Burke, Tina M.; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P.
Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic, and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood, and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-daylong study that included two 14-daylong 28h forced desynchrony protocols, to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis, and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selectiv...
Burke, Tina M; Scheer, Frank A J L; Ronda, Joseph M; Czeisler, Charles A; Wright, Kenneth P
Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-day-long study that included two 14-day-long 28-h forced desynchrony protocols to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selective visual attention. Cognitive performance for most measures was impaired immediately after scheduled awakening and improved during the first ~2-4 h of wakefulness (decreasing sleep inertia); worsened thereafter until scheduled bedtime (increasing sleep homeostasis); and was worst at ~60° and best at ~240° (circadian modulation, with worst and best phases corresponding to ~09:00 and ~21:00 hours, respectively, in individuals with a habitual wake time of 07:00 hours). The relative influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase depended on the specific higher-order cognitive function task examined. Inhibitory control appeared to be modulated most strongly by circadian phase, whereas selective visual attention for a spatial-configuration search task was modulated most strongly by sleep inertia. These findings demonstrate that some higher-order cognitive processes are differentially sensitive to different sleep-wake regulatory processes. Differential modulation of cognitive functions by different sleep-wake regulatory processes has important implications for understanding mechanisms contributing to performance impairments during adverse circadian phases, sleep deprivation and/or upon awakening from sleep. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
Guerra-Carrillo, Belén; Katovich, Kiefer; Bunge, Silvia A
Attending school is a multifaceted experience. Students are not only exposed to new knowledge but are also immersed in a structured environment in which they need to respond flexibly in accordance with changing task goals, keep relevant information in mind, and constantly tackle novel problems. To quantify the cumulative effect of this experience, we examined retrospectively and prospectively, the relationships between educational attainment and both cognitive performance and learning. We analyzed data from 196,388 subscribers to an online cognitive training program. These subscribers, ages 15-60, had completed eight behavioral assessments of executive functioning and reasoning at least once. Controlling for multiple demographic and engagement variables, we found that higher levels of education predicted better performance across the full age range, and modulated performance in some cognitive domains more than others (e.g., reasoning vs. processing speed). Differences were moderate for Bachelor's degree vs. High School (d = 0.51), and large between Ph.D. vs. Some High School (d = 0.80). Further, the ages of peak cognitive performance for each educational category closely followed the typical range of ages at graduation. This result is consistent with a cumulative effect of recent educational experiences, as well as a decrement in performance as completion of schooling becomes more distant. To begin to characterize the directionality of the relationship between educational attainment and cognitive performance, we conducted a prospective longitudinal analysis. For a subset of 69,202 subscribers who had completed 100 days of cognitive training, we tested whether the degree of novel learning was associated with their level of education. Higher educational attainment predicted bigger gains, but the differences were small (d = 0.04-0.37). Altogether, these results point to the long-lasting trace of an effect of prior cognitive challenges but suggest that new learning
Vaucheret Paz, E; López Ballent, A; Puga, C; García Basalo, M J; Baliarda, F; Ekonen, C; Ilari, R; Agosta, G
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous syndrome often associated with specific cognitive deficits that are rarely monitored during follow-up of these patients. The purpose of our study is two-fold. First, we aimed to describe the cognitive profile of patients with NF1 and detect disorders in higher brain functions associated with the disease. Second, we identified the reasons for consultation associated with school performance in these patients. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 24 paediatric patients (ages 5 to 16) with NF1 who underwent neuropsychological assessment. The most frequent reasons for consultation were attention deficits (58.33%), learning disorders (25%), poor motor coordination (25%), and language impairment (0.8%). Although 96% of the patients displayed impairments in at least one of the assessed areas, only 83.34% of the parents had reported such impairments. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was present in 58.33% of the patients, whereas 33.33% had nonverbal learning disabilities, 20.83% had expressive language disorder, 8.33% had borderline intellectual functioning, 4.16% had mental retardation, and only 4.16% showed no cognitive impairment. Higher brain functions are frequently impaired in paediatric patients with NF1. Although many parents report such disorders, they can go undetected in some cases. Neuropsychological assessment is recommended for all paediatric patients with NF1 to detect cognitive impairment and provide early, effective rehabilitation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Correia, Rut; Navarrete, Gorka
Higher education (HE) faces the challenge of responding to an increasing diversity. In this context, more attention is being paid to teachers and teaching skills positively related to students learning. Beyond the knowledges identified as key components of an effective teacher, teachers also need to be capable of unraveling what their students think and believe, and how they accommodate the new information. More importantly, teachers need to be able to adapt their own teaching to their audience's needs. In learners, social cognition (SC) has been related to a better receptivity to the different teacher-student interactions. Since these interactions are bidirectional, SC could also help to explain teachers' receptiveness to the information available in feedback situations. However, little is known about how SC is related to teacher development, and therefore teaching effectiveness, in HE. In addition, executive functions (EFs), closely related to SC, could play a key role in the ability to self-regulate their own teaching to better answering their students emerging needs. Although there is wide evidence regarding the association of EFs to performance in high demanding settings, as far as we know, there are no studies exploring the relationship between teachers' EFs and teaching effectiveness in HE. Establishing a positive association between teaching effectiveness and these socio-cognitive functions could be a promising first step in designing professional development programs that promote HE academics' ability to understand and care about students thoughts and emotions, to eventually adapt their teaching to their students needs for a better learning.
Ellwardt, Lea; Van Tilburg, Theo G.; Aartsen, MarjaJ.
Stronger engagement of older adults in social activities and greater embeddedness in networks is often argued to buffer cognitive decline and lower risks of dementia. One of the explanations is that interaction with other people trains the brain, thereby enhancing cognitive functioning. However,
Full Text Available Higher education (HE faces the challenge of responding to an increasing diversity. In this context, more attention is being paid to teachers and teaching skills positively related to students learning. Beyond the knowledges identified as key components of an effective teacher, teachers also need to be capable of unraveling what their students think and believe, and how they accommodate the new information. More importantly, teachers need to be able to adapt their own teaching to their audience’s needs. In learners, social cognition (SC has been related to a better receptivity to the different teacher-student interactions. Since these interactions are bidirectional, SC could also help to explain teachers’ receptiveness to the information available in feedback situations. However, little is known about how SC is related to teacher development, and therefore teaching effectiveness, in HE. In addition, executive functions (EFs, closely related to SC, could play a key role in the ability to self-regulate their own teaching to better answering their students emerging needs. Although there is wide evidence regarding the association of EFs to performance in high demanding settings, as far as we know, there are no studies exploring the relationship between teachers’ EFs and teaching effectiveness in HE. Establishing a positive association between teaching effectiveness and these socio-cognitive functions could be a promising first step in designing professional development programs that promote HE academics’ ability to understand and care about students thoughts and emotions, to eventually adapt their teaching to their students needs for a better learning.
Reas, E T; Laughlin, G A; Kritz-Silverstein, D; Barrett-Connor, E; McEvoy, L K
Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. A research visit between 1988-1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements: Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be achieved with low levels of drinking that are unlikely to be
Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...
Rochelle E. Tractenberg
Full Text Available Executive function (EF is believed to control or influence the integration and application of cognitive functions such as attention and memory and is an important area of research in cognitive aging. Recent studies and reviews have concluded that there is no single test for EF. Results from first-order latent variable modeling have suggested that little, if any, variability in cognitive performance can be directly (and uniquely attributed to EF; so instead, we modeled EF, as it is conceptualized, as a higher-order function, using elements of the CERAD neuropsychological battery. Responses to subtests from two large, independent cohorts of nondemented elderly persons were modeled with three theoretically plausible structural models using confirmatory factor analysis. Robust fit statistics, generated for the two cohorts separately, were consistent and support the conceptualization of EF as a higher-order cognitive faculty. Although not specifically designed to assess EF, subtests of the CERAD battery provide theoretically and empirically robust evidence about the nature of EF in elderly adults.
Constable, Paul A; Ring, Melanie; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bowler, Dermot M
The Vygotsky Blocks Test assesses problem-solving styles within a theoretical framework for the development of higher mental processes devised by Vygotsky. Because both the theory and the associated test situate cognitive development within the child's social and linguistic context, they address conceptual issues around the developmental relation between language and thought that are pertinent to development in autism. Our aim was to document the performance of adults with autism spectrum disorder on the Vygotsky Blocks Test, and our results showed that they made more errors than the typically developing participants and that these errors correlated with performance IQ. The autism spectrum disorder group also required more cues than the typically developing group to discern the conceptual structure of the blocks, a pattern that correlated with Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule-Communication and Imagination/Creativity sub-scales. When asked to categorize the blocks in new ways, the autism spectrum disorder participants developed fewer principles on which to base new categorizations, which in contrast to the typically developing group correlated with verbal IQ and with the Imagination/Creativity sub-scale of the ADOS. These results are in line with a number of existing findings in the autism spectrum disorder literature and confirm that conceptualization in autism spectrum disorder seems to rely more on non-verbal and less on imaginative processes than in typically developing individuals. The findings represent first steps to the possibility of outlining a testable account of psychological development in autism spectrum disorder that integrates verbal, non-verbal and social factors into the transition from elementary to higher level processes.
Reinvall, Outi; Kujala, Teija; Voutilainen, Arja; Moisio, Anu-Liisa; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Laasonen, Marja
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was introduced in 1980s in the field of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies indicate that symptoms of SCT are separate from symptoms of ADHD and independently associated with multiple domains of functioning in clinical groups and in typical development. We assessed whether similar pattern would apply to higher functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with higher functioning ASD (N = 55; 5-15 years) were divided into the ASD+High SCT (n = 17), the ASD+Medium SCT (n = 18) and the ASD+Low SCT (n = 20) groups based on parent-rated daydreaming and slowness on the Five to Fifteen questionnaire (FTF). The groups were compared on SCT-related impairments found in previous studies: social skills, academic functioning, psychiatric symptoms, and processing speed. Assessment methods were the FTF, the Development and Well-Being Assessment, and the Coding subtest of the WISC-III. The ADHD symptoms were statistically controlled due to the overlap between SCT and ADHD. The ASD+High SCT and ASD+Medium SCT groups were significantly more likely to have the most pronounced social impairments, and the ASD+High SCT group had significantly higher rate of internalizing disorders compared to the ASD+Low SCT group. Our results suggest that children with higher functioning ASD and high or medium levels of SCT symptoms could be at higher risk for psychosocial impairments than children with higher functioning ASD with low levels of SCT symptoms. Co-occurring ADHD symptoms do not explain the finding. Recognizing SCT symptoms in higher functioning ASD would be important to targeting preventive support. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sakamoto, Maiko; Woods, Steven Paul; Kolessar, Michael; Kriz, Daniel; Anderson, J Renee; Olavarria, Hannah; Sasaki, Anna W; Chang, Michael; Flora, Kenneth D; Loftis, Jennifer M; Huckans, Marilyn
Higher levels of cognitive reserve (CR) can be protective against the neuropsychological manifestation of neural injury across a variety of clinical disorders. However, the role of CR in the expression of neurocognitive deficits among persons infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is not well understood. Thirty-nine HCV-infected participants were classified as having either high (n = 19) or low (n = 20) CR based on educational attainment, oral word reading, and IQ scores. A sample of 40 demographically comparable healthy adults (HA) was also included. All participants completed the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, and Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Linear regression analyses, controlling for gender, depression, and lifetime substance use disorders, found significant effects of HCV/CR group on verbal fluency, executive functions, and daily functioning T scores, but not in learning or the BRIEF-A. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the HCV group with low CR performed significantly below the HCV high CR and HA cohorts, who did not differ from one another. Findings indicate that higher levels of CR may be a protective factor in the neurocognitive and real-world manifestation of neural injury commonly associated with HCV infection.
Fady eShibata Alnajjar
Full Text Available Higher-order cognitive mechanisms (HOCM, such as planning, cognitive branching, switching, etc., are known to be the outcomes of a unique neural organizations and dynamics between various regions of the frontal lobe. Although some recent anatomical and neuroimaging studies have shed light on the architecture underlying the formation of such mechanisms, the neural dynamics and the pathways in and between the frontal lobe to form and/or to tune the stability level of its working memory remain controversial. A model to clarify this aspect is therefore required. In this study, we propose a simple neurocomputational model that suggests the basic concept of how HOCM, including the cognitive branching and switching in particular, may mechanistically emerge from time-based neural interactions. The proposed model is constructed such that its functional and structural hierarchy mimics, to a certain degree, the biological hierarchy that is believed to exist between local regions in the frontal lobe. Thus, the hierarchy is attained not only by the force of the layout architecture of the neural connections but also through distinct types of neurons, each with different time properties. To validate the model, cognitive branching and switching tasks were simulated in a physical humanoid robot driven by the model. Results reveal that separation between the lower and the higher-level neurons in such a model is an essential factor to form an appropriate working memory to handle cognitive branching and switching. The analyses of the obtained result also illustrates that the breadth of this separation is important to determine the characteristics of the resulting memory, either static memory or dynamic memory. This work can be considered as a joint research between synthetic and empirical studies, which can open an alternative research area for better understanding of brain mechanisms
Alnajjar, Fady; Yamashita, Yuichi; Tani, Jun
Higher-order cognitive mechanisms (HOCM), such as planning, cognitive branching, switching, etc., are known to be the outcomes of a unique neural organizations and dynamics between various regions of the frontal lobe. Although some recent anatomical and neuroimaging studies have shed light on the architecture underlying the formation of such mechanisms, the neural dynamics and the pathways in and between the frontal lobe to form and/or to tune the stability level of its working memory remain controversial. A model to clarify this aspect is therefore required. In this study, we propose a simple neurocomputational model that suggests the basic concept of how HOCM, including the cognitive branching and switching in particular, may mechanistically emerge from time-based neural interactions. The proposed model is constructed such that its functional and structural hierarchy mimics, to a certain degree, the biological hierarchy that is believed to exist between local regions in the frontal lobe. Thus, the hierarchy is attained not only by the force of the layout architecture of the neural connections but also through distinct types of neurons, each with different time properties. To validate the model, cognitive branching and switching tasks were simulated in a physical humanoid robot driven by the model. Results reveal that separation between the lower and the higher-level neurons in such a model is an essential factor to form an appropriate working memory to handle cognitive branching and switching. The analyses of the obtained result also illustrates that the breadth of this separation is important to determine the characteristics of the resulting memory, either static memory or dynamic memory. This work can be considered as a joint research between synthetic and empirical studies, which can open an alternative research area for better understanding of brain mechanisms.
Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B
Social-interpersonal dysfunction increases disability in major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we clarified the durability of improvements in social-interpersonal functioning made during acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT), whether continuation CT (C-CT) or fluoxetine (FLX) further improved functioning, and relations of functioning with depressive symptoms and relapse/recurrence. Adult outpatients (N=241) with recurrent MDD who responded to acute-phase CT with higher risk of relapse (due to unstable or partial remission) were randomized to 8 months of C-CT, FLX, or pill placebo plus clinical management (PBO) and followed 24 additional months. We analyzed repeated measures of patients' social adjustment, interpersonal problems, dyadic adjustment, depressive symptoms, and major depressive relapse/recurrence. Large improvements in social-interpersonal functioning occurring during acute-phase CT (median d=1.4) were maintained, with many patients (median=66%) scoring in normal ranges for 32 months. Social-interpersonal functioning did not differ significantly among C-CT, FLX, and PBO arms. Beyond concurrently measured residual symptoms, deterioration in social-interpersonal functioning preceded and predicted upticks in depressive symptoms and major depressive relapse/recurrence. Results may not generalize to other patient populations, treatment protocols, or measures of social-interpersonal functioning. Mechanisms of risk connecting poorer social-interpersonal functioning with depression were not studied. Average improvements in social-interpersonal functioning among higher-risk responders to acute phase CT are durable for 32 months. After acute-phase CT, C-CT or FLX may not further improve social-interpersonal functioning. Among acute-phase CT responders, deteriorating social-interpersonal functioning provides a clear, measurable signal of risk for impending major depressive relapse/recurrence and opportunity for preemptive intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B
Any global consideration of the theme 'Evolution and Cognition' requires a clear definition of what we mean by the term 'cognition'. In contemporary cognitive science, there are two distinct paradigms with contrasting definitions of cognition. The computational theory of mind is based on the syntaxical manipulation of symbolic representations; this paradigm is objectivist because the postulate of a unique independent reality is necessary as a referential basis for semantic grounding of the symbols. The alternative 'constructivist' paradigm is based on the biological metaphor 'cognition = life' and programmatically follows the evolution of cognition from bacteria to civilized humans; it is non-objectivist. There is a definite tendency to consider that the computational theory is appropriate for 'high-level' human cognition, whereas the constructivist approach is appropriate for 'low-level' cognition. This article argues against such a division of labour, since the issue of objectivism is a watershed which continues to demarcate the computational and constructivist paradigms in their respective approaches to higher-level cognition.
Vaz-Serra, Adriano; Palha, António; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Bessa-Peixoto, Alberto; Brissos, Sofia; Casquinha, Paula; Damas-Reis, Filipe; Ferreira, Luís; Gago, Joaquim; Jara, José; Relvas, João; Marques-Teixeira, João
The major reviews of the literature support the idea that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia present cognitive deficits in several domains, more marked in the domains of verbal memory, vigilance and attention, memory, intellectual quotient, language and executive functioning. Such deficits appear to be one of the main determinants of these patients' functional outcome. More recently, social cognition deficits have been described. Social cognition may be understood as a separate and independent dimension of neurocognition or non-social cognition and may constitute a mediator between the neurocognition and functioning. However, there has been controversy concerning the real meaning of deficits observed due to the diversity of analysis methodologies employed and the fact that the available neuropsychological tests and batteries have not been specifically designed to evaluate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In this paper, the Working Group on Schizophrenia (GTE) describes and highlights the existing clinical and scientific evidence, performs a critical review of cognitive functioning, social cognition and its impact on functional outcome, in patients with schizophrenia. The authors review definitions of (neuro)cognition, social cognition and functioning, analyze the existing methods for its assessment, describe the treatments available in this context and summarize the evidence of dysfunctions in these three concepts, taking into account their interconnection. Overall, the GTE considered the need for a standardized battery of tests to measure neurocognition, social cognition and functioning, consensually accepting the use of MATRICS as the standard tool for assessing neurocognition in schizophrenia. It was also recognized that verbal memory and vigilance deficits may be the best predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia. In addition, the GTE has established social cognition as a priority area in the study of schizophrenia
Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew
We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…
Davidson, Jacob G S; Guthrie, Dawn M
Hearing and vision impairment were examined across several health-related outcomes and across a set of quality indicators (QIs) in home care clients with both vision and hearing loss (or dual sensory impairment [DSI]). Data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) were analyzed in a sample of older home care clients. The QIs represent the proportion of clients experiencing negative outcomes (e.g., falls, social isolation). The average age of clients was 82.8 years ( SD = 7.9), 20.5% had DSI and 8.5% had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clients with DSI were more likely to have a diagnosis of dementia (not AD), have functional impairments, report loneliness, and have higher rates across 20 of the 22 QIs, including communication difficulty and cognitive decline. Clients with highly impaired hearing, and any visual impairment, had the highest QI rates. Individuals with DSI experience higher rates of adverse events across many health-related outcomes and QIs. Understanding the unique contribution of hearing and vision in this group can promote optimal quality of care.
Breeman, L.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/390776114; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter
BACKGROUND: Very preterm (VP; gestational age ,32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; abstract ,1500 g) births are related to impaired cognitive function across the life span. It is not known how stable cognitive functions are from childhood to adulthood for VP/VLBW compared with term-born
Elias, Merrill F; Dore, Gregory A; Davey, Adam
We provide a brief review of research on chronic kidney disease and cognitive performance, including dementia. We touch briefly on the literature relating end-stage-renal disease to cognitive function, but focus on studies of modest and moderate forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that precede dialysis and transplantation. We summarize previous reviews dealing with case control studies of patients but more fully examine community-based studies with large samples and necessary controls for demographic risk factors, cardiovascular variables, and other confounds such as depression. In addition we suggest potential biological and social-psychological mediators between CKD and cognition. Studies follow in two categories of design: (1) cross-sectional studies, and (2) longitudinal studies. In each, CKD is related to a wide range of deficits in cognitive functioning including verbal and visual memory and organization, and components of executive functioning and fluid intellect. In general, prior to the need to treat with hemodialysis (HD) or kidney transplant (KT), magnitude of effect with relation to CKD and function are small or modest in persons free from acute stroke and dementia. However, HD and KT can result in major impairment. We discuss needed controls, the greater demand on controls after the start of HD and KT, and suggest that mechanisms intervening relations between hypertension, or diabetes, and cognitive performance may be similar to those intervening between hypertension and cognitive performance and the hypertension and diabetes literature on cognition provides a good model for the study of early stage kidney disease and cognitive ability. We posit that the mechanisms linking CKD and cognition may be similar to those linking hypertension or diabetes to cognition. We identify the need for more studies with multiple cognitive test batteries, measures of every-day cognitive abilities relevant to patient understanding of the disease and treatments, and more
Donovan, Neila J; Kendall, Diane L; Heaton, Shelley C; Kwon, Sooyeon; Velozo, Craig A; Duncan, Pamela W
Up to 65% of individuals demonstrate poststroke cognitive impairments, which may increase hospital stay and caregiver burden. Randomized stroke clinical trials have emphasized physical recovery over cognition. Neuropsychological assessments have had limited utility in randomized clinical trials. These issues accentuate the need for a measure of functional cognition (the ability to accomplish everyday activities that rely on cognitive abilities, such as locating keys, conveying information, or planning activities). The aim of the study was to present the process used to establish domains of functional cognition for development of computer adaptive measure of functional cognition for stroke. Functional cognitive domains involved in identifying relevant neuropsychological constructs from the literature were conceptualized and finalized after advisory panel feedback from experts in neurology, neuropsychology, aphasiology, clinical trials, and epidemiology. The following 17 domains were proposed: receptive aphasia, expressive aphasia, agraphia, alexia, calculation, visuospatial, visuoperceptual, visuoconstruction, attention, language usage, executive functions, orientation, processing speed, memory, working memory, mood, awareness and abstract reasoning. The advisory panel recommended retaining the first 12 domains. Recommended changes included: to address only encoding and retrieval of recent information in the memory domain; to add domains for limb apraxia and poststroke depression; and to keep orientation as a separate domain or reclassify it under memory or attention. The final 10 domains included: language, reading and writing, numeric/calculation, limb praxis, visuospatial function, social use of language, emotional function, attention, executive function, and memory. Conceptualizing domains of functional cognition is the first step in developing a computer adaptive measure of functional cognition for stroke. Additional steps include developing, refining, and
Wärnberg, Julia; Gomez-Martinez, Sonia; Romeo, Javier; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Marcos, Ascensión
Inflammation, particularly low-grade chronic inflammation, appears to affect several brain functions, from early brain development to the development of neurodegenerative disorders and perhaps some psychiatric diseases. On the other hand, nutrition and dietary components and patterns have a plethora of anti- and pro-inflammatory effects that could be linked to cognitive function. Even a modest effect of nutrition on cognitive decline could have significant implications for public health. This paper summarizes the available evidence regarding inflammation as a key mechanism in cognitive function and nutritional pro- or anti-inflammatory effects with the purpose of linking the apparent disparate disciplines of nutrition, immunity, and neurology.
Alicia de la Parra
Conclusions: Children with mHPA achieved cognitive performance well within the average range and attained significantly higher scores than children with PKU. However, they appeared to have relative weaknesses in working memory and attention, similar to children with PKU.
Kortekaas-Rijlaarsdam, Anne Fleur; Luman, Marjolein; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Bet, Pierre; Oosterlaan, Jaap
This study investigated whether improvements in working memory, reaction time, lapses of attention, interference control, academic motivation, and perceived competence mediated effects of methylphenidate on math performance. Sixty-three children (ADHD diagnosis; methylphenidate treatment; age 8-13; IQ > 70) were randomly allocated to a 7-day methylphenidate or placebo treatment in this double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study and compared with 67 controls. Data were collected at schools and analyzed using mixed-model analysis. Methylphenidate was hypothesized to improve all measures; all measures were evaluated as potential mediators of methylphenidate-related math improvements. Controls mostly outperformed the ADHD group. Methylphenidate did not affect measures of cognitive functioning ( p = .082-.641) or academic motivation ( p = .199-.865). Methylphenidate improved parent ratings of their child's self-perceived competence ( p motivational deficits associated with ADHD for medication-related academic improvement. They also stimulate further study of perceived competence as a mediator.
Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation
Marquine, María J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.
There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in ch...
Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Fan, Jin
Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions are involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena.
Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with...
Hatcher, Janet; Snowling, Margaret J; Griffiths, Yvonne M
Previous studies have shown that the phonological deficits that characterise dyslexia persist into adulthood. There is a growing number of dyslexic students in higher education for whom sensitive diagnostic tests of their reading and reading related difficulties are required. The main aim of this study was to compare the cognitive skills of dyslexic students with those of their non-dyslexic peers, and to ascertain the impact of cognitive difficulties on their study skills. A second aim was to produce guidelines for the assessment of dyslexia in higher education. The performance of 23 dyslexic students was compared with that of a comparison group of 50 students from the same university who did not report a history of reading difficulty. Participants completed standardised tests of IQ, reading, spelling and arithmetic and tests tapping phonological processing, verbal fluency and speed of processing. Their performance on a set of study-related tasks including proof reading and précis writing was also assessed and they completed the Brown ADD scales. Although dyslexic students did not differ in general cognitive ability from controls, they had deficits in reading and reading related phonological processes. Discriminant function analyses indicated that dyslexia in adulthood can be confirmed with 95% accuracy using only four tests: spelling, nonword reading, digit span and writing speed. The study highlighted the difficulties of dyslexic adults. The persisting difficulties of dyslexic students that affect their study skills need to be recognised by HE institutions so that appropriate support programmes can be put in place.
Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Duan, Haiping
years for seven cognitive measurements including visuospatial, linguistic skills, naming, memory, attention, abstraction and orientation abilities. Data were analysed by fitting univariate and bivariate twin models to estimate the genetic and environmental components in the variance and co...... cognitive function (0.44, 95% CI: 0.34-0.53) and low to moderate for visuospatial, naming, attention and orientation abilities ranging from 0.28 to 0.38. No genetic contribution was estimated to linguistic skill, abstraction and memory which instead were under low to moderate control by shared environmental......BACKGROUND: the genetic and environmental contributions to cognitive function in the old people have been well addressed for the Western populations using twin modelling showing moderate to high heritability. No similar study has been conducted in the world largest and rapidly ageing Chinese...
Hendel Russell Jay
Full Text Available We present a content-independent formulation of higher cognitive pedagogy, by identifying higher cognitive pedagogy with executive function which in turn we equate with continual multi-dimensional processing of drivers of outcomes. The key focus in this definition is on multiple dimensions. We apply our definition to four diverse disciplines: a mathematical modeling of verbal problems is presented as an interaction between the dimensions of language and algebra; b complex mathematical problems are presented as an interaction between multiple sub-problems participating in one solution; c essay writing is presented as an interaction between specific atomic competency skills – creating meaningful sentence pairs – and hierarchical organization into greater wholes such as paragraphs and essays; d foreign language translation is presented as a dimensional parsing of hypernyms and hyponyms; similarly, literary translation is presented as a dynamic interaction between multiple dimensions of a literary work. We show consistency and correlation between the executive-function pedagogical approach and the Bloom-Anderson approach.
Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi
The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…
Barnes, Jill N.
Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding…
Tsuzuki, Takashi; Kawahara, Tetsuo; Kusumi, Takashi
Connectionist modeling is one approach to understanding human intelligence using simulated networks of neuron-like processing units. In this article, we report on recent progress in connectionist models that simulate empirical data of higher-level cognitive processes, these being memory, learning, language, thinking, cognitive development, and social cognition. We also review and summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these connectionist models. The computational framework of connectionist modeling has the potential to integrate specialized psychological findings of different areas using the same architectures and local functions of units and connections, inspired from neuroscience. In particular, the problems of dealing with structured information in distributed form, and doing tasks that require variable binding in connectionist networks are discussed from several different perspectives. As one possible solution to treat systematic mental representations properly, the symbolic connectionist model, which is a hybrid approach using symbolic representations and connectionist architectures, is explained. We argue that connectionist computer simulation offers significant benefits for today's psychological researches, and that connectionist modeling is likely to have an important influence on future studies.
Assessment of higher level cognitive-communication functions in adolescents with ABI: Standardization of the student version of the functional assessment of verbal reasoning and executive strategies (S-FAVRES).
Childhood acquired brain injuries can disrupt communication functions needed for success in school, work and social interaction. Cognitive-communication difficulties may not be apparent until adolescence, when academic, environmental and social-emotional demands increase. The Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Executive Strategies for Students (S-FAVRES) is a new activity-level measure of cognitive-communication skills in complex, contextual and integrative tasks that simulate real world communication challenges. It is hypothesized that S-FAVRES performance would differentiate adolescents with and without acquired brain injury (ABI) on scores for Accuracy, Rationale, Reasoning Subskills and Time. S-FAVRES was administered to 182 typically-developing (TD) and 57 adolescents with mild-to-severe ABI aged 12-19. Group differences, internal consistency, sensitivity, specificity, reliability and contributing factors to performance (age, gender, brain injury) were examined statistically. Those with ABI attained statistically lower Accuracy, Rationale and Reasoning sub-skills scores than their TD peers. Time scores were not significantly different. Performance trends were consistent across tasks, administrations, gender and age groups. Inter-rater reliability for scoring was acceptable. The S-FAVRES provides a reliable, functional and quantifiable measure of subtle cognitive-communication difficulties in adolescents that can assist speech-language pathologists in planning treatment and integration to school and real world communication.
Barton, Jason J S
Both monkey and human neuroimaging studies show that visual processing beyond the striate cortex involves a highly complex network of regions with modular functions. Lesions within this network lead to specific clinical syndromes. In this review we discuss studies on blindsight, which is the ability of remaining regions to support vision in the absence of striate cortex or visual awareness, recent work on 'ventral stream' syndromes such as object agnosia, alexia, prosopagnosia, and topographagnosia, which follow damage to medial occipitotemporal structures, and simultanagnosia, the classic 'dorsal stream' deficit related to bilateral occipitoparietal lesions. We highlight work on the anatomic basis of blindsight, the recent description of the new disorder developmental topographic disorientation, and studies contrasting global and local perception in simultanagnosia. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms of complex visual processing and provide an important neuropsychological complement to our expanding knowledge about vision from functional neuroimaging.
Higher overall cognitive functioning (a combination of memory and executive functioning) was positively associated with: younger age; white, Indian/Asian or coloured ethnicity; being married; a higher level of education; greater wealth; a higher level of physical activity; a greater quality of life; and a better subjective health ...
Lewis, Nathan A; Turiano, Nicholas A; Payne, Brennan R; Hill, Patrick L
With an increasingly aging population, more work is needed to identify factors which may promote the maintenance of normal cognitive functioning. The current study tested the concurrent association between sense of purpose in life and the cognitive variables of episodic memory, executive functioning, and composite cognitive functioning in adults (N = 3489, Mage = 56.3 years, SD = 12.27, Range = 32-84 years) from the Midlife in the United States study (MIDUS). Correlational analyses suggested that purpose in life was associated with higher scores for memory, executive functioning, and overall cognition. Bootstrapping tests of moderation found no evidence for a moderating effect of age on purpose and the cognitive variables. Future studies should attempt to explain the mechanisms behind this relationship and explore the potential for interventions to promote healthy cognitive and purposeful aging.
Cherubini, Antonio; Lowenthal, David T; Paran, Esther; Mecocci, Patrizia; Williams, Leonard S; Senin, Umberto
Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent and common form of cognitive impairment, ie, dementia, in the elderly followed in second place by vascular dementia due to the microangiopathy associated with poorly-controlled hypertension. Besides blood pressure elevation, advancing age is the strongest risk factor for dementia. Deterioration of intellectual function and cognitive skills that leads to the elderly patient becoming more and more dependent in his, her, activities of daily living, ie, bathing, dressing, feeding self, locomotion, and personal hygiene. It has been known and demonstrated for many years that lowering of blood pressure from a previous hypertensive point can result in stroke prevention yet lowering of blood pressure does not prevent the microangiopathy that leads to white matter demyelinization which when combined with the clinical cognitive deterioration is compatible with a diagnosis of vascular dementia. It is known from many large studies, ie, SHEP, SCOPE, and HOPE, that lowering of blood pressure gradually will not and should not worsen the cognitive impairment. However, if the pressure is uncontrolled a stroke which might consequently occur would further worsen their cognitive derangement. So an attempt at slow reduction of blood pressure since cerebral autoregulation is slower as age increases is in the patient's best interest. It is also important to stress that control of blood glucose can also be seen as an attempt to prevent vascular dementia from uncontrolled hyperglycemia. Vascular dementia is not considered one of the reversible causes of dementia. Reversible causes of cognitive impairment are over medication with centrally acting drugs such as sedatives, hypnotics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics, electrolyte imbalance such as hyponatremia, azotemia, chronic liver disease, and poor controlled chronic congestive heart failure. Criteria for the clinical diagnosis of vascular dementia include cognitive decline in regards to
This article argues that we can use the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) to reconceptualise the project of bridging the articulation gap between further and higher education in South Africa by framing the cognitive praxis of this project simultaneously within the African Renaissance and within a progressive global project ...
Loprinzi, Paul D
Previous research demonstrates that both physical activity and multimorbidity are associated with cognitive function. However, the extent to which physical activity may moderate the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function has not been thoroughly evaluated. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (60+ years; N = 2157). A multimorbidity index variable was created based on physician diagnosis of a multitude of chronic diseases. Physical activity was self-reported and cognitive function was evaluated from the digit symbol substitution test. Multimorbidity was inversely associated with cognitive function for the unadjusted and adjusted models. However, generally, multimorbidity was no longer associated with cognitive function for the majority of older adults who achieved the minimum recommended physical activity level (≥2000 MET-min-month), as issued by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. In this national sample of older adults, there was some evidence to suggest that physical activity moderates the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function.
M. E. Bégin
Full Text Available We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly.
Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control.
There is little research on cognitive functioning and variability among older adults in South Africa. In various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, better cognitive performance in older adults has been found to be associated with: (i) socioeconomic status (younger age, female or male gender, higher education, greater ...
Stevens, Michael C.
Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…
Yusuf, Ah.; Indarwati, Retno; Jayanto, Arifudin Dwi
Introduction: The degradation of cognitive function present early dementia in elderly. Brain gym is one of the alternative implementation to improve the cognitive function of elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of brain gym to the improvement of cognitive function in elderly. Method: This study used Quasy Experimental design. The populations were elderly in Social Service Unit Tresna Werdha Lamongan. The samples were recruited using purposive sampling, consist of 30...
Cognitive impairment and dementia form a major health issue, affecting a considerable proportion of the aging population. Cerebral vascular damage is increasingly recognized as one of the main causes of cognitive decline in aging and dementia. Another main cause of cognitive deterioration in older
To estimate the higher cognitive development of college science students, performance on lecture exams at different cognitive levels was measured in a two-semester sequence of anatomy and physiology at Idaho State University. Lecture exams consisted of multiple-choice test items, each classified at various cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. These included the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels. The investigation comprised students who completed both semesters from the same instructor during the same academic year. Data was collected on two separate cohorts of students. One completed the sequence during 1998--1999 and the other during the 1999--2000 school year. Student performance was assessed on four exams each semester, for a total of eight exams each year of the study. Based on preliminary analysis of the 1998--1999 data, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was incorporated as an independent and discipline-neutral measure of higher-level thinking. The CCTST was administered during the beginning, middle, and end of the 1999--2000 school year. Two years of data analysis confirmed the cumulative hierarchical relationship of the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels of the taxonomy. Performance at successively higher cognitive levels was significantly and consistently lower than at preceding levels. Higher-level thinking was substantially more difficult for students than lower-level thinking. Students averaged 73% at the knowledge level and 53% at the application and analysis levels on lecture exams. No improvement in higher-level thinking was detected at either the application and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy or on the CCTST over two semesters. The ability to detect improvement was likely complicated by varying exam topics and a lack of student motivation on the CCTST. The results of this investigation highlight the need for higher cognitive development across the curriculum. The findings have
Snow, Peter J.
This article proposes that what have been historically and contemporarily defined as different domains of human cognition are served by one of four functionally- and structurally-distinct areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Their contributions to human intelligence are as follows: (a) BA9, enables our emotional intelligence, engaging the psychosocial domain; (b) BA47, enables our practical intelligence, engaging the material domain; (c) BA46 (or BA46-9/46), enables our abstract intelligence, engaging the hypothetical domain; and (d) BA10, enables our temporal intelligence, engaging in planning within any of the other three domains. Given their unique contribution to human cognition, it is proposed that these areas be called the, social (BA9), material (BA47), abstract (BA46-9/46) and temporal (BA10) mind. The evidence that BA47 participates strongly in verbal and gestural communication suggests that language evolved primarily as a consequence of the extreme selective pressure for practicality; an observation supported by the functional connectivity between BA47 and orbital areas that negatively reinforce lying. It is further proposed that the abstract mind (BA46-9/46) is the primary seat of metacognition charged with creating adaptive behavioral strategies by generating higher-order concepts (hypotheses) from lower-order concepts originating from the other three domains of cognition. PMID:27799901
Peter John Snow
Full Text Available This paper proposes that what have been historically and contemporarily defined as different domains of human cognition are served by one of four functionally- and structurally-distinct areas of the prefrontal cortex. Their contributions to human intelligence are as follows: (a BA9, enables our emotional intelligence, engaging the psychosocial domain, (b BA47, enables our practical intelligence, engaging the material domain, (c BA46 (or BA46-9/46, enables our abstract intelligence, engaging the hypothetical domain and (d BA10, enables our temporal intelligence, engaging in planning within any of the other three domains. Given their unique contribution to human cognition, it is proposed that these areas be called the, social (BA9, material (BA47, abstract (BA46-9/46 and temporal (BA10 mind. The evidence that BA47 participates strongly in verbal and gestural communication suggests that language evolved primarily as a consequence of the extreme selective pressure for practicality; an observation supported by the functional connectivity between BA47 and orbital areas that negatively reinforce lying. It is further proposed that the abstract mind (BA46-9/46 is the primary seat of metacognition charged with creating adaptive behavioral strategies by generating higher-order concepts (hypotheses from lower-order concepts originating both from our perceptual representations and the other three domains of cognition.
Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn
Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mara A. McAdams-DeMarco
Conclusion: Preliminary findings of our pilot study suggested that cognitive decline in psychomotor speed and executive function is possibly prevented by intradialytic CT and ET. These preliminary pilot findings should be replicated.
Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to summarize the research during the past decade regarding cognitive functioning in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. Cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness has been frequently reported. The findings are shown in different cognitive domains, such as executive functions (EF, attention, memory and psychomotor speed. Fewer reports have investigated cognitive functioning in MDD in longitudinal studies. Some longitudinal reports show that the impairment observed in the acute phase of illness may be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery. However, findings regarding cognitive functioning in depression are divergent. Factors that might contribute to the divergent findings, such as depression subtype, severity and comorbidity are discussed. Clinical implications and focus of future research directions is highlighted. .In conclusion, depression is associated with cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness, and some reports indicate that this impairment might be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery.
Crozier, Joseph C.; Barth, Richard P.
This study examines cognitive functioning and academic achievement in maltreated children. The data are from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children receiving child welfare services due to alleged child maltreatment. Assessments of the cognitive and academic functioning of school-age…
The evaluation of cognitive functions can be performed using two approaches: a quantitative one, based on screening tools; a qualitative one, based on the examination of specific cognitive functions. The quantitative approach offers a pragmatic process: to screen rapidly for a cognitive dysfunction that may require assistance or treatments. We will present three screening tools and their diagnostic value: the clock test, the Mini Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. They help select patients who require a more detailed examination to precisely diagnose their cognitive dysfunction. We propose a way to perform a detailed cognitive examination at the bedside, including the examination of alertness, attention, memory, language, frontal functions, praxis and hemi-neglect. This simple examination indicates the location of the cerebral lesion and sometimes suggests the underlying disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Jones, Neil D; Rosendahl, Mads
We present a minimal function graph semantics for a higher-order functional language with applicative evaluation order. The semantics captures the intermediate calls performed during the evaluation of a program. This information may be used in abstract interpretation as a basis for proving...
Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A; Kang, Jae H; Cook, Nancy R; Manson, Joann E; Buring, Julie E; Willett, Walter C; Okereke, Olivia I
Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. We included 6174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive substudy of the Women's Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence nine-point score was constructed based on intakes of vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P for score quintiles medians-x-time interaction = 0.26 for global cognition and 0.40 for verbal memory), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P trend = 0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, a higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P for ratio quintiles medians-x-time = 0.03 for global cognition and 0.05 for verbal memory). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories but was related to better averaged global cognition (P trend = 0.02). In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study.
Full Text Available Introduction: The degradation of cognitive function present early dementia in elderly. Brain gym is one of the alternative implementation to improve the cognitive function of elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of brain gym to the improvement of cognitive function in elderly. Method: This study used Quasy Experimental design. The populations were elderly in Social Service Unit Tresna Werdha Lamongan. The samples were recruited using purposive sampling, consist of 30 respondents, taken according to the inclusion criteria. Samples then divided into 2 groups, experimental groups and control groups. The independent variable of research this study was brain gym and the dependent variable was cognitive function at elderly. Data were collected by using MMSE score and then analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney Test with level of significance α ≤ 0.05. Result: Result showed that there is an effect of brain gym to the improvement of cognitive function in elderly (p = 0.001. The difference of cognitive function also seen between experimental groups and control groups (p = 0.001. Discussion: The conclusion of this research is brain gym improve cognitive function in elderly. The simple movement of brain gym able to coordinate the brain function so the brain activity become more optimal hence the improvement of memory function, recall and concentration.
Music is known to affect the human mind and body. Music therapy utilizes the effects of music for medical purposes. The history of music therapy is quite long, but only limited evidence supports its usefulness in the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction. As for dementia, some studies conclude that music therapy is effective for preventing cognitive deterioration and the occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). In patients receiving music therapy for the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction, aphasia was reported as the most common symptom. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether singing can improve aphasic symptoms: singing familiar and/or unfamiliar songs did not show any positive effect on aphasia. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a method that utilizes melody and rhythm to improve speech output. MIT is a method that is known to have positive effects on aphasic patients. Some studies of music therapy for patients with unilateral spatial neglect; apraxia; hemiparesis; and walking disturbances, including parkinsonian gait, are available in the literature. Studies showed that the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect and hemiparesis significantly improved when musical instruments were played for several months as a part of the music therapy. Here, I describe my study in which mental singing showed a positive effect on parkinsonian gait. Music is interesting, and every patient can go through training without any pain. Future studies need to be conducted to establish evidence of the positive effects of music therapy on neurological and neuropsychological symptoms.
Insects possess miniature brains but exhibit a sophisticated behavioral repertoire. Recent studies have reported the existence of unsuspected cognitive capabilities in various insect species that go beyond the traditionally studied framework of simple associative learning. Here, I focus on capabilities such as attentional modulation and concept learning and discuss their mechanistic bases. I analyze whether these behaviors, which appear particularly complex, can be explained on the basis of elemental associative learning and specific neural circuitries or, by contrast, require an explanatory level that goes beyond simple associative links. In doing this, I highlight experimental challenges and suggest future directions for investigating the neurobiology of higher-order learning in insects, with the goal of uncovering the basic neural architectures underlying cognitive processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vaisman, Nachum; Katzman, Helena; Carmiel-Haggai, Michal; Lusthaus, Michal; Niv, Eva
Cognitive disturbances are relatively common in patients with liver disease. High protein load precipitates hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a prevalent neurocognitive complication of cirrhosis. Because the influence of nutritional factors on the progression of cognitive impairment has not been explored in depth, this study aimed to investigate the effect on cognition of acute metabolic changes induced by breakfast consumption. Twenty-one subjects (10 women) with Child A cirrhosis and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Patients and controls were divided into 2 groups: those receiving a breakfast of 500 kcal and 21 g protein and those receiving no breakfast. Serum ammonia concentrations and cognitive functions were studied (Mindstreams; NeuroTrax, Fresh Meadows, NY) before and 2 h after breakfast. A mixed model was used to analyze the data. At baseline, cirrhotic patients had significantly lower total scores and significantly lower subscores (P cognitive score) in 4 of 7 cognitive categories, which is indicative of MHE. Patients with hyperammonemia (>85 mug/dL) scored significantly lower for attention than did patients with normal serum ammonia concentrations (P breakfast consumption with regard to attention and executive functions (P breakfast consumption, despite an increase in serum ammonia, healthy controls who continued to fast performed better. Chronic hyperammonemia may negatively affect attention. Eating breakfast improves attention and executive functions of patients with MHE. Prolonged periods of starvation may be partly responsible for these changes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01083446.
Natalia S. Kapczinski
Full Text Available Objectives: Depressive symptoms are associated with worse outcomes in patients with bipolar disorder (BD. However, scarce data are available regarding neurocognitive profiles across different areas of functioning among BD patients with moderate and severe depression. Our objective was to assess cognition and global functioning in a group of patients with bipolar depression. Methods: Data were available for 100 patients with bipolar depression (78% female and 70 controls (64% female paired by age and education level. Cognitive function was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery. Functioning was assessed with the Functioning Assessment Short Test. Results: In patients, severe depression was associated with poorer cognitive performance on measures of executive function. Patients with severe depression showed worse global functioning than those with moderate depression (z = 2.54, p = 0.011. In patients with severe depression, lower global functioning was associated with lower scores in working memory (r = -0.200, p = 0.010, and executive function (r = -0.210, p = 0.007; and r = 0.293, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Our findings suggest cognitive impairment and global functioning impairment are associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in bipolar depression. Intensive treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with BD is crucial to improve cognitive functioning and, consequently, functional outcomes.
Wynn, Jonathan K; Sugar, Catherine; Horan, William P; Kern, Robert; Green, Michael F
Cognition and social cognition have been found to influence functional outcome in schizophrenia patients. However, little is known about the underlying neural substrates that are associated with social cognition or daily functioning. Prior studies found associations between mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential response indexing early auditory processing, and functioning in schizophrenia patients. In this study, we examined MMN, social cognition (social perception and theory of mind), and four domains of functioning (work, independent living, social networks, and family networks) in 33 schizophrenia patients and 42 demographically comparable healthy control subjects. Schizophrenia patients exhibited reduced MMN activity at frontocentral electrode sites compared with healthy control subjects. Within the schizophrenia sample, greater MMN activity at frontocentral sites correlated with better work and independent living (but not social or family networks) and with better social perception. These results suggest that MMN activity is more closely tied to some outcome domains (work and independent living) than others. Mismatch negativity has been previously shown to be associated with basic cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia, but these findings are the first, to our knowledge, to show MMN associations with social cognition. These results are consistent with cascade models of information processing in which deficits in early perceptual processing have a downstream impact on higher order social cognition and community functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.
In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.
Haxthausen, Anne; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd; Mossakowski, Till
We present a proposal for the design of the higher-order extension of CASL. For each design step, we have tried to find the best of several possible alternatives, give a motivation for the preferred alternative and argue why the other alternatives are not taken. This note discusses function space...
Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screening methods actually do affect cognitive function; identify and characterize the mechanisms or pathways by which effects at these targets lead to cognitive dysfunction; address issues of susceptibility and variability, which require understanding the compensations and interactions that only a whole organism can engage; and improve our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive function.This chapter has several purposes. First, it provides working definitions of cognitive functions, such as learning, memory and attention, in terms frequently used by behavioral toxicologists. It is important to have a common vocabulary to assess methods used in this area of research. Second, it presents an overview of some of the procedures commonly used in behavioral toxicology to assess the effects of chemicals on cognitive function in animals. It should be noted that this overview is not intended to be comprehensive or complete, but is intended to illustrate specific points by discussing examples. Finally, this chapter discusses some critical experimental and conceptual variables that are important for studies on chemical-induced cognitive dysfunction, and touches on the potential p
Addington, J; Addington, D
Individuals with schizophrenia have an increased vulnerability to abuse drugs or alcohol. This vulnerability can interfere with the course and treatment of the disorder and may also have a detrimental effect on already compromised cognitive functioning. This study has a matched, cross-sectional design and compares the social and cognitive functioning and the symptoms of 33 schizophrenia subjects who abuse substances with 33 nonabusing schizophrenia subjects. Subjects were matched on sex, age,...
Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal
Full Text Available Purpose: Internalized stigmatization (IS generally has a negative effect on diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and prognosis of diseases. The purpose of this study is to compare patients with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression both are in remission in terms of IS and social functioning (SF, cognitive function and secondly to consider relationship between IS, cognitive functions and SF. Methods: This cross-sectional study is carried out with bipolar (BD and unipolar depression (UD patients in remission, admitted to the psychiatry outpatient clinics of Akdeniz University Hospital. The sample size is estimated as 35 patients. Basic independent variable is the type of disease and dependent variables are; IS, cognitive functions and SF. Performed scales are: The internalized stigma of mental ilness scale, the social functioning scale and for the assesment of cognitive functions: Wisconsin card sorting, stroop test, test of verbal memory process. Results.Concerning the results there was negative corelation between IS and SF scores in all groups. There was only significant relationship between verbal memory and IS in UD patients. There was not any significant relationship between IS and cognitive function in BD patients. Conclusion: This study indicates that in terms of cognitive functions, patients with unipolar depression are effected as much as the patients with bipolar disorder also manifesting the inverse relation between IS and SF, however cognitive functions were relevant to IS only in UD patients. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 390-402
Clarke, Philippa J.; Ailshire, Jennifer A.; House, James S.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; King, Katherine; Melendez, Robert; Langa, Kenneth M.
Background Existing research has found a positive association between cognitive function and residence in a socioeconomically advantaged neighborhood. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this relationship have not been empirically investigated. This study tests the hypothesis that neighborhood socioeconomic structure is related to cognitive function partly through the availability of neighborhood physical and social resources (e.g. recreational facilities, community centers and libraries), which promote cognitively beneficial activities such as exercise and social integration. Methods Using data from a representative survey of community-dwelling adults in the City of Chicago (N = 949 adults age 50 and over) we assessed cognitive function with a modified version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) instrument. Neighborhood socioeconomic structure was derived from US Census indicators. Systematic Social Observation was used to directly document the presence of neighborhood resources on the blocks surrounding each respondent’s residence. Results Using multilevel linear regression, residence in an affluent neighborhood had a net positive effect on cognitive function after adjusting for individual risk factors. For white respondents, the effects of neighborhood affluence operated in part through a greater density of institutional resources (e.g. community centers) that promote cognitively beneficial activities such as physical activity. Stable residence in an elderly neighborhood was associated with higher cognitive function (potentially due to greater opportunities for social interaction with peers), but long term exposure to such neighborhoods was negatively related to cognition. Conclusions Neighborhood resources have the potential to promote “cognitive reserve” for adults who are aging in place in an urban setting. PMID:21515547
Baggio, Hugo-Cesar; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segura, Bàrbara; Marti, Maria-José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junqué, Carme
Graph-theoretical analyses of functional networks obtained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have recently proven to be a useful approach for the study of the substrates underlying cognitive deficits in different diseases. We used this technique to investigate whether cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with changes in global and local network measures. Thirty-six healthy controls (HC) and 66 PD patients matched for age, sex, and education were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not based on performance in the three mainly affected cognitive domains in PD: attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP), and declarative memory. Resting-state fMRI and graph theory analyses were used to evaluate network measures. We have found that patients with MCI had connectivity reductions predominantly affecting long-range connections as well as increased local interconnectedness manifested as higher measures of clustering, small-worldness, and modularity. The latter measures also tended to correlate negatively with cognitive performance in VS/VP and memory functions. Hub structure was also reorganized: normal hubs displayed reduced centrality and degree in MCI PD patients. Our study indicates that the topological properties of brain networks are changed in PD patients with cognitive deficits. Our findings provide novel data regarding the functional substrate of cognitive impairment in PD, which may prove to have value as a prognostic marker. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Buck, Benjamin E; Healey, Kristin M; Gagen, Emily C; Roberts, David L; Penn, David L
Social cognition is consistently impaired in people with schizophrenia, separable from general neurocognition, predictive of real-world functioning and amenable to psychosocial treatment. Few studies have empirically examined its underlying factor structure. This study (1) examines the factor structure of social cognition in both a sample of individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and non-clinical controls and (2) explores relationships of factors to neurocognition, symptoms and functioning. A factor analysis was conducted on social cognition measures in a sample of 65 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 50 control participants. The resulting factors were examined for their relationships to symptoms and functioning. Results suggested a two-factor structure in the schizophrenia sample (social cognition skill and hostile attributional style) and a three-factor structure in the non-clinical sample (hostile attributional style, higher-level inferential processing and lower-level cue detection). In the schizophrenia sample, the social cognition skill factor was significantly related to negative symptoms and social functioning, whereas hostile attributional style predicted positive and general psychopathology symptoms. The factor structure of social cognition in schizophrenia separates hostile attributional style and social cognition skill, and each show differential relationships to relevant clinical variables in schizophrenia.
Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Duan, Haiping; Ji, Fuling; Tian, Xiaocao; Zhai, Yaoming; Wang, Shaojie; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Zhao, Zhongtang; Li, Shuxia; Gue, Matt Mc; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Christensen, Kaare; Tan, Qihua
the genetic and environmental contributions to cognitive function in the old people have been well addressed for the Western populations using twin modelling showing moderate to high heritability. No similar study has been conducted in the world largest and rapidly ageing Chinese population living under distinct environmental condition as the Western populations. this study aims to explore the genetic and environmental impact on normal cognitive ageing in the Chinese twins. cognitive function was measured on 384 complete twin pairs with median age of 50 years for seven cognitive measurements including visuospatial, linguistic skills, naming, memory, attention, abstraction and orientation abilities. Data were analysed by fitting univariate and bivariate twin models to estimate the genetic and environmental components in the variance and co-variance of the cognitive assessments. intra-pair correlation on cognitive measurements was low to moderate in monozygotic twins (0.23-0.41, overall 0.42) and low in dizygotic twins (0.05-0.30, overall 0.31) with the former higher than the latter for each item. Estimate for heritability was moderate for overall cognitive function (0.44, 95% CI: 0.34-0.53) and low to moderate for visuospatial, naming, attention and orientation abilities ranging from 0.28 to 0.38. No genetic contribution was estimated to linguistic skill, abstraction and memory which instead were under low to moderate control by shared environmental factors accounting for 23-33% of the total variances. In contrast, all cognitive performances showed moderate to high influences by the unique environmental factors. genetic factor and common family environment have a limited contribution to cognitive function in the Chinese adults. Individual unique environment is likely to play a major role in determining the levels of cognitive performance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cognitive impairment on functional status in patients with subacute stroke. Fifty-two patients with subacute stroke were included in the study. Mini mental state examination (MMSE test was used for the evaluation of cognitive status. Patients were separated into two groups according to their cognitive functions. Functional follow-up parameters were activities of daily living (ADL, global recovery and ambulation status. All patients were evaluated on admission to rehabilitation unit, at discharge and 6 months after discharge. Forty-four patients were completed the study. Mean age was 66 and 57 years; disease duration on admission was 4,8 and 3,5 months in the cognitively impaired and normal groups, respectively. Significant improvement was found in terms of functional follow-up parameters in both groups at discharge (<.05. Functional follow-up parameters did not show statistically significant difference between the groups. But community ambulation rate was higher in cognitively normal group at the sixth month visit. As a result of this study, inpatient rehabilitation was effective both cognitively normal and impaired subacute stroke patients.
Full Text Available Objective: Poor cardiovascular fitness has been implicated as a possible mechanism for obesity-related cognitive decline, though no study has examined whether BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in persons with excellent fitness levels. The current study examined the relationship between BMI and cognitive function by the Immediate Post Concussion and Cognitive Test (ImPACT in Division I collegiate athletes. Methods: Participants had an average age of 20.14 ± 1.78 years, were 31.3% female, and 53.9% football players. BMI ranged from 19.04 to 41.14 and averaged 26.72 ± 4.62. Results: Regression analyses revealed that BMI incrementally predicted performance on visual memory (R2 change = 0.015, p = 0.026 beyond control variables. Follow-up partial correlation analyses revealed small but significant negative correlations between BMI and verbal memory (r = -0.17, visual memory (r = -0.16, and visual motor speed (r = -0.12. Conclusions: These results suggest that higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive function, even in a sample expected to have excellent levels of cardiovascular fitness. Further work is needed to better understand mechanisms for these associations.
Koyama, Alain K; Tworoger, Shelley S; Eliassen, A Heather; Okereke, Olivia I; Weisskopf, Marc G; Rosner, Bernard; Yaffe, Kristine; Grodstein, Francine
We examined the association between endogenous sex hormones and both objective and subjective measures of cognitive function. We followed 3044 women up to 23 years in a prospective cohort study. We measured plasma levels of estrone, estrone sulfate, estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in 1989-1990, conducted neuropsychologic testing in 1999-2008, and inquired about subjective cognition in 2012. Overall, we observed little relation between plasma levels of hormones and either neuropsychologic test performance or subjective cognition. However, after adjustment for age and education, we observed a borderline significant association of higher levels of plasma estrone with higher scores for both overall cognition (P trend = .10) and verbal memory (P trend = .08). There were no clear associations of endogenous hormone levels at midlife and cognition in later life, although a suggested finding of higher levels of plasma estrone associated with better cognitive function merits further research. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders
Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Psleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pcognitive performance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Woods, Bob; Aguirre, Elisa; Spector, Aimee E; Orrell, Martin
comprehensive. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive stimulation for dementia which incorporated a measure of cognitive change were included. Data were extracted independently by two review authors using a previously tested data extraction form. Study authors were contacted for data not provided in the papers. Two review authors conducted independent assessments of the risk of bias in included studies. Fifteen RCTs were included in the review. Six of these had been included in the previous review of RO. The studies included participants from a variety of settings, interventions that were of varying duration and intensity, and were from several different countries. The quality of the studies was generally low by current standards but most had taken steps to ensure assessors were blind to treatment allocation. Data were entered in the meta-analyses for 718 participants (407 receiving cognitive stimulation, 311 in control groups). The primary analysis was on changes that were evident immediately at the end of the treatment period. A few studies provided data allowing evaluation of whether any effects were subsequently maintained. A clear, consistent benefit on cognitive function was associated with cognitive stimulation (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.41, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.57). This remained evident at follow-up one to three months after the end of treatment. In secondary analyses with smaller total sample sizes, benefits were also noted on self-reported quality of life and well-being (standardised mean difference: 0.38 [95% CI: 0.11, 0.65]); and on staff ratings of communication and social interaction (SMD 0.44, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.71). No differences in relation to mood (self-report or staff-rated), activities of daily living, general behavioural function or problem behaviour were noted. In the few studies reporting family caregiver outcomes, no differences were noted. Importantly, there was no indication of increased strain on family caregivers in the one study
M. A. Bogatyreova
Full Text Available The article is about the functions of professional higher education dealing with the sphere of foreign languages (FL. There are all indications that these functions are mainly determined by the higher education objectives, the dominating role that foreign languages play in modern society and politics. The analysis of existing linguistic concepts (up to the ХХ-th century as well as the current state of FL educational system, testifies to the fact that a number of urgent and indispensable changes are needed. The desirable transformations are aimed to amplify the contents of the functional burden of professional FL education. According to the provisions of the latest state standards, the transmission to new paradigms of thinking is primarily provided by the innovation modus, that is intended to steadily develop sociocultural technologies, improve the contents of FL education, increase the effectiveness of students' achievements, work out a new system of monitoring, controlling and assessing academic results. However, multi-media techniques and strategies should be associated with the anthropological paradigm, capable of driving in motion the "front-running" mechanism of sociocultural reproduction. That means that graduates' FL proficiency, alongside with influence, property and benefit, is becoming the most important indicator of social status in modern society. Consequently, multifunctional FL education is supposed to reflect the formation of axiological values of students, their inner motives and personal attitudes that, being embodied in the creative products of speech, exercise an essential impact on valuable society orientations. Evidently, society is intellectual to an extent it applies knowledge which was accumulated in the cultural gene pool of humanity. It is just through the educational channel that the basic value of culture performs the function of adjusting objective reality to individuals' goals and their meaningful implications
M. A. Bogatyreova
Full Text Available The article is about the functions of professional higher education dealing with the sphere of foreign languages (FL. There are all indications that these functions are mainly determined by the higher education objectives, the dominating role that foreign languages play in modern society and politics. The analysis of existing linguistic concepts (up to the ХХ-th century as well as the current state of FL educational system, testifies to the fact that a number of urgent and indispensable changes are needed. The desirable transformations are aimed to amplify the contents of the functional burden of professional FL education. According to the provisions of the latest state standards, the transmission to new paradigms of thinking is primarily provided by the innovation modus, that is intended to steadily develop sociocultural technologies, improve the contents of FL education, increase the effectiveness of students' achievements, work out a new system of monitoring, controlling and assessing academic results. However, multi-media techniques and strategies should be associated with the anthropological paradigm, capable of driving in motion the "front-running" mechanism of sociocultural reproduction. That means that graduates' FL proficiency, alongside with influence, property and benefit, is becoming the most important indicator of social status in modern society. Consequently, multifunctional FL education is supposed to reflect the formation of axiological values of students, their inner motives and personal attitudes that, being embodied in the creative products of speech, exercise an essential impact on valuable society orientations. Evidently, society is intellectual to an extent it applies knowledge which was accumulated in the cultural gene pool of humanity. It is just through the educational channel that the basic value of culture performs the function of adjusting objective reality to individuals' goals and their meaningful implications
Full Text Available Wei Li,* Qi Qiu,* Lin Sun, Ling Yue, Tao Wang, Xia Li, Shifu Xiao Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Center, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment have been well recognized. However, sex differences in cognitive function and obesity in cognitively normal aging Chinese Han population have not attracted much attention. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sex, obesity, and cognitive function in an elderly Chinese population with normal cognitive function. Subjects and methods: A total of 228 cognitively normal aging participants (males/females =93/135 entered this study. Their general demographic information (sex, age, and education was collected by standardized questionnaire. Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype and serum lipid levels were measured. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA was used to assess participants’ cognitive function. Results: The prevalence of obesity in elderly women (18/133, 13.5% was significantly higher than that in men (5/92, 5.4%, P=0.009. Regression analyses showed that obesity was associated with drinking alcohol (OR =13.695, P=0.045 and triglyceride (OR =1.436, P=0.048 in women and limited to low-density lipoprotein (OR =11.829, P=0.023 in men. Women performed worse on the naming score for MoCA than men (P<0.01. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that education (t=3.689, P<0.001 and smoking (t=2.031, P=0.045 were related to the score of naming in female, while high-density lipoprotein (t=–2.077, P=0.041 was related to the score of naming in male; however, no correlation was found between body mass index and cognitive function in both male and female (P>0.05. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that there are significant sex differences in obesity and
Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya
Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711
Yri, Hanne Maria; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Forchhammer, Hysse Birgitte
of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate for the first time in a well-defined cohort of patients that IIH may be associated with cognitive dysfunction. This could explain the functional disability of patients with IIH. A focused multidisciplinary approach including neuropsychological rehabilitation, therefore......OBJECTIVE: To explore the extent and nature of cognitive deficits in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) at the time of diagnosis and after 3 months of treatment. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Neurological department, ophthalmological department......-up. At the time of testing, none of the patients took medication potentially affecting cognitive function. Controls were 31 healthy age-matched and sex-matched volunteers from the local community. OUTCOME MEASURES: Executive function, working memory, visuospatial memory, processing speed, attention and reaction...
Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe
Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.
Motes, Michael A; Yezhuvath, Uma S; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S; Rypma, Bart; Chapman, Sandra B
Higher-order cognitive training has shown to enhance performance in older adults, but the neural mechanisms underlying performance enhancement have yet to be fully disambiguated. This randomized trial examined changes in processing speed and processing speed-related neural activity in older participants (57-71 years of age) who underwent cognitive training (CT, N = 12) compared with wait-listed (WLC, N = 15) or exercise-training active (AC, N = 14) controls. The cognitive training taught cognitive control functions of strategic attention, integrative reasoning, and innovation over 12 weeks. All 3 groups worked through a functional magnetic resonance imaging processing speed task during 3 sessions (baseline, mid-training, and post-training). Although all groups showed faster reaction times (RTs) across sessions, the CT group showed a significant increase, and the WLC and AC groups showed significant decreases across sessions in the association between RT and BOLD signal change within the left prefrontal cortex (PFC). Thus, cognitive training led to a change in processing speed-related neural activity where faster processing speed was associated with reduced PFC activation, fitting previously identified neural efficiency profiles. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mattar, Marcelo G; Cole, Michael W; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Bassett, Danielle S
One of the most remarkable features of the human brain is its ability to adapt rapidly and efficiently to external task demands. Novel and non-routine tasks, for example, are implemented faster than structural connections can be formed. The neural underpinnings of these dynamics are far from understood. Here we develop and apply novel methods in network science to quantify how patterns of functional connectivity between brain regions reconfigure as human subjects perform 64 different tasks. By applying dynamic community detection algorithms, we identify groups of brain regions that form putative functional communities, and we uncover changes in these groups across the 64-task battery. We summarize these reconfiguration patterns by quantifying the probability that two brain regions engage in the same network community (or putative functional module) across tasks. These tools enable us to demonstrate that classically defined cognitive systems-including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, default mode, fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular and salience systems-engage dynamically in cohesive network communities across tasks. We define the network role that a cognitive system plays in these dynamics along the following two dimensions: (i) stability vs. flexibility and (ii) connected vs. isolated. The role of each system is therefore summarized by how stably that system is recruited over the 64 tasks, and how consistently that system interacts with other systems. Using this cartography, classically defined cognitive systems can be categorized as ephemeral integrators, stable loners, and anything in between. Our results provide a new conceptual framework for understanding the dynamic integration and recruitment of cognitive systems in enabling behavioral adaptability across both task and rest conditions. This work has important implications for understanding cognitive network reconfiguration during different task sets and its relationship to cognitive effort, individual
Opdebeeck, Carol; Nelis, Sharon M; Quinn, Catherine; Clare, Linda
Higher levels of cognitive reserve (CR) are associated with better cognitive function in later life. In contrast, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and rumination are associated with diminished cognitive function. There has been limited research to date examining the influence of CR on the relationship between mood and cognitive function, and results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the role CR plays in the relationships between mood, rumination, and cognitive function in later life. Two hundred and thirty-six healthy people aged 60+ completed measures of CR, depression, anxiety, rumination, recall, and verbal fluency. Participants were dichotomised at the median into those with lower and higher levels of CR. CR, mood, and rumination together accounted for between 13% and 15.6% of the variance in scores on the cognitive tasks in the sample as a whole. Mood and rumination explained a significant amount of variance in cognitive test scores in those with lower levels of CR, but not in those with higher levels of CR. The way in which mood and rumination are related to cognitive function differs depending on the individual's level of CR. These results support the view that it is important to continue to build on CR as people move into later life in order to maintain cognitive health.
Braley, Tiffany J; Kratz, Anna L; Kaplish, Neeraj; Chervin, Ronald D
To examine associations between cognitive performance and polysomnographic measures of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Participants underwent a comprehensive MS-specific cognitive testing battery (the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS, or MACFIMS) and in-laboratory overnight PSG. In adjusted linear regression models, the oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and minimum oxygen saturation (MinO2) were significantly associated with performance on multiple MACFIMS measures, including the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT; 2-sec and 3-sec versions), which assesses working memory, processing speed, and attention, and on the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, a test of delayed visual memory. The respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was also significantly associated with PASAT-3 scores as well as the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) Discriminability Index, a test of verbal memory and response inhibition. Among these associations, apnea severity measures accounted for between 12% and 23% of the variance in cognitive test performance. Polysomnographic measures of sleep fragmentation (as reflected by the total arousal index) and total sleep time also showed significant associations with a component of the CVLT-II that assesses response inhibition, explaining 18% and 27% of the variance in performance. Among patients with MS, obstructive sleep apnea and sleep disturbance are significantly associated with diminished visual memory, verbal memory, executive function (as reflected by response inhibition), attention, processing speed, and working memory. If sleep disorders degrade these cognitive functions, effective treatment could offer new opportunities to improve cognitive functioning in patients with MS. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1489. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben
Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…
Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V
Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented...
Oosterholt, B.G.; Linden, D. van der; Maes, J.H.R.; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Kompier, M.A.J.
Objectives Many employees with burnout report cognitive difficulties. However, the relation between burnout and cognitive functioning has hardly been empirically validated. Moreover, it is unknown whether the putative cognitive deficits in burnout are temporary or permanent. Therefore, the purpose
Iadecola, Costantino; Yaffe, Kristine; Biller, José; Bratzke, Lisa C.; Faraci, Frank M.; Gorelick, Philip B.; Gulati, Martha; Kamel, Hooman; Knopman, David S.; Launer, Lenore J.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Seshadri, Sudha; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina
Background Age-related dementia, most commonly caused by Alzheimer disease or cerebrovascular factors (vascular dementia), is a major public health threat. Chronic arterial hypertension is a well-established risk factor for both types of dementia, but the link between hypertension and its treatment and cognition remains poorly understood. In this scientific statement, a multidisciplinary team of experts examines the impact of hypertension on cognition to assess the state of the knowledge, to identify gaps, and to provide future directions. Methods Authors with relevant expertise were selected to contribute to this statement in accordance with the American Heart Association conflict-of-interest management policy. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the literature, and summarized the available data. Results Hypertension disrupts the structure and function of cerebral blood vessels, leads to ischemic damage of white matter regions critical for cognitive function, and may promote Alzheimer pathology. There is strong evidence of a deleterious influence of midlife hypertension on late-life cognitive function, but the cognitive impact of late-life hypertension is less clear. Observational studies demonstrated a cumulative effect of hypertension on cerebrovascular damage, but evidence from clinical trials that antihypertensive treatment improves cognition is not conclusive. Conclusions After carefully reviewing the literature, the group concluded that there were insufficient data to make evidence-based recommendations. However, judicious treatment of hypertension, taking into account goals of care and individual characteristics (eg, age and comorbidities), seems justified to safeguard vascular health and, as a consequence, brain health. PMID:27977393
Shah, Faraaz Ali; Pike, Francis; Alvarez, Karina; Angus, Derek; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar; Tate, Judith; Kapur, Vishesh; Wilsdon, Anthony; Krishnan, Jerry A.; Hansel, Nadia; Au, David; Avdalovic, Mark; Fan, Vincent S.; Barr, R. Graham
Rationale: Relationships between chronic health conditions and acute infections remain poorly understood. Preclinical studies suggest crosstalk between nervous and immune systems. Objectives: To determine bidirectional relationships between cognition and pneumonia. Methods: We conducted longitudinal analyses of a population-based cohort over 10 years. We determined whether changes in cognition increase risk of pneumonia hospitalization by trajectory analyses and joint modeling. We then determined whether pneumonia hospitalization increased risk of subsequent dementia using a Cox model with pneumonia as a time-varying covariate. Measurements and Main Results: Of the 5,888 participants, 639 (10.9%) were hospitalized with pneumonia at least once. Most participants had normal cognition before pneumonia. Three cognition trajectories were identified: no, minimal, and severe rapid decline. A greater proportion of participants hospitalized with pneumonia were on trajectories of minimal or severe decline before occurrence of pneumonia compared with those never hospitalized with pneumonia (proportion with no, minimal, and severe decline were 67.1%, 22.8%, and 10.0% vs. 76.0%, 19.3%, and 4.6% for participants with and without pneumonia, respectively; P pneumonia, even in those with normal cognition and physical function before pneumonia (β = −0.02; P pneumonia were subsequently at an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio, 2.24 [95% confidence interval, 1.62–3.11]; P = 0.01). Associations were independent of demographics, health behaviors, other chronic conditions, and physical function. Bidirectional relationship did not vary based on severity of disease, and similar associations were noted for those with severe sepsis and other infections. Conclusions: A bidirectional relationship exists between pneumonia and cognition and may explain how a single episode of infection in well-appearing older individuals accelerates decline in chronic health conditions and loss of
Sherifa A Hamed
Full Text Available Aim: During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the evaluation of cognitive function in myasthenia gravis (MG, neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies. However, the results of previous studies on cognition and MG are inconsistent and controversial. This study aimed to evaluate cognition in patients with mild/moderate grades of MG. Methods: This study included 20 patients with MG with a mean age of 28.45 ± 8.89 years and duration of illness of 3.52 ± 1.15 years. Cognition was tested using a sensitive battery of psychometric testing (Mini-mental State Examination [MMSE], Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale 4 th edition [SBIS] and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised [WMS-R] and by recording P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs, a neurophysiological analog for cognitive function. Results: Compared with healthy subjects (n = 20, patients had lower total scores of cognitive testing (MMSE, SBIS and WMS-R (P = 0.001, higher Beck Depression Inventory 2 nd edition scores (P = 0.0001 and prolonged latencies (P = 0.01 and reduced amplitudes (P = 0.001 of P300 component of ERPs. Correlations were identified between total scores of cognitive testing and age (r = -0.470, P = 0.010, duration of illness (r = -0.788, P = 0.001 and depression scores (r = -0.323, P = 0.045. Using linear regression analysis and after controlling for age and depression scores, a significant correlation was identified between total scores of cognitive testing and duration of illness (β = -0.305, P = 0.045. Conclusion: Patients with mild/moderate MG may have cognitive dysfunction. This is important to determine prognosis and managing patients.
Pinter, Daniela; Sumowski, James; DeLuca, John; Fazekas, Franz; Pichler, Alexander; Khalil, Michael; Langkammer, Christian; Fuchs, Siegrid; Enzinger, Christian
Previous work suggested greater intellectual enrichment might moderate the negative impact of brain atrophy on cognition. This awaits confirmation in independent cohorts including investigation of the role of T2-lesion load (T2-LL), which is another important determinant of cognition in MS. We here thus aimed to test this cognitive reserve hypothesis by investigating whether educational attainment (EA) moderates the negative effects of both brain atrophy and T2-LL on cognitive function in a large sample of MS patients. 137 patients participated in the study. Cognition was assessed by the "Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests." T2-LL, normalized brain volume (global volume loss) and third ventricle width (regional volume loss) served as MRI markers. Both T2-LL and atrophy predicted worse cognition, with a stronger effect of T2-LL. Higher EA (as assessed by years of education) also predicted better cognition. Interactions showed that the negative effects of T2-LL and regional brain atrophy were moderated by EA. In a cohort with different stages of MS, higher EA attenuated the negative effects of white matter lesion burden and third ventricle width (suggestive of thalamic atrophy) on cognitive performance. Actively enhancing cognitive reserve might thus be a means to reduce or prevent cognitive problems in MS in parallel to disease modifying drugs.
Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.
Cognitive impairment is a common complaint among cancer survivors and may be a consequence of the tumors themselves or direct effects of cancer-related treatment (eg, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radiation). For some survivors, symptoms persist over the long term and, when more severe, can impact quality of life and function. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides assessment, evaluation, and management recommendations for cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Nonpharmacologic interventions (eg, instruction in coping strategies; management of distress, pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue; occupational therapy) are recommended, with pharmacologic interventions as a last line of therapy in survivors for whom other interventions have been insufficient. PMID:24994918
Full Text Available Lightness research offers ample evidence that visual scene contains all the cues necessary to perform lightness calculations. In real life, contrary to laboratory findings, familiarity of the objects seems to be more important than the temporarily viewing conditions. In our experiment observers were led to believe that they see the same object moving from one illumination to the other. The estimated shade in the second illumination varied as a function of the shade in the first illumination. In the second experiment, object identity was stressed by the introduction of targets with distinct geometrical shape. Subjects were familiarized with these targets and under the impression that those targets were the only targets used, even after illumination and background changed. Consequently, their matches corresponded to memorized and not viewed shade. In the third experiment observers were familiarized with two sets of targets. Only one set was used in the experiment, but twice, with different instructions. The targets were estimated based on the instruction mentioning the set from which the target presumably was taken. Nevertheless, imagery did not aid the process. When the observers were asked to keep imagining the gray shade they were previously observing, the lightness estimation depended exclusively on the factors presented in the visual scene. However, memory overpowers viewing condition. In the last experiment, observers were shown the same object in two illuminations simultaneously but were asked to estimate lightness when the object was removed from view. The value of this match-from-memory was in between the values for the two illumination levels.
Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive function in residents of two Ohio towns. Methods: Data were obtained from an EPA-sponsored study comparing two towns exposed to Mn-air (Marietta and EL). A cross-sectional design was used. The same inclusion/exclusion criteria and procedures were applied in the two towns. A neuropsychological screening test battery was administered to study participants (EL=86, Marietta=100) which included Stroop Color Word Test, Animal Naming, Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT) and Rey-O. To estimate Mn-air, U.S.EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model was used. Distance from source was calculated based on participants’ residential address and air miles from industrial facility emitting Mn-air. A binary logistic regression model controlling for annual household income was used to examine distance from source and neuropsychological outcomes Results: There were no age, sex, or employment status differences between the two towns. Years education was lower in EL (mean (M)=12.9) than Marietta (M=14.6) and years residency in town were higher in EL (M=47.0) than Marietta (M=36.1). EL participants resided closer to the Mn source than Marietta (M=1.12 vs M=4.75 air miles). Mn-air concentrations were higher in EL (M=0
Full Text Available Through its capacity of plastic changes, the adult brain enables successful dealing with new demands of everyday life and recovery after an acquired brain damage either spontaneously or by the help of rehabilitation interventions. Studies which explored the effects of cognitive training in the normal population report on different types of changes in the performance of cognitive tasks as well as different types of changes in brain activation patterns.Following practice, brain activation can change in its extent, intensity or location, while cognitive processes can become more efficient or can be replaced by different processes.After acquired brain damage plastic changes are somewhat different. After the injury, the damaged brain area can either gradually regain its previous function, or different brain regions are recruited to perform that function.Studies of spontaneous and guided recovery of cognitive functions have revealed both types of plastic changes that follow each other, as well as significant correlations between these changes and improvement on the behavioural level.
Carroll, Kathleen M; Kiluk, Brian D; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa A; Brewer, Judson A; Potenza, Marc N; Ball, Samuel A; Martino, Steve; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Lejuez, Carl W
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), because of its comparatively high level of cognitive demand, is likely to be challenging for substance users with limitations in cognitive function. However, it is not known whether computer-assisted versions of CBT will be particularly helpful (e.g., allowing individualized pace and repetition) or difficult (e.g., via complexity of computerized delivery) for such patients. In this secondary analysis of data collected from a randomized clinical trial evaluating computer-assisted CBT, four aspects of cognitive functioning were evaluated among 77 participants. Those with higher levels of risk taking completed fewer sessions and homework assignments and had poorer substance use outcomes.
Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with
Araki, Yoshio; Takagi, Yasushi; Ueda, Keita; Ubukata, Shiho; Ishida, Junko; Funaki, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Jun C; Murai, Toshiya; Miyamoto, Susumu
Neurocognitive impairment is one of several unsolved social issues faced by patients with moyamoya disease. Although efforts have been made to investigate cognitive function using neuropsychologic tasks, generalizability has been limited. Here, in a preliminary study, we used structured neuropsychologic tasks to establish a standardized neuropsychologic assessment for adult moyamoya patients with and without difficulty in social independence. Ten patients with neuroradiologically confirmed adult moyamoya disease (3 male, 7 female) participated. Half of all subjects did not have difficulty with social independence (group 1) and the others had (group 2). Group differences were evaluated after basic cognitive abilities and frontal lobe function were tested. Although the mean age of group 1 was substantially higher than that of group 2, disease duration did not differ significantly between groups. Means scores for intelligence functions including all subtests for basic cognitive abilities were higher in group 1 compared with group 2. Scores from only 2 frontal lobe evaluation tasks (Trail Making Test B and Theory of Mind) were significantly different between groups. This preliminary study provides a profile of neurocognitive dysfunction in adult patients with moyamoya disease using structured neuropsychologic tasks. A broad range of cognitive functions was disrupted particularly in the patients who had difficulty with social independence. To obtain stronger evidence regarding neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with moyamoya disease, a multicenter prospective study is essential. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hamid R Sohrabi
Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.
Kurita, G P; de Mattos Pimenta, C A; Braga, P E
The paucity of studies regarding cognitive function in patients with chronic pain, and growing evidence regarding the cognitive effects of pain and opioids on cognitive function prompted us to assess cognition via neuropsychological measurement in patients with chronic non-cancer pain treated...... with opioids....
Kulig, Alan W; Blanchard, Rebecca D
It is difficult to assess applicants' higher-order cognitive thinking skills during conventional resident interviews. Application metrics currently employed are useful indicators of academic and personal success in targeted areas, yet value of this information in predicting future clinical performance is limited. We developed an assessment tool to evaluate higher-order cognitive function in real time during anesthesiology resident applicant interviews. During the 2014-2015 residency interview season, we integrated simulation training into applicant interviews to evaluate higher-order cognitive skills. Our 5-minute simulation emphasized the Team STEPPS 2-Challenge Rule and explored candidates' critical thinking, analytical decision making, and response to stress. Participating applicants were evaluated using an outcomes-based checklist targeting desired responses. We also sent applicants a post-National Resident Matching Program survey to assess their perceptions of the simulation's value and educational utility. A total of 90 applicants (75% of all applicants) participated in the simulation, which taught residents about important patient safety concepts and provided the program with real time information about their critical thinking ability. All applicants were confident or very confident that they would both speak up and know what to say if they encountered a patient safety breach as a result of participating in this exercise. Simulation performance affected desirability status for 35% of participating applicants, where 23% of applicants ranked higher, and 12% ranked lower compared to baseline application status. Cognitive simulation training was useful in assessing resident applicant higher-order thinking skills and in helping stratify candidates in conjunction with standard application metrics.
Oechslin, Mathias S; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Lazeyras, François; Hauert, Claude-Alain; James, Clara E
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show for the first time that levels of musical expertise stepwise modulate higher order brain functioning. This suggests that degree of training intensity drives such cerebral plasticity. Participants (non-musicians, amateurs, and expert musicians) listened to a comprehensive set of specifically composed string quartets with hierarchically manipulated endings. In particular, we implemented 2 irregularities at musical closure that differed in salience but were both within the tonality of the piece (in-key). Behavioral sensitivity scores (d') of both transgressions perfectly separated participants according to their level of musical expertise. By contrasting brain responses to harmonic transgressions against regular endings, functional brain imaging data showed compelling evidence for stepwise modulation of brain responses by both violation strength and expertise level in a fronto-temporal network hosting universal functions of working memory and attention. Additional independent testing evidenced an advantage in visual working memory for the professionals, which could be predicted by musical training intensity. The here introduced findings of brain plasticity demonstrate the progressive impact of musical training on cognitive brain functions that may manifest well beyond the field of music processing.
Sparks, Amy; McDonald, Skye; Lino, Bianca; O'Donnell, Maryanne; Green, Melissa J
Social and occupational functioning difficulties are a characteristic feature of schizophrenia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that deficits in social cognition contribute significantly to these functional impairments. The present study sought to investigate whether the association between social cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia would be mediated by self-reported levels of empathy. Thirty outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and twenty-five healthy controls completed a well-validated facial affect processing task (Ekman 60-faces facial task from the Facial Expressions of Emotion - Stimuli and Tests; FEEST), The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; to assess emotion perception and complex social cognitive skills such as the detection of sarcasm and deceit, from realistic social exchanges), and measures of self-reported empathy and social functioning. Participants with schizophrenia performed more poorly than controls in identifying emotional states from both FEEST and TASIT stimuli, and were impaired in their ability to comprehend counterfactual information in social exchanges, including sarcasm and lies, on the TASIT. Impairment in the comprehension of sarcasm was associated with higher empathic personal distress, and lower recreational functioning. Impairment in the identification of the emotions of others was found to be associated with lower satisfaction and lower empathic fantasy. However, empathy could not be explored as a mediator of associations between social cognition and functional outcome, due to lack of common associations with functional outcome measures. These findings have implications for the remediation of specific social cognitive deficits with respect to improving functional outcomes in schizophrenia. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Woo, Young Sup; Rosenblat, Joshua D.; Kakar, Ron; Bahk, Won-Myong; McIntyre, Roger S.
Cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients have been described in numerous studies. However, few reports have aimed to describe cognitive deficits in the remitted state of MDD and the mediational effect of cognitive deficits on occupational outcome. The aim of the current review is to synthesize the literature on the mediating and moderating effects of specific domains of cognition on occupational impairment among people with remitted MDD. In addition, predictors of cognitive deficits found to be vocationally important will be examined. Upon examination of the extant literature, attention, executive function and verbal memory are areas of consistent impairment in remitted MDD patients. Cognitive domains shown to have considerable impact on vocational functioning include deficits in memory, attention, learning and executive function. Factors that adversely affect cognitive function related to occupational accommodation include higher age, late age at onset, residual depressive symptoms, history of melancholic/psychotic depression, and physical/psychiatric comorbidity, whereas higher levels of education showed a protective effect against cognitive deficit. Cognitive deficits are a principal mediator of occupational impairment in remitted MDD patients. Therapeutic interventions specifically targeting cognitive deficits in MDD are needed, even in the remitted state, to improve functional recovery, especially in patients who have a higher risk of cognitive deficit. PMID:26792035
Azman, Nursyairah; SUZUKI, Kota; SUZUKI, Tatsuya; ONO, Yumie; EDANAKA, Yuki; KUNIEDA, Fukuo; NAKATA, Masahiro; WATANABE, Kazuko
We used dance video game (DVG) training as a mean of improving elderly's cognitive function and investigated whether the elderly with MCI could overcome the once affected cognitive function via continuous DVG training...
Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis; Daskalopoulou, Marina
BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires...... of cognitive symptoms and ADLs. We considered cognitive function in 5 domains, psychosocial factors, and clinical parameters as potentially associated with symptoms. Separate regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with a decline in ADL (defined as self-reported decline affecting ≥2 ADLs......% white, median CD4 count 550 cells/mm, median time since HIV diagnosis 9.9 years, 81% virologically suppressed (HIV-1 plasma RNA decline in ADLs and attributed this to cognitive difficulties. Self-reported decline in ADLs and increased symptoms of cognitive...
Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante
Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)
Vaisman, Nachum; Katzman, Helena; Carmiel-Haggai, Michal; Lusthaus, Michal; Niv, Eva
.... Because the influence of nutritional factors on the progression of cognitive impairment has not been explored in depth, this study aimed to investigate the effect on cognition of acute metabolic...
Ettinger, Ulrich; Mohr, Christine; Gooding, Diane C; Cohen, Alex S; Rapp, Alexander; Haenschel, Corinna; Park, Sohee
Schizotypy refers to a set of personality traits thought to reflect the subclinical expression of the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we review the cognitive and brain functional profile associated with high questionnaire scores in schizotypy. We discuss empirical evidence from the domains of perception, attention, memory, imagery and representation, language, and motor control. Perceptual deficits occur early and across various modalities. While the neural mechanisms underlying visual impairments may be linked to magnocellular dysfunction, further effects may be seen downstream in higher cognitive functions. Cognitive deficits are observed in inhibitory control, selective and sustained attention, incidental learning, and memory. In concordance with the cognitive nature of many of the aberrations of schizotypy, higher levels of schizotypy are associated with enhanced vividness and better performance on tasks of mental rotation. Language deficits seem most pronounced in higher-level processes. Finally, higher levels of schizotypy are associated with reduced performance on oculomotor tasks, resembling the impairments seen in schizophrenia. Some of these deficits are accompanied by reduced brain activation, akin to the pattern of hypoactivations in schizophrenia spectrum individuals. We conclude that schizotypy is a construct with apparent phenomenological overlap with schizophrenia and stable interindividual differences that covary with performance on a wide range of perceptual, cognitive, and motor tasks known to be impaired in schizophrenia. The importance of these findings lies not only in providing a fine-grained neurocognitive characterization of a personality constellation known to be associated with real-life impairments, but also in generating hypotheses concerning the aetiology of schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions
E, Keren-Happuch; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Desmond, John E
A growing interest in cerebellar function and its involvement in higher cognition have prompted much research in recent years. Cerebellar presence in a wide range of cognitive functions examined within an increasing body of neuroimaging literature has been observed. We applied a meta-analytic approach, which employed the activation likelihood estimate method, to consolidate results of cerebellar involvement accumulated in different cognitive tasks of interest and systematically identified similarities among the studies. The current analysis included 88 neuroimaging studies demonstrating cerebellar activations in higher cognitive domains involving emotion, executive function, language, music, timing and working memory. While largely consistent with a prior meta-analysis by Stoodley and Schmahmann (: Neuroimage 44:489-501), our results extended their findings to include music and timing domains to provide further insights into cerebellar involvement and elucidate its role in higher cognition. In addition, we conducted inter- and intradomain comparisons for the cognitive domains of emotion, language, and working memory. We also considered task differences within the domain of verbal working memory by conducting a comparison of the Sternberg with the n-back task, as well as an analysis of the differential components within the Sternberg task. Results showed a consistent cerebellar presence in the timing domain, providing evidence for a role in time keeping. Unique clusters identified within the domain further refine the topographic organization of the cerebellum. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Maria Eugenia eLopez
Full Text Available The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently healthy aging is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve.21 subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of cognitive reserve; one group comprised subjects with high cognitive reserve (9 members and the other contained those with low cognitive reserve (12 members. To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg´s Task. We then applied two algorithms (Phase Locking Value & Phase-Lag Index to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower cognitive reserve presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher cognitive reserve.These results may indicate that participants with low cognitive reserve needed a greater 'effort' than those with high cognitive reserve to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that cognitive reserve contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain.
Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nevill, Mary E
This study examined the effects of breakfast consumption on cognitive function, mood and blood glucose concentration in adolescent schoolchildren. With the institution's ethical advisory committee approval, 96 adolescents (12 to 15 years old) completed two randomly assigned trials (one following breakfast consumption and one following breakfast omission), scheduled 7 days apart. Cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm), a mood questionnaire and a finger prick blood sample (in a subgroup of 60 participants) were completed immediately following breakfast and 120 min after the baseline measures. Following breakfast consumption, accuracy on the more complex level of the visual search test was higher than following breakfast omission (p=0.021). Similarly, accuracy on the Stroop test was better maintained across the morning following breakfast consumption when compared to breakfast omission (p=0.022). Furthermore, responses on the Sternberg paradigm were quicker later in the morning following breakfast consumption, particularly on the more complex levels (p=0.012). Breakfast consumption also produced higher self-report energy and fullness, lower self-report tiredness and hunger and higher blood glucose concentrations (all pbreakfast consumption enhances cognitive function in an adolescent population when compared to breakfast omission. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cardoso, Carlos; Afonso, Cláudia; Bandarra, Narcisa M
DHA is a key nutritional n-3 PUFA and needs to be supplied by the human diet. DHA is found in significant amounts in the retinal and neuronal cell membranes due to its high fluidity. Indeed, DHA is selectively concentrated in the synaptic and retinal membranes. DHA is deemed to display anti-inflammatory properties and to reduce the risk of CVD. Consumption of larger amounts of DHA appears to reduce the risk of depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. Conversely, it has been shown that loss of DHA from the nerve cell membrane leads to dysfunction of the central nervous system in the form of anxiety, irritability, susceptibility to stress, dyslexia, impaired memory and cognitive functions, and extended reaction times. DHA plays an important role in ensuring a healthy ageing, by thwarting macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, and other brain disorders at the same time as enhancing memory and strengthening neuroprotection in general. A reduced level of DHA is associated with cognitive decline during ageing. Different mechanisms for this fundamental DHA role have been put forward. Namely, neuroprotectin D1, a DHA derivative, may support brain cell survival and repair through neurotrophic, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory signalling. Many of the effects of DHA on the neurological system may be related to signalling connections, thus leading to the study of the related signalolipidomics. Therefore, the present review will focus on the influence of DHA deficiency upon ageing, with specific emphasis upon neurological disorders related to cognitive function and mental health.
Full Text Available Metabolic factors are increasingly recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Abnormal parathyroid hormone (PTH levels play a role in neuronal calcium dysregulation, hypoperfusion and disrupted neuronal signaling. Some studies support a significant link between PTH levels and dementia whereas others do not.We conducted a systematic review through January 2014 to evaluate the association between PTH and parathyroid conditions, cognitive function and dementia. Eleven electronic databases and citation indexes were searched including Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Hand searches of selected journals, reference lists of primary studies and reviews were also conducted along with websites of key organizations. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts of identified studies. Data extraction and study quality were performed by one and checked by a second reviewer using predefined criteria. A narrative synthesis was performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies.The twenty-seven studies identified were of low and moderate quality, and challenging to synthesize due to inadequate reporting. Findings from six observational studies were mixed but suggest a link between higher serum PTH levels and increased odds of poor cognition or dementia. Two case-control studies of hypoparathyroidism provide limited evidence for a link with poorer cognitive function. Thirteen pre-post surgery studies for primary hyperparathyroidism show mixed evidence for improvements in memory though limited agreement in other cognitive domains. There was some degree of cognitive impairment and improvement postoperatively in observational studies of secondary hyperparathyroidism but no evident pattern of associations with specific cognitive domains.Mixed evidence offers weak support for a link between PTH, cognition and dementia due to the paucity of high quality research in this area.
Rossetti, Heidi C; Weiner, Myron; Hynan, Linda S; Cullum, C Munro; Khera, Amit; Lacritz, Laura H
To examine the relationship between measures of subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function. Participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a population-based multiethnic study of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, were re-examined 8 years later (DHS-2) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); N = 1904, mean age = 42.9, range 8-65. Associations of baseline measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium, abdominal aortic plaque, and abdominal aortic wall thickness) with MoCA scores measured at follow-up were examined in the group as a whole and in relation to age and ApoE4 status. A significant linear trend of successively lower MoCA scores with increasing numbers of atherosclerotic indicators was observed (F(3, 1150) = 5.918, p = .001). CAC was weakly correlated with MoCA scores (p = .047) and MoCA scores were significantly different between participants with and without CAC (M = 22.35 vs 23.69, p = 0.038). With the exception of a small association between abdominal AWT and MoCA in subjects over age 50, abdominal AWT and abdominal aortic plaque did not correlate with MoCA total score (p ≥ .052). Cognitive scores and atherosclerosis measures were not impacted by ApoE4 status (p ≥ .455). In this ethnically diverse population-based sample, subclinical atherosclerosis was minimally associated with later cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ogliari, Giulia; Sabayan, Behnam; Mari, Daniela
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the relationship between blood pressure (BP) measures and cognitive function is different according to age and functional status in older outpatients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Outpatient hospital-based Milan Geriatrics 75+ Cohort Study. PARTICIPANTS...... and functioning and were most pronounced in those aged 85 and older, with ADL impairments, and with IADL impairments. CONCLUSION: Higher BP is associated with better cognitive function in the oldest old and in those with impaired functional status....
Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat
Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…
Crowe, Michael; Clay, Olivio J; Martin, Roy C; Howard, Virginia J; Wadley, Virginia G; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M
The association between years of education and cognitive function in older adults has been studied extensively, but the role of quality of education is unknown. We examined indicators of childhood educational quality as predictors of cognitive performance and decline in later life. Participants included 433 older adults (52% African American) who reported living in Alabama during childhood and completed in-home assessments of cognitive function at baseline and 4 years later. Reports of residence during school years were matched to county-level data from the 1935 Alabama Department of Education report for school funding (per student), student-teacher ratio, and school year length. A composite measure of global cognitive function was utilized in analyses. Multilevel mixed effects models accounted for clustering of educational data within counties in examining the association between cognitive function and the educational quality indices. Higher student-teacher ratio was associated with worse cognitive function and greater school year length was associated with better cognitive function. These associations remained statistically significant in models adjusted for education level, age, race, gender, income, reading ability, vascular risk factors, and health behaviors. The observed associations were stronger in those with lower levels of education (≤12 years), but none of the education quality measures were related to 4-year change in cognitive function. Educational factors other than years of schooling may influence cognitive performance in later life. Understanding the role of education in cognitive aging has substantial implications for prevention efforts as well as accurate identification of older adults with cognitive impairment.
Examination of cognitive functions in the framework of speech perception has recently gained increasing scientific and clinical interest. Especially against the background of age-related hearing impairment and cognitive decline potential new perspectives in terms of better individualisation of auditory diagnosis and rehabilitation might arise. This review addresses the relationships of speech audiometry, speech perception and cognitive functions. It presents models of speech perception, discusses associations of neuropsychological with audiometric outcomes and shows recent efforts to consider cognitive functions with speech audiometry.
Paulo R. M. Bittencourt
Full Text Available Cognitive function of patients on monotherapy specific for their epileptic syndrome has been studied infrequently. We evaluated 7 patients with symptomatic localised epilepsies (SEL on phenytoin aged 30±12 (mean±standard deviation years, 8 with idiopathic generalised epilepsies on sodium valproate aged 18±4 years, 16 with SEL on carbamazepine aged 28±11 years, and 35 healthy controls aged 27±11 years. All subjects were of normal intelligence, educated appropriately to age, and led productive lives in the community. Two of the patients on carbamazepine and one on valproate had less than five partial, absence or myoclonic seizures monthly, the remaining were controlled. Carbamazepine serum concentrations were 12±5 ug/ml, phenytoin were 23±7, and valproate were 62±23 (mean±sd. Tests included immediate recall and recognition for pictures, Stroop test, delayed recall and recognition of pictures. Patients on phenytoin and valproate performed significantly worse than controls on immediate recall, and patients on carbamazepine performed significantly worse than controls in Stroop test (p<0,01. The results indicate relatively minor effects of the epileptic syndromes and of phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate on cognition of patients with controlled epilepsy leading productive lives in the community. We conclude that the cognitive deficit found in chronic epileptic patients on polytherapeutic drug regimen must be multifactorial, and that future studies need to control for all possible variables in order to achieve meaningul results.
Vance, David E; Roberson, Anthony J; McGuinness, Teena M; Fazeli, Pariya L
Overall cognitive status can vary across an individual's life span in response to factors that promote either positive or negative neuroplasticity. Positive neuroplasticity refers to he physiological ability of the brain to form and strengthen dendritic connections, produce beneficial morphological changes, and increase cognitive reserve. Negative neuroplasticity refers to the same physiological ability of t he brain to atrophy and weaken dendritic connections, produce detrimental morphological changes, and decrease cognitive reserve. Factors that promote positive neuroplasticity include physical activity, education, social interaction, intellectual pursuits, and cognitive remediation. Factors that promote negative neuroplasticity include poor health, poor sleep hygiene, poor nutrition, substance abuse, and depression and anxiety. Implications for promoting positive neuroplasticity and avoiding negative neuroplasticity across the life span are emphasized to facilitate optimal cognitive health and ensure successful cognitive aging.
Nahnybida Lyubov Serhiyivna
Full Text Available The article reviews traditional and modern lines of research that contribute revelation of many-sided entity of metaphor. Despite numerous efforts of scrutinizing and systematization of metaphors, there is no far and wide integrated theory that could have included ideas of different approaches. The author identifies main, the most effective researches in classifications of metaphors that give the idea of its place and role within the text and discourse. Functional cognitive paradigm is determinant in metaphor studying and revealing its dual nature.
Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa
Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has
Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Barnes, Maree
Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns. These nocturnal events result in excessive daytime sleepiness, and changes in mood and cognition. Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in sleep clinics both subjectively (questionnaire) and objectively (sleep latency tests). Mood changes are often reported by patients, including irritability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. A wide range of cognitive deficits have been identified in untreated OSA patients, from attentional and vigilance, to memory and executive functions, and more complex tasks such as simulated driving. These changes are reflected in patient reports of difficulty in concentrating, increased forgetfulness, an inability to make decisions, and falling asleep at the wheel of a motor vehicle. These cognitive changes can also have significant downstream effects on daily functioning. Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have difficulties at work or school. A number of comorbidities may also influence the cognitive changes in OSA patients, including hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. These diseases can cause changes to neural vasculature and result in neural damage, leading to cognitive impairments. Examination of OSA patients using neuroimaging techniques such
Charlotte A Oomen
Full Text Available Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol abundant in grapes and red wine, has been reported to exert numerous beneficial health effects. Among others, acute neuroprotective effects of resveratrol have been reported in several models of neurodegeneration, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we examined the neuroprotective effects of long term dietary supplementation with resveratrol in mice on behavioral, neurochemical and cerebrovascular level. We report a preserved cognitive function in resveratrol treated aging mice, as shown by an enhanced acquisition of a spatial Y-maze task. This was paralleled by a higher microvascular density and a lower number of microvascular abnormalities in comparison to aging non-treated control animals. We found no effects of resveratrol supplementation on cholinergic cell number or fiber density. The present findings support the hypothesis that resveratrol exerts beneficial effects on the brain by maintaining cerebrovascular health. Via this mechanism resveratrol can contribute to the preservation of cognitive function during aging.
Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Mano, Yoko; Sassa, Yuko; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta
Implicit or automatic detection of social signals, which discriminate animate, intentional objects in the environment, is essential for higher social cognition and its development. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified the neural substrate of detecting simple visual social signals and examined its functional link with the mechanism of inferring another's mental state. Healthy participants were presented with the eye-gaze shift (EG) and self-propelling motion (SP) under both implicit and explicit task conditions. They also performed a social role-playing game in which mental inference (MI) was implicitly prompted during the presentation of faces (implicit MI). Implicit detection of EG and SP activated the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) bilaterally, whereas the right posterior superior temporal sulcus was activated during the explicit conditions. We revealed that the individual variation in neural response in the right pMTG during implicit eye-gaze detection explains the individual tendency to recruit the regions implicated in mental-state inference (medial prefrontal cortex, temporal pole and striatum) during the implicit MI task. Our results suggest that the implicit detection of visual social signals involves the pMTG and underlies the development of higher social cognition. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Eskes, Gail A.; Stewart eLongman; Allison D. eBrown; Carly A. eMcMorris; Langdon, Kristopher D; David B. eHogan; Marc ePoulin
Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities) are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascul...
Roelofs, K; Pasman, J
Conversion disorder (CD) has traditionally been ascribed to psychologic factors such as trauma, stress, or emotional conflict. Although reference to the psychologic origin of CD has been removed from the criteria list in DSM-5, many theories still incorporate CD as originating from adverse events. This chapter provides a critical review of the literature on stressful life events in CD and discusses current cognitive and neurobiologic models linking psychologic stressors with conversion symptomatology. In addition, we propose a neurobiologic stress model integrating those cognitive models with neuroendocrine stress research and propose that stress and stress-induced changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function may result in cognitive alterations, that in turn contribute to experiencing conversion symptoms. Experimental studies indeed suggest that basal as well as stress-induced changes in HPA axis responding lead to alterations in attentional processing in CD. Although those changes are stronger in traumatized patients, similar patterns have been observed in patients who do not report a history of traumatic events. We conclude that, whereas adverse events may play an important role in many cases of CD, a substantial proportion of patients do not report a history of traumatization or recent stressful events. Studies integrating effects of stress on cognitive functioning in CD are scarce. We propose that, instead of focusing research on defining etiologic events in terms of symptom-eliciting events, future research should work towards an integrated mechanistic account, assessing alterations in cognitive and biologic stress systems in an integrated manner in patients with CD. Such an account may not only serve early symptom detection, it might also provide a starting point for better-targeted interventions. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available , Social Engineering Attack Detection Model (SEADM), by proposing and incorporating a cognitive functioning psychological measure in order to determine the emotional state and decision-making ability of the call centre employee. The cognitive analysis...
Linden, S. van; Cremers, A.H.M.
The present study investigates the proficiency levels of functionally illiterate persons regarding a number of cognitive skills (language processing skills (reading, writing, listening), visual organizational and visual memory skills, mental spatial orientation, speed of cognitive processing,
Barcelos, Nicole; Shah, Nikita; Cohen, Katherine; Hogan, Michael J; Mulkerrin, Eamon; Arciero, Paul J; Cohen, Brian D; Kramer, Arthur F; Anderson-Hanley, Cay
Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Little is known about the relationship between cognitive functions and higher-level functional capacity (e.g. intellectual activity, social role, and social participation in Parkinson's disease (PD. The purpose of this study was to clarify neuropsychological characteristics and their association with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Methods: Participants were 31 PD patients and 23 demographically matched healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests were conducted. One year later, a questionnaire survey evaluated higher-level functional capacity in daily living. Results: The PD group scored significantly lower than the control group in all cognitive domains, particularly executive function and processing. Executive function, processing speed, language, and memory were significantly correlated with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Stepwise regression showed that only executive function (Trail Making Test-B, together with disease severity (HY stage, predicted the higher-level functional capacity. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between executive function and higher-level functional capacity in patients with PD.
Palmer, Edward J; Devitt, Peter G
Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs) are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs). MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution. An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs) used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. The effectiveness of the questions was determined by two assessors and was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Over 50% of all of the MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination.
Miu, Jenny; Negin, Joel; Salinas-Rodriguez, Aarón; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Cumming, Robert; Kowal, Paul
Background: As populations age, cognitive decline and dementia pose significant burdens for societies and health care systems, including low- and middle-income countries such as Mexico. Minor age-related declines in cognitive function appear to represent a stable but heterogeneous phase in the continuum between normal cognitive ageing and dementia. Loss of cognitive function has impacts at societal and individual levels and understanding the risk factors can help provide a framework for healt...
Amieva, Hélène; Mokri, Hind; Le Goff, Mélanie; Meillon, Céline; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Stern, Yaakov; Dartigues, Jean-François
decline concomitantly affecting specific and more global cognitive function along with alteration in functional abilities. This study demonstrates how early cognitive symptoms may emerge preceding Alzheimer's dementia particularly in higher-educated individuals, for whom decline occurred up to 16 years before dementia. It also demonstrates the protective role of education in the clinical trajectory preceding Alzheimer's dementia. We suggest that the initial decline in cognition occurs at the onset of comparable Alzheimer's disease pathology in both groups, and is associated with immediate decline to dementia in the lower education group. In contrast, higher education protects against further cognitive decline for ∼7 years until pathology becomes more severe.
Ward, L; Mathias, J L; Hitchings, S E
Bereavement is often associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. The question of whether grief is associated with cognitive deficits in older adults remains largely unanswered. Although Xavier and coworkers (see text) found preliminary evidence that grief, in the absence of depression, impacted on memory in a sample of the oldest-old in Brazil, the impact of bereavement on cognitive functioning, independent of the effects of mood, has not been adequately examined. To replicate and expand on the work of Xavier and colleagues to examine whether there is an association between bereavement due to spousal loss and performance in a range of cognitive functioning domains in older adults, independent of the effects of depression, stress, and anxiety. Samples of bereaved (n = 25) and non-bereaved (n = 25) participants, who were aged between 65 and 80 years and who were matched for age, gender, education, premorbid intellectual functioning, and general cognitive ability, were compared on a battery of tests designed to assess attention, verbal fluency, memory, and visuospatial ability. Depression, anxiety, and stress were also assessed, as were the presence of complicated grief and the adequacy of social support in the bereaved group. Cognitive tests that differed between the groups and correlated with depression, stress, or anxiety were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. The bereaved groups were more depressed, anxious, and stressed, and performed more poorly on tests assessing attention, information-processing speed, and verbal fluency. With the exception of the attentional switching task, the cognitive measures on which the groups differed were correlated with mood. When mood was controlled statistically, the group differences in these cognitive tests disappeared. Twenty-eight percent of the bereaved group met the criteria for a diagnosis of complicated grief. This subgroup was younger than the other bereaved participants and had
De Smet, Hyo Jung; Paquier, Philippe; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter
The traditional view on the cerebellum as the sole coordinator of motor function has been substantially redefined during the past decades. Neuroanatomical, neuroimaging and clinical studies have extended the role of the cerebellum to the modulation of cognitive and affective processing. Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated cerebellar connectivity with the supratentorial association areas involved in higher cognitive and affective functioning, while functional neuroimaging and clinical studies have provided evidence of cerebellar involvement in a variety of cognitive and affective tasks. This paper reviews the recently acknowledged role of the cerebellum in linguistic and related cognitive and behavioral-affective functions. In addition, typical cerebellar syndromes such as the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) and the posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) will be briefly discussed and the current hypotheses dealing with the presumed neurobiological mechanisms underlying the linguistic, cognitive and affective modulatory role of the cerebellum will be reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morton, Jennifer M.
In this paper, I reflect on the changing role of higher education by focusing on the case of online education. I consider the promise of online education as a means to mitigate educational inequalities. Based on the available empirical evidence, I argue that this promise is unlikely to be fulfilled because online education is not well-suited to…
Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon
Naps (brief sleeps) are a global and highly prevalent phenomenon, thus warranting consideration for their effects on cognitive functioning. Naps can reduce sleepiness and improve cognitive performance. The benefits of brief (5-15 min) naps are almost immediate after the nap and last a limited period (1-3h). Longer naps (> 30 min) can produce impairment from sleep inertia for a short period after waking but then produce improved cognitive performance for a longer period (up to many hours). Other factors that affect the benefits from the nap are the circadian timing of the nap with early afternoon being the most favourable time. Longer periods of prior wakefulness favour longer naps over brief naps. Those who regularly nap seem to show greater benefits than those who rarely nap. These conclusions, however, need to be accepted cautiously until more comprehensive research programmes are conducted in which all these parameters are varied. Research is also needed to test the benefits of brief naps taken more naturalistically at the time when sleepiness becomes intrusive. The significant benefits of a brief nap, containing virtually no slow wave EEG activity, are not predicted by the present theory of homeostatic sleep drive (Process S). A new biological process (Process O) suggests that sleep onset followed by only 7-10 min of sleep can result in a substantial increase of alertness because it allows the rapid dissipation of inhibition in the 'wake-active' cells associated with the 'sleep-switch' mechanism rather than the dissipation of Process S. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Phillips, Christine B; Edwards, Jerri D; Andel, Ross; Kilpatrick, Marcus
Physical activity (PA) is believed to preserve cognitive function in older adulthood, though little is known about these relationships within the context of daily life. The present microlongitudinal pilot study explored within- and between-person relationships between daily PA and cognitive function and also examined within-person effect sizes in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-one healthy participants (mean age = 70.1 years) wore an accelerometer and completed a cognitive assessment battery for five days. There were no significant associations between cognitive task performance and participants' daily or average PA over the study period. Effect size estimates indicated that PA explained 0-24% of within-person variability in cognitive function, depending on cognitive task and PA dose. Results indicate that PA may have near-term cognitive effects and should be explored as a possible strategy to enhance older adults' ability to perform cognitively complex activities within the context of daily living.
Gale, Catharine R; O'Callaghan, Finbar J; Godfrey, Keith M; Law, Catherine M; Martyn, Christopher N
There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We investigated the relationship between brain growth in different periods of pre- and postnatal life and cognitive function in 221 9-year-old children whose mothers had taken part in a study of nutrition in pregnancy and whose head circumference had been measured at 18 weeks gestation, birth and 9 months of age. Cognitive function of the children and their mothers was assessed with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Full-scale IQ at age 9 years rose by 1.98 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 3.62] for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 months and by 2.87 points (95% CI 1.05 to 4.69) for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 years of age, after adjustment for sex, number of older siblings, maternal IQ, age, education, social class, duration of breastfeeding and history of low mood in the post-partum period. Postnatal head growth was significantly greater in children whose mothers were educated to degree level or of higher socio-economic status. There was no relation between IQ and measurements of head size at 18 weeks gestation or at birth. These results suggest that brain growth during infancy and early childhood is more important than growth during foetal life in determining cognitive function.
Farup, Per Grønaas; Hestad, Knut
Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria), cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests), and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale) were analysed in patients with idiopathic dep...
Murray, Graham K; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus
Developmental delay is associated with a subsequent diagnosis of learning disability. However, the relationship between the age of reaching infant developmental milestones and later intellectual function within the general population remains unresolved. We hypothesized that earlier attainment of developmental milestones would be associated with better subsequent intellectual performance throughout the range of abilities, rather than confined to extremes. Developmental data were obtained at age 2 years in the National Survey of Health and Development, a representative sample of 5,362 children born in the United Kingdom in 1946. Data on intellectual function and educational attainment at ages 8, 26, and 53 years were also obtained. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyze the effect of age of reaching developmental milestones on subsequent cognition and educational attainment. The age of reaching developmental milestones was associated with intellectual performance at ages 8, 26, and 53 years; for every month earlier a child learned to stand, there was, on average, a gain of one half of one intelligence quotient point at age 8. Speech development had a small but statistically significant effect on subsequent educational attainment (later developers were less likely to progress beyond basic education); this effect was not apparent for motor development. Effect sizes were reduced when the slowest developers were excluded, but many effects remained significant. The association between later development and poorer subsequent intellectual function is small, but it does have theoretical implications; we suggest it is secondary to suboptimal cortical-subcortical connectivity.
Butler, Christopher S.
This paper discusses the role played by cognition in three linguistic theories which may be labelled as "structural-functional": Functional (Discourse) Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar. It argues that if we are to achieve true cognitive adequacy, we must go well beyond the grammar itself to include the processes…
De Alwis, Duneesha; Myerson, Joel; Hershey, Tamara; Hale, Sandra
The relations between higher cognitive abilities and immediate and delayed recall were studied in 57 children (6–16 years of age). The participants were tested repeatedly on free recall of a supraspan list (Children’s Memory Scale), and their fluid ability was also assessed (Woodcock–Johnson III Spatial Relations). Consistent with Unsworth and Engle’s (2007) account of the relation between memory and higher order cognition, the children’s fluid ability was significantly correlated with retrie...
Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick
We present an exploratory study of biologists? ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions...
Previous theories about the etiology of cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder (BD) emphasized trait factors such as neurological impairment. State factors, other than mood symptoms, that may exacerbate functional deficits have not yet been considered. The purpose of this study was to examine autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal following cognitive challenge. The study compared patients with BD and healthy controls (HC) in physiological measures and neuropsychological test scores. Thirty euthymic patients with BD and 22 HC completed the study. Participants completed mood [Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)], anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and substance abuse (Drug Abuse Screening Test-20 item and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) measures. They were connected to an electrogram, a sensitive thermometer for measuring finger temperature, and electrodes that measure galvanic skin response. After a five-min baseline measurement in a restful state, participants completed a computerized neuropsychological battery (CNS Vital Signs). The group with BD reported significantly more mood symptoms (BDI-II, t = 3.71, p < 0.001; YMRS, t = 6.73, p < 0.001) and scored higher on a measure of trait-anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, t = 2.91, p < 0.001) than HC. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed higher arousal on all physiological measures in the BD group relative to HC at baseline [F(3,48) = 13.1, p < 0.001] and during cognitive testing [F(3,48) = 11.3, p < 0.001]. The increase in physiological arousal from a restful state to the time of testing was higher for the BD group [F(3,37) = 8.06, p < 0.001]. With respect to cognitive data, HC scored higher than patients with BD across the measures of memory (F = 8.5, p < 0.001), sustained (F = 9.5, p < 0.001) and complex (F = 2.7, p < 0.04) attention, processing speed (F = 10.0, p < 0
Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare
The chance of reaching age 90 years has increased markedly over the last 50 years, and this chance will probably continue to increase with successive cohorts. There is a widespread concern that a large fraction of the future oldest old will be cognitively impaired. However, there is strong evidence...... that later born cohorts may have better late-life cognitive function than earlier born cohorts as studies have shown a decline both in the prevalence and in the incidence of dementia. Cognitive functioning generally declines after the age of 40 years at an individual level, but there are substantial...... individual differences. This decline of cognitive functioning at an individual level may suggest that cognitive function at a population level decreases with age. However, in the Danish 1905 cohort, the age trajectory of both average and high cognitive functioning is constant at a population level from...
Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Yang, Gui Rong; Hannan, Nazirul; Lim, Kenny; Chua, Christopher; Tan, Mae Yue; Fong, Nikki; Yeap, Amelia; Chen, Lionel; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Shen, Han Ming
Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) can affect cognitive function. We assessed cognitive function and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. The study population involved all residents aged ≥60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES) and rental flats (low SES) in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as <24 on the Mini Mental State Examination. Demographic/clinical details were collected via questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to evaluate factors associated with cognitive function, while multilevel logistic regression determined predictors of cognitive impairment. Participation was 61.4% (558/909). Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397) of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161) of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitive function (β = -1.41, SD = 0.58, p < 0.01) and cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio 5.13, 95% CI 1.98-13.34). Among cognitively impaired elderly in the low-SES community, 96.2% (100/104) were newly detected. Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society.
Jordi A. Matias-Guiu
Full Text Available BackgroundCognitive impairment is frequent and disabling in multiple sclerosis (MS. Changes in information processing speed constitute the most important cognitive deficit in MS. However, given the clinical and topographical variability of the disease, cognitive impairment may vary greatly and appear in other forms in addition to slower information processing speed. Our aim was to determine the frequency of cognitive impairment, the principal cognitive domains, and components involved in MS and to identify factors associated with presence of cognitive impairment in these patients in a large series of patients.MethodsCross-sectional study of 311 patients with MS [236 with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, 52 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS, and 23 with primary progressive MS (PPMS]. Patients’ cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment protocol. Patients displaying deficits in 2 or more cognitive domains were considered to have cognitive impairment associated with MS. We conducted a principal component analysis to detect different cognitive patterns by identifying clusters of tests highly correlated to one another.ResultsCognitive impairment was detected in 41.5% of the sample, and it was more frequent in patients with SPMS and PPMS (P = 0.002. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and education were independent predictors of cognitive impairment. Principal component analysis identified seven clusters: attention and basic executive function (including information processing speed, planning and high-level executive function, verbal memory and language, executive and visuospatial performance time, fatigue-depression, visuospatial function, and basic attention and verbal/visual working memory. Mean scoring of components 2 (high-order executive functioning and 3 (verbal memory-language was higher in patients with RRMS than in those with PPMS (component 2 and SPMS (component 3.ConclusionMS is linked to
Lange, Marie; Giffard, Bénédicte; Noal, Sabine; Rigal, Olivier; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Heutte, Natacha; Lévy, Christelle; Allouache, Djelila; Rieux, Chantal; Le Fel, Johan; Daireaux, Aurélie; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Veyret, Corinne; Barthélémy, Philippe; Longato, Nadine; Eustache, Francis; Joly, Florence
Cognitive deficits (CD) are reported among cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, but may also be observed before treatment. Though elderly patients are expected to be more prone to present age-related CD, poor information is available regarding the impact of cancer and chemotherapy on this population. This study assessed baseline cognitive functions (before adjuvant treatment) in elderly early stage breast cancer (EBC) patients. Women >65years-old with newly diagnosed EBC were included in this prospective study. Episodic memory, working memory, executive functions and information processing speed were assessed by neuropsychological tests. Questionnaires were used to assess subjective CD, anxiety, depression, fatigue, quality of life and geriatric profile. Objective CD were defined using International Cognition and Cancer Task Force criteria. A group of elderly women without cancer coupled with published data related to healthy women were used for comparison (respectively to subjective and objective CD). Among the 123 elderly EBC patients (70±4years) included, 41% presented objective CD, which is greater than expected in healthy population norms (binomial test P<.0001). Verbal episodic memory was mainly impaired (21% of patients). No correlation was observed between objective CD and cancer stage or geriatric assessment. Subjective CD only correlated with verbal episodic memory (P=.01). This is the first large series assessing baseline cognitive functions in elderly EBC patients. More than 40% presented objective CD before any adjuvant therapy, which is higher than what is reported among younger patients. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that age is a risk factor for CD in EBC patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Presse, Nancy; Belleville, Sylvie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, Jose A; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine
Evidence is accumulating that vitamin K could have a role in cognition, especially in aging. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge), a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the associations between vitamin K status, measured as serum phylloquinone concentrations, and performance in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. The sample included 320 men and women aged 70 to 85 years who were free of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, higher serum phylloquinone concentration (log-transformed) was associated with better verbal episodic memory performances (F = 2.43, p = 0.048); specifically with the scores (Z-transformed) on the second (β = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.82), third (β = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.06-0.75), and 20-minute delayed (β = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.12-0.82) free recall trials of the RL/RI-16 Free and Cued Recall Task. No associations were found with non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. Our study adds evidence to the possible role of vitamin K in cognition during aging, specifically in the consolidation of the memory trace. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Katsumi, Akihiko; Hoshino, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Yabe, Hirooki; Ikebuchi, Emi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Niwa, Shin-Ichi
Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit cognitive impairments, which are related to impairments in social functions. This study investigated the effects of cognitive remediation on cognitive, social, and daily living impairment. Participants were individuals with schizophrenia between 20 and 60 years old (N = 44). Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a cognitive remediation intervention group and a non-intervention control group. The control group was provided with conventional drug therapy and either day care or occupational therapy. The intervention group was provided with the "neuropsychological educational approach to cognitive remediation" developed by Medalia and co-workers. We assessed cognitive functions using the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia (BACS), and evaluated social and daily living functions using the global assessment of functioning (GAF) scale. Significant group by time interaction effects indicated that verbal memory, working memory, attention, and executive function showed significantly greater improvement at post-intervention for the intervention group than the control group. Social and daily living function also improved in the intervention group and improvements were maintained one year after intervention. These preliminary findings indicate that the combination of cognitive remediation and psychiatric rehabilitation is effective for facilitating improvements in cognitive function and social and daily living functions in individuals with schizophrenia.
Schultz, Stephanie A; Larson, Jordan; Oh, Jennifer; Koscik, Rebecca; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark; LaRue, Asenath; Okonkwo, Ozioma C
This study tested the hypothesis that frequent participation in cognitively-stimulating activities, specifically those related to playing games and puzzles, is beneficial to brain health and cognition among middle-aged adults at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three hundred twenty-nine cognitively normal, middle-aged adults (age range, 43.2-73.8 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) participated in this study. They reported their current engagement in cognitive activities using a modified version of the Cognitive Activity Scale (CAS), underwent a structural MRI scan, and completed a comprehensive cognitive battery. FreeSurfer was used to derive gray matter (GM) volumes from AD-related regions of interest (ROIs), and composite measures of episodic memory and executive function were obtained from the cognitive tests. Covariate-adjusted least squares analyses were used to examine the association between the Games item on the CAS (CAS-Games) and both GM volumes and cognitive composites. Higher scores on CAS-Games were associated with greater GM volumes in several ROIs including the hippocampus, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, and middle frontal gyrus. Similarly, CAS-Games scores were positively associated with scores on the Immediate Memory, Verbal Learning & Memory, and Speed & Flexibility domains. These findings were not modified by known risk factors for AD. In addition, the Total score on the CAS was not as sensitive as CAS-Games to the examined brain and cognitive measures. For some individuals, participation in cognitive activities pertinent to game playing may help prevent AD by preserving brain structures and cognitive functions vulnerable to AD pathophysiology.
Galioto, Rachel; Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John
Obesity is associated with cognitive impairment, and bariatric surgery has been shown to improve cognitive functioning. Rapid improvements in glycemic control are common after bariatric surgery and likely contribute to these cognitive gains. We examined whether improvements in glucose regulation are associated with better cognitive function following bariatric surgery. A total of 85 adult bariatric surgery patients underwent computerized cognitive testing and fasting blood draw for glucose, insulin, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at baseline and 12 months postoperatively. Significant improvements in both cognitive function and glycemic control were observed among patients. After controlling for baseline factors, 12-month homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance HOMA-IR predicted 12-month digits backward (β = -.253, p working memory, psychomotor speed, and cognitive flexibility improved. Decreases in HbA1c were not associated with postoperative cognitive improvements. After controlling for baseline cognitive test performance, changes in body mass index (BMI) were also not associated with 12-month cognitive function. Small effects of improved glycemic control on improved aspects of attention and executive function were observed following bariatric surgery among severely obese individuals. Future research is needed to identify the underlying mechanisms for the neurocognitive benefits of these procedures.
Bergfeld, Isidoor O; Mantione, Mariska; Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Denys, Damiaan
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is routinely used as a treatment for treatment-refractory Parkinson's disease and has recently been proposed for psychiatric disorders such as Tourette syndrome (TS), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Although cognitive deterioration has repeatedly been shown in patients with Parkinson's disease following DBS, the impact of DBS on cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients has not yet been reviewed. Reviewing the available literature on cognitive functioning following DBS in psychiatric patients. A systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science, last updated in September 2012, found 1470 papers. Abstracts were scrutinized and 26 studies examining cognitive functioning of psychiatric patients following DBS were included on basis of predetermined inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported cognitive functioning of 130 psychiatric patients following DBS (37 TS patients, 56 OCD patients, 28 MDD patients, 6 patients with Alzheimer's disease, and 3 patients with other disorders). None of the studies reported substantial cognitive decline following DBS. On the contrary, 13 studies reported cognitive improvement following DBS. Preliminary results suggest that DBS in psychiatric disorders does not lead to cognitive decline. In selected cases cognitive functioning was improved following DBS. However, cognitive improvement cannot be conclusively attributed to DBS since studies are hampered by serious limitations. We discuss the outcomes in light of these limitations and offer suggestions for future work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Examination of cognitive functions in the framework of speech perception has recently gained increasing scientific and clinical interest. Especially against the background of age-related hearing impairment and cognitive decline, potential new perspectives in terms of a better individualization of auditory diagnosis and rehabilitation might arise. This review addresses the relationships between speech audiometry, speech perception, and cognitive functions. It presents models of speech perception, discusses associations of neuropsychological and audiometric outcomes, and shows examples of recent efforts undertaken in Germany to consider cognitive functions with speech audiometry.
Peña, Javier; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Naroa; Sánchez, Pedro; Iriarte, Maria B; Elizagarate, Edorta; Garay, Maria A; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Iribarren, Aránzazu; Ojeda, Natalia
This study examined the efficacy of an integrative cognitive remediation program (REHACOP) in improving cognition and functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. The program combines cognitive remediation, social cognitive intervention, and functional skills training. Few studies have attempted this approach. One hundred and eleven patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to either the cognitive remediation group (REHACOP) or an active control group (occupational activities) for 4 months (three sessions per week, 90 min). Primary outcomes were change on general neurocognitive performance and social cognition, including theory of mind (ToM), emotion perception (EP), attributional style, and social perception (SP). Secondary outcomes included changes on clinical symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) and functional outcome (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment and the Global Assessment of Functioning). The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02796417). No baseline group differences were found. Significant differences were found in the mean change between the REHACOP group and control group in neurocognition ([Formula: see text]), SP ([Formula: see text]), ToM ([Formula: see text]), EP ([Formula: see text]), negative symptoms ([Formula: see text]), emotional distress ([Formula: see text]), Global Assessment of Functioning ([Formula: see text]), and UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment ([Formula: see text]). The combination of cognitive remediation, social cognitive intervention, and functional skills training demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in neurocognition, social cognition, negative, and functional disability.
Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris
Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.
Barbour, Jayne A; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M
Nuts are rich in many nutrients that can benefit multiple cardiometabolic functions, including arterial compliance, blood pressure, inflammation, glucoregulation and endothelial vasodilatation. Impaired vasodilatation may contribute to impaired cognitive performance due to poor cerebral perfusion. The present narrative review examines associations between nut consumption, vascular health and cognitive function. It includes a systematic search which identified seventy-one epidemiological or intervention studies in which effects of chronic nut consumption on blood pressure, glucoregulation, endothelial vasodilator function, arterial compliance, inflammatory biomarkers and cognitive performance were evaluated. Weighted mean changes were estimated where data were available; they indicate that nut consumption reduces blood pressure and improves glucoregulation, endothelial vasodilator function and inflammation, whilst a limited number of studies suggest that nut consumption may also improve cognitive performance. Further clinical trials are warranted to explore relationships between nut consumption, endothelial function and cognitive function.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the
Bird, T. D.; Follett, C; GRIEP, E
Twenty-nine patients with myotonic dystrophy from 14 families were tested with the Wechsler and Shipley measures of cognitive function. Forty-one per cent of the subjects had little or no physical handicap. Approximately one-third had low Wechsler scores, whereas 7% had relatively high scores. There was a trend for affected females to have poorer cognitive function than males. Limited cognitive ability correlated with maternal inheritance of the gene and severe physical handicap, but there we...
Gail A Eskes
Full Text Available Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V˙ o2max, cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial PCO2, and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Results: Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Conclusions: Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study.
Lexén, Annika; Bejerholm, Ulrika
Cognitive functioning may have implications for engagement in daily occupations among people with schizophrenia. This cross-sectional study explores relationships between time use assessed occupational engagement and cognitive functioning among persons with schizophrenia. Thirty-nine participants from four mental health care services in Sweden participated. The Profile of Occupational Engagement among persons with Severe mental illness (POES) and a cognitive test battery was used. Higher attention and psychomotor speed and higher scores in information processing speed, immediate and delayed verbal recall, and immediate and delayed visual recall were significantly correlated with higher scores in occupational engagement. Regression analyzes revealed that information processing speed and delayed visual recall best explained the variance in occupational engagement (R2 = 0.36). Cognitive functioning has implications for occupational engagement, and thus the ability to perform daily occupations in a balanced rhythm within various social and physical environments.
Buckley, Rachel F; Schultz, Aaron P; Hedden, Trey; Papp, Kathryn V; Hanseeuw, Bernard J; Marshall, Gad; Sepulcre, Jorge; Smith, Emily E; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P
To examine the utility of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) measurements of network integrity as a predictor of future cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD). A total of 237 clinically normal older adults (aged 63-90 years, Clinical Dementia Rating 0) underwent baseline β-amyloid (Aβ) imaging with Pittsburgh compound B PET and structural and rs-fcMRI. We identified 7 networks for analysis, including 4 cognitive networks (default, salience, dorsal attention, and frontoparietal control) and 3 noncognitive networks (primary visual, extrastriate visual, motor). Using linear and curvilinear mixed models, we used baseline connectivity in these networks to predict longitudinal changes in preclinical Alzheimer cognitive composite (PACC) performance, both alone and interacting with Aβ burden. Median neuropsychological follow-up was 3 years. Baseline connectivity in the default, salience, and control networks predicted longitudinal PACC decline, unlike connectivity in the dorsal attention and all noncognitive networks. Default, salience, and control network connectivity was also synergistic with Aβ burden in predicting decline, with combined higher Aβ and lower connectivity predicting the steepest curvilinear decline in PACC performance. In clinically normal older adults, lower functional connectivity predicted more rapid decline in PACC scores over time, particularly when coupled with increased Aβ burden. Among examined networks, default, salience, and control networks were the strongest predictors of rate of change in PACC scores, with the inflection point of greatest decline beyond the fourth year of follow-up. These results suggest that rs-fcMRI may be a useful predictor of early, AD-related cognitive decline in clinical research settings. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Full Text Available We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158 completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition five months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.
Mulligan, Bryce P; Smart, Colette M; Segalowitz, Sidney J; MacDonald, Stuart W S
We sought to clarify the nature of self-reported cognitive function among healthy older adults by considering the short-term, within-person association (coupling) of subjective cognitive function with objective cognitive performance. We expected this within-person coupling to differ between persons as a function of self-perceived global cognitive decline and depression, anxiety, or neuroticism. This was an intensive measurement (short-term longitudinal) study of 29 older adult volunteers between the ages of 65 and 80 years without an existing diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment. Baseline assessment included neuropsychological testing and self-reported depression, anxiety, and neuroticism, as well as self- and informant-reported cognitive decline (relative to 10 years previously). Intensive within-person measurement occasions included subjective ratings of cognitive function paired with performance on a computerized working memory (n-back) task; each participant attended four or five assessments separated by intervals of at least one day. Statistical analysis was comprised of multilevel linear regression. Comparison of models suggested that both neuroticism and self-rated cognitive decline explained unique variance in the within-person, across-occasion coupling of subjective cognitive function with objective working memory performance. Self-ratings of cognition may accurately reflect day-to-day variations in objective cognitive performance among older adults, especially for individuals lower in neuroticism and higher in self-reported cognitive decline. Clinicians should consider these individual differences when determining the validity of complaints about perceived cognitive declines in the context of otherwise healthy aging. (JINS, 2017, 23, 1-10).
Lifshitz-Vahav, Hefziba; Shrira, Amit; Bodner, Ehud
Participation in leisure activities is beneficial for cognitive functioning of older adults, but it is less known whether it is also beneficial for those with low basic cognitive level. This study examined the reciprocal relationship between participating in leisure activities and cognitive functioning among low and higher literacy level older adults. Respondents aged 60 years and older who participated in both first waves (2005-2006 and 2009-2010) of the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel) were divided into low (n = 139) and higher literacy level respondents (n = 714). They reported participation in leisure activities and completed measures of cognitive functioning at both waves. Cross-lagged models showed that participation in leisure activities predicted higher cognitive functioning four years later only among older adults with low literacy level. On the other hand, cognitive functioning predicted more participation in leisure activities four years later only among higher literacy level older adults. Participating in leisure activities may be especially beneficial to cognitive functioning among older adults with low literacy level, as their initial low cognitive level allows more room for cognitive improvement than among higher literacy level older adults. Public efforts aimed at increasing participation in leisure activities may therefore target particularly older adults with low basic cognitive level.
Angevaren, Maaike; Aufdemkampe, Geert; Verhaar, H. J. J.; Aleman, A.; Vanhees, Luc
Background Physical activity is beneficial for healthy ageing. It may also help maintain good cognitive function in older age. Aerobic activity improves cardiovascular fitness, but it is not known whether this sort of fitness is necessary for improved cognitive function. Studies in which activity,
Hansen, Melissa Voigt
Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively
Waldie, Karen E; Welch, David
The association between tension-type headache and cognitive ability was assessed among 971 members of a longitudinal birth cohort study. Primary headache status was determined at age 32 years according to 2004 International Headache Society criteria, frequent childhood headaches were identified from parent report from ages 7 to 13 years, and data relating to cognitive and academic performance from ages 3 to 32 years were analyzed. Adult study members with tension-type headache did not score worse on any of the cognitive measures relative to headache-free controls or headache-free tinnitus sufferers. Instead, a consistent relation was found between childhood headache (regardless of headache diagnosis in adulthood) and lower scores on most cognitive measures from age 3 years through adolescence (verbal and performance IQ, receptive language, and reading scores). The data indicate that cognitive performance deficits in childhood headache sufferers can probably be attributed to factors stemming from utero or early childhood.
Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E
(NIDCR) diagnostic criteria. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) index and functional ability was assessed by a global measure of self-reported changes. RESULTS: Older adults with a low MMSE score (... those with higher scores. Participants with mild cognitive decline (MMSE = 24-26) and with a decrease in functional ability had a significantly higher risk of root caries. These associations changed little when adjusted by the covariates. In addition, people with a low MMSE (0-23) had a four times...
Donovan, Nancy J; Okereke, Olivia I; Vannini, Patrizia; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Rentz, Dorene M; Marshall, Gad A; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A
Emotional and behavioral symptoms in cognitively normal older people may be direct manifestations of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology at the preclinical stage, prior to the onset of mild cognitive impairment. Loneliness is a perceived state of social and emotional isolation that has been associated with cognitive and functional decline and an increased risk of incident AD dementia. We hypothesized that loneliness might occur in association with elevated cortical amyloid burden, an in vivo research biomarker of AD. To determine whether cortical amyloid burden is associated with greater loneliness in cognitively normal older adults. Cross-sectional analyses using data from the Harvard Aging Brain Study of 79 cognitively normal, community-dwelling participants. A continuous, aggregate measure of cortical amyloid burden, determined by Pittsburgh Compound B-positron emission tomography (PiB-PET), was examined in association with loneliness in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOEε4), socioeconomic status, depression, anxiety, and social network (without and with the interaction of amyloid and APOEε4). We also quantified the association of high amyloid burden (amyloid-positive group) to loneliness (lonely group) using logistic regression, controlling for the same covariates, with the amyloid-positive group and the lonely group, each composing 32% of the sample (n = 25). Loneliness, as determined by the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (possible range, 3-12, with higher score indicating greater loneliness). The 79 participants included 43 women and 36 men with a mean (SD) age of 76.4 (6.2) years. Mean (SD) cortical amyloid burden via PiB-PET was 1.230 (0.209), and the mean (SD) UCLA-3 loneliness score was 5.3 (1.8). Twenty-two (28%) had positive APOEε4 carrier status, and 25 (32%) were in the amyloid-positive group with cortical PiB distribution volume ratio greater than 1.2. Controlling for age, sex, APOEε4, socioeconomic
RANCHET, Maud; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Poisson, Alice; PAIRE-FICOUT, Laurence
Alterations in cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been reported even in mild stages of the disease. These functions may play a role in complex daily activities, such as driving. This article provides an overview on the relationships between cognitive functions and driving behaviour in PD in driving simulator and on-road studies. The role of attention, executive functions, visual memory, visuospatial construction and information processing speed is discussed. In driving simul...
Shin, Kyung-Rim; Kang, Younhee; Kim, Miyoung; Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Mijung
This cross-sectional comparative study compares differences in depression in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment and those with normal cognitive function in a community. Study subjects were drawn from elderly people visiting one particular public health center in Seoul, South Korea and included 81 people with mild cognitive impairment and 81 with normal cognitive function who were matched based on age, sex, education, and daily living activities. Study variables, including cognitive function, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and depression, were measured with standardized instruments. Collected data were statistically analyzed with Student's paired t-test and χ(2) test. The results showed no significant differences between these groups in terms of depression. Therefore, in community practice settings, nurses should understand that depression is not a manifestation of cognitive impairment and should develop effective nursing strategies to assess depression while considering other factors including age, sex, education, and daily living activities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Arnon-Ribenfeld, Nitzan; Kravetz, Shlomo; Roe, David
Previous studies have shown that deficits in social cognition mediate the association between neuro-cognition and functional outcome. Based on these findings, the current study presents an examination of the mediating role of social cognition and includes two different outcomes: social functioning assessed by objective observer and social quality of life assessed by subjective self-report. Instruments measuring different aspects of social cognition, cognitive ability, social functioning and social quality of life were administered to 131 participants who had a diagnosis of a serious mental illness. Results showed that emotion recognition and attributional bias were significant mediators such that cognitive assessment was positively related to both, which in turn, were negatively related to SQoL. While one interpretation of the data suggests that deficits in emotion recognition may serve as a possible defense mechanism, future studies should re-assess this idea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gotts, Zoe M; Ellis, Jason G; Deary, Vincent; Barclay, Nicola; Newton, Julia L
The precise relationship between sleep and physical and mental functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been examined directly, nor has the impact of daytime napping. This study aimed to examine self-reported sleep in patients with CFS and explore whether sleep quality and daytime napping, specific patient characteristics (gender, illness length) and levels of anxiety and depression, predicted daytime fatigue severity, levels of daytime sleepiness and cognitive functioning, all key dimensions of the illness experience. 118 adults meeting the 1994 CDC case criteria for CFS completed a standardised sleep diary over 14 days. Momentary functional assessments of fatigue, sleepiness, cognition and mood were completed by patients as part of usual care. Levels of daytime functioning and disability were quantified using symptom assessment tools, measuring fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire), and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Hierarchical Regressions demonstrated that a shorter time since diagnosis, higher depression and longer wake time after sleep onset predicted 23.4% of the variance in fatigue severity (p naps predicted 25.6% of the variance in objective cognitive dysfunction (p napping predicted 32.2% of the variance in subjective cognitive dysfunction (p naps, those who mainly napped in the afternoon, and those with higher levels of anxiety, were more likely to be in the moderately sleepy group. Napping, particularly in the afternoon is associated with poorer cognitive functioning and more daytime sleepiness in CFS. These findings have clinical implications for symptom management strategies.
Gałecki, Piotr; Talarowska, Monika; Bobińska, Kinga; Szemraj, Janusz
Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) may be a key inflammatory enzyme involved in recurrent depressive disorder(rDD). In rDD group, COX-2 expression were higher and significant correlations occurred between COX-2 expression and cognitive functions. In controls there was no significant association between analysed variables. Thus, the COX-2 enzyme may be important for cognitive functioning in rDD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.
Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264
Gassió, Rosa; Artuch, Rafael; Vilaseca, Maria Antonia; Fusté, Eugenia; Colome, Roser; Campistol, Jaume
The authors studied the relationship between the antioxidant system and cognitive functions in a group of 36 early and continuously treated phenylketonuric (PKU) patients (mean age=9.7 years) and 29 controls. The authors measured antioxidant cofactors and free radical damage markers in plasma (selenium, retinol, tocopherol, coenzyme Q10, malondialdehide) and antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells (glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase). The authors used neuropsychological tests to screen for several cognitive functions. PKU patients showed significantly lower values of selenium, coenzyme Q10, and catalase, and significantly higher levels of malondialdehide. PKU patients showed a significantly negative correlation between plasma selenium concentrations and several Conner's Continuous Performance Test measures (more omission errors, fluctuating attention and inconsistency of response times, and slowing reaction time as the test progressed). Selenium deficiency was thus associated with a worsened performance on the Conner's Continuous Performance Test among PKU patients. In conclusion, it is important not only to control blood Phe levels in PKU but also other nutritional components such as selenium. Selenium status seems to be associated with attention functions in these PKU patients. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Hamilton, Holly K; Sun, Jane C; Green, Michael F; Kee, Kimmy S; Lee, Junghee; Sergi, Mark; Sholty, Gretchen L; Mathis, Kristopher I; Jetton, Christopher; Williams, Terrance J; Kern, Robert; Horan, William; Fiske, Alan; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ventura, Joseph; Hellemann, Gerhard; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Yee, Cindy M
Individuals with schizophrenia face significant challenges in daily functioning, and although social cognition predicts how well patients respond to these challenges, associated physiological mechanisms remain unspecified. The present study draws from polyvagal theory and tested the hypothesis that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an established indicator of the capacity to self-regulate and adapt to environmental demands, combines with social cognition to predict functional outcome. Using data from 41 schizophrenia patients and 36 healthy comparison subjects, we replicated group differences in RSA and social cognition and also demonstrated that RSA and social cognition interact to predict how effectively patients manage work and independent living activities. Specifically, RSA did not enhance functional outcomes when social cognition was already strong, but higher levels of RSA enabled effective role functioning when social-cognitive performance was impaired. Jointly, RSA and social cognition accounted for 40% of the variance in outcome success, compared with 21% when evaluating social cognition alone. As polyvagal theory suggests, physiological flexibility and self-regulatory capacity may compensate for poorer social-cognitive skills among schizophrenia patients.
Ladegaard, Nicolai; Larsen, Erik Roj; Videbech, Poul; Lysaker, Paul H
Patients suffering from major depression experience difficulties in multiple cognitive faculties. A growing body of research has linked affective disorders to abnormalities in social cognition and specifically the processing of discrete emotional stimuli. However, little inquiry has gone into possible impairment in higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. Forty-four medication-naïve patients with first-episode unipolar major depressive disorder and an equal number of matched controls were assessed by the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A), The Frith-Happé animations (FHA) and The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). Additionally, neurocognition was assessed utilyzing the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Depressed patients showed impairment in all domains of higher-order social cognitive ability. Importantly, social cognitive variables retained their inter-group significance after controlling for possible covariates including neurocognition. Results indicate that first-episode depressed patients experience difficulties in all domains of higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Hoyoung; Chey, Jeanyung; Lee, Sanghun
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in cognitive functions and brain activation after multicomponent training of cognitive control in non-demented older adults, utilizing neuropsychological tests and fMRI. We developed and implemented a computerized Multicomponent Training of Cognitive Control (MTCC), characterized by task variability and adaptive procedures, in order to maximize training effects in cognitive control and transfer to other cognitive domains. Twenty-seven community-dwelling adults, aged 64-77 years, without any history of neurological or psychiatric problems, participated in this study (14 in the training group and 13 in the control group). The MTCC was administered to the participants assigned to the training group for 8 weeks, while those in the control group received no training. Neuropsychological tests and fMRI were administered prior to and after the training. Trained participants showed improvements in cognitive control, recognition memory and general cognitive functioning. Furthermore, the MTCC led to an increased brain activation of the regions adjacent to the baseline cognitive control-related areas in the frontoparietal network. Future studies are necessary to confirm our hypothesis that MTCC improves cognitive functioning of healthy elderly individuals by expanding their frontoparietal network that is involved in cognitive control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Clay, Olivio J.; Martin, Roy C.; Howard, Virginia J.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.
Background. The association between years of education and cognitive function in older adults has been studied extensively, but the role of quality of education is unknown. We examined indicators of childhood educational quality as predictors of cognitive performance and decline in later life. Methods. Participants included 433 older adults (52% African American) who reported living in Alabama during childhood and completed in-home assessments of cognitive function at baseline and 4 years later. Reports of residence during school years were matched to county-level data from the 1935 Alabama Department of Education report for school funding (per student), student–teacher ratio, and school year length. A composite measure of global cognitive function was utilized in analyses. Multilevel mixed effects models accounted for clustering of educational data within counties in examining the association between cognitive function and the educational quality indices. Results. Higher student–teacher ratio was associated with worse cognitive function and greater school year length was associated with better cognitive function. These associations remained statistically significant in models adjusted for education level, age, race, gender, income, reading ability, vascular risk factors, and health behaviors. The observed associations were stronger in those with lower levels of education (≤12 years), but none of the education quality measures were related to 4-year change in cognitive function. Conclusions. Educational factors other than years of schooling may influence cognitive performance in later life. Understanding the role of education in cognitive aging has substantial implications for prevention efforts as well as accurate identification of older adults with cognitive impairment. PMID:22546959
Schubert, Carla R; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Fischer, Mary E; Chen, Yanjun; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Pinto, A Alex
Hearing, visual, and olfactory impairments have been associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about associations with cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Sensory and cognitive functions were measured on participants in the baseline examination (2005-2008) of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Cognitive function was measured with the Trail Making tests A (TMTA) and B (TMTB) and the Grooved Peg Board test. Pure-tone audiometry, Pelli-Robson letter charts, and the San Diego Odor Identification test were used to measure hearing, contrast sensitivity, and olfaction, respectively. There were 2,836 participants aged 21-84 years with measures of hearing, visual, olfactory, and cognitive function at the baseline examination. Nineteen percent of the cohort had one sensory impairment and 3% had multiple sensory impairments. In multivariable adjusted linear regression models that included all three sensory impairments, hearing impairment, visual impairment, and olfactory impairment were each independently associated with poorer performance on the TMTA, TMTB, and Grooved Peg Board (p impairments in all models). Participants with a sensory impairment took on average from 2 to 10 seconds longer than participants without the corresponding sensory impairment to complete these tests. Results were similar in models that included adjustment for hearing aid use. Hearing, visual and olfactory impairment were associated with poorer performance on cognitive function tests independent of the other sensory impairments and factors associated with cognition. Sensory impairments in midlife are associated with subtle deficits in cognitive function which may be indicative of early brain aging.
Bastian, Laura; Reichenbach, Katrin; Helbig, Lisann; Lenz, Klaus; Rohrbach, Saskia; Pollex-Fischer, Dörte; Schäuble, Martina; Gross, Manfred; Sarrar, Lea
Effects of Bilingualism on Cognitive Functions in Early Childhood Studies have revealed advantages in cognitive functions among children with bilingualism. In this study we investigate cognitive functions in monolingual and bilingual preschool children taking socioeconomic status into account. The study population consists of 40 monolingual (German) children (Mage = 5.0 ± 0.4) and 23 bilingual (German/English) children (Mage = 5.1 ± 0.6). A neuropsychological test battery was conducted. The analyses revealed better performance for bilingual children. However, significant group differences were only found with respect to phonological short-term memory. Controlling for socioeconomic status, intelligence and balanced bilingualism, only slight advantages in cognitive performance were found for bilingual children. Due to high socioeconomic status in both groups, we suppose a ceiling effect. Children's development might be extensively promoted in upper class families and therefore bilingualism may not have additional impact on cognitive functions in these children.
Miu, Jenny; Negin, Joel; Salinas-Rodriguez, Aarón; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Cumming, Robert; Kowal, Paul
Background As populations age, cognitive decline and dementia pose significant burdens for societies and health care systems, including low- and middle-income countries such as Mexico. Minor age-related declines in cognitive function appear to represent a stable but heterogeneous phase in the continuum between normal cognitive ageing and dementia. Loss of cognitive function has impacts at societal and individual levels and understanding the risk factors can help provide a framework for health policies and interventions to target at-risk groups. Design A cohort of older Mexican adults (50+) from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO SAGE) was used to examine cognitive function, including a total of 2315 respondents, with 325 respondents aged 80 years and older. Cognition was objectively evaluated using verbal recall, verbal fluency, forward digit span and backward digit span, with differences in an overall cognitive score assessed against sociodemographic variables, and associated factors using linear regression. Results The most significant predictors of poorer cognitive function were found to be older age (β=−13.88), rural living (β=−2.25), low income (β=−8.28), self-reported severe or extreme memory difficulties (β=−6.62), and difficulty with two or more activities of daily living (β=−2.02). Conclusions These findings can inform public health initiatives to address cognitive impairment in ageing populations in Mexico and other middle-income countries. PMID:27032808
Full Text Available Background: As populations age, cognitive decline and dementia pose significant burdens for societies and health care systems, including low- and middle-income countries such as Mexico. Minor age-related declines in cognitive function appear to represent a stable but heterogeneous phase in the continuum between normal cognitive ageing and dementia. Loss of cognitive function has impacts at societal and individual levels and understanding the risk factors can help provide a framework for health policies and interventions to target at-risk groups. Design: A cohort of older Mexican adults (50+ from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO SAGE was used to examine cognitive function, including a total of 2315 respondents, with 325 respondents aged 80 years and older. Cognition was objectively evaluated using verbal recall, verbal fluency, forward digit span and backward digit span, with differences in an overall cognitive score assessed against sociodemographic variables, and associated factors using linear regression. Results: The most significant predictors of poorer cognitive function were found to be older age (β=−13.88, rural living (β=−2.25, low income (β=−8.28, self-reported severe or extreme memory difficulties (β=−6.62, and difficulty with two or more activities of daily living (β=−2.02. Conclusions: These findings can inform public health initiatives to address cognitive impairment in ageing populations in Mexico and other middle-income countries.
Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann
members in the offspring generation demonstrate significantly better performance on multiple tasks requiring attention, working memory, and semantic processing when compared with individuals without a family history of exceptional survival, suggesting that cognitive performance may serve as an important...
Andressa de Oliveira Ferro
Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Stroke (CVA can generate motor, sensory and cognitive development deficits, affecting the individual’s performance in daily activities. Changes in any cognitive area can affect the individual’s occupational engagement. Objective: To evaluate the cognitive and functional capacity in patients suffering from stroke, showing the importance of cognitive assessment for occupational therapy intervention. Method: A comparative study with cross-sectional sampling of 44 subjects aged 30-80 years, both sexes. The subjects were divided in three groups: Adult: 11 individuals affected by stroke, 30-59 years old; Elderly: 10 individuals affected by stroke, 60-80 years old; Control: 23 normal subjects, 30-80 years old. Tests applied: MMSE, Clock Test, Test of tracks A and B, and functional capacity (BOMFAQ. Results: Cognitive changes were identified in the Adult and Elderly groups. The Adult group showed poorer performance on the Clock test (visuospatial and executive functions compared with the Control group. The Adult and Elderly groups presented worse performance in the Track A test (attention compared with the Control group. In the Track B test (visual attention, graphomotor skills, and mental flexibility, applied with absolute numbers, no significant differences were observed between the Adult and Elderly groups and the Control group, but cognitive impairment was perceived when the test was applied with categories. The Adult group showed higher prevalence of moderate/severe impairment in the carrying out of daily activities. Conclusion: As a rule, individuals suffering from stroke, in addition to having impaired functional capacity, present cognitive impairments that can negatively impact the performance of daily tasks, whether they are occupational, leisure or self-care activities. Accordingly, we observed the need to evaluate cognitive rehabilitation for better targeting and quality of life improvement.
Full Text Available This paper reviews contemporary studies on the influence of physical exercise on human cognitive functioning. One of the aims of the interdisciplinary neuroscience that connects psychology, medicine and sport, is in discovering the mechanisms by which physical exercise might improve cognitive functioning across the lifespan, especially in the old age, when cognitive efficiency naturally decreases. Studies have shown that physical exercise produces cognitive benefit over the lifetime, both directly, through physiological mechanisms and structural brain changes, and indirectly, through mood improvement and stress reduction. However, studies have shown that the effects of physical exercise depend on the exercise intensity - while moderate physical activity has a positive impact on the cognitive functioning, the high-intensity exercise shows the reversed effect. Also, studies have suggested that the effect of physical exercise on cognitive functioning depends on the type of physical activity. Overall, studies have demonstrated that physical exercise may produce positive effects on different cognitive processes, but still have not provided a clear mechanism underlying this influence. Also, existing studies have not revealed to what extent the various physical activities differ in their effects and whether such effects are specific or potentially beneficial for cognitive functioning in general.
de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A
The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended.
Liubov S. Lisitsyna
Full Text Available Successful development of such important human cognitive functions as attention, perception and information processing speed, working and long-term memory, thinking, etc. is a necessary foundation for increasing the effectiveness of e-learning. One way for further developments of students' cognitive functions in the process of e-learning consists in computer cognitive training sessions, which are included in the individual learning paths to promote a learner to the successful implementation of specific learning tasks of e-course. Analysis of the estimating problems for cognitive training effects (severity, stability and transfer is done and the ways for their solution are proposed. It is shown that the biological basis for cognitive training effects consists in the processes of neuroplasticity of the brain that influence the duration and intensity of training. An approach to the organization of research for the effects of cognitive training, based on the usage of random methods is suggested. The prospects of game mechanics application for cognitive training implementation in elearning are shown. A detailed analysis of the approaches to the training of the basic cognitive functions, including working memory of learners, is carried out. The practical significance of this paper is to identify priorities for research and development of cognitive training in e-learning.
Schnell, Thomas; Koethe, Dagmar; Daumann, Jörg; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne
Cognitive deficits are commonly found both in patients with schizophrenia (SCH) and in people with cannabis use disorders (CUD). Surprisingly, some small recent studies reported better cognitive performance in SCH patients with comorbid cannabis use disorders (SCH + CUD) compared to other SCH patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the residual impact of CUD and specific patterns of consumption on cognition in a larger sample of SCH + CUD patients. We administered a cognitive test battery to 34 SCH and 35 currently abstinent SCH + CUD patients. We explored the association between patterns of cannabis consumption and cognitive performance. Potential confounds with influence on cognitive ability were assessed and controlled for. SCH + CUD patients had poorer academic achievements and lower vocabulary scores, but they performed better in tests of verbal and working memory, visuomotor speed and executive function (p cannabis use was associated with better performance in attention and working memory tasks. Although our findings might be interpreted as beneficial effect of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, we favorise an alternative interpretation: in our view, the better cognitive functioning of SCH + CUD patients may rather reflect a relatively lower vulnerability to psychosis compared to the SCH group. Lower vulnerability may correspond to a higher level of functioning such as cognitive ability. This conclusion is consistent with the view of cannabis playing a critical role in the manifestation of psychosis in at least some of the SCH + CUD patients.
El-Sheikh, Mona; Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.
We examined two sleep-wake parameters as moderators of the associations between exposure to family stressors and adolescent cognitive functioning. Participants were 252 school-recruited adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American). Youths reported on three dimensions of family stress: marital conflict, harsh parenting, and parental psychological control. Cognitive functioning was indexed through performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Sleep minutes and efficiency were measured objectively using actigraphy. Towards identifying unique effects, path models controlled for two family stress variables while estimating the third. Analyses revealed that sleep efficiency moderated the associations between negative parenting (harsh parenting and parental psychological control) and adolescents’ cognitive functioning. The highest level of cognitive performance was predicted for adolescents with higher levels of sleep efficiency in conjunction with lower levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control. The effects of sleep were more pronounced at lower levels of negative parenting where adolescents with higher sleep efficiency performed better than their counterparts with poorer sleep. At higher levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control, similar levels of cognitive performance were observed regardless of sleep. Results are discussed in comparison to other recent studies on interrelations among family stress, sleep, and cognitive performance in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25329625
El-Sheikh, Mona; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Buckhalt, Joseph A
We examined 2 sleep-wake parameters as moderators of the associations between exposure to family stressors and adolescent cognitive functioning. Participants were 252 school-recruited adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American). Youths reported on 3 dimensions of family stress: marital conflict, harsh parenting, and parental psychological control. Cognitive functioning was indexed through performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Sleep minutes and efficiency were measured objectively using actigraphy. Toward identifying unique effects, path models controlled for 2 family stress variables while estimating the third. Analyses revealed that sleep efficiency moderated the associations between negative parenting (harsh parenting and parental psychological control) and adolescents' cognitive functioning. The highest level of cognitive performance was predicted for adolescents with higher levels of sleep efficiency in conjunction with lower levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control. The effects of sleep were more pronounced at lower levels of negative parenting, in which adolescents with higher sleep efficiency performed better than their counterparts with poorer sleep. At higher levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control, similar levels of cognitive performance were observed regardless of sleep. Results are discussed in comparison with other recent studies on interrelations among family stress, sleep, and cognitive performance in childhood and adolescence.
Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles
Inner speech-also known as covert speech or verbal thinking-has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Inner speech—also known as covert speech or verbal thinking—has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. PMID:26011789
Talarska, Dorota; Steinborn, Barbara; Michalak, Michał
Cognitive functioning and behaviour of chronically ill children are affected by many factors, including anxiety due to hospitalization, persistent symptoms of sickness and adverse side effects of medications. The aim of this work was to seek out parents' opinion concerning cognitive functioning and behaviour of children with epilepsy. The study comprised 156 children with epilepsy aged 7-18 and treated in the Department of Developmental Neurology at Karol Marcinkowski Poznan University of Medical Sciences and in an outpatient clinic. The research tool used was the questionnaire Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) completed by parents. Assessment of cognitive functioning and behaviour was based on the analysis of the areas V (cognitive processes) and VII (behaviour). Parents assessed children's functioning in the areas of cognitive processes and behaviour at a similar level - 55 points. In the area of cognitive processes, concentration while performing some tasks and reading was assessed as the worst. A significant difference in caregivers' assessment was found according to age, frequency of seizures and duration of disease. In the area analysing the child's behaviour, parents indicated getting angry easily and not being upset by other people's opinions. The display of aggression towards others got the lowest number of comments. The children's functioning was assessed by parents as rather poor in both analysed areas. Parents of children treated with polytherapy noticed more difficulties in cognitive functioning and behaviour than parents of children treated with one medication.
Electrodynamics of Continuous Media . New York: Pergam- mon, 1984. Le, J., Brickett, P. Surkis, A. and Gevins, A.S. Finite element modeling of Maxwell’s...of visual evoked potentials. Eetroeziceph. clin. Neu- On the infuence of task relevance and stimulus probability rophysioL., 1984, 59: 279-285. on
Bogte, Hans; Flamma, Bert; van der Meere, Jaap; van Engeland, Herman
The goal of the current study was to evaluate presetting, response inhibition, set shifting, and a priori planning in autism: abilities that can be lumped together under the term cognitive flexibility. Cognitive flexibility is an aspect of executive functioning, which in turn is mediated by the
In sport, physical activity (PA) and life in general, cognitive functioning plays a very important role in decision-making and performance. This study investigated whether the relationship between acute exercise and cognitive performance was beneficial and if there was a difference in this relationship between moderately ...
Schiepers, O.J.G.; Boxtel, van M.P.J.; Groot, R.H.M.; Jolles, J.; Kok, F.J.; Verhoef, P.; Durga, J.
Long-term supplementation with folic acid may improve cognitive performance in older individuals. The relationship between folate status and cognitive performance might be mediated by changes in methylation capacity, as methylation reactions are important for normal functioning of the brain.
Zhang, Tao; Lin, Chung-Chih; Yu, Tsang-Chu; Sun, Jing; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen
The aim of this study is to design and develop a fun cube (FC) based brain gym (BG) cognitive function assessment system using the wireless sensor network and multimedia technologies. The system comprised (1) interaction devices, FCs and a workstation used as interactive tools for collecting and transferring data to the server, (2) a BG information management system responsible for managing the cognitive games and storing test results, and (3) a feedback system used for conducting the analysis of cognitive functions to assist caregivers in screening high risk groups with mild cognitive impairment. Three kinds of experiments were performed to evaluate the developed FC-based BG cognitive function assessment system. The experimental results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient between the system's evaluation outcomes and the traditional Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores was 0.83. The average Technology Acceptance Model 2 score was close to six for 31 elderly subjects. Most subjects considered that the brain games are interesting and the FC human-machine interface is easy to learn and operate. The control group and the cognitive impairment group had statistically significant difference with respect to the accuracy of and the time taken for the brain cognitive function assessment games, including Animal Naming, Color Search, Trail Making Test, Change Blindness, and Forward / Backward Digit Span. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Resnick, Susan M.; And Others
Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…
Fagundo, Ana B.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Islam, Mohammed Anisul; de la Torre, Rafael; Pastor, Antoni; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Granero, Roser; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Menchón, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ‘‘Sniffin’ Sticks’’ test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen’s-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen’s-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants’ age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. PMID:26083418
Ana B Fagundo
Full Text Available The prefrontal (PFC and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT, and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST. Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ''Sniffin' Sticks'' test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen's-d = 0.91 and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen's-d between 0.54 and 0.68 compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants' age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034. The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders.
Nowak, Stanis?aw; O?dak, Anna; Kluzik, Anna; Drobnik, Leon
Background Controlled induced hypotension guarantees less blood loss and better visibility of the surgical site. The impact of hypotension on post-operative cognitive functions is still being discussed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of controlled induced hypotension on the cognitive functions of patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Material/Methods We allocated 47 patients with a good grade of preoperative cognitive functions evaluated with...
Geerlings, M.I.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Schmand, B.A.; Jonker, C.; Bouter, L.M.; van Tilburg, W.
Objective. This study examined whether dementia patients with greater cognitive reserve had increased mortality rates, and whether this association was different across strata of cognition, functional ability and depression. Methods. In the community-based Amsterdam Study of the Elderly, 261
Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...
Martin, Ashley A; Davidson, Terry L
Evidence is accumulating which suggests that, in addition to leading to unprecedented rates of obesity, the current food environment is contributing to the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Recent experimental research indicates that many of the cognitive deficits associated with obesity involve fundamental inhibitory processes that have important roles in the control of food intake, implicating these cognitive impairments as a risk factor for weight gain. Here, we review experiments that link obesity with deficits in memory, attentional, and behavioral control and contemplate how these deficits may predispose individuals to overeat. Specifically, we discuss how deficits in inhibitory control may reduce one's ability to resist eating when confronted with the variety of foods and food cues that are ubiquitous in today's environment. Special attention is given to the importance of memory inhibition to the control of eating and appetitive behavior, and the role of the hippocampus in this process. We also discuss the potential etiology of both obesity and obesity-related cognitive impairment, highlighting non-human animal research which links both of these effects to the consumption of the modern "Western" diet that is high in saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. We conclude that part of what makes the current food environment "obesogenic" is the increased presence of food cues and the increased consumption of a diet which compromises our ability to resist those cues. Improving control over food-related cognitive processing may be useful not only for combating the obesity epidemic but also for minimizing the risk of serious cognitive disorder later in life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martin, Ashley A.; Davidson, Terry L.
Evidence is accumulating which suggests that, in addition to leading to unprecedented rates of obesity, the current food environment is contributing to the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Recent experimental research indicates that many of the cognitive deficits associated with obesity involve fundamental inhibitory processes that have important roles in the control of food intake, implicating these cognitive impairments as a risk factor for weight gain. Here, we review experiments that link obesity with deficits in memory, attentional, and behavioral control and contemplate how these deficits may predispose individuals to overeat. Specifically, we discuss how deficits in inhibitory control may reduce one’s ability to resist eating when confronted with the variety of foods and food cues that are ubiquitous in today’s environment. Special attention is given to the importance of memory inhibition to the control of eating and appetitive behavior, and the role of the hippocampus in this process. We also discuss the potential etiology of both obesity and obesity-related cognitive impairment, highlighting non-human animal research which links both of these effects to the consumption of the modern “Western” diet that is high in saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. We conclude that part of what makes the current food environment “obesogenic” is the increased presence of food cues and the increased consumption of a diet which compromises our ability to resist those cues. A multi-dimensional intervention which focuses on improving control over food-related cognitive processing may be useful not only for combating the obesity epidemic but also for minimizing the risk of serious cognitive disorder later in life. PMID:24631299
Kishore, Thomas M
Intelligence is assessed for ruling out mental retardation and to find out the relative cognitive strengths in autism. Of special interest is to know the nature of intelligence and cognition in high functioning autism. But very little is known how the assessments are carried given the deficits in communication, socialization in autism. This cross-sectional study aims to describe the nature of intelligence and cognition in a child with HFA and drawing implications for assessment in the Indian setting. Results indicate that there is no evidence for superior crystallized intelligence in HFA, though a jagged profile could be expected both across and within cognitive domains.
Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter
degree of orthogonality. The basis functions are well-suited for solution of complex electromagnetic problems involving multiple homogeneous or inhomogeneous dielectric regions, metallic surfaces, layered media, etc. This paper presents real-life complex antenna radiation problems modeled...... with electromagnetic simulation tools based on the higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions....
Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn
To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Participants (n = 51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n = 34) or to an active control group (n = 17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. COMMUNITY SETTING: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65-85). Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved "avoiding distractions" is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive
Teunisse, J P; Cools, A R; van Spaendonck, K P; Aerts, F H; Berger, H J
This study addressed the operationalization, the identification, and the prevalence of weak central coherence and poor cognitive shifting in 35 high-functioning adolescents with autism. Central coherence and cognitive shifting were represented by two factors in a factor analysis, each reflecting a constituent aspect of the domain in question. With regard to central coherence, these aspects were the ability of piecemeal processing and the ability to process meaning. The aspects related to cognitive shifting concerned internally and externally controlled shifting. Weak central coherence and poor cognitive shifting did not appear to be related to measures of symptom severity, social understanding, and social competence. Both these cognitive styles did not appear to be universal to autism. In our sample, weak central coherence and poor cognitive shifting were found to be significantly more common than in normative control subjects.
Austin, Johanna; Hollingshead, Kristy; Kaye, Jeffrey
engines. Participants averaged 3.08 words per search (SD 1.6) and 5.77 letters per word (SD 2.2). Individuals with higher cognitive function used more unique terms per search (beta=.39, P=.002) and employed less common terms in their searches (beta=1.39, P=.02). Cognitive function was not significantly associated with the length of the words used in the searches. These results suggest that early decline in cognitive function may be detected from the terms people search for when they use the Internet. By continuously tracking basic aspects of Internet search terms, it may be possible to detect cognitive decline earlier than currently possible, thereby enabling proactive treatment and intervention.
Hollingshead, Kristy; Kaye, Jeffrey
2915 searches using these top search engines. Participants averaged 3.08 words per search (SD 1.6) and 5.77 letters per word (SD 2.2). Individuals with higher cognitive function used more unique terms per search (beta=.39, P=.002) and employed less common terms in their searches (beta=1.39, P=.02). Cognitive function was not significantly associated with the length of the words used in the searches. Conclusions These results suggest that early decline in cognitive function may be detected from the terms people search for when they use the Internet. By continuously tracking basic aspects of Internet search terms, it may be possible to detect cognitive decline earlier than currently possible, thereby enabling proactive treatment and intervention. PMID:28877864
Brewster, Paul W H; Melrose, Rebecca J; Marquine, María J; Johnson, Julene K; Napoles, Anna; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Farias, Sarah; Reed, Bruce; Mungas, Dan
We examined the influence of a broad spectrum of life experiences on longitudinal cognitive trajectories in a demographically diverse sample of older adults. Participants were 333 educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. Mixed-effects regression was used to measure baseline status in episodic memory, executive functioning, and semantic memory and change in a global cognition factor defined by change in these 3 domain-specific measures. We examined effects of life experience variables (literacy, childhood socioeconomic status, morphometric measures of physical development, life course physical and recreational activity) on longitudinal cognitive trajectories, covarying for age, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and demographics (education, ethnicity, language). Non-Latino Whites had higher baseline cognition, but life experience variables attenuated ethnic differences in cognitive scores. Age, literacy, childhood socioeconomic status, and physical activity significantly influenced baseline cognition. Age, APOE ε4, and decline in intellectually and socially stimulating recreational activity from mid to late life were independently associated with increased late life cognitive decline. Higher literacy and late life recreational activity were associated with less decline. Literacy had similar effects for English and Spanish readers/speakers. Bilingual English and Spanish speakers did not differ from English Speakers in cognitive performance. Life experience variables, especially literacy level, were strongly related to baseline cognition and substantially attenuated effects of race/ethnicity and education. Cognitive change was best explained by age, APOE ε4, literacy, and current recreational activities. Literacy had robust associations with baseline cognition and cognitive change in both English and Spanish speakers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Schulz, Andre; Reichert, Carolin F.; Richter, Steffen; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut
Cardiac cycle time has been shown to affect pre-attentive brainstem startle processes, such as the magnitude of acoustically evoked reflexive startle eye blinks. These effects were attributed to baro-afferent feedback mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether cardiac cycle time plays a role in higher startle-related cognitive processes, as…
Callens, Maaike; Tops, Wim; Brysbaert, Marc
For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100
Lindeboom, M.; von Gaudecker, H.K.G.; Coe, N.B.; Maurer, J.
Cognitive impairment has emerged as a major driver of disability in old age, with profound effects on individual well-being and decision making at older ages. In the light of policies aimed at postponing retirement ages, an important question is whether continued labour supply helps to maintain high
Iseult A. Cremen
Full Text Available In the past decade, there has emerged a vast research literature dealing with attempts to harness brain plasticity in older adults, with a view to improving cognitive function. Since cognitive training (CT has shown restricted utility in this regard, attention has increasingly turned to interventions that use adjunct procedures such as motor training or physical activity (PA. As evidence builds that these have some efficacy, it becomes necessary to ensure that the outcome measures being used to infer causal influence upon cognitive function are subjected to appropriate critical appraisal. It has been highlighted previously that the choice of specific tasks used to demonstrate transfer to the cognitive domain is of critical importance. In the context of most intervention studies, standardized tests and batteries of cognitive function are de rigueur. The argument presented here is that the latent constructs to which these tests relate are not usually subject to a sufficient level of analytic scrutiny. We present the historical origins of some exemplar tests, and give particular consideration to the limits on explanatory scope that are implied by their composition and the nature of their deployment. In addition to surveying the validity of these tests when used to appraise intervention-related changes in cognitive function, we also consider their neurophysiological correlates. In particular, we argue that the broadly distributed brain activity associated with the performance of many tests of cognitive function, extending to the classical motor networks, permits the impact of interventions based on motor training or PA to be better understood.
Ferreira, Nicola; Owen, Adrian; Mohan, Anita; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive
Emerging literature suggests that lifestyle factors may play an important role in reducing age-related cognitive decline. There have, however, been few studies investigating the role of cognitively stimulating leisure activities in maintaining cognitive health. This study sought to identify changes in cognitive performance with age and to investigate associations of cognitive performance with several key cognitively stimulating leisure activities. Over 65,000 participants provided demographic and lifestyle information and completed tests of grammatical reasoning, spatial working memory, verbal working memory and episodic memory. Regression analyses suggested that frequency of engaging in Sudoku or similar puzzles was significantly positively associated with grammatical reasoning, spatial working memory and episodic memory scores. Furthermore, for participants aged under 65 years, frequency of playing non-cognitive training computer games was also positively associated with performance in the same cognitive domains. The results also suggest that grammatical reasoning and episodic memory are particularly vulnerable to age-related decline. Further investigation to determine the potential benefits of participating in Sudoku puzzles and non-cognitive computer games is indicated, particularly as they are associated with grammatical reasoning and episodic memory, cognitive domains found to be strongly associated with age-related cognitive decline. Results of this study have implications for developing improved guidance for the public regarding the potential value of cognitively stimulating leisure activities. The results also suggest that grammatical reasoning and episodic memory should be targeted in developing appropriate outcome measures to assess efficacy of future interventions, and in developing cognitive training programmes to prevent or delay cognitive decline. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Satoer, Djaina; Vork, Judith; Visch-Brink, Evy; Smits, Marion; Dirven, Clemens; Vincent, Arnaud
OBJECT: Patients with gliomas frequently have cognitive deficits, and surgery can exacerbate these deficits. Preoperative assessment is therefore crucial in patients undergoing surgery for glioma in eloquent areas, because the proximity of functional areas increases the risk of permanent
Full Text Available Cognitive function of music, its origin, and evolution has been a mystery until recently. Here we discuss a theory of a fundamental function of music in cognition and culture. Music evolved in parallel with language. The evolution of language toward a semantically powerful tool required freeing from uncontrolled emotions. Knowledge evolved fast along with language. This created cognitive dissonances, contradictions among knowledge and instincts, which differentiated consciousness. To sustain evolution of language and culture, these contradictions had to be unified. Music was the mechanism of unification. Differentiated emotions are needed for resolving cognitive dissonances. As knowledge has been accumulated, contradictions multiplied and correspondingly more varied emotions had to evolve. While language differentiated psyche, music unified it. Thus the need for refined musical emotions in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of cognition. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music.
Fjorback, Lone Overby
MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY FOR FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS- A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL Background: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group skills-training program developed by Kabat-Zinn. It is designed to teach patients to become more aware of and relate differently...... to their thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. Randomised controlled studies of MBSR have shown mitigation of stress, anxiety, and dysphoria in general population and reduction in total mood disturbance and stress symptoms in a medical population. In Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy MBSR is recombined...... with cognitive therapy. Aim: To examine the efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in severe Functional disorders, defined as severe Bodily Distress Disorder. Method: 120 patients are randomised to either Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy: a manualized programme with eight weekly 3 ½ hour group...
Fjorback, Lone Overby
MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY FOR FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS- A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL Background: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group skills-training program developed by Kabat-Zinn. It is designed to teach patients to become more aware of and relate differently...... to their thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. Randomised controlled studies of MBSR have shown mitigation of stress, anxiety, and dysphoria in general population and reduction in total mood disturbance and stress symptoms in a medical population. In Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy MBSR is recombined...... with cognitive therapy. Aim: To examine the efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in severe Functional disorders, defined as severe Bodily Distress Disorder. Method: 120 patients are randomised to either Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy: a manualized programme with eight weekly 3 ½ hour group...
Sheffield, Julia M; Kandala, Sridhar; Tamminga, Carol A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Sweeney, John A; Clementz, Brett A; Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Hill, S Kristian; Barch, Deanna M
Cognitive impairment occurs across the psychosis spectrum and is associated with functional outcome. However, it is unknown whether these shared manifestations of cognitive dysfunction across diagnostic categories also reflect shared neurobiological mechanisms or whether the source of impairment differs. To examine whether the general cognitive deficit observed across psychotic disorders is similarly associated with functional integrity of 2 brain networks widely implicated in supporting many cognitive domains. A total of 201 healthy control participants and 375 patients with psychotic disorders from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium were studied from September 29, 2007, to May 31, 2011. The B-SNIP recruited healthy controls and stable outpatients from 6 sites: Baltimore, Maryland; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Detroit, Michigan; and Hartford, Connecticut. All participants underwent cognitive testing and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Data analysis was performed from April 28, 2015, to February 21, 2017. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was used to measure cognitive ability. A principal axis factor analysis on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia battery yielded a single factor (54% variance explained) that served as the measure of general cognitive ability. Functional network integrity measures included global and local efficiency of the whole brain, cingulo-opercular network (CON), frontoparietal network, and auditory network and exploratory analyses of all networks from the Power atlas. Group differences in network measures, associations between cognition and network measures, and mediation models were tested. The final sample for the current study included 201 healthy controls, 143 patients with schizophrenia, 103 patients with schizoaffective disorder, and 129 patients with psychotic bipolar disorder (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [12.0] years
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0693 TITLE: Intranasal Insulin for Improving Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intranasal Insulin for Improving Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...dysfunction is common and devastating to people with multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, multiple pharmacologic interventions have been tried for MS
Cooper, SB; Bandelow, S; Nevill, ME
This study examined the effects of breakfast consumption on cognitive function, mood and blood glucose concentration in adolescent schoolchildren. With the institution's ethical advisory committee approval, 96 adolescents (12 to 15 years old) completed two randomly assigned trials (one following breakfast consumption and one following breakfast omission), scheduled 7 days apart. Cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm), a mood questionnaire and a finge...
Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick
We present an exploratory study of biologists’ ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students’ experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants’ ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists’ assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write. PMID:23463228
Lemons, Paula P; Lemons, J Derrick
We present an exploratory study of biologists' ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students' experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants' ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists' assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write.
Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter; Hjerrild, Simon
of functioning. Therefore, doctors in contact with HCV patients should be up to date on the existing knowledge in the field to be able to inform patients about their cognitive deficits and take them into consideration. It is unknown if the cognitive deficits decline when the virus is eradicated. Udgivelsesdato......Impaired cognitive function is commonly seen in patients with hepatitis C-virus (HCV). This might be due to a toxic effect of the virus itself or to neuroinflammatory processes with a direct damaging cerebral effect. The symptoms appear in the pre-cirrhotic stage and impair the patient's level...
Full Text Available Background. Among the elderly cognitive impairment is the biggest cause of the inability to perform normal daily activities, and also the most common reasons that lead to dependence on others to take care of their self. The concept of cognitive (from Latin cognosere, to know or to recognize refers to the ability to process information, applying knowledge, and change the trend. cognitive function of the elderly can be optimized through a variety of ways, one of that way is the brain training game (Brain Age. The game was created specifically to train the cognitive function of elderly. Objective. We determine the effect of brain training game (Brain Age to the improvement of cognitive function in the elderly in Malang. Methods. The design study is Quasi-experimental pretest-posttest approach, the treatment and control groups, and the sampling is done with purposive sampling to obtain the 20 respondents. Data collection instrument in this study are in general cognitive tests by using a measuring instrument MMSE. Results. Mann-Whitney test showed p value 0.000 <α 0.05. Conclusion. The conclusion from this study is that there is the effect of therapy brain training game (Brain Age on increasing cognitive function of elderly in Malang.
Almomani, Fidaa; Josman, Naomi; Al-Momani, Murad O; Malkawi, Somayah H; Nazzal, Mohammad; Almahdawi, Khader A; Almomani, Faten
The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive functioning among elementary school children in Jordan. A total of 468 children aged 6-12 years were recruited to participate in this study. Cognitive functioning was assessed using the LOTCA battery (Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment; Itzkovich et al., 2000). Information obtained from the parents included demographics, work and income data and child's daily behavior and school achievement. The results of this study showed that the cognitive functioning increased by 3.8 points for each increase in the child's GPA and increased by 2.35 points when the child ate breakfast regularly. By contrast, living in rural areas and smoking by a parent decreased cognitive functioning. Understanding of the child's cognitive abilities is critical to establishing intervention goals and to planning therapeutic activities. Screening of cognitive abilities and associated factors is essential for a comprehensive and accurate understanding of the child's abilities and limitations. Further research is recommended to investigate other factors in different populations.
Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W
Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that current economic status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years.
Sutter, Christine; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Allemand, Mathias; Martin, Mike
Previous research has yielded inconclusive results on the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy old age. Discrepant findings have been reported regarding processing speed and attention, executive functions, and episodic memory. However, sleep quality has also been found to be related to cognitive performance in patients with depression. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy older adults, and to evaluate the moderating role of subclinical depression on this relationship. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess subjective sleep quality in 107 participants (age ≥ 61 years). A broad battery of neuropsychological tests measured basic cognitive processes, executive functions, and memory processes. Subclinical depression moderated the link between sleep quality and cognitive performance. More precisely, poorer sleep quality was associated with lower performance in reasoning, semantic fluency, and shifting in those with high versus low levels of subclinical depression. Our findings suggest that poor sleep quality might affect higher order cognitive processes, particularly in those reporting higher levels of subclinical depression. Findings on the relationships between sleep quality, cognitive functioning, and depressive symptomatology are discussed in relation to neurobehavioral theories of sleep. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Rebecca A. Gary
Full Text Available Persons with heart failure (HF are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions.
Zoe M Gotts
Full Text Available The precise relationship between sleep and physical and mental functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has not been examined directly, nor has the impact of daytime napping. This study aimed to examine self-reported sleep in patients with CFS and explore whether sleep quality and daytime napping, specific patient characteristics (gender, illness length and levels of anxiety and depression, predicted daytime fatigue severity, levels of daytime sleepiness and cognitive functioning, all key dimensions of the illness experience.118 adults meeting the 1994 CDC case criteria for CFS completed a standardised sleep diary over 14 days. Momentary functional assessments of fatigue, sleepiness, cognition and mood were completed by patients as part of usual care. Levels of daytime functioning and disability were quantified using symptom assessment tools, measuring fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.Hierarchical Regressions demonstrated that a shorter time since diagnosis, higher depression and longer wake time after sleep onset predicted 23.4% of the variance in fatigue severity (p <.001. Being male, higher depression and more afternoon naps predicted 25.6% of the variance in objective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001. Higher anxiety and depression and morning napping predicted 32.2% of the variance in subjective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001. When patients were classified into groups of mild and moderate sleepiness, those with longer daytime naps, those who mainly napped in the afternoon, and those with higher levels of anxiety, were more likely to be in the moderately sleepy group.Napping, particularly in the afternoon is associated with poorer cognitive functioning and more daytime sleepiness in CFS. These findings have clinical implications for symptom management strategies.
Stoodley, Catherine J
Evidence for a role of the human cerebellum in cognitive functions comes from anatomical, clinical and neuroimaging data. Functional neuroimaging reveals cerebellar activation during a variety of cognitive tasks, including language, visual-spatial, executive, and working memory processes. It is important to note that overt movement is not a prerequisite for cerebellar activation: the cerebellum is engaged during conditions which either control for motor output or do not involve motor responses. Resting-state functional connectivity data reveal that, in addition to networks underlying motor control, the cerebellum is part of "cognitive" networks with prefrontal and parietal association cortices. Consistent with these findings, regional differences in activation patterns within the cerebellum are evident depending on the task demands, suggesting that the cerebellum can be broadly divided into functional regions based on the patterns of anatomical connectivity between different regions of the cerebellum and sensorimotor and association areas of the cerebral cortex. However, the distinct contribution of the cerebellum to cognitive tasks is not clear. Here, the functional neuroimaging evidence for cerebellar involvement in cognitive functions is reviewed and related to hypotheses as to why the cerebellum is active during such tasks. Identifying the precise role of the cerebellum in cognition-as well as the mechanism by which the cerebellum modulates performance during a wide range of tasks-remains a challenge for future investigations.
Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.
Large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) originate from human metabolism and typically, within spacecraft, remain about 10-fold higher in concentration than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the International Space Station (ISS) that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Additionally, there is concern that CO2 may contribute to vision impairment and intracranial pressure that has been observed in some crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control the level of CO2 below 4 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. However, the flight rule imposed limit, which places additional demands upon resources and current technology, still exceeds the lower bound of the threshold range for reportable headaches (2 - 5 mm Hg). Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached. The causes of the headaches may elicit other subtle adverse effects that occur at CO2 levels well below that for headaches. The concern that CO2 may have effects at levels below the threshold for headaches appears to be substantiated in unexpected findings that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. If findings of the earlier study are confirmed in crew-like subjects, our findings would provide additional evidence that CO2 may need to be
Leist, Anja K; Glymour, M Maria; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio
We sought to examine how different activities performed during employment gaps are associated with later cognitive function and change. Five cognitive measures were used to indicate cognitive impairment of 18,259 respondents to the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (ages 50-73) in 2004/5 or 2006/7. Using complete employment histories, employment gaps of ≥6 months between ages 25 and 65 were identified. Controlling for early life socioeconomic status, school performance, and education, higher risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as unemployment (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.35) and sickness (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.52-2.09). In contrast, lower risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as training (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.52-1.01) or maternity leave (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.57-0.79). In longitudinal mixed effects models, training and maternity leave were associated with lower 2-year aging-related cognitive decline. Periods away from work described as unemployment or sickness are associated with lower cognitive function, whereas maternity and training leaves are associated with better late-life cognitive function. Both causation and selection mechanisms may explain these findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Javier M Buldú
Full Text Available Whether the balance between integration and segregation of information in the brain is damaged in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI subjects is still a matter of debate. Here we characterize the functional network architecture of MCI subjects by means of complex networks analysis. Magnetoencephalograms (MEG time series obtained during a memory task were evaluated by synchronization likelihood (SL, to quantify the statistical dependence between MEG signals and to obtain the functional networks. Graphs from MCI subjects show an enhancement of the strength of connections, together with an increase in the outreach parameter, suggesting that memory processing in MCI subjects is associated with higher energy expenditure and a tendency toward random structure, which breaks the balance between integration and segregation. All features are reproduced by an evolutionary network model that simulates the degenerative process of a healthy functional network to that associated with MCI. Due to the high rate of conversion from MCI to Alzheimer Disease (AD, these results show that the analysis of functional networks could be an appropriate tool for the early detection of both MCI and AD.
Motor and cognitive function decrease with age, to include deficits in balance, coordination, gait, processing speed, executive function, memory, and spatial learning. These functional declines may be caused by long term increases in and susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation. Research ...
Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio
Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197
Full Text Available Objective. To investigate cognitive functioning and associated factors in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE in 2008. Methods. In 2008 we conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3 840 adults aged ≥50 years in South Africa. We administered a questionnaire surveying socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the association of socio-demographic factors and health variables with cognitive functioning. Results. Mean variables in the sample were: 5.9 recalled words, a verbal fluency of 9.9 words in a specified category (animals, a forward and backward digit span of 5.2 and 3.2, respectively, and an overall mean cognition score of 48.5. Higher overall cognitive functioning (a combination of memory and executive functioning was positively associated with: younger age; white, Indian/Asian or coloured ethnicity; being married; a higher level of education; greater wealth; a higher level of physical activity; a greater quality of life; and a better subjective health status. Conclusions. Our findings can be used to refine future projections of cognitive function and healthcare needs in ageing middle-income societies such as those in South Africa.
Barron-Linnankoski, Sarianna; Reinvall, Outi; Lahervuori, Anne; Voutilainen, Arja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Korkman, Marit
This study examined patterns of strengths and weaknesses in the neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The participants were 30 children with higher functioning ASD ranging from 6 to 11 years, and 60 typically developing (TD) children, who were matched with the children with higher functioning ASD in terms of age, gender, and maternal education. The TD children were drawn from the Finnish standardization sample for the NEPSY-II. The cognitive abilities of the children with higher functioning ASD were assessed with the WISC-III, and the neurocognitive performance of the children with higher functioning ASD and TD children on the NEPSY-II was compared. The children with higher functioning ASD were found to have strengths in verbal reasoning skills with respect to the population mean and weaknesses in set-shifting, verbal fluency, and narrative memory in comparison with the TD children. Minor weaknesses were also observed in facial memory and fine and visuomotor skills.
Yoon, Seoyoung; Shin, Cheolmin; Han, Changsu
The coexistence of depression with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) seems to increase the risk of dementia. However, the explanations of that relationship have been inconsistent. We investigated cognitive profiles in patients with MCI with and without depression and whether changes in depression symptoms affect cognition longitudinally. For the study, 161 patients with MCI were divided into a depressed group (D+) and a nondepressed group (D-). After 1 year, we redivided the original D- group into D- and newly developed depression (Dd) groups and the D+ group into improved depression (Di) and nonimproved depression (Dn) groups. Neuropsychological tests assessing depression and cognitive domains were performed at baseline and follow-up. When age-adjusted, the D+ group showed significantly poorer performance in general cognition and some subtests regarding memory, executive function, and attention. At the 1-year follow-up, changes in the calculation test ( P = .005) and Controlled Oral Word Test (COWAT; P = .048) were significantly different between groups. Only the Di group showed significant improvement in calculation. The Dn group showed significant decrement in COWAT that was significantly different from that of the Di group, which showed no significant change. Patients with depression having MCI showed poorer cognitive function than nondepressed patients with MCI in some cognitive domains. Improvement in depression was related to improvement or prevention of decline in cognitive measures.
Full Text Available Aim: To explore relation between cognitive self-regulation, social functioning, and psychopathology in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 were taken from Department of Psychiatry of two postgraduate hospitals of Kolkata, India. All subjects gave informed consent. After recording sociodemographic and clinical details, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS, Schizophrenia Research Foundation India-Social Functioning Index (SCARF-SFI, and specially designed questionnaire on cognitive self-regulation was administered. Results: All the four subtests of SCARF-SFI, that is, self-concern, occupational role, social role and family role, and symptoms scale of PANSS were significantly correlated with cognitive self-regulation. Cognitive self-regulation along with positive and negative symptoms was able to predict social functioning. Conclusion: Cognitive self-regulation is significantly and positively correlated to social functioning. Cognitive self-regulation along with positive and negative symptoms is a significant predictor of social functioning.
Mueller-Schotte, Sigrid; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bleijenberg, Nienke; Schuurmans, Marieke J
This study investigated whether visual function is associated with cognitive activity engagement and mild cognitive impairment in middle-aged and elderly individuals. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 individuals aged 50-89. The Florida Cognitive Activity Scale (FCAS) was used to assess cognitive activity engagement. Visual function was assessed by near visual acuity (nVA) and contrast sensitivity (CS), and both combined to obtain a visual function (VF) compound score. Multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for confounders, were used to assess the association between the determinants and FCAS. After confounder adjustment, nVA was not associated with overall cognitive activity engagement. CS was significantly associated with the FCAS "Higher Cognitive Abilities" subscale score (BHC=5.5 [95% CI 1.3; 9.7]). Adjustment for nVA attenuated the association between CS and engagement in tasks of Higher Cognitive Abilities (BHC=4.7 [95% CI 0.1; 9.3]). In retired individuals (N=87), the VF compound score was associated with a lower Cognitive Activity Scale score (BCA=-1.2 [95% CI -2.3; -0.1]), lower Higher Cognitive Abilities score (BHC=-0.7 [95% CI -1.3; -0.1]) and lower Frequent Cognitive Abilities score (BFA=-0.5 [95% CI -0.9; -0.1]). CS, but not nVA, plays a role in engagement in tasks associated with Higher Cognitive Abilities in middle-aged and elderly individuals. In retired individuals, the VF compound score is associated with lower Cognitive Activity score, lower Higher Cognitive Abilities score and lower Frequent Cognitive Abilities score. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sugarman, Dawn E; Carroll, Kathleen M
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the world, and demand for effective treatment is increasing. However, abstinence rates following behavioral therapies have been modest, and there are no effective pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cannabis addiction. We propose a novel research agenda and a potential treatment strategy, based on observations that both acute and chronic exposure to cannabis are associated with dose-related cognitive impairments, most consistently in attention, working memory, verbal learning, and memory functions. These impairments are not completely reversible upon cessation of marijuana use, and moreover may interfere with the treatment of marijuana addiction. Therefore, targeting cognitive impairment associated with chronic marijuana use may be a promising novel strategy for the treatment of marijuana addiction. Preclinical studies suggest that medications enhancing the cholinergic transmission may attenuate cannabis-induced cognitive impairments, but these cognitive enhancing medications have not been examined in controlled human studies. Preliminary evidence from individuals addicted to other drugs suggests that computerized cognitive rehabilitation may also have utility to improve cognitive function in marijuana users. Future clinical studies optimally designed to measure cognitive function as well as drug use behavior would be needed to test the efficacy of these treatments for marijuana addiction. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Almeida Osvaldo P.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congestive heart failure is associated with decline in quality of life and, possibly, cognitive functions such as memory and attention. AIMS: The present study was designed to investigate the presence of cognitive impairment amongst patients with congestive heart failure (CHF. We hypothesised that CHF patients would have lower scores than elderly controls on general measures of cognitive functioning. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined a sample of 50 consecutive patients admitted to hospital with CHF functional class III/IV and a convenience sample of 30 older adults assessed at the outpatient service of geriatric medicine of a teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. All subjects were interviewed with the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMDEX, as well as the neuropsychological battery of the CAMDEX (CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making A and B, Digit Span, Digit Symbol, and Letter Cancellation Test. All CHF patients had left ventricular ejection fraction (EF below 45% and all controls above 65%. The cognitive performance of CHF patients was significantly worse than controls for all cognitive assessments. Twenty-seven of 50 CHF patients had a MMSE total score lower than 24, compared with only 10/30 controls (p=0.073. Similarly, 36/49 and 9/30 CHF subjects and controls respectively had CAMCOG scores below 80 (p<0.001. Cognitive scores were significantly associated with EF, which was the most robust predictor of cognitive impairment according to the CAMCOG in a logistic regression model. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that CHF is associated with significant levels of cognitive impairment and show that mental performance is, at least partly, a consequence of EF. Physicians should be prepared to assess the mental state of patients, as poor cognitive functioning may interfere with treatment compliance and management plan.
Full Text Available The association between body mass index (BMI and cognitive function is a public health issue. This study investigated the relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment which was assessed by the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE among mid- and old-aged people in South Korea.A cohort of 5,125 adults, age 45 or older with normal cognitive function (K-MMSE≥24 at baseline (2006, was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA 2006~2012. The association between baseline BMI and risk of cognitive impairment was assessed using multiple logistic regression models. We also assessed baseline BMI and change of cognitive function over the 6-year follow-up using multiple linear regressions.During the follow-up, 358 cases of severe cognitive impairment were identified. Those with baseline BMI≥25 kg/m2 than normal-weight (18.5≤BMI<23 kg/m2 were marginally less likely to experience the development of severe cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.03; Ptrend = 0.03. This relationship was stronger among female (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40 to 1.00; Ptrend = 0.01 and participants with low-normal K-MMSE score (MMSE: 24-26 at baseline (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.98; Ptrend<0.01. In addition, a slower decline of cognitive function was observed in obese individuals than those with normal weight, especially among women and those with low-normal K-MMSE score at baseline.In this nationally representative study, we found that obesity was associated with lower risk of cognitive decline among mid- and old-age population.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Pulse wave velocity (PWV is a measure of arterial stiffness and its increase with ageing has been associated with damage to cerebral microvessels and cognitive impairment. This study examined the relationship between carotid-femoral PWV and specific domains of cognitive function in a non-demented elderly sample. METHOD: Data were drawn from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, a cohort study of non-demented community-dwelling individuals aged 70-90 years, assessed in successive waves two years apart. In Wave 2, PWV and cognitive function were measured in 319 participants. Linear regression was used to analyse the cross-sectional relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive function in the whole sample, and separately for men and women. Analysis of covariance was used to assess potential differences in cognition between subjects with PWV measurements in the top and bottom tertiles of the cohort. Covariates were age, education, body mass index, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, depression, alcohol, smoking, hormone replacement therapy, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, use of anti-hypertensive medications, history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes, and also sex for the whole sample analyses. RESULTS: There was no association between PWV and cognition after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. When examining this association for males and females separately, an association was found in males, with higher PWV being associated with lower global cognition and memory, however, a significant difference between PWV and cognition between males and females was not found. CONCLUSION: A higher level of PWV was not associated with lower cognitive function in the whole sample.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the flipped learning method on the cognitive load of the students. The study was conducted with a sample of 160 people who were trained in Department of Mechanical Engineering for algorithms and programming courses at a higher education level. The study, which lasted for 8 weeks, has a semi-experimental design. A 9-point scale developed by Paas and Van Merrienboer (1993 was used for cognitive load measurements. At the end of the weekly courses, the scale was filled by the experimental and control groups. Independent sample t test was applied through SPSS 24 program to the obtained data. In both instances, the cognitive load in the experimental group in which the flipped learning method was applied was found to be lower than the cognitive load in the control group in which traditional face-to-face training was applied. As a result, it can be said that flipped learning, if well structured, is a method reducing cognitive load.
Hjorth, Mads F.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Andersen, Rikke
Background/objectives Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore......, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8–11 year old Danish children. Subjects/methods The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011–2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated......). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test...
Tsoutsoulas, Christopher; Mulsant, Benoit H; Kalache, Sawsan M; Kumar, Sanjeev; Ghazala, Zaid; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Butters, Meryl A; Menon, Mahesh; Rajji, Tarek K
Cognition predicts functional competence among individuals with schizophrenia across the lifespan. However, as these individuals age, increasing levels of medical burden may also contribute to functional deficits both directly and indirectly through cognition. Thus, we assessed the relationship among, cognition, medical burden, and functional competence in older individuals with schizophrenia. We analyzed data obtained from 60 community-dwelling participants with schizophrenia and 30 control participants aged 50 or above. Cognition was assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), functional competence was assessed using the USCD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA), and medical burden was assessed using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G). Group differences were assessed using independent samples t-tests or chi-square tests. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping techniques were used to assess whether cognition mediated the effects of medical burden on functional competence. Participants with schizophrenia had higher levels of medical burden, cognitive deficits, and functional impairments. In participants with schizophrenia, cognition, but not medical burden, predicted functional competence after adjusting for age, education, gender, clinical symptoms, and anticholinergic burden of medications. In control participants, cognition and medical burden both predicted functional competence after adjusting for age, education, and gender. Further, cognition was found to fully mediate the association between medical burden and functional competence in control participants. Cognition is a robust predictor of functional competence among older individuals with schizophrenia, regardless of medical burden. Cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia may mask any further cognitive impairment associated with medical burden and its impact on function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Petersen, Inge; McGue, Matt; Tan, Qihua
of correlated traits. Here, we have applied twin modeling approaches to shed light on the genetic correlation between both level and change of depression symptomatology and cognitive functioning, and to further explore the bidirectionality of any such correlation using assessments of both phenotypes at two......-sectional heritability estimates of approximately 60% for general cognitive abilities and 30% for affective depressive symptoms. There was a considerable decline in the mean cognitive performance over 10 years, whereas the mean affective depression symptoms score was stable and with no genetic contribution to any......A complex interrelation exists between change in depression symptomatology and cognitive decline. Studies indicate either that depression is a direct risk factor for cognitive change over time, or vice versa. Longitudinal twin studies provide the possibility to unravel cause and effect...
Ryder, V. E.; Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Lam, C. W.; Young, M.; Satish, U.; Basner, M.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) originates from human metabolism and typically remains about 10-fold higher in concentration on the International Space Station (ISS) than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the ISS that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control CO2 below 3 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached, and there is evidence that CO2 has effects at levels below the threshold for headaches. This concern appears to be substantiated in reports that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. Therefore, we set out to determine if decision-making under volatile, uncertain, confusing and ambiguous circumstances, where feedback is delayed or absent, is correlated with low levels of CO2 during acute exposures (several hours) in crew-like subjects and to determine if additional cognitive domains are sensitive to concentrations of CO2 at, or below, current ISS levels by using a test battery that is currently available onboard ISS. We enrolled 22 volunteers (8 females, 14 males) between the ages of 30-55 (38.8 +/- 7.0) years whose training and professional experience reflect that of the astronaut corps. Subjects were divided among 4 study
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF and cognitive function in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Method: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was performed for 139 OCD patients and 139 controls, and the radioactivity rate (RAR was calculated. Cognitive function was assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Results: The RARs of the prefrontal, anterior temporal, and right occipital lobes were higher in patients than controls. For the WCST, correct and classification numbers were significantly lower, and errors and persistent errors were significantly higher in OCD patients. Right prefrontal lobe RAR was negatively correlated with correct numbers, right anterior temporal lobe RAR was positively correlated with errors, and the RARs of the right prefrontal lobe and left thalamus were positively correlated with persistent errors. Conclusion: OCD patients showed higher CBF in the prefrontal and anterior temporal lobes, suggesting that these areas may be related with cognitive impairment.
Sandra Bond Chapman
Full Text Available Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer’s disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies.
Wei, Ling; Li, Yingjie; Ye, Jiping; Yang, Xiaoli; Wang, Jijun
This paper presents a study about how emotion influences cognition. We used wavelet entropy as a tool to analyze event-related electroencephalograph during a cognitive task. Emotion and cognition are two major aspects of human mental life that are widely regarded as distinct but interacting. However, the mechanism of this interacting is still not well known. In our study, a recognition task with facial stimuli was utilized in order to address the influence of emotion on working memory. Three expressions of each face (happy-positive, sad-negative, and neutral) were chosen for the experiments. Since depression is characterized as a typical mental disease with emotion processing deficits, sixteen patients with depression and sixteen normal controls were chosen to participate in the experiment. The repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the patients with depression had a significantly higher entropies than the normal control overall the brain regions. Although behavior results did not indicate any emotion effect, wavelet entropy told more about it. The emotion effect was found in the right anterior and right center of the brain by the analysis of entropy. We concluded that patients with depression showed much higher emotion-induced disorder than normal persons after about 300ms after stimulus onset. In methodology wavelet entropy can help us to understand the interaction between emotion and cognition.
Sheffield, Julia M; Barch, Deanna M
Individuals with schizophrenia consistently display deficits in a multitude of cognitive domains, but the neurobiological source of these cognitive impairments remains unclear. By analyzing the functional connectivity of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) data in clinical populations like schizophrenia, research groups have begun elucidating abnormalities in the intrinsic communication between specific brain regions, and assessing relationships between these abnormalities and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Here we review studies that have reported analysis of these brain-behavior relationships. Through this systematic review we found that patients with schizophrenia display abnormalities within and between regions comprising 1) the cortico-cerebellar-striatal-thalamic loop and 2) task-positive and task-negative cortical networks. Importantly, we did not observe unique relationships between specific functional connectivity abnormalities and distinct cognitive domains, suggesting that the observed functional systems may underlie mechanisms that are shared across cognitive abilities, the disturbance of which could contribute to the “generalized” cognitive deficit found in schizophrenia. We also note several areas of methodological change that we believe will strengthen this literature. PMID:26698018
Mariana Rodrigues Poubel Alves
Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a review of the literature on the possible neuropsychological deficits present in patients with panic disorder. Methods: We performed a systematic review and search of the PubMed, ISI and PsycInfo scientific databases, with no time limits, using the following key words: cognitive, function, panic, and disorder. Of the 971 articles found, 25 were selected and 17 were included in this review. The inclusion criterion was at least one neuropsychological assessment task in patients with panic disorder. Results: The number of publications has grown gradually, especially those assessing executive functions, corresponding to the neurobiological model most widely accepted. Of all the functions evaluated, these patients had lower performance in memory tasks and higher performance in affective processing tasks related to the disorder. However, these data require further investigation due to the high rate of comorbidities, the small sample sizes of the included studies and little standardization of instruments used. Conclusion: The results showed a greater occurrence of deficits in memory and enhanced affective processing related to panic disorder.
Galioto, Rachel; King, Wendy C; Bond, Dale S; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John
Cognitive impairment is common in severe obesity. Lack of physical activity is a likely contributor to impairment in this population, as many obese persons are inactive and physical activity has been positively and independently associated with cognitive function in healthy and medically-ill samples. This study investigated whether physical activity, measured by self-report of aerobic physical activity in 85 bariatric surgery candidates, was associated with cognitive function. A subset of 31 participants also completed objective activity monitoring. Steps/d and high-cadence min/week, representative of ambulatory moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), were calculated. Approximately one quarter of participants self-reported at least 30 min/d of aerobic MVPA, at least 5 d/week. Median steps/d was 7949 (IQR = 4572) and median MVPA min/week was 105 (IQR = 123). Cognitive deficits were found in 32% of participants (29% memory, 10% executive function, 13% language, 10% attention). Controlling for demographic and medical factors, self-reported aerobic physical activity was weakly correlated with lower attention (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) and executive function (r = -0.27, p activity and objectively-determined MVPA min/week were negatively correlated with memory (r = -0.20, p = 0.04; r = -0.46; p = 0.02, respectively). No other correlations between physical activity measures and cognitive function were significant. Contrary to expectations, greater levels of physical activity were not associated with better cognitive functioning. Such findings encourage future studies to clarify the association among cognitive function and physical activity in obese persons.
Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Okuda, Naoki; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki; Ando, Soichi
It has been suggested that breakfast omission, as opposed to breakfast consumption, has the detrimental effects on cognitive function. However, the effects of acute exercise following breakfast omission on cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of breakfast and exercise on cognitive function. Ten participants completed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise in the breakfast consumption or omission conditions. Blood glucose concentration was measured immediately after each cognitive task. We used cognitive tasks to assess working memory [Spatial Delayed Response (DR) task] and executive function [Go/No-Go (GNG) task]. The participants cycled ergometer for 30 min while keeping their heart rate at 140 beats·min(-1). Accuracy of the GNG task was lower at rest in the breakfast omission condition than that in the breakfast consumption condition (Go trial: P=0.012; No-Go trial: P=0.028). However, exercise improved accuracy of the Go trial in the breakfast omission condition (P=0.013). Reaction time in the Go trial decreased during exercise relative to rest in both conditions (P=0.002), and the degree of decreases in reaction time was not different between conditions (P=0.448). Exercise and breakfast did not affect the accuracy of the Spatial DR task. The present results indicate that breakfast omission impairs executive function, but acute exercise improved executive function even after breakfast omission. It appears that beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive function are intact following breakfast omission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth
This paper gives a proposal for how order-sorted algebraic specification languages can be extended with higher-order functions. The approach taken is a generalisation to the order-sorted case of an approach given by Mller, Tarlecki and Wirsing for the many-sorted case. The main idea in the proposal...
in fictional world where we can find relief to the disquieting spectacle of the world, nor a sandbox in which we can play with alternative futures. It is one of the higher mental functions that makes the world how we experience it and how we are striving to experience it. The imaginative process plays a self...
Caffarri, Stefano; Kouril, Roman; Kereiche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J.; Croce, Roberta; Kereïche, Sami
Photosystem II ( PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it
Koizumi, Hideaki; Yamashita, Yuichi; Maki, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Itagaki, H.; Kennan, R.
Near-infrared spectroscopy is discussed from the viewpoint of human higher-order brain function analysis. Pioneering work in this field is reviewed; then we describe our concept of noninvasive trans-cranial dynamic optical topography and its instrumentation. Also, the validity of its functional images is assessed from both physical and physiological viewpoints. After conforming the validity of this method, we have applied it to a wide variety of fields such as clinical medicine, cognitive science, and linguistics in collaboration with researchers at several other institutes. Further application possibilities and the future of trans- cranial dynamic optical topography are also discussed.
Birindelli, Nadia; Montemagni, Cristiana; Crivelli, Barbara; Bava, Irene; Mancini, Irene; Rocca, Paola
The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive functioning and insight of illness in two groups of patients during their stable phases, one with schizophrenia and one with schizoaffective disorder. We recruited 104 consecutive outpatients, 64 with schizophrenia, 40 with schizoaffective disorder, in the period between July 2010 and July 2011. They all fulfilled formal Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric assessment included the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Severity (CGI-S), the Positive and Negative Sindrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Insight of illness was evaluated using SUMD. Neuropsychological assessment included Winsconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Test and Trail Making Test (TMT). Differences between the groups were tested using Chi-square test for categorical variables and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables. All variables significantly different between the two groups of subjects were subsequently analysed using a logistic regression with a backward stepwise procedure using diagnosis (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder) as dependent variable. After backward selection of variables, four variables predicted a schizoaffective disorder diagnosis: marital status, a higher number of admission, better attentive functions and awareness of specific signs or symptoms of disease. The prediction model accounted for 55% of the variance of schizoaffective disorder diagnosis. With replication, our findings would allow higher diagnostic accuracy and have an impact on clinical decision making, in light of an amelioration of vocational functioning.
Prouvost, Caroline; Calamari, John E.; Woodard, John L.
To elucidate how obsessional symptoms might develop or intensify in late-life, we tested a risk model. We posited that cognitive self-consciousness (CSC), a tendency to be aware of and monitor thinking, would increase reactivity to aging-related cognitive changes and mediate the relationship between cognitive functioning and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Older adults (Mage = 76.7 years) completed the Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2), a CSC measure, and an OCD symptom measure up to four times over 18 months. A model that included DRS-2 age and education adjusted total score as the indicator of cognitive functioning fit the data well, and CSC score change mediated the relationship between initial cognitive functioning and changes in OCD symptoms. In tests of a model that included DRS-2 Initiation/Perseveration (I/P) and Conceptualization subscale scores, the model again fit the data well. Conceptualization scores, but not I/P scores, were related to later OCD symptoms, and change in CSC scores again mediated the relationship. Lower scores on initial cognitive functioning measures predicted increases in CSC scores over time, which in turn predicted increases in OCD symptoms over the 18 months of the study. Implications for understanding late-life obsessional problems are discussed. PMID:27541572
Prouvost, Caroline; Calamari, John E; Woodard, John L
To elucidate how obsessional symptoms might develop or intensify in late-life, we tested a risk model. We posited that cognitive self-consciousness (CSC), a tendency to be aware of and monitor thinking, would increase reactivity to aging-related cognitive changes and mediate the relationship between cognitive functioning and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Older adults (Mage = 76.7 years) completed the Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2), a CSC measure, and an OCD symptom measure up to four times over 18 months. A model that included DRS-2 age and education adjusted total score as the indicator of cognitive functioning fit the data well, and CSC score change mediated the relationship between initial cognitive functioning and changes in OCD symptoms. In tests of a model that included DRS-2 Initiation/Perseveration (I/P) and Conceptualization subscale scores, the model again fit the data well. Conceptualization scores, but not I/P scores, were related to later OCD symptoms, and change in CSC scores again mediated the relationship. Lower scores on initial cognitive functioning measures predicted increases in CSC scores over time, which in turn predicted increases in OCD symptoms over the 18 months of the study. Implications for understanding late-life obsessional problems are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Semeijn, E.J.; Korten, N.C.M.; Comijs, H.; Michielsen, M.M.; Deeg, D.; Beekman, A.; Kooij, J.
Background: Research illustrates cognitive deficits in children and younger adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Few studies have focused on the cognitive functioning in older adults. This study investigates the association between ADHD and cognitive functioning in older
Grieco, Julie; Pulsifer, Margaret; Seligsohn, Karen; Skotko, Brian; Schwartz, Alison
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) commonly possess unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioral profiles that emerge within specific developmental periods. These profiles are distinct relative to others with similar intellectual disability (ID) and reflect underlying neuroanatomic findings, providing support for a distinctive phenotypic profile. This review updates what is known about the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes associated with DS across the lifespan. In early childhood, mild deviations from neurotypically developing trajectories emerge. By school-age, delays become pronounced. Nonverbal skills remain on trajectory for mental age, whereas verbal deficits emerge and persist. Nonverbal learning and memory are strengths relative to verbal skills. Expressive language is delayed relative to comprehension. Aspects of language skills continue to develop throughout adolescence, although language skills remain compromised in adulthood. Deficits in attention/executive functions are present in childhood and become more pronounced with age. Characteristic features associated with DS (cheerful, social nature) are personality assets. Children are at a lower risk for psychopathology compared to other children with ID; families report lower levels of stress and a more positive outlook. In youth, externalizing behaviors may be problematic, whereas a shift toward internalizing behaviors emerges with maturity. Changes in emotional/behavioral functioning in adulthood are typically associated with neurodegeneration and individuals with DS are higher risk for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Individuals with DS possess many unique strengths and weaknesses that should be appreciated as they develop across the lifespan. Awareness of this profile by professionals and caregivers can promote early detection and support cognitive and behavioral development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This study seeks to examine the relationships between physical activity (PA), cognitive activity, and cognitive function for the purpose of developing future brain-fitness programs. A sample of 2,305 participants (age = 50-84, mean age: 63.1 years) was selected from the Midlife in the United States longitudinal study for analysis. The strength of the associations between the dependent variables (episodic memory and executive functions) and independent variables (three domains of PA and cognitive activity) were determined by hierarchical regression. Episodic memory regressed positively on leisure-time PA (LPA) and cognitive activity. Executive functions regressed positively on LPA and Cognitive activity, but negatively on job-related PA (JPA). The interaction effect (JPA × Cognitive activity) was nonsignificant. Community-dwelling participants are encouraged to engage in more LPA and cognitive activity to increase brain fitness. Further research may explore the distinctive effects of JPA. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Taher S. Hassan
Full Text Available We will consider the higher order functional dynamic equations with mixed nonlinearities of the form xnt+∑j=0Npjtϕγjxφjt=0, on an above-unbounded time scale T, where n≥2, xi(t≔ri(tϕαixi-1Δ(t, i=1,…,n-1, with x0=x, ϕβ(u≔uβsgnu, and α[i,j]≔αi⋯αj. The function φi:T→T is a rd-continuous function such that limt→∞φi(t=∞ for j=0,1,…,N. The results extend and improve some known results in the literature on higher order nonlinear dynamic equations.
Schaefer, Jonathan D; Scult, Matthew A; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Belsky, Daniel W; Hariri, Ahmad R; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Cognitive impairment has been identified as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD). We tested two theories regarding the association between MDD and cognitive functioning using data from longitudinal cohort studies. One theory, the cognitive reserve hypothesis, suggests that higher cognitive ability in childhood decreases risk of later MDD. The second, the scarring hypothesis, instead suggests that MDD leads to persistent cognitive deficits following disorder onset. We tested both theories in the Dunedin Study, a population-representative cohort followed from birth to midlife and assessed repeatedly for both cognitive functioning and psychopathology. We also used data from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study to test whether childhood cognitive functioning predicts future MDD risk independent of family-wide and genetic risk using a discordant twin design. Contrary to both hypotheses, we found that childhood cognitive functioning did not predict future risk of MDD, nor did study members with a past history of MDD show evidence of greater cognitive decline unless MDD was accompanied by other comorbid psychiatric conditions. Our results thus suggest that low cognitive functioning is related to comorbidity, but is neither an antecedent nor an enduring consequence of MDD. Future research may benefit from considering cognitive deficits that occur during depressive episodes from a transdiagnostic perspective.
Falck, Ryan S; Landry, Glenn J; Best, John R; Davis, Jennifer C; Chiu, Bryan K; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transition between normal cognitive aging and dementia and may represent a critical time frame for promoting cognitive health through behavioral strategies. Current evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior are important for cognition. However, it is unclear whether there are differences in PA and sedentary behavior between people with probable MCI and people without MCI or whether the relationships of PA and sedentary behavior with cognitive function differ by MCI status. The aims of this study were to examine differences in PA and sedentary behavior between people with probable MCI and people without MCI and whether associations of PA and sedentary behavior with cognitive function differed by MCI status. This was a cross-sectional study. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults dwelling in the community (N = 151; at least 55 years old) were measured using a wrist-worn actigraphy unit. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment was used to categorize participants with probable MCI (scores of Cognitive function was indexed using the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive-Plus (ADAS-Cog Plus). Physical activity and sedentary behavior were compared based on probable MCI status, and relationships of ADAS-Cog Plus with PA and sedentary behavior were examined by probable MCI status. Participants with probable MCI (n = 82) had lower PA and higher sedentary behavior than participants without MCI (n = 69). Higher PA and lower sedentary behavior were associated with better ADAS-Cog Plus performance in participants without MCI (β = -.022 and β = .012, respectively) but not in participants with probable MCI (β behavior with cognitive function. The diagnosis of MCI was not confirmed with a physician; therefore, this study could not conclude how many of the participants categorized as having probable MCI would actually have been diagnosed with MCI by a physician. Participants with probable MCI
Hartmans, Carien; Comijs, Hannie; Jonker, Cees
Investigating whether cognitive functioning is associated with the perception of one's sexuality in old age. Cross-sectional analysis, using observation cycle 2005/2006 of the population-based prospective cohort of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Municipal registries in three Dutch regions. 1,908 older adults (mean [standard deviation] age: 71 [8.87] years; 54% women). Sexuality and intimacy were assessed using four questions. Four cognitive domains were assessed: general cognitive functioning (Mini-Mental State Examination), memory performance (Auditory Verbal Learning Test), processing speed (Coding Task), and fluid intelligence (Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices). Multinomial regression analysis was used, with sexuality as outcome. The interaction effect between gender and sexuality was also tested. Lower fluid intelligence was associated with perceiving sexuality as unimportant; lower general cognitive functioning was associated with perceiving sexuality as unimportant; and lower immediate memory recall was associated with evaluating sexual life as unpleasant. Associations were also found between lower fluid intelligence, processing speed, and general cognitive functioning, and agreeing with sexuality no longer being important. Lower processing speed, general cognitive functioning, and delayed memory recall were associated with disagreeing with a remaining need for intimacy when getting older. Finally, the association between fluid intelligence and perceiving sexuality as important, and the association between immediate memory recall score and evaluating sexual life as pleasant, was only significant in women. The association between lower general cognitive functioning and perceiving sexuality as unimportant seemed stronger in women compared with men. Higher cognitive functioning was associated with the way in which older people perceive their current sexuality. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier
Arnemann, Katelyn L; Chen, Anthony J-W; Novakovic-Agopian, Tatjana; Gratton, Caterina; Nomura, Emi M; D'Esposito, Mark
We tested the value of measuring modularity, a graph theory metric indexing the relative extent of integration and segregation of distributed functional brain networks, for predicting individual differences in response to cognitive training in patients with brain injury. Patients with acquired brain injury (n = 11) participated in 5 weeks of cognitive training and a comparison condition (brief education) in a crossover intervention study design. We quantified the measure of functional brain network organization, modularity, from functional connectivity networks during a state of tonic attention regulation measured during fMRI scanning before the intervention conditions. We examined the relationship of baseline modularity with pre- to posttraining changes in neuropsychological measures of attention and executive control. The modularity of brain network organization at baseline predicted improvement in attention and executive function after cognitive training, but not after the comparison intervention. Individuals with higher baseline modularity exhibited greater improvements with cognitive training, suggesting that a more modular baseline network state may contribute to greater adaptation in response to cognitive training. Brain network properties such as modularity provide valuable information for understanding mechanisms that influence rehabilitation of cognitive function after brain injury, and may contribute to the discovery of clinically relevant biomarkers that could guide rehabilitation efforts. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Hess, Thomas M
In this article, I present a framework for understanding the impact of aging-related declines in cognitive resources on functioning. I make the assumption that aging is associated with an increase in the costs of cognitive engagement, as reflected in both the effort required to achieve a specific level of task performance and the associated depletion or fatigue effects. I further argue that these costs result in older adults being increasingly selective in the engagement of cognitive resources in response to these declines. This selectivity is reflected in (a) a reduction in the intrinsic motivation to engage in cognitively demanding activities, which, in part, accounts for general reductions in engagement in such activities, and (b) greater sensitivity to the self-related implications of a given task. Both processes are adaptive if viewed in terms of resource conservation, but the former may also be maladaptive to the extent that it results in older adults restricting participation in cognitively demanding activities that could ultimately benefit cognitive health. I review supportive research and make the general case for the importance of considering motivational factors in understanding aging effects on cognitive functioning. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available We describe six psychomotor, language, and neuropsychological sequential developmental evaluations in a boy who sustained a severe bifrontal traumatic brain injury (TBI at 19 months of age. Visuospatial, drawing, and writing skills failed to develop normally. Gradually increasing difficulties were noted in language leading to reading and spontaneous speech difficulties. The last two evaluations showed executive deficits in inhibition, flexibility, and working memory. Those executive abnormalities seemed to be involved in the other impairments. In conclusion, early frontal brain injury disorganizes the development of cognitive functions, and interactions exist between executive function and other cognitive functions during development.
Lange, Marie; Giffard, Bénédicte; Noal, Sabine; Rigal, Olivier; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Heutte, Natacha; Lévy, Christelle; Allouache, Djelila; Rieux, Chantal; Le Fel, Johan; Daireaux, Aurélie; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Veyret, Corinne; Barthélémy, Philippe; Longato, Nadine
International audience; PURPOSE: Cognitive deficits (CD) are reported among cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, but may also be observed before treatment. Though elderly patients are expected to be more prone to present age-related CD, poor information is available regarding the impact of cancer and chemotherapy on this population. This study assessed baseline cognitive functions (before adjuvant treatment) in elderly early stage breast cancer (EBC) patients. METHODS: Women >65years-old w...
Hawkins, Misty A W; Gunstad, John; Calvo, Dayana; Spitznagel, Mary Beth
Obesity is associated with cognitive deficits; however, the mechanisms are unclear, especially among otherwise healthy adults. Our objectives were to examine (a) whether obesity is linked to elevations in fasting glucose and (b) whether these elevations are associated with cognitive impairment among otherwise healthy young adults. Participants were 35 normal weight adults and 35 young adults with obesity who completed a task from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4 (ANAM-4). Measured body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dL) were examined. Persons with obesity had higher fasting glucose levels than normal weight persons (p = .03). After applying Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, higher fasting glucose predicted less accurate performance on tests of inhibitory control: Go/No-Go Commission Errors (β = .33, p = .004). No effects were observed for sustained attention or working memory (ps ≥. 049). Persons with glucose levels in the prediabetes range had nearly twice as many errors as those with normal glucose, a large effect that was independent of BMI. Young adults who were obese but otherwise healthy had higher fasting glucose levels compared with normal weight peers. Higher glucose levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance on tests of inhibitory control, especially among individuals with prediabetes levels. Thus, subclinical elevations in blood glucose may contribute to cognitive impairment and, ultimately, greater impulsivity-well in advance of the development of chronic disease states (e.g., insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes) and independently of excess adiposity--though prospective studies are needed to determine directionality of this relationship. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background: The decline in cognition and physical fitness is common in advanced age. Objective: The relationship between cognition and aerobic capacity was compared to the relationship between cognition and balance. Methods: Twenty one females and six male residents of a Czech senior center participated in the study (mean age: 77.5 ± 7.0; range: 62-86 years. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE was used for assessing cognition, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS for assessing balance, and the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT assessed physical fitness. Based on the MMSE scores, two groups of cognitive functioning were formed - high and low. Results: Participants in the "high MMSE" group reached a significantly higher score on the 6MWT (p = .01 than the "low MMSE" group. Group differences on the BBS were marginally significant (p = .07, d = 0.6. Conclusions: Based on this sample, the level of physical fitness can be explained by cognitive functioning, while that of balance should be further studied in its relationship to cognitive functioning.
Palmer, Laura K.; Economou, Peter; Cruz, Daniel; Abraham-Cook, Shannon; Huntington, Jodi S.; Maris, Marika; Makhija, Nita; Welsh, Toni; Maley, Larissa
There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…
Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Rest, O. van de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de
Glucose is the main fuel for the brain, and manipulation of the glucose supply may consequently affect brain function. The present review was conducted to provide an overview of studies that investigated the acute effects of glucose load on memory and other cognitive functions in elderly people. The
Marinac, Catherine R; Godbole, Suneeta; Kerr, Jacqueline; Natarajan, Loki; Patterson, Ruth E; Hartman, Sheri J
This study aimed to explore the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and cognitive functioning in breast cancer survivors. Participants were 136 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Cognitive functioning was assessed using a comprehensive computerized neuropsychological test. Seven-day physical activity was assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Linear regression models examined associations of minutes per day of physical activity at various intensities on individual cognitive functioning domains. The partially adjusted model controlled for primary confounders (model 1), and subsequent adjustments were made for chemotherapy history (model 2) and body mass index (BMI) (model 3). Interaction and stratified models examined BMI as an effect modifier. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was associated with information processing speed. Specifically, 10 min of MVPA was associated with a 1.35-point higher score (out of 100) on the information processing speed domain in the partially adjusted model and a 1.29-point higher score when chemotherapy was added to the model (both p activity was not significantly associated with any of the measured domains of cognitive function. MVPA may have favorable effects on information processing speed in breast cancer survivors, particularly among overweight or obese women. Interventions targeting increased physical activity may enhance aspects of cognitive function among breast cancer survivors.
Full Text Available The effectiveness of nutritional interventions to prevent and maintain cognitive functioning in older adults has been gaining interest due to global population ageing. A systematic literature review was conducted to obtain and appraise relevant studies on the effects of dietary protein or thiamine on cognitive function in healthy older adults. Studies that reported on the use of nutritional supplementations and/or populations with significant cognitive impairment were excluded. Seventeen eligible studies were included. Evidence supporting an association between higher protein and/or thiamine intakes and better cognitive function is weak. There was no evidence to support the role of specific protein food sources, such as types of meat, on cognitive function. Some cross-sectional and case-control studies reported better cognition in those with higher dietary thiamine intakes, but the data remains inconclusive. Adequate protein and thiamine intake is more likely associated with achieving a good overall nutritional status which affects cognitive function rather than single nutrients. A lack of experimental studies in this area prevents the translation of these dietary messages for optimal cognitive functioning and delaying the decline in cognition with advancing age.
Rangmar, Jenny; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Aronson, Marita; Fahlke, Claudia
Primary disabilities in children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) are the results of alcohol's teratogen effect on the fetal brain. Reduced cognitive and executive functions and social cognition are examples of such disabilities. Little is known about primary disabilities in adults with FAS as well as their sense of coherence (SoC). There is thus a need for knowledge about FAS in adulthood. To investigate cognitive and executive functions, social cognition and SoC in adults with FAS. Twenty adults with FAS (mean age: 30 years) were compared with 20 individuals matched on gender and age. Berg's Card-sorting Test-64, the Tower of Hanoi, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, Digit Span, Faux Pas and the Swedish version of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SoC-29) were used. The FAS group had a weak SoC and displayed deficits in the neuropsychological tests sensitive to cognitive and executive functions and social cognition. The FAS group's median SoC score was 112, lower than the comparison group's median of 133 (P cognitive and executive functions and impaired social cognition are assumed to have a major impact on life for adults with FAS. We suggest that the findings showing that adults with FAS had a weak SoC, with particularly low scores on the manageability scale, reflect their experiences of living with those primary disabilities. This study may enhance healthcare for individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. In general, it contributes with knowledge about this group of individuals who need to be more visible in healthcare, and particularly, it demonstrates some of the neuropsychological disabilities they might have.
Power, Melinda C; Korrick, Susan; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Nie, Linda H; Grodstein, Francine; Hu, Howard; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Weisskopf, Marc G
Background Higher long-term cumulative lead exposure predicts faster cognitive decline in older men, but evidence of an association in women is lacking. Objective To determine if there is an association between lead exposure and cognitive decline in women. Methods This study considers a sample of 584 women from the Nurses’ Health Study who live in or near Boston, Massachusetts. We quantified lead exposure using biomarkers of lead exposure assessed in 1993–2004 and evaluated cognitive decline by repeated performance on a telephone battery of cognitive tests primarily assessing learning, memory, executive function, and attention completed in 1995–2008. All cognitive test scores were z-transformed for use in analyses. We used linear mixed models with random effects to quantify the association between each lead biomarker and change in cognition overall and on each individual test. Results Consideration of individual tests showed greater cognitive decline with increased tibia lead concentrations, a measure of long-term cumulative exposure, for story memory and category fluency. The estimated excess annual decline in overall cognitive test z-score per SD increase in tibia bone lead concentration was suggestive, although the confidence intervals included the null (0.024 standard units, 95% confidence interval: −0.053 , 0.004 – an additional decline in function equivalent to being 0.33 years older). We found little support for associations between cognitive decline and patella or blood lead, which provide integrated measures of exposure over shorter timeframes. Conclusions Long-term cumulative lead exposure may be weakly associated with faster cognitive decline in community-dwelling women, at least in some cognitive domains. PMID:24529005
Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. Methods Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the time of hospital discharge after an acute psychotic episode and at a follow-up time that occurred more than 6 months after discharge. A multidimensional approach of insight was chosen and three instruments for its assessment were used: the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD, three items concerning insight on the Assessment and Documentation in Psychopathology (AMDP system and the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. The neuropsychological battery included a wide range of tests that assessed global cognitive function, attention, memory, and executive functions. Results After conducting adequate statistical correction to avoid Type I bias, insight dimensions and cognitive performance were not found to be significantly associated at cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments. In addition, baseline cognitive performance did not explain changes in insight dimensions at follow-up. Similar results were found in the subset of patients with schizophrenia (n = 37. The possibility of a Type II error might have increased due to sample attrition at follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of insight dimensions and cognitive functioning may be unrelated phenomena in psychosis.
Wang, Niannian; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guozhong
Recently, exploring the cognitive functions of the brain by establishing a network model to understand the working mechanism of the brain has become a popular research topic in the field of neuroscience. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to collect data from subjects given four different mathematical cognitive tasks: recite numbers clockwise and counter-clockwise, and letters clockwise and counter-clockwise to build a complex brain function network (BFN). By studying the connectivity features and parameters of those brain functional networks, it was found that the average clustering coefficient is much larger than its corresponding random network and the average shortest path length is similar to the corresponding random networks, which clearly shows the characteristics of the small-world network. The brain regions stimulated during the experiment are consistent with traditional cognitive science regarding learning, memory, comprehension, and other rational judgment results. The new method of complex networking involves studying the mathematical cognitive process of reciting, providing an effective research foundation for exploring the relationship between brain cognition and human learning skills and memory. This could help detect memory deficits early in young and mentally handicapped children, and help scientists understand the causes of cognitive brain disorders.
McEvoy, Claire T; Guyer, Heidi; Langa, Kenneth M; Yaffe, Kristine
To evaluate the association between the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the Mediterranean-DASH diet Intervention for Neurodegeneration Delay (MIND diet) and cognition in a nationally representative population of older U.S. adults. Population-based cross-sectional study. Health and Retirement Study. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 5,907; mean age 67.8 ± 10.8). Adherence to dietary patterns was determined from food frequency questionnaires using criteria determined a priori to generate diet scores for the MedDiet (range 0-55) and MIND diet (range 0-15). Cognitive performance was measured using a composite test score of global cognitive function (range 0-27). Linear regression was used to compare cognitive performance according to tertiles of dietary pattern. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and clinically significant cognitive impairment. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, educational attainment, and other health and lifestyle covariates. Participants with mid (odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-1.02, P = .08) and high (OR 0.65, 95% CI = 0.52-0.81, P < .001) MedDiet scores were less likely to have poor cognitive performance than those with low scores in fully adjusted models. Results for the MIND diet were similar. Higher scores in each dietary pattern were independently associated with significantly better cognitive function (P < .001) in a dose-response manner (P trend < .001). In a large nationally representative population of older adults, greater adherence to the MedDiet and MIND diet was independently associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of cognitive impairment. Clinical trials are required to elucidate the role of dietary patterns in cognitive aging. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Linke, Magdalena; Jankowski, Konrad S; Wichniak, Adam; Jarema, Marek; Wykes, Til
Computerised cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) has been shown to improve cognitive function in individuals with schizophrenia beyond effects of other forms of therapy. However, results vary between studies, and most are aimed at individuals who are living in the community. Very few studies have investigated its efficacy in psychiatric wards in order to assess whether or not this is a suitable site to start the therapy. This study evaluated CCRT efficacy among schizophrenia inpatients who received a broad range of therapeutic interventions in a psychiatric ward. A randomised controlled trial of CCRT versus an active control in 66 young inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was conducted. The intervention lasted for 6 weeks and its efficacy was assessed with the composite score of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery. Both groups improved similarly in cognitive function and psychopathological symptoms. However, the CCRT group improved more than the controls in negative symptoms. This result shows that providing a drill and practice cognitive remediation to inpatients does not produce benefits for cognitive functioning substantially greater than other forms of therapy provided in a ward, but it is more efficient in reduction of negative symptoms. Our results suggest that CRT might be considered as a promising intervention for reducing negative symptoms in schizophrenia individuals.
Saenz, Joseph L; Wong, Rebeca; Ailshire, Jennifer A
A growing body of research suggests exposure to high levels of outdoor air pollution may negatively affect cognitive functioning in older adults, but less is known about the link between indoor sources of air pollution and cognitive functioning. We examine the association between exposure to indoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults in Mexico, a developing country where combustion of biomass for domestic energy remains common. Data come from the 2012 Wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. The analytic sample consists of 13 023 Mexican adults over age 50. Indoor air pollution is assessed by the reported use of wood or coal as the household's primary cooking fuel. Cognitive function is measured with assessments of verbal learning, verbal recall, attention, orientation and verbal fluency. Ordinary least squares regression is used to examine cross-sectional differences in cognitive function according to indoor air pollution exposure while accounting for demographic, household, health and economic characteristics. Approximately 16% of the sample reported using wood or coal as their primary cooking fuel, but this was far more common among those residing in the most rural areas (53%). Exposure to indoor air pollution was associated with poorer cognitive performance across all assessments, with the exception of verbal recall, even in fully adjusted models. Indoor air pollution may be an important factor for the cognitive health of older Mexican adults. Public health efforts should continue to develop interventions to reduce exposure to indoor air pollution in rural Mexico. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Haratz, Salo; Tanne, David; Schmeidler, James; Efrati, Shai; Rosendorff, Clive; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Silverman, Jeremy M
Regression analyses compared 41 type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 131 non-T2D cognitively normal elderly males on the associations of arterial wall function measures [large artery elasticity index (LAEI), small artery elasticity index (SAEI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and total vascular impedance (TVI)] with cognitive performance (memory, language, and executive functions), controlling for socio-demographic and cardiovascular factors. Higher LAEI and lower TVI were significantly associated with better executive functions performance in T2D but not in non-T2D subjects. Lower TVI was more associated with better language performance in T2D. Results suggest that arterial wall function is associated with cognition in T2D.
Murakami, Tomonari; Matsui, Teppei; Ohki, Kenichi
Recent studies suggest that higher visual areas (HVAs) in the mouse visual cortex are segregated anatomically into two visual streams, likely analogous to the ventral and dorsal streams in primates. However, HVAs in mice have yet to be characterized functionally. Moreover, it is unknown when the functional segregation of HVAs occurs during development. Here, we investigated spatiotemporal selectivity of HVAs and their development using wide-field calcium imaging. We found that lateral HVAs in the anatomical ventral stream shared similar spatiotemporal selectivity, whereas the spatiotemporal selectivity of anterior and medial HVAs in the anatomical dorsal stream was not uniform and these areas were segregated functionally into multiple groups. This functional segregation of HVAs developed and reached an adult-like pattern ∼10 d after eye opening (EO). These results suggest, not only the functional segregation of ventral and dorsal streams, but also the presence of multiple substreams in the dorsal stream, and indicate that the functional segregation of visual streams occurs gradually after EO.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Investigation of the spatiotemporal selectivity of nine higher visual areas (HVAs) in adult and developing mice revealed that lateral HVAs belonging to the putative ventral stream shared similar spatiotemporal selectivity, whereas the spatiotemporal selectivity of anterior and medial HVAs belonging to the putative dorsal stream was not uniform and these areas were segregated functionally into multiple groups. These results suggest the presence of multiple substreams within the putative dorsal stream for visuospatial processing. Furthermore, we found that initially immature functional segregation among HVAs developed to an adult-like pattern ∼10 d after eye opening. These results provide a foundation for using mouse HVAs as a model to understand parallel processing and its developmental mechanism. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/379424-14$15.00/0.
Brodsky, Nancy L.; Brown, Caitlin A.; McKenna, Kathleen A.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Romer, Daniel; Hurt, Hallam
Our objectives for this report were to identify trajectories of youth gambling behavior, and to examine their relation to executive cognitive function (ECF) and associated problem behaviors. Philadelphia school children, enrolled at ages 10–12 years (n = 387; 49% male), completed three annual assessments of risk behaviors, ECF, impulsivity, problem behaviors and demographics. Across ages 10–15 years, using methods from Nagin et al., two groups were identified: Early Gamblers (n = 111) initiated early and continued in later assessments, and Later Gamblers (n = 276) initiated at later ages and gambled less. Betting money on cards and sports were the most frequently reported gambling behaviors. Using gambling group as outcome, final backward selection logistic regression model showed Early Gamblers are more likely male (P = 0.001), report more active coping (P = 0.042), impulsive behaviors (P ≤ 0.008), and have friends who gamble (P = 0.001). Groups were similar in ECF, parental monitoring, marital status, SES, and race. Early Gamblers had higher incidence of problem behaviors and drug use (all P ≤ 0.006). Two gambling groups were identified in early adolescence with Early Gamblers showing higher levels of impulsivity and comorbid problems but similar levels of ECF compared to Late Gamblers. As more gambling groups are identified through later adolescence, ECF may emerge as a relevant precursor of problem gambling at this later time. PMID:21698342
Clausen, T D; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L
Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes.......Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....
Full Text Available Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people.We analysed data from 2,315 cognitively healthy participants aged 65 y and over in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS-Wales cohort collected in 2011-2013. Linear regression modelling was used to investigate the overall associations between five lifestyle factors-cognitive and social activity, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking-and cognition, adjusting for demographic factors and chronic conditions. Mediation analysis tested for indirect effects of the lifestyle factors on cognition via cognitive reserve. After controlling for age, gender, and the presence of chronic conditions, cognitive and social activity, physical activity, healthy diet, and light-to-moderate alcohol consumption were positively associated with cognitive function, together accounting for 20% (95% CI 17%-23% of variance in cognitive test scores. Cognitive reserve was an important mediator of this association, with indirect effects via cognitive reserve contributing 21% (95% CI 15%-27% of the overall effect on cognition. The main limitations of the study derive from the cross-sectional nature of the data and the challenges of accurately measuring the latent construct of cognitive reserve.Cross-sectional associations support the view that enhancing cognitive reserve may benefit cognition, and maintenance of cognitive health
Clare, Linda; Wu, Yu-Tzu; Teale, Julia C; MacLeod, Catherine; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Woods, Bob
Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people. We analysed data from 2,315 cognitively healthy participants aged 65 y and over in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS-Wales) cohort collected in 2011-2013. Linear regression modelling was used to investigate the overall associations between five lifestyle factors-cognitive and social activity, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking-and cognition, adjusting for demographic factors and chronic conditions. Mediation analysis tested for indirect effects of the lifestyle factors on cognition via cognitive reserve. After controlling for age, gender, and the presence of chronic conditions, cognitive and social activity, physical activity, healthy diet, and light-to-moderate alcohol consumption were positively associated with cognitive function, together accounting for 20% (95% CI 17%-23%) of variance in cognitive test scores. Cognitive reserve was an important mediator of this association, with indirect effects via cognitive reserve contributing 21% (95% CI 15%-27%) of the overall effect on cognition. The main limitations of the study derive from the cross-sectional nature of the data and the challenges of accurately measuring the latent construct of cognitive reserve. Cross-sectional associations support the view that enhancing cognitive reserve may benefit cognition, and maintenance of cognitive health may be supported
Full Text Available Introduction : The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between normative and non-normative thyroid tests (TSH, TT4, TT3, FT3, FT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, AB-TSHR and the level of cognitive functions in postmenopausal women. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 383 women from south-eastern Poland, aged 50-65 years. The cognitive functions were evaluated using a diagnostic instrument – Central Nervous System – Vital Signs (CNS-VS. Blood was collected for determination of the following parameters: TSH, TT4, TT3, FT3, FT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, AB-TSHR. Results: There were significant differences in NCI, executive functions, psychomotor speed, reaction time, complex attention and cognitive flexibility, depending on the normative and non-normative level of TSH. Women whose level of FT3 was at the lower limit of the normal range obtained poorer results in psychomotor speed, while subjects with levels of FT4 below the standard achieved significantly lower scores for this function. The relationship between NCI and cognitive functions, and the normative and non-normative anti-TPO results, showed significant differences in verbal memory, visual memory, processing speed and reaction time. The level of AB-TSHR reported as normal or above the norm significantly differentiated from the results of NCI, processing speed, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions : Concentrations of laboratory parameters assessing the thyroid function located within the upper limits of the normal range showed a different relationship with the cognitive performance than concentrations located within the lower limits of the standard.
Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn
Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n = 51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n = 34) or to an active control group (n = 17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and
Full Text Available To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia.Participants (n = 51 were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n = 34 or to an active control group (n = 17. The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated.COMMUNITY SETTING: residential sleep/performance testing facility.Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65-85.Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia.Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming. Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved "avoiding distractions" is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep.New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized
Jørgensen, Erik; Volakis, John L.; Meincke, Peter
This paper presents a new hierarchical basis of arbitrary order for integral equations solved with the Method of Moments (MoM). The basis is derived from orthogonal Legendre polynomials which are modified to impose continuity of vector quantities between neighboring elements while maintaining most....... In addition, all higher-order terms in the expansion have two vanishing moments.In contrast to existing formulations, these properties allow the use of very high-order basis functions without introducing ill-conditioning of the resulting MoM matrix. Numerical results confirm that the condition number...... of the MoM matrix obtained with this new basis is much lower than existing higher-order interpolatory and hierarchical basis functions. As a consequence of the excellent condition numbers, we demonstrate that even very high-order MoM systems, e.g. 10th order, can be solved efficiently with an iterative...
Gürlebeck, Klaus; Sprößig, Wolfgang
This book presents applications of hypercomplex analysis to boundary value and initial-boundary value problems from various areas of mathematical physics. Given that quaternion and Clifford analysis offer natural and intelligent ways to enter into higher dimensions, it starts with quaternion and Clifford versions of complex function theory including series expansions with Appell polynomials, as well as Taylor and Laurent series. Several necessary function spaces are introduced, and an operator calculus based on modifications of the Dirac, Cauchy-Fueter, and Teodorescu operators and different decompositions of quaternion Hilbert spaces are proved. Finally, hypercomplex Fourier transforms are studied in detail. All this is then applied to first-order partial differential equations such as the Maxwell equations, the Carleman-Bers-Vekua system, the Schrödinger equation, and the Beltrami equation. The higher-order equations start with Riccati-type equations. Further topics include spatial fluid flow problems, ima...
Zhou, Wen-jiao; Wang, Li-gang; Li, Ye; Gao, Wen-bin; Sun, Xin-ying
To explore the effect of sleep duration including napping, night sleep and total sleep duration on cognitive functions among preschoolers. The samples consisted of 94 preschoolers, aged from 2.58 to 6.75 years, from Hangzhou and Beijing. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), Picture Deletion Task for Preschoolers (PDTP) and Spatial Working Memory Test were applied to assess the cognitive functions of these preschoolers. Basic demographic information and sleep information were collected with self-made questionnaires. The results of the present study indicated that among all the participants, there were significant grade differences in napping duration and total sleep duration (F0.05(3, 90)=6.346, P=0.001; F0.05(3, 90)=2.925, P=0.038). The total sleep duration was decreased with age. However, the night sleep duration was not changed significantly with age. The correlations between the night sleep and total sleep duration and the scores of attention and working memory were significantly positive (r=0.202-0.282). No significant correlations were noted between the napping and all the scores of cognitive tests. The regression analysis showed that the total sleep duration especially the night sleep duration could well explain the variance of attention and working memory. Total sleep duration, especially night sleep duration may have great impact on preschoolers' cognitive functions, such as attention and working memory. Enough sound night sleep may help to promote the cognitive functions of the target population.
Morrison, Janet D; Mayer, Lori
To identify and synthesize the research evidence concerning (1) the relationship between physical activity and cognitive performance in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and (2) to review the reported effects of physical activity interventions on neurocognitive performance conducted in this population. Relevant peer-reviewed journal articles were identified by searching PubMed, PsychINFO, and SPORTDiscus through May 2016. Full-text articles meeting the inclusion criteria were evaluated for quality using tools developed by the National Institutes of Health. Studies deemed to be of poor quality were excluded from the review. Nineteen studies meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria were analyzed. Nine studies reported significant relationships between higher levels of physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of cognitive function. Data extracted from 10 physical activity intervention studies reported mixed results on the effectiveness of physical activity to improve selected domains of cognitive function in persons with MS. Although correlational studies provide evidence to support a linkage between physical activity and cognitive function in persons with MS, this linkage is confounded by factors that may have influenced the studies' results. Evidence derived from intervention studies that could support a positive effect of physical activity on cognition in persons with MS is equivocal. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical activity has numerous benefits for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) including improvements in balance, ambulation, depression, fatigue, and quality of life. Structured physical activity programs may contribute to cognitive function stability or improvement in persons with MS.
Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch
Research reveals mixed results for the effects of cannabis on cognitive functioning. These divergent results might stem from stereotype threat (ST), which occurs when individuals believe that a group to which they belong is inferior, resulting in poor test performance. Widespread media coverage of purported cannabis-related deficits in cognitive functioning may elicit ST among cannabis users, particularly among men, who may be more likely than women to identify with the cannabis-user stereotype. To investigate this hypothesis, cannabis users (30 male, 27 female) read a summary of research indicating either that cannabis produced deficits (ST condition), or that cannabis actually created no changes in cognitive functions. Participants then completed cognitive tests. Examination of the gender x condition interaction revealed significant results on 4 tests: the California Verbal Learning Test-II immediate recall task, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test for number of words generated and number of switches between clusters, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Males exposed to ST performed worse on all tests compared to men not exposed to ST, while women exposed to ST performed better than women not exposed. These results suggest that cognitive deficits observed in male cannabis users may be attributed to ST rather than decreased functioning. Surprisingly, women in the ST condition scored higher than controls. Perhaps female users do not identify with the typical cannabis stereotype. This study highlights the importance of disconfirming relevant stereotypes prior to examination of the cognitive abilities of cannabis users. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper, the authors investigate the existence of solutions for nonresonance impulsive higher order functional differential inclusions in Banach spaces with nonconvex valued right hand side. They present two results. In the first one, they rely on a fixed point theorem for contraction multivalued maps due to Covitz and Nadler, and for the second one, they use Schaefer's fixed point theorem combined with lower semi-continuous multivalued operators with decomposable values.
Brownbill Rhonda A
Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that bone loss and cognitive decline are co-occurring conditions, possibly due to their relationship with estrogen. Cognitive decline has been associated with various nutritional deficiencies as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if cognitive function is related to bone mineral density of various skeletal sites as well as to various dietary components. Methods Cross-sectional study with 97 healthy, Caucasian, postmenopausal women (59.4–85.0 years enrolled in a larger longitudinal study, investigating the effects of sodium on bone mass. The subjects were divided into two groups based on cognition scores. Group 1 represented lower and Group 2 higher scores on cognitive function. Bone mineral density from the whole body, lumbar spine, femur and forearm were measured with the Lunar DPX-MD instrument. Anthropometry was measured by standard methods. Cognition was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination. Cumulative (over 2 years dietary intake from 3-day records was analyzed by Food Processor® (ESHA Research, Salem, OR and cumulative physical activity was assessed using Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey for older adults. Results Subjects' cognition scores ranged from 22–30 (normal, 27–30, indicating all subjects had either mild or no cognitive impairment. Multiple Analysis of Covariance adjusted for age, height, weight, physical activity, alcohol, calcium, sodium and energy intake, showed a statistically significant association between cognition and bone mineral density of all measurable sites (η2 = 0.21, P 2 = 0.07, P = 0.050. Group 2 did have a significantly higher potassium intake (P = 0.023. In multiple regression, saturated fat had a significant negative relationship with cognitive function. Conclusions It appears mild degree of cognitive impairment may be a marker for lower bone mineral density as well as for a diet lower in carbohydrate and potassium intake, and higher
Liang En Wee
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES can affect cognitive function. We assessed cognitive function and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. Methods: The study population involved all residents aged ≥60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES and rental flats (low SES in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as Results: Participation was 61.4% (558/909. Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397 of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161 of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitive function (β = –1.41, SD = 0.58, p Conclusion: Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society.
Nugent, Bethany D; Bender, Catherine M; Sereika, Susan M; Tersak, Jean M; Rosenzweig, Margaret
Adolescents with cancer have unique developmental considerations. These include brain development, particularly in the frontal lobe, and a focus on completing education and entering the workforce. Cancer and treatment at this stage may prove to uniquely affect survivors' experience of cognitive and occupational function. An exploratory, cross-sectional, descriptive comparative study was employed to describe cognitive and occupational function in adult survivors of adolescent cancer (diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 21 years) and explore differences in age- and gender-matched controls. In total, 23 survivors and 14 controls participated in the study. While significant differences were not found between the groups on measures of cognitive and occupational function, several small and medium effect sizes were found suggesting that survivors may have greater difficulty than controls. Two small effect sizes were found in measures of neuropsychological performance (the Digit Vigilance test [d = 0.396] and Stroop test [d = 0.226]). Small and medium effect sizes ranging from 0.269 to 0.605 were found for aspects of perceived and total cognitive function. A small effect size was also found in work output (d = 0.367). While we did not find significant differences in cognitive or occupational function between survivors and controls, the effect sizes observed point to the need for future research. Future work using a larger sample size and longitudinal design are needed to further explore cognitive and occupational function in this vulnerable and understudied population and assist in the understanding of patterns of change over time.
Davis, Benjamin J K; Vidal, Jean-Sebastian; Garcia, Melissa; Aspelund, Thor; van Buchem, Mark A; Jonsdottir, Maria K; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J
Studies of older persons show consumption of light-to-moderate amounts of alcohol is positively associated with cognitive function and, separately, is negatively associated with total brain volume (TBV). This is paradoxical as generally, cognitive function is positively associated with TBV. We examined the relationships of TBV, global cognitive function (GCF), and alcohol consumption in a population-based cohort of 3,363 men and women (b. 1907-1935) participating in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (2002-2006) and who were free of dementia or mild cognitive impairment Drinking status (never, former, and current) and current amount of alcohol consumed were assessed by questionnaire. GCF is a composite score derived from a battery of cognitive tests. TBV, standardized to head size, is estimated quantitatively from brain magnetic resonance imaging. Among women and not men, adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, current drinkers had significantly higher GCF scores than abstainers and former drinkers (p function suggests there may be unmeasured factors that contribute to maintaining better GCF relative to TBV. However, at higher levels of reasonable alcohol consumption, there may be factors leading to reduced brain volume. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.
Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience marked challenges with social function by definition, but few modifiable predictors of social functioning in ASD have been identified in extant research. This study hypothesized that deficits in social cognition and motor function may help to explain poor social functioning in individuals with ASD. Method Cross-sectional data from 108 individuals with ASD and without intellectual disability ages 9 through 27.5 were used to assess the relationship between social cognition and motor function, and social functioning. Results Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that greater social cognition, but not motor function, was significantly associated with better social functioning when controlling for sex, age, and intelligence quotient. Post-hoc analyses revealed that, better performance on second-order false belief tasks was associated with higher levels of socially adaptive behavior and lower levels of social problems. Conclusions Our findings support the development and testing of interventions that target social cognition in order to improve social functioning in individuals with ASD. Interventions that teach generalizable skills to help people with ASD better understand social situations and develop competency in advanced perspective taking have the potential to create more durable change because their effects can be applied to a wide and varied set of situations and not simply a prescribed set of rehearsed situations. PMID:28839456
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A; Eack, Shaun M; Minshew, Nancy J
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience marked challenges with social function by definition, but few modifiable predictors of social functioning in ASD have been identified in extant research. This study hypothesized that deficits in social cognition and motor function may help to explain poor social functioning in individuals with ASD. Cross-sectional data from 108 individuals with ASD and without intellectual disability ages 9 through 27.5 were used to assess the relationship between social cognition and motor function, and social functioning. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that greater social cognition, but not motor function, was significantly associated with better social functioning when controlling for sex, age, and intelligence quotient. Post-hoc analyses revealed that, better performance on second-order false belief tasks was associated with higher levels of socially adaptive behavior and lower levels of social problems. Our findings support the development and testing of interventions that target social cognition in order to improve social functioning in individuals with ASD. Interventions that teach generalizable skills to help people with ASD better understand social situations and develop competency in advanced perspective taking have the potential to create more durable change because their effects can be applied to a wide and varied set of situations and not simply a prescribed set of rehearsed situations.
Eskes, Gail A.; Longman, Stewart; Brown, Allison D.; Carly A McMorris; Langdon, Kristopher D; Hogan, David B; Poulin, Marc
Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities) are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular...
Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Frangou, Sophia; Chang, Ching-Jui; Chiu, Wei-Che; Liu, Hsing-Cheng; Sun, I-Wen; Liu, Shen-Ing; Lu, Mong-Liang; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Huang, Shih-Yi; Dewey, Michael E; Stewart, Robert
Lower concentrations of n-3 PUFAs have been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, but also with depression-itself a potential risk factor for cognitive decline. The aims of this study were to investigate associations between n-3 PUFA concentrations in erythrocyte membrane or plasma and cognitive function in an at-risk sample of older people with previous major depression and to explore specificity with respect to cognitive domains. A cross-sectional sample of 132 eligible participants who had recovered from major depression (mean ± SD age: 67.8 ± 6.6 y) were enrolled from outpatient psychiatric services. A series of cognitive tests and a structured questionnaire were administered. Fasting blood samples were collected for n-3 PUFA measurements. Higher EPA and total n-3 PUFA concentrations and a lower ratio of arachidonic acid to EPA in erythrocyte membranes were associated with a higher cognitive composite score: independent of age and sex, but no longer significant after adjustment for education. No associations were found with plasma concentrations of any fatty acid. Considering individual cognitive tests, the strongest and most consistent correlations were found between immediate recall and concentrations of total n-3 PUFAs and α-linolenic acid (ALA) in erythrocytes, which were observed only in participants with recurrent depression. Total erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations are positively associated with cognitive function, particularly immediate recall, in older people with previous depression. Lower concentrations of n-3 PUFAs or ALA in erythrocyte membranes may be good predictors for cognitive impairment in older people with previous recurrent depression.
At the level of empirical phenomena, this paper deals with the system of 'Tense Aspect Modality' marking or of 'qualificational categories' in language. How is this system organized? What are the principles behind it? The major focus is on the modal categories. At the theoretical level, this paper addresses issues pertaining to the organization and functioning of the cognitive systems involved in language use, with special focus on the differences and correspondences between two major theoretical strands in present day linguistics, viz. 'functional linguistics' and 'cognitive linguistics'.
Stramandinoli, Francesca; Marocco, Davide; Cangelosi, Angelo
In this paper we present a neuro-robotic model that uses artificial neural networks for investigating the relations between the development of symbol manipulation capabilities and of sensorimotor knowledge in the humanoid robot iCub. We describe a cognitive robotics model in which the linguistic input provided by the experimenter guides the autonomous organization of the robot's knowledge. In this model, sequences of linguistic inputs lead to the development of higher-order concepts grounded on basic concepts and actions. In particular, we show that higher-order symbolic representations can be indirectly grounded in action primitives directly grounded in sensorimotor experiences. The use of recurrent neural network also permits the learning of higher-order concepts based on temporal sequences of action primitives. Hence, the meaning of a higher-order concept is obtained through the combination of basic sensorimotor knowledge. We argue that such a hierarchical organization of concepts can be a possible account for the acquisition of abstract words in cognitive robots. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maika, Amelia; Mittinty, Murthy N; Brinkman, Sally; Harper, Sam; Satriawan, Elan; Lynch, John W
Measuring social inequalities in health is common; however, research examining inequalities in child cognitive function is more limited. We investigated household expenditure-related inequality in children's cognitive function in Indonesia in 2000 and 2007, the contributors to inequality in both time periods, and changes in the contributors to cognitive function inequalities between the periods. Data from the 2000 and 2007 round of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) were used. Study participants were children aged 7-14 years (n = 6179 and n = 6680 in 2000 and 2007, respectively). The relative concentration index (RCI) was used to measure the magnitude of inequality. Contribution of various contributors to inequality was estimated by decomposing the concentration index in 2000 and 2007. Oaxaca-type decomposition was used to estimate changes in contributors to inequality between 2000 and 2007. Expenditure inequality decreased by 45% from an RCI = 0.29 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.36) in 2000 to 0.16 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.20) in 2007 but the burden of poorer cognitive function was higher among the disadvantaged in both years. The largest contributors to inequality in child cognitive function were inequalities in per capita expenditure, use of improved sanitation and maternal high school attendance. Changes in maternal high school participation (27%), use of improved sanitation (25%) and per capita expenditures (18%) were largely responsible for the decreasing inequality in children's cognitive function between 2000 and 2007. Government policy to increase basic education coverage for women along with economic growth may have influenced gains in children's cognitive function and reductions in inequalities in Indonesia.
Simons, Claudia J P; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M
Objective Studies have linked cognitive functioning to everyday social functioning in psychotic disorders, but the nature of the relationships between cognition, social cognition, symptoms, and social functioning remains unestablished. Modelling the contributions of non-social and social cognitive
Jacquelyn F Gamino
Full Text Available Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students’ native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enrolled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist reasoning and fact learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist
Polger, Thomas W
Functionalism is a philosophical theory (or family of theories) concerning the nature of mental states. According to functionalism psychological/cognitive states are essentially functional states of whole systems. Functionalism characterizes psychological states essentially according to what they do, by their relations to stimulus inputs and behavioral outputs as well as their relations to other psychological and nonpsychological internal states of a system. The central constructive relation for functionalism is the so-called realization relation. Realization is a proposal for how psychological states can be real, physical, and causally efficacious while at the same time preserving the autonomy of cognitive explanations and avoiding reduction or elimination. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:337-348. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1170 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Aaronson, Justine A; van Bennekom, Coen A M; Hofman, Winni F; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A; Schmand, Ben
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Case-control study. 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. N/A. All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara
We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p Ramadan period of fasting group (p Ramadan compared to baseline (p Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes.
McIntyre, Roger S; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Soczynska, Joanna K
in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) between January 2008 and July 2013. The IMDCP is a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Measures of cognitive function......BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) and a critical determinant of health outcome. Anhedonia is a criterion item toward the diagnosis of a major depressive episode (MDE) and a well-characterized domain in MDD. We sought to determine the extent to which...... variability in self-reported cognitive function correlates with anhedonia. METHOD: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from (N=369) participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)-defined diagnosis of MDD who were enrolled...
Bogte, Hans; Flamma, Bert; van der Meere, Jaap; van Engeland, Herman
The goal of the current study was to evaluate presetting, response inhibition, set shifting, and a priori planning in autism: abilities that can be lumped together under the term cognitive flexibility. Cognitive flexibility is an aspect of executive functioning, which in turn is mediated by the prefrontal cortical lobes. A group of adults with high-functioning autism (HFA; n = 23) were compared with a normal control group (n = 32), by using a computerized variant of the Sternberg response bias paradigm. Contrary to the results of earlier studies, no deficit was found in presetting, response inhibition, set shifting, and a priori planning in participants with autism, even when the medication factor was taken into account. Methodological issues that could be explanatory for this difference are discussed. An additional finding was, that individuals with HFA (especially those on medication) were slow in reacting. Possible origins and consequences of this slowness, also for cognitive flexibility, are discussed.
Andersen, Christina Maar; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung
chemotherapy which interfere with their abilities to fulfill social and work-related responsibilities. However, since the cause of the cognitive problems is unknown, it is difficult for GPs to offer appropriate counseling on this issue. Aim: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available...... evidence concerning cognitive functioning of breast cancer patients before and after chemotherapy. Methods: The databases PubMed and SSCI were searched for articles on the cognitive functioning of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The search took place from August to December 2010 and extended...... as far back as the databases allowed. Seven studies were selected based on three inclusion criteria: prospective studies, use of neuropsychological tests and inclusion of two patient groups: one receiving chemotherapy and one not receiving chemotherapy (control group). Results: At baseline, breast cancer...
Chen, Xi; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Potter, Guy G; Sloane, Philip D; Cohen, Lauren W; Reed, David
To develop and validate the Dental Activities Test (DAT), a clinical tool for measuring dentally related function in cognitively impaired older adults. Cross-sectional study design. Three assisted living residences in North Carolina. Assisted living residents with normal to impaired cognition aged 50 and older; not blind, deaf, or severely physically disabled; and English speaking (N = 90). Items for the DAT were developed based on focus group discussions, literature review, and clinical relevance. Cronbach alpha, interrater reliability, and test-retest reliability were examined, and construct validity was assessed in relation to correlations with cognitive and functional assessments. Correlations between the DAT and oral health measures were also analyzed to evaluate the concurrent validity of the DAT. The DAT has excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach alpha 0.90), test-retest reliability (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.84), and interrater reliability (r = 0.90). In terms of construct validity, higher DAT scores were significantly associated with better cognitive function, as well as better activity of daily living and instrumental activity of daily living function. Finally, the DAT was significantly associated with oral hygiene and gingival health. The DAT is a reliable and valid instrument to measure dentally-related function in older adults with cognitive impairment. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Matthew J Dry
Full Text Available We assessed the suitability of six applied tests of cognitive functioning to provide a single marker for dose-related alcohol intoxication. Numerous studies have demonstrated that alcohol has a deleterious effect on specific areas of cognitive processing but few have compared the effects of alcohol across a wide range of different cognitive processes. Adult participants (N = 56, 32 males, 24 females aged 18-45 years were randomized to control or alcohol treatments within a mixed design experiment involving multiple-dosages at approximately one hour intervals (attained mean blood alcohol concentrations (BACs of 0.00, 0.048, 0.082 and 0.10%, employing a battery of six psychometric tests; the Useful Field of View test (UFOV; processing speed together with directed attention; the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT; working memory; Inspection Time (IT; speed of processing independent from motor responding; the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP; strategic optimization; the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; vigilance, response inhibition and psychomotor function; and the Trail-Making Test (TMT; cognitive flexibility and psychomotor function. Results demonstrated that impairment is not uniform across different domains of cognitive processing and that both the size of the alcohol effect and the magnitude of effect change across different dose levels are quantitatively different for different cognitive processes. Only IT met the criteria for a marker for wide-spread application: reliable dose-related decline in a basic process as a function of rising BAC level and easy to use non-invasive task properties.
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E
Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people. Adults aged 18-29 years were recruited from a longitudinal study investigating impulsivity in young people. Exclusion criteria were presence of any axis-I morbidity or cannabis use. Subjects undertook neurocognitive assessment using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Demographic, clinical, and cognitive differences between smokers (N = 37) and nonsmokers (N = 177) were characterized. Groups were well matched in terms of age, education, income, and gender. In comparison to nonsmokers, nicotine users showed significant cognitive impairments on sustained attention (target detection: p= .005), spatial working memory (errors: p= .023, strategy use: p= .004), executive planning (p= .002), and did not appropriately adjust behavior as a function of risk (Gamble task risk adjustment: p= .004). Smokers were intact on general response speeds and response inhibition. These data, using objective translational paradigms, support an association between tobacco smoking and cognitive problems in young people, with implications for such individuals and for society. Future studies should extend these results longitudinally to explore causality, and evaluate effects of nicotinic agents (including anti-smoking medications) on cognition. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Maselko, Joanna; Sebranek, Matthew; Mun, Mirna Hodzic; Perera, Bilesha; Ahs, Jill; Østbye, Truls
OBJECTIVES Although a substantive body of research has shown a protective association between leisure activities and cognitive function, consistent evidence is lacking about which specific types of activities should be promoted. The objective of this analysis was to examine the unique contribution of generative leisure activities, defined as activities motivated by “a concern for others and a need to contribute something to the next generation” (Erikson). DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Peri-urban and rural area in southern Sri Lanka. PARTICIPANTS Community dwelling adults aged 60+ (n=252). MEASUREMENTS Main predictors were leisure activities grouped into generative, social, or solitary. Main outcome was cognitive function assessed with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). RESULTS We found that more frequent engagement in generative leisure activities was associated with higher levels of cognitive function, independent of the impact of other social and solitary leisure activities. In a fully adjusted model combining all three leisure activities, generative activities independently predicted cognitive function as measured with the MoCA (β =0.47 (0.11 to 0.83) and the IQCODE (β = -0.81 (-1.54 to -0.09)). In this combined model, solitary activities were also independently associated with slower cognitive decline with the MoCA (β =0.40 (0.16, 0.64), but not with IQCODE (β =-0.38 (-0.88, 0.12)); the association with social activities did not reach statistical significance with either measure. These associations did not differ meaningfully by gender. CONCLUSION Generative leisure activities are a promising area for the development of interventions aimed at reducing cognitive decline among the elderly. PMID:25139145
Georgina E Crichton
Full Text Available Smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet, along with obesity, fasting glucose and blood pressure have been independently associated with poorer cognitive performance. Few studies have related scales representing a combination of these variables to multiple domains of cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overall cardiovascular health, incorporating seven components, and cognitive function.A cross-sectional analysis employing 972 participants, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study was undertaken. Four health behaviors (body mass index, physical activity, diet, smoking and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Each was categorized according to the American Heart Association definitions for ideal cardiovascular health, except diet, for which two food scores were calculated. A Cardiovascular Health Score was determined by summing the number of cardiovascular metrics at ideal levels. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery.Cardiovascular Health Score was positively associated with seven out of eight measures of cognitive function, with adjustment for age, education, and gender. With further adjustment for cardiovascular and psychological variables, these associations remained significant for Visual-Spatial Memory, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Executive Function and the Global Composite score (p<0.05 for all. Ideal levels of a number of health factors and behaviors were positively associated with global cognitive performance.Increasing cardiovascular health, indexed by a higher number of metrics at ideal levels, is associated with greater cognitive performance. Smoking, physical activity, and diet are important components of cardiovascular health that impact upon cognition.
Brummelte, Susanne; Grunau, Ruth E; Synnes, Anne R; Whitfield, Michael F; Petrie-Thomas, Julianne
Higher parenting stress in mothers of children born very preterm may be in part a response to poorer neurobehavioral development, reflecting realistic concerns in addition to adaptation to the trauma of preterm delivery. To our knowledge, there are few longitudinal studies of parenting stress that have addressed child cognitive competence. To examine parenting stress in preterm and full-term children at 8 and 18 months corrected chronological age (CCA), in relation to child cognitive development and behavior. Participants were N=152 children (98 preterm born ≤32 weeks gestation, and 54 full-term) seen at 8 and 18 months CCA, and the primary caregiver parent. STUDY DESIGN/OUTCOME MEASURES: The Parenting Stress Index questionnaire was completed by a parent, child interactive behavior was videotaped, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II, Mental Development Index; MDI) were administered at both ages. Total Parenting Stress was higher in preterm than full-term children at 8 and 18 months CCA (pparenting stress for preterm children. For full-term children, number of children in the home and child interactive behavior predicted parental stress at 18 months. Higher parenting stress persisting to 18 months CCA in preterm children may partly reflect realistic parental concerns with their child's development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dokkedal, Unni; Hansen, Tom G; Rasmussen, Lars S
,503 middle-aged and elderly twins. METHODS: Results from five cognitive tests were compared in twins exposed to surgery, classified as major, minor, hip and knee replacement, or other, with those of a reference group without surgery using linear regression adjusted for sex and age. Genetic and shared...... environmental confounding was addressed in intrapair analyses of 87 monozygotic and 124 dizygotic same-sexed twin pairs in whom one had a history of major surgery and the other did not. RESULTS: Statistically significantly lower composite cognitive score was found in twins with at least one major surgery...... differed from the reference group except the knee and hip replacement group that tended to have higher cognitive scores (mean difference, 0.35; 95% CI, -0.18 to 0.87). CONCLUSIONS: A history of major surgery was associated with a negligibly lower level of cognitive functioning. The supplementary analyses...
Vitalii V Cozac
Full Text Available Objective: We investigated quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG and clinical parameters as potential risk factors of severe cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease.Methods: We prospectively investigated 37 patients with Parkinson’s disease at baseline and follow-up (after 3 years. Patients had no severe cognitive impairment at baseline. We used a summary score of cognitive tests as the outcome at follow-up. At baseline we assessed motor, cognitive, and psychiatric factors; qEEG variables (global relative median power spectra were obtained by a fully automated processing of high-resolution EEG (256-channels. We used linear regression models with calculation of the explained variance to evaluate the relation of baseline parameters with cognitive deterioration.Results: The following baseline parameters significantly predicted severe cognitive decline: global relative median power theta (4-8 Hz, cognitive task performance in executive functions and working memory.Conclusions: Combination of neurocognitive tests and qEEG improves identification of patients with higher risk of cognitive decline in PD.
Dohn, Søren; Sandberg, Rasmus Kousholt; Svendsen, Winnie Edith
By positioning a single gold particle at different locations along the length axis on a cantilever based mass sensor, we have investigated the effect of mass position on the mass responsivity and compared the results to simulations. A significant improvement in quality factor and responsivity...... was achieved by operating the cantilever in the fourth bending mode thereby increasing the intrinsic sensitivity. It is shown that the use of higher bending modes grants a spatial resolution and thereby enhances the functionality of the cantilever based mass sensor. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....
Zuidersma, Marij; Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Naarding, Paul; Comijs, Hannie C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of vascular risk factors, subclinical, and manifest vascular disease with four domains of cognitive functioning in a large sample of clinically depressed older persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used, and depressed patients were recruited from
Measures: The Zambia Neurobehavioural Test. Battery was used to measure cognitive functioning. Self-reported alcohol consumption was obtained by means of the Chinese Substance Use Form. Results: Male moderate drinkers have performed better on the Stroop Colour and Word Test, t-score. (M=52.78; SD=8.4) than ...
Superior cognitive functions have allowed the human species to dominate a world of incredible biological diversity. Threats to these essential capacities cannot be ignored, and a strategy is needed to evaluate the hazard posed by exposure to chemical and other agents. Because peo...
D. Vojinovic (Dina); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); R.W.W. Brouwer (Rutger); M.C.G.N. van den hout (Mirjam); E. Oole (Edwin); J. van Rooij (Jeroen); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); A. Aartsma-Rus (Annemieke); G.-J.B. Van Ommen (Gert-Jan B.); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); N. Amin (Najaf)
textabstractThe aim of our study is to investigate whether single-nucleotide dystrophin gene (DMD) variants associate with variability in cognitive functions in healthy populations. The study included 1240 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen family (ERF) study and 1464 individuals from the
Buckhalt, Joseph A.
Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality have been associated with impaired cognitive functioning in typically developing children and in children with a wide array of disabilities and medical conditions. Among children with disabilities, those with intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism…
Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.
This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related…
Wesnes, Keith A.
The Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system has been in use in worldwide clinical trials for over 20 years. It is a computer based system which assesses core aspects of human cognitive function including attention, information, working memory and long-term memory. It has been extensively validated and can be performed by a wide range of clinical populations including patients with various types of dementia. It is currently in worldwide use in clinical trials to evaluate new medicines, as well as a variety of programs involving the effects of age, stressors illnesses and trauma upon human cognitive function. Besides being highly sensitive to drugs which will impair or improve function, its utility has been maintained over the last two decades by constantly increasing the number of platforms upon which it can operate. Besides notebook versions, the system can be used on a wrist worn device, PDA, via tht telephone and over the internet. It is the most widely used automated cognitive function assessment system in worldwide clinical research. It has dozens of parallel forms and requires little training to use or administer. The basic development of the system wil be identified, and the huge databases (normative, patient population, drug effects) which have been built up from hundreds of clinical trials will be described. The system is available for use in virtually any environment or type of trial.
Vasconcelos, Luciano Góis; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo
The diagnosis of dementia is based on cognitive and functional evaluation. One of the difficulties in ascertaining the number of people with dementia in developing countries is the population's lack of formal education. Independent effects of age, sex and education have been identified on scores for most but not all cognitive tests. Identify the most-used cognitive and functional assessment tools in Brazil, related to dementia diagnosis and treatment outcome; and identify adaptations or normative data, when available. Data were generated from PubMed, LILACS and Portal Periodicos CAPES (thesis database) databases using the search terms 'dementia' and 'Alzheimer'. Data collection criteria were a. Articles with abstract; b. Brazilian abstracts, related to adult Brazilian population; c. Clear mention of assessment tool in the abstract text. A total of 108 abstracts were selected for the main analysis: a. to identify the instruments used b. to determine how many of the selected abstracts mentioned each tool and c. to search in the mentioned databases for respective test adaptations or normative data. Some 52 different assessment tools, 41 cognitive instruments and 11 functional instruments were identified. The most cited assessment tests were the Mini Mental State Examination (64 abstracts) and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (4 abstracts). Many of the instruments used only have the description of the translation process into Portuguese, along with some suggestions of validation or normative data. Few of these followed the recommended procedures of validation, replication, normalization or transcultural adaptation.
An alternative mod el of intelligence and cognitive functioning developed in previous work is explored for possible application within the South African context. ... The need for additional research to exp lore the diagnostic value of the CAS in the wider community is on e of the challenges emanating from this probe.
Bowler, Rosemarie M.; Kornblith, Erica S.; Gocheva, Vihra V.; Colledge, Michelle A.; Bollweg, George; Kim, Yangho; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Wright, Chris W.; Adams, Shane W.; Lobdell, Danelle T.
Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the cognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from industrial sources.
van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; van de Rest, Ondine; Kessels, Roy P C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M
Glucose is the main fuel for the brain, and manipulation of the glucose supply may consequently affect brain function. The present review was conducted to provide an overview of studies that investigated the acute effects of glucose load on memory and other cognitive functions in elderly people. The effects of sucrose on cognition and suggested mechanisms were also explored. A total of twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. In the majority of studies, episodic memory was investigated and a beneficial role for glucose in that specific cognitive domain was suggested. Other cognitive domains, i.e., working memory, semantic memory, visual memory, information-processing speed, attention, executive function, and visual/spatial function, have been studied less frequently and evidence for a beneficial effect of glucose was equivocal. Mechanisms are suggested to be mainly related to the human body's need for glucose as a metabolic substrate for physiological mechanisms in both central and peripheral processes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and cognitive functioning. Design: A cross-sectional study comprising a sample of 157 (48.5%) males and 167 (51.5%) females, with an age range of between 20 and 50 years. All the participants were conversant with the English language.
Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, Andre; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel
Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series…
Meskal, I.; Gehring, K.; Rutten, G.J.M.; Sitskoorn, M.M.
This systematic review evaluates relevant findings and methodologic aspects of studies on cognitive functioning in meningioma patients prior to and/or following surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases were searched until December 2015. From 1012
Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy
Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment System…
Christensen, Kaare; Thinggaard, Mikael; Oksuzyan, Anna
A rapidly increasing proportion of people in high-income countries are surviving into their tenth decade. Concern is widespread that the basis for this development is the survival of frail and disabled elderly people into very old age. To investigate this issue, we compared the cognitive and phys...... and physical functioning of two cohorts of Danish nonagenarians, born 10 years apart....
Hernier, Anne Marie; Froger-Colléaux, Christelle; Castagné, Vincent
The guidelines from different agencies do not include studies on cognitive functions as part of safety pharmacology. This is unfortunate as it seems important to verify that drugs entering into the central nervous system (CNS) are devoid of detrimental effects on cognition. Our aim is to show examples on how an evaluation of unwanted effects of drugs on cognitive functions may be included in preclinical studies. Rather than a review of the scientific context, the present text is an appeal for a wider consideration of cognition as a safety pharmacology endpoint. The following procedures provide an index of the ability of substances to induce cognitive deficits in rodents. In the passive avoidance (PA) test, rats receiving an electric shock show on a later occasion an avoidance of the shock-associated environment. In the social recognition (SR) test, rats recognize familiar congeners. In the Morris water maze (MWM) test, rats placed into a tank containing water learn to find an invisible escape platform using extra-maze visual cues. In the delayed alternation (DA) test, rats placed in a Skinner box learn to alternate their pressing behavior between two levers in order to obtain food rewards. In the operant reversal (OR) test, rats adapt their behavior following a change of the reinforcement rule. Standard reference agents were used to confirm that the different assays were able to detect pharmacologically induced cognitive impairments. Diazepam decreased associative memory performances in the PA test. MK-801-induced memory deficits in SR. Haloperidol increased escape latencies in the MWM test. Scopolamine decreased the number of correct responses in the DA test, and nicotine decreased the number of correct responses in the OR test. The relationship between the doses administered and the effects observed was also evaluated. Cognitive assays may provide utility in determining potential undesirable effects or discharging perceived risks with novel CNS drugs under
Bird, T D; Follett, C; Griep, E
Twenty-nine patients with myotonic dystrophy from 14 families were tested with the Wechsler and Shipley measures of cognitive function. Forty-one per cent of the subjects had little or no physical handicap. Approximately one-third had low Wechsler scores, whereas 7% had relatively high scores. There was a trend for affected females to have poorer cognitive function than males. Limited cognitive ability correlated with maternal inheritance of the gene and severe physical handicap, but there were individual exceptions. Strongest cognitive abilities were verbal and informational, whereas the weakest were immediate recall, abstraction and spatial manipulation and orientation. There was no evidence of intellectual decline with time. Signs of cerebral atrophy on CT scans were uncommon, occurring for certain in only one of 19 subjects. Personality profiles were also constructed for 25 myotonic subjects using interview and MMPI techniques. Forty-four per cent of the subjects had unremarkable personality profiles, 24% had mild personality difficulties and 32% had prominent personality abnormalities. Serious personality difficulty was most common in patients with low cognitive ability and advanced physical handicap. There was no "typical" personality pattern representative of the entire group. It is likely that many personality problems were the result of individuals with limited resources attempting to cope with their physically deforming and debilitating neuromuscular disorder. PMID:6655483
Light regulates multiple non-visual circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral functions, and conveys a strong stimulating signal for alert-ness and cognition. This review summarizes a series of neuroimaging studies investigating the brain mechanisms underlying the latter stimulating impact of light. Results of these studies are compatible with a scenario where light would first hit subcortical areas involved in arousal regulation before affecting cortical areas involved in the ongoing non-visual cognitive process, and then cognitive performance. Recent data demonstrated that the non-visual impact of light is most likely triggered via outputs from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) expressing the photopigment melanopsin, which are maximally sensitive to blue light. In addition, the stimulating impact of light is intimately related to wakefulness regulation as it changes with circadian phase and sleep pressure. Finally, markers of inter-individual difference have also been described: age, PERIOD3 genotype, and psychiatric status. This review emphasizes the importance of light for human brain cognitive function and for cognition in general. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.
Correa, Denise D; Satagopan, Jaya; Baser, Raymond E; Cheung, Kenneth; Richards, Elizabeth; Lin, Michael; Karimi, Sasan; Lyo, John; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Orlow, Irene
The goal of this study was to assess whether the APOE ε4 allele and other APOE single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence neuropsychological and neuroimaging outcomes in patients with brain tumors. Two hundred eleven patients with brain tumors participated in the study. All patients completed standardized neuropsychological tests and provided a blood sample for APOE genotyping. Ratings of white matter abnormalities were performed on MRI scans. Patients were classified into 2 groups based on the presence (n = 50) or absence (n = 161) of at least one APOE ε4 allele. Additional APOE SNPs were genotyped in a subset of 150 patients. Patients with at least one APOE ε4 allele had significantly lower scores in verbal learning and delayed recall, and marginally significant lower scores in executive function, in comparison to noncarriers of an ε4 allele. Patients with at least one ε4 allele and history of cigarette smoking had significantly higher scores in working memory and verbal learning than ε4 carriers who never smoked. Nine additional APOE SNPs were significantly associated with attention and executive and memory abilities. There were no significant differences between ε4 carriers and noncarriers on the extent of white matter abnormalities on MRI. The findings suggest that patients with brain tumors who are carriers of the APOE ε4 allele may have increased vulnerability to developing memory and executive dysfunction, and that additional SNPs in the APOE gene may be associated with cognitive outcome. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.
Full Text Available Decreasing cognitive function of the elderly is one of the most common problems that might affect their quality of life. Music is an element that is believed to be able to contribute to the quality of life of the elderly. However, whether musical activities that are done throughout the life span related to cognitive function is unclear. In this research, we evaluated the association between lifetime musical activities and cognitive function. Fifty three older adults from three nursing homes in East Jakarta were selected and interviewed regarding their characteristics and lifetime musical activities. Cognitive function was also measured using Mini Mental State Examinaion (MMSE. The results of this preliminary study revealed that a possibility of an association between lifetime musical activities and cognitive function of the elderly was indicated. The result also showed that the participants who were not actively involved in musical activities during their lifetime were twice more likely to develop cognitive function impairment than the elderly who were actively involved in musical activities, after being adjusted by the characteristics. These correlational results suggest the beneficial effect of musical activities throughout the life span on cognitive functioning for the elderly. Penurunan fungsi kognitif merupakan salah satu masalah umum pada lanjut usia yang mampu memengaruhi kualitas hidup mereka. Musik merupakan sebuah elemen yang dipercaya mampu berkontribusi terhadap kualitas hidup mereka. Meski demikian, hubungan antara aktivitas musikal yang dilakukan sepanjang hidup dan fungsi kognitif lansia belum diketahui secara pasti. Pada penelitian ini, hubungan antara aktivitas musikal sepanjang hidup dan fungsi kognitif dievaluasi. Lima puluh tiga lansia penghuni panti tresna werdha di Jakarta Timur dipilih dan diwawancarai terkait karakteristik dan aktivitas musikal sepanjang hidup mereka. Fungsi kognitif juga diukur menggunakan MMSE. Hasil
Schneider, Sabrina; Malecki, Anne-Kathrin; Boenisch, Olaf; Schönfeld, Robby; Kielstein, Jan T
One hallmark of uremia is the impairment of neuro-cognitive function. Anecdotal clinical description from the early days of chronic dialysis therapy impressively illustrates the improvement of those functions by chronic hemodialysis treatment. Fortunately, today, uremia is only rarely observed in industrialized countries as many patients seek medical/nephrological attention prior to the occurrence of deadly complications of uremia. We report a rare case of severe uremia and describe the day to day improvement in neuro-cognitive function by dialysis using state of the arte test battery--starting at a serum creatinine of 2443 μmol/l. Especially executive functions, which are assumed to be localized in the frontal cerebral regions, are impaired in severe uremia and improve remarkably with the correction of severe uremia, i.e., initiation of dialysis.
Berendsen, A.M.; Kang, Jae H.; Rest, van de O.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Grodstein, F.
ObjectivesTo examine the association between long-term adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with cognitive function and decline in older American women.DesignProspective cohort study.SettingThe Nurses' Health Study, a cohort of registered nurses residing in 11 US
Full Text Available Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in Executive Control. We used computerized cognitive training in anattempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20 minutes each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed Executive Control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found improvements in Executive Control. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvements did not predict the improvements in everyday coping, and mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six Executive Control tests and on the Global Executive Control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory.
Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p Fasting decreased (p Fasting also increased (p fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it. PMID:28025637
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test whether there is an association between elevation and cognitive function among elderly residents in rural mountainous areas. Data were collected in 2012 from a cross-sectional study conducted in Ohnan Town, which is located in a rural mountainous area in the southern part of Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Cognitive function was evaluated using CADi (Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version and elevation was estimated by using Geographic Information Systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 866 participants were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher elevation was significantly associated with decreased cognitive function. This finding suggests that it is important to consider the physical environment, i.e., elevation, that would affect accessibility to health-promoting goods, services, and resources when seeking to maintain cognitive function in elderly people living in rural mountainous areas.
Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Bos, Daniel; Niessen, Wiro J; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; van der Lugt, Aad; Vernooij, Meike W; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide and has been of considerable interest in research on cognition and dementia. To investigate the effect of coffee on preclinical brain MRI markers of dementia and cognitive performance. In 2,914 participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study (mean age: 59.3±7.2 years, 55% females), we assessed coffee consumption, performed brain MRI, and assessed cognition at baseline. To study cognitive change, cognitive assessment was repeated after 5 years of follow-up. Coffee consumption was analyzed continuously (per cup increase) and in categories (0-1, >1-3, >3 cups/day). Using logistic and linear regression, associations of coffee consumption with lacunar infarcts and brain tissue volumes on MRI, and cognitive performance (cross-sectional and longitudinal) were investigated, adjusting for relevant confounders. We found that higher coffee consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of lacunar infarcts [odds ratio per cup increase: 0.88 (95% CI:0.79;0.98)], and smaller hippocampal volume [difference: -0.01 (95% CI:-0.02;0.00)]. Also, we found that the highest category of coffee consumption was associated with better performance on the Letter Digit Substitution Task [difference: 1.13(95% CI:0.39;1.88)], Word Fluency test [0.74(95% CI:0.04,1.45)], Stroop interference task [1.82(95% CI:0.23;3.41)], and worse performance on the 15-Word Learning test delayed recall [-0.38(95% CI:-0.74;-0.02)]. These associations were not found when cognition was analyzed longitudinally. We found complex associations between coffee consumption, brain structure, and cognition. Higher coffee consumption was cross-sectionally associated with a lower occurrence of lacunar infarcts and better executive function, but also with smaller hippocampal volume and worse memory function.
Blundell, John; Gumaste, Deepa; Handley, Rowena; Dye, Louise
There is a rapidly growing interest in the scientific study of the effects of foods on psychological processes involved in the control of behaviour (performance) and cognitive functions such as memory, perception, attention and vigilance. This study forms part of innovative research on functional foods, which provides an active arena for collaboration between researchers in universities, institutes and industry. Research outputs will inform legislation currently being drawn up in Europe. This...
Geerlings, P; De Proft, F
.g. on the local and global polarizability. Its derivatives may govern the influence of charge on the polarizability, the R-analogues being the nuclear Fukui function and the quadratic and cubic force constants. Although some of the higher order derivatives may be difficult to evaluate a comparison with the energy expansion used in spectroscopy in terms of nuclear displacements, nuclear magnetic moments, electric and magnetic fields leads to the conjecture that, certainly cross terms may contain new, intricate information for understanding chemical reactivity.
Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara
We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whe...
Schoonheim, M M; Geurts, Jjg; Wiebenga, O T; De Munck, J C; Polman, C H; Stam, C J; Barkhof, F; Wink, A M
Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) has a large impact on the quality of life and is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate functional network integrity in MS, and relate this to cognitive dysfunction and physical disability. Resting state fMRI scans were included of 128 MS patients and 50 controls. Eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) was applied, a graph analysis technique that ranks the importance of brain regions based on their connectivity patterns. Significant ECM changes were related to physical disability and cognitive dysfunction. In MS patients, ECM values were increased in bilateral thalamus and posterior cingulate (PCC) areas, and decreased in sensorimotor and ventral stream areas. Sensorimotor ECM decreases were related to higher EDSS (rho = -0.24, p = 0.007), while ventral stream decreases were related to poorer average cognition (rho = 0.23, p = 0.009). The thalamus displayed increased connectivity to sensorimotor and ventral stream areas. In MS, areas in the ventral stream and sensorimotor cortex appear to become less central in the entire functional network of the brain, which is associated with clinico-cognitive dysfunction. The thalamus, however, displays increased connectivity with these areas. These findings may aid in further elucidating the function of functional reorganization processes in MS. © The Author(s) 2013.
Okura, Toru; Heisler, Michele; Langa, Kenneth M
To examine whether cognitive impairment in adults with diabetes mellitus is associated with worse glycemic control and to assess whether level of social support for diabetes mellitus care modifies this relationship. Cross-sectional analysis. The 2003 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Mail Survey on Diabetes and the 2004 wave of the HRS. Adults aged 50 and older with diabetes mellitus in the United States (N=1,097, mean age 69.2). Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level; cognitive function, measured with the 35-point HRS cognitive scale (HRS-cog); sociodemographic variables; duration of diabetes mellitus; depressed mood; social support for diabetes mellitus care; self-reported knowledge of diabetes mellitus; treatments for diabetes mellitus; components of the Total Illness Burden Index related to diabetes mellitus; and functional limitations. In an ordered logistic regression model for the three ordinal levels of HbA1c (or=8.0 mg/dL), respondents with HRS-cog scores in the lowest quartile had significantly higher HbA1c levels than those in the highest cognitive quartile (adjusted odds ratio=1.80, 95% confidence interval=1.11-2.92). A high level of social support for diabetes mellitus care modified this association; for respondents in the lowest cognitive quartile, those with high levels of support had significantly lower odds of having higher HbA1c than those with low levels of support (1.11 vs 2.87, P=.02). Although cognitive impairment was associated with worse glycemic control, higher levels of social support for diabetes mellitus care ameliorated this negative relationship. Identifying the level of social support available to cognitively impaired adults with diabetes mellitus may help to target interventions for better glycemic control.
Choi, Eun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Hee Yun; Shin, Hye Ri; Park, SeolWoo; Cho, Sung Eun
Depressive symptoms are greatly associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. Recent growing body of literature has reported that the subjective perception of one's own age (subjective age) predicts both cognitive performance and mental well-being in old age. This study aims to examine whether subjective age moderates the association between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in a representative sample of Korean older adults. To address this research question, we employed the Stereotype-Embodiment Theory as a theoretical guide. Data are from the 2016 Dementia Literacy Survey collected by Kyung Hee University, and 526 community-dwelling Korean older adults (ages 60-79) completed the questionnaire about depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning, and subjective age. According to the hierarchical regression analysis, both higher levels of depressive symptoms and older subjective age were associated with poorer cognitive functioning. Further analyses showed that subjective age attenuated the effect of depressive symptoms on cognitive functioning: when older adults have a higher level of depression, those with younger subjective age reported a higher level of cognitive functioning than those with older subjective age. Based on the findings from this study, both theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Pfistermeister, Barbara; Tümena, Thomas; Gaßmann, Karl-Günter; Maas, Renke; Fromm, Martin F
Previous studies suggest an association between use of anticholinergic drugs in elderly patients and cognitive impairment. However, there are still limited data on the association of anticholinergic drug use and cognitive impairment as well as contribution of individual drugs to anticholinergic load using large, well-documented patient cohorts treated in geriatric units from Europe. We investigated 797,440 prescriptions to 89,579 hospitalized patients treated in geriatric units within the GiB-DAT database. Data of all patients discharged between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2015 was included. The Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale was used to classify anticholinergic drugs as definite (score 2 or 3) and possible anticholinergics (score 1). Cognitive function was determined using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the standardized scale for dementia (4D+S). In two multivariable logistic regression models age, sex, number of drugs and ACB total scores were identified as variables independently associated with cognitive impairment as measured by MMSE (odds ratio per ACB unit 1.114, 95% CI 1.099-1.130) or the diagnosis dementia (odds ratio 1.159 per ACB unit, 95% CI 1.144-1.173, both p patients with severe cognitive impairment (p patients with an anticholinergic load of 3 and higher. Using a cross-sectional study design, a significant positive association between anticholinergic drug load and cognitive impairment in European patients treated in specialised geriatric units was found. The most frequently used definitve anticholinergic drugs were quetiapine, amitriptyline and carbamazepine.
Hansen, Anita Lill; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Thornton, David; Waage, Leif; Thayer, Julian F
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the four facets of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991; Bolt, Hare, Vitale, & Newman, 2004) were related to physiological and cognitive mechanisms. Fifty-three male prisoners participated in this study. Physiological responses were measured as heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR). Cognitive functions were measured using a continuous performance test (CPT; California Computerized Assessment Package, Abbreviated version) and a working memory test (WMT); based on Baddeley & Hitch (1974). The regression analysis of the HRV revealed that the interpersonal facet explained most of the variance during baseline (28%), CPT (16%), and WMT (12%). This was also true for the HR data during baseline (28%), CPT (20%), WMT (10%), and recovery (13%). The antisocial facet explained 10% of the variance only during baseline. Subjects scoring high compared to low on the interpersonal facet also showed better cognitive functioning. The study suggests that the different facets were differently associated with both physiological and cognitive functions.
Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin P; Allen, Daniel N
Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dual-process theories of higher order cognition (DPTs) have been enjoying much success, particularly since Kahneman's 2002 Nobel prize address and recent book Thinking, Fast and Slow (2009). Historically, DPTs have attempted to provide a conceptual framework that helps classify and predict differences in patterns of behavior found under some circumstances and not others in a host of reasoning, judgment, and decision-making tasks. As evidence has changed and techniques for examining behavior have moved on, so too have DPTs. Killing two birds with one stone, Evans and Stanovich (2013, this issue) respond to five main criticisms of DPTs. Along with addressing each criticism in turn, they set out to clarify the essential defining characteristics that distinguish one form of higher order cognition from the other. The aim of this commentary is to consider the defining characteristics of Type 1 and Type 2 processing that have been proposed and to suggest that the evidence can be taken to support quantitative differences rather than qualitatively distinct processes. © The Author(s) 2013.
Akshoomoff, Natacha; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Dikmen, Sureyya; Gershon, Richard; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Tulsky, David; Weintraub, Sandra; Zelazzo, Philip; Heaton, Robert K.
The NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB) includes 7 tests covering 8 cognitive abilities considered to be important in adaptive functioning across the lifespan (from early childhood to late adulthood). Here we present data on psychometric characteristics in children (N = 208; ages 3–15 years) of a total summary score and composite scores reflecting two major types of cognitive abilities: “crystallized” (more dependent upon past learning experiences) and “fluid” (capacity for new learning and information processing in novel situations). Both types of cognition are considered important in everyday functioning, but are thought to be differently affected by brain health status throughout life, from early childhood through older adulthood. All three Toolbox composite scores showed excellent test-retest reliability, robust developmental effects across the childhood age range considered here, and strong correlations with established, “gold standard” measures of similar abilities. Additional preliminary evidence of validity includes significant associations between all three Toolbox composite scores and maternal reports of children’s health status and school performance. PMID:23952206
Full Text Available In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and cortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarise the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, can modulate cognitive function.
Smith, Paul F; Zheng, Yiwen
In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function.
From the neuroconstructivist point of view, cognitive development is understood as a process of successive and continuous reorganization whose changing mechanisms and differential outcomes (typical and atypical) must be studied. High intellectual abilities are one of their differential manifestations but its concept and nature is confused conditioning the validity of its identification and the efficacy of the interventional programs. To propose a clarifying definition of the nature of high intellectual abilities and their manifestations: giftedness, talent and genious, as well as their cognitive functioning and neurological correlates. A qualitative task analysis is applied to 41 participants with intellectual profiles corresponding to: giftedness, talent and typical intelligence, previously obtained. Results show differences on the cognitive results, not only referred to the quantity of informations produced but in the data organization more complex and hard interrelated among the gifted participants. It must be a differential process of resolution adjusted to each one of the profiles studied.
Ranganath, Charan; Minzenberg, Michael J; Ragland, J Daniel
Patients with schizophrenia have pronounced deficits in memory for events--episodic memory. These deficits severely affect patients' quality of life and functional outcome, and current medications have only a modest effect, making episodic memory an important domain for translational development of clinical trial paradigms. The current article provides a brief review of the significant progress that cognitive neuroscience has made in understanding basic mechanisms of episodic memory formation and retrieval that were presented and discussed at the first CNTRICS (Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia) meeting in Washington, D.C. During that meeting a collaborative decision was made that measures of item-specific and relational memory were the most promising constructs for immediate translational development. A brief summary of research on episodic memory in schizophrenia is presented to provide a context for investigating item-specific and relational memory processes. Candidate brain regions are also discussed.
Torbeyns, Tine; de Geus, Bas; Bailey, Stephen; Decroix, Lieselot; Van Cutsem, Jeroen; De Pauw, Kevin; Meeusen, Romain
Physical activity is positively associated with physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of bike desks in the classroom on adolescents' energy expenditure, physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. Forty-four adolescents were randomly assigned to control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). During 5 months, the IG used a bike desk for 4 class hours/week. Energy expenditure was measured during 6 consecutive days. Anthropometric parameters, aerobic fitness, academic performance, cognitive performance and brain functioning were assessed before (T0) and after (T1) the intervention. Energy expenditure of the IG was significantly higher during the class hours in which they used the bike desks relative to normal class hours. The CG had a significantly higher BMI at T1 relative to T0 while this was not significantly different for the IG. Aerobic fitness was significantly better in the IG at T1 relative to T0. No significant effects on academic performance cognitive performance and brain functioning were observed. As the implementation of bike desks in the classroom did not interfere with adolescents' academic performance, this can be seen as an effective means of reducing in-class sedentary time and improving adolescents' physical health.
Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these…
Berendsen, Agnes; Kang, J.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Grodstein, F.; Rest, van de O.
Objectives: There is increasing attention for dietary patterns as a potential strategy to prevent cognitive decline. We examined the association between adherence to a recently developed Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet with cognitive function and cognitive
Gold, James M; Robinson, Benjamin; Leonard, Carly J; Hahn, Britta; Chen, Shuo; McMahon, Robert P; Luck, Steven J
People with schizophrenia demonstrate impairments in selective attention, working memory, and executive function. Given the overlap in these constructs, it is unclear if these represent distinct impairments or different manifestations of one higher-order impairment. To examine this question, we administered tasks from the basic cognitive neuroscience literature to measure visual selective attention, working memory capacity, and executive function in 126 people with schizophrenia and 122 healthy volunteers. Patients demonstrated deficits on all tasks with the exception of selective attention guided by strong bottom-up inputs. Although the measures of top-down control of selective attention, working memory, and executive function were all intercorrelated, several sources of evidence indicate that working memory and executive function are separate sources of variance. Specifically, both working memory and executive function independently contributed to the discrimination of group status and independently accounted for variance in overall general cognitive ability as assessed by the MATRICS battery. These two cognitive functions appear to be separable features of the cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Emi; Ogikubo, Hiroki; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Kamimura, Kazuro; Konishi, Yasuharu; Emoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Considering the high prevalence of dementia, it would be of great value to develop effective tools to improve cognitive function. We examined the effects of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone. In this study, 34 healthy elderly female volunteers living alone were randomized to living with either a communication robot or a control robot at home for 8 weeks. The shape, voice, and motion features of the communication robot resemble those of a 3-year-old boy, while the control robot was not designed to talk or nod. Before living with the robot and 4 and 8 weeks after living with the robot, experiments were conducted to evaluate a variety of cognitive functions as well as saliva cortisol, sleep, and subjective fatigue, motivation, and healing. The Mini-Mental State Examination score, judgement, and verbal memory function were improved after living with the communication robot; those functions were not altered with the control robot. In addition, the saliva cortisol level was decreased, nocturnal sleeping hours tended to increase, and difficulty in maintaining sleep tended to decrease with the communication robot, although alterations were not shown with the control. The proportions of the participants in whom effects on attenuation of fatigue, enhancement of motivation, and healing could be recognized were higher in the communication robot group relative to the control group. This study demonstrates that living with a human-type communication robot may be effective for improving cognitive functions in elderly women living alone.
Komulainen, P.; Pedersen, Maria; Hanninen, T.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity. While low circulating levels of BDNF have been suggested to predispose to Alzheimer's disease, very little data are available on its association with cognitive function in general population. We...... evaluated the association between plasma BDNF levels and cognition in a representative population sample of ageing men and women. The subjects (n=1389) were participants of the Dose-Responses to Exercise Training (DR's EXTRA) Study and represent a random sample of Eastern Finnish people (684 men and 705...... women), 57-79 years of age at baseline of the study. Plasma BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cognitive function was evaluated using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological test battery. Women had a higher mean...
Kamalini G. Ranasinghe
Full Text Available Understanding neural network dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease is imperative to effectively develop network-modulating therapies. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD, cognitive decline associates with deficits in resting-state functional connectivity of diffuse brain networks. The goal of the current study was to test whether specific cognitive impairments in AD spectrum correlate with reduced functional connectivity of distinct brain regions. We recorded resting-state functional connectivity of alpha-band activity in 27 patients with AD spectrum − 22 patients with probable AD (5 logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, 7 posterior cortical atrophy, and 10 early-onset amnestic/dysexecutive AD and 5 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD. We used magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEGI to perform an unbiased search for regions where patterns of functional connectivity correlated with disease severity and cognitive performance. Functional connectivity measured the strength of coherence between a given region and the rest of the brain. Decreased neural connectivity of multiple brain regions including the right posterior perisylvian region and left middle frontal cortex correlated with a higher degree of disease severity. Deficits in executive control and episodic memory correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left frontal cortex, whereas visuospatial impairments correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal cortex. Our findings indicate that reductions in region-specific alpha-band resting-state functional connectivity are strongly correlated with, and might contribute to, specific cognitive deficits in AD spectrum. In the future, MEGI functional connectivity could be an important biomarker to map and follow defective networks in the early stages of AD.
Ranasinghe, Kamalini G; Hinkley, Leighton B; Beagle, Alexander J; Mizuiri, Danielle; Dowling, Anne F; Honma, Susanne M; Finucane, Mariel M; Scherling, Carole; Miller, Bruce L; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Vossel, Keith A
Understanding neural network dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease is imperative to effectively develop network-modulating therapies. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognitive decline associates with deficits in resting-state functional connectivity of diffuse brain networks. The goal of the current study was to test whether specific cognitive impairments in AD spectrum correlate with reduced functional connectivity of distinct brain regions. We recorded resting-state functional connectivity of alpha-band activity in 27 patients with AD spectrum--22 patients with probable AD (5 logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, 7 posterior cortical atrophy, and 10 early-onset amnestic/dysexecutive AD) and 5 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD. We used magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEGI) to perform an unbiased search for regions where patterns of functional connectivity correlated with disease severity and cognitive performance. Functional connectivity measured the strength of coherence between a given region and the rest of the brain. Decreased neural connectivity of multiple brain regions including the right posterior perisylvian region and left middle frontal cortex correlated with a higher degree of disease severity. Deficits in executive control and episodic memory correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left frontal cortex, whereas visuospatial impairments correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal cortex. Our findings indicate that reductions in region-specific alpha-band resting-state functional connectivity are strongly correlated with, and might contribute to, specific cognitive deficits in AD spectrum. In the future, MEGI functional connectivity could be an important biomarker to map and follow defective networks in the early stages of AD.
Vance, David E; Marson, Daniel C; Triebel, Kristen L; Ball, Karlene K; Wadley, Virginia G; Cody, Shameka L
Depressive symptoms and social networks may influence the relationship between physical activity and cognition. Using structural equation modeling, depressive symptoms and social networks were examined as mediators between physical activity and cognition in community-dwelling older adults (N = 122), with a range of cognitive abilities (e.g., normal, mild cognitive impairment). The model included age, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleeping, social networks, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function. A path was observed between physical activity, depressive symptoms, and cognition; specifically, those who were more physically active experienced less depression and better cognitive functioning. No relationship between social networks and cognition was found. This model fits the data well (goodness-of-fit index = .93, adjusted goodness-of-fit index = .90, root mean square error of approximation = .06). Results suggest that physical activity may mitigate depressive symptoms, with beneficial effects on cognitive functioning in both those with and without mild cognitive impairment. Suggestions for managing depression and improving cognitive functioning are provided.
Jason M. Chein; Henry H. Wilmer; Lauren E. Sherman
... of functioning there is accruing evidence of a significant relationship between smartphone technology and cognitive performance, and in which domains the scientific literature is not yet mature enough...
Merrill, Alison Saricks
The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the
Felipe Kenji Sudo
Full Text Available Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI represents an early symptomatic stage of vascular cognitive impairment and might be associated to fronto-executive dysfunction. Methods Twenty-six individuals (age: 73.11±7.90 years; 65.4% female; schooling: 9.84±3.61 years were selected through neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging. Clinical and neuroimaging data of VaMCI individuals (n=15 were compared to normal controls (NC, n=11 and correlated with Fazekas scale. Results VaMCI performed significantly worse than NC in Trail-Making Test (TMT B, errors in TMT B, difference TMT B-A and Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG final scores. Correlations were found among scores in modified Fazekas scale and performances in TMT B (time to complete and errors, difference TMT B-A and CAMCOG total score. Conclusion Extension of white matter hyperintensities might be correlated to poorer global cognition and impairments in a set of fronto-executive functions, such as cognitive speed, set shifting and inhibitory control in VaMCI.
Green, Michael F
Schizophrenia is a severely disabling disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The notion of recovery from schizophrenia has recently become a topic of both research and clinical focus. With the advent of antipsychotic medications in the 1950s, many more patients achieved symptom remission than ever before. However, less than half of all patients have been able to achieve recovery. With so many drugs available to improve the symptoms of schizophrenia, why is the disorder still associated with such severe disability? In the last couple of decades, researchers and clinicians have begun to realize that a hindrance to widespread recovery is that available antipsychotic medications have been effective in treating the positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) of schizophrenia but not other features of illness such as cognitive impairment. Dysfunction in cognition and social cognition has a significant impact on patients' functional status, meaning that impaired cognition and social cognition should be treatment targets to improve the likelihood of recovery. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Green, Jill E; Saveanu, Radu V; Bornstein, Robert A
The authors' goal was to study the potential effect on cognitive function of an interaction of HIV infection and a history of alcohol abuse. The subjects were 30 HIV-negative and 50 HIV-positive men with and without a past history of alcohol abuse. Thirty-three of the men (12 HIV negative and 21 HIV positive) had a past history of alcohol abuse, and 47 (18 HIV negative and 29 HIV positive) had never abused alcohol. Each subject's history of alcohol use was obtained by using a syndromal approach based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and a quantitative approach. Each subject was given a battery of neuropsychological tests assessing verbal reasoning, reaction time, intelligence, memory, and dexterity. The subjects were then compared on a summary neuropsychological impairment rating. There were no significant differences in CD4 level, age, education, depression, anxiety, or other drug abuse history between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups with and without a history of alcohol abuse. Significant effects on cognitive function were found for past alcohol abuse and HIV infection, with significant interactions in verbal reasoning, auditory processing, and reaction time. This demonstrates that HIV infection and a history of alcohol abuse have independent effects on some aspects of higher cognitive function but may have synergistic effects on other cognitive domains. In the HIV-negative subjects there were no differences in cognitive function between subjects with and without a history of alcohol abuse. Among the HIV-positive subjects, those with a history of alcohol abuse performed more poorly on tests of verbal IQ, verbal reasoning, and reaction time. There are both additive and interactive effects of previous alcohol abuse and HIV infection on cognition. Individuals with a history of past alcohol abuse may be at greater risk for cognitive dysfunction in the context of HIV infection.
Leigh Gibson, E; Green, Michael W
The impact of nutritional variation, within populations not overtly malnourished, on cognitive function and arousal is considered. The emphasis is on susceptibility to acute effects of meals and glucose loads, and chronic effects of dieting, on mental performance, and effects of cholesterol and vitamin levels on cognitive impairment. New developments in understanding dietary influences on neurohormonal systems, and their implications for cognition and affect, allow reinterpretation of both earlier and recent findings. Evidence for a detrimental effect of omitting a meal on cognitive performance remains equivocal: from the outset, idiosyncrasy has prevailed. Yet, for young and nutritionally vulnerable children, breakfast is more likely to benefit than hinder performance. For nutrient composition, despite inconsistencies, some cautious predictions can be made. Acutely, carbohydrate-rich-protein-poor meals can be sedating and anxiolytic; by comparison, protein-rich meals may be arousing, improving reaction time but also increasing unfocused vigilance. Fat-rich meals can lead to a decline in alertness, especially where they differ from habitual fat intake. These acute effects may vary with time of day and nutritional status. Chronically, protein-rich diets have been associated with decreased positive and increased negative affect relative to carbohydrate-rich diets. Probable mechanisms include diet-induced changes in monoamine, especially serotoninergic neurotransmitter activity, and functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis. Effects are interpreted in the context of individual traits and susceptibility to challenging, even stressful, tests of performance. Preoccupation with dieting may impair cognition by interfering with working memory capacity, independently of nutritional status. The change in cognitive performance after administration of glucose, and other foods, may depend on the level of sympathetic activation, glucocorticoid secretion, and
Full Text Available We outline a strategy to relate normal cognitive processes to candidate genes. First, brain imaging is used to specify a cognitive process “attention” in terms of the neural networks involved. Next, evidence is presented showing that the operation of each network involves a dominant neuromodulator. Then we discuss development of a task designed to measure the efficiency of each network in normal individuals and consider evidence on the independence, reliability, and heritability of the networks. DNA from cheek swabs of subjects who performed the task are then used to examine candidate polymorphisms in genes related to the transmitters. We then examine the ability of these candidate alleles to predict the efficiency of relevant networks. This process has demonstrated that candidate genes are related to specific networks of attention to a greater degree than to overall performance as measured by reaction time and accuracy. These findings require replication and possible extension to other cognitive processes.
de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio
This work evaluated the importance of sleep on mood and cognition after 24 h of exposure to hypoxia. Ten males, aged 23-30 years, were placed in a normobaric chamber simulating an altitude of 4,500 m. Sleep assessments were conducted from 22:00-6:00; all mood and cognitive assessments were performed 20 min after awakening. The assessments were conducted in normoxic conditions and after 24 h of hypoxia. Sleep was reevaluated 14 h after the start of exposure to hypoxic conditions, and mood state and cognitive functions were reevaluated 24 h after the start of exposure to hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia reduced total sleep time, sleep efficiency, slow-wave sleep, and rapid eye movement. Depressive mood, anger, and fatigue increased under hypoxic conditions. Vigor, attention, visual and working memory, concentration, executive functions, inhibitory control, and speed of mental processing worsened. Changes in sleep patterns can modulate mood and cognition after 24 h. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Yee, Lynn M; Kamel, Leslie A; Quader, Zara; Rajan, Priya V; Taylor, Shaneah M; O'Conor, Rachel; Wolf, Michael S; Simon, Melissa A
Objective The objective of this study was to characterize health literacy and cognitive function in a diverse cohort of pregnant women. Methods Pregnant and postpartum women underwent in-depth assessments of health literacy/numeracy and the cognitive domains of verbal ability, working memory, long-term memory, processing speed, and inductive reasoning. Differences by demographic characteristics and gestational age were assessed using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Results In this cohort of pregnant (N = 77) or postpartum (N = 24) women, 41.6% had limited health literacy/numeracy. Women were more likely to score in the lowest quartile for literacy and verbal ability if they were less educated, younger, nonwhite or had Medicaid. These factors were associated with low scores for long-term memory, processing speed, and inductive reasoning. Although there were no differences in literacy or cognitive function by parity or gestational age, postpartum women were more likely to score in the lowest quartile for processing speed (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-10.93) and inductive reasoning (aOR: 4.07, 95% CI: 1.21-13.70). Conclusion Although postpartum status was associated with reduced inductive reasoning and processing speed, there were no differences in cognitive function across pregnancy. Practice Implications Postpartum maternal learning may require enhanced support. In addition, cognitive skills and health literacy may be a mediator of perinatal outcomes inequities. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael; Polson, Peter; Mumaw, Randall; Palmer, Everett
A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator confusion, and explain, in part, the operational issues experienced by airline pilots using VNAV in descent and approach. A proposal to modify the existing VNAV design to eliminate the overloading is discussed. The proposed design improves pilot's situational awareness of the VNAV function, and potentially reduces the cost of software development and improves safety.
Muldoon, Matthew F; Ryan, Christopher M; Sheu, Lei; Yao, Jeffrey K; Conklin, Sarah M; Manuck, Stephen B
Existing evidence links greater dietary intake of fish and (n-3) PUFA to better early brain development and lowered risk of cognitive disorders in late life. The mechanisms for these associations remain unclear and may be related to specific (n-3) fatty acids and may concern cognitive function generally rather than only early brain development and age-related cognitive dysfunction. In this investigation, we tested potential associations between (n-3) fatty acids in serum phospholipids and major dimensions of cognitive functioning in mid-life adults. Participants were 280 community volunteers between 35 and 54 y of age, free of major neuropsychiatric disorders, and not taking fish oil supplements. Dietary biomarkers were alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenonic acid (DHA) in serum phospholipids measured using GC. Five major dimensions of cognitive functioning were assessed with a 75-min battery of neuropsychological tests. In covariate adjusted regression models, higher DHA (mol %) was related to better performance on tests of nonverbal reasoning and mental flexibility, working memory, and vocabulary (P brain health throughout the lifespan and may have implications for clinical trials of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Jovancevic Jelena; Rosano Caterina; Perera Subashan; Erickson Kirk I; Studenski Stephanie
Abstract Background Physical exercise has the potential to affect cognitive function, but most evidence to date focuses on cognitive effects of fitness training. Cognitive exercise also may influence cognitive function, but many cognitive training paradigms have failed to provide carry-over to daily cognitive function. Video games provide a broader, more contextual approach to cognitive training that may induce cognitive gains and have carry over to daily function. Most video games do not inv...
Caffarri, Stefano; Kouril, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta
Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C(2)S(2)M(2) supercomplex were isolated. Characterization by biochemical methods and single particle electron microscopy allowed to relate for the first time the supramolecular organization to the protein content. A projection map of C(2)S(2)M(2) at 12 A resolution was obtained, which allowed determining the location and the orientation of the antenna proteins. Comparison of the supercomplexes obtained from WT and Lhcb-deficient plants reveals the importance of the individual subunits for the supramolecular organization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed and allow redefining previous suggestions on PSII energy transfer, assembly, photoinhibition, state transition and non-photochemical quenching.
Benca, Ruth; Duncan, Marilyn J; Frank, Ellen; McClung, Colleen; Nelson, Randy J; Vicentic, Aleksandra
Increasing evidence suggests that disrupted temporal organization impairs behavior, cognition, and affect; further, disruption of circadian clock genes impairs sleep-wake cycle and social rhythms which may be implicated in mental disorders. Despite this strong evidence, a gap in understanding the neural mechanisms of this interaction obscures whether biological rhythms disturbances are the underlying causes or merely symptoms of mental disorder. Here, we review current understanding, emerging concepts, gaps, and opportunities pertinent to (1) the neurobiology of the interactions between circadian oscillators and the neural circuits subserving higher brain function and behaviors of relevance to mental health, (2) the most promising approaches to determine how biological rhythms regulate brain function and behavior under normal and pathological conditions, (3) the gaps and challenges to advancing knowledge on the link between disrupted circadian rhythms/sleep and psychiatric disorders, and (4) the novel strategies for translation of basic science discoveries in circadian biology to clinical settings to define risk, prevent or delay onset of mental illnesses, design diagnostic tools, and propose new therapeutic strategies. The review is organized around five themes pertinent to (1) the impact of molecular clocks on physiology and behavior, (2) the interactions between circadian signals and cognitive functions, (3) the interface of circadian rhythms with sleep, (4) a clinical perspective on the relationship between circadian rhythm abnormalities and affective disorders, and (5) the pre-clinical models of circadian rhythm abnormalities and mood disorders.
Santosh A Helekar
Full Text Available In multiple sclerosis (MS functional changes in connectivity due to cortical reorganization could lead to cognitive impairment (CI, or reflect a re-adjustment to reduce the clinical effects of widespread tissue damage. Such alterations in connectivity could result in changes in neural activation as assayed by executive function tasks. We examined cognitive function in MS patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment and age-matched controls. We evaluated brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the successful performance of the Wisconsin-card sorting (WCS task by MS patients, showing compensatory maintenance of normal function, as measured by response latency and error rate. To assess changes in functional connectivity throughout the brain, we performed a global functional brain network analysis by computing voxel by voxel correlations on the fMRI time series data and carrying out a hierarchical cluster analysis. We found that during the WCS task there is a significant reduction in the number of smaller size brain functional networks, and a change in the brain areas representing the nodes of these networks in MS patients compared to age-matched controls. There is also a concomitant increase in the strength of functional connections between brain loci separated at intermediate scale distances in these patients. These functional alterations might reflect compensatory neuroplastic reorganization underlying maintenance of relatively normal cognitive function in the face of white matter lesions and cortical atrophy produced by MS.
Stubbs, Brendon; Rosenbaum, Simon; Vancampfort, Davy; Malchow, Berend; Schuch, Felipe; Elliott, Rebecca; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Yung, Alison R.
Abstract Cognitive deficits are pervasive among people with schizophrenia and treatment options are limited. There has been an increased interest in the neurocognitive benefits of exercise, but a comprehensive evaluation of studies to date is lacking. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of all controlled trials investigating the cognitive outcomes of exercise interventions in schizophrenia. Studies were identified from a systematic search across major electronic databases from inception to April 2016. Meta-analyses were used to calculate pooled effect sizes (Hedges g) and 95% CIs. We identified 10 eligible trials with cognitive outcome data for 385 patients with schizophrenia. Exercise significantly improved global cognition (g = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13–0.53, P = .001) with no statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). The effect size in the 7 studies which were randomized controlled trials was g = 0.43 (P exercise are associated with larger improvements in global cognition (β = .005, P = .065). Interventions which were supervised by physical activity professionals were also more effective (g = 0.47, P Exercise significantly improved the cognitive domains of working memory (g = 0.39, P = .024, N = 7, n = 282), social cognition (g = 0.71, P = .002, N = 3, n = 81), and attention/vigilance (g = 0.66, P = .005, N = 3, n = 104). Effects on processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory and reasoning and problem solving were not significant. This meta-analysis provides evidence that exercise can improve cognitive functioning among people with schizophrenia, particularly from interventions using higher dosages of exercise. Given the challenges in improving cognition, and the wider health benefits of exercise, a greater focus on providing supervised exercise to people with schizophrenia is needed. PMID:27521348
Firth, Joseph; Stubbs, Brendon; Rosenbaum, Simon; Vancampfort, Davy; Malchow, Berend; Schuch, Felipe; Elliott, Rebecca; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Yung, Alison R
Cognitive deficits are pervasive among people with schizophrenia and treatment options are limited. There has been an increased interest in the neurocognitive benefits of exercise, but a comprehensive evaluation of studies to date is lacking. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of all controlled trials investigating the cognitive outcomes of exercise interventions in schizophrenia. Studies were identified from a systematic search across major electronic databases from inception to April 2016. Meta-analyses were used to calculate pooled effect sizes (Hedges g) and 95% CIs. We identified 10 eligible trials with cognitive outcome data for 385 patients with schizophrenia. Exercise significantly improved global cognition (g = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13-0.53, P = .001) with no statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). The effect size in the 7 studies which were randomized controlled trials was g = 0.43 (P exercise are associated with larger improvements in global cognition (β = .005, P = .065). Interventions which were supervised by physical activity professionals were also more effective (g = 0.47, P Exercise significantly improved the cognitive domains of working memory (g = 0.39, P = .024, N = 7, n = 282), social cognition (g = 0.71, P = .002, N = 3, n = 81), and attention/vigilance (g = 0.66, P = .005, N = 3, n = 104). Effects on processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory and reasoning and problem solving were not significant. This meta-analysis provides evidence that exercise can improve cognitive functioning among people with schizophrenia, particularly from interventions using higher dosages of exercise. Given the challenges in improving cognition, and the wider health benefits of exercise, a greater focus on providing supervised exercise to people with schizophrenia is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.
Clark, Daniel O; Xu, Huiping; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Hendrie, Hugh
The aim of this study was to investigate educational differences in treatment responses to memory, reasoning, and speed of processing cognitive training relative to no-contact control. Secondary analyses of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial were conducted. Two thousand eight hundred older adults were randomized to memory, reasoning, or speed of processing training or no-contact control. A repeated-measures mixed-effects model was used to investigate immediate post-training and 1-year outcomes with sensitivity analyses out to 10 years. Outcomes were as follows: (1) memory composite of Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test; (2) reasoning composite of letter series, letter sets, and word series; and (3) speed of processing measured using three trials of useful field of view and the digit symbol substitution test. The effects of reasoning and memory training did not differ by educational attainment. The effect of speed of processing training did. Those with fewer than 12 years of education experienced a 50% greater effect on the useful field of view test compared with those with 16 or more years of education. The training advantage for those with fewer than 12 years of education was maintained to 3 years post-training. Older adults with less than a secondary education are at elevated risk of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. The analyses here indicate that speed of processing training is effective in older adults with low educational attainment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of a multimodal exercise program on executive functions and memory in people with Parkinson's disease, taking into account disease severity and gender. Twenty-three patients with Parkinson's disease (PD were evaluated before and after a 6-month exercise program to improve executive functions and memory. We observed the effects of the intervention on executive functions (ability to abstract: p = .01, immediate memory (p= .04 and declarative episodic memory (p < .001. Women showed higher scores on declarative episodic memory (p = .03 than men, however there was no interaction between gender and the intervention. Regardless of sex and disease severity, these preliminary results indicate that the multimodal exercise seems to be effective in improving cognitive functions in patients with PD, suggesting that this program can be indicated as a preventive strategy to mitigate progressive cognitive deficits in the later stages of the disease.
Friedman, Elliot; Quinn, Jill; Chen, Ding-Geng (Din); Mapstone, Mark
Cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) increase the risk of dementia. The purpose of this study was to examine whether leisure activities (mental, physical, and social activities) modified the effect of CVDRFs on inflammatory markers and cognitive function in middle and old age. A secondary-data analysis study was conducted using data from 405 middle-age participants (40 –59 years) and 342 old-age participants (60 – 84 years) who participated in the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. CVDRFs were obtained from a combination of self-report medical history and blood-based biomarkers. Three CVDRF groups (≤1, 2, and ≥3 CVDRFs) were identified. More CVDRFs were significantly associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers in both age groups, and associated with lower levels of executive function in the old age group. CVDRFs were not related to the frequency of leisure activities in either age group. After controlling for covariates, higher levels of physical activities were significantly associated with lower levels of inflammatory markers, and higher levels of mental activities were associated with higher levels of cognitive function. In the old age group, physical activities also moderated the effect of CVDRFs on episodic memory, and mental activities moderated the effect of CVDRFs on interleukin-6. Multiple CVDRFs may be associated with poorer cognitive function and higher inflammatory markers, but middle-age and older adults with CVDRFs may not engage in frequent physical and cognitive activities that may be protective. It is important to develop strategies to facilitate engagement in these activities from midlife. PMID:22377120
Lin, Feng; Friedman, Elliot; Quinn, Jill; Chen, Ding-Geng Din; Mapstone, Mark
Cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) increase the risk of dementia. The purpose of this study was to examine whether leisure activities (mental, physical, and social activities) modified the effect of CVDRFs on inflammatory markers and cognitive function in middle and old age. A secondary-data analysis study was conducted using data from 405 middle-age participants (40-59 years) and 342 old-age participants (60-84 years) who participated in the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). CVDRFs were obtained from a combination of self-report medical history and blood-based biomarkers. Three CVDRF groups (≤1, 2, and ≥3 CVDRFs) were identified. More CVDRFs were significantly associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers in both age groups, and associated with lower levels of executive function (EF) in the old age group. CVDRFs were not related to the frequency of leisure activities in either age group. After controlling for covariates, higher levels of physical activities were significantly associated with lower levels of inflammatory markers, and higher levels of mental activities were associated with higher levels of cognitive function. In the old age group, physical activities also moderated the effect of CVDRFs on episodic memory (EM), and mental activities moderated the effect of CVDRFs on interleukin-6 (IL-6). Multiple CVDRFs may be associated with poorer cognitive function and higher inflammatory markers, but middle-age and older adults with CVDRFs may not engage in frequent physical and cognitive activities that may be protective. It is important to develop strategies to facilitate engagement in these activities from midlife. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction. It has been assumed that there is causality of the achieved level of functional independence with the degree of preservation of cognitive function in stroke patients. Demographic characteristics may be important for monitoring the achieved level of functional independence. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of demographic characteristics and functional independence in regard to the level of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Methods. The study included 50 stroke patients after rehabilitation, as well as age- and gender-matched 50 subjects selected randomly, according to the demographic characteristics of the studied sample, who in their medical history had no neurological disorders. For the assessment of functional independence, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM test was used. The general cognition was estimated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test. The statistical analyses included the Mann-Whitney test, for two independent samples, measures of canonical correlation, and χ2 test. Results. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to risk factors, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II (p<0.001; There was a statistically significant difference within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment in all the examined demographic characteristics (p<0.001; the differences within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment are present on all subscales of the FIM test (p<0.05; the differences within the groups in relation to handedness, hemiparesis, show that mild cognitive impairment is more common among left hemiparesis, while a more severe one is more common among right-sided hemiparesis (p<0.05; More severe cognitive impairment is common among women, the elderly and in persons with lower education (p<0.05. Conclusion. By prevention of risk factors, and prevention of possible cognitive impairment, consequences of stroke can be
Cao, Yang; Kang, Chuan-Yuan; Wan, Shuai; DU, Meng-Meng; Ding, Kai-Jing; Li, Xue-Rong
To explore the factors influencing cognitive functions in patients with childhood and adolescence-onset schizophrenia. The clinical data of 78 patients with childhood and adolescence-onset schizophrenia who met with the criteria of ICD-10 for schizophrenia were retrospectively reviewed. The cognitive functions were evaluated by the Chinese Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), digit span backward and P300. The clinical symptoms were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The patients with a lower education level or earlier onset of age had a longer P3 latency at the P300Fz area. The patients with a higher parental education level had higher scores of full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance intelligence quotient (PIQ), conceptual level and completed categories of WCST and backward numeric order reciting. The patients with higher PANSS negative subscale scores had lower scores of FIQ, VIQ, PIQ, completed categories and conceptual level of WCST and backward numeric order reciting. The patients with a longer stabilization time had higher backward numeric order reciting scores. The severity of negative symptoms of the patients and the educational level of their parents are major factors influencing cognitive functions in patients with childhood and adolescence-onset schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Roberta Forte,1,2 Colin AG Boreham,1 Joao Costa Leite,3 Giuseppe De Vito,1 Lorraine Brennan,3 Eileen R Gibney,3 Caterina Pesce21Institute for Sport and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Human Movement and Sport Science, University of Rome "Foro Italico," Rome, Italy; 3Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin, IrelandPurpose: The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different exercise training programs on executive cognitive functions and functional mobility in older adults. A secondary purpose was to explore the potential mediators of training effects on executive function and functional mobility with particular reference to physical fitness gains.Methods: A sample of 42 healthy community dwelling adults aged 65 to 75 years participated twice weekly for 3 months in either: (1 multicomponent training, prioritizing neuromuscular coordination, balance, agility, and cognitive executive control; or (2 progressive resistance training for strength conditioning. Participants were tested at baseline (T1, following a 4-week control period (T2, and finally at postintervention (T3 for executive function (inhibition and cognitive flexibility and functional mobility (maximal walking speed with and without additional task requirements. Cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness were also assessed as potential mediators.Results: Indices of inhibition, the functions involved in the deliberate withholding of prepotent or automatic responses, and measures of functional mobility improved after the intervention, independent of training type. Mediation analysis suggested that different mechanisms underlie the effects of multicomponent and progressive resistance training. While multicomponent training seemed to directly affect inhibitory capacity, resistance training seemed to affect it indirectly through gains in muscular strength. Physical fitness and executive function variables did not
Muramatsu, Yukako; Natsume, Jun; Nakamura, Miho
In this study, we investigated the cognitive processing and language abilities of a 13-year-old boy with moderate periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), spastic diplegia and exotropia who had discrepant scores in the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third edition (VIQ; 82 > PIQ; under 40). In the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System, his performance was poor at simultaneous processing compared to sequential processing. He could not copy three-dimensional figures, and he could place only two out of eight blocks correctly in the second level models of Benton three-dimensional block construction test, showing visuospatial impairment typical of patients with PVL. Despite the relatively high score in VIQ, there was a gap among the scores of the subtests in the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. He tended to get low scores in tests that required visual abilities. In addition, there was also an impairment in reading fluency tested by the Diagnostic Criteria and Medical Guideline for Specific Developmental Disorders. He was much less fluent in reading syllables, words or sentences (6.0 SD or more compared to 12-year-old boys). The relatively higher score in VIQ superficially suggests adequate language ability. However, in the present study, precise investigation revealed some discrepancies even within the field of language. Thus, defining stronger and weaker points of a patient is important in order to determine optimal medical or educational approaches.
Cherek, D R
P. R. Giancola (2000) postulated executive cognitive functioning (ECF) as a mechanism to explain the association between alcohol consumption and aggression. Alcohol intoxication disrupts ECF, which heightens the probability of aggression. This is most likely to occur in individuals with low ECF. These propositions are found lacking. The disruption in ECF by alcohol would be greatest among individuals with high ECF, and low-ECF individuals presumably would not experience much further disruption as result of low baseline functioning. These 2 premises appear to be inconsistent. The concept of ECF suffers from the problems associated with hypothetical constructs. Patterns of aggression emerge in young children before the development of cognitive skills associated with ECF, and the association of aggression and low ECF occur as results of environmental risk factors. ECF is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition to explain aggression following alcohol drinking.
Kable, Joseph W
This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI.
Moyano, Nieves; Byers, E Sandra; Sierra, Juan Carlos
This study examined the relationship between various subtypes of positive and negative sexual cognitions (NSC) based on their content (intimate, exploratory, sadomasochistic, impersonal) and sexual functioning, including aspects of sexual response (desire), sexual motivation (sexual excitation and sexual inhibition), and cognitive-affective domains (satisfaction). Participants were 789 Spanish adults (322 men and 467 women) who were in a heterosexual relationship of at least 6 months duration. Overall, the men reported more frequent exploratory and impersonal positive sexual cognitions than did the women. The men and women did not differ in the frequency of their positive intimate and sadomasochistic cognitions or in any of their NSC. Using canonical correlation, the results revealed that, after controlling for the overall frequency of NSC, the men and women who reported a higher frequency of all subtypes of positive sexual cognitions reported more dyadic and solitary sexual desire, more propensity to get sexually excited, and less sexual inhibition. A second canonical variate was identified for both the men and the women that revealed different patterns of association between the subtypes of cognitions and specific areas of sexual functioning, highlighting the role of positive, intimate cognitions for dyadic aspects of sexual functioning. The subtypes of NSC were not associated with poorer sexual functioning for either men or women, perhaps because they, on average, occurred infrequently. The findings were discussed in terms of the relationship between the specific content of sexual cognitions and the sexual functioning of men and women.
Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John
The mechanisms for improved cognitive function post-bariatric surgery are not well understood. Markers of kidney and liver function (i.e., cystatin C and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) are elevated in obese individuals and associated with poor neurocognitive outcomes in other samples. Bariatric surgery can improve cystatin C and ALP levels, but no study has examined whether such changes correspond to post-operative cognitive benefits. 78 bariatric surgery patients completed a computerized cognitive test battery prior to and 12-months after surgery. All participants underwent an eight-hour fasting blood draw to quantify cystatin C and ALP concentrations. Cognitive function improved after surgery. Cystatin C levels decreased at the 12-month follow-up; however, no changes were found in ALP concentrations. At baseline, higher cystatin C levels predicted worse attention/executive function, but no such effects emerged for ALP. Regression analyses controlling for possible medical and demographic confounds and baseline factors revealed that decreased ALP levels following surgery predicted better attention/executive function and memory abilities. Post-surgery changes in cystatin C did not correspond to cognitive improvements. Decreased ALP levels predicted better cognition following bariatric surgery, suggesting improved liver function as a possible mechanism of post-operative cognitive benefits. Future studies with neuroimaging and longer follow-up periods are needed to determine whether bariatric surgery can decrease risk for adverse brain changes and dementia in severely obese persons via improved metabolic function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bowie, Christopher R; Gupta, Maya; Holshausen, Katherine; Jokic, Ruzica; Best, Michael; Milev, Roumen
Neurocognitive impairments are observed in depression and associated with poor functioning. This study examined the efficacy and the effectiveness of cognitive remediation with supplemental Internet-based homework in treatment-resistant depression. Participants were randomized to treatment or wait list control conditions. Treatment consisted of 10 weeks of weekly group sessions and daily online cognitive exercises completed at home. The participants were assessed on cognitive, mood, motivation, and functioning measures. There was a significant time by treatment interaction for attention/processing speed and verbal memory. Changes in functioning were not significant, although improved cognition predicted improvements in functioning. Number of minutes of online exercise was associated with greater cognitive improvements. Cognitive deficits are malleable with behavioral treatment in a mood disorder characterized by severe and persistent symptoms.
Klivényi, Peter; Nemeth, Dezso; Sefcsik, Tamas; Janacsek, Karolina; Hoffmann, Ildiko; Haden, Gabor Peter; Londe, Zsuzsa; Vecsei, Laszlo
Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with ...
Péter eKlivényi; Dezso eNemeth; Tamás eSefcsik; Karolina eJanacsek; Ildiko eHoffmann; Gábor Péter Háden; Zsuzsa eLonde; László eVécsei
Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with AOA2. ...
Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E
It has been suggested that a low-glycaemic index (GI) breakfast may be beneficial for some elements of cognitive function (e.g. memory and attention), but the effects are not clear, especially in adolescents. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast and breakfast omission on cognitive function in adolescents. A total of fifty-two adolescents aged 12-14 years were recruited to participate in the study. Participants consumed a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast or omitted breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests was completed 30 and 120 min following breakfast consumption and capillary blood samples were taken during the 120 min postprandial period. The findings show that there was a greater improvement in response times following a low-GI breakfast, compared with breakfast omission on the Stroop (P = 0·009) and Flanker (P = 0·041) tasks, and compared with a high-GI breakfast on the Sternberg paradigm (P = 0·013). Furthermore, accuracy on all three tests was better maintained on the low-GI trial compared with the high-GI (Stroop: P = 0·039; Sternberg: P = 0·018; Flanker: P = 0·014) and breakfast omission (Stroop: P breakfast, participants displayed a lower glycaemic response (P breakfast, but there was no difference in the insulinaemic response (P = 0·063) between the high- and low-GI breakfasts. Therefore, we conclude that a low-GI breakfast is most beneficial for adolescents' cognitive function, compared with a high-GI breakfast or breakfast omission.
Féart, Catherine; Samieri, Cécilia; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale
International audience; PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular and chronic diseases has been largely evidenced. Although nutrition constitutes an interesting approach in preventing age-related brain disorders, the association between the Mediterranean-style diet and cognitive functions has been very occasionally explored. RECENT FINDINGS: Results are provided from only two recent prospective cohorts of older Americans and Fr...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported mixed results regarding the association between cognition and body weight in late life. We evaluated the relationships between cognitive function and body composition among community-dwelling older adults. Methods Three hundred twenty subjects (≥65 years, women 53% with available data of cognitive function and body composition from 2010 Hallym Aging Study. Cognitive function was assessed using Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA was used for measuring body composition including body fat and lean body mass. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory data were collected in clinical examination. Body composition variables were divided into sex-specific tertiles, and examined by multivariable logistic regression. Results Among female, the highest tertile group of fat mass and second tertile group of total lean body mass were associated with lower risk for cognitive impairment compared to the respective first tertile groups (odds ratios, 0.23 and 0.09, respectively; 95% confidence intervals, 0.04–0.88 and 0.01–0.44, respectively after adjusting for confounding factors. In male, higher arm bone mineral content was associated with lower risk for cognitive impairment, but significance was lost after adjusting for adiponectin, age, and education. Conclusions Higher fat mass and lean body mass were associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment in older women. These observations suggest that body fat and lean mass later in life might be beneficial for cognition.
Dotson, Vonetta M; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B
Previous research has shown that reading ability is a stronger predictor of cognitive functioning than years of education, particularly for African Americans. The current study was designed to determine whether the relative influence of literacy and education on cognitive abilities varies as a function of race or socioeconomic status (SES). We examined the unique influence of education and reading scores on a range of cognitive tests in low- and higher-SES African Americans and Whites. Literacy significantly predicted scores on all but one cognitive measure in both African American groups and low-SES Whites, while education was not significantly associated with any cognitive measure. In contrast, both education and reading scores predicted performance on many cognitive measures in higher-SES Whites. These findings provide further evidence that reading ability better predicts cognitive functioning than years of education and suggest that disadvantages associated with racial minority status and low SES affect the relative influence of literacy and years of education on cognition.
Maselko, Joanna; Sebranek, Matthew; Mun, Mirna H; Perera, Bilesha; Ahs, Jill; Ostbye, Truls
To examine the unique contribution of generative leisure activities, defined as activities motivated by a concern for others and a need to contribute something to the next generation. Cross-sectional survey. Peri-urban and rural area in southern Sri Lanka. Community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older (N = 252). The main predictors were leisure activities, grouped into generative, social, or solitary. The main outcome was cognitive function, assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). More-frequent engagement in generative leisure activities was associated with higher levels of cognitive function, independent of the effect of other social and solitary leisure activities. In a fully adjusted model combining all three leisure activities, generative activities independently predicted cognitive function as measured using the MoCA (β = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.11-0.83) and the IQCODE (β = -0.81, 95% CI = -1.54 to -0.09). In this combined model, solitary activities were also independently associated with slower cognitive decline using the MoCA (β = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.16-0.64) but not the IQCODE (β = -0.38, 95% CI = -0.88-0.12); the association with social activities did not reach statistical significance with either measure. These associations did not differ meaningfully according to sex. Generative leisure activities are a promising area for the development of interventions aimed at reducing cognitive decline in elderly adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.
Kontis, Dimitrios; Theochari, Eirini; Nikolakopoulou, Mary; Andreopoulou, Angeliki; Vassos, Dimitrios; Grigoriou, Vasileios; Vassilouli, Spyridoula; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Kouloumbi, Maria; Tsaltas, Eleftheria
Although the relationship of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) with both cognition and social functioning (SF) has already been the focus of research in schizophrenia, the moderation of the relationship of OCSs with SF by cognition has not been explored to date. We investigated the association of OCSs with SF and its interaction with cognition in schizophrenia. We recruited 110 schizophrenia patients and assessed OCSs (Yale-Brown Scale), schizophrenia symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), SF (Strauss-Carpenter Scale) and cognition. 51 patients had one obsessive-compulsive symptom or more, whereas 59 patients had no obsessive compulsive-symptom, according to the Yale-Brown Scale. We mainly investigated: a) the predictive effect of OCSs on SF, controlling for cognition, illness duration and symptoms' severity and b) the moderating effect of cognition on the OCSs-SF relationship. The mean score of OCSs for patients having at least one symptom was 13.43 (SD=8.32). Higher OCSs predicted increased SF (B=0.98, t=2.41, df=88, p=0.018). This relationship was driven by the association of compulsions with job functioning (B=0.074, t=2.029, df=88, p=0.046). Patients without OCSs demonstrated worse functioning compared with those having at least one obsessive-compulsive symptom (mean difference=2.496, t=3.732, df=88, pcognition moderates the effect of OCSs on SF. There may be a beneficial effect of OCSs on SF in patients with schizophrenia which is independent of their cognitive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective To explore the rehabilitation effect of motor imagery therapy on cognitive function of stroke patients. Methods A total of 99 stroke patients with mild to moderate cognitive dysfunction were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (N = 33, cognitive training group (N = 33 and motor imagery training group (N = 33. All patients received conventional rehabilitation training. Before and after 8-week training, all subjects were assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. At the same time, event-related potential (ERP was examined to detect P300 latency and amplitude. Results ompared with before training, MMSE (P = 0.000 and MoCA (P = 0.000 scores were significantly increased, P300 latency was shortened (P = 0.000 and P300 amplitude was increased (P = 0.000 in 3 groups after 8 - week training. There were significant differences among 3 groups on MMSE (P = 0.030 and MoCA (P = 0.013 scores, P300 latency (P = 0.004 and P300 amplitude (P = 0.009 before and after training. Among them, cognitive training group and motor imagery training group had significantly higher MMSE (P = 0.019, 0.021 and MoCA (P = 0.003, 0.031 scores, shorter P300 latency (P = 0.020, 0.003 and higher P300 amplitude (P = 0.003, 0.002 than control group. Conclusions Motor imagery training can not only improve motor function of stroke patients, but also improve their cognitive function. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.06.005
Vanessa G. Fraga
Full Text Available Interleukin 6 (IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulated in neurodegenerative contexts. The polymorphism IL-6 -174 G > C influences release levels of this cytokine. We aimed to evaluate the influence of IL-6 -174 G > C on global cognitive score of a group with cognitive impairment no dementia in one year of follow-up.Methods The subjects were categorized in two groups: short-term decline in global cognitive score and those with short-term stability or improvement. IL-6 174 G > C information were compared among these groups.Results We observed that individuals with cognitive impairment no dementia with GGlowergenotype were more frequent among global cognitive score non-decliners while carriers of at least one Chigherallele were more frequent in the group with global cognitive score decliners (p = 0.012; RR = 3.095 IC95%= 1.087-8.812.Conclusion These results suggest that the higher expression of IL-6 gene may be an independent risk factor for cognitive decline among individuals with cognitive impairment no dementia.
Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia
Many studies on vision and driving cessation have relied on measures of sensory function, which are insensitive to the higher-order cognitive aspects of visual processing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between traditional measures of visual sensory function and higher-order visual processing skills with incident driving cessation in a population-based sample of older drivers. Two thousand licensed drivers aged 70 years or older were enrolled and followed for three years. Tests for central vision and visual processing were administered at baseline and included visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, sensitivity in the driving visual field, visual processing speed (useful field of view [UFOV] Subtest 2 and Trails B) and spatial ability measured by the Visual Closure Subtest of the Motor-free Visual Perception Test. Participants self-reported the month and year of driving cessation and provided a reason for cessation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to generate crude and adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals between visual functioning characteristics and risk of driving cessation over a three-year period. During the study period, 164 participants stopped driving, which corresponds to a cumulative incidence of 8.5 per cent. Impaired contrast sensitivity, visual fields, visual processing speed (UFOV and Trails B) and spatial ability were significant risk factors for subsequent driving cessation after adjusting for age, gender, marital status, number of medical conditions and miles driven. Visual acuity impairment was not associated with driving cessation. Medical problems (63 per cent), specifically musculoskeletal and neurological problems, as well as visual problems (17 per cent) were cited most frequently as the reason for driving cessation. Assessment of cognitive and visual functioning can provide useful information about subsequent risk of driving cessation among older drivers. In addition, a variety of factors
Lindgren, Sa; Kihlgren, Margareta; Melin, Lennart; Croona, Cecilia; Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar
An initial investigation of cognitive functions in 32 children, aged 7 to 15 years, with rolandic epilepsy (RE), using an extensive test battery, was followed 2.5 to 3 years later by a second assessment of 26 of these children, using the same technique. The initial investigation reported cognitive deficits in memory and learning of auditory-verbal material together with executive functions compared with controls. At the second assessment, the ability for immediate memory, memory and learning of visuospatial as well as auditory-verbal material and delayed recall was the same in the RE group as in the control group. On one of the tests measuring executive functions, Verbal Fluency, the RE group scored significantly lower than controls. With respect to reading and writing ability, the children with RE had some difficulty with word comprehension. Nonverbal reasoning was the same in the two groups, as was general IQ. In conclusion, the children with RE did not present any major cognitive difficulties when a mean of approximately 5 years had passed since onset of the typical syndrome, and at a time when most of them were seizure-free. Maturational factors apparently are of importance to the course of RE.
Full Text Available Imaging studies have implicated altered functional connectivity in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD. Whether similar dysfunction is present in adolescent patients is unclear. The degree of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC may reflect abnormalities within emotional (‘hot’ and cognitive control (‘cold’ neural systems. Here, we investigate rsFC of these systems in adolescent patients and changes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI was acquired from adolescent patients before CBT, and 24-weeks later following completed therapy. Similar data were obtained from control participants. Cross-sectional Cohort: From 82 patients and 34 controls at baseline, rsFC of the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and pre-frontal cortex (PFC was calculated for comparison. Longitudinal Cohort: From 17 patients and 30 controls with longitudinal data, treatment effects were tested on rsFC. Patients demonstrated significantly greater rsFC to left amygdala, bilateral supragenual ACC, but not with PFC. Treatment effects were observed in right insula connected to left supragenual ACC, with baseline case-control differences reduced. rsFC changes were significantly correlated with changes in depression severity. Depressed adolescents exhibited heightened connectivity in regions of ‘hot’ emotional processing, known to be associated with depression, where treatment exposure exerted positive effects, without concomitant differences in areas of ‘cold’ cognition.
Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas
Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....
de Bruin, E.J.; van Run, C.; Staaks, J.; Meijer, A.M.
Adolescents are considered to be at risk for deteriorated cognitive functioning due to insufficient sleep. This systematic review examined the effects of experimental sleep manipulation on adolescent cognitive functioning. Sleep manipulations consisted of total or partial sleep restriction, sleep
General significance: Cognition is a complex process that depends on many determinants and not only on thyroid function. Magnesium deficiency appears to be a basic mechanism for changes in thyroid function as well as of cognition.
Wouters, H.J.P.; Aalbers, T.; Maessen, M.F.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Eijsvogels, T.M.
Studies show physical activity to be beneficial for cognitive function. However, studies usually included individuals who were not particularly inclined to exercise. Following research among master athletes, we examined associations between physical activity and cognitive function in participants of
Wouters, H.J.P.; Aalbers, T.; Maessen, M.F.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.
Objective: Studies show physical activity to be beneficial for cognitive function. However, studies usually included individuals who were not particularly inclined to exercise. Following research among master athletes, we examined associations between physical activity and cognitive function in
Wouters, Hans; Aalbers, Teun; Maessen, Martijn F. H.; Verbeek, Andre L. M.; Rikkert, Marcel G. M. Olde; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.
Studies show physical activity to be beneficial for cognitive function. However, studies usually included individuals who were not particularly inclined to exercise. Following research among master athletes, we examined associations between physical activity and cognitive function in participants of
Schmaal, Lianne; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Joos, Leen; Krüse, Anne Maren; Dom, Geert; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.
Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with deficits in cognitive control functions. Cognitive control is likely to be mediated through the interaction between intrinsic large-scale brain networks involved in externally oriented executive functioning and internally focused thought processing. Improving
Schmaal, L.; Goudriaan, A.E.; Joos, L.; Kruse, A.M.; Dom, G.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.
Background: Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with deficits in cognitive control functions. Cognitive control is likely to be mediated through the interaction between intrinsic large-scale brain networks involved in externally oriented executive functioning and internally focused thought
Sobral, Margarida; Paúl, Constança
Education and participation in leisure activities appear to be highly relevant variables in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and usually form the basis of the Cognitive Reserve construct. [A] To determine the association between education, cognitive and functional ability of AD patients; [B] To determine the association between participation in leisure activities and cognitive and functional ability of AD patients; [C] To evaluate the association of education and participation in leisure activities in the course of AD. Functional and neuropsychological abilities of 120 outpatients with probable AD were evaluated at baseline, at 36 and 54 months. Data collected at baseline included socio-demographics, clinical variables, education and frequency of participation in leisure activities throughout life. All participants and/or caregivers answered the questionnaire, "Participation in leisure activities throughout life" while patients completed the MMSE, the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, neuropsychological tests from the Lisbon Screening for Dementia Assessment, Barthel Index and Lawton and Brody's Index. AD patients with higher levels of education achieved better results on cognitive tests. The participants with higher participation in leisure activities exhibited better results on cognitive and functional tests than those with lower participation. The disease progression was linear and progressed similarly regardless of the level of education of participants. However, the results suggest a slower disease progression in patients with a higher level of participation in leisure activities throughout their lives. AD patients with high education and high participation in leisure activities may benefit from a slower cognitive and functional decline after diagnosis of AD.
Rosenbloom, Paul S.; Demski, Abram; Ustun, Volkan
Sigma (Σ) is a cognitive architecture and system whose development is driven by a combination of four desiderata: grand unification, generic cognition, functional elegance, and sufficient efficiency. Work towards these desiderata is guided by the graphical architecture hypothesis, that key to progress on them is combining what has been learned from over three decades' worth of separate work on cognitive architectures and graphical models. In this article, these four desiderata are motivated and explained, and then combined with the graphical architecture hypothesis to yield a rationale for the development of Sigma. The current state of the cognitive architecture is then introduced in detail, along with the graphical architecture that sits below it and implements it. Progress in extending Sigma beyond these architectures and towards a full cognitive system is then detailed in terms of both a systematic set of higher level cognitive idioms that have been developed and several virtual humans that are built from combinations of these idioms. Sigma as a whole is then analyzed in terms of how well the progress to date satisfies the desiderata. This article thus provides the first full motivation, presentation and analysis of Sigma, along with a diversity of more specific results that have been generated during its development.
McDermott, Adam; Zaporojan, Lilia; McNamara, Patricia; Doherty, Colin P; Redmond, Janice; Forde, Cuisle; Gormley, John; Egaña, Mikel; Bergin, Colm
High levels of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity are associated with higher levels of cognitive function in people with HIV, thus, they may reduce the risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention on cognitive function in people with HIV. Eleven participants living with HIV were recruited into the study. Participants were randomised into either an exercise group (n = 5), that completed a 16-week aerobic exercise programme training, 3 times per week (2 supervised sessions and one unsupervised session) or a control group (n = 6) that received no intervention. Outcomes measured included cognitive function (Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA) and the Trail making tests A and B), aerobic fitness (modified Bruce protocol), sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index; PSQI) and physical activity levels (seven-day accelerometry). At baseline, higher levels of moderate physical activity were positively correlated with higher MOCA scores and levels of aerobic fitness were negatively associated with Trail A scores (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001 respectively). However, exercise training did not induce any significant improvements in cognitive function or aerobic fitness. The overall mean adherence rate to the exercise programme was 60%. In conclusion, in the present study a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention did not affect the cognitive function of participants with HIV. It is likely that longer intervention periods and/or higher adherence rates to exercise might be needed for an aerobic exercise programme to be effective in improving cognitive function in a cohort with no baseline cognitive impairments.
Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Ggotpin; Jang, Won; Kim, Seong Yoon; Chang, Namsoo
It is possible that blood B vitamins level and cognitive function may be affected by dietary intake of these vitamins, no study however has yet been conducted on relationships between B vitamins intake and cognitive function among elderly population in Korea. This study examined the relationship between B vitamins intake and cognitive function among elderly in South Korea. Participants consisted of 100 adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 100 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 121 normal subjects. Dietary intake data that included the use of dietary supplements were obtained using a 24-hour recall method by well-trained interviewers. Plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, and homocysteine (Hcy) was assessed by a high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence method. Plasma levels of folate and vitamin B12 were positively correlated with B vitamins intake; and plasma Hcy was negatively correlated with total intake of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folate. In the AD group, a multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates revealed positive relationships between vitamin B2 intake and test scores for the MMSE-KC, Boston Naming, Word Fluency, Word List Memory and Constructional Recall Tests; and between vitamin B6 intake and the MMSE-KC, Boston Naming, Word Fluency, Word List Memory, Word List Recognition, Constructional Recall and Constructional Praxis Tests. Positive associations were observed between vitamin B12 intake and the MMSE-KC, Boston Naming, Constructional Recall and Constructional Praxis Tests, and between folate intake and the Constructional Recall Test. In the MCI group, vitamin B2 intake was positively associated with the MMSE-KC and Boston Naming Test, vitamin B6 intake was positively associated with the Boston Naming Test, and folate intake was positively associated with the MMSE-KC and Word List Memory test. No associations were observed in the normal group. These results
Reuser, Mieke; Willekens, Frans J; Bonneux, Luc
Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992-2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic groups. We define multistate life tables by the transition rates to cognitive impairment, recovery and death and estimate Cox proportional hazard ratios for the studied determinants. 95% confidence intervals are obtained by bootstrapping. 55 year old white men and women expect to live 25.4 and 30.0 years, of which 1.7 [95% confidence intervals 1.5; 1.9] years and 2.7 [2.4; 2.9] years with cognitive impairment. Both black men and women live 3.7 [2.9; 4.5] years longer with cognitive impairment than whites, Hispanic men and women 3.2 [1.9; 4.6] and 5.8 [4.2; 7.5] years. BMI makes no difference. Smoking decreases the duration of cognitive impairment with 0.8 [0.4; 1.3] years by high mortality. Highly educated men and women live longer, but 1.6 years [1.1; 2.2] and 1.9 years [1.6; 2.6] shorter with cognitive impairment than lowly educated men and women. The effect of education is more pronounced among ethnic minorities. Higher life expectancy goes together with a longer period of cognitive impairment, but not for higher levels of education: that extends life in good cognitive health but shortens the period of cognitive impairment. The increased duration of cognitive impairment in minority ethnic groups needs further study, also in Europe.
Full Text Available Elevated levels of antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (CMV have been associated with cognitive impairment, but the quantitative relationship between CMV antibody levels and domains of cognitive functioning in younger adults has not been established.We measured IgG class antibodies to Cytomegalovirus in 521 individuals, mean age 32.8 years. Participants were selected for the absence of psychiatric disorder and of a serious medical condition that could affect brain functioning. Cognitive functioning was measured with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test part A, and the WAIS III Letter Number Sequencing subtest. Linear regression analyses were used to measure the quantitative association between cognitive scores and Cytomegalovirus IgG antibody level. Logistic regression analyses were used to measure the odds of low cognitive scores and elevated antibody levels defined as an antibody level > = 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile of the group.Higher levels of CMV antibodies were associated with lower performance on RBANS Total (coefficient -1.03, p<.0002, Delayed Memory (coefficient -0.94, p<.001, Visuospatial/Constructional (coefficient -1.77, p<5×10(-7, and Letter Number Sequencing (coefficient -0.15, p<.03. There was an incremental relationship between the level of CMV antibody elevation and the odds of a low RBANS Total score. The odds of a low total cognitive score were 1.63 (95th % CI 1.01, 2.64; p<.045, 2.22 (95th % CI 1.33, 3.70; p<.002, and 2.46 (95th % CI 1.24, 4.86; p<.010 with a CMV antibody level greater than or equal to the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile respectively.Higher levels of Cytomegalovirus antibodies are associated with lower levels of cognitive functioning in non-elderly adults. Methods for the prevention and treatment of CMV infection should be evaluated to determine if they result in an improvement in cognitive functioning in
Nowak, Stanislaw; Ołdak, Anna; Kluzik, Anna; Drobnik, Leon
Controlled induced hypotension guarantees less blood loss and better visibility of the surgical site. The impact of hypotension on post-operative cognitive functions is still being discussed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of controlled induced hypotension on the cognitive functions of patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). We allocated 47 patients with a good grade of preoperative cognitive functions evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination to 3 groups (1 - mild hypotension, 2 - intermediate hypotension, 3 - severe hypotension) according to the degree of mean intraoperative arterial pressure compared with preoperative blood pressure. Cognitive functions were evaluated preoperatively, 6 h, and 30 h postoperatively with standardized tests: the Stroop Test, Trail Making Test (TMT), and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). A decrease in the test results and increase in the number of mistakes made were considered an impairment of cognitive functions. A total of 47 patients (group 1 - mild hypotension - 15, group 2 - intermediate hypotension - 19, group 3 - severe hypotension - 13) were included in the study. A significant decrease was observed in all the 3 groups after Stroop A test 6h postoperatively but it improved 30h postoperatively, without differences between the groups. Neither a significant decrease in the test results nor an increase in the number of mistakes was noted for Stroop B tests, TMT A&B tests and VFT. The degree of controlled intraoperative hypotension during FESS did not influence the results of psychometric tests.
Daneault, Véronique; Hébert, Marc; Albouy, Geneviève; Doyon, Julien; Dumont, Marie; Carrier, Julie; Vandewalle, Gilles
Light exposure, particularly blue light, is being recognized as a potent mean to stimulate alertness and cognition in young individuals. Aging is associated with changes in alertness regulation and cognition. Whether the effect of light on cognitive brain function changes with aging is unknown, however. Cross-sectional study. Functional Neuroimaging Unit, University of Montreal Geriatric Institute. Sixteen younger (23 ± 4.1 y) and 14 older (61 ± 4.5 y) healthy participants were recruited in the current study. Blue light administration. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to record brain responses to an auditory working memory task in young and older healthy individuals, alternatively maintained in darkness or exposed to blue light. Results show that the older brain remains capable of showing sustained responses to light in several brain areas. However, compared to young individuals, the effect of blue light is decreased in the pulvinar, amygdala, and tegmentum as well as in the insular, prefrontal, and occipital cortices in elderly individuals. The effect of blue light on brain responses diminishes with aging in areas typically involved in visual functions and in key regions for alertness regulation and higher executive processes. Our findings provide the first indications that the effect of light on cognition may be reduced in healthy aging.
Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M
This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Full Text Available Oral health has been found to be associated with cognitive function in basic research and epidemiology studies. Most of these studies had no comprehensive clinical diagnosis on cognitive function. This study firstly reported the association between tooth loss and cognitive function among Chinese older population.The study included 3,063 community dwelling older adults aged 60 or above from the Shanghai Aging Study. Number of teeth missing was obtained from self-reporting questionnaire and confirmed by trained interviewers. Participants were diagnosed as "dementia", "mild cognitive impairment (MCI", or "cognitive normal" by neurologists using DSM-IV and Petersen criteria. Multivariate logistic regression model was applied to examine the association between number of teeth missing and cognitive function.The study participants had an average of 10.2 teeth lost. Individuals with dementia lost 18.7 teeth on average, much higher than those with MCI (11.8 and cognitive normal (9.3 (p16 were significantly associated with dementia with an OR of 1.56 (95%CI 1.12-2.18.Having over 16 missing teeth was associated with severe cognitive impairment among Chinese older adults. Poor oral health might be considered as a related factor of neurodegenerative symptom among older Chinese population.
Campos, Camila Heitor; Ribeiro, Giselle Rodrigues; Costa, José Luiz Riani; Rodrigues Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus
This study investigated chewing function in elderly individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlated chewing function with cognitive status. Sixteen elderly individuals with mild AD (mean age 76.7 ± 6.3 years; 8 men, 8 women) and 16 age and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age 75.23 ± 4.4 years; 8 men, 8 women) were included in this study. All volunteers wore removable prostheses: 11 were totally edentulous and five were partially edentulous in each group. Chewing function was evaluated via masticatory performance (MP) using Optocal chewable test material and a sieve fractionation method. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), administered by a trained examiner. Data were analyzed by non-paired t test and Pearson's correlation with α = 0.05. Compared to controls, mild AD patients had decreased MP (P function. Knowledge that mild AD has an impact on chewing is important for dental professionals in decision-making related to prosthetics and general dental treatment.
Young, Mark S.; Bunce, David
The rise in the aging driver population presents society with a significant challenge—how to maintain safety and mobility on the roads. On the one hand, older drivers pose a higher risk of an at-fault accident on a mile-for-mile basis; on the other hand, independent mobility is a significant marker of quality of life in aging. In this paper, we review the respective literatures on cognitive neuropsychology and ergonomics to suggest a previously unexplored synergy between these two fields. We argue that this conceptual overlap can form the basis for future solutions to what has been called “the older driver problem.” Such solutions could be found in a range of emerging driver assistance technologies offered by vehicle manufacturers, which have the potential to compensate for the specific cognitive decrements associated with aging that are related to driving. PMID:21748014
Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Jagger, Carol
Background: Healthy dietary patterns (DPs) have been linked to better cognition and reduced risk of dementia in older adults, but their role in cognitive functioning and decline in the very old (aged ≥85 y) is unknown. Objective: We investigated the association between previously established DPs from the Newcastle 85+ Study and global and attention-specific cognition over 5 y. Methods: We followed up with 302 men and 489 women (1921 birth cohort from Northeast United Kingdom) for change in global cognition [measured by the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE)] over 5 y and attention (assessed by the cognitive drug research attention battery) over 3 y. We used 2-step clustering to derive DPs and mixed models to determine the relation between DPs and cognition in the presence of the dementia susceptibility gene. Results: Previously, we characterized 3 DPs that differed in intake of red meat, potato, gravy, and butter and varied with key health measures. When compared with participants in DP1 (high red meat) and DP3 (high butter), participants in DP2 (low meat) had higher SMMSE scores at baseline (P butter (DP3) were associated with poor cognition but not with the rate of cognitive decline in very old adults. PMID:26740685
Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Jagger, Carol
Healthy dietary patterns (DPs) have been linked to better cognition and reduced risk of dementia in older adults, but their role in cognitive functioning and decline in the very old (aged ≥85 y) is unknown. We investigated the association between previously established DPs from the Newcastle 85+ Study and global and attention-specific cognition over 5 y. We followed up with 302 men and 489 women (1921 birth cohort from Northeast United Kingdom) for change in global cognition [measured by the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE)] over 5 y and attention (assessed by the cognitive drug research attention battery) over 3 y. We used 2-step clustering to derive DPs and mixed models to determine the relation between DPs and cognition in the presence of the dementia susceptibility gene. Previously, we characterize