subject. Areas covered include mindfulness, Type 1 and Type 2 thinking, stage theories of creativity, engagement with the art process and the artwork, phenomenology and consciousness with and without self report. The interview was constructed to cover a wide range of subject matter, so as to gather as much information as possible in layman's language about the cognitive process in relation to creativity and interaction with art.

  2. When cognitive biases lead to business process management issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razavian, M.; Turetken, O.; Vanderfeesten, I.T.P.; Dumas, M.; Fantinato, M.

    2017-01-01

    There is a broad consensus that design decision making is important for Business Process Management success. Despite many business process design approaches and practices that are available, the quality of business process analysis and design relies heavily on human factors. Some of these factors

  3. Cognitive Structures in Vocational Information Processing and Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Dorothy D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Tested the assumptions that the structural features of vocational schemas affect vocational information processing and career self-efficacy. Results indicated that effective vocational information processing was facilitated by well-integrated systems that processed information along fewer dimensions. The importance of schematic organization on the…

  4. Multiresolution approach to processing images for different applications interaction of lower processing with higher vision

    CERN Document Server

    Vujović, Igor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents theoretical and practical aspects of the interaction between low and high level image processing. Multiresolution analysis owes its popularity mostly to wavelets and is widely used in a variety of applications. Low level image processing is important for the performance of many high level applications. The book includes examples from different research fields, i.e. video surveillance; biomedical applications (EMG and X-ray); improved communication, namely teleoperation, telemedicine, animation, augmented/virtual reality and robot vision; monitoring of the condition of ship systems and image quality control.

  5. Bereavement, cognitive-emotional processing, and coping with the loss: a study of Indian and Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Braj; Kumar, Surender; Harizuka, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    Campus suicides have increased manifold across academic institutions, often leaving unresolved bereavement issues in these institutions, primarily because students are supposed to carry on with their daily activities with little or no time and attention paid to this necessary process. In this study, the role of cognitive-emotional processes in coping, especially when one is grieving a death, was investigated through a comparison between 40 bereaved Japanese and Indian female college students. The participants were assessed for resilience, cognitive-emotional regulation, posttraumatic cognition, and coping strategies in the aftermath of the suicide death of someone close. Positive reappraisal mediated the relationship between resilience and proactive coping, whereas negative cognitions about the self mediated the relationship between resilience and proactive as well as reflective coping. The participants from the two cultures differed significantly on resilience, with Indians scoring higher than Japanese young adults. The findings are analyzed in light of the coping with distressful life events model and could have possible implications for social workers and/or mental health professionals in terms of acceptability of interventions.

  6. Concept of a cognitive-numeric plant and process modelizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetterkind, D.

    1990-01-01

    To achieve automatic modeling of plant distrubances and failure limitation procedures, first the system's hardware and the present media (water, steam, coolant fluid) are formalized into fully computable matrices, called topographies. Secondly a microscopic cellular automation model, using lattice gases and state transition rules, is combined with a semi - microscopic cellular process model and with a macroscopic model, too. In doing this, at semi-microscopic level there are acting a cellular data compressor, a feature detection device and the Intelligent Physical Element's process dynamics. At macroscopic level the Walking Process Elements, a process evolving module, a test-and-manage device and abstracting process net are involved. Additionally, a diagnosis-coordinating and a counter measurements coordinating device are used. In order to automatically get process insights, object transformations, elementary process functions and associative methods are used. Developments of optoelectronic hardware language components are under consideration

  7. The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBaez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition –the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships– is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger’s syndrome (AS (DSM-V. However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a assess multiple social cognition domains, (b examine executive functions, (c follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012 addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients’ performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia. Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing.

  8. Digital Learning As Enhanced Learning Processing? Cognitive Evidence for New insight of Smart Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Dina; Ranieri, Jessica; Lacasa, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Large use of technology improved quality of life across aging and favoring the development of digital skills. Digital skills can be considered an enhancing to human cognitive activities. New research trend is about the impact of the technology in the elaboration information processing of the children. We wanted to analyze the influence of technology in early age evaluating the impact on cognition. We investigated the performance of a sample composed of n. 191 children in school age distributed in two groups as users: high digital users and low digital users. We measured the verbal and visuoperceptual cognitive performance of children by n. 8 standardized psychological tests and ad hoc self-report questionnaire. Results have evidenced the influence of digital exposition on cognitive development: the cognitive performance is looked enhanced and better developed: high digital users performed better in naming, semantic, visual memory and logical reasoning tasks. Our finding confirms the data present in literature and suggests the strong impact of the technology using not only in the social, educational and quality of life of the people, but also it outlines the functionality and the effect of the digital exposition in early age; increased cognitive abilities of the children tailor digital skilled generation with enhanced cognitive processing toward to smart learning.

  9. Enactivism, Radical Enactivism and Predictive Processing: What is Radical in Cognitive Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gärtner Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Enactivism, cognition should be understood in terms of a dynamic interaction between an acting organism and its environment. Further, this view holds that organisms do not passively receive information from this environment, they rather selectively create this environment by engaging in interaction with the world. Radical Enactivism adds that basic cognition does so without entertaining representations and hence that representations are not an essential constituent of cognition. Some proponents think that getting rid of representations amounts to a revolutionary alternative to standard views about cognition. To emphasize the impact, they claim that this ‘radicalization’ should be applied to all enactivist friendly views, including, another current and potentially revolutionary approach to cognition: predictive processing. In this paper, we will show that this is not the case. After introducing the problem (section 2, we will argue (section 3 that ‘radicalizing’ predictive processing does not add any value to this approach. After this (section 4, we will analyze whether or not radical Enactivism can count as a revolution within cognitive science at all and conclude that it cannot. Finally, in section 5 we will claim that cognitive science is better off when embracing heterogeneity.

  10. Theoretical and methodological foundation of the process of students’ physical training of higher educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipej L. P.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the existent system of physical education is considered in the higher institutes of Ukraine. Information of unsatisfactory level of physical preparedness of university entrants and graduating students of higher institutes is resulted. The lacks of construction of process of physical education are shown on the basis of normatively-command approach. Absence of the programs, which take into account motivation and terms of activity of higher institutes, disparity the requirements of integration in the river-bed of the Bologna Process, is shown. The analysis of publications is resulted in accordance with the modern scientific paradigm of construction of the system of physical education of students on the basis of methodology of synergetics. Information of the questionnaire questioning is utillized in research. Cross-correlation connections are presented between elements of physical education systems, which influence on efficiency of process. The basic requirements of construction of process of physical education of students of institutes of higher are set.

  11. Cognitive process modelling of controllers in en route air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Satoru; Furuta, Kazuo; Nakata, Keiichi; Kanno, Taro; Aoyama, Hisae; Brown, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various efforts have been made in air traffic control (ATC) to maintain traffic safety and efficiency in the face of increasing air traffic demands. ATC is a complex process that depends to a large degree on human capabilities, and so understanding how controllers carry out their tasks is an important issue in the design and development of ATC systems. In particular, the human factor is considered to be a serious problem in ATC safety and has been identified as a causal factor in both major and minor incidents. There is, therefore, a need to analyse the mechanisms by which errors occur due to complex factors and to develop systems that can deal with these errors. From the cognitive process perspective, it is essential that system developers have an understanding of the more complex working processes that involve the cooperative work of multiple controllers. Distributed cognition is a methodological framework for analysing cognitive processes that span multiple actors mediated by technology. In this research, we attempt to analyse and model interactions that take place in en route ATC systems based on distributed cognition. We examine the functional problems in an ATC system from a human factors perspective, and conclude by identifying certain measures by which to address these problems. This research focuses on the analysis of air traffic controllers' tasks for en route ATC and modelling controllers' cognitive processes. This research focuses on an experimental study to gain a better understanding of controllers' cognitive processes in air traffic control. We conducted ethnographic observations and then analysed the data to develop a model of controllers' cognitive process. This analysis revealed that strategic routines are applicable to decision making.

  12. Cognitive processing for step precision increases beta and gamma band modulation during overground walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Arguissain, Federico Gabriel; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive processing for defining step precision during walking could induce changes in electrocortical activity. Ten healthy adults (21-36 years) were asked to walk overground in three different conditions: (1) normal walking in a straight path (N...... activity in cognitive, motor and sensorimotor areas may be relevant to produce patterned and safe locomotion through challenging paths.......The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive processing for defining step precision during walking could induce changes in electrocortical activity. Ten healthy adults (21-36 years) were asked to walk overground in three different conditions: (1) normal walking in a straight path (NW....../sensorimotor regions, a phase in the gait cycle in which participants define the correct foot placement for the next step. These results suggest that greater cognitive demands during precision stepping influences electrocortical dynamics especially towards step transitions. Therefore, increased electrocortical...

  13. Journaling about stressful events: effects of cognitive processing and emotional expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Philip M; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    The effects of two journaling interventions, one focusing on emotional expression and the other on both cognitive processing and emotional expression, were compared during 1 month of journaling about a stressful or traumatic event. One hundred twenty-two students were randomly assigned to one of three writing conditions: (a) focusing on emotions related to a trauma or stressor, (b) focusing on cognitions and emotions related to a trauma or stressor, or (c) writing factually about media events. Writers focusing on cognitions and emotions developed greater awareness of the positive benefits of the stressful event than the other two groups. This effect was apparently mediated by greater cognitive processing during writing. Writers focusing on emotions alone reported more severe illness symptoms during the study than those in other conditions. This effect appeared to be mediated by a greater focus on negative emotional expression during writing.

  14. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M.; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD:…

  15. The Reform Process of Portuguese Higher Education Institutions: From Collegial to Managerial Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Sofia; Carvalho, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Portuguese public higher education institutions have been undergoing a major reform process since 2007. The most noticeable changes were introduced by Law 62/2007, which gave higher education institutions the option to choose between two different institutional models (foundational and public institute), and allowed the implementation of new…

  16. Effects of attribute framing on cognitive processing and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvaas, Bård; Selart, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Whereas there is extensive documentation that attribute framing influences the content of people’s thought, we generally know less about how it affects the processes assumed to precede those thoughts. While existing explanations for attribute framing effects rely completely on valence-based associative processing, the results obtained in the present study are also consistent with the notion that negative framing stimulates more effortful and thorough information processing than positive frami...

  17. The Study of the Relation between Comprehension Process and Cognitive Capacities of Students in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Poorang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the creation of substances for developing and thinking of cognitive levels in mathematics from elementary course and recognizing effective variables of all external factors of mathematics, researchers have considered through designing hypothesis and effort to find the relation of reading literacy level and cognitive levels in mathematics of fourth grade among girls and boys and cognitive capacities of them in Tehran. The evaluation of reading literacy with the definition of comprehension process as index in surface layers spectrum such as focusing and reviewing information that are be stated in text and directive induction has organized. On other hands, mathematics evaluation has implemented for both content and cognitive dimensions. Research process has formed with selecting eight schools and in two tests. Reading literacy tests with the aim of evaluation of comprehension process and math test with the aim of the evaluation of cognitive levels have implemented for two classes of each schools. Research hypotheses have tested based on researching positive correlative between surface layers of comprehension with cognitive levels in mathematics meaningfully that have organized in three levels of knowing, application and reasoning. Instrumentation of the performance of comprehension have included two literary-information texts of PIRLS test 2011 and the collection of two respected notebooks and instrumentation of performance of cognitive levels in mathematics such as on notebook of TIMSS 2011. The procedure of testing hypotheses with Spearman correlative coefficient method have performed that all hypotheses have accepted meaningfully. Therefore, there is significant and directive relation between comprehension processes as reading literacy with cognitive capacities of students in mathematics of fourth grade.

  18. Ontological simulation for educational process organisation in a higher educational institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berestneva, O. G.; Marukhina, O. V.; Bahvalov, S. V.; Fisochenko, O. N.; Berestneva, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    Following the new-generation standards is needed to form a task list connected with planning and organizing of an academic process, structure and content formation of degree programmes. Even when planning the structure and content of an academic process, one meets some problems concerning the necessity to assess the correlation between degree programmes and demands of educational and professional standards and to consider today’s job-market and students demands. The paper presents examples of ontological simulations for solutions of organizing educational process problems in a higher educational institution and gives descriptions of model development. The article presents two examples: ontological simulation when planning an educational process in a higher educational institution and ontological simulation for describing competences of an IT-specialist. The paper sets a conclusion about ontology application perceptiveness for formalization of educational process organization in a higher educational institution.

  19. What can other animals tell us about human social cognition?An evolutionary perspective on reflective and reflexive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Hecht

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Human neuroscience has seen a recent boom in studies on reflective, controlled, explicit social cognitive functions like imitation, perspective‐taking, and empathy. The relationship of these higher‐level functions to lower‐level, reflexive, automatic, implicit functions is an area of current research. As the field continues to address this relationship, we suggest that an evolutionary, comparative approach will be useful, even essential. There is a large body of research on reflexive, automatic, implicit processes in animals. A growing perspective sees social cognitive processes as phylogenically continuous, making findings in other species relevant for understanding our own. One of these phylogenically continuous processes appears to be self‐other matching or simulation. Mice are more sensitive to pain after watching other mice experience pain; geese experience heart rate increases when seeing their mate in conflict; and infant macaques, chimpanzees, and humans automatically mimic adult facial expressions. In this article, we review findings in different species that illustrate how such reflexive processes are related to (higher order reflexive processes, such as cognitive empathy, theory of mind, and learning by imitation. We do so in the context of self‐other matching in three different domains – in the motor domain (somatomotor movements, in the perceptual domain (eye movements and cognition about visual perception, and in the autonomic/emotional domain. We also review research on the developmental origin of these processes and their neural bases across species. We highlight gaps in existing knowledge and point out some questions for future research. We conclude that our understanding of the psychological and neural mechanisms of self‐other mapping and other functions in our own species can be informed by considering the layered complexity these functions in other species.

  20. Information Communication Technology in the Form of an Expert System Shell as a Cognitive Tool to Facilitate Higher-Order Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gary W.; Knoetze, Johan G.

    2014-01-01

    Information communication technology is capable of contributing supplementary teaching and learning strategies that can be used to address various educational challenges faced by higher education. Students who enter South African higher education institutions are often academically under-prepared and have not developed the cognitive skills…

  1. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  2. Insular networks for emotional processing and social cognition: comparison of two case reports with either cortical or subcortical involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Blas; Sedeño, Lucas; Sposato, Luciano A; Sigman, Mariano; Riccio, Patricia M; Salles, Alejo; Lopez, Vladimir; Schroeder, Johannes; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2013-05-01

    The processing of the emotion of disgust is attributed to the insular cortex (IC), which is also responsible for social emotions and higher-cognitive functions. We distinguish the role of the IC from its connections in regard to these functions through the assessment of emotions and social cognition in a double case report. These subjects were very rare cases that included a focal IC lesion and a subcortical focal stroke affecting the connections of the IC with frontotemporal areas. Both patients and a sample of 10 matched controls underwent neuropsychological and affective screening questionnaires, a battery of multimodal basic emotion recognition tests, an emotional inference disambiguation task using social contextual clues, an empathy task and a theory of mind task. The insular lesion (IL) patient showed no impairments in emotion recognition and social emotions and presented with a pattern of delayed reaction times (RTs) in a subset of both groups of tasks. The subcortical lesion (SL) patient was impaired in multimodal aversive emotion recognition, including disgust, and exhibited delayed RTs and a heterogeneous pattern of impairments in subtasks of empathy and in the contextual inference of emotions. Our results suggest that IC related networks, and not the IC itself, are related to negative emotional processing and social emotions. We discuss these results with respect to theoretical approaches of insular involvement in emotional and social processing and propose that IC connectivity with frontotemporal and subcortical regions might be relevant for contextual emotional processing and social cognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  4. Piagetian Cognitive Development and Primary Process Thinking in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulach, James S.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-seven middle-class white children, ages 5-8, were tested on eight Piagetian tasks and the Rorschach test, and divided into preoperational, transitional, and concrete operational groups. Measures of primary process vs. secondary process thinking were found to be related to the Piagetian stages of development. (GDC)

  5. The Role of Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Intelligence in Cognitive Control Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and cognitive control processes has been extensively established. Several studies have shown that IQ correlates with cognitive control abilities, such as interference suppression, as measured with experimental tasks like the Stroop and Flanker tasks. By contrast, there is a debate about the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in individuals' cognitive control abilities. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between IQ and EI, and cognitive control abilities evaluated by a typical laboratory control cognitive task, the Stroop task. Results show a negative correlation between IQ and the interference suppression index, the ability to inhibit processing of irrelevant information. However, the Managing Emotions dimension of EI measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), but not self-reported of EI, negatively correlates with the impulsivity index, the premature execution of the response. These results suggest that not only is IQ crucial, but also competences related to EI are essential to human cognitive control processes. Limitations and implications of these results are also discussed. PMID:26648901

  6. The role of Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Intelligence in cognitive control processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación eCheca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ and cognitive control processes has been extensively established. Several studies have shown that IQ correlates with cognitive control abilities, such as interference suppression, as measured with experimental tasks like the Stroop and Flanker tasks. By contrast, there is a debate about the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI in individuals’ cognitive control abilities. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between IQ and EI, and cognitive control abilities evaluated by a typical laboratory control cognitive task, the Stroop task. Results show a negative correlation between IQ and the interference suppression index, the ability to inhibit processing of irrelevant information. However, the Managing Emotions dimension of EI measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, but not self-reported of EI, negatively correlates with the impulsivity index, the premature execution of the response. These results suggest that not only is IQ crucial, but also competences related to EI are essential to human cognitive control processes. Limitations and implications of these results are also discussed

  7. Deconstructing the sensation of pain: The influence of cognitive processes on pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, Katja

    2016-11-04

    Phenomena such as placebo analgesia or pain relief through distraction highlight the powerful influence cognitive processes and learning mechanisms have on the way we perceive pain. Although contemporary models of pain acknowledge that pain is not a direct readout of nociceptive input, the neuronal processes underlying cognitive modulation are not yet fully understood. Modern concepts of perception-which include computational modeling to quantify the influence of cognitive processes-suggest that perception is critically determined by expectations and their modification through learning. Research on pain has just begun to embrace this view. Insights into these processes promise to open up new avenues to pain prevention and treatment by harnessing the power of the mind. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. The relative contributions of processing speed and cognitive load to working memory accuracy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Victoria M; Lengenfelder, Jean; Moore, Nancy B; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include processing-speed deficits and working memory impairment. The precise manner in which these deficits interact in individuals with MS remains to be explicated. We hypothesized that providing more time on a complex working memory task would result in performance benefits for individuals with MS relative to healthy controls. Fifty-three individuals with clinically definite MS and 36 matched healthy controls performed a computerized task that systematically manipulated cognitive load. The interval between stimuli presentations was manipulated to provide increasing processing time. The results confirmed that individuals with MS who have processing-speed deficits significantly improve in performance accuracy when given additional time to process the information in working memory. Implications of these findings for developing appropriate cognitive rehabilitation interventions are discussed.

  9. Evidence for shared cognitive processing of pitch in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Fedorenko, Evelina G; Vinke, Louis; Gibson, Edward; Dilley, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Language and music epitomize the complex representational and computational capacities of the human mind. Strikingly similar in their structural and expressive features, a longstanding question is whether the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these abilities are shared or distinct--either from each other or from other mental processes. One prominent feature shared between language and music is signal encoding using pitch, conveying pragmatics and semantics in language and melody in music. We investigated how pitch processing is shared between language and music by measuring consistency in individual differences in pitch perception across language, music, and three control conditions intended to assess basic sensory and domain-general cognitive processes. Individuals' pitch perception abilities in language and music were most strongly related, even after accounting for performance in all control conditions. These results provide behavioral evidence, based on patterns of individual differences, that is consistent with the hypothesis that cognitive mechanisms for pitch processing may be shared between language and music.

  10. Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutt, Benjamin T; Oehlert, Mary E; Krieshok, Thomas S; Lichtenberg, James W

    2018-04-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure in conditions reflective of current clinical practice within the Veterans Health Administration. Method This study involved a retrospective review of 2030 charts. A total of 750 veterans from 10 U.S. states who received cognitive processing therapy or prolonged exposure in individual psychotherapy were included in the study (participants in cognitive processing therapy, N = 376; participants in prolonged exposure, N = 374). The main dependent variable was self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as measured by total scores on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The study used multilevel modeling to evaluate the absolute and relative effectiveness of both treatments and determine the relationship between patient-level variables and total Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist scores during treatment. Results Cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure were equally effective at reducing total Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist scores. Veterans who completed therapy reported significantly larger reductions in the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist than patients who did not complete therapy. There were no significant differences in the improvement of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with respect to age and three racial/ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Conclusions Cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure were shown to be effective in conditions highly reflective of clinical practice and with a highly diverse sample of veterans. Challenges related to dropout from trauma focused therapy should continue to be researched.

  11. Writing Regulation Processes in Higher Education: A Review of Two Decades of Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Bubaré, Anna; Castelló, Montserrat

    2018-01-01

    In Higher Education (HE), writers need to regulate their writing processes in order to achieve their communicative goals. Although critical for academic success and knowledge construction, writing regulation processes have been mainly researched in compulsory education rather than in HE, with no systematic review focused on this context. The…

  12. Due Process in the Realm of Higher Education: Considerations for Dealing with Students Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishner, Jason T.

    2006-01-01

    Court decisions have laid out expectations of what due process procedures need to be followed in student disciplinary cases and academic dismissal cases due to poor academic performance. This paper will give show where due process comes from and how it found its way into higher education. It will show that there are differences in the ways public…

  13. Intact social cognitive processes in outpatients with anorexia nervosa: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Katarzyna; Jeschke, Julia; Mafi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess social cognition in community patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy controls. 25 women diagnosed with AN and 25 women matched for education level and age were involved in the study. Both subject groups were assessed using a set of validated experimental tasks, such as the facial expression recognition test, short recognition memory test for faces, 'Reading the mind in the eyes' test. Patients were assessed for symptoms of: eating disorder (the eating attitudes test-EAT-26), OCD (the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale-Y-BOCS) and depression (Beck depression inventory-BDI). The research hypothesis indicated that patients suffering from anorexia represent no significant difference in social cognitive functioning in comparison to the healthy controls. These assessment scales were used to identify whether there are any problems according to social cognitive functioning especially emotion recognition and theory of mind (ToM). The primary outcome assessment was to identify social cognitive deficits in anorexic outpatients and secondary outcome was to verify whether these problems in emotional functioning found in women in acute phase of AN are state or trait effects. Anorexic patients showed significantly higher scores on EAT-26, BDI and Y-BOCS. No significant differences were found in performance of social cognitive tests and facial perception test. No marked alterations were found in social cognitive functioning in community patients with average body mass index (BMI) of 17.6. This may indicate that social cognition is a very complex construct to be reliably measured in anorexia nervosa considering relatively limited psychometric data for many social cognitive tasks. Further longitudinal studies are needed to untangle ongoing controversy whether social cognitive deficits in AN could be state or trait related.

  14. Cognitive Modeling and Task Analysis: Basic Processes and Individual Differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ackerman, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    ... in a complex-skill environment. The subset of task conditions selected were those that involve basic processes of working memory, task monitoring, and differential loads on spatial reasoning and speed of perceiving...

  15. Supporting cognition in systems biology analysis: findings on users' processes and design implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Barbara

    2009-02-13

    Current usability studies of bioinformatics tools suggest that tools for exploratory analysis support some tasks related to finding relationships of interest but not the deep causal insights necessary for formulating plausible and credible hypotheses. To better understand design requirements for gaining these causal insights in systems biology analyses a longitudinal field study of 15 biomedical researchers was conducted. Researchers interacted with the same protein-protein interaction tools to discover possible disease mechanisms for further experimentation. Findings reveal patterns in scientists' exploratory and explanatory analysis and reveal that tools positively supported a number of well-structured query and analysis tasks. But for several of scientists' more complex, higher order ways of knowing and reasoning the tools did not offer adequate support. Results show that for a better fit with scientists' cognition for exploratory analysis systems biology tools need to better match scientists' processes for validating, for making a transition from classification to model-based reasoning, and for engaging in causal mental modelling. As the next great frontier in bioinformatics usability, tool designs for exploratory systems biology analysis need to move beyond the successes already achieved in supporting formulaic query and analysis tasks and now reduce current mismatches with several of scientists' higher order analytical practices. The implications of results for tool designs are discussed.

  16. Cognitive Processes in Close Relationships: Recent Findings and Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that coinciding with recent growth of professional interest in relationship counseling has been emergence of important research on cognitive processes of persons in close relationships. Reviews selected findings from this literature which illuminates attributional, self-evaluation, and self-verification processes of participants in close…

  17. Memory Indexing: A Novel Method for Tracing Memory Processes in Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkewitz, Frank; Jahn, Georg

    2012-01-01

    We validate an eye-tracking method applicable for studying memory processes in complex cognitive tasks. The method is tested with a task on probabilistic inferences from memory. It provides valuable data on the time course of processing, thus clarifying previous results on heuristic probabilistic inference. Participants learned cue values of…

  18. Cognitive Processing in the Aftermath of Relationship Dissolution: Associations with Concurrent and Prospective Distress and Posttraumatic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.

    2017-01-01

    Non-marital romantic relationship dissolution is amongst the most stressful life events experienced by young adults. Yet, some individuals experience posttraumatic growth following relationship dissolution. Little is known about the specific and differential contribution of trait-like and event...... Distress Scale) following a recent relationship dissolution. Initially, 148 participants completed measures of trait-like and dissolution-specific cognitive processing, growth, and distress (T1). A subsample completed a seven-month follow-up (T2). Higher frequency of relationship-dissolution intrusive...... thoughts predicted concurrent distress after accounting for brooding and relationship characteristics. Further, higher brooding and lower reflection predicted higher distress prospectively. Concurrent growth was predicted by both higher brooding and more deliberate relationship-dissolution thoughts...

  19. Temperature dependent investigation on optically active process of higher-order bands in irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yi; Nanjing Univ., JS; Wu Fengmei; Nanjing Univ., JS; Zheng Youdou; Nanjing Univ., JS; Suezawa, M.; Imai, M.; Sumino, K.

    1996-01-01

    Optically active processes of the higher-order bands (HOB) are investigated at different temperatures in fast neutron irradiated silicon using Fourier transform infrared absorption measurement. It is shown that the optically active process is nearly temperature independent below 80 K, the slow decay process remains up to a heating temperature of 180 K. The observations are analyzed in terms of the relaxation behavior of photoexcited carriers governed by fast neutron radiation induced defect clusters. (orig.)

  20. Processing complex pseudo-words in mild cognitive impairment: The interaction of preserved morphological rule knowledge with compromised cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouilidou, Christina; Dolenc, Barbara; Marvin, Tatjana; Pirtošek, Zvezdan

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects the cognitive performance of elderly adults. However, the level of severity is not high enough to be diagnosed with dementia. Previous research reports subtle language impairments in individuals with MCI specifically in domains related to lexical meaning. The present study used both off-line (grammaticality judgment) and on-line (lexical decision) tasks to examine aspects of lexical processing and how they are affected by MCI. 21 healthy older adults and 23 individuals with MCI saw complex pseudo-words that violated various principles of word formation in Slovenian and decided if each letter string was an actual word of their language. The pseudo-words ranged in their degree of violability. A task effect was found, with MCI performance to be similar to that of healthy controls in the off-line task but different in the on-line task. Overall, the MCI group responded slower than the elderly controls. No significant differences were observed in the off-line task, while the on-line task revealed a main effect of Violation type, a main effect of Group and a significant Violation × Group interaction reflecting a difficulty for the MCI group to process pseudo-words in real time. That is, while individuals with MCI seem to preserve morphological rule knowledge, they experience additional difficulties while processing complex pseudo-words. This was attributed to an executive dysfunction associated with MCI that delays the recognition of ungrammatical formations.

  1. Sensitive maintenance: a cognitive process underlying individual differences in memory for threatening information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jan H; Hock, Michael; Krohne, Heinz Walter

    2012-01-01

    Dispositional styles of coping with threat influence memory for threatening information. In particular, sensitizers excel over repressors in their memory for threatening information after long retention intervals, but not after short ones. We therefore suggested that sensitizers, but not repressors, employ active maintenance processes during the retention interval to selectively retain threatening material. Sensitive maintenance was studied in 2 experiments in which participants were briefly exposed to threatening and nonthreatening pictures (Experiment 1, N = 128) or words (Experiment 2, N = 145). Following, we administered unannounced recognition tests before and after an intervening task that generated either high or low cognitive load, assuming that high cognitive load would impede sensitizers' memory maintenance of threatening material. Supporting our hypotheses, the same pattern of results was obtained in both experiments: Under low cognitive load, sensitizers forgot less threat material than repressors did; no such differences were observed under high cognitive load.

  2. Confusing procedures with process when appraising the impact of cognitive bias modification on emotional vulnerability†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, Ben; MacLeod, Colin; Rudaizky, Daniel; Holmes, Emily A; Salemink, Elske; Fox, Elaine; Notebaert, Lies

    2017-11-01

    If meta-analysis is to provide valuable answers, then it is critical to ensure clarity about the questions being asked. Here, we distinguish two important questions concerning cognitive bias modification research that are not differentiated in the meta-analysis recently published by Cristea et al (2015) in this journal: (1) do the varying procedures that investigators have employed with the intention of modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability?; and (2) does the process of successfully modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability? We reanalyse the data from Cristea et al to address this latter question. Our new analyses demonstrate that successfully modifying cognitive bias does significantly alter emotional vulnerability. We revisit Cristea et al 's conclusions in light of these findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  3. Using the Virtual Reality-Cognitive Rehabilitation Approach to Improve Contextual Processing in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods. Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results. All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs.

  4. Using the Virtual Reality-Cognitive Rehabilitation Approach to Improve Contextual Processing in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Background. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods. Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results. All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs. PMID:24324379

  5. The Development from Effortful to Automatic Processing in Mathematical Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Daniel B.; And Others

    This investigation capitalizes upon the information processing models that depend upon measurement of latency of response to a mathematical problem and the decomposition of reaction time (RT). Simple two term addition problems were presented with possible solutions for true-false verification, and accuracy and RT to response were recorded. Total…

  6. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  7. Measuring and modeling for the assessment of the genetic background behind cognitive processes in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Francisco Javier; Jordana, Jordi; León, José Manuel; Arando, Ander; Pizarro, Gabriela; McLean, Amy Katherine; Delgado, Juan Vicente

    2017-08-01

    New productive niches can offer new commercial perspectives linked to donkeys' products and human therapeutic or leisure applications. However, no assessment for selection criteria has been carried out yet. First, we assessed the animal inherent features and environmental factors that may potentially influence several cognitive processes in donkeys. Then, we aimed at describing a practical methodology to quantify such cognitive processes, seeking their inclusion in breeding and conservation programmes, through a multifactorial linear model. Sixteen cognitive process-related traits were scored on a problem-solving test in a sample of 300 Andalusian donkeys for three consecutive years from 2013 to 2015. The linear model assessed the influence and interactions of four environmental factors, sex as an animal-inherent factor, age as a covariable, and the interactions between these factors. Analyses of variance were performed with GLM procedure of SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0 software to assess the relative importance of each factor. All traits were significantly (P<0.05) affected by all factors in the model except for sex that was not significant for some of the cognitive processes, and stimulus which was not significant (P<0.05) for all of them except for the coping style related ones. The interaction between all factors within the model was non-significant (P<0.05) for almost all cognitive processes. The development of complex multifactorial models to study cognitive processes may counteract the inherent variability in behavior genetics and the estimation and prediction of related breeding parameters, key for the implementation of successful conservation programmes in apparently functionally misplaced endangered breeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Skills and Competencies Set Forth by Bologna Process in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdevs GÜNEŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological advances of today, force the universities to train more qualified individuals. That needs to increase the quality of educational programs and practices, and requires constant updating in universities. So within the framework of the “Bologna Process” higher education programs have been started to be updated in our country. These studies, carried out to develop the skills and competencies of students' knowledge with student-centered educational approach. Besides a variety of knowledge and skills, ability to work independently and assume responsibility, learning, communication and social competence skills, such as domain specific competencies and professional competence is intended to gain to the students. This approach needs to teaching cognitive (logical, intuitive and creative thinking and practical (manual skills, methods, materials, tools to use skills, that is to say language, mental, social and emotional skills in higher education. Teaching of skills is different from teaching of the information in methods and practice. Therefore the universities should be developed for the assessment of teaching and coaching skills. Otherwise, the rote teaching of information will inevitably grow and achieving the goals of higher education will be difficult.

  9. Visualization and processing of higher order descriptors for multi-valued data

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques and computational simulations yield complex multi-valued data that require higher-order mathematical descriptors. This book addresses topics of importance when dealing with such data, including frameworks for image processing, visualization, and statistical analysis of higher-order descriptors. It also provides examples of the successful use of higher-order descriptors in specific applications and a glimpse of the next generation of diffusion MRI. To do so, it combines contributions on new developments, current challenges in this area, and state-of-the-art surveys.   Compared to the increasing importance of higher-order descriptors in a range of applications, tools for analysis and processing are still relatively hard to come by. Even though application areas such as medical imaging, fluid dynamics, and structural mechanics are very different in nature they face many shared challenges. This book provides an interdisciplinary perspective on this topic with contributions from key rese...

  10. Neural information processing in cognition: we start to understand the orchestra, but where is the conductor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther ePalm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in neural information processing has been successful in the past, providing useful approaches both to practical problems in computer science and to computational models in neuroscience. Recent developments in the area of cognitive neuroscience present new challenges for a computational or theoretical understanding asking for neural information processing models that fulfill criteria or constraints from cognitive psychology, neuroscience and computational efficiency. The most important of these criteria for the evaluation of present and future contributions to this new emerging field are listed at the end of this article.

  11. Neural Information Processing in Cognition: We Start to Understand the Orchestra, but Where is the Conductor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Research in neural information processing has been successful in the past, providing useful approaches both to practical problems in computer science and to computational models in neuroscience. Recent developments in the area of cognitive neuroscience present new challenges for a computational or theoretical understanding asking for neural information processing models that fulfill criteria or constraints from cognitive psychology, neuroscience and computational efficiency. The most important of these criteria for the evaluation of present and future contributions to this new emerging field are listed at the end of this article. PMID:26858632

  12. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment: a multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuser, M.; Willekens, F.J.C.; Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic

  13. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment : A multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuser, Mieke; Willekens, Frans J.; Bonneux, Luc

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992-2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic

  14. Changes in motivational and higher level cognitive processes when interacting with in-vehicle automation

    OpenAIRE

    Beggiato, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Many functions that at one time could only be performed by humans can nowadays be carried out by machines. Automation impacts many areas of life including work, home, communication and mobility. In the driving context, in-vehicle automation is considered to provide solutions for environmental, economic, safety and societal challenges. However, automation changes the driving task and the human-machine interaction. Thus, the expected benefit of in-vehicle automation can be undermined by changes...

  15. Changes in motivational and higher level cognitive processes when interacting with in-vehicle automation

    OpenAIRE

    Beggiato, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Many functions that at one time could only be performed by humans can nowadays be carried out by machines. Automation impacts many areas of life including work, home, communication and mobility. In the driving context, in-vehicle automation is considered to provide solutions for environmental, economic, safety and societal challenges. However, automation changes the driving task and the human-machine interaction. Thus, the expected benefit of in-vehicle automation can be undermined by changes...

  16. Cognitive load privileges memory-based over data-driven processing, not group-level over person-level processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorich, Daniel P; Mavor, Kenneth I

    2013-09-01

    In the current paper, we argue that categorization and individuation, as traditionally discussed and as experimentally operationalized, are defined in terms of two confounded underlying dimensions: a person/group dimension and a memory-based/data-driven dimension. In a series of three experiments, we unconfound these dimensions and impose a cognitive load. Across the three experiments, two with laboratory-created targets and one with participants' friends as the target, we demonstrate that cognitive load privileges memory-based over data-driven processing, not group- over person-level processing. We discuss the results in terms of their implications for conceptualizations of the categorization/individuation distinction, for the equivalence of person and group processes, for the ultimate 'purpose' and meaningfulness of group-based perception and, fundamentally, for the process of categorization, broadly defined. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Variability in proactive and reactive cognitive control processes across the adult lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frini eKarayanidis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Task-switching paradigms produce a highly consistent age-related increase in mixing cost (longer RT on repeat trials in mixed-task than single task blocks but a less consistent age effect on switch cost (longer RT on switch than repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. We use two approaches to examine the adult lifespan trajectory of control processes contributing to mixing cost and switch cost: latent variables derived from an evidence accumulation model of choice, and event-related potentials (ERP that temporally differentiate proactive (cue-driven and reactive (target-driven control processes. Under highly practiced and prepared task conditions, ageing was associated with increasing RT mixing cost but reducing RT switch cost. Both effects were largely due to the same cause: an age effect for mixed-repeat trials. In terms of latent variables, increasing age was associated with slower non-decision processes, slower rate of evidence accumulation about the target, and higher response criterion. Age effects on mixing costs were evident only on response criterion, the amount of evidence required to trigger a decision, whereas age effects on switch cost were present for all three latent variables. ERPs showed age-related increases in preparation for mixed-repeat trials, anticipatory attention, and post-target interference. Cue-locked ERPs that are linked to proactive control were associated with early emergence of age differences in response criterion. These results are consistent with age effects on strategic processes controlling decision caution. Consistent with an age-related decline in cognitive flexibility, younger adults flexibly adjusted response criterion from trial-to-trial on mixed-task blocks, whereas older adults maintained a high criterion for all trials.

  18. Social cognition in schizophrenia: from social stimuli processing to social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eBilleke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition consists of several skills which allow us to interact with other humans. These skills include social stimuli processing, drawing inferences about others' mental states, and engaging in social interactions. In recent years, there has been growing evidence of social cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Apparently, these impairments are separable from general neurocognitive impairments, such as attention, memory and executive functioning. Moreover, social cognition seems to be a main determinant of functional outcome and could be used as a guide to elaborate new pharmacological and psychological treatments. However, most of these studies focus on individual mechanisms and observational perspectives; only few of them study schizophrenic patients during interactive situations. We first review evidences of social cognitive impairments both in social stimuli processing and in mental state attribution. We focus on the relationship between these functions and both general cognitive impairments and functional outcome. We next review recent game theory approaches to the study of how social engagement occurs in schizophrenic patients. The advantage of using game theory is that game-oriented tasks can assess social decision-making in an interactive everyday situation model. Finally, we review proposed theoretical models used to explain social alterations and their underlying biological mechanisms. Based on interactive studies, we propose a framework which takes into account the dynamic nature of social processes. Thus, understanding social skills as a result of dynamical systems could facilitate the development of both basic research and clinical applications oriented to psychiatric populations.

  19. Using EEG/MEG Data of Cognitive Processes in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, David

    2008-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) aim at providing a non-muscular channel for sending commands to the external world using electroencephalographic (EEG) and, more recently, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements of the brain function. Most of the current implementations of BCIs rely on EEG/MEG data of motor activities as such neural processes are well characterized, while the use of data related to cognitive activities has been neglected due to its intrinsic complexity. However, cognitive data usually has larger amplitude, lasts longer and, in some cases, cognitive brain signals are easier to control at will than motor signals. This paper briefy reviews the use of EEG/MEG data of cognitive processes in the implementation of BCIs. Specifically, this paper reviews some of the neuromechanisms, signal features, and processing methods involved. This paper also refers to some of the author's work in the area of detection and classifcation of cognitive signals for BCIs using variability enhancement, parametric modeling, and spatial fltering, as well as recent developments in BCI performance evaluation

  20. Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Catherine L; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Brito, Stephane A De; McCrory, Eamon J P; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11-16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24-40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing.

  1. Envisioning future cognitive telerehabilitation technologies: a co-design process with clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Tuck-Voon; Hwang, Amy S; Green, Robin E A; Mihailidis, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Purpose Cognitive telerehabilitation is the concept of delivering cognitive assessment, feedback, or therapeutic intervention at a distance through technology. With the increase of mobile devices, wearable sensors, and novel human-computer interfaces, new possibilities are emerging to expand the cognitive telerehabilitation paradigm. This research aims to: (1) explore design opportunities and considerations when applying emergent pervasive computing technologies to cognitive telerehabilitation and (2) develop a generative co-design process for use with rehabilitation clinicians. Methods We conducted a custom co-design process that used design cards, probes, and design sessions with traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinicians. All field notes and transcripts were analyzed qualitatively. Results Potential opportunities for TBI cognitive telerehabilitation exist in the areas of communication competency, executive functioning, emotional regulation, energy management, assessment, and skill training. Designers of TBI cognitive telerehabilitation technologies should consider how technologies are adapted to a patient's physical/cognitive/emotional state, their changing rehabilitation trajectory, and their surrounding life context (e.g. social considerations). Clinicians were receptive to our co-design approach. Conclusion Pervasive computing offers new opportunities for life-situated cognitive telerehabilitation. Convivial design methods, such as this co-design process, are a helpful way to explore new design opportunities and an important space for further methodological development. Implications for Rehabilitation Designers of rehabilitation technologies should consider how to extend current design methods in order to facilitate the creative contribution of rehabilitation stakeholders. This co-design approach enables a fuller participation from rehabilitation clinicians at the front-end of design. Pervasive computing has the potential to: extend the duration and intensity of

  2. Integrating Process Mining and Cognitive Analysis to Study EHR Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Stephanie K; Burton, Matthew M; Grando, Adela; Larson, David W; Kaufman, David R

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous methods to study workflow. However, few produce the kinds of in-depth analyses needed to understand EHR-mediated workflow. Here we investigated variations in clinicians' EHR workflow by integrating quantitative analysis of patterns of users' EHR-interactions with in-depth qualitative analysis of user performance. We characterized 6 clinicians' patterns of information-gathering using a sequential process-mining approach. The analysis revealed 519 different screen transition patterns performed across 1569 patient cases. No one pattern was followed for more than 10% of patient cases, the 15 most frequent patterns accounted for over half ofpatient cases (53%), and 27% of cases exhibited unique patterns. By triangulating quantitative and qualitative analyses, we found that participants' EHR-interactive behavior was associated with their routine processes, patient case complexity, and EHR default settings. The proposed approach has significant potential to inform resource allocation for observation and training. In-depth observations helped us to explain variation across users.

  3. Clinical cognition and diagnostic error: applications of a dual process model of reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croskerry, Pat

    2009-09-01

    Both systemic and individual factors contribute to missed or delayed diagnoses. Among the multiple factors that impact clinical performance of the individual, the caliber of cognition is perhaps the most relevant and deserves our attention and understanding. In the last few decades, cognitive psychologists have gained substantial insights into the processes that underlie cognition, and a new, universal model of reasoning and decision making has emerged, Dual Process Theory. The theory has immediate application to medical decision making and provides an overall schema for understanding the variety of theoretical approaches that have been taken in the past. The model has important practical applications for decision making across the multiple domains of healthcare, and may be used as a template for teaching decision theory, as well as a platform for future research. Importantly, specific operating characteristics of the model explain how diagnostic failure occurs.

  4. Understanding cognitive processes behind acceptance or refusal of phase I trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Mazzocco, Ketti; Gorini, Alessandra; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Participation in phase I trials gives patients the chance to obtain control over their disease by trying an experimental therapy. The patients' vulnerability, the informed consent process aiming at understanding the purpose and potential benefits of the phase I trial, and the complexity of the studies may impact the patient's final decision. Emotionally difficult health conditions may induce patients to succumb to cognitive biases, allocating attention only on a part of the provided information. Filling the gap in patients' information process can foster the implementation of strategies to help physicians tailor clinical trials' communication providing personalized support and tailored medical information around patients' need, so avoiding cognitive biases in patients and improving informed shared decision quality. The aim of the present review article focuses on the analysis of cognitive and psychological factors that affect patients' decision to participate or not to early phase clinical trials. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Developmental Relations Among Motor and Cognitive Processes and Mathematics Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Duran, Chelsea A K; Cameron, Claire E; Grissmer, David

    2018-03-01

    This study explored transactional associations among visuomotor integration, attention, fine motor coordination, and mathematics skills in a diverse sample of one hundred thirty-five 5-year-olds (kindergarteners) and one hundred nineteen 6-year-olds (first graders) in the United States who were followed over the course of 2 school years. Associations were dynamic, with more reciprocal transactions occurring in kindergarten than in the later grades. Specifically, visuomotor integration and mathematics exhibited ongoing reciprocity in kindergarten and first grade, attention contributed to mathematics in kindergarten and first grade, mathematics contributed to attention across the kindergarten year only, and fine motor coordination contributed to mathematics indirectly, through visuomotor integration, across kindergarten and first grade. Implications of examining the hierarchical interrelations among processes underlying the development of children's mathematics skills are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Delusional Ideation, Cognitive Processes and Crime Based Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dean J; Caulfield, Laura S

    2017-08-01

    Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p < .05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.

  7. Functional MR mapping of higher cognitive brain functions; Neurofunktionelle MR-Bildgebung hoeherer kognitiver Leistungen des menschlichen Gehirns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellemann, M E [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Forschungsschwerpunkt Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie; Spitzer, M [Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany). Sektion Experimentelle Psychopathologie; Brix, G [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Forschungsschwerpunkt Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie; Kammer, T [Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany). Sektion Experimentelle Psychopathologie; Loose, R [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Schwartz, A [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Neurologische Klinik; Gueckel, F [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    1995-04-01

    Fifteen normal subjects were examined on a conventional 1.5-T MR system to visualize cortical activation during the performance of high-level cognitive tasks. A computer-controlled videoprojector was employed to present psychometrically optimized activation paradigms. Reaction times and error rates of the volunteers were acquired online during stimulus presentation. The time course of cortical activation was measured in a series of strongly T{sub 2}*-weighted gradient-echo images from three or four adjacent slices. For anatomical correlation, picture elements showing a stimulus-related significant signal increase were color-coded and superimposed on T{sub 1}-weighted spin-echo images. Analysis of the fMRI data revealed a subtle (range 2-5%), but statistically significant increase in signal intensity during the periods of induced cortical activation. Judgment of semantic relatedness of word pairs, for example, activated selectively cortical areas in left frontal and left temporal brain regions. The strength of cortex activation in the semantic task decreased significantly in the course of stimulus presentation and was paralleled by a decrease in the corresponding reaction times. With its move into the area of cognitive neuroscience, fMRI calls both for the careful design of activation schemes and for the acquisition of behavioral data. For example, brain regions involved in language processing could only be identified clearly when psychometrically matched activation paradigms were employed. The reaction time data correlated well with selective learning and thus helped to facilitate interpretation of the fMRI data sets. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Abbildung kortikaler Strukturen, die durch die Bearbeitung hoeherer kognitiver Aufgaben aktiviert werden, wurden 15 gesunde Probanden an einem konventionellen 1,5-Tesla-MR-System untersucht. Psychometrisch optimierte Aktivierungsparadigmen wurden rechnergesteuert praesentiert und gleichzeitig Reaktionszeiten und Fehlerraten der

  8. Modern tendencies and problems of the theory of spiritual-moral processes management in higher school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sidanich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article were analyzed the modern tendencies and problems of the theory of spiritual-moral processes management in the higher school. There were defined the node tasks of reformation of higher education: ensuring its quality, construction of effective educational system of the higher school institutions with effective economy and management. There was characterized the problem of ensuring axiological direction of spiritual-humanitarian component of educational process in the system of higher education. There were defined priorities of national interests in spiritual-moral education of junior generation in the state educational activity: national self-consciousness, spiritual-cultural unity of nation, patriotism, humanism, tolerance, responsibility.There was analyzed the system of higher education in the aspect of interaction of spiritual and secular components in coordinates of moral sanitation and spiritual enlightenment of nation, elaboration of democratic principles of society and construction of the modern theory of spiritual-moral processes management in higher school.There were defined the new directions of the theory of spiritual-moral processes management in higher school in the aspect of development of innovations and commercialization, attraction of employers to collaboration with scientists in separate work groups for creation of the new educational programs and modernization of existing ones, mentor support and training of students for job placement and development of enterprising skills and also for support of the programs of probation or practical participation of students in the “real social projects”.There were characterized prospects of research in the aspect of elaboration of the main functions that must establish the main claims to production tasks in professional activity of holder of the master’s degree on speciality “Christian pedagogics in the high education”

  9. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation over Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Processing of Social Cognitive and Affective Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Conson

    Full Text Available Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task, and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.

  10. Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Cognitive Processing Therapy for Adults With Depression, Substance Use Disorder, and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Moira; Norman, Sonya B; Cummins, Kevin; Trim, Ryan S; Xu, Xiaomin; Cui, Ruifeng; Allard, Carolyn B; Brown, Sandra A; Tate, Susan R

    2016-03-01

    The comorbidity of substance use disorder (SUD), depression, and PTSD is common among veterans. Prior research has shown that among veterans with SUD and depression, those with PTSD did not maintain cognitive-behavioral treatment gains as well as those without PTSD. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate whether adding trauma-focused treatment following an initial group-based integrated cognitive behavioral treatment (ICBT) for SUD and depression improved treatment outcomes. Participants were 123 veterans (89% male) recruited from the VA San Diego Healthcare System. All participants received ICBT in twice weekly, group-delivered sessions for 12 weeks (Phase 1). Participants were then randomized to receive 12 sessions of individual follow-up sessions (Phase 2) utilizing either ICBT or cognitive processing therapy that was modified to integrate SUD treatment (CPT-M). Results indicated that PTSD and depression symptoms slightly improved at the end of Phase 1 group ICBT and further improved through Phase 2 individual treatment (except for participants without PTSD who received CPT-M), with treatment gains maintained one year later. Substance use significantly improved at the end of Phase 1 group ICBT and these improvements were maintained through Phase 2 and the one year follow-up. Participants in the trauma-focused Phase 2 treatment (CPT-M) exhibited similar levels of symptom reduction and maintenance of treatment gains as those in the non-trauma-focused Phase 2 treatment (ICBT). However, there was a slight advantage for Phase 2 CPT-M over Phase 2 ICBT with respect to heavy drinking outcomes for individuals with PTSD. Overall, the combination of group ICBT followed by either CPT-M or ICBT individual therapy appears to be effective for veterans with depression, SUD, and trauma history. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Cognitive Impairments in Occupational Burnout – Error Processing and Its Indices of Reactive and Proactive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Golonka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presented study refers to cognitive aspects of burnout as the effects of long-term work-related stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate electrophysiological correlates of burnout to explain the mechanisms of the core burnout symptoms: exhaustion and depersonalization/cynicism. The analyzed error-related electrophysiological markers shed light on impaired cognitive mechanisms and the specific changes in information-processing in burnout. In the EEG study design (N = 80, two components of error-related potential (ERP, error-related negativity (ERN, and error positivity (Pe, were analyzed. In the non-clinical burnout group (N = 40, a significant increase in ERN amplitude and a decrease in Pe amplitude were observed compared to controls (N = 40. Enhanced error detection, indexed by increased ERN amplitude, and diminished response monitoring, indexed by decreased Pe amplitude, reveal emerging cognitive problems in the non-clinical burnout group. Cognitive impairments in burnout subjects relate to both reactive and unconscious (ERN and proactive and conscious (Pe aspects of error processing. The results indicate a stronger ‘reactive control mode’ that can deplete resources for proactive control and the ability to actively maintain goals. The analysis refers to error processing and specific task demands, thus should not be extended to cognitive processes in general. The characteristics of ERP patterns in burnout resemble psychophysiological indexes of anxiety (increased ERN and depressive symptoms (decreased Pe, showing to some extent an overlapping effect of burnout and related symptoms and disorders. The results support the scarce existing data on the psychobiological nature of burnout, while extending and specifying its cognitive characteristics.

  12. Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B; Samuel, Priscilla

    2005-08-07

    The relationship between breakfast composition and cognitive performance was examined in elementary school children. Two experiments compared the effects of two common U.S. breakfast foods and no breakfast on children's cognition. Using a within-participant design, once a week for 3 weeks, children consumed one of two breakfasts or no breakfast and then completed a battery of cognitive tests. The two breakfasts were instant oatmeal and ready-to-eat cereal, which were similar in energy, but differed in macronutrient composition, processing characteristics, effects on digestion and metabolism, and glycemic score. Results with 9 to 11 year-olds replicated previous findings showing that breakfast intake enhances cognitive performance, particularly on tasks requiring processing of a complex visual display. The results extend previous findings by showing differential effects of breakfast type. Boys and girls showed enhanced spatial memory and girls showed improved short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Results with 6 to 8 year-olds also showed effects of breakfast type. Younger children had better spatial memory and better auditory attention and girls exhibited better short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Due to compositional differences in protein and fiber content, glycemic scores, and rate of digestion, oatmeal may provide a slower and more sustained energy source and consequently result in cognitive enhancement compared to low-fiber high glycemic ready-to-eat cereal. These results have important practical implications, suggesting the importance of what children consume for breakfast before school.

  13. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucin, Pero; Prijic Samarzija, Snjezana

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the Croatian higher education system has been under intensive transformation, one mostly driven by an increased demand for postsecondary education and by the process of Croatia's accession to the European Union. Although there had already been a constant need and pressure for the transformation of tertiary education…

  14. Group Decision Making in Higher Education Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Matthew J.; Nydick, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to group decision-making and evaluation situations in higher education. The approach is illustrated by (1) evaluation of academic research papers at Villanova University (Pennsylvania), and (2) a suggested adaptation for the more complex problem of institutionwide strategic planning.…

  15. Brief Report: Joint Attention and Information Processing in Children with Higher Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Kim, Kwnanguk; McIntyre, Nancy; Lerro, Lindsay; Jarrold, William

    2016-01-01

    Theory suggests that information processing during joint attention may be atypical in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This hypothesis was tested in a study of school-aged children with higher functioning ASD and groups of children with symptoms of ADHD or typical development. The results indicated that the control groups displayed…

  16. Brief Report: Joint Attention and Information Processing in Children with Higher Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Kim, Kwanguk; McIntyre, Nancy; Lerro, Lindsay; Jarrold, William

    2016-01-01

    Theory suggests that information processing during joint attention may be atypical in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This hypothesis was tested in a study of school-aged children with higher functioning ASD and groups of children with symptoms of ADHD or typical development. The results indicated that the control groups displayed…

  17. Due Process and Higher Education: A Systemic Approach to Fair Decision Making. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ed

    University officials and faculty are frequently required to make decisions based on interpretations of disputed facts. By applying the concept of due process within the context of higher education, they can meet legal challenges of contract and constitutional law and the pedagogical demand for justice. To guide their efforts, decision makers can…

  18. Longwy: Higher Education and Health Mobilised in the Process of Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Magali; le Goff, Erwan

    2013-01-01

    For almost a century, Longwy has been one of the most important industrial areas of France, contributing the majority of the national production of cast iron and steel. The objective of this paper is to analyse how higher education, then health and well-being were mobilised in the process of regeneration of Longwy, which had been very harshly…

  19. Higher-level processes in the formation and application of associations during action understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heil, L.; Pelt, S. van; Kwisthout, J.H.P.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Bekkering, H.

    2014-01-01

    The associative account described in the target article provides a viable explanation for the origin of mirror neurons. We argue here that if mirror neurons develop purely by associative learning, then they cannot by themselves explain intentional action understanding. Higher-level processes seem to

  20. Convergence and Differentiation Processes in Swiss Higher Education: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepori, Benedetto; Huisman, Jeroen; Seeber, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the scholarly debate on differentiation processes in higher education, particularly in binary systems. The article builds on recent developments in institutional theory and organizational ecology regarding the nature of "organizational forms," as well as on the mechanisms through which these…

  1. Applying an Appreciative Inquiry Process to a Course Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Susie; Giles, David; Hagan, Bill

    2013-01-01

    While appreciative inquiry (AI) has its origins in organizational development, this article considers the application of AI within a course evaluation in higher education. An AI process was deemed appropriate given its concern for peak performance or life-centric experiences. Former students of a particular course, along with current students,…

  2. The Relationship between Central Auditory Processing, Language, and Cognition in Children Being Evaluated for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Lauren; Cash, Elizabeth; Chermak, Gail D; Guenette, Linda; Masters, Gay; Musiek, Frank E; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzegerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is frequently comorbid with other childhood disorders. However, few studies have examined the relationship between commonly used CAPD, language, and cognition tests within the same sample. The present study examined the relationship between diagnostic CAPD tests and "gold standard" measures of language and cognitive ability, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). A retrospective study. Twenty-seven patients referred for CAPD testing who scored average or better on the CELF and low average or better on the WISC were initially included. Seven children who scored below the CELF and/or WISC inclusion criteria were then added to the dataset for a second analysis, yielding a sample size of 34. Participants were administered a CAPD battery that included at least the following three CAPD tests: Frequency Patterns (FP), Dichotic Digits (DD), and Competing Sentences (CS). In addition, they were administered the CELF and WISC. Relationships between scores on CAPD, language (CELF), and cognition (WISC) tests were examined using correlation analysis. DD and FP showed significant correlations with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, and the DD left ear and the DD interaural difference measures both showed significant correlations with working memory. However, ∼80% or more of the variance in these CAPD tests was unexplained by language and cognition measures. Language and cognition measures were more strongly correlated with each other than were the CAPD tests with any CELF or WISC scale. Additional correlations with the CAPD tests were revealed when patients who scored in the mild-moderate deficit range on the CELF and/or in the borderline low intellectual functioning range on the WISC were included in the analysis. While both the DD and FP tests showed significant correlations with one or more cognition measures, the majority of the variance in these

  3. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  4. A Test of Two Alternative Cognitive Processing Models: Learning Styles and Dual Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Joshua; Dawson, Bryan L.

    2018-01-01

    This study tested two cognitive models, learning styles and dual coding, which make contradictory predictions about how learners process and retain visual and auditory information. Learning styles-based instructional practices are common in educational environments despite a questionable research base, while the use of dual coding is less…

  5. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  6. Imitation, Inspiration, and Creation: Cognitive Process of Creative Drawing by Copying Others' Artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the cognitive processes underlying creative inspiration, we tested the extent to which viewing or copying prior examples impacted creative output in art. In Experiment 1, undergraduates made drawings under three conditions: (a) copying an artist's drawing, then producing an original drawing; (b) producing an original drawing without…

  7. Processing Speed and Executive Functions in Cognitive Aging: How to Disentangle Their Mutual Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, Cedric T.; Boucard, Geoffroy; Bouquet, Cedric; Audiffren, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The processing-speedtheory and the prefrontal-executivetheory are competing theories of cognitive aging. Here we used a theoretically and methodologically-driven framework to investigate the relationships among measures classically used to assess these two theoretical constructs. Twenty-eight young adults (18-32 years) and 39 healthy older adults…

  8. Test Every Senior Project: Evidence of Cognitive Processes Related to Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardine, Frank E.

    Reported is a study designed to evaluate differences in cognitive processes related to science among (1) college bound high school students who had studied both physics and chemistry, (2) college bound students who had not studied either subject, and (3) non-college bound students who had not studied either subject. The test used to assess the…

  9. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  10. Creative thinking as orchestrated by semantic processing versus cognitive control brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. Conceptual expansion refers to the ability to widen one’s conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while overcoming knowledge constraints refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition.

  11. (Social) Cognitive skills and social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline

  12. Increasing the Usability of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Amy S.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for empirically based treatments for child sexual abuse (CSA) that are time-efficient and cost-effective. This article describes a modification of cognitive processing therapy for child sexual abuse (CPT-SA) that increases the therapy's usability by reducing the number of individual therapy sessions required. The…

  13. The role of networks in business model innovation : three shaping processes supporting cognitive shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, Inge; de Man, Ard-Pieter; Bossink, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Stakeholders and in particular customers are an important source for business model innovation. Especially for sustainable business models, stakeholder integration may radically change the business logic and help to revise the business model. In this process cognition plays a central role,

  14. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  15. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Campbell, Marci K.

    2014-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss…

  16. Art Therapy and Cognitive Processing Therapy for Combat-Related PTSD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Melissa; Decker, Kathleen P.; Kruk, Kerry; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2016-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine if art therapy in conjunction with Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) was more effective for reducing symptoms of combat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than CPT alone. Veterans (N = 11) were randomized to receive either individual CPT, or individual CPT in conjunction with individual…

  17. Collaborative Testing: Cognitive and Interpersonal Processes Related to Enhanced Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitanoff, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that collaborative testing, working on tests in groups, leads to improved test scores but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been specified. Three factors were proposed as mediators: cognitive processes, interpersonal interactions and reduced test-anxiety. Thirty-three students completed a multiple-choice exam…

  18. Examiner Expectancy and Bias as a Function of the Referral Process in Cognitive Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Bruce T.; Vitro, Frank T.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the present study suggest that clinical cognitive assessment is not influenced by examiner bias as in experimental or nonclinical assessment. A bias effect was not observed as a result of the referral process. The halo effect demonstrated in previous studies was not observed in this study. (Author/BY)

  19. How to Reason with Economic Concepts: Cognitive Process of Japanese Undergraduate Students Solving Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Tadayoshi; Yamaoka, Michio

    2015-01-01

    The authors administered a Japanese version of the Test of Understanding in College Economics, the fourth edition (TUCE-4) to assess the economic literacy of Japanese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2009. These two test results were combined to investigate students' cognitive process or reasoning with specific economic concepts and principles…

  20. Processing Capacity under Perceptual and Cognitive Load: A Closer Look at Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel; Wenger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in perceptual and cognitive demands (load) play a major role in determining the efficiency of selective attention. According to load theory (Lavie, Hirst, Fockert, & Viding, 2004) these factors (a) improve or hamper selectivity by altering the way resources (e.g., processing capacity) are allocated, and (b) tap resources rather than…

  1. Expectancy-Value and Cognitive Process Outcomes in Mathematics Learning: A Structural Equation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has yielded evidence to indicate that the expectancy-value theoretical model predicts students' learning in various achievement contexts. Achievement values and self-efficacy expectations, for example, have been found to exert positive effects on cognitive process and academic achievement outcomes. We tested a conceptual model…

  2. Model of cognitive processes and conversational principles in survey interview interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, Y.P.; Dijkstra, W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we provide a model of interviewer-respondent interaction in survey interviews. Our model is primarily focused on the occurrence of problems within this interaction that seem likely to affect data quality. Both conversational principles and cognitive processes, especially where they do

  3. A model of cognitive processes and conversational principles in survey interview interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, Yfke P.; Dijkstra, Wil

    In this paper we provide a model of interviewer–respondent interaction in survey interviews. Our model is primarily focused on the occurrence of problems within this interaction that seem likely to affect data quality. Both conversational principles and cognitive processes, especially where they do

  4. Investigating IELTS Academic Writing Task 2 : Relationships between cognitive writing processes, text quality, and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Lee, MinJin

    2017-01-01

    This project examined the cognitive processes and online behaviours of second language writers while performing IELTS Academic Writing Test Task 2, and the ways in which the online behaviours of test-takers relate to the quality of the text produced. An additional aim was to assess whether writing

  5. Is general intelligence little more than the speed of higher-order processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Anna-Lena; Hagemann, Dirk; Frischkorn, Gidon T

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences in the speed of information processing have been hypothesized to give rise to individual differences in general intelligence. Consistent with this hypothesis, reaction times (RTs) and latencies of event-related potential have been shown to be moderately associated with intelligence. These associations have been explained either in terms of individual differences in some brain-wide property such as myelination, the speed of neural oscillations, or white-matter tract integrity, or in terms of individual differences in specific processes such as the signal-to-noise ratio in evidence accumulation, executive control, or the cholinergic system. Here we show in a sample of 122 participants, who completed a battery of RT tasks at 2 laboratory sessions while an EEG was recorded, that more intelligent individuals have a higher speed of higher-order information processing that explains about 80% of the variance in general intelligence. Our results do not support the notion that individuals with higher levels of general intelligence show advantages in some brain-wide property. Instead, they suggest that more intelligent individuals benefit from a more efficient transmission of information from frontal attention and working memory processes to temporal-parietal processes of memory storage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Assessing the Depth of Cognitive Processing as the Basis for Potential User-State Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Irina-Emilia; Acqualagna, Laura; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain. Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing) within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination). Our investigations showed gradual differences in the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) and in the extend and duration of event-related desynchronization (ERD) which both correlate with task difficulty. We performed multi-modal classification to map the measured correlates of neurocognitive processing to the corresponding level of processing. Results: Successful classification of the neural components was achieved, which reflects the level of cognitive processing performed by the participants. The results show performances above chance level for each participant and a mean performance of 70–90% for all conditions and classification pairs. Significance: The successful estimation of the level of cognition on a single-trial basis supports the feasibility of user-state adaptation based on ongoing neural activity. There is a variety of potential use cases such as: a user-friendly adaptive design of an interface or the development of assistance systems in safety critical workplaces. PMID:29046625

  7. Assessing the Depth of Cognitive Processing as the Basis for Potential User-State Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Emilia Nicolae

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain.Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination. Our investigations showed gradual differences in the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs and in the extend and duration of event-related desynchronization (ERD which both correlate with task difficulty. We performed multi-modal classification to map the measured correlates of neurocognitive processing to the corresponding level of processing.Results: Successful classification of the neural components was achieved, which reflects the level of cognitive processing performed by the participants. The results show performances above chance level for each participant and a mean performance of 70–90% for all conditions and classification pairs.Significance: The successful estimation of the level of cognition on a single-trial basis supports the feasibility of user-state adaptation based on ongoing neural activity. There is a variety of potential use cases such as: a user-friendly adaptive design of an interface or the development of assistance systems in safety critical workplaces.

  8. Assessing the Depth of Cognitive Processing as the Basis for Potential User-State Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Irina-Emilia; Acqualagna, Laura; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain. Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing) within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination). Our investigations showed gradual differences in the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) and in the extend and duration of event-related desynchronization (ERD) which both correlate with task difficulty. We performed multi-modal classification to map the measured correlates of neurocognitive processing to the corresponding level of processing. Results: Successful classification of the neural components was achieved, which reflects the level of cognitive processing performed by the participants. The results show performances above chance level for each participant and a mean performance of 70-90% for all conditions and classification pairs. Significance: The successful estimation of the level of cognition on a single-trial basis supports the feasibility of user-state adaptation based on ongoing neural activity. There is a variety of potential use cases such as: a user-friendly adaptive design of an interface or the development of assistance systems in safety critical workplaces.

  9. An integrated model of clinical reasoning: dual-process theory of cognition and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, James A

    2012-10-01

    Clinical reasoning is an important component for providing quality medical care. The aim of the present paper is to develop a model of clinical reasoning that integrates both the non-analytic and analytic processes of cognition, along with metacognition. The dual-process theory of cognition (system 1 non-analytic and system 2 analytic processes) and the metacognition theory are used to develop an integrated model of clinical reasoning. In the proposed model, clinical reasoning begins with system 1 processes in which the clinician assesses a patient's presenting symptoms, as well as other clinical evidence, to arrive at a differential diagnosis. Additional clinical evidence, if necessary, is acquired and analysed utilizing system 2 processes to assess the differential diagnosis, until a clinical decision is made diagnosing the patient's illness and then how best to proceed therapeutically. Importantly, the outcome of these processes feeds back, in terms of metacognition's monitoring function, either to reinforce or to alter cognitive processes, which, in turn, enhances synergistically the clinician's ability to reason quickly and accurately in future consultations. The proposed integrated model has distinct advantages over other models proposed in the literature for explicating clinical reasoning. Moreover, it has important implications for addressing the paradoxical relationship between experience and expertise, as well as for designing a curriculum to teach clinical reasoning skills. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Subliminally and consciously induced cognitive conflicts interact at several processing levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Friedrich, Julia; Beste, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Controlled behavior is susceptible to conflicts that can emerge from subliminal or consciously processed information. While research suggests that both sources of conflicting information may interact in their modulation of controlled behavior, it has remained unclear which cognitive sub-processes involved in controlled behavior are affected by this interaction; i.e., at which processing level subliminally and consciously induced response conflicts interact in modulating controlled behavior. Moreover, we investigated whether this interaction of subliminally and consciously induced response conflicts was due to a nexus between the two types of conflict like a common cognitive process or factor. For this, n = 38 healthy young subjects completed a paradigm which combines subliminal primes and consciously perceived flankers while an electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. We show that the interaction of subliminal and conscious sources of conflict is not restricted to the response selection level (N2) but can already be shown at the earliest stages of perceptual and attentional processing (P1). While the degree of early attentional processing of subliminal information seems to depend on the absence of consciously perceived response conflicts, conflicts during the stage of response selection may be either reduced or enhanced by subliminal priming. Moreover, the results showed that even though the two different sources of conflict interact at the response selection level, they clearly originate from two distinct processes that interact before they detrimentally affect cognitive control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Disabled vs nondisabled readers: perceptual vs higher-order processing of one vs three letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, C L; Puglisi, J T

    1986-10-01

    12 disabled and 12 nondisabled readers (mean age, 11 yr.) were compared on a letter-search task which separated perceptual processing from higher-order processing. Participants were presented a first stimulus (for 200 msec. to minimize eye movements) followed by a second stimulus immediately to estimate the amount of information initially perceived or after a 3000-msec. interval to examine information more permanently stored. Participants were required to decide whether any letter present in the first stimulus was also present in the second. Two processing loads (1 and 3 letters) were examined. Disabled readers showed more pronounced deficits when they were given very little time to process information or more information to process.

  12. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  13. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Herbert

    Full Text Available The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level and prime-target expressions (word level. Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences, target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  14. COGNITIVE PROCESS IN ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING: A CASE STUDY OF THREE INDONESIAN COLUMNISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrus Zaman Fadhly

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at reconstructing cognitive processes experienced by Indonesian advancedwriters in five stages of writing: prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. Three Indonesian advanced writers were involved to be sources to reveal the noumena or under-meaning structures that make their works come into existence. This research reveals that various ways experienced by every single writer in exploring inspiration, starting to write, developing ideas and arguments, revising draft, and determining them as final drafts.Learning from advanced writers isfruitful effortsto evolve our writing competence. Experiences, cognitions, interests, values, stylistics, metaphors, and mechanics are influential aspects in enriching their works.

  15. Core Processes Roadmap to Deploy the Higher Education Institution's Internationalization Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena FLEACĂ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological development, competition and globalisation are radically changing the landscape of higher education which maintains its crucial role in individual and societal advancement. Many higher education institutions are competing on increasing their attractiveness by providing innovative curricula, excellence in teaching and research opportunities. The paper attempts to tackle the push for stronger international presence which brings favourable conditions for internationalisation strategy at institutional level. Based on useful methods from quality management and business process reengineering, the author proposed a coherent organizational model for a higher education institution strategy, mainstreaming key areas as international mobility for students and staff, internationalization and improvement of curricula and new e-learning methods, and strategic cooperation, partnerships and capacity building with international stakeholders. The findings stress the benefits of a holistic approach in assuring the governance of internationalization strategy composed of three core processes groups - academic, research, and wider business relationships – so as to provide that process architecture is able to deliver a value added internationalised higher education offer.

  16. Fluctuating Epistemic Uncertainty in a Design Team as a Metacognitive Driver for Creative Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous design research has demonstrated how epistemic uncertainty engenders localised, creative reasoning, including analogising and mental simulation. We analysed not just the short-term, localised effects of epistemic uncertainty on creative processing and information selection, but also its...... long-term impact on downstream creative processes. Our hypothesis was that heightened levels of uncertainty associated with a particular cognitive referent would engender: (1) immediate creative elaboration of that referent aimed at resolving uncertainty and determining information selection; and (2...

  17. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on cognitive processing demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions requires cognitive processingdemands. Processing demands can increase with acoustically degraded speech but also depend on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations were recorded...... in 19 normal-hearing participants while processing sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex and presented in either high- or low-level background noise. Furthermore, the participants were asked to rate the subjectively perceived difficulty of sentence comprehension. The results showed...

  18. The cognitive processing potential of infants: Exploring the impact of an early childhood development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Van Eeden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many South African learners seem unprepared for formal education, and a need for intervention during early childhood has been identified. Aim: The present study explored the effect of infant exposure to an early childhood development programme aimed at the sensory developmental stage of the infant’s brain. Setting: Participants were recruited through local baby clinics and nursery schools in the Western Cape. Participants were from the middle-income sector and the sample consisted of 63 infants between the ages of 3 and 12 months – gender representation was approximately equal and 17% of the infants were of mixed race, 8% black and 75% white. Methods: A pretest–posttest design was used involving an intervention group (N = 29 and a control group (N = 34 of infants. There was no known bias in group allocation. Intervention was provided in the form of the Numbers in Nappies programme and cognitive performance was assessed with the BSID (III before and after the intervention for both groups. Results: The intervention group showed theory expectant increases, most notably on the Cognitive Scale and the Social-Emotional Scale of the BSID (III. The performance of the intervention and the control group on the cognitive subscales (Cognitive, Language and Motor was compared before and after the intervention. The only significant difference was on the Cognitive Scale after the intervention. Conclusion: The findings indicate that appropriate intervention taps into the cognitive processing potential of infants, thus increasing their cognitive ability and enhancing their social–emotional functioning. The stimulation provided by parents and primary caregivers is essential in enhancing this experience-dependent development and the Numbers in Nappies programme provides a cost-effective intervention suitable for a home environment.

  19. Cognitive processing speed is related to fall frequency in older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Balantrapu, Swathi; Pilutti, Lara A; Sandroff, Brian M; Morrison, Steven; Motl, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    To examine mobility, balance, fall risk, and cognition in older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) as a function of fall frequency. Retrospective, cross-sectional design. University research laboratory. Community-dwelling persons with MS (N=27) aged between 50 and 75 years were divided into 2 groups-single-time (n=11) and recurrent (n=16; >2 falls/12 mo) fallers-on the basis of fall history. Not applicable. Mobility was assessed using a variety of measures including Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, walking speed (Timed 25-Foot Walk test), endurance (6-Minute Walk test), and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test). Balance was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, posturography, and self-reported balance confidence. Fall risk was assessed with the Physiological Profile Assessment. Cognitive processing speed was quantified with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. Recurrent fallers had slower cognitive processing speed than single-time fallers (P ≤.01). There was no difference in mobility, balance, or fall risk between recurrent and single-time fallers (P>.05). Results indicated that cognitive processing speed is associated with fall frequency and may have implications for fall prevention strategies targeting recurrent fallers with MS. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring the Use of Electroencephalography to Gather Objective Evidence of Cognitive Processing During Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Thomas; Seery, Niall; Lynch, Raymond

    2018-04-01

    Currently, there is significant interest being directed towards the development of STEM education to meet economic and societal demands. While economic concerns can be a powerful driving force in advancing the STEM agenda, care must be taken that such economic imperative does not promote research approaches that overemphasize pragmatic application at the expense of augmenting the fundamental knowledge base of the discipline. This can be seen in the predominance of studies investigating problem solving approaches and procedures, while neglecting representational and conceptual processes, within the literature. Complementing concerns about STEM graduates' problem solving capabilities, raised within the pertinent literature, this paper discusses a novel methodological approach aimed at investigating the cognitive elements of problem conceptualization. The intention is to demonstrate a novel method of data collection that overcomes some of the limitations cited in classic problem solving research while balancing a search for fundamental understanding with the possibility of application. The methodology described in this study employs an electroencephalographic (EEG) headset, as part of a mixed methods approach, to gather objective evidence of students' cognitive processing during problem solving epochs. The method described provides rich evidence of students' cognitive representations of problems during episodes of applied reasoning. The reliability and validity of the EEG method is supported by the stability of the findings across the triangulated data sources. The paper presents a novel method in the context of research within STEM education and demonstrates an effective procedure for gathering rich evidence of cognitive processing during the early stages of problem conceptualization.

  1. Cognitive processing speed in older adults: relationship with white matter integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Kerchner

    Full Text Available Cognitive processing slows with age. We sought to determine the importance of white matter integrity, assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, at influencing cognitive processing speed among normal older adults, assessed using a novel battery of computerized, non-verbal, choice reaction time tasks. We studied 131 cognitively normal adults aged 55-87 using a cross-sectional design. Each participant underwent our test battery, as well as MRI with DTI. We carried out cross-subject comparisons using tract-based spatial statistics. As expected, reaction time slowed significantly with age. In diffuse areas of frontal and parietal white matter, especially the anterior corpus callosum, fractional anisotropy values correlated negatively with reaction time. The genu and body of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were among the areas most involved. This relationship was not explained by gray or white matter atrophy or by white matter lesion volume. In a statistical mediation analysis, loss of white matter integrity mediated the relationship between age and cognitive processing speed.

  2. Key processes shaping the current role and operation of higher education institutions in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piróg Danuta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The concurrent processes of globalisation, computerisation, and integration shape and constantly modify developmental factors and generate multidirectional social changes. Among social life fields, one of them has been particularly sensitive to the impact of those processes and has remained in clear feedback relationship with them is education, including university-level education. This article aims to present some reflections on the key processes which influence the environment of higher education institutions’ activity and on what their impact specifically is. The factors taken into account include: the transformation of the political and economic system, integration with the European higher education area, the market shift of education, evolving social demands towards higher education institutions and society’s attitude towards work. As knowledge has become an asset largely affecting the quality of life of people and society, universities have changed their focus from searching for and exploring truth, good and beauty in the world towards becoming innovation centres, transferring knowledge as offering their educational services. In this article, those trends have been exemplified in relation to geography degree programmes, and shown through an evolution of the model of the university. Based on a review of the literature, it seems that the processes discussed also concern geography degree programmes, and the future operation of these programmes closely depends on whether they can maintain their care for high quality education coupled with genuine efforts to ensure the smooth transition of graduates into the labour market.

  3. Experimental pain processing in individuals with cognitive impairment: current state of the science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Defrin, R; Amanzio, Martina; de Tomasso, M

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) can develop during the course of ageing and is a feature of many neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Many individuals with CI have substantial, sustained and complex healthcare needs which frequently include pain. However, individuals with CI can have difficulty...... of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders in which CI is typically present. Overall, the existing data suggest that pain processing is altered in most individuals with CI compared to cognitively intact matched controls. The precise nature of these alterations varies with the type of CI (or associated...... to cognitively unimpaired individuals. Our current understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning these alterations is limited, but may be enhanced through the use of animal models of CI which also exhibit alterations in nociceptive responding. Further research employing additional behavioural...

  4. The Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Post Event Processing Among Those with Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment. PMID:21159328

  5. High field fMRI reveals thalamocortical integration of segregated cognitive and emotional processing in mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Danielle Metzger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive-emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla.Using an event related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex (CM/PF. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo-striato-cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behaviour such as sexual

  6. THE CONCEPTUAL FOUR-SECTOR MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSIONS IN ABSTRACT VISUAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Berková

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The research deals with the development of cognitive process dimensions in economic education. The aim is to research factors that influence academic achievement of students according to their intellectual level and grades. The researchers used quantitative design of research based on standardized assessment of intelligence and non-standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to analyse the pedagogical competences of the teachers of economic subjects from the students' point of view in close relation to the teaching management and the impact on the motivation to learn and the achievement of students in these subjects. The respondents were 277 Czech students aged 16-17 who were divided into groups according to their intellectual level and grades. The data were analysed by a correlation analysis and a multiple regression model. In conclusion, the following can be stated: (a From the point of view of the above average intelligent students, expertise can be considered as an important competency of the teacher; teaching average intelligent students, communication and presentation skills seem to be important. (b It is desirable to develop cognitive processes, critical thinking actively, to lead students to become aware of changes in their own thinking and to orient them towards mastery goals. (c Particularly for students with weaker results it is necessary to create intrinsic motivation, which develops cognition and thus is able to develop higher cognitive dimensions further. The links between these areas are of utmost importance for education and, above all, for developing of students' scholarship. Each student can be educated, and it is necessary to influence them to develop their personality and all of their potential abilities. The conceptual four-sector model represents the initial pathway to lead students who are differentiated according to the intellectual level and academic achievement to the active development of thinking, learning

  7. High field FMRI reveals thalamocortical integration of segregated cognitive and emotional processing in mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, C D; Eckert, U; Steiner, J; Sartorius, A; Buchmann, J E; Stadler, J; Tempelmann, C; Speck, O; Bogerts, B; Abler, B; Walter, M

    2010-01-01

    Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions, and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non-invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive-emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla. Using an event-related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo-striato-cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behavior such as sexual processing.

  8. Good-enough linguistic representations and online cognitive equilibrium in language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hossein; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    We review previous research showing that representations formed during language processing are sometimes just "good enough" for the task at hand and propose the "online cognitive equilibrium" hypothesis as the driving force behind the formation of good-enough representations in language processing. Based on this view, we assume that the language comprehension system by default prefers to achieve as early as possible and remain as long as possible in a state of cognitive equilibrium where linguistic representations are successfully incorporated with existing knowledge structures (i.e., schemata) so that a meaningful and coherent overall representation is formed, and uncertainty is resolved or at least minimized. We also argue that the online equilibrium hypothesis is consistent with current theories of language processing, which maintain that linguistic representations are formed through a complex interplay between simple heuristics and deep syntactic algorithms and also theories that hold that linguistic representations are often incomplete and lacking in detail. We also propose a model of language processing that makes use of both heuristic and algorithmic processing, is sensitive to online cognitive equilibrium, and, we argue, is capable of explaining the formation of underspecified representations. We review previous findings providing evidence for underspecification in relation to this hypothesis and the associated language processing model and argue that most of these findings are compatible with them.

  9. Socio-emotional conflict in collaborative learning—A process-oriented case study in a higher education context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Näykki, Piia; Järvelä, Sanna; Kirschner, Paul A.; Järvenoja, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    This case study explores cognitive, motivational and socio-emotional challenges experienced in collaborative learning, how conflict emerges and what students’ emotional reactions and interpretations are. Collaborative work of 22 higher education students was followed during a three-month course.

  10. Motivation as a factor affecting the efficiency of cognitive processes in elderly patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to assess the role of motivation in the effective cognitive activity of elderly hypertension (HTN patients provided with antihypertensive treatment; 25 patients with HTN took part in the study, stage 1-2; their mean age was 67.6±6.1. The psychological examination program embraced a quantitative measurement of intelligence quotient (IQ with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and an investigation into the qualitative features of their cognitive processes, applying a pathopsychological study procedure (Zeigarnik, 1962, 1972 and the principles of psychological syndrome analysis (Vygotsky-Luria-Zeigarnik school. The results showed that within the psychological syndrome structure of cognitive disorders in HTN patients, the leading part is played by two syndrome-generating factors: a neurodynamic factor and a motivational factor. The patients with reduced motivation would achieve poor general test results, if compared with the group of highly motivated participants. A correlation analysis of the data revealed the interconnection between frequency disturbances in motivation and the frequency in occurrence of various signs of cognitive decline, such as low efficiency in memorization and delayed recall, as well as lower IQ test results. The data provide a strong argument to support the hypothesis that motivation is of particular importance as a factor in the generation of cognitive disorders in HTN patients.

  11. Effects of Epistemological Beliefs and Topic-Specific Beliefs on Undergraduates' Cognitive and Strategic Processing of Dual-Positional Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardash, CarolAnne M.; Howell, Karen L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates effects of epistemological beliefs and topic-specific beliefs on undergraduates' (N=40) cognitive and strategic processing of a dual-positional text. Findings reveal that epistemological beliefs about the speed of learning affected the overall number of cognitive processes exhibited, whereas topic-specific beliefs interacted with the…

  12. Evaluation of consequence due to higher hydrazine content in partitioning stream of PUREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Suresh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Special Nuclear Recycle Facility

    2016-07-01

    Hydrazine nitrate is being used as a stabilizer for U(IV) as well as Pu(III) during partitioning of Pu in PUREX process by scavenging the nitrous acid present along with nitric acid. As hydrazine hydrate as well as its salts have been successfully used for scrubbing of degradation products of TBP to aqueous phase, experiments were conducted to evaluate the consequence of hydrazine content during Pu partitioning. It was observed that higher amount of hydrazine nitrate along with uranous nitrate in the partitioning stream of PUREX process leads to build up of DBP in aqueous phase and resulted in precipitation of Pu.

  13. BPMN, Toolsets, and Methodology: A Case Study of Business Process Management in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barn, Balbir S.; Oussena, Samia

    This chapter describes ongoing action research which is exploring the use of BPMN and a specific toolset - Intalio Designer to capture the “as is” essential process model of part of an overarching large business process within higher education. The chapter contends that understanding the efficacy of the BPMN notation and the notational elements to use is not enough. Instead, the effectiveness of a notation is determined by the notation, the toolset that is being used, and methodological consideration. The chapter presents some of the challenges that are faced in attempting to develop computation independent models in BPMN using toolsets such as Intalio Designer™.

  14. Higher harmonic imaging of tensile plastic deformation in loading and reloading processes by local resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koichiro; Yasui, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    We have imaged plastically deformed region in a 5052 aluminum plate under tensile loading, unloading and reloading processes by using an immersion local resonance method. By transmitting large-amplitude burst wave of which frequency is a through-thickness resonant frequency of the plate, dislocation loops in plastic zone are forced to vibrate. The higher harmonic amplitude excited by the dislocation movement is mapped for the transducer position. The extension of plastic zone under monotonically increased loading, decrease in harmonic amplitude under unloading process and marked extension of plastic zone in reloading up to 0.4% plastic strain are clearly imaged. (author)

  15. A Role of Higher Education Institutions in the Development of Life-long Learning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Banachowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The following question is considered: „In what way can the higher schools support the processes of life-long learning of their graduates and also of their faculty and students?” A solution is proposed based on building learning community of practice managing joint knowledge repository including Personal Learning Environments (PLE and e-portfolios. It is shown how to extend ordinary LMS (VLE system to support processes of life-long learning. The steps made at the Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology (PJIIT are discussed towards implementation of these ideas.

  16. Higher education in nursing: the faculty work process in different institutional contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Marli Leonello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the characteristics of faculty work in nursing higher education. Method An exploratory qualitative study with a theoretical-methodological framework of dialectical and historical materialism. The faculty work process was adopted as the analytical category, grounded on conceptions of work and professionalism. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 faculty members from three higher education institutions in the city of São Paulo, classified according to the typology of institutional contexts. Results The faculty members at these higher education institutions are a heterogeneous group, under different working conditions. Intensification and precarious conditions of the faculty work is common to all three contexts, although there are important distinctions in the practices related to teaching, research and extension. Conclusion Faculty professionalization can be the starting point for analyzing and coping with such a distinct reality of faculty work and practice.

  17. Brain signal variability differentially affects cognitive flexibility and cognitive stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armbruster-Genç, D.J.N.; Ültzhöffer, K.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory,

  18. Fluctuating Epistemic Uncertainty in a Design Team as a Metacognitive Driver for Creative Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous design research has demonstrated how epistemic uncertainty engenders localized, creative reasoning, including analogizing and mental simulation. Our analysis of the DTRS11 dataset examined not just the short-term, localized effects of epistemic uncertainty on creative processing...... and information selection, but also its long-term impact on downstream creative processes and decisions about what information to take forward. Our hypothesis was that heightened levels of uncertainty associated with a particular cognitive referent (i.e., a post-it note translated from Chinese end-users) would......, as predicted, found to engender subsequent attentive returns to cognitive referents at later points in the design process. Third, although epistemic uncertainty did not predict the information that was eventually selected to take forward in the design space, both immediate creative elaboration and subsequent...

  19. How does context affect intimate relationships? linking external stress and cognitive processes within marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

    2004-02-01

    Stressors external to the marriage frequently affect the way spouses evaluate their marital quality. To date, however, understanding of the interplay between external stress and internal relationship processes has been limited in two ways. First, research has generally examined only the short-term consequences of stress. Second, the mechanisms through which external stressors influence relationship outcomes are unclear. This study addressed both limitations by examining relationship cognitions that may mediate the effects of external stress throughout 4 years of marriage. Analyses confirmed that stressful experiences were associated with the trajectory of marital quality overtime. Furthermore, both the content and the organization of spouses' specific relationship cognitions mediated this effect. That is, stress negatively influenced the nature of spouses' marital perceptions as well as the way spouses interpreted and processed those perceptions. These findings draw attention to ways that the context of relationships shapes and constrains relationship processes.

  20. Predictors of response to pain management treatment. The role of family environment and changes in cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tota-Faucette, M E; Gil, K M; Williams, D A; Keefe, F J; Goli, V

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine factors that influence individual differences in treatment response after multidisciplinary pain management. Pre-post assessment design. 119 chronic pain inpatients. Outcome measures included pain report from the McGill Pain Questionnaire, emotional distress from the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised, and activity discomfort from the Activity Discomfort Scale. Process measures included the Family Environment Scale, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and the Inventory of Negative Thoughts in Response to Pain. Results indicated that pretreatment family environment, cognitive coping strategies, and negative thinking accounted for small yet significant proportions of the variance in outcome. The proportion of variance accounted for by the changes in cognitive coping and negative thinking was somewhat higher. An increase in pain control and rational thinking was related to decreases in depression and anxiety, pain report, and activity discomfort. Decreases in negative social cognitions were related to decreased depression at posttreatment. Changes in coping strategies and negative thinking may be important mechanisms related to improvement, or lack of improvement, in a range of outcome measures. Patients from families who are controlling and disorganized, and patients high on negative thinking at pretreatment may represent high-risk groups in need of further individually tailored interventions.

  1. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes?: A descriptive study of teacher activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.; de Jong, Ton

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of expertise in that subject. These models have been provided by earlier research. The model of instruction distinguishes three main categories of instruction process: presenting new information, integrating (i.e., bringing structure into) new knowledge, and connecting elements of new knowledge to prior knowledge. Each of the main categories has been divided into a number of specific instruction processes. Hereby any limited and specific cognitive teacher activity can be described along the two dimensions of process and type of knowledge. The model was validated by application to lectures and problem-solving classes of first year university courses. These were recorded and analyzed as to instruction process and type of knowledge. Results indicate that teachers are indeed involved in the various types of instruction processes defined. The importance of this study lies in the creation of a terminology that makes it possible to discuss instruction in an explicit and specific way.

  2. Electronic means of teaching as the basis of educational process at the modern higher school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лилия Борисовна Белоглазова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a description of the communication sphere of the information society and its importance in education. The author then describes the e-learning tools and identifies their types. The author then proceeds to the characterization of multimedia technology based on the use of e-learning. The author also draws attention to the distance learning technologies and concludes the feasibility of its development in the educational process of modern higher education.

  3. Medication errors in residential aged care facilities: a distributed cognition analysis of the information exchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Amina; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Medication safety is a pressing concern for residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Retrospective studies in RACF settings identify inadequate communication between RACFs, doctors, hospitals and community pharmacies as the major cause of medication errors. Existing literature offers limited insight about the gaps in the existing information exchange process that may lead to medication errors. The aim of this research was to explicate the cognitive distribution that underlies RACF medication ordering and delivery to identify gaps in medication-related information exchange which lead to medication errors in RACFs. The study was undertaken in three RACFs in Sydney, Australia. Data were generated through ethnographic field work over a period of five months (May-September 2011). Triangulated analysis of data primarily focused on examining the transformation and exchange of information between different media across the process. The findings of this study highlight the extensive scope and intense nature of information exchange in RACF medication ordering and delivery. Rather than attributing error to individual care providers, the explication of distributed cognition processes enabled the identification of gaps in three information exchange dimensions which potentially contribute to the occurrence of medication errors namely: (1) design of medication charts which complicates order processing and record keeping (2) lack of coordination mechanisms between participants which results in misalignment of local practices (3) reliance on restricted communication bandwidth channels mainly telephone and fax which complicates the information processing requirements. The study demonstrates how the identification of these gaps enhances understanding of medication errors in RACFs. Application of the theoretical lens of distributed cognition can assist in enhancing our understanding of medication errors in RACFs through identification of gaps in information exchange. Understanding

  4. A Big Data and Learning Analytics Approach to Process-Level Feedback in Cognitive Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaric, Martin; Boutis, Kathy; Beckstead, Jason; Pusic, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Collecting and analyzing large amounts of process data for the purposes of education can be considered a big data/learning analytics (BD/LA) approach to improving learning. However, in the education of health care professionals, the application of BD/LA is limited to date. The authors discuss the potential advantages of the BD/LA approach for the process of learning via cognitive simulations. Using the lens of a cognitive model of radiograph interpretation with four phases (orientation, searching/scanning, feature detection, and decision making), they reanalyzed process data from a cognitive simulation of pediatric ankle radiography where 46 practitioners from three expertise levels classified 234 cases online. To illustrate the big data component, they highlight the data available in a digital environment (time-stamped, click-level process data). Learning analytics were illustrated using algorithmic computer-enabled approaches to process-level feedback.For each phase, the authors were able to identify examples of potentially useful BD/LA measures. For orientation, the trackable behavior of re-reviewing the clinical history was associated with increased diagnostic accuracy. For searching/scanning, evidence of skipping views was associated with an increased false-negative rate. For feature detection, heat maps overlaid on the radiograph can provide a metacognitive visualization of common novice errors. For decision making, the measured influence of sequence effects can reflect susceptibility to bias, whereas computer-generated path maps can provide insights into learners' diagnostic strategies.In conclusion, the augmented collection and dynamic analysis of learning process data within a cognitive simulation can improve feedback and prompt more precise reflection on a novice clinician's skill development.

  5. Localized atrophy of the thalamus and slowed cognitive processing speed in MS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsland, Niels; Zivadinov, Robert; Dwyer, Michael G; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph Hb

    2016-09-01

    Deep gray matter (DGM) atrophy is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but no studies have investigated surface-based structure changes over time with respect to healthy controls (HCs). Moreover, the relationship between cognition and the spatio-temporal evolution of DGM atrophy is poorly understood. To explore DGM structural differences between MS and HCs over time in relation to neuropsychological (NP) outcomes. The participants were 44 relapsing-remitting and 20 secondary progressive MS patients and 22 HCs. All were scanned using 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 3-year follow-up. NP examination emphasized consensus standard tests of processing speed and memory. We performed both volumetric and shape analysis of DGM structures and assessed their relationships with cognition. Compared to HCs, MS patients presented with significantly smaller DGM volumes. For the thalamus and caudate, differences in shape were mostly localized along the lateral ventricles. NP outcomes were related to both volume and shape of the DGM structures. Over 3 years, decreased cognitive processing speed was related to localized atrophy on the anterior and superior surface of the left thalamus. These findings highlight the role of atrophy in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus and its relation to cognitive decline in MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  6. An Analysis of the Associations among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelihovschi, Ana P. G.; Cardoso, Ricardo L.; Linhares, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive behaviors for both clinical and nonclinical people. It has a key role in many forms of psychopathology. Although literature has discussed the negative impact of impulsivity, few have emphasized the relationship between cognitive impulsiveness and decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). Moreover, we evaluate participants' reasoning processes employed to answer CRT questions based on the calculation expressions, data organization, and erasures they made while answering the CRT (note that we utilized the instruments using pen and paper). These reasoning processes are related to the role of executive functions in decision making, and its relationship with impulsiveness. The sample consists of 191 adults, who were either professionals or undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, or accounting. The results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect decision making, and that those who presented the calculation to answer the CRT questions made better decisions. Moreover, there was no difference in the strategies used by impulsive vs. nonimpulsive participants during decision making. Finally, people who inhibited their immediate answers to CRT questions performed better during decision making. PMID:29375440

  7. Imitation, Inspiration, and Creation: Cognitive Process of Creative Drawing by Copying Others' Artworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Kentaro

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the cognitive processes underlying creative inspiration, we tested the extent to which viewing or copying prior examples impacted creative output in art. In Experiment 1, undergraduates made drawings under three conditions: (a) copying an artist's drawing, then producing an original drawing; (b) producing an original drawing without having seen another's work; and (c) copying another artist's work, then reproducing that artist's style independently. We discovered that through copying unfamiliar abstract drawings, participants were able to produce creative drawings qualitatively different from the model drawings. Process analyses suggested that participants' cognitive constraints became relaxed, and new perspectives were formed from copying another's artwork. Experiment 2 showed that exposure to styles of artwork considered unfamiliar facilitated creativity in drawing, while styles considered familiar did not do so. Experiment 3 showed that both copying and thoroughly viewing artwork executed using an unfamiliar style facilitated creativity in drawing, whereas merely thinking about alternative styles of artistic representation did not do so. These experiments revealed that deep encounters with unfamiliar artworks-whether through copying or prolonged observation-change people's cognitive representations of the act of drawing to produce novel artwork. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. An Analysis of the Associations among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelihovschi, Ana P G; Cardoso, Ricardo L; Linhares, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive behaviors for both clinical and nonclinical people. It has a key role in many forms of psychopathology. Although literature has discussed the negative impact of impulsivity, few have emphasized the relationship between cognitive impulsiveness and decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). Moreover, we evaluate participants' reasoning processes employed to answer CRT questions based on the calculation expressions, data organization, and erasures they made while answering the CRT (note that we utilized the instruments using pen and paper). These reasoning processes are related to the role of executive functions in decision making, and its relationship with impulsiveness. The sample consists of 191 adults, who were either professionals or undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, or accounting. The results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect decision making, and that those who presented the calculation to answer the CRT questions made better decisions. Moreover, there was no difference in the strategies used by impulsive vs. nonimpulsive participants during decision making. Finally, people who inhibited their immediate answers to CRT questions performed better during decision making.

  9. An Analysis of the Associations among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. G. Jelihovschi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive behaviors for both clinical and nonclinical people. It has a key role in many forms of psychopathology. Although literature has discussed the negative impact of impulsivity, few have emphasized the relationship between cognitive impulsiveness and decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT. Moreover, we evaluate participants' reasoning processes employed to answer CRT questions based on the calculation expressions, data organization, and erasures they made while answering the CRT (note that we utilized the instruments using pen and paper. These reasoning processes are related to the role of executive functions in decision making, and its relationship with impulsiveness. The sample consists of 191 adults, who were either professionals or undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, or accounting. The results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect decision making, and that those who presented the calculation to answer the CRT questions made better decisions. Moreover, there was no difference in the strategies used by impulsive vs. nonimpulsive participants during decision making. Finally, people who inhibited their immediate answers to CRT questions performed better during decision making.

  10. Key Performance Indicators for the Impact of Cognitive Assembly Planning on Ramp-Up Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Buescher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the ramp-up phase of highly automated assembly systems, the planning effort forms a large part of production costs. Due to shortening product lifecycles, changing customer demands, and therefore an increasing number of ramp-up processes, these costs even rise. So assembly systems should reduce these efforts and simultaneously be flexible for quick adaption to changes in products and their variants. A cognitive interaction system in the field of assembly planning systems is developed within the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative production technology for high-wage countries” at RWTH Aachen University which integrates several cognitive capabilities according to human cognition. This approach combines the advantages of automation with the flexibility of humans. In this paper the main principles of the system's core component—the cognitive control unit—are presented to underline its advantages with respect to traditional assembly systems. Based on this, the actual innovation of this paper is the development of key performance indicators. These refer to the ramp-up process as a main objective of such a system is to minimize the planning effort during ramp-up. The KPIs are also designed to show the impact on the main idea of the Cluster of Excellence in resolving the so-called Polylemma of Production.

  11. Are cognitive "insomnia" processes involved in the development and maintenance of delayed sleep wake phase disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cele E; Gradisar, Michael; Barbero, Sebastian C

    2016-04-01

    Although individuals with delayed sleep wake phase disorder (DSWPD) and chronic insomnia disorder (CID) share many of the same phenomenological experiences, theories relating to the development and maintenance of these disorders are distinct in focus. Unlike CID, theory relating to DSWPD is primarily physiologically based and assumes almost no cognitive pathway. However, recent research findings suggest that individuals with DSWPD also display many of the sleep-disordered cognitive processes that were previously assumed to be unique to the insomnia experience. As such, this review aims to summarise current research findings to address the question "Could cognitive processes be involved in the development and maintenance of DSWPD?" In particular, the presence of cognitive and physiological pre-sleep arousal, sleep-related attentional bias, distorted perception of sleep and daytime functioning, dysfunctional beliefs and safety behaviours will be investigated. As this emerging area of research requires a stronger evidence base, we highlight suggestions for future investigation and provide preliminary practice points for clinicians assessing and treating "insomnia" in patients with DSWPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MEDIATING COGNITIVE TRANSFORMATION WITH VR 3D SKETCHING DURING CONCEPTUAL ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Pour Rahimian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Communications for information synchronization during the conceptual design phase require designers to employ more intuitive digital design tools. This paper presents findings of a feasibility study for using VR 3D sketching interface in order to replace current non-intuitive CAD tools. We used a sequential mixed method research methodology including a qualitative case study and a cognitive-based quantitative protocol analysis experiment. Foremost, the case study research was conducted in order to understand how novice designers make intuitive decisions. The case study documented the failure of conventional sketching methods in articulating complicated design ideas and shortcomings of current CAD tools in intuitive ideation. The case study’s findings then became the theoretical foundations for testing the feasibility of using VR 3D sketching interface during design. The latter phase of study evaluated the designers’ spatial cognition and collaboration at six different levels: "physical-actions", "perceptualactions", "functional-actions", "conceptual-actions", "cognitive synchronizations", and "gestures". The results and confirmed hypotheses showed that the utilized tangible 3D sketching interface improved novice designers’ cognitive and collaborative design activities. In summary this paper presents the influences of current external representation tools on designers’ cognition and collaboration as well as providing the necessary theoretical foundations for implementing VR 3D sketching interface. It contributes towards transforming conceptual architectural design phase from analogue to digital by proposing a new VR design interface. The paper proposes this transformation to fill in the existing gap between analogue conceptual architectural design process and remaining digital engineering parts of building design process hence expediting digital design process.

  13. Ukrainian higher education in the format of Bologna process: trends and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Khomeriki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the process of reforming higher education taking place in the context of integration processes in order to create a unified European educational space. The author substantiates the position that Ukraine has chosen the European path of development, and the assimilation of European values is  an important step on the road to the European way of life. This is particularly evident in the student body, which at this stage is the most involved in the process of Europeanization of higher education. Also to reform higher education in Ukraine may highlight certain difficulties that are primarily related to the difference in the mentality of the Ukrainians and the Europeans that caused quite a long stay in Ukraine in the cultural field of the Soviet Union. In addition, many reforms simply require time to conduct a thorough and finance that today it is difficult to provide. The author insists that for the full harmonization of the process of transformation, it is important to remember that the best result gives the education that is born in the interaction of the teacher, the student and technologies. This consciousness and responsibility of the latter is the main key to effective training, because the student personally knows and feels exactly what he wants to achieve through education and what efforts must be applied in order to realize their own aspirations. As the reconciliation between «for» and «against» joining the Bologna process can be considered and the position of the need to moderate the implementation of international, and in fact, the Western educational standards and preserve the traditions of the national education system as a whole. In addition, many reforms simply require time to conduct a thorough and finance that today it is difficult to provide.

  14. Higher plasma CD4 lymphocyte count correlates with better cognitive function in human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-AIDS) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, F. I.; Rambe, A. S.; Fitri, A.

    2018-03-01

    Neurocognitive disorders in HIV-AIDS are still prevalent despite the use of antiretroviral therapy and seem to be under-recognized. Plasma lymphocyte CD4 count is a marker for general immunology status, but its association with cognitive function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between plasma CD4 lymphocyte and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.This was a cross-sectional study involving 48 HIV-AIDS patients. All subjects underwent physical, neurologic examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian Version (MoCA-INA) to assess cognitive function and measurement of lymphocyte CD4 counts.This study included 48 subjects consisted of 29 males (60.4%) and 19 females (39.6%). The mean age was 39.17±11.21 years old. There was a significant correlation between CD4 lymphocyte counts and MoCA-INA score (r=0.347, p=0.016).Higher plasma CD4 lymphocyte count is correlated with better cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.

  15. The influence of impaired processing speed on cognition in first-episode antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of neuropsychological tests to assess domains of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Composite scores were calculated, grouping tests into cognitive domains. RESULTS: There were significant differences between patients and healthy controls on global cognition and all cognitive domains, including verbal intelligence......BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is a prominent feature of schizophrenia. To what extent the heterogeneous cognitive impairments can be accounted for by considering only a single underlying impairment or a small number of core impairments remains elusive. This study examined whether cognitive...... impairments in antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients may be determined by a relative slower speed of information processing. METHOD: Forty-eight antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 48 matched healthy controls were administered a comprehensive battery...

  16. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…

  17. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  18. St8sia2 deficiency plus juvenile cannabis exposure in mice synergistically affect higher cognition in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, Martesa; Kröcher, Tim; Papiol, Sergi; Winkler, Daniela; Röckle, Iris; Jatho, Jasmin; Burkhardt, Hannelore; Ronnenberg, Anja; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2014-12-15

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its functionally linked polysialyltransferases, ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4, are crucial for synaptic plasticity. Variations in encoding genes have been associated with mental illness. Since cannabinoids can alter NCAM polysialylation, we hypothesized that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) might act as environmental 'second hit' regarding cognition of St8sia2(-/-) mice. These mice show per se minor behavioral abnormalities, consisting of reduced anxiety and mild cognitive deficits. Chronic Δ9-THC treatment of juvenile male wildtype mice (St8sia2(+/+)) (7mg/kg every other day over 3 weeks) did not appreciably affect cognition. St8sia2(-/-) mice, however, displayed a synergistic negative consequence of Δ9-THC on learning/memory, accompanied by polysialic acid-free NCAM-180 reduction in hippocampus and polysialic acid increase in dentate outer molecular layer. These synergistic effects became obvious only months after the last Δ9-THC. We conclude that juvenile cannabis exposure may cause delayed but lasting damage on cognition in subjects genetically predisposed to altered NCAM polysialylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aging, physical activity, and cognitive processing: an examination of P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, K; Kerick, S E; Santa Maria, D L; Hatfield, B D

    2003-01-01

    Physical activity appears to attenuate the decline of cognitive function typically observed in older men and women. The P300 component of the event-related potential (ERP) is particularly affected by aging and allows for basic neurobiological assessment of cognitive function. Three aspects of the P300 component (i.e. latency, amplitude, and area under the curve (AUC)), elicited by an oddball task, were derived to assess cognitive function in young and older participants (N=73) who were further classified as high- and low-active. The low-active elderly participants exhibited larger AUC values than those observed in all other groups which were undifferentiated. That is, the high-active elderly and the young participants exhibited smaller AUC values than the low-active older group. In conclusion, higher levels of physical activity in the elderly may be associated with a reduction in the neural resources allocated in response to simple cognitive challenge. This interpretation is consistent with the concept of psychomotor efficiency proposed by Hatfield and Hillman [The psychophysiology of sport: a mechanistic understanding of the psychology of superior performance. In: Singer RN, Hausenbias HA, Janelle CM, editors. Handbook of sport psychology. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 2001, p. 362-88].

  20. Higher-order associative processing in Hermissenda suggests multiple sites of neuronal modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R F; Matzel, L D

    1996-01-01

    Two important features of modern accounts of associative learning are (1) the capacity for contextual stimuli to serve as a signal for an unconditioned stimulus (US) and (2) the capacity for a previously conditioned (excitatory) stimulus to "block" learning about a redundant stimulus when both stimuli serve as a signal for the same US. Here, we examined the process of blocking, thought by some to reflect a cognitive aspect of classical conditioning, and its underlying mechanisms in the marine mollusc Hermissenda. In two behavioral experiments, a context defined by chemosensory stimuli was made excitatory by presenting unsignalled USs (rotation) in that context. The excitatory context subsequently blocked overt learning about a discrete conditioned stimulus (CS; light) paired with the US in that context. In a third experiment, the excitability of the B photoreceptors in the Hermissenda eye, which typically increases following light-rotation pairings, was examined in behaviorally blocked animals, as well as in animals that had acquired a normal CS-US association or animals that had been exposed to the CS and US unpaired. Both the behaviorally blocked and the "normal" learning groups exhibited increases in neuronal excitability relative to unpaired animals. However, light-induced multiunit activity in pedal nerves was suppressed following normal conditioning but not in blocked or unpaired control animals, suggesting that the expression of blocking is mediated by neuronal modifications not directly reflected in B-cell excitability, possibly within an extensive network of central light-responsive interneurons.

  1. Brain activity patterns induced by interrupting the cognitive processes with online advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejer, Izabela; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    As a result of the increasing role of online advertising and strong competition among advertisers, intrusive techniques are commonly used to attract web users' attention. Moreover, since marketing content is usually delivered to the target audience when they are performing typical online tasks, like searching for information or reading online content, its delivery interrupts the web user's current cognitive process. The question posed by many researchers in the field of online advertising is: how should we measure the influence of interruption of cognitive processes on human behavior and emotional state? Much research has been conducted in this field; however, most of this research has focused on monitoring activity in the simulated environment, or processing declarative responses given by users in prepared questionnaires. In this paper, a more direct real-time approach is taken, and the effect of the interruption on a web user is analyzed directly by studying the activity of his brain. This paper presents the results of an experiment that was conducted to find the brain activity patterns associated with interruptions of the cognitive process by showing internet advertisements during a text-reading task. Three specific aspects were addressed in the experiment: individual patterns, the consistency of these patterns across trials, and the intra-subject correlation of the individual patterns. Two main effects were observed for most subjects: a drop in activity in the frontal and prefrontal cortical areas across all frequency bands, and significant changes in the frontal/prefrontal asymmetry index.

  2. Comparing the Cognitive Process of Circular Causality in Two Patients with Strokes through Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshanrad, Seyed Alireza; Piven, Emily; Ghoochani, Bahareh Zeynalzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Walter J. Freeman pioneered the neurodynamic model of brain activity when he described the brain dynamics for cognitive information transfer as the process of circular causality at intention, meaning, and perception (IMP) levels. This view contributed substantially to establishment of the Intention, Meaning, and Perception Model of Neuro-occupation in occupational therapy. As described by the model, IMP levels are three components of the brain dynamics system, with nonlinear connections that enable cognitive function to be processed in a circular causality fashion, known as Cognitive Process of Circular Causality (CPCC). Although considerable research has been devoted to study the brain dynamics by sophisticated computerized imaging techniques, less attention has been paid to study it through investigating the adaptation process of thoughts and behaviors. To explore how CPCC manifested thinking and behavioral patterns, a qualitative case study was conducted on two matched female participants with strokes, who were of comparable ages, affected sides, and other characteristics, except for their resilience and motivational behaviors. CPCC was compared by matrix analysis between two participants, using content analysis with pre-determined categories. Different patterns of thinking and behavior may have happened, due to disparate regulation of CPCC between two participants.

  3. Structural encoding processes contribute to individual differences in face and object cognition: Inferences from psychometric test performance and event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowparast Rostami, Hadiseh; Sommer, Werner; Zhou, Changsong; Wilhelm, Oliver; Hildebrandt, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    The enhanced N1 component in event-related potentials (ERP) to face stimuli, termed N170, is considered to indicate the structural encoding of faces. Previously, individual differences in the latency of the N170 have been related to face and object cognition abilities. By orthogonally manipulating content domain (faces vs objects) and task demands (easy/speed vs difficult/accuracy) in both psychometric and EEG tasks, we investigated the uniqueness of the processes underlying face cognition as compared with object cognition and the extent to which the N1/N170 component can explain individual differences in face and object cognition abilities. Data were recorded from N = 198 healthy young adults. Structural equation modeling (SEM) confirmed that the accuracies of face perception (FP) and memory are specific abilities above general object cognition; in contrast, the speed of face processing was not differentiable from the speed of object cognition. Although there was considerable domain-general variance in the N170 shared with the N1, there was significant face-specific variance in the N170. The brain-behavior relationship showed that faster face-specific processes for structural encoding of faces are associated with higher accuracy in both perceiving and memorizing faces. Moreover, in difficult task conditions, qualitatively different processes are additionally needed for recognizing face and object stimuli as compared with easy tasks. The difficulty-dependent variance components in the N170 amplitude were related with both face and object memory (OM) performance. We discuss implications for understanding individual differences in face cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study and comparison of the meta cognitive-emotional processing and drug therapy in modifying emotional, cognitive and social skills in bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    fatemeh bahrami; seyed kamal Solati dehkordi; ali farhadi

    2009-01-01

    Psychotherapy for bipolor disorder has been very much neglected. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the meta cognitive, emotional processing training (MEPT) with medical and standard therapy (drug) in increasing emotional, cognitive and social skills, of the patients with bipolar disorders. Materials and Methods: This semi experimental study with control group was carried out on 32 females in the 16-40 age bracket, diagnosed with bipolar disorder by means of DSM - IV –R crite...

  5. The Structured Process Modeling Theory (SPMT) : a cognitive view on why and how modelers benefit from structuring the process of process modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claes, J.; Vanderfeesten, I.T.P.; Gailly, F.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Poels, G.

    2015-01-01

    After observing various inexperienced modelers constructing a business process model based on the same textual case description, it was noted that great differences existed in the quality of the produced models. The impression arose that certain quality issues originated from cognitive failures

  6. Cognitive processes and neural basis of language switching: proposal of a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2009-12-09

    Although studies on bilingualism are abundant, cognitive processes and neural foundations of language switching received less attention. The aim of our study is to provide new insights to this still open question: do dedicated region(s) for language switching exist or is this function underlain by a distributed circuit of interconnected brain areas, part of a more general cognitive system? On the basis of recent behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies, we propose an original 'hodological' model of language switching. This process might be subserved by a large-scale cortico-subcortical network, with an executive system (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus) controlling a more dedicated language subcircuit, which involves postero-temporal areas, supramarginal and angular gyri, Broca's area, and the superior longitudinal fasciculus.

  7. Advancing the Assessment of Personality Pathology With the Cognitive-Affective Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past.

  8. Key Performance Indicators for the Impact of Cognitive Assembly Planning on Ramp-Up Process

    OpenAIRE

    Buescher, Christian; Hauck, Eckart; Schilberg, Daniel; Jeschke, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    Within the ramp-up phase of highly automated assembly systems, the planning effort forms a large part of production costs. Due to shortening product lifecycles, changing customer demands, and therefore an increasing number of ramp-up processes, these costs even rise. So assembly systems should reduce these efforts and simultaneously be flexible for quick adaption to changes in products and their variants. A cognitive interaction system in the field of assembly planning systems is developed wi...

  9. Emotional, Cognitive and Self-Enhancement Processes in Aggressive Behavior After Interpersonal Rejection and Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Rajchert

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between exclusion or rejection and aggression is already well documented, but there is still a debate about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. In two studies we focused on the propensity to react aggressively (readiness for aggression) on the bases of emotional, cognitive or self-enhancement (personality-immanent) processes. In both studies we first measured readiness for aggression and then ego-depleted participants. Next, in Study 1 we excluded participants (n = 96) ...

  10. Cognitive Dissonance, Confirmatory Bias and Inadequate Information Processing: Evidence from Experimental Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Ying; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Using psychological terms such as cognitive dissonance and confirmation bias, this study reveals how individual consumers inadequately process (food safety) information, pay limited attention to signals, and make purchase decisions that are bias towards their initial choices. While it is expected that reading extra information about potential risk associated with the food decreases consumers' willingness to pay (WTP), the magnitude of the impact varies across individuals. In general, consumer...

  11. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews.

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees (n = 20) were asked to think aloud and answer questions, as they were prompted with three Dutch web pages providing comparative healthcare information. Results We identified twelve themes fr...

  12. Predictors of affect following treatment decision-making for prostate cancer: conversations, cognitive processing, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Kysa M; Meyerowitz, Beth E; Giedzinska-Simons, Antoinette; Gross, Mitchell; Agus, David B

    2009-05-01

    Research suggests that cancer patients who are more involved in treatment decision-making (TDM) report better quality of life following treatment. This study examines the association and possible mechanisms between prostate cancer patient's discussions about TDM and affect following treatment. We predicted that the length of time patients spent discussing treatment options with social networks and physicians prior to treatment would predict emotional adjustment after treatment. We further predicted that cognitive processing, coping, and patient understanding of treatment options would mediate this association. Fifty-seven patients completed questionnaires prior to treatment and at 1 and 6 months following treatment completion. Findings from the present study suggest that discussing treatment options with others, prior to beginning treatment for prostate cancer, significantly contributed to improvements in affect 1 and 6 months following treatment. Residualized regression analyses indicated that discussing treatment options with patient's social networks predicted a decrease in negative affect 1 and 6 months following treatment, while discussions with physicians predicted an increase in positive affect 1 month following treatment. Patients who spent more time discussing treatment options with family and friends also reported greater pre-treatment social support and emotional expression. Mediation analyses indicated that these coping strategies facilitated cognitive processing (as measured by a decrease in intrusive thoughts) and that cognitive processing predicted improvement in affect. Greater time spent talking with family and friends about treatment options may provide opportunities for patients to cope with their cancer diagnosis and facilitate cognitive processing, which may improve patient distress over time. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Hierarchical processing in the prefrontal cortex in a variety of cognitive domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ae eJeon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This review scrutinizes several findings on human hierarchical processing within the prefrontal cortex (PFC in diverse cognitive domains. Converging evidence from previous studies has shown that the PFC, specifically Brodmann area (BA 44, may function as the essential region for hierarchical processing across the domains. In language fMRI studies, BA 44 was significantly activated for the hierarchical processing of center-embedded sentences and this pattern of activations was also observed in artificial grammar. The same pattern was observed in the visuo-spatial domain where BA44 was actively involved in the processing of hierarchy for the visual symbol. Musical syntax, which is the rule-based arrangement of musical sets, has also been construed as hierarchical processing as in the language domain such that the activation in BA44 was observed in a chord sequence paradigm. P600 ERP was also engendered during the processing of musical hierarchy. Along with a longstanding idea that a human’s number faculty is developed as a by-product of language faculty, BA44 was closely involved in hierarchical processing in mental arithmetic. This review extended its discussion of hierarchical processing to hierarchical behavior, that is, human action which has been referred to as being hierarchically composed. Several lesion and TMS studies supported the involvement of BA44 for hierarchical processing in the action domain. Lastly, the hierarchical organization of cognitive controls was discussed within the PFC, forming a cascade of top-down hierarchical processes operating along a posterior-to-anterior axis of the lateral PFC including BA44 within the network. It is proposed that PFC is actively involved in different forms of hierarchical processing and specifically BA44 may play an integral role in the process. Taking levels of proficiency and subcortical areas into consideration may provide further insight into the functional role of BA44 for hierarchical

  14. FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC EXPERIENCE OF INTEGRATING CLOUD COMPUTING INTO PEDAGOGICAL PROCESS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia A. Khmil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article foreign and domestic experience of integrating cloud computing into pedagogical process of higher educational establishments (H.E.E. has been generalized. It has been stated that nowadays a lot of educational services are hosted in the cloud, e.g. infrastructure as a service (IaaS, platform as a service (PaaS and software as a service (SaaS. The peculiarities of implementing cloud technologies by H.E.E. in Ukraine and abroad have been singled out; the products developed by the leading IT companies for using cloud computing in higher education system, such as Microsoft for Education, Google Apps for Education and Amazon AWS Educate have been reviewed. The examples of concrete types, methods and forms of learning and research work based on cloud services have been provided.

  15. A Case Study of an Internationalization Process of a Private Higher Education Institution in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Abdul Rahim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing competition and commercialization of higher education has led to the internationalization of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs around the world. While internationalization appears to be inevitable, differences are apparent in its definitions, depth, scope and mode. The main aim of this paper is to assess the internationalization efforts of Malaysian HEIs through a case study on the internationalization process of one private HEI. The case highlights various weaknesses of the internationalization effort in the institution. The symptoms and the causes of the problems in the institution corroborate similar findings in other studies involving the internationalization of HEIs. Suggestions and recommendations are presented to enable other organizations that wish to undertake similar internationalization efforts to learn from the case study institution’s experience.

  16. Aligning Strategy with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs: Process Scoping Diagram for Entrepreneurial Higher Education Institutions (HEIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fleacă

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seeing that the prosperity of people and society is possible with the aid of sustained and inclusive economic growth of all countries and regions, the sustainable development of our world has gained the particular attention of a wide range of decisional factors; civil society, the business sector, and the scientific community. Education has a decisive impact on changes in the way that societies are coping with national, regional, and global challenges and opportunities brought by sustainable development. The paper addressed the lack of capacity of higher education institutions (HEIs to integrate the principles and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning, which hampers the capability to act as an entrepreneurial university. Embarking on the path of sustainable development goals (SDGs requires HEI to design, launch, implement, and customize specific processes architecture to govern the advance of the sustainability approach. The authors applied the process scoping diagram to capture and conceptualize the educational model needed to guide the HEI through the process of change in its daily operations. The SIPOC method (Supplier, Input, Process, Output, Customer was applied and with the aid of Visio software tool, the processes relationships were articulated and embedded in the educational model of HEI. Finally, the authors shared their views on the scalability of the model, which may be customized and harmonized in accordance with different HEI’s circumstances and priorities.

  17. Change in cognitive process during dance video game play with different appendages for motor output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kota; Ono, Yumie; Shimada, Sotaro; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Noah, Jack Adam

    2018-02-01

    Playing a dance video game (DVG) requires fine temporal control of foot positions based on simultaneous visuoauditory integration. Despite the highly-demanding nature of its cognitive processes, DVG could offer promising exercise opportunities for elderly people to maintain their cognitive abilities due to its strong adherence. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we have previously shown that DVG play with the foot activates prefrontal and temporoparietal cortices. However, it is still in debate whether this brain-stimulatory effect of DVG could also be maintained in case that DVG is played with the hand by people who have difficulty to play DVG in a standing position. We therefore investigated the regional brain activity of 12 healthy, right-handed young-adults when they played DVG with their dominant hand and foot. We found that the DVG-related hemodynamic activity was comparable in the prefrontal area regardless of the appendages while that was significantly smaller in case of playing with the hand related to the foot in the left superior/middle temporal gyrus (S/MTG). A similar trend was also observed in the right S/MTG. These results suggest that the motor preparatory function mediated by the prefrontal cortices is equally employed regardless of appendages while more cognitive load is required in the temporal cortices with foot-played DVG, possibly to integrate visual, auditory, and proprioceptive information. Hand-played DVG may partially substitute foot-played DVG in the sense of cognitive training in the elderly.

  18. Influence of shift work on cognitive performance in male business process outsourcing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwetha, Bijavara; Sudhakar, Honnamachanahalli

    2012-09-01

    India is a front runner in IT industry. Business process outsourcing (BPO) sector is a major part of IT industry with around 4.5 million employees. These employees are subjected to high work stress, odd working hours, and frequent shift changes leading to increased physical and mental health problems. To study the cognitive functions in male BPO employees exposed to regular shifts. Young BPO employees from various BPO companies of Bangalore were tested for cognitive functions. Fifty male BPO employees exposed to regular shifts were assessed for various cognitive functions including tests for speed, attention, learning and memory, and executive function. They were compared with 50 non-BPO employees not working in shifts. Statistical analysis - Data was analysed by t-test and Mann-Whitney test using SPSS V.13.0. BPO employees performed poorly compared to their controls in tests for mental speed, learning and memory, and response inhibition. No changes were seen between groups in tests for attention and working memory. Cognitive functions are impaired in BPO employees exposed to regular shift changes.

  19. Heart rate variability and cognitive processing: The autonomic response to task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Perales, José C; Cárdenas, David; Sanabria, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated variations in heart rate variability (HRV) as a function of cognitive demands. Participants completed an execution condition including the psychomotor vigilance task, a working memory task and a duration discrimination task. The control condition consisted of oddball versions (participants had to detect the rare event) of the tasks from the execution condition, designed to control for the effect of the task parameters (stimulus duration and stimulus rate) on HRV. The NASA-TLX questionnaire was used as a subjective measure of cognitive workload across tasks and conditions. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, HRV varied as a function of task demands (with the lowest values in the working memory task). Second, and crucially, we found similar HRV values when comparing each of the tasks with its oddball control equivalent, and a significant decrement in HRV as a function of time-on-task. Finally, the NASA-TLX results showed larger cognitive workload in the execution condition than in the oddball control condition, and scores variations as a function of task. Taken together, our results suggest that HRV is highly sensitive to overall demands of sustained attention over and above the influence of other cognitive processes suggested by previous literature. In addition, our study highlights a potential dissociation between objective and subjective measures of mental workload, with important implications in applied settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Theory of mind and context processing in schizophrenia: the role of cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne-Lavau, Maud; Charest, Anick; Anselmo, Karyne; Rodriguez, Jean-Pierre; Blouin, Guy

    2012-12-30

    The present study sought to identify whether cognitive flexibility and context processing may impact theory of mind (ToM) ability in schizophrenia. Thirty two patients with schizophrenia and 29 matched healthy participants were tested individually on their ToM ability using a task involving attribution and comprehension of a speaker's ironic intent. This task made it possible to determine whether the degree of incongruity between contextual information and a target sentence has an impact on the attribution of ironic intent to the protagonists of a story. Participants were also assessed on their cognitive flexibility and working memory. The main results revealed that participants with schizophrenia correctly perceived contextual information cueing attribution of ironic intent to the protagonist of the stimulus, but they showed difficulty to correctly integrate this information, performing significantly worse than healthy participants when they attributed mental states. However, some participants with schizophrenia performed like healthy control participants on the ToM task while others did not. A lack of flexibility seems to differentiate the two schizophrenia subgroups thereby obtained, suggesting that cognitive flexibility has an impact on ToM performances in schizophrenia. These difficulties were not associated with clinical symptoms. Such results will have an impact on cognitive remediation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.