WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher charge states

  1. Charged gravastars in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S., E-mail: shnkghosh122@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, B. Garden, Howrah 711103, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, F., E-mail: rahaman@associates.iucaa.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Guha, B.K., E-mail: bkguhaphys@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, B. Garden, Howrah 711103, West Bengal (India); Ray, Saibal, E-mail: saibal@associates.iucaa.in [Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, 73 A.C.B. Lane, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal (India)

    2017-04-10

    We explore possibility to find out a new model of gravastars in the extended D-dimensional Einstein–Maxwell space–time. The class of solutions as obtained by Mazur and Mottola of a neutral gravastar have been observed as a competent alternative to D-dimensional versions of the Schwarzschild–Tangherlini black hole. The outer region of the charged gravastar model therefore corresponds to a higher dimensional Reissner–Nordström black hole. In connection to this junction conditions, therefore we have formulated mass and the related Equation of State of the gravastar. It has been shown that the model satisfies all the requirements of the physical features. However, overall observational survey of the results also provide probable indication of non-applicability of higher dimensional approach for construction of a gravastar with or without charge from an ordinary 4-dimensional seed as far as physical ground is concerned.

  2. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  3. Charges in nonlinear higher-spin theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didenko, V.E. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Misuna, N.G. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutsky lane 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, M.A. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-30

    Nonlinear higher-spin equations in four dimensions admit a closed two-form that defines a gauge-invariant global charge as an integral over a two-dimensional cycle. In this paper we argue that this charge gives rise to partitions depending on various lower- and higher-spin chemical potentials identified with modules of topological fields in the theory. The vacuum contribution to the partition is calculated to the first nontrivial order for a solution to higher-spin equations that generalizes AdS{sub 4} Kerr black hole of General Relativity. The resulting partition is non-zero being in parametric agreement with the ADM-like behavior of a rotating source. The linear response of chemical potentials to the partition function is also extracted. The explicit unfolded form of 4d GR black holes is given. An explicit formula relating asymptotic higher-spin charges expressed in terms of the generalized higher-spin Weyl tensor with those expressed in terms of Fronsdal fields is obtained.

  4. Charges in nonlinear higher-spin theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didenko, V.E.; Misuna, N.G.; Vasiliev, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear higher-spin equations in four dimensions admit a closed two-form that defines a gauge-invariant global charge as an integral over a two-dimensional cycle. In this paper we argue that this charge gives rise to partitions depending on various lower- and higher-spin chemical potentials identified with modules of topological fields in the theory. The vacuum contribution to the partition is calculated to the first nontrivial order for a solution to higher-spin equations that generalizes AdS 4 Kerr black hole of General Relativity. The resulting partition is non-zero being in parametric agreement with the ADM-like behavior of a rotating source. The linear response of chemical potentials to the partition function is also extracted. The explicit unfolded form of 4d GR black holes is given. An explicit formula relating asymptotic higher-spin charges expressed in terms of the generalized higher-spin Weyl tensor with those expressed in terms of Fronsdal fields is obtained.

  5. High charge state heavy ion production from a PIG source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bex, L.; Clark, D.J.; Ellsworth, C.E.; Flood, W.S.; Gough, R.A.; Holley, W.R.; Meriwether, J.R.; Morris, D.

    1975-03-01

    The comparison of pulsed vs. dc arc operation for nitrogen and argon shows a shift in charge distribution toward the higher charge states for the pulsed case. Tests with various magnetic field shapes along the arc column show a significant increase in high charge state output for a uniform field compared to the case with a field low at the cathodes. (U.S.)

  6. Accretion onto a charged higher-dimensional black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the steady-state polytropic fluid accretion onto a higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We formulate the generalized mass flux conservation equation, energy flux conservation and relativistic Bernoulli equation to discuss the accretion process. The critical accretion is investigated by finding the critical radius, the critical sound velocity, and the critical flow velocity. We also explore gas compression and temperature profiles to analyze the asymptotic behavior. It is found that the results for the Schwarzschild black hole are recovered when q = 0 in four dimensions. We conclude that the accretion process in higher dimensions becomes slower in the presence of charge. (orig.)

  7. Accretion onto a charged higher-dimensional black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    This paper deals with the steady-state polytropic fluid accretion onto a higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We formulate the generalized mass flux conservation equation, energy flux conservation and relativistic Bernoulli equation to discuss the accretion process. The critical accretion is investigated by finding the critical radius, the critical sound velocity, and the critical flow velocity. We also explore gas compression and temperature profiles to analyze the asymptotic behavior. It is found that the results for the Schwarzschild black hole are recovered when q = 0 in four dimensions. We conclude that the accretion process in higher dimensions becomes slower in the presence of charge. (orig.)

  8. Charge states of ions, and mechanisms of charge ordering transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Warren E.; Quan, Yundi; Pardo, Victor

    2014-07-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism of charge ordering transitions, which conventionally are pictured as a disproportionation of an ion M as 2Mn+→M(n+1)+ + M(n-1)+, we (1) review and reconsider the charge state (or oxidation number) picture itself, (2) introduce new results for the putative charge ordering compound AgNiO2 and the dual charge state insulator AgO, and (3) analyze the cationic occupations of the actual (not formal) charge, and work to reconcile the conundrums that arise. We establish that several of the clearest cases of charge ordering transitions involve no disproportion (no charge transfer between the cations, and hence no charge ordering), and that the experimental data used to support charge ordering can be accounted for within density functional-based calculations that contain no charge transfer between cations. We propose that the charge state picture retains meaning and importance, at least in many cases, if one focuses on Wannier functions rather than atomic orbitals. The challenge of modeling charge ordering transitions with model Hamiltonians isdiscussed.

  9. Higher Mellin moments for charged current DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogal, M.; Moch, S.

    2007-06-01

    We report on our recent results for deep-inelastic neutrino(ν)-proton(P) scattering. We have computed the perturbative QCD corrections to three loops for the charged current structure functions F 2 , F L and F 3 for the combination νP- anti νP. In leading twist approximation we have calculated the first six odd-integer Mellin moments in the case of F 2 and F L and the first six even-integer moments in the case of F 3 . As a new result we have obtained the coefficient functions to O(α 3 s ) and we have found the corresponding anomalous dimensions to agree with known results in the literature. (orig.)

  10. The Phase Transition of Higher Dimensional Charged Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huaifan; Zhao, Ren; Zhang, Lichun; Guo, Xiongying

    2016-01-01

    We have studied phase transitions of higher dimensional charge black hole with spherical symmetry. We calculated the local energy and local temperature and find that these state parameters satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We analyze the critical behavior of black hole thermodynamic system by taking state parameters (Q,Φ) of black hole thermodynamic system, in accordance with considering the state parameters (P,V) of van der Waals system, respectively. We obtain the critical point of black hole thermodynamic system and find that the critical point is independent of the dual independent variables we selected. This result for asymptotically flat space is consistent with that for AdS spacetime and is intrinsic property of black hole thermodynamic system.

  11. Trapping Dynamics in Photosystem I-Light Harvesting Complex I of Higher Plants Is Governed by the Competition Between Excited State Diffusion from Low Energy States and Photochemical Charge Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotokaite, Egle; Remelli, William; Casazza, Anna Paola; Zucchelli, Giuseppe; Polli, Dario; Cerullo, Giulio; Santabarbara, Stefano

    2017-10-26

    The dynamics of excited state equilibration and primary photochemical trapping have been investigated in the photosystem I-light harvesting complex I isolated from spinach, by the complementary time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorption approaches. The combined analysis of the experimental data indicates that the excited state decay is described by lifetimes in the ranges of 12-16 ps, 32-36 ps, and 64-77 ps, for both detection methods, whereas faster components, having lifetimes of 550-780 fs and 4.2-5.2 ps, are resolved only by transient absorption. A unified model capable of describing both the fluorescence and the absorption dynamics has been developed. From this model it appears that the majority of excited state equilibration between the bulk of the antenna pigments and the reaction center occurs in less than 2 ps, that the primary charge separated state is populated in ∼4 ps, and that the charge stabilization by electron transfer is completed in ∼70 ps. Energy equilibration dynamics associated with the long wavelength absorbing/emitting forms harbored by the PSI external antenna are also characterized by a time mean lifetime of ∼75 ps, thus overlapping with radical pair charge stabilization reactions. Even in the presence of a kinetic bottleneck for energy equilibration, the excited state dynamics are shown to be principally trap-limited. However, direct excitation of the low energy chlorophyll forms is predicted to lengthen significantly (∼2-folds) the average trapping time.

  12. Charged fluid distribution in higher dimensional spheroidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A general solution of Einstein field equations corresponding to a charged fluid distribution on the background of higher dimensional spheroidal space-time is obtained. The solution generates several known solutions for superdense star having spheroidal space-time geometry.

  13. Higher charges in dynamical spin chains for SYM theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Ferretti, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    We construct, to the first two non-trivial orders, the next conserved charge in the su(2|3) sector of N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. This represents a test of integrability in a sector where the interactions change the number of sites of the chain. The expression for the charge is completely determined by the algebra and can be written in a diagrammatic form in terms of the interactions already present in the hamiltonian. It appears likely that this diagrammatic expression remains valid in the full theory and can be generalized to higher loops and higher charges thus helping in establishing complete integrability for these dynamical chains

  14. q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, Hyper-charged fermion coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Sanru; Li Guanghua; Long Junyan

    1994-01-01

    By virtue of the algebra of the q-deformed fermion oscillators, the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are discussed. The explicit forms of the two kinds of coherent states mentioned above are obtained by making use of the completeness of base vectors in the q-fermion Fock space. By comparing the q-deformed results with the ordinary results, it is found that the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are automatically reduced to the ordinary charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged hyper-charged fermion coherent states if the deformed parameter q→1

  15. Equilibrium charge state distributions of high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Grant, I.S.; King, R.; Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium charge state fractions have been measured for N, O, Ne, S, Ar and Kr ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon after passing through various stripping materials. Further data were obtained at higher energy for S ions (4.12 MeV/nucleon) and Ar ions (4.12 and 9.6 MeV/nucleon). The mean charge fractions can be fitted to universal curves for both solid and gaseous strippers. Measurements of the equilibrium fraction of krypton ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon passing through heavy vapours have shown that a higher average charge state is obtained than for lighter gaseous strippers. (Auth.)

  16. Low-charge-state RFQ injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Preliminary design work was done for a short, normally-conducting RFQ entrance section for a low-charge-state linac. Early results indicate that a low- frequency (12 MHz) RFQ, operated on a high-voltage platform, and injected with a pre-bunched beam, can provide ATLAS quality beams of ions of charge-to-mass ratio less than 1/132.

  17. Charged particle in higher dimensional weakly charged rotating black hole spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    We study charged particle motion in weakly charged higher dimensional black holes. To describe the electromagnetic field we use a test field approximation and the higher dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metric as a background geometry. It is shown that for a special configuration of the electromagnetic field, the equations of motion of charged particles are completely integrable. The vector potential of such a field is proportional to one of the Killing vectors (called a primary Killing vector) from the 'Killing tower' of symmetry generating objects which exists in the background geometry. A free constant in the definition of the adopted electromagnetic potential is proportional to the electric charge of the higher dimensional black hole. The full set of independent conserved quantities in involution is found. We demonstrate that Hamilton-Jacobi equations are separable, as is the corresponding Klein-Gordon equation and its symmetry operators.

  18. Gravitational collapse in higher-dimensional charged-Vaidya space ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    time. We show that singularities arising in a charged null fluid in higher dimension are always naked violating ... of matter is one of the most active field of research in the contemporary general relativity. ... The main open issue ..... [3] A Papapetrou, in A random walk in relativity and cosmology edited by N Dadhich, J K Rao,.

  19. Stable SU(5) monopoles with higher magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Sato, H.; Tomohiro, S.

    1985-01-01

    Taking into account the electroweak breaking effects, some multiply charged monopoles were shown to be stable by Gardner and Harvey. We give the explicit Ansa$uml: tze for finite-energy, nonsingular solutions of these stable higher-strength monopoles with eg = 1,(3/2),3. We also give the general stability conditions and the detailed behavior of the interaction potentials between two monopoles which produce the stable higher-strength monopoles

  20. Ultrafast charge transfer and radiationless relaxations from higher excited state (S2) of directly linked Zn-porphyrin (ZP)-acceptor dyads: investigations into fundamental problems of exciplex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mataga, Noboru; Taniguchi, Seiji; Chosrowjan, Haik; Osuka, Atsuhiro; Yoshida, Naoya

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated photoinduced electron transfer and related processes from the higher excited electronic state (S 2 ) of Zn-porphyrin-imide acceptor directly linked supramolecular systems (ZP-I) designed especially for the critical studies of the energy gap law (EGL) of the charge separation (CS) from the S 2 state and solvent effects upon EGL. We have confirmed the modification of the EGL by change of solvent polarity from acetonitrile (ACN), tetrahydrofuran (THF) to toluene (Tol) and methyl-cyclohexane (MCH), from rather typical bell-shaped one in ACN to that with less prominent normal region and prominent inverted region with moderate slope extending over wider range of -ΔG CS values in nonpolar solvent MCH. We have demonstrated that these solvent effects upon EGL affect delicately various radiationless relaxation processes from S 2 state. We have examined also effects of the hydrogen bonding solvent ethanol (EtOH) on the EGL for CS and found very specific effect controlling the CS reaction and related processes

  1. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  2. Increasing Protein Charge State When Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Santosh; Flanigan, Paul M.; Perez, Johnny J.; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Levis, Robert J.

    2015-05-01

    Femtosecond (fs) laser vaporization is used to transfer cytochrome c, myoglobin, lysozyme, and ubiquitin from the condensed phase into an electrospray (ES) plume consisting of a mixture of a supercharging reagent, m-nitrobenzyl alcohol ( m-NBA), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), acetic acid (AA), or formic acid (FA). Interaction of acid-sensitive proteins like cytochrome c and myoglobin with the highly charged ES droplets resulted in a shift to higher charge states in comparison with acid-stable proteins like lysozyme and ubiquitin. Laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) measurements showed an increase in both the average charge states (Zavg) and the charge state with maximum intensity (Zmode) for acid-sensitive proteins compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) under equivalent solvent conditions. A marked increase in ion abundance of higher charge states was observed for LEMS in comparison with conventional electrospray for cytochrome c (ranging from 19+ to 21+ versus 13+ to 16+) and myoglobin (ranging from 19+ to 26+ versus 18+ to 21+) using an ES solution containing m-NBA and TFA. LEMS measurements as a function of electrospray flow rate yielded increasing charge states with decreasing flow rates for cytochrome c and myoglobin.

  3. 20 CFR 655.173 - Setting meal charges; petition for higher meal charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the 12 month percentage change for the Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers for Food between... may begin charging the higher rate upon receipt of a favorable decision from the CO unless the CO sets a later effective date in the decision. (c) Appeal rights. In the event the employer's petition for...

  4. Higher-Dimensional Solitons Stabilized by Opposite Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B

    2002-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how higher-dimensional solitons can be stabilized by a topological phase gradient, a field-induced shift in effective dimensionality. As a prototype, two instable 2-dimensional radial symmetric Sine-Gordon extensions (pulsons) are coupled by a sink/source term such, that one becomes a stable 1d and the other a 3d wave equation. The corresponding physical process is identified as a polarization that fits perfectly to preliminary considerations regarding the nature of electric charge and background of 1/137. The coupling is iterative with convergence limit and bifurcation at high charge. It is driven by the topological phase gradient or non-local Gauge potential that can be mapped to a local oscillator potential under PSL(2,R).

  5. Electron beam charge state amplifier (EBQA)--a conceptual evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooling, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept is presented for stripping low-energy, radioactive ions from 1+ to higher charge states. Referred to as an Electron Beam Charge State Amplifier (EBQA), this device accepts a continuous beam of singly-charged, radioactive ions and passes them through a high-density electron beam confined by a solenoidal magnetic field. Singly-charged ions may be extracted from standard Isotope-Separator-Online (ISOL) sources. An EBQA is potentially useful for increasing the charge state of ions prior to injection into post-acceleration stages at ISOL radioactive beam facilities. The stripping efficiency from q=1+ to 2+ (η 12 ) is evaluated as a function of electron beam radius at constant current with solenoid field, injected ion energy, and ion beam emittance used as parameters. Assuming a 5 keV, 1 A electron beam, η 12 = 0.38 for 0.1 keV, 132 Xe ions passing through an 8 Tesla solenoid, 1 m in length. Multi-pass configurations to achieve 3+ or 4+ charge states are also conceivable. The calculated efficiencies depend inversely on the initial ion beam emittances. The use of a helium-buffer-gas, ion-guide stage to improve the brightness of the 1+ beams [1] may enhance the performance of an EBQA

  6. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-11-17

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  7. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen; Albrecht, Steve N.; Hoke, Eric T.; Graham, Kenneth; Widmer, Johannes; Douglas, Jessica D.; Schubert, Marcel; Mateker, William R.; Bloking, Jason T.; Burkhard, George F.; Sellinger, Alan; Frechet, Jean; Amassian, Aram; Riede, Moritz Kilian; McGehee, Michael D.; Neher, Dieter; Salleo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  8. State Spending on Higher Education Capital Outlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role that state spending on higher education capital outlays plays in state budgets by considering the functional form of the relationship between state spending on higher education capital outlays and four types of state expenditures. Three possible functional forms are tested: a linear model, a quadratic model, and the…

  9. Numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crume, E.C.; Arnurius, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    The numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions using the computer program IMPDYN is discussed. The time-dependent corona atomic physics model used in the calculations is reviewed, and general and specific treatments of electron impact ionization and recombination are referenced. The complete program and two examples relating to tokamak plasmas are given on a microfiche so that a user may verify that his version of the program is working properly. In the discussion of the examples, the corona steady-state approximation is shown to have significant defects when the plasma environment, particularly the electron temperature, is changing rapidly

  10. AARHUS: Exotic charge states in ASTRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, Soren Pape

    1995-01-01

    Ions are atoms from which one or more orbital electrons have been detached. This removal can be done, for example, by impact of other electrons. Today beams of bare ions - nuclei without any electrons - are available, for example at the GSI heavy ion Laboratory, Darmstadt, even for the heaviest elements. Molecules too can be ionized by removal of one electron and these molecules can be accelerated to form high energy beams. Molecules are, however, generally not expected to be stable when more than one electron is missing, since there is too little negative charge to bind the positive nuclei. It was therefore a surprise when a stable doubly-charged molecular ion was found at experiments at the ASTRID storage ring, Aarhus, Denmark. The aim of the experiment was to measure lifetimes of expected metastable states of doubly-charged carbon monoxide, CO ++ . The CO ++ ions were produced in an ion source and the accelerated beam injected into the storage ring. The circulating intensity was then monitored by detecting neutral species produced in restgas collisions at the end of a straight section. For CO ++ , a fraction of the beam survived for tens of seconds, with a lifetime around 4 seconds. This lifetime was dominated by restgas collisions. The base pressure was around 2 x 10 -11 mbar. In order to avoid contamination from molecules with the same mass/charge ratio, e.g. singly-charged nitrogen-14, the carbon monoxide used was based on the naturally rare isotope carbon-13 rather than the abundant carbon-12. Many atoms can also bind an additional electron and form negative ions. Several negative ions are metastable, and lifetime measurements performed at ASTRID and elsewhere produce accurate results important for comparisons with theory. Double-charged negative ions could in principle exist, and indications of metastable states of H - and O - were seen some years ago as resonances in the electron bombardment of negative hydrogen ions. This process was recently studied at

  11. AARHUS: Exotic charge states in ASTRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Soren Pape

    1995-04-15

    Ions are atoms from which one or more orbital electrons have been detached. This removal can be done, for example, by impact of other electrons. Today beams of bare ions - nuclei without any electrons - are available, for example at the GSI heavy ion Laboratory, Darmstadt, even for the heaviest elements. Molecules too can be ionized by removal of one electron and these molecules can be accelerated to form high energy beams. Molecules are, however, generally not expected to be stable when more than one electron is missing, since there is too little negative charge to bind the positive nuclei. It was therefore a surprise when a stable doubly-charged molecular ion was found at experiments at the ASTRID storage ring, Aarhus, Denmark. The aim of the experiment was to measure lifetimes of expected metastable states of doubly-charged carbon monoxide, CO{sup ++}. The CO{sup ++} ions were produced in an ion source and the accelerated beam injected into the storage ring. The circulating intensity was then monitored by detecting neutral species produced in restgas collisions at the end of a straight section. For CO{sup ++}, a fraction of the beam survived for tens of seconds, with a lifetime around 4 seconds. This lifetime was dominated by restgas collisions. The base pressure was around 2 x 10{sup -11} mbar. In order to avoid contamination from molecules with the same mass/charge ratio, e.g. singly-charged nitrogen-14, the carbon monoxide used was based on the naturally rare isotope carbon-13 rather than the abundant carbon-12. Many atoms can also bind an additional electron and form negative ions. Several negative ions are metastable, and lifetime measurements performed at ASTRID and elsewhere produce accurate results important for comparisons with theory. Double-charged negative ions could in principle exist, and indications of metastable states of H{sup -} and O{sup -} were seen some years ago as resonances in the electron bombardment of negative hydrogen ions. This

  12. 20 CFR 655.211 - Petition for higher meal charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relation to food service operations, such as wages of cooks and restaurant supervisors; fuel, water, electricity, and other utilities used for the food service operations; other costs directly related to the food service operation. Charges for transportation, depreciation, overhead, and similar charges may not...

  13. Gap states of charged soliton in polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Dingwei; Liu Jie; Fu Rouli

    1988-10-01

    By considering the electron interaction in polyacetylene, it is found that two gap states in charged solitons of trans-polyacetylene exist: one is deep level, another is shallow level. The deep one shifts 0.23 ev down (for positive soliton) or up (for negative soliton) from the center of the gap; while the shallow one is 0.06 ev under the bottom of conduction band (positive soliton) or above the top of valence band (negative soliton). These results agree with the absorption spectra of trans-polyacetylene. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  14. Higher order antibunching in intermediate states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Amit; Sharma, Navneet K.; Pathak, Anirban

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of binomial state as an intermediate state, different intermediate states have been proposed. Different nonclassical effects have also been reported in these intermediate states. But till now higher order antibunching is predicted in only one type of intermediate state, which is known as shadowed negative binomial state. Recently we have shown that the higher order antibunching is not a rare phenomenon [P. Gupta, P. Pandey, A. Pathak, J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 1137]. To establish our earlier claim further, here we have shown that the higher order antibunching can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, reciprocal binomial state, hypergeometric state, generalized binomial state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. We have studied the possibility of observing the higher order subpoissonian photon statistics in different limits of intermediate states. The effects of different control parameters on the depth of non classicality have also been studied in this connection and it has been shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be tuned by controlling various physical parameters

  15. Revisiting conserved charges in higher curvature gravitational theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodrati, M. [University of Michigan, Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hajian, K. [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Restricting the covariant gravitational phase spaces to the manifold of parametrized families of solutions, the mass, angular momenta, entropies, and electric charges can be calculated by a single and simple method. In this method, which has been called the ''solution phase space method,'' conserved charges are unambiguous and regular. Moreover, assuming the generators of the charges to be exact symmetries, entropies and other conserved charges can be calculated on almost arbitrary surfaces, not necessarily horizons or asymptotics. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics would be a local identity relating the exact symmetries to which the mass, angular momentum, electric charge, and entropy are attributed. In this paper, we apply this powerful method to the f(R) gravitational theories accompanied by the terms quadratic in the Riemann and Ricci tensors. Furthermore, conserved charges and the first law of thermodynamics for some of their black hole solutions are exemplified. The examples include warped AdS{sub 3}, charged static BTZ, and 3-dimensional z = 3 Lifshitz black holes. (orig.)

  16. Revisiting conserved charges in higher curvature gravitational theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodrati, M.; Hajian, K.; Setare, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Restricting the covariant gravitational phase spaces to the manifold of parametrized families of solutions, the mass, angular momenta, entropies, and electric charges can be calculated by a single and simple method. In this method, which has been called the ''solution phase space method,'' conserved charges are unambiguous and regular. Moreover, assuming the generators of the charges to be exact symmetries, entropies and other conserved charges can be calculated on almost arbitrary surfaces, not necessarily horizons or asymptotics. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics would be a local identity relating the exact symmetries to which the mass, angular momentum, electric charge, and entropy are attributed. In this paper, we apply this powerful method to the f(R) gravitational theories accompanied by the terms quadratic in the Riemann and Ricci tensors. Furthermore, conserved charges and the first law of thermodynamics for some of their black hole solutions are exemplified. The examples include warped AdS 3 , charged static BTZ, and 3-dimensional z = 3 Lifshitz black holes. (orig.)

  17. Revisiting conserved charges in higher curvature gravitational theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati, M.; Hajian, K.; Setare, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Restricting the covariant gravitational phase spaces to the manifold of parametrized families of solutions, the mass, angular momenta, entropies, and electric charges can be calculated by a single and simple method. In this method, which has been called the "solution phase space method," conserved charges are unambiguous and regular. Moreover, assuming the generators of the charges to be exact symmetries, entropies and other conserved charges can be calculated on almost arbitrary surfaces, not necessarily horizons or asymptotics. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics would be a local identity relating the exact symmetries to which the mass, angular momentum, electric charge, and entropy are attributed. In this paper, we apply this powerful method to the f( R) gravitational theories accompanied by the terms quadratic in the Riemann and Ricci tensors. Furthermore, conserved charges and the first law of thermodynamics for some of their black hole solutions are exemplified. The examples include warped AdS_3, charged static BTZ, and 3-dimensional z=3 Lifshitz black holes.

  18. Charge state and slowing of fast ions in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, E.; Zinamon, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The charge state of a projectile ion traveling through a plasma target under conditions relevant to ion-beam fusion is calculated. It is found that, at the projectile energies and target parameters considered, the projectile ionization is significantly higher than that of the same projectile species in a cold target. The resulting strong effects on the range and on the shape of the energy deposition profile are shown in several examples of full dynamic calculations

  19. Vacuum arc ion charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.

    1990-06-01

    We have measured vacuum arc ion charge state spectra for a wide range of metallic cathode materials. The charge state distributions were measured using a time-of-flight diagnostic to monitor the energetic ion beam produced by a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. We have obtained data for 48 metallic cathode elements: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U. The arc was operated in a pulsed mode with pulse length 0.25 msec; arc current was 100 A throughout. This array of elements extends and completes previous work by us. In this paper the measured distributions are cataloged and compared with our earlier results and with those of other workers. We also make some observations about the performance of the various elements as suitable vacuum arc cathode materials

  20. Vacuum arc ion charge-state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured vacuum arc ion charge-state spectra for a wide range of metallic cathode materials. The charge-state distributions were measured using a time-of-flight diagnostic to monitor the energetic ion beam produced by a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. They have obtained data for 48 metallic cathode elements: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U. The arc was operated in a pulsed mode with pulse length 0.25 ms; arc current was 100 A throughout. This array of elements extends and completes previous work by the authors. In this paper the measured distributions are cataloged and compared with their earlier results and those of other workers. They also make some observations about the performance of the various elements as suitable vacuum arc cathode materials

  1. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge during low rate trickle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, J.; Jackson, L.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA AXAF-I program requires high battery state of charge at launch. Traditional approaches to providing high state of charge, during prelaunch operations, require significant battery cooling. The use of active cooling, in the AXAF-I prelaunch environment, was considered and proved to be difficult to implement and very expensive. Accordingly alternate approaches were considered. An approach utilizing adiabatic charging and low rate trickle charge, was investigated and proved successful.

  2. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge during low rate trickle charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, J.; Jackson, L. [TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The NASA AXAF-I program requires high battery state of charge at launch. Traditional approaches to providing high state of charge, during prelaunch operations, require significant battery cooling. The use of active cooling, in the AXAF-I prelaunch environment, was considered and proved to be difficult to implement and very expensive. Accordingly alternate approaches were considered. An approach utilizing adiabatic charging and low rate trickle charge, was investigated and proved successful.

  3. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 'charge state breeder', BRIC (breeding ion charge) is in construction at the INFN section of Bari (Italy). It is based on EBIS scheme and it is designed to accept radioactive ion beam (RIB) with charge state +1 in a slow injection mode. This experiment can be considered as a first step towards the design and construction ...

  4. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    development and testing of a charge state breeder device based on an EBIS source ... the number of particles that can be accumulated in a Penning source is limited. ... accounting for the magnetic field and the electron beam space charge.

  5. Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlov, A. V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, 38, Volodarskogo St., 625000, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V. A. [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles.

  6. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  7. Charge state of ions scattered by metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishinevsky, L.M.; Parilis, E.S.; Verleger, V.K.

    1976-01-01

    A model for description of charge distributions for scattering of heavy ions in the keV region, on metal surfaces developing and improving the method of Van der Weg and Bierman, and taking into account the connection between the ion charge state and scattering kinematics, is proposed. It is shown that multiple charged particles come from ions with a vacancy in the inner shell while the outer shell vacancies give only single charged ions and neutrals. The approximately linear increase of degree of ionization with normal velocity, and the non-monotonic charge dependence of the energy spectrum established by Chicherov and Buck et al is explained by considering irreversible neutralization in the depth of the metal, taking into account the connection of the charge state with the shape of trajectory and its location relative to the metal surface. The dependence of charge state on surface structure is discussed. Some new experiments are proposed. (author)

  8. Leading the Charge: Governors, Higher Education and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    With this new tool, ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] is working to expand its outreach to governors nationwide on behalf of higher education reform, focusing on key issues of quality, cost, and accountability. ACTA has worked with governors and education leaders from across the country, and that experience has proven that innovative…

  9. Concept for high-charge-state ion induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Perry, M.D.; Caporaso, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a particular concept for ion induction linac accelerators using high-charge-state ions produced by an intense, short pulse laser, and compares the costs of a modular driver system producing 6.5 MJ for a variety of ion masses and charge states using a simple but consistent cost model

  10. Charge sensitive amplifies. The state of arts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kunishiro [Clear Pulse Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the radiation detectors, signals are essentially brought with charges produced by radiation, then it is naturally the best way to use a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) system to extract those signals. The CSA is thought to be the best amplifier suitable to almost all the radiation detectors, if neglecting economical points of view. The CSA has been only applied to special fields like radiation detection because the concept of `charges` is not so universal against the concepts of `voltage` and `current`. The CSA, however, is low in noise and a high speed amplifier and may be applicable not only to radiation measurement but also piezoelectric devices and also bolometers. In this article, noise in the CSA, basic circuit on the CSA, concepts of `equivalent noise charge` (ENC), a method for the ENC, and importance of the `open-loop gain` in the CSA to achieve better performance of it and how to realize in a practical CSA were described. And, characteristics on a counting rate of the CSA, various circuit used in the CSA, and CSAs which are commercially available at present and special purpose CSAs were also introduced. (G.K.)

  11. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge management in the absence of active cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S. [TRW, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Brewer, J.; Jackson, L.G. [NASA, Huntsville, AL (United States). Marshall Space Flight Center

    1995-12-31

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. `ne transition from nickel-cadmium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their higher self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, have made this aspect of spacecraft management even more challenging. The NASA AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure adequate state of charge during prelaunch charge, trickle charge, and stand was considered and proved to be expensive and difficult to implement. Alternate approaches were considered. A procedure including optimized charging and low rate (charging, in the absence of active cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. The investigation includes three phases: (1) demonstration of the feasibility of the proposed procedure (2) development of a parametric data base (3) validation in an AXAF-I mission simulation test. Charging, trickle charging, and open circuit stand are considered in each phase. The major conclusion of this work is that nickel-hydrogen batteries can achieve and maintain high states of charge, in the absence of active cooling, using the approach described in this paper.

  12. Administrative charges in pensions in Chile, Malaysia, Zambia, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Valdes-Prieto, Salvador

    1994-01-01

    The author offers a framework for an international comparison of charges in mandatory and private pension systems, and in state-run and privately managed systems. Such comparisons make it possible to determine which combinations of quality and cost make the most sense in pension services. He finds that: 1) Charges in the private annuity industry are much higher than other components of the pension package, and much higher than publicly provided annuities in the US; 2) comparing the collection...

  13. Ion charge-state production and photoionization near the K edge in argon and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Azuma, Y.; Cowan, P.L.; Gemmell, D.S.; LeBrun, T.; Amusia, M.Y.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the time-of-flight charge distributions of ions of argon and potassium following x-ray absorption at energies near their respective K edges. We confirm previously observed enhancements of the higher charge states at energies up to 100 eV below the K edge in argon. The measurements confirm recent calculations suggesting excitation of a virtual 1s state in this energy range

  14. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-04-01

    A high current low emittance high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver HIF (heavy ion fusion) driver accelerator scale beam. Using high-charge-state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system which consists of the gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 2D beam envelope simulations and experimental feasibility studies' results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector

  15. Charge state of oxide layer of SIMOX-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Askinazi, A Y; Dmitriev, V A; Miloglyadova, L V

    2001-01-01

    The charge state of the oxide layer of the SIMOX-structures, obtained in the course of forming the oxide layers, bricked up in the silicon volume, through the oxygen ions implantation into the Si, is studied. The charge state of the given structures is studied through the method of the layer-by-layer profiling, which makes it possible to obtain the dependence of the plane zones potential on the oxide layer thickness. It is established, that during the process of the SIMOX-structures formation in the oxide layer near the boundary with the Si there appear defects, responsible for the charge. The radiation from the near-the-ultraviolet (NUV) area without the applied electric field neutralizes the given charge. The simultaneous impact of the NUV-radiation and electric field leads to the formation of significantly positive charge

  16. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  17. [Probabilistic calculations of biomolecule charge states that generate mass spectra of multiply charged ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raznikova, M O; Raznikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In this work, information relating to charge states of biomolecule ions in solution obtained using the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of different biopolymers is analyzed. The data analyses have mainly been carried out by solving an inverse problem of calculating the probabilities of retention of protons and other charge carriers by ionogenic groups of biomolecules with known primary structures. The approach is a new one and has no known to us analogues. A program titled "Decomposition" was developed and used to analyze the charge distribution of ions of native and denatured cytochrome c mass spectra. The possibility of splitting of the charge-state distribution of albumin into normal components, which likely corresponds to various conformational states of the biomolecule, has been demonstrated. The applicability criterion for using previously described method of decomposition of multidimensional charge-state distributions with two charge carriers, e.g., a proton and a sodium ion, to characterize the spatial structure of biopolymers in solution has been formulated. In contrast to known mass-spectrometric approaches, this method does not require the use of enzymatic hydrolysis or collision-induced dissociation of the biopolymers.

  18. Charge independence and charge symmetry breaking interactions and the Coulomb energy anomaly in isobaric analog states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Sagawa, H.; Giai, N. van.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of CIB (charge independence breaking) and CSB (charge symmetry breaking) interactions on the Coulomb displacement energies of isobaric analog states are investigated for 48 Ca, 90 Zr and 208 Pb. Mass number dependence of the Coulomb energy anomalies is well explained when CIB and CSB interactions are used which reproduce the differences of the scattering lengths as well as those of the effective ranges of low energy nucleon-nucleon scattering. (author) 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Equation of state of charged latex suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, Valerie

    1995-01-01

    We measured the osmotic pressure of charged bromo-polystyrene particles suspensions in the dilute System (0,01-10% in volume fraction). The typical range of differences in water heights varies from one millimeter to a few centimeters. When particles are polydisperse, samples remain always sols but if particles are monodisperse, they can form supramolecular crystals stabilized by electrostatic repulsions. These crystals exist only when the ionic force is very low, about one μmole/l. We determined the structure of these assemblies by light and X-ray scattering as function of the volume fraction. At low volume fractions, crystals adopt a body centered cubic structure; when the concentration increases, they become more compact and we observe face centered cubic structures. After shearing, defects may appear and two dimensional hexagonal structures can be found. This type of study of the osmotic pressure versus distance (in the range 300 nm) is equivalent to a highly precise atomic force measurement, since it allows detection of forces as small as 10 -11 -10 -12 N. (author) [fr

  20. Charge state of finely divided conducting systems in dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Yu.V.; Grishin, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of the high statistic sum Z of the charged metal granules in the dielectric matrix is carried out with an account of the excess number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the granules. Application of a microscopic Hamiltonian for the energy of electrostatic interaction between the charge densities in the system makes it possible to accomplish these calculations in the average field approximation. The effect of the number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the charge state of the finely divided granules in the dielectric matrix is studied. It is supposed that the charge exchange between the composite metal elements occurs on the account of the electron overbarrier heat transfer. It is followed from the system high statistic sum calculation results that the i-granule medium charge is connected by the nonlinear ratio with the conductors V i potentials [ru

  1. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shehee, Thomas C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non

  2. ARCHITECTURE OF A CHARGE-TRANSFER STATE REGULATING LIGHT HARVESTING IN A PLANT ANTENNA PROTEIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Graham; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-04-02

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge-transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we present evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a de-localized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can `tune? the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophylls-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  3. Charge-state correlated cross sections for the production of low-velocity highly charged Ne ions by heavy-ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, T.J.; Cocke, C.L.; Justiniano, E.

    1980-01-01

    We report measured cross sections for the collisional production of highly charged low-velocity Ne recoil ions resulting from the bombardment of a thin Ne gas target by highly charged 1-MeV/amu C, N, O, and F projectiles. The measurements were made using time-of-flight techniques which allowed the simultaneous identification of the final charge state of both the low-velocity recoil ion and the high-velocity projectile for each collision event. For a given incident-projectile charge state, the recoil charge-state distribution is very dependent upon the final charge state of the projectile. Single- and double-electron capture events by incident bare nuclei and projectile K-shell ionization during the collision cause large shifts in the recoil charge-state distributions toward higher charge states. A previously proposed energy-deposition model is modified to include the effects of projectile charge-changing collisions during the collision for bare and hydrogenlike projectiles and is used to discuss the present experimental results

  4. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variale, V.; Lamanna, G.; Valentino, V.; Brautti, G.; Clauser, T.; Raino, A.; Stagno, V.; Boggia, A.; Boimelshtein, Y.; Logatchov, P.; Skarbo, B.; Tiunov, M.

    2002-01-01

    The charge state breeder BRIC (Breeding Ion Charge) is in construction at the INFN section of Bari (Italy). It is based on EBIS scheme and it is designed to accept radioactive ion beam (RIB) with charge state +1 in a slow injection mode. This experiment can be considered as a first step towards the design and construction of a charge breeder for the SPES project. The new feature of BRIC, with respect to the classical EBIS is given by the insertion, in the ion chamber, of a rf-quadrupole aiming at filtering the unwanted masses and then making a more efficient containment of the wanted ions. In this paper, the breeder design, the simulation results of the electron and ion beam propagation and the construction problems of the device will be reported. (author)

  5. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified.

  6. Charge state distributions from highly charged ions channeled at a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkerts, L.; Meyer, F.W.; Schippers, S.

    1994-01-01

    The vast majority of the experimental work in the field of multicharged ion-surface interactions, to date, has focused on x-ray and particularly on electron emission. These experiments include measurements of the total electron yield, the emission statistics of the electrons, and, most of all, the electron energy distributions. So far, little attention has been paid to the fate of the multicharged projectile ions after the scattering. To our knowledge, the only measurement of the charge state distribution of the scattered ions is the pioneering experiment of de Zwart et al., who measured the total yield of scattered 1+, 2+, and 3+ ions as a function of the primary charge state q (q = 1--11) for 20 key Ne, Ar, and Kr ions after reflection from a polycrystalline tungsten target. Their main finding is the sudden onset of scattered 3+ ions when inner-shell vacancies are present in the primary particles. This suggests that a certain fraction of the inner-shell vacancies survives the entire collision event, and decays via autoionization on the outgoing path. Since the projectiles scattered in the neutral charge state could not be detected in the experiment of de Zwart et al., they were not able to provide absolute charge state fractions. In our present experiment, we focus on the scattered projectiles, measuring both the final charge state and the total scattering angle with a single 2D position sensitive detector (PSD). This method gives us the number of positive, as well as neutral and negative, scattered ions, thus allowing us to extract absolute charge state fractions. Using a well-prepared single Au(110) crystal and a grazing incidence geometry, we were able to observe surface channeling along the [001] channels

  7. Evaluation of several state-of-charge algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J. M.; Martin, M. E.; Burke, A. F.

    1988-09-01

    One of the important needs in marketing an electric vehicle is a device which reliably indicates battery state-of-charge for all types of driving. The purpose of the state-of-charge indicator is analogous to a gas gauge in an internal combustion engine powered vehicle. Many different approaches have been tried to accurately predict battery state-of-charge. This report evaluates several of these approaches. Four different algorithms were implemented into software on an IBM PC and tested using a battery test database for ALCO 2200 lead-acid batteries generated at the INEL. The database was obtained under controlled conditions which compare with the battery response in real EV use. Each algorithm is described in detail as to theory and operational functionality. Also discussed is the hardware and data requirements particular to implementing the individual algorithms. The algorithms were evaluated for accuracy using constant power, stepped power, and simulated vehicle (SFUDS79) discharge profiles. Attempts were made to explain the cause of differences between the predicted and actual state-of-charge and to provide possible remedies to correct them. Recommendations for future work on battery state-of-charge indicators are presented that utilize the hardware and software now in place in the INEL Battery Laboratory.

  8. Charge state distributions for heavy ions in carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, M.A.; Lebed, R.F.; Feinberg, B.

    1989-03-01

    We have extended the database of measured charge state distributions available in the literature through measurements at the SuperHILAC using carbon stripper foils in the energy range 1.2--8.5 MeV/u. Modifying a semi-empirical model to include the effect of electronic shells, we are able to correctly predict the mean charge state to within 1/2 a charge state for 6≤Z≤92 and energies from 30 keV/u to 16 MeV/u. We have determined parameters for the widths of the distributions for each electronic shell. For distributions lying across a shell boundary, we join the two Gaussians of different widths to get an asymmetric distribution. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. How to construct self/anti-self charge conjugate states?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoeglazov, V V

    2014-01-01

    We construct self/anti–self charge conjugate (Majorana–like) states for the (1/2, 0)⊕(0, 1/2) representation of the Lorentz group, and their analogs for higher spins within the quantum field theory. The problem of the basis rotations and that of the selection of phases in the Dirac–like and Majorana–like field operators are considered. The discrete symmetries properties (P, C, T) are studied. The corresponding dynamical equations are presented. In the (1/2, 0) ⊕ (0, 1/2) representation they obey the Dirac–like equation with eight components, which has been first introduced by Markov. Thus, the Fock space for corresponding quantum fields is doubled (as shown by Ziino). The particular attention has been paid to the questions of chirality and helicity (two concepts which are frequently confused in the literature) for Dirac and Majorana states. We further review several experimental consequences which follow from the previous works of M. Kirchbach et al. on neutrinoless double beta decay, and G. J. Ni et al. on meson lifetimes

  10. High Charge State Ions Extracted from Metal Plasmas in the Transition Regime from Vacuum Spark to High Current Vacuum Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, A.

    2008-01-01

    Metal ions were extracted from pulsed discharge plasmas operating in the transition region between vacuum spark (transient high voltage of kV) and vacuum arc (arc voltage ∼ 20 V). At a peak current of about 4 kA, and with a pulse duration of 8 (micro)s, we observed mean ion charges states of about 6 for several cathode materials. In the case of platinum, the highest average charge state was 6.74 with ions of charge states as high as 10 present. For gold we found traces of charge state 11, with the highest average charge state of 7.25. At currents higher than 5 kA, non-metallic contaminations started to dominate the ion beam, preventing further enhancement of the metal charge states

  11. A comparative study of Dirac quasinormal modes of charged black holes in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Sayan K.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we study the Dirac quasinormal modes of higher dimensional charged black holes. Higher dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem type black holes as well as charged black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theories are studied for fermionic perturbations using WKB method. A comparative study of the quasinormal modes in the two different theories of gravity has been performed. The behavior of the frequencies with the variation of black hole parameters as well as with the variation of space-time dimensions is studied. We also study the large multipole number limit of the black hole potential in order to look for an analytic expression for the frequencies. (orig.)

  12. Higher-order geodesic deviation for charged particles and resonance induced by gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari-Fard, M.; Hasani, S. N.

    We generalize the higher-order geodesic deviation for the structure-less test particles to the higher-order geodesic deviation equations of the charged particles [R. Kerner, J. W. van Holten and R. Colistete Jr., Class. Quantum Grav. 18 (2001) 4725]. By solving these equations for charged particles moving in a constant magnetic field in the spacetime of a gravitational wave, we show for both cases when the gravitational wave is parallel and perpendicular to the constant magnetic field, a magnetic resonance appears at wg = Ω. This feature might be useful to detect the gravitational wave with high frequencies.

  13. A Summary of Recent Experimental Research on Ion Energy and Charge States of Pulsed Vacuum Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews the results of vacuum arc experimental investigations made collaboratively by research groups from Berkeley and Tomsk over the last two years, i.e. since the last ISDEIV in 2006. Vacuum arc plasma of various metals was produced in pulses of a few hundred microseconds duration, and the research focused on three topics: (i) the energy distribution functions for different ion charge states, (ii) the temporal development of the ion charge state distribution, and (iii) the evolution of the mean directed ion velocities during plasma expansion. A combined quadruple mass-to-charge and energy analyzer (EQP by HIDEN Ltd) and a time-of-flight spectrometer were employed. Cross-checking data by those complimentary techniques helped to avoid possible pitfalls in interpretation. It was found that the ion energy distribution functions in the plasma were independent of the ion charge state, which implies that the energy distribution on a substrate are not equal to due to acceleration in the substrate's sheath. In pulsed arc mode, the individual ion charge states fractions showed changes leading to a decrease of the mean charge state toward a steady-state value. This decrease can be reduced by lower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate and reduced length of the discharge gap. It was also found that the directed ion velocity slightly decreased as the plasma expanded into vacuum

  14. Generation of cluster states with Josephson charge qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiao-Hu; Dong, Ping; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2007-01-01

    A scheme for the generation of the cluster states based on the Josephson charge qubits is proposed. The two-qubit generation case is introduced first, and then generalized to multi-qubit case. The successful probability and fidelity of current multi-qubit cluster state are both 1.0. The scheme is simple and can be easily manipulated, because any two charge qubits can be selectively and effectively coupled by a common inductance. More manipulations can be realized before decoherence sets in. All the devices in the scheme are well within the current technology

  15. Techniques for enhancing the performance of high charge state ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1999-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (ECRIS), which produces singly to highly charged ions, is widely used in heavy ion accelerators and is finding applications in industry. It has progressed significantly in recent years thanks to a few techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and a better cold electron donor. These techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions. More than 1 emA of He 2+ and O 6+ , hundreds of eμA of O 7+ , Ne 8+ , Ar 12+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions with charge states up to Ne 9+ , Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states up to Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ were produced at cw mode operation. At an intensity of about 1 eμA, the charge states for the heavy ions increased up to Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . More than an order of magnitude enhancement of fully stripped argon ions was achieved (I≥0.1 and h;eμA). Higher charge state ions up to Kr 35+ , Xe 46+ and U 64+ at low intensities were produced for the first time from an ECRIS. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  16. Charged boson bound states in the kerr-newman metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanjie; Zhang Duanming

    1986-01-01

    Charged boson bound states in Kerr-Newman metric are discussed. It is found that massless boson cannot be attracted by Kerr-Newman black hole to form bound states. For the massive boson, the condition of the nonbound states when 0 2 - Q 2 and both the condition and wave functions of the bound states when a = √M 2 - Q 2 are obtained. The energy mode of the bound states is single, E = (m√M 2 - Q 2 + eQM)/(2M 2 - Q 2 ). When Q = 0 or e = 0, the conclusion is in agreement with that of Zhang Shiwei and Su Rukeng

  17. Effect of dielectronic recombination on the charge-state distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of dielectronic recombination in determining charge-state distribu- tion and radiative emission from a laser-produced carbon plasma has been investigated in the collisional radiative ionization equilibrium. It is observed that the relative abundances of different ions in the plasma, and soft X-ray emission ...

  18. Protecting a Diamond Quantum Memory by Charge State Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Simon, Patrick; Antonov, Denis; Thiering, Gergő; Burk, Sina; Fávaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Denisenko, Andrej; Fedder, Helmut; Meijer, Jan; Garrido, Jose A; Gali, Adam; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Isoya, Junichi; Doherty, Marcus William; Alkauskas, Audrius; Gallo, Alejandro; Grüneis, Andreas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-10-11

    In recent years, solid-state spin systems have emerged as promising candidates for quantum information processing. Prominent examples are the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, phosphorus dopants in silicon (Si:P), rare-earth ions in solids, and V Si -centers in silicon-carbide. The Si:P system has demonstrated that its nuclear spins can yield exceedingly long spin coherence times by eliminating the electron spin of the dopant. For NV centers, however, a proper charge state for storage of nuclear spin qubit coherence has not been identified yet. Here, we identify and characterize the positively charged NV center as an electron-spin-less and optically inactive state by utilizing the nuclear spin qubit as a probe. We control the electronic charge and spin utilizing nanometer scale gate electrodes. We achieve a lengthening of the nuclear spin coherence times by a factor of 4. Surprisingly, the new charge state allows switching of the optical response of single nodes facilitating full individual addressability.

  19. State-of-charge indication in portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of state-of-charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The method presented in this paper aims at designing and testing an SoC indication system capable of predicting the remaining capacity of the battery and the

  20. Universal state-of-charge indication for portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.

    2007-01-01

    Many leading semiconductors companies (e.g. Philips, Texas Instruments, Microchip, Maxim, etc.) are paying even more attention to accurate State-of-Charge (SoC) indication. Following the technological revolution and the appearance of more power consuming devices on the automotive electronics and

  1. State-of-Charge Indication in Portable Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of state-of-charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The method presented in this paper aims at designing and testing an SoC indication system capable of predicting the remaining capacity of the battery and the

  2. State-of-charge indication for portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of state-of-charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The method presented in this paper aims at designing and testing an SoC indication system capable of predicting the remaining capacity of the battery and the

  3. Holographic Van der Waals phase transition of the higher-dimensional electrically charged hairy black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-Ling [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Shenyang Normal University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenyang (China); Feng, Zhong-Wen [China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China)

    2018-01-15

    With motivation by holography, employing black hole entropy, two-point connection function and entanglement entropy, we show that, for the higher-dimensional Anti-de Sitter charged hairy black hole in the fixed charged ensemble, a Van der Waals-like phase transition can be observed. Furthermore, based on the Maxwell equal-area construction, we check numerically the equal-area law for a first order phase transition in order to further characterize the Van der Waals-like phase transition. (orig.)

  4. Holographic Van der Waals phase transition of the higher-dimensional electrically charged hairy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui-Ling; Feng, Zhong-Wen; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2018-01-01

    With motivation by holography, employing black hole entropy, two-point connection function and entanglement entropy, we show that, for the higher-dimensional Anti-de Sitter charged hairy black hole in the fixed charged ensemble, a Van der Waals-like phase transition can be observed. Furthermore, based on the Maxwell equal-area construction, we check numerically the equal-area law for a first order phase transition in order to further characterize the Van der Waals-like phase transition. (orig.)

  5. Charge loss experiments in surface channel CCD's explained by the McWhorter interface states model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning De Vries, R.G.M.; Wallinga, Hans

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the McWhorter interface states model the CCD charge loss is derived as a function of bias charge, signal charge and channel width. As opposed to existing models, the charge loss is now attributed to interface states in the entire gate area, even for high bias charge levels.

  6. Charge state distribution of ionic kryptons after photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xiaohong

    1992-01-01

    Monochromatic X-rays from the 2.3 GeV synchrotron at University Bonn (Germany) are employed for inner shell excitation of krypton. Various ionic kryptons and a number of electrons are produced due to photoionization. In order to study the equilibrium charge state distribution of ionic kryptons, a time of flight mass spectrometer is set up and used to measure the resulting ionic charge spectra with photo energies near the L 1 - , L 2 - and L 3 - absorption edges of krypton. The energy dependence of relative probabilities is presented

  7. Cracking of charged polytropes with generalized polytropic equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Mardan, S.A. [University of the Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-02-15

    We discuss the occurrence of cracking in charged anisotropic polytropes with generalized polytropic equation of state through two different assumptions; (i) by carrying out local density perturbations under a conformally flat condition (ii) by perturbing anisotropy, polytropic index and charge parameters. For this purpose, we consider two different definitions of polytropes that exist in literature. We conclude that under local density perturbations scheme cracking does not appear in both types of polytropes and stable configuration is observed, while with the second type of perturbation cracking appears in both types of polytropes under certain conditions. (orig.)

  8. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A

    1998-06-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1,115 MeV. At about 5 NeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted ut of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models

  9. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% % to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1115 MeV. At about 5 MeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted out of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models. (authors)

  10. Future prospects for ECR ion sources with improved charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the steady advance in the technology of the ECR ion source, present art forms have not yet reached their full potential in terms of charge state and intensity within a particular charge state, in part, because of the narrow band width. single-frequency microwave radiation used to heat the plasma electrons. This article identifies fundamentally important methods which may enhance the performances of ECR ion sources through the use of: (1) a tailored magnetic field configuration (spatial domain) in combination with single-frequency microwave radiation to create a large uniformly distributed ECR ''volume'' or (2) the use of broadband frequency domain techniques (variable-frequency, broad-band frequency, or multiple-discrete-frequency microwave radiation), derived from standard TWT technology, to transform the resonant plasma ''surfaces'' of traditional ECR ion sources into resonant plasma ''volume''. The creation of a large ECR plasma ''volume'' permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, thereby producing higher charge state ions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of' the source. The ECR ion source concepts described in this article offer exciting opportunities to significantly advance the-state-of-the-art of ECR technology and as a consequence, open new opportunities in fundamental and applied research and for a variety of industrial applications

  11. Negative plates for dry-charged lead storage batteries. [higher charging capacity when impregnated with tannin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V; Malikova, V; Weber, H

    1970-09-15

    Impregnation of negative plates with acid solutions of sulfomethylated tannins was found to improve the charging properties at low temperatures. Methods for synthesizing tannins are described. Charging capacity at 0/sup 0/ was 7.3A. (RWR)

  12. Charge transport through image charged stabilized states in a single molecule single electron transistor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegard, Per; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The present paper gives an elaborate theoretical description of a new molecular charge transport mechanism applying to a single molecule trapped between two macroscopic electrodes in a solid state device. It is shown by a Hubbard type model of the electronic and electrostatic interactions, that the close proximity of metal electrodes may allow electrons to tunnel from the electrode directly into very localized image charge stabilized states on the molecule. Due to this mechanism, an exceptionally large number of redox states may be visited within an energy scale which would normally not allow the molecular HOMO-LUMO gap to be transversed. With a reasonable set of parameters, a good fit to recent experimental values may be obtained. The theoretical model is furthermore used to search for the physical boundaries of this effect, and it is found that a rather narrow geometrical space is available for the new mechanism to work: in the specific case of oligophenylenevinylene molecules recently explored in such devices several atoms in the terminal benzene rings need to be at van der Waal's distance to the electrode in order for the mechanism to work. The model predicts, that chemisorption of the terminal benzene rings too gold electrodes will impede the image charge effect very significantly because the molecule is pushed away from the electrode by the covalent thiol-gold bond

  13. Critical Phenomena in Higher Curvature Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Lala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the critical phenomena in higher curvature charged AdS black holes. We have considered Lovelock-Born-Infeld-AdS black hole as an example. The thermodynamics of the black hole have been studied which reveals the onset of a higher-order phase transition in the black hole in the canonical ensemble (fixed charge ensemble framework. We have analytically derived the critical exponents associated with these thermodynamic quantities. We find that our results fit well with the thermodynamic scaling laws and consistent with the mean field theory approximation. The suggestive values of the other two critical exponents associated with the correlation function and correlation length on the critical surface have been derived.

  14. Anisotropic charged physical models with generalized polytropic equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasim, A.; Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, we found the exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations with generalized polytropic equation of state (GPEoS). For this, we consider spherically symmetric object with charged anisotropic matter distribution. We rewrite the field equations into simple form through transformation introduced by Durgapal (Phys Rev D 27:328, 1983) and solve these equations analytically. For the physically acceptability of these solutions, we plot physical quantities like energy density, anisotropy, speed of sound, tangential and radial pressure. We found that all solutions fulfill the required physical conditions. It is concluded that all our results are reduced to the case of anisotropic charged matter distribution with linear, quadratic as well as polytropic equation of state. (orig.)

  15. Electron capture into excited states of multi-charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkkamp, D.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis deals with charge exchange reactions in slow collisions of multi-charged ions with neutral atoms or molecules. These reactions proceed very efficiently via a curve crossing mechanism, which leads to preferential population of excited states of the ion. The subsequent decay of these states leads to the emission of characteristic radiation. From wavelength resolved measurements of the absolute intensity of this radiation, cross sections for selective population of the excited (n,l-) states of the ion were determined. In addition, for some systems the total capture cross section was measured directly by means of charge state analysis of the secondary projectile ions. The role of charge exchange processes in fusion plasmas and in astrophysical plasmas is indicated. An experimental set-up is described with emphasis on the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source that was used in the experiments. Results for collisions of C 6+ , N 6+ , O 6+ and Ne 6+ with He, H 2 and Ar are presented as well as for electron capture from Li atoms by C 4+ and He 2+ . The interaction of the iso-electronic sequence C 4+ , N 5+ , O 6+ with atomic hydrogen, molecular hydrogen and helium is studied. First results for partial and total cross sections in collisions of fully stripped carbon, nitrogen and oxygen ions with atomic hydrogen are presented. These data are of particular importance for applications in fusion diagnostics. The data indicate that calculations of both molecular and atomic orbital type yield correct results, if an extended basis set is used. (Auth.)

  16. CT-state dissociation and charge recombination in OPVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusermann, Roger; Reinke, Nils; Huber, Evelyne; Ruhstaller, Beat [ZHAW, Inst. of Computational Physics, Winterthur (Switzerland); Flatz, Thomas; Moos, Michael [Fluxim AG (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The dissociation of the charge-transfer-state (CT) into free charge carriers is a very important process in the modeling of OPVs. A theoretical description of this mechanism has been developed by Onsager and Braun. The implications of this theory in real OPVs is not completely clear. Recently there was the proposition to reduce the whole device physics to the mechanisms at the donor-acceptor interface. This has been verified for a wide range of OPV materials, but it also raises questions about the universality of this simplification. In this study we developed a comprehensive device simulator. Our simulations have shown that a good agreement with measured J-V curves can be found by omitting any dissociation mechanism but at the same time increasing the influence of the Langevin recombination. This shows that distinct features of J-V curves are multi-causal and therefore a simplification by leaving out some of the mechanisms leads to an overestimation of the influence of other processes. We present the influence of the input parameters (CT-state dissociation, recombination and mobility) on the J-V curves and discuss in detail where and if each parameter can be seen separately in the shape of the J-V curve. The contributions of the different loss mechanisms, namely decay of excitons and CT-states as well as charge recombination will be addressed as function of material properties.

  17. Charge states of fast heavy ions in solids; target atomic number dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Kunihiro

    1985-01-01

    Discussions were carried out on the origin of Z 2 (atomic number) dependent charge states with respect to projectile electron loss and capture process, and on relationship between the Z 2 dependence and that of mean charge states for heavy ions of 1 MeV/u energy region. Present and previously reported results were examined on the equilibrium charge distributions, 9-bar, of 120 MeV 63 Cu, 25 and 40 MeV 35 Cl, 109 MeV Si and 59 MeV F ions. It was clarified that 9-bar became generally higher for lower Z 2 depending on increasing energy, and osillatory behavior with energy-depending amplitude was seen in 9-bar vs Z 2 . Discussions were carrid out on these phenomena and related matters. Z 2 oscillations of 9-bar of fast heavy ions might be due to those of electron capture cross section into projectile K and L vacancies for high and intermediate charge states, respectively. A quantitative interpretation of the Z 2 -dependent 9-bar values is in progress based on collision process and observation of projectile x-ray. The 9-bar value dependency on Z 2 in ion passing foils and decrease of Z 2 oscillation amplitude with increasing collision energy were quite similar to the Z 2 dependence in stopping powers or in effective charge states estimated from stopping powers. But there was some discrepancies in the Z 2 oscillation of 9-bar and that of stopping powers. (Takagi, S.)

  18. Quantum computing based on space states without charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyurkov, V.; Filippov, S.; Gorelik, L.

    2010-01-01

    An implementation of a quantum computer based on space states in double quantum dots is discussed. There is no charge transfer in qubits during a calculation, therefore, uncontrolled entanglement between qubits due to long-range Coulomb interaction is suppressed. Encoding and processing of quantum information is merely performed on symmetric and antisymmetric states of the electron in double quantum dots. Other plausible sources of decoherence caused by interaction with phonons and gates could be substantially suppressed in the structure as well. We also demonstrate how all necessary quantum logic operations, initialization, writing, and read-out could be carried out in the computer.

  19. Effect of Molecular Packing and Charge Delocalization on the Nonradiative Recombination of Charge-Transfer States in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Xiankai

    2016-09-05

    In organic solar cells, a major source of energy loss is attributed to nonradiative recombination from the interfacial charge transfer states to the ground state. By taking pentacene–C60 complexes as model donor–acceptor systems, a comprehensive theoretical understanding of how molecular packing and charge delocalization impact these nonradiative recombination rates at donor–acceptor interfaces is provided.

  20. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting

  1. Classical/quantum correspondence in state selective charge transfer and excitation reactions involving highly charged ions and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkait, M

    2009-01-01

    State selective charge transfer and excitation cross sections for collisions of Ne q+ (q = 1-10) with atomic hydrogen are calculated within the framework of Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and Boundary Corrected Continuum Intermediate State (BCCIS) approximation.

  2. To the problem on a charge state of energetic ions of radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, M.I.

    1980-01-01

    Estimation of the effect of recharging processes upon formation of intensity maxima of radiation belt ions of different types is obtained as well as the ion charge states in the area of intensity maxima. Comparison of spatial position of intensity maxima of the H, He, C, O ions with the energies more than 1 MeV with the calculation results is presented. It provides the particle radial drift under the effect of sudden impulses and death at the expence of ionization losses. Application of adiabaticity criterion of the particle movement to the analysis of position of outer edge of radiation belt of heavy ions permitted to carry out estimation of the He, C, O ion charge state. He ions with the energy more than 1 MeV possess mainly the charge state of +2, C and O ions with the energy of several MeV over L=5-6 are in the ionized state almost completely, and during the drift into the depth of the belts the ion charge decreases to 3-4 over L approximately 3.5 with the energy increase. At the energies higher than several MeV the recharge processes are significant for the C and.O ions. For He ions with the energy higher 1 MeV and for H ions with more than 0.1 MeV the recharge role is not considerable

  3. Higher conserved charges and integrability for spinning strings in AdS5 x S5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engquist, Johan

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an infinite number of local commuting charges for classical solutions of the string sigma model on AdS 5 x S 5 associated with a certain circular three-spin solution spinning with large angular momenta in three orthogonal directions on the five-sphere. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find agreement to one-loop with the tower of conserved higher charges in planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory associated with the dual composite single-trace operator in the highest weight representation (J 1 ,J 2 ,J 2 ) of SO(6). The agreement can be explained by the presence of integrability on both sides of the duality. (author)

  4. Higher-order spin and charge dynamics in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Stano, Peter; Noiri, Akito; Ito, Takumi; Loss, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2017-09-22

    Understanding the dynamics of open quantum systems is important and challenging in basic physics and applications for quantum devices and quantum computing. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a good platform to explore the physics of open quantum systems because we can tune parameters including the coupling to the environment or leads. Here, we apply the fast single-shot measurement techniques from spin qubit experiments to explore the spin and charge dynamics due to tunnel coupling to a lead in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system. We experimentally observe both spin and charge time evolution via first- and second-order tunneling processes, and reveal the dynamics of the spin-flip through the intermediate state. These results enable and stimulate the exploration of spin dynamics in dot-lead hybrid systems, and may offer useful resources for spin manipulation and simulation of open quantum systems.

  5. Plasma effect on tunnelling, charge transfer and transient quasimolecular states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D V

    2003-01-01

    The influence of a dense plasma environment on electron tunnelling between two ion potential wells in collectivized states and in charge-transfer collisions is studied. We show that the tunnelling probabilities in dilute plasma (in a close ion-ion collision) and in dense plasma differ strongly. The difference is due to the mixing between Stark components of donor-ion energy levels, caused by the field of spectator ions in a dense plasma. The mixing is determined by an angle α between the nearest-neighbour ion field and the total electric field acting on the donor ion. In close ion-ion binary collisions the mixing may be considered weak. However, for most plasma ions charge transfer, electron state collectivization and transient quasimolecule formation are strongly affected by the field of spectator ions. We derive approximate analytical expressions for the distribution function of α in an ideal plasma and perform molecular dynamics simulations to find the distribution function of α in both ideal and nonideal plasmas. Both α-dependent and average mixing coefficients are determined. We have found that the mixing is strong, even in ideal plasmas, and increases further with an increase in plasma nonideality. It is shown that there is no resonant charge transfer in dense plasmas. The applicability of a transient 'dicenter' quasimolecule model for dense plasmas is discussed

  6. A Battery Charger and State of Charge Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latos, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    A battery charger which has a full wave rectifier in series with a transformer isolated 20 kHz dc-dc converter with high frequency switches, which are programmed to actively shape the input dc line current to be a mirror image of the ac line voltage is discussed. The power circuit operates at 2 kW peak and 1 kW average power. The BC/SCI has two major subsystems: (1) the battery charger power electronics with its controls; and (2) a microcomputer subsystem which is used to acquire battery terminal data and exercise the state of charge software programs. The state of charge definition employed is the energy remaining in the battery when extracted at a 10 kW rate divided by the energy capacity of a fully charged new battery. The battery charger circuit is an isolated boost converter operating at an internal frequency of 20 kHz. The switches selected for the battery charger are the single most important item in determining its efficiency. The combination of voltage and current requirements dictate the use of high power NPN Darlington switching transistors. The power circuit topology is a three switch design which utilizes a power FET on the center tap of the isolation transformer and the power Darlingtons on each of the two ends. An analog control system is employed to accomplish active input current waveshaping as well as the necessary regulation.

  7. Ground state of charged Base and Fermi fluids in strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazighi, R.

    1982-03-01

    The ground state and excited states of the charged Bose gas were studied (wave function, equation of state, thermodynamics, application of Feynman theory). The ground state of the charged Fermi gas was also investigated together with the miscibility of charged Bose and Fermi gases at 0 deg K (bosons-bosons, fermions-bosons and fermions-fermions) [fr

  8. Top 10 Higher Education State Policy Issues for 2011. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Presented here are the top 10 issues most likely to affect public higher education across the 50 states in 2011, in the view of the state policy staff at the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). This listing is informed by an environmental scan of the economic, political and policy landscape surrounding public higher…

  9. Calculations on charge state and energy loss of argon ions in partially and fully ionized carbon plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D; Casas, David; Morales, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    The energy loss of argon ions in a target depends on their velocity and charge density. At the energies studied in this work, it depends mostly on the free and bound electrons in the target. Here the random-phase approximation is used for analyzing free electrons at any degeneracy. For the plasma-bound electrons, an interpolation between approximations for low and high energies is applied. The Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model is employed to depict the projectile charge space distribution, and the stripping criterion of Kreussler et al. is used to determine its equilibrium charge state Q(eq). This latter criterion implies that the equilibrium charge state depends slightly on the electron density and temperature of the plasma. On the other hand, the effective charge Q(eff) is obtained as the ratio between the energy loss of the argon ion and that of the proton for the same plasma conditions. This effective charge Q(eff) is larger than the equilibrium charge state Q(eq) due to the incorporation of the BK charge distribution. Though our charge-state estimations are not exactly the same as the experimental values, our energy loss agrees quite well with the experiments. It is noticed that the energy loss in plasmas is higher than that in the same cold target of about, ∼42-62.5% and increases with carbon plasma ionization. This confirms the well-known enhanced plasma stopping. It is also observed that only a small part of this energy loss enhancement is due to an increase of the argon charge state, namely only ∼2.2 and 5.1%, for the partially and the fully ionized plasma, respectively. The other contribution is connected with a better energy transfer to the free electrons at plasma state than to the bound electrons at solid state of about, ∼38.8-57.4%, where higher values correspond to a fully ionized carbon plasma.

  10. A charged 3P superfluid in the ABM states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Tetsuo; Nakahara, Mikio; Tsuneto, Toshihiko

    1980-01-01

    Magnetic properties of a charged 3 P superfluid in the ABM states are studied in the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. A non-singular vortex in a cylindrical sample, similar to the Mermin-Ho structure in the superfluid 3 He-A, is considered. In particular, the analytic solutions for the order parameter and the magnetic field are obtained in the limit lambda sub(L)/R → 0, where lambda sub(L) is the penetration depth and R the radius of the cylinder. The possibility of a non-singular vortex lattice is also discussed. (author)

  11. Federal Policies and Higher Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Anne; Hurley, Alicia D.; Carton, Thomas C; Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    The purpose of this report is to describe U.S. federal policies that have helped to shape the context within which state systems of higher education operated during the past decade. It also presents descriptive statistics about the higher education enterprise in the United States, including available performance data. The report is based on the…

  12. Easy Money: Tax Exporting and State Support for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John M.; Fowles, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial literature that assesses the effects of tax-exporting capacities on the tax structures and aggregate spending levels that state governments choose to implement, but no work exists that isolates the effects of state tax exporting on higher education spending. Using state-level data for 1989, 1995, 2002, and 2007, we estimate…

  13. Charge States of Krypton and Xenon in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochsler, Peter; Fludra, Andrzej; Giunta, Alessandra

    2017-09-01

    We calculate charge state distributions of Kr and Xe in a model for two different types of solar wind using the effective ionization and recombination rates provided from the OPEN_ADAS data base. The charge states of heavy elements in the solar wind are essential for estimating the efficiency of Coulomb drag in the inner corona. We find that xenon ions experience particularly low Coulomb drag from protons in the inner corona, comparable to the notoriously weak drag of protons on helium ions. It has been found long ago that helium in the solar wind can be strongly depleted near interplanetary current sheets, whereas coronal mass ejecta are sometimes strongly enriched in helium. We argue that if the extraordinary variability of the helium abundance in the solar wind is due to inefficient Coulomb drag, the xenon abundance must vary strongly. In fact, a secular decrease of the solar wind xenon abundance relative to the other heavier noble gases (Ne, Ar, Kr) has been postulated based on a comparison of noble gases in recently irradiated and ancient samples of ilmenite in the lunar regolith. We conclude that decreasing solar activity and decreasing frequency of coronal mass ejections over the solar lifetime might be responsible for a secularly decreasing abundance of xenon in the solar wind.

  14. Charge structure of the hadronic final state in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneodo, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Peroni, C.; Beaufays, J.; Jacholkowska, A.; Kellner, G.; Osborne, A.M.; Bee, C.P.; Bird, I.; Coughlan, J.; Sloan, T.; Braun, H.; Brueck, H.; Drees, J.; Edwards, A.; Krueger, J.; Montgomery, H.E.; Peschel, H.; Pietrzyk, U.; Poetsch, M.; Schneider, A.; Combley, F.; Foster, J.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, S.; Dreyer, T.; Ernst, T.; Haas, J.; Kabuss, E.M.; Landgraf, U.; Mohr, W.; Rith, K.; Schlagboehmer, A.; Schroeder, T.; Stier, H.E.; Wallucks, W.; Figiel, J.; Gajewski, J.; Janata, F.; Poensgen, B.; Schiemann, H.; Studt, M.; Torre, A. de la; Geddes, N.; Johnson, A.S.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Renton, P.; Taylor, G.N.; Williams, W.S.C.; Grard, F.; Windmolders, R.

    1988-01-01

    The general charge properties of the hadronic final state produced in μ + p and μ + d interactions at 280 GeV are investigated. Quark charge retention and local charge compensation is observed. The ratio F 2 n /F 2 p of the neutron to proton structure function is derived from the measurement of the average hadronic charge in μd interactions. (orig.)

  15. THE CHARGE STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ACROSS REFLECTION NEBULAE: PAH CHARGE BALANCE AND CALIBRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The PAH emission is broken down into PAH charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the PAH emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional PAH band strength approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for the PAH charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μ m PAH band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the PAH ionized fraction ( f i ). The PAH ionized fraction is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates the PAH ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μ m PAH band is evaluated as a tracer for PAH ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μ m PAH band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the PAH ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, PAH spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the PAH emission observed from NGC 2023.

  16. THE CHARGE STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ACROSS REFLECTION NEBULAE: PAH CHARGE BALANCE AND CALIBRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The PAH emission is broken down into PAH charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the PAH emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional PAH band strength approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for the PAH charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μ m PAH band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the PAH ionized fraction ( f {sub i} ). The PAH ionized fraction is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates the PAH ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μ m PAH band is evaluated as a tracer for PAH ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μ m PAH band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the PAH ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, PAH spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the PAH emission observed from NGC 2023.

  17. Higher Dimensional Charged Black Hole Solutions in f(R Gravitational Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. L. Nashed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present, without any assumption, a class of electric and magnetic flat horizon D-dimension solutions for a specific class of f(R=R+αR2, all of which behave asymptotically as Anti-de-Sitter spacetime. The most interesting property of these solutions is that the higher dimensions black holes, D>4, always have constant electric and magnetic charges in contrast to what is known in the literature. For D=4, we show that the magnetic field participates in the metric on equal foot as the electric field participates. Another interesting result is the fact that the Cauchy horizon is not identical with the event horizon. We use Komar formula to calculate the conserved quantities. We study the singularities and calculate the Hawking temperature and entropy and show that the first law of thermodynamics is always satisfied.

  18. Higher Education Relations: Iranian and the United States Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshteh, M. Hussein

    This review examined the views of 35 higher education professionals in order to explore the history of higher education relations between Iran and the United States particularly before and after the revolution in Iran. The study used interviews with participants, correspondence, and published material from journals, monographs, and newspapers. All…

  19. Constituting Market Citizenship: Regulatory State, Market Making and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Kanishka

    2015-01-01

    The paper makes three claims: first that regulatory state making and market making in higher education is intertwined through a project of market citizenship that shapes the "publicness" of higher education. Second, we argue that these projects of market citizenship are variegated and in Australia has taken the form of accommodation--via…

  20. State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creusere, Marlena; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey; Norman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    TG provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This issue of "State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas"…

  1. Justifying the Ivory Tower: Higher Education and State Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J. Norman; McCracken, William A., III

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. continues to embrace a comprehensive plan for economic recovery, this article investigates the validity of the claim that investing in higher education will help restore state economic growth and prosperity. It presents the findings from a study that indicates that the most consistent predictors of state economic growth related to…

  2. Campus and Capitol: Higher Education and the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, W. John, Ed.

    Seven papers and an extensive annotated bibliography deal with the relationship of State and Federal government to higher education. The authors and titles of the papers are (1) Samuel B. Gould, "The University and State Government: Fears and Realities," (2) Daniel G. Aldrich, Jr., "Maintaining Institutional Identity and Autonomy in Coordinated…

  3. Ready to Assemble: Grading State Higher Education Accountability Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeman, Chad; Carey, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    States need strong higher education systems, now more than ever. In the tumultuous, highly competitive 21st century economy, citizens and workers need knowledge, skills, and credentials in order to prosper. Yet many colleges and universities are falling short. To give all students the best possible postsecondary education, states must create…

  4. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  5. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue, T., E-mail: tkanesue@bnl.gov; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kumaki, M. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  6. Formation of low charge state ions of synthetic polymers using quaternary ammonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Joyce, William F; van Velde, Jan W; Heeren, Ron M A; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2010-07-01

    Factors such as high polymer dispersity and variation in elemental composition (of copolymers) often complicate the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of synthetic polymers with high molar mass. In the experiments described in this study, quaternary ammonium compounds were observed to facilitate the production of low charge state pseudomolecular ions when added to the spray solution for ESI-MS. This approach was then used for the ESI time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) analysis of synthetic polymers. Hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride permitted the successful analysis of poly(ethylene glycol) of 2-40 kDa, poly(propylene glycol) and poly(tetramethylene glycol) oligomers. Increasing the quaternary ammonium compounds' concentration results in the production of low charge state pseudomolecular ions. A comparison of structurally different quaternary ammonium compounds showed that the best performance is expected from large molecules with specific charge localization, which leaves the charge available for interactions. The applicability of the method for the MS analysis of other polymeric systems was also studied. In the case of poly(tetramethylene glycol), the method not only shifted the distributions to higher m/z values but also allowed the detection of high molecular weight material that was not observed without addition of the modifier to the spray solution.

  7. Radiative charge-transfer lifetime of the excited state of (NaCa)+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, Oleg P.; Cote, R.; Michels, H.; Smith, W.W.

    2003-01-01

    New experiments were proposed recently to investigate the regime of cold atomic and molecular ion-atom collision processes in a special hybrid neutral-atom-ion trap under high-vacuum conditions. We study the collisional cooling of laser precooled Ca + ions by ultracold Na atoms. Modeling this process requires knowledge of the radiative lifetime of the excited singlet A 1 Σ + state of the (NaCa) + molecular system. We calculate the rate coefficient for radiative charge transfer using a semiclassical approach. The dipole radial matrix elements between the ground and the excited states, and the potential curves were calculated using complete active space self-consistent field and Moeller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory with an extended Gaussian basis, 6-311+G (3df). The semiclassical charge-transfer rate coefficient was averaged over a thermal Maxwellian distribution. In addition, we also present elastic collision cross sections and the spin-exchange cross section. The rate coefficient for charge transfer was found to be 2.3x10 -16 cm 3 /sec, while those for the elastic and spin-exchange cross sections were found to be several orders of magnitude higher (1.1x10 -8 cm 3 /sec and 2.3x10 -9 cm 3 /sec, respectively). This confirms our assumption that the milli-Kelvin regime of collisional cooling of calcium ions by sodium atoms is favorable with the respect to low loss of calcium ions due to the charge transfer

  8. Dynamics of the excited state intramolecular charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, T.; Kim, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphtalene (laurdan), a derivative of 6-propanoyl- 2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (prodan), has been used as a fluorescent probe in cell imaging, especially in visualizing the lipid rafts by the generalized polarization (GP) images, where GP=(I 440 -I 490 )/(I 440 +I 490 ) with I being the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence spectrum of laurdan is sensitive to its dipolar environment due to the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process in S 1 state, which results in a dual emission from the locally excited (LE) and the ICT states. The ICT process and the solvation of the ICT state are very sensitive to the dipolar nature of the environment. In this work, the ICT of laurdan in ethanol has been studied by femtosecond time resolved fluorescence (TRF), especially TRF spectra measurement without the conventional spectral reconstruction method. TRF probes the excited states exclusively, a unique advantage over the pump/probe transient absorption technique, although time resolution of the TRF is generally lower than transient absorption and the TRF spectra measurement was possible only though the spectral reconstruction. Over the years, critical advances in TRF technique have been made in our group to achieve <50 fs time resolution with direct full spectra measurement capability. Detailed ICT and the subsequent solvation processes can be visualized unambiguously from the TRF spectra. Fig. 1 shows the TRF spectra of laurdan in ethanol at several time delays. Surprisingly, two bands at 433 and 476 nm are clearly visible in the TRF spectra of laurdan even at T = 0 fs. As time increases, the band at 476 nm shifts to the red while its intensity increases. The band at 433 nm also shifts slightly to the red, but loses intensity as time increases. The intensity of the 476 nm band reaches maximum at around 5 ps, where it is roughly twice as intense as that at 0 fs, and stays constant until lifetime decay is noticeable. The spectra were fit by

  9. Electron capture to autoionizing states of multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The present thesis investigates electron capture reactions resulting from slow collisions (V q+ ) and neutral gas targets (B). The energy spectra of the emitted electrons are measured; detection angle is 50 0 . Mainly, autoionizing double capture resulting from collisions with two-electron targets (He, H 2 ) is studied; then, the emitted electrons stem from doubly excited projectile states. The projectiles used are bare C 6+ , the H-like and He-like ions of C, N and O, He-like Ne 8+ and Ne-like Ar 8+ . Excited metastable projectiles used are C 5+ (2s), He-like projectiles A q+ (1s2s 3 S) and Ar 8+ (...2p 5 3s). Comparison is made with the predictions of a recently proposed extended classical barrier model, that was developed in connection with the work. This model assumes sequential capture of the electrons ('two-step' process); it predicts the realized binding enegies of the captured electrons - which may be directly determined from the autoionization spectra using only the projectile charge, the ionization potentials of the target and the collision velocity as parameters. No adjustable parameter enters into the calculations. The term energies and decay modes of the highly excited product ions themselves are studied. Generally, the autoionizing decay of these states is found to proceed preferentially to the directly adjacent lower singly excited state. Experimental evidence is presented, that triply excited states decay by successive emission of two electrons, whenever this is energetically possible. Finally, the L-MM decay in few-electron systems is considered. 314 refs.; 96 figs.; 29 tabs

  10. Battery state-of-charge estimation using approximate least squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrieder, C.; Zhang, C.; Lunglmayr, M.; Priewasser, R.; Marsili, S.; Huemer, M.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, much effort has been spent to extend the runtime of battery-powered electronic applications. In order to improve the utilization of the available cell capacity, high precision estimation approaches for battery-specific parameters are needed. In this work, an approximate least squares estimation scheme is proposed for the estimation of the battery state-of-charge (SoC). The SoC is determined based on the prediction of the battery's electromotive force. The proposed approach allows for an improved re-initialization of the Coulomb counting (CC) based SoC estimation method. Experimental results for an implementation of the estimation scheme on a fuel gauge system on chip are illustrated. Implementation details and design guidelines are presented. The performance of the presented concept is evaluated for realistic operating conditions (temperature effects, aging, standby current, etc.). For the considered test case of a GSM/UMTS load current pattern of a mobile phone, the proposed method is able to re-initialize the CC-method with a high accuracy, while state-of-the-art methods fail to perform a re-initialization.

  11. Charge state analysis of heavy ions after penetration of uncleaned and sputter cleaned conducting surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, M.; Schosnig, M.; Kroneberger, K.; Tobisch, M.; Maier, R.; Kuzel, M.; Fiedler, C.; Hofmann, D.; Groeneveld, K.O.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the charge state distribution of fast ions inside a solid is of basic interest in various research fields as stopping power measurements etc. The existing models for the charge state evolution differ in the treatment of the projectile-exit-surface interaction, which has a strong influence on the final charge state distributions. We measured the charge state distributions for C + , N + , and O + (30≤E/M≤130 keV/u) impact on thin C, Cu, and Au foils, where the surface properties were modified by sputter cleaning. The mesurements show a pronounced change of the mean projectile charge state to lower values in the case of sputter cleaned surfaces. This result underlines the importance of the projectile-surface interaction for the generation of the outcoming charge state distribution. (orig.)

  12. Resonance charge exchange between excited states in slow proton-hydrogen collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.; Kato, Daiji

    2010-01-01

    The theory of resonance charge exchange in slow collisions of a proton with a hydrogen atom in the excited state is developed. It extends the Firsov-Demkov theory of resonance charge exchange to the case of degenerate initial and final states. The theory is illustrated by semiclassical and quantum calculations of charge exchange cross sections between states with n=2 in parabolic and spherical coordinates. The results are compared with existing close-coupling calculations.

  13. Thermal State-of-Charge in Solar Heat Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carsie, A., III; Glakpe, Emmanuel K.; Cannon, Joseph N.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to determine the so-called thermal state-of-charge (SOC) in solar heat receivers employing encapsulated phase change materials (PCMS) that undergo cyclic melting and freezing. The present problem is relevant to space solar dynamic power systems that would typically operate in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The solar heat receiver is integrated into a closed-cycle Brayton engine that produces electric power during sunlight and eclipse periods of the orbit cycle. The concepts of available power and virtual source temperature, both on a finite-time basis, are used as the basis for determining the SOC. Analytic expressions for the available power crossing the aperture plane of the receiver, available power stored in the receiver, and available power delivered to the working fluid are derived, all of which are related to the SOC through measurable parameters. Lower and upper bounds on the SOC are proposed in order to delineate absolute limiting cases for a range of input parameters (orbital, geometric, etc.). SOC characterization is also performed in the subcooled, two-phase, and superheat regimes. Finally, a previously-developed physical and numerical model of the solar heat receiver component of NASA Lewis Research Center's Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) system is used in order to predict the SOC as a function of measurable parameters.

  14. Higher Education Technology and Research: Creating Excellence through State Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey Commission on Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Colleges and universities in New Jersey play a critical role in building and sustaining economic prosperity and quality of life in the state and beyond. Through advancements in technology and research, higher education helps to create new jobs, improve the workforce, develop new knowledge, and boost the overall economy. This report summarizes…

  15. Portuguese Study in Higher Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Margo

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of a national survey of Portuguese instructors that investigates enrollment growth in regions and institutions of higher education in the United States. It details the reasons why Portuguese enrollments have grown steadily since 1998, while providing data on the numbers of students enrolled in classes and the number…

  16. Applying to Higher Education: Comparisons of Independent and State Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Máiréad; King, Russell; Ahrens, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on research into the ways that schools engage in university application processes. Questionnaire and interview data were collected from 1400 Year 13 students from 18 independent and state schools in England and 15 in-depth interviews were carried out with school teacher higher education (HE) advisors. The analysis compares…

  17. Goals for United States Higher Education: From Democracy to Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Philo

    2011-01-01

    Although globalisation has been an increasingly important characteristic of United States higher education for over two decades, there has been little historical analysis of the process or its origins. This article argues that beginning in the early 1970s, institutional, national, and international events established a powerful context for the…

  18. The State of Early Childhood Higher Education in New York State. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, University of California at Berkeley, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The New York State Early Childhood Advisory Council (ECAC) serves the Governor and is charged with ensuring that all of New York's young children are healthy, learning, and thriving in families that are supported by a full complement of services and resources essential for successful development. The council's Workforce Work Group is dedicated to…

  19. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    increases the total efficiency of the beam transmission and lowers the cost of the .... accounting for the magnetic field and the electron beam space charge. .... the TOF system that will be placed at the end of the BRIC to analyze the ion charge ...

  20. Contribution to the study of higher valency states of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlet, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    Study of the chemistry of the higher valencies of americium in aqueous solutions and especially the autoreduction phenomenon. First a purification method of americium solutions is studied by precipitation, solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography. Studies of higher valency states chemical properties are disturbed by the autoreduction phenomenon changing Am VI and Am V in Am III more stable. Stabilization of higher valency states, characterized by a steady concentration of Am VI in solution, can be done by complexation of Am VI and Am V ions or by a protecting effect of foreign ions. The original medium used has a complexing effect by SO 4 2- ions and a protecting effect by the system S 2 O 8 2- -Ag + consuming H 2 O 2 main reducing agent produced by water radiolysis. These effects are shown by the study of Am VI in acid and basic solutions. A mechanism of the stabilization effect is given [fr

  1. Deterministic Electrical Charge-State Initialization of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Doi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from applications in classical information-processing devices, the electrical control of atomic defects in solids at room temperature will have a tremendous impact on quantum devices that are based on such defects. In this study, we demonstrate the electrical manipulation of individual prominent representatives of such atomic solid-state defects, namely, the negative charge state of single nitrogen-vacancy defect centers (NV^{−} in diamond. We experimentally demonstrate, deterministic, purely electrical charge-state initialization of individual NV centers. The NV centers are placed in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode structure that facilitates the delivery of charge carriers to the defect for charge-state switching. The charge-state dynamics of a single NV center were investigated by time-resolved measurements and a nondestructive single-shot readout of the charge state. Fast charge-state switching rates (from negative to neutrally charged defects, which are greater than 0.72 ± 0.10  μs^{−1}, were realized. Furthermore, in no-operation mode, the realized charge states were stable for presumably much more than 0.45 s. We believe that the results obtained are useful not only for ultrafast electrical control of qubits, long T_{2} quantum memory, and quantum sensors associated with single NV centers but also for classical memory devices based on single atomic storage bits working under ambient conditions.

  2. Experimental evidence of state-selective charge transfer in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2004-01-01

    State-selective charge-transfer behavior was observed for Fe, Cr, Mn and Cu in inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry. Charge transfer from Ar + to Fe, Cr and Mn is state-selective because of inefficient collisional mixing of the quasiresonant charge-transfer energy levels with nearby levels. This low efficiency is the consequence of differences in electronic configuration of the core electrons. The reason for state-selective charge-transfer behavior to Cu is not clear, although a tentative explanation based on efficiency of intramultiplet and intermultiplet mixing for this special case is offered

  3. Charge-state distribution of MeV He ions scattered from the surface atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kenji; Ohtsuka, Hisashi; Mannami, Michihiko

    1993-01-01

    The charge-state distribution of 500-keV He ions scattered from a SnTe (001) surface has been investigated using a new technique of high-resolution high-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The observed charge-state distribution of ions scattered from the topmost atomic layer coincides with that of ions scattered from the subsurface region and does not depend on the incident charge state but depends on the exit angle. The observed exit-angle dependence is explained by a model which includes the charge-exchange process with the valence electrons in the tail of the electron distribution at the surface. (author)

  4. Excitation of higher lying energy states in a rubidium DPAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, A. J.; Perram, Glen; Rice, Christopher A.

    2018-02-01

    The spontaneous emission in a cw rubidium diode dumped alkali laser (DPAL) system was analyzed. The fluorescence from higher lying states decreases with additional buffer gas. The intermediate states (7S, 6P, 5D) decay more slowly with buffer gas and scale super-linearly with alkali density. A detailed kinetic model has been constructed, where the dominant mechanisms are energy pooling and single photon ionization. It also includes pumping into the non-Lorentzian wings of absorption profiles, fine structure mixing, collisional de-excitation, and Penning ionization. Effects of ionization in a high powered CW rubidium DPAL were assessed.

  5. Strong charge state dependence of H+ and H2+ sputtering induced by slow highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakutani, N.; Azuma, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Komaki, K.; Kuroki, K.

    1995-01-01

    Secondary ion emission has been studied for very slow ( similar 0.01ν B ) highly charged Ar and N ions bombarding C 60 containing hydrogen as an impurity. It is found that the fragmentations of C 60 are very rare even for Ar 16+ bombardments. On the other hand, the sputtering of H + and H 2 + has been observed to increase drastically as a function of incident charge q like q γ (e.g., γ similar 4.6 for H + sputtering by 500 eV Ar q+ ). (orig.)

  6. Variation in Emergency Department vs Internal Medicine Excess Charges in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tim; Park, Angela; Bai, Ge; Joo, Sarah; Hutfless, Susan M; Mehta, Ambar; Anderson, Gerard F; Makary, Martin A

    2017-08-01

    Uninsured and insured but out-of-network emergency department (ED) patients are often billed hospital chargemaster prices, which exceed amounts typically paid by insurers. To examine the variation in excess charges for services provided by emergency medicine and internal medicine physicians. Retrospective analysis was conducted of professional fee payment claims made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for all services provided to Medicare Part B fee-for-service beneficiaries in calendar year 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1 to July 31, 2016. Markup ratios for ED and internal medicine professional services, defined as the charges submitted by the hospital divided by the Medicare allowable amount. Our analysis included 12 337 emergency medicine physicians from 2707 hospitals and 57 607 internal medicine physicians from 3669 hospitals in all 50 states. Services provided by emergency medicine physicians had an overall markup ratio of 4.4 (340% excess charges), which was greater than the markup ratio of 2.1 (110% excess charges) for all services performed by internal medicine physicians. Markup ratios for all ED services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 12.6 (median, 4.2; interquartile range [IQR], 3.3-5.8); markup ratios for all internal medicine services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 14.1 (median, 2.0; IQR, 1.7-2.5). The median markup ratio by hospital for ED evaluation and management procedure codes varied between 4.0 and 5.0. Among the most common ED services, laceration repair had the highest median markup ratio (7.0); emergency medicine physician review of a head computed tomographic scan had the greatest interhospital variation (range, 1.6-27.7). Across hospitals, markups in the ED were often substantially higher than those in the internal medicine department for the same services. Higher ED markup ratios were associated with hospital for-profit ownership (median, 5.7; IQR, 4.0-7.1), a greater percentage of uninsured patients seen

  7. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Fault Clearing at Low State of Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1997-01-01

    Fault clearing currents were achieved and maintained at discharge rates from C/2 to C/3 at high and low states of charge. The fault clearing plateau voltage is strong function of: discharge current, and voltage-prior-to-the-fault-clearing-event and a weak function of state of charge. Voltage performance, for the range of conditions reported, is summarized.

  8. Controlled phase gate for solid-state charge-qubit architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Oi, D.K.L.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a mechanism for realizing a controlled phase gate for solid-state charge qubits. By augmenting the positionally defined qubit with an auxiliary state, and changing the charge distribution in the three-dot system, we are able to effectively switch the Coulombic interaction, effecting an entangling gate. We consider two architectures, and numerically investigate their robustness to gate noise

  9. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  10. Annealed scaling for a charged polymer in dimensions two and higher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Q.; den Hollander, F.; Poisat, J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper considers an undirected polymer chain on {Z}d , d ≥slant 2 , with i.i.d. random charges attached to its constituent monomers. Each self-intersection of the polymer chain contributes an energy to the interaction Hamiltonian that is equal to the product of the charges of the two monomers that meet. The joint probability distribution for the polymer chain and the charges is given by the Gibbs distribution associated with the interaction Hamiltonian. The object of interest is the annealed free energy per monomer in the limit as the length n of the polymer chain tends to infinity. We show that there is a critical curve in the parameter plane spanned by the charge bias and the inverse temperature separating an extended phase from a collapsed phase. We derive the scaling of the critical curve for small and for large charge bias and the scaling of the annealed free energy for small inverse temperature. We argue that in the collapsed phase the polymer chain is subdiffusive, namely, on scale \

  11. Singletons, higher spin massless states and the supermembrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Salam, A.; Sezgin, E.; Tanii, Yoshiaki.

    1988-01-01

    We analyse the spectrum of the eleven dimensional supermembrane quantized in AdS 4 xS 7 background. The classical membrane lives at the boundary of AdS 4 which is S 2 xS 1 , and has OSp(8,4) symmetry. We find that the spectrum contains, in addition to the N=8 supersymmetric (massive) singletons (which may possibly be the ultimate preons), also massless states of all higher integer and half-integer spin. These states fill the irreducible representations of OSp(8,4) with highest spin s max =2,4,6,... The s max =2 multiplet corresponds to the states of the de Wit-Nicolai's N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions. (author). 24 refs

  12. Excited state populations and charge-exchange of fast ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.D.; Sofield, C.J.; Woods, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Excited state populations and charge state fractions of 445 MeV Cl ions have been measured for a range of thicknesses of solid C targets. Cross sections for electron capture, loss, excitation and excited state quenching have been determined and these data are found to predict a quantitative difference between equilibrium charge state distributions from gases and solids for a special case of the Bohr-Lindhard density effect model. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  13. Enhanced coulomb counting method for estimating state-of-charge and state-of-health of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Kong Soon; Moo, Chin-Sien; Chen, Yi-Ping; Hsieh, Yao-Ching

    2009-01-01

    The coulomb counting method is expedient for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries with high charging and discharging efficiencies. The charging and discharging characteristics are investigated and reveal that the coulomb counting method is convenient and accurate for estimating the SOC of lithium-ion batteries. A smart estimation method based on coulomb counting is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy. The corrections are made by considering the charging and operating efficiencies. Furthermore, the state-of-health (SOH) is evaluated by the maximum releasable capacity. Through the experiments that emulate practical operations, the SOC estimation method is verified to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy.

  14. Survey of ionic charge states of solar energetic particle events during the first year of ACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moebius, E.; Popecki, M.A.; Morris, D.; Galvin, A.B.; Heirtzler, D.; Kistler, L.M.; Siren, C.; Klecker, B.; Bogdanov, A.T.; Hovestadt, D.; Mason, G.M.; Dwyer, J.R.; Stone, E.C.

    2000-01-01

    The ionic charge state distributions of solar energetic particle events are determined with ACE SEPICA on an event by event basis, over the time period from launch through the end of 1998. Because of the large geometric factor of SEPICA the observations can be extended to events with very low fluxes. The study is confined to the most abundant species O, Ne, Mg, and Fe. Mean charge states for Fe are observed to vary between ≅11 for CME related events and ≅20 for small events that carry signatures of impulsive events. For these events all elements up to Mg, appear almost fully ionized. The charge states of all species follow the same trend as that of Fe in their variation from event to event. A comparison of observed mean charge states with a model assuming thermal equilibrium shows a general agreement with temperatures ranging from 1.2-10·10 6 K. However, noticeable deviations from charge states at a unique temperature for all species are seen for O at high and for Mg at both high and low charge states, which may suggest the presence of other processes. A distinct correlation is observed between the charge states and the overabundance of heavy ions in comparison with O. It remains puzzling that events with substantial deviations from coronal abundance accelerate almost fully stripped ions, which do not lend themselves easily to fractionation processes based on mass and charge

  15. Abnormal Multiple Charge Memory States in Exfoliated Few-Layer WSe2 Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mikai; Wang, Yifan; Shepherd, Nathan; Huard, Chad; Zhou, Jiantao; Guo, L J; Lu, Wei; Liang, Xiaogan

    2017-01-24

    To construct reliable nanoelectronic devices based on emerging 2D layered semiconductors, we need to understand the charge-trapping processes in such devices. Additionally, the identified charge-trapping schemes in such layered materials could be further exploited to make multibit (or highly desirable analog-tunable) memory devices. Here, we present a study on the abnormal charge-trapping or memory characteristics of few-layer WSe 2 transistors. This work shows that multiple charge-trapping states with large extrema spacing, long retention time, and analog tunability can be excited in the transistors made from mechanically exfoliated few-layer WSe 2 flakes, whereas they cannot be generated in widely studied few-layer MoS 2 transistors. Such charge-trapping characteristics of WSe 2 transistors are attributed to the exfoliation-induced interlayer deformation on the cleaved surfaces of few-layer WSe 2 flakes, which can spontaneously form ambipolar charge-trapping sites. Our additional results from surface characterization, charge-retention characterization at different temperatures, and density functional theory computation strongly support this explanation. Furthermore, our research also demonstrates that the charge-trapping states excited in multiple transistors can be calibrated into consistent multibit data storage levels. This work advances the understanding of the charge memory mechanisms in layered semiconductors, and the observed charge-trapping states could be further studied for enabling ultralow-cost multibit analog memory devices.

  16. Recoil ion charge state distributions in low energy Arq+ - Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancura, J.; Marchetti, V.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the recoil ion charge state distributions in Ar q+ -- Ar (8≤q≤16) collisions at 2.3 qkeV and 0.18qkeV by time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For Ar 8-16+ , recoil ion charge states up to 6+ are clearly present, indicating that the 3p subshell in the target atom is being depleted, while for Ar 10-16+ , there is evidence that target 3s electrons are also being removed. Comparison of the recoil ion charge state spectra at 2.3 and 0.18 qkeV shows that for a given projectile charge, there is very little dependence of the observed recoil target charge state distribution on projectile energy

  17. Stark tuning and electrical charge state control of single divacancies in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Casas, Charles F.; Christle, David J.; Ul Hassan, Jawad; Ohshima, Takeshi; Son, Nguyen T.; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-12-01

    Neutrally charged divacancies in silicon carbide (SiC) are paramagnetic color centers whose long coherence times and near-telecom operating wavelengths make them promising for scalable quantum communication technologies compatible with existing fiber optic networks. However, local strain inhomogeneity can randomly perturb their optical transition frequencies, which degrades the indistinguishability of photons emitted from separate defects and hinders their coupling to optical cavities. Here, we show that electric fields can be used to tune the optical transition frequencies of single neutral divacancy defects in 4H-SiC over a range of several GHz via the DC Stark effect. The same technique can also control the charge state of the defect on microsecond timescales, which we use to stabilize unstable or non-neutral divacancies into their neutral charge state. Using fluorescence-based charge state detection, we show that both 975 nm and 1130 nm excitation can prepare their neutral charge state with near unity efficiency.

  18. Evaluation of intramolecular charge transfer state of 4-N, N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Intramolecular charge transfer of 4-N,N-dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde (DMACA) in vacuum and in five different aprotic solvents has been studied by using time-dependent density functional theory. (TDDFT). Polarizable continuum model (PCM) was employed to consider solvent–solute interactions. The potential ...

  19. The state of social media policies in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey; Hank, Carolyn; Sugimoto, Cassidy R

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the current state of development of social media policies at institution of higher education. Content analysis of social media policies for all institutions listed in the Carnegie Classification Data File revealed that less than one-quarter of institutions had an accessible social media policy. Analysis was done by institution and campus unit, finding that social media policies were most likely to appear at doctorate-granting institutions and health, athletics, and library units. Policies required that those affiliated with the institution post appropriate content, represent the unit appropriately, and moderate conversations with coworkers and external agencies. This analysis may inform the development and revision of social media policies across the field of higher education, taking into consideration the rapidly changing landscape of social media, issues of academic freedom, and notions of interoperability with policies at the unit and campus levels.

  20. The influence of the beam charge state on the analytical calculation of RBS and ERDA spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barradas, Nuno P., E-mail: nunoni@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Kosmata, Marcel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Globalfoundries, Wilschdorfer Landstraße 101, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Hanf, Daniel; Munnik, Frans [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Analytical codes dedicated to the analysis of Ion Beam Analysis data rely on the accuracy of both the calculations and of basic data such as scattering cross sections and stopping powers. So far, the effect of the beam charge state of the incoming beam has been disregard by general purpose analytical codes such as NDF. In fact, the codes implicitly assume that the beam always has the equilibrium charge state distribution, by using tabulated stopping power values e.g. from SRIM, which are in principle valid for the effective charge state. The dependence of the stopping power with the changing charge state distribution is ignored. This assumption is reasonable in most cases, but for high resolution studies the actual change of the charge state distribution from the initial beam charge state towards equilibrium as it enters and traverses the sample must be taken into account, as it influences the shape of the observed data. In this work, we present an analytical calculation, implemented in NDF, that takes this effect into account. For elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), the changing charge state distribution of the recoils can also be taken into account. We apply the calculation to the analysis of experimental high depth resolution ERDA data for various oxide layers collected using a magnetic spectrometer.

  1. Ultrafast Charge and Triplet State Formation in Diketopyrrolopyrrole Low Band Gap Polymer/Fullerene Blends: Influence of Nanoscale Morphology of Organic Photovoltaic Materials on Charge Recombination to the Triplet State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René M. Williams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of thin films of two types of morphologies of diketopyrrolopyrrole low band gap polymer/fullerene-adduct blends is presented and indicates triplet state formation by charge recombination, an important loss channel in organic photovoltaic materials. At low laser fluence (approaching solar intensity charge formation characterized by a 1350 nm band (in ~250 fs dominates in the two PDPP-PCBM blends with different nanoscale morphologies and these charges recombine to form a local polymer-based triplet state on the sub-ns timescale (in ~300 and ~900 ps indicated by an 1100 nm absorption band. The rate of triplet state formation is influenced by the morphology. The slower rate of charge recombination to the triplet state (in ~900 ps belongs to a morphology that results in a higher power conversion efficiency in the corresponding device. Nanoscale morphology not only influences interfacial area and conduction of holes and electrons but also influences the mechanism of intersystem crossing (ISC. We present a model that correlates morphology to the exchange integral and fast and slow mechanisms for ISC (SOCT-ISC and H-HFI-ISC. For the pristine polymer, a flat and unstructured singlet-singlet absorption spectrum (between 900 and 1400 nm and a very minor triplet state formation (5% are observed at low laser fluence.

  2. Multiple charge states of titanium ions in laser produced plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An Nd:glass laser (KAMETRON) delivering 50 J energy (λ = 0.53 μm) in ... voltage on the deflection plates decides the energy (E/Z) of the charged particles to be ... of two ion groups viz fast ions (+22 to +12) and thermal ions (+11 to +1) as shown in ... ions survive the recombination losses in the early phase of expansion.

  3. "Inverted" Solvent Effect on Charge Transfer in the Excited State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau; Pischel

    1999-10-04

    Faster in cyclohexane than in acetonitrile is the fluorescence quenching of the azoalkane 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) by amines and sulfides. Although this photoreaction is induced by charge transfer (CT; see picture) and exciplexes are formed, the increase in the dipole moment of the exciplex is not large enough to offset the solvent stabilization of the excited reactants, and an "inverted" solvent effect results.

  4. Growth and decay of surface charges in grafts of Teflon in electrets states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelli, I.M.M.

    1971-01-01

    The greatest problem founded in a cardiovascular implant is the thrombus formation. Teflon grafts were used in electret state for prothesis in vena cava of dogs. To put these grafts in an electret state a corona discharge in air was used and homocharge was formed predominantly. To measure the formed surface charge the oscillating capacitor technique was used. In the electret state the grafts have showed an initial density of charge of 10- 8 C/cm 2 and the charge decay and time decay of the samples were measured under many conditions. We found two activation energies, E 2 =0.17 e V and E 3 =1.12 e V, due to rapid and slow decay, respectively. The charged grafts were sterilized with ethilene gas oxide and this process apparently did not influence the charges

  5. Self/anti-self charge conjugate states in the helicity basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoeglazov, Valeriy V.

    2013-01-01

    We construct self/anti-self charge conjugate (Majorana-like) states for the (1/2,0)⊕(0,1/2) representation of the Lorentz group, and their analogs for higher spins within the quantum field theory. The problem of the basis rotations and that of the selection of phases in the Dirac-like and Majorana-like field operators are considered. The discrete symmetries properties (P, C, T) are studied. Particular attention has been paid to the question of (anti)commutation of the Charge conjugation operator and the Parity in the helicity basis. Dynamical equations have also been presented. In the (1/2,0)⊕(0,1/2) representation they obey the Dirac-like equation with eight components, which has been first introduced by Markov. Thus, the Fock space for corresponding quantum fields is doubled (as shown by Ziino). The chirality and the helicity (two concepts which are frequently confused in the literature) for Dirac and Majorana states have been discussed

  6. Theoretical Study of the Charge-Transfer State Separation within Marcus Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Nassau, Racine; Nørby, Morten Steen

    2016-01-01

    We study, within Marcus theory, the possibility of the charge-transfer (CT) state splitting at organic interfaces and a subsequent transport of the free charge carriers to the electrodes. As a case study we analyze model anthracene-C60 interfaces. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations on the cold...... CT state were performed at a range of applied electric fields, and with the fields applied at a range of angles to the interface to simulate the action of the electric field in a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) interface. The results show that the inclusion of polarization in our model increases CT state...... dissociation and charge collection. The effect of the electric field on CT state splitting and free charge carrier conduction is analyzed in detail with and without polarization. Also, depending on the relative orientation of the anthracene and C60 molecules at the interface, CT state splitting shows different...

  7. Charge-transfer cross sections in collisions of ground-state Ca and H+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, C. M.; Oubre, C.; Nordlander, P.; Kimura, M.; Dalgarno, A.

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated collisions of Ca(4s2) with H+ in the energy range of 200eV/u-10keV/u using the semiclassical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC) method with 18 coupled molecular states ( 11Σ+1 and seven Π+1 states) to determine charge-transfer cross sections. Except for the incoming channel 6Σ+1 , the molecular states all correspond to charge-transfer channels. Inclusion of Ca2+-H- is crucial in the configuration-interaction calculation for generating the molecular wave functions and potentials. Because of the Coulomb attraction, the state separating to Ca2+-H- creates many avoided crossings, even though at infinite separation it lies energetically above all other states that we included. Because of the avoided crossings between the incoming channel 6Σ+1 and the energetically close charge-transfer channel 7Σ+1 the charge-transfer interaction occurs at long range. This makes calculations of charge-transfer cross sections by the MOCC method very challenging. The total charge-transfer cross sections increase monotonically from 3.4×10-15cm2 at 200eV/u to 4.5×10-15cm2 at 10keV/u . Charge transfer occurs mostly to the excited Ca+(5p) state in the entire energy range, which is the sum of the charge transfer to 7Σ+1 and 4Π+1 . It accounts for ˜47% of the total charge transfer cross sections at 200eV/u . However, as the energy increases, transfer to Ca+(4d) increases, and at 10keV/u the charge-transfer cross sections for Ca+(5p) and Ca+(4d) become comparable, each giving ˜38% of the total cross section.

  8. Charge-transfer cross sections in collisions of ground-state Ca and H+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, C. M.; Oubre, C.; Nordlander, P.; Kimura, M.; Dalgarno, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated collisions of Ca(4s 2 ) with H + in the energy range of 200 eV/u-10 keV/u using the semiclassical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC) method with 18 coupled molecular states (11 1 Σ + and seven 1 Π + states) to determine charge-transfer cross sections. Except for the incoming channel 6 1 Σ + , the molecular states all correspond to charge-transfer channels. Inclusion of Ca 2+ -H - is crucial in the configuration-interaction calculation for generating the molecular wave functions and potentials. Because of the Coulomb attraction, the state separating to Ca 2+ -H - creates many avoided crossings, even though at infinite separation it lies energetically above all other states that we included. Because of the avoided crossings between the incoming channel 6 1 Σ + and the energetically close charge-transfer channel 7 1 Σ + the charge-transfer interaction occurs at long range. This makes calculations of charge-transfer cross sections by the MOCC method very challenging. The total charge-transfer cross sections increase monotonically from 3.4x10 -15 cm 2 at 200 eV/u to 4.5x10 -15 cm 2 at 10 keV/u. Charge transfer occurs mostly to the excited Ca + (5p) state in the entire energy range, which is the sum of the charge transfer to 7 1 Σ + and 4 1 Π + . It accounts for ∼47% of the total charge transfer cross sections at 200 eV/u. However, as the energy increases, transfer to Ca + (4d) increases, and at 10 keV/u the charge-transfer cross sections for Ca + (5p) and Ca + (4d) become comparable, each giving ∼38% of the total cross section

  9. 42 CFR 489.34 - Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. 489.34 Section 489.34 Public Health CENTERS FOR... CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL Allowable Charges § 489.34 Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. A hospital receiving payment for...

  10. Rendering high charge density of states in ionic liquid-gated MoS 2 transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Park, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated high charge density of states (DOS) in the bandgap of MoS2 nanosheets with variable temperature measurements on ionic liquid-gated MoS2 transistors. The thermally activated charge transport indicates that the electrical current in the two-dimensional MoS 2 nanosheets under high

  11. Droop-Control-Based State-of-Charge Balancing Method for Charging and Discharging Process in Autonomous DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    in the discharging process. Meanwhile, the ESU with lower SoC absorbs more power in the charging process and delivers less power in the discharging process. Eventually, the SoC and injected/output power in each ESU are equalized. The exponent n for SoC is employed to regulate the balancing speed of the So......C and injected/output power. It is demonstrated that with higher exponent n, the balancing speed is higher. Simulation model comprised of three ESUs is implemented by using MATLAB/Simulink. The proposed method is verified by the simulation results....

  12. Charged particle spectroscopy with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi, I.; Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some of earlier and recent methods for differentiation of charged particles according to their energy, based on the use of polymeric etch-track detectors (CN, CA, PC and CR-39) are outlined. The principle of three track methods suitable for nuclear spectroscopy is discussed. These are based on the analysis of the diameter, surface size and shape of etch-track 'cones' produced by charged particles in polymers, after using shorter or longer chemical etching processes. Examples are presented from the results of the last decade in ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary, concerning the application of nuclear track spectroscopy to different low-energy nuclear reaction studies, angular distribution and excitation function measurements. These involve the study of (d,α) reaction on sup(14)N, sup(19)F and sup(27)Al nuclei, (sup(3)He,α) reactions on sup(15)N, (p,α) reaction on sup(27)Al and the process sup(12)C(sup(12)C, sup(8)Be)sup(16)O. (author)

  13. Electroluminescence from charge transfer states in Donor/Acceptor solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherafatipour, Golenaz; Madsen, Morten

    Charge photocurrent generation is a key process in solar energy conversion systems. Effective dissociation of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs (excitons) has a strong influence on the efficiency of the organic solar cells. Charge dissociation takes place at the donor/acceptor interface via...... which the maximum open-circuit voltage can be estimated, and further can be used in the modeling and optimization of the OPV devices. [1] C. Deibe, T. Strobe, and V. Dyakonov, “Role of the charge transfer state in organic donor-acceptor solar cells,” Adv. Mater., vol. 22, pp. 4097–4111, 2010. [2] K...... charge transfer (CT) excitons, which is Coulombically bound interfacial electron- hole pairs residing at the donor/acceptor heterojunctions. The CT state represents an intermediate state between the exciton dissociation and recombination back to the ground state. Since the recombination of photo...

  14. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several μs) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  15. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum arc ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1995-09-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1--4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several micros) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  16. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1996-01-01

    A high current, low emittance, high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver accelerator scale beam. Using a high charge state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system, which consists of a gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 3D beam simulations and experimental feasibility study results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector. (orig.)

  17. Charge state distribution of ^{86}Kr in hydrogen and helium gas charge strippers at 2.7  MeV/nucleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuboki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The charge state distributions of krypton (^{86}Kr with an energy of 2.7  MeV/nucleon were measured using hydrogen (H_{2} and helium (He gas charge strippers. A differential pumping system was constructed to confine H_{2} and He gases to a thickness sufficient for the charge state distributions to attain equilibrium. The mean charge states of ^{86}Kr in H_{2} and He gases attained equilibrium at 25.1 and 23.2, respectively, whereas the mean charge state in N_{2} gas at equilibrium was estimated to be less than 20. The charge distributions are successfully reproduced by the cross sections of ionization and electron capture processes optimized by a fitting procedure.

  18. Charge transfer state in DBP:C70 organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherafatipour, Golenaz; Benduhn, Johannes; Spoltore, Donato

    -acceptor interface via delocalized charge-transfer (CT) states, which represents an intermediate state between the exciton dissociation and recombination back to the ground state. In this work we perform the electroluminescence (EL) created by bimolecular free career recombination and sensitive external quantum...

  19. Engineering of Fermi level by nin diamond junction for control of charge states of NV centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, T.; Makino, T.; Kato, H.; Shimizu, M.; Murooka, T.; Herbschleb, E. D.; Doi, Y.; Morishita, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatano, M.; Yamasaki, S.; Mizuochi, N.

    2018-03-01

    The charge-state control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is very important toward its applications because the NV centers undergo stochastic charge-state transitions between the negative charge state (NV-) and the neutral charge state (NV0) of the NV center upon illumination. In this letter, engineering of the Fermi level by a nin diamond junction was demonstrated for the control of the charge state of the NV centers in the intrinsic (i) layer region. By changing the size (d) of the i-layer region between the phosphorus-doped n-type layer regions (nin) from 2 μm to 10 μm, we realized the gradual change in the NV- charge-state population in the i-layer region from 60% to 80% under 532 nm excitation, which can be attributed to the band bending in the i-layer region. Also, we quantitatively simulated the changes in the Fermi level in the i-layer region depending on d with various concentrations of impurities in the i-layer region.

  20. State-of-Charge Estimation and Active Cell Pack Balancing Design of Lithium Battery Power System for Smart Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Z. C.; Chin, C. S.; Toh, W. D.; Chiew, J.; Jia, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated state-of-charge (SOC) estimation model and active cell balancing of a 12-cell lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery power system. The strong tracking cubature extended Kalman filter (STCEKF) gave an accurate SOC prediction compared to other Kalman-based filter algorithms. The proposed groupwise balancing of the multiple SOC exhibited a higher balancing speed and lower balancing loss than other cell balancing designs. The experimental results demonstrated t...

  1. Investigation of the energy loss and the charge state of high energy heavy ions in a hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, K.G.

    1991-07-01

    For heavy ions with energy of 1.4 to 5.9 MeV/u the energy loss and charge state after transmission through a totally ionized hydrogen plasma are investigated. Plasma target was a Z-pinch device incorporated in the beam optics of the accelerator by a pumping system. In the 20 cm long pinch hydrogen plasmas with densities up to 1.5x10 19 cm -3 and temperatures above 5 eV are produced, with ionization efficiency higher than 99%. The ions pass the plasma on the symmetry axis of the plasma column through small apertures in the electrodes. The energy loss was measured by time-of-flight method, the plasma density by interferometry along the pinch axis. For the first time the ion charge after transmission through the plasma has been determined by a charge spectrometer being a combination of a dipole magnet and a position sensitive detector with high time resolution. A growth of the average charge of heavy ions in plasma higher than the equilibrium charge in cold gas was discovered, caused by a reduction of electron capture by fast heavy ions in ionized matter. The electron loss rates in plasma and cold gas are equal. (orig./AH) [de

  2. The low-lying πσ* state and its role in the intramolecular charge transfer of aminobenzonitriles and aminobenzethyne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Kwang; Fujiwara, Takashige; Kofron, William G.; Zgierski, Marek Z.; Lim, Edward C.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic absorption spectra of the low-lying ππ* and πσ* states of several aminobenzonitriles and 4-dimethylaminobenzethyne have been studied by time-resolved transient absorption and time-dependent density functional theory calculation. In acetonitrile, the lifetime of the πσ*-state absorption is very short (picoseconds or subpicosecond) for molecules that exhibit intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), and very long (nanoseconds) for those that do not. Where direct comparison of the temporal characteristics of the πσ*-state and the ICT-state transients could be made, the formation rate of the ICT state is identical to the decay rate of the πσ* state within the experimental uncertainty. These results are consistent with the πσ*-mediated ICT mechanism, L a (ππ*)→πσ*→ICT, in which the decay rate of the πσ* state is determined by the rate of the solvent-controlled πσ*→ICT charge-shift reaction. The ππ*→πσ* state crossing does not occur in 3-dimethylaminobenzonitrile or 2-dimethylaminobenzonitrile, as predicted by the calculation, and 4-aminobenzonitrile and 4-dimethylaminobenzethyne does not exhibit the ICT reaction, consistent with the higher energy of the ICT state relative to the πσ* state

  3. Manipulating quantum coherence of charge states in interacting double-dot Aharonov–Bohm interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jinshuang; Wang, Shikuan; Zhou, Jiahuan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Yan, YiJing

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of charge-state coherence in a degenerate double-dot Aharonov–Bohm interferometer with finite inter-dot Coulomb interactions. The quantum coherence of the charge states is found to be sensitive to the transport setup configurations, involving both the single-electron impurity channels and the Coulomb-assisted ones. We numerically demonstrate the emergence of a complete coherence between the two charge states, with the relative phase being continuously controllable through the magnetic flux. Interestingly, a fully coherent charge qubit arises at the double-dots electron pair tunneling resonance condition, where the chemical potential of one electrode is tuned at the center between a single-electron impurity channel and the related Coulomb-assisted channel. This pure quantum state of charge qubit could be experimentally realized at the current–voltage characteristic turnover position, where differential conductance sign changes. We further elaborate the underlying mechanism for both the real-time and the stationary charge-states coherence in the double-dot systems of study.

  4. State Authorization Reciprocity Agreement: Participation and Access to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuameze, Nkechi

    2017-01-01

    The State Authorization Reciprocity Agreement initiative was launched in 2014 to provide a uniform standard for the regulation of distance education across states in the United States. The system established by the National Council for State Authorization Reciprocity Agreement (NC-SARA) allows willing post-secondary institutions to participate…

  5. Charge-state distribution measurements of ^{238}U and ^{136}Xe at 11  MeV/nucleon using gas charge stripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuboki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The charge-state distributions and equilibrium charge states of uranium (^{238}U and xenon (^{136}Xe ions at 11  MeV/nucleon were determined using a gas charge stripper. A differential pumping system facilitated the increase of the nitrogen gas thickness up to 1.3  mg/cm^{2}, which is sufficient for the most probable charge state to attain equilibrium. The charge states of ^{238}U attain equilibrium at 56.0, 56.6, and 55.7 in N_{2}, Ar, and CO_{2} media with thicknesses of 125, 79, and 126  μg/cm^{2}, respectively, while those of ^{136}Xe attain equilibrium at 40.5, 40.1, and 40.3 in N_{2}, Ar, and CO_{2} media with thicknesses of 163, 95, and 139  μg/cm^{2}, respectively. The equilibrium charge states of ^{136}Xe are acceptable for acceleration by the subsequent cyclotron. The measured data of ^{238}U were used to devise an empirical formula for the prediction of the equilibrium charge state in gaseous media over the energy region of 0.01–60  MeV/nucleon. The equilibrium charge state of ^{136}Xe as predicted by the devised formula is in good agreement with the data.

  6. Thermal and electrodynamical formation mechanisms of overloaded AC states and charging rate influence on their stable dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskii, V.; Watanabe, K.; Awaji, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Overloaded AC states are investigated to understand the mechanisms of there formation. •There exist characteristic time windows defining the existence of stable overloaded AC states. •Limiting values of the electric field, current and temperature are higher than the quench ones. -- Abstract: The macroscopic thermal and electrodynamical phenomena occurring in high-T c superconductors during overloaded AC states are theoretically investigated to understand the basic physical mechanisms, which are characteristic for the stable formation of the operating modes when the peak current exceeds the critical current of a superconductor during AC modes. It is shown that there exist characteristic time windows defining the existence of stable overloaded AC states. They identify the stability boundary of the overloaded AC states. Therefore, there is the maximum allowable value of a peak current of stable overloaded AC regimes at the given charging rate, cooling conditions and properties of a superconductor and a matrix. The results obtained prove that the limiting peak current is higher than the corresponding quench current defining the stability margin of DC states. It monotonically increases with the charging rate. Besides, in the stable overloaded AC states, the peak values of the electric field and temperature may be also noticeably higher than the corresponding quench values. They depend on the peak current and charging rate at the given cooling conditions. As a result, high-T c superconducting tapes can stably work under intensive AC modes without instability onset when the peak of applied currents may significantly exceed not only the critical current but also the corresponding values of DC-quench currents

  7. Inline state of health estimation of lithium-ion batteries using state of charge calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasi, Saeed; Ghorbani, Reza; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2015-12-01

    The determination of state-of-health (SOH) and state-of-charge (SOC) is challenging and remains as an active research area in academia and industry due to its importance for Li-ion battery applications. The estimation process poses more challenges after substantial battery aging. This paper presents an inline SOH and SOC estimation method for Li-ion battery packs, specifically for those based on LiFePO4 chemistry. This new hybridized SOC and SOH estimator can be used for battery packs. Inline estimated model parameters were used in a compounded SOC + SOH estimator consisting of the SOC calculation based on coulomb counting method as an expedient approach and an SOH observer using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) technique for calibrating the estimates from the coulomb counting method. The algorithm's low SOC and SOH estimation error, fast response time, and less-demanding computational requirement make it practical for on-board estimations. The simulation and experimental results, along with the test bed structure, are presented to validate the proposed methodology on a single cell and a 3S1P LiFePO4 battery pack.

  8. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in non-aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polar phase and thus leading to less swelling of reverse .... ues were restricted up to the limit at which no phase separation was ..... The lower panel of figure 1 also indicates that the slopes of ... probe in its ground and excited states.55.

  9. Characterization of Final State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberly, Brandon M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through final state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the final state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing final state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dTπ and dσ/dθπ for muon-neutrino charged current charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of final state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain final state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.

  10. An intramolecular charge transfer state of carbonyl carotenoids: implications for excited state dynamics of apo-carotenals and retinal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Kaligotla, S.; Chábera, P.; Frank, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 22 (2011), s. 1463-9076 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoid * retinal * excited-state dynamics * charge-transfer state Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  11. Higher-moment measurements of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measurements of the various moments, such as mean, standard deviation (σ), skewness (S) and kurtosis (κ) of the net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from √(s NN )=7.7 to 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at RHIC. This work has been done with the aim to locate the critical point on the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as well as to the correlation length of the system which diverges in an ideal infinite thermodynamic system at the critical point. For a finite system, existing for a finite time, a non-monotonic behavior of these variables would indicate the presence of the critical point. Furthermore, we also present the moment products Sσ, κσ 2 of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of collision centrality and energy. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments and their products have been compared with different models

  12. A Killing tensor for higher dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes with NUT charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the recently discovered family of higher dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes with an extra NUT-like parameter. We show that the inverse metric is additively separable after multiplication by a simple function. This allows us to separate the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, showing that geodesic motion is integrable on this background. The separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is intimately linked to the existence of an irreducible Killing tensor, which provides an extra constant of motion. We also demonstrate that the Klein-Gordon equation for this background is separable

  13. Origin of interface states and oxide charges generated by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    The randomly located trivalent silicon atoms are shown to account for the thermally generated interface states at the SiO 2 -Si interface. The interface state density is greatly reduced in water containing ambients at low temperatures (450 0 C) by forming trivalent silicon hydroxide bonds. Interface states are regenerated when the /triple bond/Si-OH bonds are broken by ionizing radiation and the OH ions are drifted away. In the bulk of the oxide film, the trivalent silicon and the interstitial oxygen donor centers are shown to be responsible for the heat and radiation generated positive space charge build-up (oxide charge) in thermally grown silicon oxide

  14. Target life time of laser ion source for low charge state ion production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue,T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

    2008-06-23

    Laser ion source (LIS) produces ions by irradiating pulsed high power laser shots onto the solid state target. For the low charge state ion production, laser spot diameter on the target can be over several millimeters using a high power laser such as Nd:YAG laser. In this case, a damage to the target surface is small while there is a visible crater in case of the best focused laser shot for high charge state ion production (laser spot diameter can be several tens of micrometers). So the need of target displacement after each laser shot to use fresh surface to stabilize plasma is not required for low charge state ion production. We tested target lifetime using Nd:YAG laser with 5 Hz repetition rate. Also target temperature and vacuum condition were recorded during experiment. The feasibility of a long time operation was verified.

  15. Glauber amplitudes for transitions from low lying states in hydrogen atom by charged particle impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Srivastava, M K [Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-07-01

    The Glauber amplitudes for the general transition nlm ..-->.. n'1'm' in charged particle - hydrogen atom collisions have been obtained in the form of a one-dimensional integral. The final expression involves only a few hypergeometric functions if n is not too large and is particularly suited to study excitation to highly excited states from a low lying state.

  16. Charged spin textures over the Moore-Read quantum Hall state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romers, J.C.; Huijse, L.; Schoutens, K.

    2011-01-01

    We study the composite Charged Spin Texture (CST) over the Moore-Read quantum Hall state that arises when a collection of elementary CSTs are moved to the same location. Following an algebraic approach based on the characteristic pair correlations of the Moore- Read state, we and that the resulting

  17. Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.

  18. Modulation of nitrogen vacancy charge state and fluorescence in nanodiamonds using electrochemical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaveli, Sinan; Gaathon, Ophir; Wolcott, Abraham; Sakakibara, Reyu; Shemesh, Or A; Peterka, Darcy S; Boyden, Edward S; Owen, Jonathan S; Yuste, Rafael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-04-12

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV(-)) center in diamond has attracted strong interest for a wide range of sensing and quantum information processing applications. To this end, recent work has focused on controlling the NV charge state, whose stability strongly depends on its electrostatic environment. Here, we demonstrate that the charge state and fluorescence dynamics of single NV centers in nanodiamonds with different surface terminations can be controlled by an externally applied potential difference in an electrochemical cell. The voltage dependence of the NV charge state can be used to stabilize the NV(-) state for spin-based sensing protocols and provides a method of charge state-dependent fluorescence sensing of electrochemical potentials. We detect clear NV fluorescence modulation for voltage changes down to 100 mV, with a single NV and down to 20 mV with multiple NV centers in a wide-field imaging mode. These results suggest that NV centers in nanodiamonds could enable parallel optical detection of biologically relevant electrochemical potentials.

  19. Modulation of nitrogen vacancy charge state and fluorescence in nanodiamonds using electrochemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaveli, Sinan; Gaathon, Ophir; Wolcott, Abraham; Sakakibara, Reyu; Shemesh, Or A.; Peterka, Darcy S.; Boyden, Edward S.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Yuste, Rafael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV-) center in diamond has attracted strong interest for a wide range of sensing and quantum information processing applications. To this end, recent work has focused on controlling the NV charge state, whose stability strongly depends on its electrostatic environment. Here, we demonstrate that the charge state and fluorescence dynamics of single NV centers in nanodiamonds with different surface terminations can be controlled by an externally applied potential difference in an electrochemical cell. The voltage dependence of the NV charge state can be used to stabilize the NV- state for spin-based sensing protocols and provides a method of charge state-dependent fluorescence sensing of electrochemical potentials. We detect clear NV fluorescence modulation for voltage changes down to 100 mV, with a single NV and down to 20 mV with multiple NV centers in a wide-field imaging mode. These results suggest that NV centers in nanodiamonds could enable parallel optical detection of biologically relevant electrochemical potentials.

  20. Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B.

    2014-01-01

    We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.

  1. Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Due to higher power quality, lower conversion loss, and more DC loads, there has been an increasing awareness on DC microgrid. Previous emphasis has been on equal power sharing among different units in the DC microgrid, while overlooking the coordination of the energy storage units to maintain...... the State-of-Charge balance. In this paper, a new droop method based on voltage scheduling for State-of-Charge balance is proposed to keep the SoC balance for the energy storage units. The proposed method has the advantage of avoiding the stability problem existed in traditional methods based on droop gain...... scheduling. Simulation experiment is taken in Matlab on a DC microgrid with two distributed energy storage units. The simulation results show that the proposed method has successfully achieved SoC balance during the load changes while maintaining the DC bus voltage within the allowable range....

  2. The average equilibrium charge-states of heavy ions with Z > 60 stripped in He and H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessian, Yu.T.; Lobanov, Yu.V.; Popeko, A.G.; Abdullin, F.Sh.; Kharitonov, Yu.P.; Ledovskoy, A.A.; Tsyganov, Yu.S.

    1991-01-01

    The equilibrium charges of heavy ions (61 < Z < 101) with energies from 5 to 100 MeV stripped in He and H2 have been measured. New empirical formulae for the average charge state are presented. (orig.)

  3. Calculation of charge-state ratios for satellite Tor I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion of ions in a satellite plasma torus is presently modeled in terms of a one-dimensional random walk in which the particle source is at 0, the particle sink is at an N value that is an integer greater than 2, and the scale size of the diffusion cell is unity. The probability distribution function of the number of steps to exit for an ion is obtained and used in a model which incorporates ionization by electron impact to derive steady state expressions for the ratio of doubly to singly ionized ions, as well as the total number of ions in the torus. The results thus obtained are applied to the torus of the Jovian satellite Io, in order to predict mean residence times for sulfur and oxygen ions.

  4. Evaluating the "Evaluative State": Implications for Research in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the "evaluative state" that is, public management-based evaluation systems--in the context of experiences in the United Kingdom and New Zealand, and suggests that further research is needed to examine problems in the evaluative state itself, in how market competition impacts upon it, and how academic oligarchies influence the…

  5. State Higher Education Performance Funding: Data, Outcomes, and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg, David A.; Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2014-01-01

    As states explore strategies for increasing educational attainment levels, attention is being paid to performance funding. This study asks, "Does the introduction of performance funding programs affect degree completion among participating states?" Utilizing a quasi-experimental research design we find limited evidence that performance…

  6. Superposition Principle in Auger Recombination of Charged and Neutral Multicarrier States in Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaifeng; Lim, Jaehoon; Klimov, Victor I

    2017-08-22

    Application of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in optical and optoelectronic devices is often complicated by unintentional generation of extra charges, which opens fast nonradiative Auger recombination pathways whereby the recombination energy of an exciton is quickly transferred to the extra carrier(s) and ultimately dissipated as heat. Previous studies of Auger recombination have primarily focused on neutral and, more recently, negatively charged multicarrier states. Auger dynamics of positively charged species remains more poorly explored due to difficulties in creating, stabilizing, and detecting excess holes in the QDs. Here we apply photochemical doping to prepare both negatively and positively charged CdSe/CdS QDs with two distinct core/shell interfacial profiles ("sharp" versus "smooth"). Using neutral and charged QD samples we evaluate Auger lifetimes of biexcitons, negative and positive trions (an exciton with an extra electron or a hole, respectively), and multiply negatively charged excitons. Using these measurements, we demonstrate that Auger decay of both neutral and charged multicarrier states can be presented as a superposition of independent elementary three-particle Auger events. As one of the manifestations of the superposition principle, we observe that the biexciton Auger decay rate can be presented as a sum of the Auger rates for independent negative and positive trion pathways. By comparing the measurements on the QDs with the "sharp" versus "smooth" interfaces, we also find that while affecting the absolute values of Auger lifetimes, manipulation of the shape of the confinement potential does not lead to violation of the superposition principle, which still allows us to accurately predict the biexciton Auger lifetimes based on the measured negative and positive trion dynamics. These findings indicate considerable robustness of the superposition principle as applied to Auger decay of charged and neutral multicarrier states

  7. Study of the cold charge transfer state separation at the TQ1/PC71 BM interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Linares, Mathieu

    2017-05-30

    Charge transfer (CT) state separation is one of the most critical processes in the functioning of an organic solar cell. In this article, we study a bilayer of TQ1 and PC 71 BM molecules presenting disorder at the interface, obtained by means of Molecular Dynamics. The study of the CT state splitting can be first analyzed through the CT state splitting diagram, introduced in a previous work. Through this analysis, we identify the possibility of CT state splitting within Marcus Theory in function of the electric field. Once the right range of electric fields has been identified, we perform Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to estimate percentages and times for the CT state splitting and the free charge carriers collection. Statistical information extracted from these simulations allows us to highlight the importance of polarization and to test the limits of the predictions given by the CT state splitting diagram. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Quantum State Transmission in a Superconducting Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Valado, María Martínez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Hybrids consisting of macroscopic superconducting circuits and microscopic components, such as atoms and spins, have the potential of transmitting an arbitrary state between different quantum species, leading to the prospective of high-speed operation and long-time storage of quantum information. Here we propose a novel hybrid structure, where a neutral-atom qubit directly interfaces with a superconducting charge qubit, to implement the qubit-state transmission. The highly-excited Rydberg atom located inside the gate capacitor strongly affects the behavior of Cooper pairs in the box while the atom in the ground state hardly interferes with the superconducting device. In addition, the DC Stark shift of the atomic states significantly depends on the charge-qubit states. By means of the standard spectroscopic techniques and sweeping the gate voltage bias, we show how to transfer an arbitrary quantum state from the superconducting device to the atom and vice versa. PMID:27922087

  9. State of charge classification for lithium-ion batteries using impedance based features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Felder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the electrification of the drive train of passenger cars takes place, and the task of obtaining precise knowledge about the condition of the on board batteries gains importance. Due to a flat open circuit voltage (OCV to state of charge (SoC characteristic of lithium ion batteries, methods employed in applications with other cell chemistries cannot be adapted. Exploiting the higher significance of the impedance for state estimation for that chemistry, new impedance based features are proposed by this work. To evaluate the suitability of these features, simulations have been conducted using a simplified on-board power supply net as excitation source. The simulation outcome has been investigated regarding the cross correlation factor rxy and in a polynomial regression scenario. The results of the simulations show a best case error below 1 % SoC, which is 3 percentage points lower than using terminal voltage and impedance. When increasing the measurement uncertainty, the difference remains around 2 percent points.

  10. Coherent and Semiclassical States of a Charged Particle in a Constant Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, T. C.; Pereira, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    The method of integrals of motion is used to construct families of generalized coherent states of a nonrelativistic spinless charged particle in a constant electric field. Families of states, differing in the values of their standard deviations at the initial time, are obtained. Depending on the initial values of the standard deviations, and also on the electric field, it turns out to be possible to identify some families with semiclassical states.

  11. State-selective charge transfer cross sections for light ion impact of atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D. R. [University of North Texas; Stancil, Phillip C. [University of Georgia, Athens; Havener, C. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the utility of diagnosing plasma properties such as impurity concentration and spatial distribution, and plasma temperature and rotation, by detection of photon emission following capture of electrons from atomic hydrogen to excited states of multiply charged ions, new calculations of state-selective charge transfer involving light ions have been carried out using the atomic orbital close-coupling and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods. By comparing these with results of other approaches applicable in a lower impact energy regime, and by benchmarking them using key experimental data, knowledge of the cross sections can be made available across the range parameters needed by fusion plasma diagnostics.

  12. Adaptive Kalman filter based state of charge estimation algorithm for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hong; Liu Xu; Wei Min

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of the battery state of charge (SOC) estimation, in this paper we take a lithium-ion battery as an example to study the adaptive Kalman filter based SOC estimation algorithm. Firstly, the second-order battery system model is introduced. Meanwhile, the temperature and charge rate are introduced into the model. Then, the temperature and the charge rate are adopted to estimate the battery SOC, with the help of the parameters of an adaptive Kalman filter based estimation algorithm model. Afterwards, it is verified by the numerical simulation that in the ideal case, the accuracy of SOC estimation can be enhanced by adding two elements, namely, the temperature and charge rate. Finally, the actual road conditions are simulated with ADVISOR, and the simulation results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of battery SOC estimation under actual road conditions. Thus, its application scope in engineering is greatly expanded. (paper)

  13. State of charge estimation for lithium-ion pouch batteries based on stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Haifeng; Yu, Chenchen; Wei, Xuezhe; Sun, Zechang

    2017-01-01

    State of charge (SOC) estimation is one of the important tasks of battery management system (BMS). Being different from other researches, a novel method of SOC estimation for pouch lithium-ion battery cells based on stress measurement is proposed. With a comprehensive experimental study, we find that, the stress of the battery during charge/discharge is composed of the static stress and the dynamic stress. The static stress, which is the measured stress in equilibrium state, corresponds to SOC, this phenomenon facilitates the design of our stress-based SOC estimation. The dynamic stress, on the other hand, is influenced by multiple factors including charge accumulation or depletion, current and historical operation, thus a multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established. Based on the relationship between static stress and SOC, as well as the dynamic stress modeling, the SOC estimation method is founded. Experimental results show that the stress-based method performs well with a good accuracy, and this method offers a novel perspective for SOC estimation. - Highlights: • A State of Charge estimator based on stress measurement is proposed. • The stress during charge and discharge is investigated with comprehensive experiments. • Effects of SOC, current, and operation history on battery stress are well studied. • A multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established.

  14. Proton-coupled electron transfer versus hydrogen atom transfer: generation of charge-localized diabatic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirjoosingh, Andrew; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-03-24

    The distinction between proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanisms is important for the characterization of many chemical and biological processes. PCET and HAT mechanisms can be differentiated in terms of electronically nonadiabatic and adiabatic proton transfer, respectively. In this paper, quantitative diagnostics to evaluate the degree of electron-proton nonadiabaticity are presented. Moreover, the connection between the degree of electron-proton nonadiabaticity and the physical characteristics distinguishing PCET from HAT, namely, the extent of electronic charge redistribution, is clarified. In addition, a rigorous diabatization scheme for transforming the adiabatic electronic states into charge-localized diabatic states for PCET reactions is presented. These diabatic states are constructed to ensure that the first-order nonadiabatic couplings with respect to the one-dimensional transferring hydrogen coordinate vanish exactly. Application of these approaches to the phenoxyl-phenol and benzyl-toluene systems characterizes the former as PCET and the latter as HAT. The diabatic states generated for the phenoxyl-phenol system possess physically meaningful, localized electronic charge distributions that are relatively invariant along the hydrogen coordinate. These diabatic electronic states can be combined with the associated proton vibrational states to generate the reactant and product electron-proton vibronic states that form the basis of nonadiabatic PCET theories. Furthermore, these vibronic states and the corresponding vibronic couplings may be used to calculate rate constants and kinetic isotope effects of PCET reactions.

  15. State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey

    2016-01-01

    Texas Guaranteed Student Loan Corporation (TG) provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This 2016 issue of "State…

  16. The Quality Movements in Higher Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard I.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of various quality control strategies in American higher education looks at and compares Total Quality Management (TQM), outcomes assessment, Deming's 14 points, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, the ISO 9000 series, restructuring, reengineering, and performance indicators. It is suggested that colleges and universities will…

  17. Hyperstate matrix models : extending demographic state spaces to higher dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, G.; Caswell, H.

    2016-01-01

    1. Demographic models describe population dynamics in terms of the movement of individuals among states (e.g. size, age, developmental stage, parity, frailty, physiological condition). Matrix population models originally classified individuals by a single characteristic. This was enlarged to two

  18. Performance on the low charge state laser ion source in BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Costanzo, M.; DeSanto, L.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kanesue, T.; Lambiase, R.; Lehn, D.; Liaw, C. J.; McCafferty, D.; Morris, J.; Olsen, R.; Pikin, A.; Raparia, D.; Steszyn, A.; Ikeda, S.

    2015-09-07

    On March 2014, a Laser Ion Source (LIS) was commissioned which delivers high-brightness, low-charge-state heavy ions for the hadron accelerator complex in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Since then, the LIS has provided many heavy ion species successfully. The low-charge-state (mostly singly charged) beams are injected to the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), where ions are then highly ionized to fit to the following accelerator’s Q/M acceptance, like Au32+. Recently we upgraded the LIS to be able to provide two different beams into EBIS on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Now the LIS is simultaneously providing beams for both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL).

  19. Localized chemical switching of the charge state of nitrogen-vacancy luminescence centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanley, Toby W.; Martin, Aiden A.; Aharonovich, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Aharonovich@uts.edu.au; Toth, Milos, E-mail: Milos.Toth@uts.edu.au [School of Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology, Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

    2014-08-11

    We present a direct-write chemical technique for controlling the charge state of near-surface nitrogen vacancy centers (NVs) in diamond by surface fluorination. Fluorination of H-terminated diamond is realized by electron beam stimulated desorption of H{sub 2}O in the presence of NF{sub 3} and verified with environmental photoyield spectroscopy (EPYS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. PL spectra of shallow NVs in H- and F-terminated nanodiamonds show the expected dependence of the NV charge state on their energetic position with respect to the Fermi-level. EPYS reveals a corresponding difference between the ionization potential of H- and F-terminated diamond. The electron beam fluorination process is highly localized and can be used to fluorinate H-terminated diamond, and to increase the population of negatively charged NV centers.

  20. Charge-changing processes of heavy ions in matter. Non-equilibrium charge state distribution of sulfur ions after carbon foil penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Makoto; Shibata, Hiromi; Sataka, Masao; Sugai, Hiroyuki; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Sugiyama, Koji; Komaki, Ken-ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Charge state distributions of 2.0 MeV/u (64 MeV) sulfur ions of various initial charge states (6+, 10+, 11+, 13+) after passing through 0.9, 1.1, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.7, 6.9 and 10 μg/cm 2 carbon foils have been studied experimentally using the heavy ion spectrometer 'ENMA'. Measured charge state distributions do not flat off to establish equilibrium within the measured thickness, proving to be the first systematic measurement of non-equilibrium charge state distribution using solid target at this energy range. The mean charge states and their distribution widths almost saturate to 12.4 and 1.03, respectively, for all initial charge states examined. Calculation with ETACHA code, developed by Rozet et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 107 (1996) 67], is employed, although the present impact energy is lower than the assumed energy region for this code. It was also confirmed that a certain portion of 16 O q+ (q=3, 4, 7) beam is included in 32 S q+ (q=6, 8, 14) beam provided from the Tandem Accelerator, which originates in the Negative Ion Source forming O 2 - . (author)

  1. The quality movement in higher education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, H S

    1995-09-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI), often implemented as part of an integrated management system called total quality management (TQM), has been institutionalized within many manufacturing, military and service organizations in the USA as a response to declining market share, low productivity and customer complaints about poor quality. Signs and symptoms suggest that higher education has similar problems which are systematic and relate to the quality ot higher education, financing, facilities, curriculum and graduates. In the 1990S, the quality movement has begun to spread to the field of education as a means of diagnosing and treating the problems widely recognized as residing in US educational institutions, especially in colleges and universities. Many business leaders and authors believe that 'quality is the most important strategic issue facing top management in the 1990s'. This belief arises partly due to the fact that managers are beginning to understand the relationship between healthy, high quality organizations and healthy profits. This article traces the recent US quality movement from its roots in manufacturing and the military, its adoption by service institutions, and its more recent application by higher education institutions.

  2. Resource Sharing Networks for Higher Education at State Level

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Nair, R.

    1990-01-01

    The project proposal on Development of an Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) became a public document by 1990. The aim of INFLIBNET as provided in the report was modernizing college and university libraries in India and connecting them through a nation-wide high speed data network using the state-of-art technologies for the optimum utilization of information. INFLIBNET was envisaged to be a major player in promoting scholarly communication among academicians and researchers in India....

  3. Adaptive state-of-charge indication system for a Li-ion battery-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Danilov, D.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate State-of-Charge (SoC) and remammg run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. So far, no one succeeded in coming up with a SoC system that is accurate enough under all realistic user conditions. An algorithm that

  4. Fermion bound states in the Kerr-Newman field with magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'tsov, D.V.; Ershov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Approximate solutions of Dirac equations for 1/2 spin charged particles in the Kerr-Newman field are constructed. An equation for quasistationary states energy, taking account of their possible decay due to tunnelling in the black hole, is obtained. A problem of existence of zero modes is discussed

  5. A Real-Time evaluation system for a state-of-charge indication algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. This paper describes a real- time evaluation LabVIEW system for an SoC algorithm, that calculates the SoC in [%] and also the remaining run-time available under the

  6. A real-time evaluation system for a state-of-charge indication algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. This paper describes a real- time evaluation LabVIEW system for an SoC algorithm, that calculates the SoC in [%] and also the remaining run-time available under the

  7. Kalman-variant estimators for state of charge in lithium-sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propp, Karsten; Auger, Daniel J.; Fotouhi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are now commercially available, offering high specific energy density, low production costs and high safety. However, there is no commercially-available battery management system for them, and there are no published methods for determining state of charge in situ...

  8. Smart and accurate state-of-charge indication in portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate state-of-charge (SoC) and remaining run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user-convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. However, the known methods of SoC indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The

  9. Smart and accurate State-of-Charge indication in Portable Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate state-of-charge (SoC) and remaining run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user-convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. However, the known methods of SoC indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The

  10. Symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state of meso-linked BODIPY dyads

    KAUST Repository

    Whited, Matthew T.; Patel, Niral M.; Roberts, Sean T.; Allen, Kathryn; Djurovich, Peter I.; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of symmetric BODIPY dyads where the chromophores are attached at the meso position, using either a phenylene bridge or direct linkage. Both molecules undergo symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state, and the directly linked dyad serves as a visible-light-absorbing analogue of 9,9′-bianthryl.

  11. Charge-Transfer States in Organic Solar Cells: Understanding the Impact of Polarization, Delocalization, and Disorder

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Zilong

    2017-05-08

    We investigate the impact of electronic polarization, charge delocalization, and energetic disorder on the charge-transfer (CT) states formed at a planar C60/pentacene interface. The ability to examine large complexes containing up to seven pentacene molecules and three C60 molecules allows us to take explicitly into account the electronic polarization effects. These complexes are extracted from a bilayer architecture modeled by molecular dynamics simulations and evaluated by means of electronic-structure calculations based on long-range-separated functionals (ωB97XD and BNL) with optimized range-separation parameters. The energies of the lowest charge-transfer states derived for the large complexes are in very good agreement with the experimentally reported values. The average singlet-triplet energy splittings of the lowest CT states are calculated not to exceed 10 meV. The rates of geminate recombination as well as of dissociation of the triplet excitons are also evaluated. In line with experiment, our results indicate that the pentacene triplet excitons generated through singlet fission can dissociate into separated charges on a picosecond time scale, despite the fact that their energy in C60/pentacene heterojunctions is slightly lower than the energies of the lowest CT triplet states.

  12. CrossRef Large numbers of cold positronium atoms created in laser-selected Rydberg states using resonant charge exchange

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, R; Kolthammer, WS; Richerme, P; Müllers, A; Walz, J; Grzonka, D; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, MC; Hessels, EA; Storry, CH; Weel, M

    2016-01-01

    Lasers are used to control the production of highly excited positronium atoms (Ps*). The laser light excites Cs atoms to Rydberg states that have a large cross section for resonant charge-exchange collisions with cold trapped positrons. For each trial with 30 million trapped positrons, more than 700 000 of the created Ps* have trajectories near the axis of the apparatus, and are detected using Stark ionization. This number of Ps* is 500 times higher than realized in an earlier proof-of-principle demonstration (2004 Phys. Lett. B 597 257). A second charge exchange of these near-axis Ps* with trapped antiprotons could be used to produce cold antihydrogen, and this antihydrogen production is expected to be increased by a similar factor.

  13. Unusual inhomogeneous microstructures in charge glass state of PbCrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Kosuke; Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Ogata, Takahiro; Sakai, Yuki; Azuma, Masaki; Ishii, Yui; Mori, Shigeo

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the microstructures and local structures of perovskite PbCrO3, which shows a metal-to-insulator transition and a 9.8% volume collapse, by electron diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). It is revealed that the charge glass state is characterized by the unique coexistence of the crystalline state with a cubic symmetry on average and the noncrystalline state. HAADF-STEM observation at atomic resolution revealed that Pb ions were displaced from the ideal A site position of the cubic perovskite structure, which gives rise to characteristic diffuse scatterings around the fundamental Bragg reflections. These structural inhomogeneities are crucial to the understanding of the unique physical properties in the charge glass state of PbCrO3.

  14. Hybrid fuzzy charged system search algorithm based state estimation in distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidananda Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new hybrid charged system search (CSS algorithm based state estimation in radial distribution networks in fuzzy framework. The objective of the optimization problem is to minimize the weighted square of the difference between the measured and the estimated quantity. The proposed method of state estimation considers bus voltage magnitude and phase angle as state variable along with some equality and inequality constraints for state estimation in distribution networks. A rule based fuzzy inference system has been designed to control the parameters of the CSS algorithm to achieve better balance between the exploration and exploitation capability of the algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed fuzzy adaptive charged system search (FACSS algorithm has been tested on standard IEEE 33-bus system and Indian 85-bus practical radial distribution system. The obtained results have been compared with the conventional CSS algorithm, weighted least square (WLS algorithm and particle swarm optimization (PSO for feasibility of the algorithm.

  15. Tracking excited-state charge and spin dynamics in iron coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenkai; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    to spin state, can elucidate the spin crossover dynamics of [Fe(2,2'-bipyridine)(3)](2+) on photoinduced metal-to-ligand charge transfer excitation. We are able to track the charge and spin dynamics, and establish the critical role of intermediate spin states in the crossover mechanism. We anticipate......Crucial to many light-driven processes in transition metal complexes is the absorption and dissipation of energy by 3d electrons(1-4). But a detailed understanding of such non-equilibrium excited-state dynamics and their interplay with structural changes is challenging: a multitude of excited...... states and possible transitions result in phenomena too complex to unravel when faced with the indirect sensitivity of optical spectroscopy to spin dynamics(5) and the flux limitations of ultrafast X-ray sources(6,7). Such a situation exists for archetypal poly-pyridyl iron complexes, such as [Fe(2...

  16. X-ray spectroscopy: An experimental technique to measure charge state distribution during ion–solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prashant, E-mail: prashant@iuac.res.in; Nandi, Tapan

    2016-01-08

    Charge state distributions of {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni projectile ions passing through thin carbon foils have been studied in the energy range of 1.65–2.69 MeV/u using a novel method involving the X-ray spectroscopy technique. Interestingly the charge state distribution in the bulk shows Lorentzian behavior instead of usual Gaussian distribution. Further, different parameters of charge state distribution like mean charge state, distribution width and asymmetric parameter are determined and compared with the empirical calculations and ETACHA predictions. It is found that the X-ray measurement technique is appropriate to determine the mean charge state during the ion–solid interaction or in the bulk. Interestingly, empirical formalism predicts much lower mean charge states of the projectile ions compared to X-ray measurements which clearly indicate multi-electron capture from the target surface. The ETACHA predictions and experimental results are found to be comparable for the present energy regime. - Highlights: • New method is proposed to determine charge state distribution using X-ray technique. • Charge state distribution parameters are calculated and compared with various theoretical predictions. • X-ray technique is found to be appropriate to segregate the charge state distribution in the bulk from the target surface. • ETACHA predictions are found satisfactory in the energy range of ≥1.65 MeV/u.

  17. DOE Solid-State Lighting in Higher Ed Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Curry, Ku' Uipo J.

    2010-07-20

    The focus of the workshop was on higher education facilities because college and university campuses are an important market for lighting products and they use almost every kind of luminaire on the market. This workshop was seen as a chance for SSL manufacturers large and small to get the inside scoop from a group of people that specify, pay for, install, use, maintain, and dispose of lighting systems for nearly every type of application. Workshop attendees explored the barriers to SSL adoption, the applications where SSL products could work better than existing technologies, and where SSL luminaires are currently falling short. This report summarizes the Workshop activities and presentation highlights.

  18. Detecting charging state of ultra-fine particles: instrumental development and ambient measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laakso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ion-induced nucleation in the lower atmosphere has been discussed for a long time. In this article we describe a new instrumental setup – Ion-DMPS – which can be used to detect contribution of ion-induced nucleation on atmospheric new particle formation events. The device measures positively and negatively charged particles with and without a bipolar charger. The ratio between "charger off" to "charger on" describes the charging state of aerosol particle population with respect to equilibrium. Values above one represent more charges than in an equilibrium (overcharged state, and values below unity stand for undercharged situation, when there is less charges in the particles than in the equilibrium. We performed several laboratory experiments to test the operation of the instrument. After the laboratory tests, we used the device to observe particle size distributions during atmospheric new particle formation in a boreal forest. We found that some of the events were clearly dominated by neutral nucleation but in some cases also ion-induced nucleation contributed to the new particle formation. We also found that negative and positive ions (charged particles behaved in a different manner, days with negative overcharging were more frequent than days with positive overcharging.

  19. Tuning of tunneling current noise spectra singularities by localized states charging

    OpenAIRE

    Mantsevich, V. N.; Maslova, N. S.

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of theoretical investigations of tunneling current noise spectra in a wide range of applied bias voltage. Localized states of individual impurity atoms play an important role in tunneling current noise formation. It was found that switching "on" and "off" of Coulomb interaction of conduction electrons with two charged localized states results in power law singularity of low-frequency tunneling current noise spectrum ($1/f^{\\alpha}$) and also results on high frequency com...

  20. Role of projectile charge state in convoy electron emission by fast protons colliding with LiF(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, I. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)]. E-mail: ialdazabal@sq.ehu.es; Gravielle, M.S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arnau, A. [Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Ponce, V.H. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, San Sebastian (Spain); Centro Atomico Bariloche, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2005-05-01

    Target ionization and projectile ionization differential cross sections are used to calculate the electron emission spectra by fast proton impact on ionic crystal surfaces under grazing incidence conditions. Both bare protons and neutral hydrogen species are considered. We use a planar potential approach to determine the projectile trajectory that later on allows us to calculate the charge state fractions. We show that, although the fraction of protons is significantly higher, the contribution from neutral hydrogen ionization has to be considered. The energy and angular dependence of the spectra is analyzed.

  1. Role of projectile charge state in convoy electron emission by fast protons colliding with LiF(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, I.; Gravielle, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.; Arnau, A.; Ponce, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    Target ionization and projectile ionization differential cross sections are used to calculate the electron emission spectra by fast proton impact on ionic crystal surfaces under grazing incidence conditions. Both bare protons and neutral hydrogen species are considered. We use a planar potential approach to determine the projectile trajectory that later on allows us to calculate the charge state fractions. We show that, although the fraction of protons is significantly higher, the contribution from neutral hydrogen ionization has to be considered. The energy and angular dependence of the spectra is analyzed

  2. State-of-Charge Estimation and Active Cell Pack Balancing Design of Lithium Battery Power System for Smart Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. C. Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated state-of-charge (SOC estimation model and active cell balancing of a 12-cell lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 battery power system. The strong tracking cubature extended Kalman filter (STCEKF gave an accurate SOC prediction compared to other Kalman-based filter algorithms. The proposed groupwise balancing of the multiple SOC exhibited a higher balancing speed and lower balancing loss than other cell balancing designs. The experimental results demonstrated the robustness and performance of the battery when subjected to current load profile of an electric vehicle under varying ambient temperature.

  3. Integrated and Inclusive Higher Education in Vladimir State University: Current State and Development Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegorov I.N.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the many years of experience in methodological support and training at the Center of Professional Education for the Disabled and at the “Inclusive Education” Research and Educational Center of the Vladimir State University. At these centers the work is aimed at establishing a system of continuous higher inclusive education for persons with hearing and visual impairments. The paper focuses on the issues concerning the organization of educational process and the adaptation of learning materials for students with hearing and visual impairments; it addresses the problem of creating a system of academic support for students with disabilities and providing psychological and educational assistance to individuals with hearing and visual impairments in the system of higher education.

  4. Exploration of charge states of balanol analogues acting as ATP-competitive inhibitors in kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, Ari; Yusuf, Muhammad; Liu, Fei; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2017-12-28

    (-)-Balanol is an ATP mimic that inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) with limited selectivity. While PKA is a tumour promoter, PKC isozymes act as tumour promoters or suppressors, depending on the cancer type. In particular, PKCε is frequently implicated in cancer promotion, making it a potential target for anticancer drugs. To improve isozyme selectivity of balanol, exhaustive structural and activity relationship (SAR) studies have been performed in the last two decades, but with limited success. More recently, fluorination on balanol has shown improved selectivity for PKCε, although the fluorine effect is not yet clearly understood. Understanding the origin to this fluorine-based selectivity will be valuable for designing better balanol-based ATP mimicking inhibitors. Computational approaches such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can decipher the fluorine effect, provided that correct charges have been assigned to a ligand. Balanol analogues have multiple ionisable functional groups and the effect of fluorine substitutions on the exact charge state of each analogue bound to PKA and to PKCε needs to be thoroughly investigated in order to design highly selective inhibitors for therapeutic applications. We explored the charge states of novel fluorinated balanol analogues using MD simulations. For different potential charge states of these analogues, Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (MMGBSA) binding energy values were computed. This study suggests that balanol and the most potent fluorinated analogue (5S fluorine substitution on the azepane ring), have charges on the azepane ring (N1), and the phenolic (C6''OH) and the carboxylate (C15''O 2 H) groups on the benzophenone moiety, when bound to PKCε as well as PKA. To the best our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the phenolate group is charged in balanol and its analogues binding to the ATP site of PKCε. Correct charge

  5. Research on State-of-Charge (SOC) estimation using current integration based on temperature compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.; Shen, Y.; Liu, X. T.; Zeng, G. J.; Liu, D. C.

    2017-11-01

    The traditional current integral method for the state-of-charge (SOC) estimation has an unusable estimation accuracy because of the current measuring error. This paper proposed a closed-loop temperature compensation method to improve the SOC estimation accuracy of current integral method by eliminating temperature drift. Through circuit simulation result in Multisim, the stability of current measuring accuracy is improved by more than 10 times. In a designed 70 charge-discharge experimental circle, the SOC estimation error with temperature compensation had 30 times less than error in normal situation without compensation.

  6. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  7. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2011-12-18

    Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. 20 years after “Pressure Ionization: its role in metal vapour vacuum arc plasmas and ion sources” appeared in vol. 1 of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, it is a great opportunity to re-visit the issue of pressure ionization, a non-ideal plasma effect, and put it in perspective to the many other factors that influence observable charge state distributions, such as the role of the cathode material, the path in the density-temperature phase diagram, the “noise” in vacuum arc plasma as described by a fractal model approach, the effects of external magnetic fields and charge exchange collisions with neutrals. A much more complex image of the vacuum arc plasma emerges putting decades of experimentation and modeling in perspective.

  8. Impact of Various Charge States of Hydrogen on Passivation of Dislocation in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lihui; Lou, Jingjing; Fu, Jiayi; Ji, Zhenguo

    2018-03-01

    Dislocation, one of typical crystallographic defects in silicon, is detrimental to the minority carrier lifetime of silicon wafer. Hydrogen passivation is able to reduce the recombination activity of dislocation, however, the passivation efficacy is strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. In this paper, a model based on the theory of hydrogen charge state control is proposed to explain the passivation efficacy of dislocation correlated to the peak temperature of thermal annealing and illumination intensity. Experimental results support the prediction of the model that a mix of positively charged hydrogen and negatively charged hydrogen at certain ratio can maximise the passivation efficacy of dislocation, leading to a better power conversion efficiency of silicon solar cell with dislocation in it.

  9. Excited state and charge-carrier dynamics in perovskite solar cell materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, Carlito S., Jr.; Tian, Yuxi; Sundström, Villy; Scheblykin, Ivan G.

    2016-02-01

    Organo-metal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have attracted enormous interest in recent years as materials for application in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion. These hybrid semiconductors seem to have the potential to challenge traditional silicon technology. In this review we will give an account of the recent development in the understanding of the fundamental light-induced processes in OMHPs from charge-photo generation, migration of charge carries through the materials and finally their recombination. Our and other literature reports on time-resolved conductivity, transient absorption and photoluminescence properties are used to paint a picture of how we currently see the fundamental excited state and charge-carrier dynamics. We will also show that there is still no fully coherent picture of the processes in OMHPs and we will indicate the problems to be solved by future research.

  10. Excited state and charge-carrier dynamics in perovskite solar cell materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponseca, Carlito S Jr; Tian, Yuxi; Sundström, Villy; Scheblykin, Ivan G

    2016-01-01

    Organo-metal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have attracted enormous interest in recent years as materials for application in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion. These hybrid semiconductors seem to have the potential to challenge traditional silicon technology. In this review we will give an account of the recent development in the understanding of the fundamental light-induced processes in OMHPs from charge-photo generation, migration of charge carries through the materials and finally their recombination. Our and other literature reports on time-resolved conductivity, transient absorption and photoluminescence properties are used to paint a picture of how we currently see the fundamental excited state and charge-carrier dynamics. We will also show that there is still no fully coherent picture of the processes in OMHPs and we will indicate the problems to be solved by future research. (topical review)

  11. Cross sections for charge change in argon and equilibrium charge states of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions passing through argon and carbon targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumal, A.N.; Horvat, V.; Watson, R.L.; Peng, Y.; Fruchey, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Cross sections for single and multiple electron capture and loss were measured for 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions, traveling in argon gas, as a function of incident charge state. Multiple electron loss in single collisions was found to contribute significantly to the total loss cross section. The measured cross sections were used to determine the average equilibrium charge in argon by three different methods. The resulting charges were in good agreement with each other and with the effective charge calculated from stopping powers. In order to investigate the gas-solid (density) effect on the average equilibrium charge, the charge distributions of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions emerging from carbon foils of different thicknesses were measured. It was found that the average equilibrium charge of the uranium ions emerging from the solid is 41% larger than that of the uranium ions emerging from the gas. The energy dependences of the average equilibrium charges for uranium ions exiting carbon and argon targets were examined by combining the present results with previous results of other investigators and compared with the predictions of a semiempirical formula developed recently by Schiwietz and Grande

  12. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  13. Correlation between the Open-Circuit Voltage and Charge Transfer State Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-08-26

    In order to further improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), it is essential to better understand the factors that limit the open-circuit voltage (VOC). Previous work has sought to correlate the value of VOC in donor-acceptor (D-A) OPVs to the interface energy level offset (EDA). In this work, measurements of electroluminescence are used to extract the charge transfer (CT) state energy for multiple small molecule D-A pairings. The CT state as measured from electroluminescence is found to show better correlation to the maximum VOC than EDA. The difference between EDA and the CT state energy is attributed to the Coulombic binding energy of the CT state. This correlation is demonstrated explicitly by inserting an insulating spacer layer between the donor and acceptor materials, reducing the binding energy of the CT state and increasing the measured VOC. These results demonstrate a direct correlation between maximum VOC and CT state energy.

  14. Optimal control of photovoltaic systems by a new battery state-of-charge observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giglioli, R; Zini, G; Conte, M; Raugi, M

    1988-06-01

    In photovoltaic power plants, the ability to accurately determine battery state-of-charge at any given time can reduce the risk of curtailed energy and allow more precise and less costly battery sizing. In this paper, a new state-of-charge observer, based on an original equivalent electric network of the lead-acid battery, is shown and used to develop an optimal control of the system. Hence, a management plan for a complete photovoltaic system is studied. Finally, a comparison between a simulation of the proposed plan and experimental data from a monitored photovoltaic plant, with very simple management requirements, is made and discussed. The present work was carried out within the framework of the Italian Finalized Energy Project-2.

  15. dc Resistivity of Quantum Critical, Charge Density Wave States from Gauge-Gravity Duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoretti, Andrea; Areán, Daniel; Goutéraux, Blaise; Musso, Daniele

    2018-04-01

    In contrast to metals with weak disorder, the resistivity of weakly pinned charge density waves (CDWs) is not controlled by irrelevant processes relaxing momentum. Instead, the leading contribution is governed by incoherent, diffusive processes which do not drag momentum and can be evaluated in the clean limit. We compute analytically the dc resistivity for a family of holographic charge density wave quantum critical phases and discuss its temperature scaling. Depending on the critical exponents, the ground state can be conducting or insulating. We connect our results to dc electrical transport in underdoped cuprate high Tc superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the possible relevance of unstable, semilocally critical CDW states to the strange metallic region.

  16. dc Resistivity of Quantum Critical, Charge Density Wave States from Gauge-Gravity Duality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoretti, Andrea; Areán, Daniel; Goutéraux, Blaise; Musso, Daniele

    2018-04-27

    In contrast to metals with weak disorder, the resistivity of weakly pinned charge density waves (CDWs) is not controlled by irrelevant processes relaxing momentum. Instead, the leading contribution is governed by incoherent, diffusive processes which do not drag momentum and can be evaluated in the clean limit. We compute analytically the dc resistivity for a family of holographic charge density wave quantum critical phases and discuss its temperature scaling. Depending on the critical exponents, the ground state can be conducting or insulating. We connect our results to dc electrical transport in underdoped cuprate high T_{c} superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the possible relevance of unstable, semilocally critical CDW states to the strange metallic region.

  17. Coherent and Semiclassical States of a Charged Particle in Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    In the present article, we extend our study (Bagrov et al., Braz. J. Phys. 45, 369, 2015) of generalized coherent states (GCS) of a one-dimensional particle considering such important physical system as a three-dimensional charged particle in electric and magnetic fields. Constructing GCS in a many-dimensional case, we meet technical complications that make the consideration nontrivial and instructive. The GCS of the system under consideration are constructed. We study the properties of this GCS such as completeness relations, minimization of uncertainty relations, and so on. We point out which family of the obtained GCS of a charged particle in a magnetic field is related to the CS constructed first by Malkin and Man'ko. We obtain conditions under which some of the GCS can be considered as semiclassical states (SS).

  18. High-Power Collective Charging of a Solid-State Quantum Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Dario; Campisi, Michele; Andolina, Gian Marcello; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Quantum information theorems state that it is possible to exploit collective quantum resources to greatly enhance the charging power of quantum batteries (QBs) made of many identical elementary units. We here present and solve a model of a QB that can be engineered in solid-state architectures. It consists of N two-level systems coupled to a single photonic mode in a cavity. We contrast this collective model ("Dicke QB"), whereby entanglement is genuinely created by the common photonic mode, to the one in which each two-level system is coupled to its own separate cavity mode ("Rabi QB"). By employing exact diagonalization, we demonstrate the emergence of a quantum advantage in the charging power of Dicke QBs, which scales like √{N } for N ≫1 .

  19. Attosecond Charge Migration with TDDFT: Accurate Dynamics from a Well-Defined Initial State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Adam; Hernandez, Samuel; Mauger, François; Abanador, Paul M; LaMaster, Daniel J; Gaarde, Mette B; Schafer, Kenneth J; Lopata, Kenneth

    2017-09-07

    We investigate the ability of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to capture attosecond valence electron dynamics resulting from sudden X-ray ionization of a core electron. In this special case the initial state can be constructed unambiguously, allowing for a simple test of the accuracy of the dynamics. The response following nitrogen K-edge ionization in nitrosobenzene shows excellent agreement with fourth-order algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC(4)) results, suggesting that a properly chosen initial state allows TDDFT to adequately capture attosecond charge migration. Visualizing hole motion using an electron localization picture (ELF), we provide an intuitive chemical interpretation of the charge migration as a superposition of Lewis dot resonance structures.

  20. Coherent and Semiclassical States of a Charged Particle in Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    In the present article, we extend our study (Bagrov et al., Braz. J. Phys. 45, 369, 2015) of generalized coherent states (GCS) of a one-dimensional particle considering such important physical system as a three-dimensional charged particle in electric and magnetic fields. Constructing GCS in a many-dimensional case, we meet technical complications that make the consideration nontrivial and instructive. The GCS of the system under consideration are constructed. We study the properties of this GCS such as completeness relations, minimization of uncertainty relations, and so on. We point out which family of the obtained GCS of a charged particle in a magnetic field is related to the CS constructed first by Malkin and Man'ko. We obtain conditions under which some of the GCS can be considered as semiclassical states (SS).

  1. The state of itinerant charge carriers and thermoelectric effects in correlated oxide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzemsky, A.L.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-10-01

    We analyzed the physics of transport processes and, in particular, the thermoelectric power in the mercurocuprates and other cuprates to get a better insight into the state of the carriers in these compounds. The actual problems related to the complicated mechanisms of carriers scattering above Tc are discussed. The experimental studies of thermoelectric power showed that the state of carriers in cuprates can be influenced by many complicated scattering processes, however the underlying mechanism for the linear decreasing of the TEP with increasing the temperature for most hole-doped HTSC cuprates is still not yet known. The actual problems related to the complicated mechanisms of carriers scattering above Tc are discussed for a few models of charge transport. A comparison between the analytical and experimental results is also made. It is concluded that the crucial factor for the understanding of the transport properties of correlated oxide metals is the nature of itinerant charge carriers, i.e. renormalized quasiparticles. (author)

  2. Charge Carrier Generation Followed by Triplet State Formation, Annihilation, and Carrier Recreation in PBDTTT-C:PC 60 BM Photovoltaic Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Gehrig, Dominik W.

    2015-05-22

    Triplet state formation after photoexcitation of low-bandgap polymer:fullerene blends has recently been demonstrated, however, the precise mechanism and its impact on solar cell performance is still under debate. Here, we study exciton dissociation, charge carrier generation and triplet state formation in low-bandgap polymer PBDTTT-C:PC60BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends by a combination of fs-µs broadband Vis-NIR transient absorption (TA) pump-probe spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis. We found sub-ps exciton dissociation and charge generation followed by sub-ns triplet state creation. The carrier dynamics and triplet state dynamics exhibited a very pronounced intensity dependence indicating non-geminate recombination of free carriers is the origin of triplet formation in these blends. Triplets were found to be the dominant state present on the nanosecond timescale. Surprisingly, the carrier population increased again on the ns-µs timescale. We attribute this to triplet-triplet annihilation and the formation of higher energy excited states that subsequently underwent charge transfer. This unique dip and recovery of the charge population is a clear indication that triplets are formed by non-geminate recombination, as such a kinetic is incompatible with a monomolecular triplet state formation process.

  3. Charge Carrier Generation Followed by Triplet State Formation, Annihilation, and Carrier Recreation in PBDTTT-C:PC 60 BM Photovoltaic Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Gehrig, Dominik W.; Howard, Ian A.; Laquai, Fré dé ric

    2015-01-01

    Triplet state formation after photoexcitation of low-bandgap polymer:fullerene blends has recently been demonstrated, however, the precise mechanism and its impact on solar cell performance is still under debate. Here, we study exciton dissociation, charge carrier generation and triplet state formation in low-bandgap polymer PBDTTT-C:PC60BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends by a combination of fs-µs broadband Vis-NIR transient absorption (TA) pump-probe spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis. We found sub-ps exciton dissociation and charge generation followed by sub-ns triplet state creation. The carrier dynamics and triplet state dynamics exhibited a very pronounced intensity dependence indicating non-geminate recombination of free carriers is the origin of triplet formation in these blends. Triplets were found to be the dominant state present on the nanosecond timescale. Surprisingly, the carrier population increased again on the ns-µs timescale. We attribute this to triplet-triplet annihilation and the formation of higher energy excited states that subsequently underwent charge transfer. This unique dip and recovery of the charge population is a clear indication that triplets are formed by non-geminate recombination, as such a kinetic is incompatible with a monomolecular triplet state formation process.

  4. An RVB state with fermionic charges and bosonic spins: Mean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flensberg, K.; Hedegard, P.; Brix Pedersen, M.

    1989-01-01

    We consider a representation of the Hubbard model, in which the charge carriers are fermions and the spin carriers are bosons. We show that there exist a mean-field solution with a condensate of spin-singlets and we characterize the low temperature behavior of the quasiparticles. Finally we calculate the tunneling spectrum for a normal metal-RVB state tunnel junction and suggest the tunneling experiment as a probe of the statistics of the RVB quasiparticles. (orig.)

  5. High charge state metal ion production in vacuum arc ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.

    1994-01-01

    The vacuum arc is a rich source of highly ionized metal plasma that can be used to make a high current metal ion source. Vacuum arc ion sources have been developed for a range of applications including ion implantation for materials surface modification, particle accelerator injection for fundamental nuclear physics research, and other fundamental and applied purposes. Typically the source is repetitively pulsed with pulse length of order a millisecond and duty cycle or order 1% and operation of a dc embodiment has been demonstrated also. Beams have been produced from over 50 of the solid metals of the periodic table, with mean ion energy up to several hundred keV and with peak (pulsed) beam current up to several amperes. The ion charge state distribution has been extensively studied. Ion spectra have been measured for a wide range of metallic cathode materials, including Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U, as well as compound and alloy cathode materials such as TiC, SiC, UC, PbS, brass, and stainless steel. The ions generated are in general multiply-stripped with a mean charge state of from 1 to 3, depending on the particular metal species, and the charge state distribution can have components from Q = 1+ to 6+. Here the authors review the characteristics of vacuum arc ion sources from the perspective of their high charge state metal ion production

  6. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  7. A high gradient superconducting quadrupole for a low charge state ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting quadrupole magnet has been designed for use as the focusing element in a low charge state linac proposed at Argonne. The expected field gradient is 350 T/m at an operating current of 53 A, and the bore diameter is 3 cm. The use of rare earth material holmium for pole tips provides about 10% more gradient then iron pole tips. The design and the status of construction of a prototype singlet magnet is described

  8. Influence of capture to excited states of multiply charged ion beams colliding with small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, P; Monti, J M; Fojón, O A; Hanssen, J; Rivarola, R D

    2015-01-01

    Electron capture by multiply charged ions impacting on small molecules is theoretically investigated. Particular attention is paid to the case of biological targets. The interest is focused on the importance of the transition to excited final states which can play a dominant role on the total capture cross sections. Projectiles at intermediate and high collision energies are considered. Comparison with existing experimental data is shown. (paper)

  9. 76 FR 17391 - Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education...: United States (U.S.)- Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program Notice inviting applications for new... projects that include a plan to work with an institution of higher education (IHE) in another country in...

  10. Positron study of negative charge states in order-disorder ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troev, T.; Berovsky, K.; Peneva, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    2001-07-01

    The positive positron charge opens the possibility for determining the changes in charge states in technologically important order-disorder ferroelectrics. Here we show that dipole polarization disordering within domains affects the positron annihilation mechanism. The positron lifetime parameters in triglycine sulphate (TGS) (NH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}COOH){sub 3}H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Rochelle salt (RS) NaKC{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6}.4H{sub 2}O and Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, at different temperatures and gamma-irradiation doses depend on the charge point defects. The increase of the positron long lifetime component {tau}{sub 2} is proportional to the temperature and gamma-irradiation dose. In gamma irradiated TGS positrons are trapped in defect electron states of oxigen ions of two radicals CH{sub 2}COO{sup -} and NH{sub 3}CHCOO{sup -}. In RS positrons are trapped also in defect electron states of oxygen ions and OH groups. (orig.)

  11. Mechanisms of charge-state determination in hydrogen-based impurity complexes in crystalline germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, J.

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments suggest that hydrogen may become bound to, and then tunnel around, substitutional carbon, silicon, or oxygen impurities in crystalline germanium. All these complexes are electrically active; [H,C] and [H,Si] are shallow acceptors, while [H,O] is a shallow donor. This paper attempts to elucidate the basic physical mechanisms controlling the charge state of such complexes as a function of the choice of the substitutional atom. A minimal-basis Bethe-cluster approach is used with the cluster comprising the ten-atom tetrahedral cage (including the substitutional atom) and enclosed H site, the latter coupled to all ten atoms of the cage. The important local correlation effect which tends to favor single occupation of the H site is modeled with a Hubbard-type term at that site. The charge state of the [H,C], [H,Si], and [H,O] complexes is associated with double occupation of the H site. Four aspects of the model are involved in favoring double occupation: (1) a low value of the H-site energy, (2) a reduced local correlation effect at the H site, (3) small hybridization between the H site and cage, and (4) a low value of the substitutional-site energy relative to that of the host. Results for the charge state for H at the cage center and for H near the substitutional atom are discussed in detail. Several useful formal results for local self-energies and local Green's functions are presented

  12. A Novel Active Online State of Charge Based Balancing Approach for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs during Fast Charging Process in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiudong Cui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Non-uniformity of Lithium-ion cells in a battery pack is inevitable and has become the bottleneck to the pack capacity, especially in the fast charging process. Therefore, a balancing approach is essentially required. This paper proposes an active online cell balancing approach in a fast charging process using the state of charge (SOC as balancing criterion. The goal of this approach is to complete pack balancing within the limited charging time. An adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF is applied to estimate the pack cell SOC during the charging process to obtain accurate results under modeling errors and measurement noises. To implement the proposed AEKF, only one additional current sensor is required to obtain the current of each cell required for the SOC estimation. An experimental platform is established to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results show that the proposed balancing approach with the SOC as a balancing criterion can overcome the challenges of non-uniformity and flat voltage plateau and charge more capacity into a LiFePO4 battery pack than those with the terminal voltage as a balancing criterion in the fast charging process.

  13. Projectile- and charge-state-dependent electron yields from ion penetration of solids as a probe of preequilibrium stopping power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothard, H.; Schou, Jørgen; Groeneveld, K.-O.

    1992-01-01

    Kinetic electron-emission yields gamma from swift ion penetration of solids are proportional to the (electronic) stopping power gamma approximately Beta-S*, if the preequilibrium evolution of the charge and excitation states of the positively charged ions is taken into account. We show...... by investigating the "transport factor" beta, the energy spectrum of directly ejected recoil electrons and the evolution of ionic charge state inside solids. Estimates of the energy-loss fraction leading to electron emission and the effective charges of the ions near the surface allow a quantitative description...

  14. Charge collection and pore filling in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, Henry J; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Chen, Peter; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Graetzel, Michael; Cesar, Ilkay

    2008-01-01

    The solar to electrical power conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) incorporating a solid-state organic hole-transporter can be over 5%. However, this is for devices significantly thinner than the optical depth of the active composites and by comparison to the liquid electrolyte based DSCs, which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 10%, more than doubling of this efficiency is clearly attainable if all the steps in the photovoltaic process can be optimized. Two issues are currently being addressed by the field. The first aims at enhancing the electron diffusion length by either reducing the charge recombination or enhancing the charge transport rates. This should enable a larger fraction of photogenerated charges to be collected. The second, though less actively investigated, aims to improve the physical composite formation, which in this instance is the infiltration of mesoporous TiO 2 with the organic hole-transporter 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxypheny-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD). Here, we perform a broad experimental study to elucidate the limiting factors to the solar cell performance. We first investigate the charge transport and recombination in the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell under realistic working conditions via small perturbation photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements. From these measurements we deduce that the electron diffusion length near short-circuit is as long as 20 μm. However, at applied biases approaching open-circuit potential under realistic solar conditions, the diffusion length becomes comparable with the film thickness, ∼2 μm, illustrating that real losses to open-circuit voltage, fill factor and hence efficiency are occurring due to ineffective charge collection. The long diffusion length near short-circuit, on the other hand, illustrates that another process, separate from ineffective charge collection, is rendering the solar cell less than ideal. We investigate the process

  15. Charge collection and pore filling in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaith, Henry J; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Chen, Peter; Cesar, Ilkay; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-10-22

    The solar to electrical power conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) incorporating a solid-state organic hole-transporter can be over 5%. However, this is for devices significantly thinner than the optical depth of the active composites and by comparison to the liquid electrolyte based DSCs, which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 10%, more than doubling of this efficiency is clearly attainable if all the steps in the photovoltaic process can be optimized. Two issues are currently being addressed by the field. The first aims at enhancing the electron diffusion length by either reducing the charge recombination or enhancing the charge transport rates. This should enable a larger fraction of photogenerated charges to be collected. The second, though less actively investigated, aims to improve the physical composite formation, which in this instance is the infiltration of mesoporous TiO(2) with the organic hole-transporter 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxypheny-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD). Here, we perform a broad experimental study to elucidate the limiting factors to the solar cell performance. We first investigate the charge transport and recombination in the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell under realistic working conditions via small perturbation photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements. From these measurements we deduce that the electron diffusion length near short-circuit is as long as 20 µm. However, at applied biases approaching open-circuit potential under realistic solar conditions, the diffusion length becomes comparable with the film thickness, ∼2 µm, illustrating that real losses to open-circuit voltage, fill factor and hence efficiency are occurring due to ineffective charge collection. The long diffusion length near short-circuit, on the other hand, illustrates that another process, separate from ineffective charge collection, is rendering the solar cell less than ideal. We investigate the

  16. Fragile charge order in the nonsuperconducting ground state of the underdoped high-temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B S; Harrison, N; Zhu, Z; Balakirev, F; Ramshaw, B J; Srivastava, A; Sabok-Sayr, S A; Sabok, S A; Dabrowski, B; Lonzarich, G G; Sebastian, Suchitra E

    2015-08-04

    The normal state in the hole underdoped copper oxide superconductors has proven to be a source of mystery for decades. The measurement of a small Fermi surface by quantum oscillations on suppression of superconductivity by high applied magnetic fields, together with complementary spectroscopic measurements in the hole underdoped copper oxide superconductors, point to a nodal electron pocket from charge order in YBa2Cu3(6+δ). Here, we report quantum oscillation measurements in the closely related stoichiometric material YBa2Cu4O8, which reveals similar Fermi surface properties to YBa2Cu3(6+δ), despite the nonobservation of charge order signatures in the same spectroscopic techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, that revealed signatures of charge order in YBa2Cu3(6+δ). Fermi surface reconstruction in YBa2Cu4O8 is suggested to occur from magnetic field enhancement of charge order that is rendered fragile in zero magnetic fields because of its potential unconventional nature and/or its occurrence as a subsidiary to more robust underlying electronic correlations.

  17. Charge transfer excitations from excited state Hartree-Fock subsequent minimization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theophilou, Iris; Tassi, M.; Thanos, S.

    2014-01-01

    Photoinduced charge-transfer processes play a key role for novel photovoltaic phenomena and devices. Thus, the development of ab initio methods that allow for an accurate and computationally inexpensive treatment of charge-transfer excitations is a topic that nowadays attracts a lot of scientific attention. In this paper we extend an approach recently introduced for the description of single and double excitations [M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 113, 690 (2013); M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 124107 (2013)] to allow for the description of intermolecular charge-transfer excitations. We describe an excitation where an electron is transferred from a donor system to an acceptor one, keeping the excited state orthogonal to the ground state and avoiding variational collapse. These conditions are achieved by decomposing the space spanned by the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground state orbitals into four subspaces: The subspace spanned by the occupied orbitals that are localized in the region of the donor molecule, the corresponding for the acceptor ones and two more subspaces containing the virtual orbitals that are localized in the neighborhood of the donor and the acceptor, respectively. Next, we create a Slater determinant with a hole in the subspace of occupied orbitals of the donor and a particle in the virtual subspace of the acceptor. Subsequently we optimize both the hole and the particle by minimizing the HF energy functional in the corresponding subspaces. Finally, we test our approach by calculating the lowest charge-transfer excitation energies for a set of tetracyanoethylene-hydrocarbon complexes that have been used earlier as a test set for such kind of excitations

  18. Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedein, A.M.; Ghoneim, A.A.; Kandil, M.K.; Kadad, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K, L 1 , L 2,3 , M 1 , M 2,3 and M 4,5 subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe 7+ , Xe 8+ , Xe 9+ and Xe 1 0 + ions, and the charged X 8+ ions are the highest. The main product from the L 1 shell ionization is found to be Xe 8+ , Xe 9+ ions, while the charged Xe 8+ ions predominate at L 2,3 hole states. The charged Xe 6+ , Xe 7+ and Xe 8+ ions mainly yield from 3s 1/2 and 3p 1/2 , 3/2 ionization, while Xe in 3d 3/2 , 5/2 hole states mainly turns into Xe 4+ and Xe 5+ ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data. (author)

  19. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and ChargeTransfer Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development andimplementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probeapparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation ofinvestigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specificattention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highlysymmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes thedevelopment and construction of the experimental apparatus usedthroughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss theinvestigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resultingfrom a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of itsmethyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we areable to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provideevidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT)type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of thecarotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidencefor the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systemsand found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigationof the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsiblefor the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allowsfor a more detailed understanding of the importance of structuraldynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting.

  20. Absence of Intramolecular Singlet Fission in Pentacene-Perylenediimide Heterodimers: The Role of Charge Transfer State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wu, Yishi; Chen, Jianwei; Wang, Lanfen; Liu, Yanping; Yu, Zhenyi; Yao, Jiannian; Fu, Hongbing

    2017-11-16

    A new class of donor-acceptor heterodimers based on two singlet fission (SF)-active chromophores, i.e., pentacene (Pc) and perylenediimide (PDI), was developed to investigate the role of charge transfer (CT) state on the excitonic dynamics. The CT state is efficiently generated upon photoexcitation. However, the resulting CT state decays to different energy states depending on the energy levels of the CT state. It undergoes extremely rapid deactivation to the ground state in polar CH 2 Cl 2 , whereas it undergoes transformation to a Pc triplet in nonpolar toluene. The efficient triplet generation in toluene is not due to SF but CT-mediated intersystem crossing. In light of the energy landscape, it is suggested that the deep energy level of the CT state relative to that of the triplet pair state makes the CT state actually serve as a trap state that cannot undergoes an intramolecular singlet fission process. These results provide guidance for the design of SF materials and highlight the requisite for more widely applicable design principles.

  1. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics and higher excited states of a non-polynomial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drigo Filho, E.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1989-03-01

    Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is used to evaluate new excited states of a non-polynomial potential. This illustrates a method of evaluating higher excited states of quantum mechanical potentials. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  2. Adaptive unscented Kalman filtering for state of charge estimation of a lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fengchun; Hu, Xiaosong; Zou, Yuan; Li, Siguang

    2011-01-01

    An accurate battery State of Charge estimation is of great significance for battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. This paper presents an adaptive unscented Kalman filtering method to estimate State of Charge of a lithium-ion battery for battery electric vehicles. The adaptive adjustment of the noise covariances in the State of Charge estimation process is implemented by an idea of covariance matching in the unscented Kalman filter context. Experimental results indicate that the adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based algorithm has a good performance in estimating the battery State of Charge. A comparison with the adaptive extended Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter, and unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms shows that the proposed State of Charge estimation method has a better accuracy. -- Highlights: → Adaptive unscented Kalman filtering is proposed to estimate State of Charge of a lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles. → The proposed method has a good performance in estimating the battery State of Charge. → A comparison with three other Kalman filtering algorithms shows that the proposed method has a better accuracy.

  3. Charge transfer complex states in diketopyrrolopyrrole polymers and fullerene blends: Implications for organic solar cell efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, D.; Yu, P.; Kanimozhi, C.; Patil, S.; Guha, S.

    2011-12-01

    The spectral photocurrent characteristics of two donor-acceptor diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based copolymers (PDPP-BBT and TDPP-BBT) blended with a fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were studied using Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy (FTPS) and monochromatic photocurrent (PC) method. PDPP-BBT:PCBM shows the onset of the lowest charge transfer complex (CTC) state at 1.42 eV, whereas TDPP-BBT:PCBM shows no evidence of the formation of a midgap CTC state. The FTPS and PC spectra of P3HT:PCBM are also compared. The larger singlet state energy difference of TDPP-BBT and PCBM compared to PDPP-BBT/P3HT and PCBM obliterates the formation of a midgap CTC state resulting in an enhanced photovoltaic efficiency over PDPP-BBT:PCBM.

  4. Electroweak-charged bound states as LHC probes of hidden forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingfeng; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin; Zheng, Rui

    2018-01-01

    We explore the LHC reach on beyond-the-standard model (BSM) particles X associated with a new strong force in a hidden sector. We focus on the motivated scenario where the SM and hidden sectors are connected by fermionic mediators ψ+,0 that carry SM electroweak charges. The most promising signal is the Drell-Yan production of a ψ±ψ¯ 0 pair, which forms an electrically charged vector bound state ϒ± due to the hidden force and later undergoes resonant annihilation into W±X . We analyze this final state in detail in the cases where X is a real scalar ϕ that decays to b b ¯, or a dark photon γd that decays to dileptons. For prompt X decays, we show that the corresponding signatures can be efficiently probed by extending the existing ATLAS and CMS diboson searches to include heavy resonance decays into BSM particles. For long-lived X , we propose new searches where the requirement of a prompt hard lepton originating from the W boson ensures triggering and essentially removes any SM backgrounds. To illustrate the potential of our results, we interpret them within two explicit models that contain strong hidden forces and electroweak-charged mediators, namely λ -supersymmetry (SUSY) and non-SUSY ultraviolet extensions of the twin Higgs model. The resonant nature of the signals allows for the reconstruction of the mass of both ϒ± and X , thus providing a wealth of information about the hidden sector.

  5. Higher USA State Resident Neuroticism Is Associated With Lower State Volunteering Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2017-12-01

    Highly neurotic persons have dispositional characteristics that tend to precipitate social anxiety that discourages formal volunteering. With the 50 American states as analytical units, Study 1 found that state resident neuroticism correlated highly ( r = -.55) with state volunteering rates and accounted for another 26.8% of the volunteering rate variance with selected state demographics controlled. Study 2 replicated Study 1 during another period and extended the association to college student, senior, secular, and religious volunteering rates. Study 3 showed state resident percentages engaged in other social behaviors involving more familiarity and fewer demands than formal volunteering related to state volunteering rates but not to neuroticism. In Study 4, state resident neuroticism largely accounted statistically for relations between state volunteering rates and state population density, collectivism, social capital, Republican preference, and well-being. This research is the first to show that state resident neuroticism is a potent predictor of state volunteering rates.

  6. Wavelet Based Denoising for the Estimation of the State of Charge for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In practical electric vehicle applications, the noise of original discharging/charging voltage (DCV signals are inevitable, which comes from electromagnetic interference and the measurement noise of the sensors. To solve such problems, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT based state of charge (SOC estimation method is proposed in this paper. Through a multi-resolution analysis, the original DCV signals with noise are decomposed into different frequency sub-bands. The desired de-noised DCV signals are then reconstructed by utilizing the inverse discrete wavelet transform, based on the sure rule. With the de-noised DCV signal, the SOC and the parameters are obtained using the adaptive extended Kalman Filter algorithm, and the adaptive forgetting factor recursive least square method. Simulation and experimental results show that the SOC estimation error is less than 1%, which indicates an effective improvement in SOC estimation accuracy.

  7. Quark charge retention in final state hadrons form deep inelastic muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, J.P.; Blum, D.; Heusse, P.; Jaffre, M.; Jacholkowska, A.; Pascaud, C.; Carr, J.; Chima, J.S.; Clifft, R.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P.R.; Oakham, F.G.; Thompson, J.C.; Figiel, J.; Hoppe, C.; Janata, F.; Preissner, H.; Rondio, E.; Studt, M.; La Torre, A. de; Dengler, F.; Derado, I.; Eckardt, V.; Manz, A.; Schmitz, N.; Shiers, J.; Wolf, G.; Arneodo, M.; Arvidson, A.; Aubert, J.J.; Becks, K.H.; Bee, C.; Benchouk, C.; Bird, I.; Boehm, E.; Braun, H.; Brown, S.; Brueck, H.; Calen, H.; Callebaut, D.; Cobb, J.H.; Combley, F.; Coughlan, J.; Court, G.R.; D'Agostini, G.; Dahlgren, S.; Davies, J.K.; Dau, W.D.; Dreyer, T.; Drees, J.; Dumont, J.J.; Dueren, M.; Edwards, A.; Ernst, T.; Ferrero, M.I.; Foster, J.; Gamet, R.; Geddes, N.; Giubellino, P.; Grafstroem, P.; Grard, F.; Gustafsson, L.; Haas, J.; Hagberg, E.; Hasert, F.J.; Hayman, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Kabuss, E.M.; Krueger, J.; Kullander, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Mohr, W.; Montanet, F.; Mount, R.P.; Paul, L.; Payre, P.; Peroni, C.; Pettingale, J.; Poetsch, M.; Renton, P.; Rith, K.; Schlagboehmer, A.; Schroeder, T.; Schultze, K.; Sloan, T.; Stier, H.E.; Stockhausen, W.; Taylor, G.; Wahlen, H.; Wallucks, W.; Whalley, M.; Williams, W.S.C.; Wheeler, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Windmolders, R.

    1984-01-01

    The net charge of final state hadrons in both the current and target fragmentation regions has been measured in a 280 GeV/c muon-proton scattering experiment. A clean kinematic separation of the two regions in the centre-of-mass rapidity is demonstrated. The dependence on chisub(Bj) of the mean net charges is found to be consistent with a large contribution of sea quarks at small chisub(Bj) and with the dominance of valence quarks at large chisub(Bj) thus giving clear confirmation of the quark-parton model. It is also shown that the leading forward hadron has a high probability of containing the struck quark. (orig.)

  8. Model of charge-state distributions for electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Edgell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model for the ion charge-state distribution (CSD in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma is presented that incorporates non-Maxwellian distribution functions, multiple atomic species, and ion confinement due to the ambipolar potential well that arises from confinement of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR heated electrons. Atomic processes incorporated into the model include multiple ionization and multiple charge exchange with rate coefficients calculated for non-Maxwellian electron distributions. The electron distribution function is calculated using a Fokker-Planck code with an ECR heating term. This eliminates the electron temperature as an arbitrary user input. The model produces results that are a good match to CSD data from the ANL-ECRII ECRIS. Extending the model to 1D axial will also allow the model to determine the plasma and electrostatic potential profiles, further eliminating arbitrary user input to the model.

  9. Frenkel-Charge-Transfer exciton intermixing theory for molecular crystals with two isolated Frenkel exciton states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Igor; Popescu, Adrian

    We develop an analytical theory for the intra-intermolecular exciton intermixing in periodic 1D chains of planar organic molecules with two isolated low-lying Frenkel exciton states, typical of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and other transition metal phthalocyanine molecules. We formulate the Hamiltonian and use the exact Bogoliubov diagonalization procedure to derive the eigen energy spectrum for the two lowest intramolecular Frenkel excitons coupled to the intermolecular charge transfer (CT) exciton state. By comparing our theoretical spectrum with available experimental CuPc absorption data, we obtain the parameters of the Frenkel-CT exciton intermixing in CuPc thin films. The two Frenkel exciton states here are spaced apart by 0.26 eV, and the charge transfer exciton state is 50 meV above the lowest Frenkel exciton. Both Frenkel excitons are strongly mixed with the CT exciton, showing the coupling constant 0.17 eV in agreement with earlier electron transport experiments. Our results can be used for the proper interpretation of the physical properties of crystalline phthalocyanines. DOE-DE-SC0007117 (I.B.), UNC-GA ROI Grant (A.P.).

  10. Charge-state distribution in close collisions of 3 MeV C2+ ions with Ag and Au atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, D.O; Arnoldbik, W.M.; Kabachnik, N.M.; Khodyrev, V.A.

    The charge-state distributions of 3 MeV carbon ions scattered over angles of 40 degrees and 60 degrees from sub-monolayers of Ag and Au atoms evaporated on a substrate and from thick layers of Ag and Au have been measured. A close similarity of the charge distributions in all cases is interpreted as

  11. State Higher Education Funding Models: An Assessment of Current and Emerging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzell, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an assessment of the current and emerging approaches used by state governments in allocating funding for higher education institutions and programs. It reviews a number of desired characteristics or outcomes for state higher education funding models, including equity, adequacy, stability, and flexibility. Although there is…

  12. Modular specification and verification for higher-order languages with state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper

    The overall topic of this thesis is modular reasoning for higher-order languages with state. The thesis consists of four mostly independent chapters that each deal with a different aspect of reasoning about higher-order languages with state. The unifying theme throughout all four chapters is higher....... The third chapter of the thesis is a case study of the C# joins library. What makes this library interesting as a case study is that it combines a lot of advanced features (higher-order code with effects, concurrency, recursion through the store, shared mutable state, and fine-grained synchronization...

  13. The electromagnetic multipole moments of the charged open-flavor {Z}_{\\bar{c}q} states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, K.; Özdem, U.

    2018-05-01

    The electromagnetic multipole moments of the open-flavor {Z}\\bar{cq} states are investigated by assuming a diquark–antidiquark picture for their internal structure and quantum numbers {J}{PC}={1}+- for their spin-parity. In particular, their magnetic and quadrupole moments are extracted in the framework of light-cone QCD sum rule by the help of the photon distribution amplitudes. The electromagnetic multipole moments of the open-flavor {Z}\\bar{cq} states are important dynamical observables, which encode valuable information on their underlying structure. The results obtained for the magnetic moments of different structures are considerably large and can be measured in future experiments. We obtain very small values for the quadrupole moments of {Z}\\bar{cq} states indicating a nonspherical charge distribution.

  14. SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN THE SOLAR CORONA: CAN NONLOCAL TRANSPORT EXPLAIN HELIOSPHERIC CHARGE STATES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    There have been several ideas proposed to explain how the Sun's corona is heated and how the solar wind is accelerated. Some models assume that open magnetic field lines are heated by Alfvén waves driven by photospheric motions and dissipated after undergoing a turbulent cascade. Other models posit that much of the solar wind's mass and energy is injected via magnetic reconnection from closed coronal loops. The latter idea is motivated by observations of reconnecting jets and also by similarities of ion composition between closed loops and the slow wind. Wave/turbulence models have also succeeded in reproducing observed trends in ion composition signatures versus wind speed. However, the absolute values of the charge-state ratios predicted by those models tended to be too low in comparison with observations. This Letter refines these predictions by taking better account of weak Coulomb collisions for coronal electrons, whose thermodynamic properties determine the ion charge states in the low corona. A perturbative description of nonlocal electron transport is applied to an existing set of wave/turbulence models. The resulting electron velocity distributions in the low corona exhibit mild suprathermal tails characterized by ''kappa'' exponents between 10 and 25. These suprathermal electrons are found to be sufficiently energetic to enhance the charge states of oxygen ions, while maintaining the same relative trend with wind speed that was found when the distribution was assumed to be Maxwellian. The updated wave/turbulence models are in excellent agreement with solar wind ion composition measurements

  15. Observation of excited state charge transfer with fs/ps-CARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Alex Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Excited state charge transfer processes are studied using the fs/ps-CARS probe technique. This probe allows for multiplexed detection of Raman active vibrational modes. Systems studied include Michler's Ketone, Coumarin 120, 4-dimethylamino-4'-nitrostilbene, and several others. The vibrational spectrum of the para di-substituted benzophenone Michler's Ketone in the first excited singlet state is studied for the first time. It is found that there are several vibrational modes indicative of structural changes of the excited molecule. A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study the simplest 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, Coumarin 120. Vibrations observed in FTIR and spontaneous Raman spectra are assigned using density functional calculations and a continuum solvation model is used to predict how observed modes are affected upon inclusion of a solvent. The low frequency modes of the excited state charge transfer species 4-dimethylamino-4{prime}-nitrostilbene are studied in acetonitrile. Results are compared to previous work on this molecule in the fingerprint region. Finally, several partially completed projects and their implications are discussed. These include the two photon absorption of Coumarin 120, nanoconfinement in cyclodextrin cavities and sensitization of titania nanoparticles.

  16. Observation of excited state charge transfer with fs/ps-CARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, Alex Jason

    2009-01-01

    Excited state charge transfer processes are studied using the fs/ps-CARS probe technique. This probe allows for multiplexed detection of Raman active vibrational modes. Systems studied include Michler's Ketone, Coumarin 120, 4-dimethylamino-4(prime)-nitrostilbene, and several others. The vibrational spectrum of the para di-substituted benzophenone Michler's Ketone in the first excited singlet state is studied for the first time. It is found that there are several vibrational modes indicative of structural changes of the excited molecule. A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study the simplest 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, Coumarin 120. Vibrations observed in FTIR and spontaneous Raman spectra are assigned using density functional calculations and a continuum solvation model is used to predict how observed modes are affected upon inclusion of a solvent. The low frequency modes of the excited state charge transfer species 4-dimethylamino-4(prime)-nitrostilbene are studied in acetonitrile. Results are compared to previous work on this molecule in the fingerprint region. Finally, several partially completed projects and their implications are discussed. These include the two photon absorption of Coumarin 120, nanoconfinement in cyclodextrin cavities and sensitization of titania nanoparticles

  17. Analytical bounds on SET charge sensitivity for qubit readout in a solid-state quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, F.; Buehler, T.M.; Brenner, R.; Hamilton, A.R.; Dzurak, A.S.; Clark, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Quantum Computing promises processing powers orders of magnitude beyond what is possible in conventional silicon-based computers. It harnesses the laws of quantum mechanics directly, exploiting the in built potential of a wave function for massively parallel information processing. Highly ordered and scaleable arrays of single donor atoms (quantum bits, or qubits), embedded in Si, are especially promising; they are a very natural fit to the existing, highly sophisticated, Si industry. The success of Si-based quantum computing depends on precisely initializing the quantum state of each qubit, and on precise reading out its final form. In the Kane architecture the qubit states are read out by detecting the spatial distribution of the donor's electron cloud using a sensitive electrometer. The single-electron transistor (SET) is an attractive candidate readout device for this, since the capacitive, or charging, energy of a SET's metallic central island is exquisitely sensitive to its electronic environment. Use of SETs as high-performance electrometers is therefore a key technology for data transfer in a solid-state quantum computer. We present an efficient analytical method to obtain bounds on the charge sensitivity of a single electron transistor (SET). Our classic Green-function analysis provides reliable estimates of SET sensitivity optimizing the design of the readout hardware. Typical calculations, and their physical meaning, are discussed. We compare them with the measured SET-response data

  18. Pressure dependence of excited-state charge-carrier dynamics in organolead tribromide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. C.; Han, J. H.; Zhao, H. F.; Yan, H. C.; Shi, Y.; Jin, M. X.; Liu, C. L.; Ding, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Excited-state charge-carrier dynamics governs the performance of organometal trihalide perovskites (OTPs) and is strongly influenced by the crystal structure. Characterizing the excited-state charge-carrier dynamics in OTPs under high pressure is imperative for providing crucial insights into structure-property relations. Here, we conduct in situ high-pressure femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy experiments to study the excited-state carrier dynamics of CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3) under hydrostatic pressure. The results indicate that compression is an effective approach to modulate the carrier dynamics of MAPbBr3. Across each pressure-induced phase, carrier relaxation, phonon scattering, and Auger recombination present different pressure-dependent properties under compression. Responsiveness is attributed to the pressure-induced variation in the lattice structure, which also changes the electronic band structure. Specifically, simultaneous prolongation of carrier relaxation and Auger recombination is achieved in the ambient phase, which is very valuable for excess energy harvesting. Our discussion provides clues for optimizing the photovoltaic performance of OTPs.

  19. Moving Towards a State of the Art Charge-Exchange Reaction Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poxon-Pearson, Terri; Nunes, Filomena; Potel, Gregory

    2017-09-01

    Charge-exchange reactions have a wide range of applications, including late stellar evolution, constraining the matrix elements for neutrinoless double β-decay, and exploring symmetry energy and other aspects of exotic nuclear matter. Still, much of the reaction theory needed to describe these transitions is underdeveloped and relies on assumptions and simplifications that are often extended outside of their region of validity. In this work, we have begun to move towards a state of the art charge-exchange reaction code. As a first step, we focus on Fermi transitions using a Lane potential in a few body, Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) framework. We have focused on maintaining a modular structure for the code so we can later incorporate complications such as nonlocality, breakup, and microscopic inputs. Results using this new charge-exchange code will be shown compared to the analysis in for the case of 48Ca(p,n)48Sc. This work was supported in part by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through the U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE- FG52-08NA2855.

  20. First study of the negative binomial distribution applied to higher moments of net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnowsky, Terence J.; Westfall, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the first four moments (mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis) and their products (κσ 2 and Sσ) of the net-charge and net-proton distributions in Au + Au collisions at √(s NN )=7.7–200 GeV from HIJING simulations has been carried out. The skewness and kurtosis and the collision volume independent products κσ 2 and Sσ have been proposed as sensitive probes for identifying the presence of a QCD critical point. A discrete probability distribution that effectively describes the separate positively and negatively charged particle (or proton and anti-proton) multiplicity distributions is the negative binomial (or binomial) distribution (NBD/BD). The NBD/BD has been used to characterize particle production in high-energy particle and nuclear physics. Their application to the higher moments of the net-charge and net-proton distributions is examined. Differences between κσ 2 and a statistical Poisson assumption of a factor of four (for net-charge) and 40% (for net-protons) can be accounted for by the NBD/BD. This is the first application of the properties of the NBD/BD to describe the behavior of the higher moments of net-charge and net-proton distributions in nucleus–nucleus collisions

  1. Emittance measurements of high charge state argon beams from a PIG source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bex, L.; Clark, D.J.; Ellsworth, C.E.; Estrella, R.M.; Gough, R.A.; Holley, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    The emittances of beams of Ar 4+ to Ar 8+ were measured in the axial and radial planes. The extraction voltage was 10 kV and the magnetic field was varied from about 0.5 to 0.6 Tesla. The anode slit was varied in its distance from the arc which was run both dc and pulsed. The emittance was found to be nearly independent of charge state but to increase with total beam current. A small bowing of the arc column was discovered, which made evaluation of mirror field effects difficult

  2. Emittance measurements of high charge state argon beams from a pig source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bex, L.; Clark, D.J.; Ellsworth, C.E.; Estrella, R.M.; Gough, R.A.; Holley, W.R.

    1975-10-01

    The emittances of beams of Ar 4+ to Ar 8+ were measured in the axial and radial planes. The extraction voltage was 10 kV and the magnetic field was varied from about 0.5 to 0.6 Tesla. The anode slit was varied in distance from the arc, which was run both dc and pulsed. The emittance was nearly independent of charge state, but increased with total beam current. A small bowing of the arc column, which made evaluation of mirror field effects difficult, was discovered

  3. MOS Capacitance—Voltage Characteristics III. Trapping Capacitance from 2-Charge-State Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie Binbin; Sah Chihtang

    2011-01-01

    Low-frequency and high-frequency capacitance—voltage curves of Metal—Oxide—Semiconductor Capacitors are presented to illustrate giant electron and hole trapping capacitances at many simultaneously present two-charge-state and one-trapped-carrier, or one-energy-level impurity species. Models described include a donor electron trap and an acceptor hole trap, both donors, both acceptors, both shallow energy levels, both deep, one shallow and one deep, and the identical donor and acceptor. Device and material parameters are selected to simulate chemically and physically realizable capacitors for fundamental trapping parameter characterizations and for electrical and optical signal processing applications. (invited papers)

  4. Incident ion charge state dependence of electron emission during slow multicharged ion-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, I.G.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Havener, C.C.; Overbury, S.H.; Robinson, M.T.; Zehner, D.M.; Meyer, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Characteristic variations in the total electron yield γ as a function of crystal azimuthal orientation are reported for slow N 2+ , N 5+ and N 6+ ions incident on a Au(011) single crystal, together with measurements of γ as a function of incident ion velocity. Kinetic electron emission is shown to arise predominantly in close collisions between incident ions and target atoms, and potential electron emission is found to be essentially constant within our present velocity range. The incident ion charge state is shown to play no role in kinetic electron emission. Extremely fast neutralization times of the order of 10 - 15 secs are needed to explain the observations

  5. Charge-state related effects in sputtering of LiF by swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, B. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Bender, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boduch, P. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Grande, P.L. [Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lebius, H.; Lelièvre, D. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Marmitt, G.G. [Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rothard, H. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Seidl, T.; Severin, D.; Voss, K.-O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Toulemonde, M., E-mail: toulemonde@ganil.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Sputtering experiments with swift heavy ions in the electronic energy loss regime were performed by using the catcher technique in combination with elastic recoil detection analysis. The angular distribution of particles sputtered from the surface of LiF single crystals is composed of a jet-like peak superimposed on a broad isotropic distribution. By using incident ions of fixed energy but different charges states, the influence of the electronic energy loss on both components is probed. We find indications that isotropic sputtering originates from near-surface layers, whereas the jet component may be affected by contributions from depth up to about 150 nm.

  6. Solvent control of charge transfer excited state relaxation pathways in [Fe(2,2 '-bipyridine)(CN)4]2-

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Kunnus, Kristjan; Harlang, Tobias C. B.

    2018-01-01

    The excited state dynamics of solvated [Fe(bpy)(CN)4]2-, where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, show significant sensitivity to the solvent Lewis acidity. Using a combination of optical absorption and X-ray emission transient spectroscopies, we have previously shown that the metal to ligand charge transfer...... the MLCT excited state relaxation dynamics of [Fe(bpy)(CN)4]2- in water, a strong Lewis acid solvent. The charge-transfer excited state is now found to decay in less than 100 femtoseconds, forming a quasi-stable metal centered excited state with a 13 picosecond lifetime. We find that this MC excited state...... developed for solar applications....

  7. State-selective charge transfer and excitation in ion-ion interactions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, R; Purkait, M

    2012-01-01

    Boundary Corrected Continuum Intermediate State (BCCIS) approximation and Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) methods are applied to calculate the charge transfer and excitation cross sections for ion-ion collisions.

  8. Trajectory effects in the negative charge-state fraction of 3He and 4He reflected from a sodium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.J.; Eckstein, W.; Verbeek, H.

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of the positive and negative charge-state fractions of He reflected from a sodium target with incident energies in the range of 1.75 keV/nucleon to 5 keV/nucleon are presented. The exit angle of the particles was held constant at 75 0 from the surface normal, while the incident angle was varied from 0 0 (normal incidence) to 75 0 . The positive charge-state fractions exhibited no incident-angle or incident-energy dependence and dependend only upon the exit energy. For normal incidence, the negative charge-state fractions were also only dependent upon the exit energy. However, for glancing incidence, the negative charge-state fractions were incident- and exit-energy dependent. These results are compared to previous results for D [1] and are discussed in terms of the trajectory-dependent formation probability of the negative ions. (orig.)

  9. Evidence for excited state intramolecular charge transfer in benzazole-based pseudo-stilbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabiano da Silveira; Descalzo, Rodrigo Roceti; Gonçalves, Paulo Fernando Bruno; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir; Rodembusch, Fabiano Severo

    2012-08-21

    Two azo compounds were obtained through the diazotization reaction of aminobenzazole derivatives and N,N-dimethylaniline using clay montmorillonite KSF as catalyst. The synthesized dyes were characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopy in solution. Their photophysical behavior was studied using UV-vis and steady-state fluorescence in solution. These dyes present intense absorption in the blue region. The spectral features of the azo compounds can be related to the pseudo-stilbene type as well as the E isomer of the dyes. Excitation at the absorption maxima does not produce emissive species in the excited state. However, excitation around 350 nm allowed dual emission of fluorescence, from both a locally excited (LE, short wavelength) and an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT, long wavelength) state, which was corroborated by a linear relation of the fluorescence maximum (ν(max)) versus the solvent polarity function (Δf) from the Lippert-Mataga correlation. Evidence of TICT in these dyes was discussed from the viscosity dependence of the fluorescence intensity in the ICT emission band. Theoretical calculations were also performed in order to study the geometry and charge distribution of the dyes in their ground and excited electronic states. Using DFT methods at the theoretical levels BLYP/Aug-cc-pVDZ, for geometry optimizations and frequency calculations, and B3LYP/6-311+G(2d), for single-point energy evaluations, the calculations revealed that the least energetic and most intense photon absorption leads to a very polar excited state that relaxes non-radioactively, which can be associated with photochemical isomerization.

  10. The charge state distribution of Be, C, Cl and Al ions at the Lund Pelletron accelerator with the recently modified terminal pumping in use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiisk, Madis; Hellborg, Ragnar; Persson, Per; Faarinen, Mikko; Skog, Goeran; Stenstroem, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    Some years ago terminal pumping for the gas stripper system at the 3 MV Lund Tandem Pelletron accelerator was installed and charge state distribution measurements using the new installation were reported. Since then, new modifications of the mechanical design of the stripper system have been made. The results of pressure profile measurements as well as the results of charge state distribution measurements in a N 2 and Ar gas stripper at different, new geometrical modifications of the stripper system using C, Be, Al and Cl ion beams are reported. A comparison between pressure profiles obtained for different geometries shows a clear improvement of the vacuum conditions outside the stripper housing for the smallest conductance pipes between the stripper system and the accelerator tubes. These improvements are also well reflected in the charge state distribution measurements, as a higher mean charge state is obtained under the same vacuum conditions in the accelerator tubes for the improved stripper system in comparison with the former mechanical design

  11. Understanding and removing surface states limiting charge transport in TiO2 nanowire arrays for enhanced optoelectronic device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xia; Chen, Liping; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Kai; Feng, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    Charge transport within electrode materials plays a key role in determining the optoelectronic device performance. Aligned single-crystal TiO 2 nanowire arrays offer an ideal electron transport path and are expected to have higher electron mobility. Unfortunately, their transport is found not to be superior to that in nanoparticle films. Here we show that the low electron transport in rutile TiO 2 nanowires is mainly caused by surface traps in relatively deep energy levels, which cannot be removed by conventional approaches, such as oxygen annealing treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate an effective wet-chemistry approach to minimize these trap states, leading to over 20-fold enhancement in electron diffusion coefficient and 62% improvement in solar cell performance. On the basis of our results, the potential of TiO 2 NWs can be developed and well-utilized, which is significantly important for their practical applications.

  12. Fractional charge and inter-Landau-level states at points of singular curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rudro R; Son, Dam Thanh

    2016-08-02

    The quest for universal properties of topological phases is fundamentally important because these signatures are robust to variations in system-specific details. Aspects of the response of quantum Hall states to smooth spatial curvature are well-studied, but challenging to observe experimentally. Here we go beyond this prevailing paradigm and obtain general results for the response of quantum Hall states to points of singular curvature in real space; such points may be readily experimentally actualized. We find, using continuum analytical methods, that the point of curvature binds an excess fractional charge and sequences of quantum states split away, energetically, from the degenerate bulk Landau levels. Importantly, these inter-Landau-level states are bound to the topological singularity and have energies that are universal functions of bulk parameters and the curvature. Our exact diagonalization of lattice tight-binding models on closed manifolds demonstrates that these results continue to hold even when lattice effects are significant. An important technological implication of these results is that these inter-Landau-level states, being both energetically and spatially isolated quantum states, are promising candidates for constructing qubits for quantum computation.

  13. Hybrid unscented particle filter based state-of-charge determination for lead-acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cell SOC (state of charge) is important for the safety and functional capabilities of the battery energy storage application system. This paper presents a hybrid UPF (unscented particle filter) based SOC determination combined model for batteries. To simulate the entire dynamic electrical characteristics of batteries, a novel combined state space model, which takes current as a control input and let SOC and two constructed parameters as state variables, is advanced to represent cell behavior. Besides that, an improved UPF method is used to evaluate cell SOC. Taking lead-acid batteries for example, we apply the established model for test. Results show that the evolved combined state space cell model simulates battery dynamics robustly with high accuracy and the prediction value based on the improved UPF method converges to the real SOC very quickly within the error of±2%. - Highlights: • This paper introduces a hybrid UPF based SOC determination model for batteries. • The evolved model takes SOC and two constructed parameters as state variables. • The combined state space cell model simulates battery dynamics robustly. • NLMS based method is employed to lessen search space and fasten convergence process. • Novel model converges to the real SOC robustly and quickly with fewer particles

  14. A contact-less method to evaluate the state of charge of nickel batteries using Foucault's eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancier, V.; Metrot, A.; Willmann, P.

    A nickel hydroxide electrode and a commercial battery have been studied by a new and contact-less impedance method, based on Foucault's eddy currents, with the aim of determining their state of charge. Four different current line distributions have been employed and the impedance versus time graphs obtained show a linear variation of this impedance during charge and discharge for all configurations. This new method allows the determination of the state of charge and, furthermore some "artifacts" obvious on these graphs may be useful to detect a deterioration of the studied material.

  15. Intercalation pathway in many-particle LiFePO4 electrode revealed by nanoscale state-of-charge mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, William C; El Gabaly, Farid; Sugar, Joshua D; Bartelt, Norman C; McDaniel, Anthony H; Fenton, Kyle R; Zavadil, Kevin R; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Lai, Wei; McCarty, Kevin F

    2013-03-13

    The intercalation pathway of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) in the positive electrode of a lithium-ion battery was probed at the ∼40 nm length scale using oxidation-state-sensitive X-ray microscopy. Combined with morphological observations of the same exact locations using transmission electron microscopy, we quantified the local state-of-charge of approximately 450 individual LFP particles over nearly the entire thickness of the porous electrode. With the electrode charged to 50% state-of-charge in 0.5 h, we observed that the overwhelming majority of particles were either almost completely delithiated or lithiated. Specifically, only ∼2% of individual particles were at an intermediate state-of-charge. From this small fraction of particles that were actively undergoing delithiation, we conclude that the time needed to charge a particle is ∼1/50 the time needed to charge the entire particle ensemble. Surprisingly, we observed a very weak correlation between the sequence of delithiation and the particle size, contrary to the common expectation that smaller particles delithiate before larger ones. Our quantitative results unambiguously confirm the mosaic (particle-by-particle) pathway of intercalation and suggest that the rate-limiting process of charging is initiating the phase transformation by, for example, a nucleation-like event. Therefore, strategies for further enhancing the performance of LFP electrodes should not focus on increasing the phase-boundary velocity but on the rate of phase-transformation initiation.

  16. Characterization of size, surface charge, and agglomeration state of nanoparticle dispersions for toxicological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jingkun; Oberdoerster, Guenter; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing the state of nanoparticles (such as size, surface charge, and degree of agglomeration) in aqueous suspensions and understanding the parameters that affect this state are imperative for toxicity investigations. In this study, the role of important factors such as solution ionic strength, pH, and particle surface chemistry that control nanoparticle dispersion was examined. The size and zeta potential of four TiO 2 and three quantum dot samples dispersed in different solutions (including one physiological medium) were characterized. For 15 nm TiO 2 dispersions, the increase of ionic strength from 0.001 M to 0.1 M led to a 50-fold increase in the hydrodynamic diameter, and the variation of pH resulted in significant change of particle surface charge and the hydrodynamic size. It was shown that both adsorbing multiply charged ions (e.g., pyrophosphate ions) onto the TiO 2 nanoparticle surface and coating quantum dot nanocrystals with polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) suppressed agglomeration and stabilized the dispersions. DLVO theory was used to qualitatively understand nanoparticle dispersion stability. A methodology using different ultrasonication techniques (bath and probe) was developed to distinguish agglomerates from aggregates (strong bonds), and to estimate the extent of particle agglomeration. Probe ultrasonication performed better than bath ultrasonication in dispersing TiO 2 agglomerates when the stabilizing agent sodium pyrophosphate was used. Commercially available Degussa P25 and in-house synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles were used to demonstrate identification of aggregated and agglomerated samples.

  17. Partisan Differences on Higher Education Accountability Policy: A Multi-State Study of Elected State Legislators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Andrew Q.

    2014-01-01

    Public institutions in the United States face a policy challenge to adapt to accountability expectations among a variety of stakeholders (Bogue & Hall, 2012; Thelin, 2004; Richardson & Martinez, 2009). Among the major stakeholders are state legislators who hold fiscal and policy influence over public institutions, but these leaders have…

  18. A Lossy Counting-Based State of Charge Estimation Method and Its Application to Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the residual capacity or state-of-charge (SoC of commercial batteries on-line without destroying them or interrupting the power supply, is quite a challenging task for electric vehicle (EV designers. Many Coulomb counting-based methods have been used to calculate the remaining capacity in EV batteries or other portable devices. The main disadvantages of these methods are the cumulative error and the time-varying Coulombic efficiency, which are greatly influenced by the operating state (SoC, temperature and current. To deal with this problem, we propose a lossy counting-based Coulomb counting method for estimating the available capacity or SoC. The initial capacity of the tested battery is obtained from the open circuit voltage (OCV. The charging/discharging efficiencies, used for compensating the Coulombic losses, are calculated by the lossy counting-based method. The measurement drift, resulting from the current sensor, is amended with the distorted Coulombic efficiency matrix. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed method is both effective and convenient.

  19. LEDs for the Implementation of Advanced Hydrogenation Using Hydrogen Charge-State Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Mun Chong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Light-induced degradation (LID of p-type Cz solar cells has plagued the industry for many decades. However, in recent years, new techniques for solving this LID have been developed, with hydrogen passivation of the boron-oxygen defects appearing to be an important contributor to the solution. Advanced hydrogenation approaches involving the control of the charge state for the hydrogen atoms in silicon to enhance their diffusivity and reactivity are developed and evaluated in this work for commercial application using a prototype industrial tool in conjunction with solar cells manufactured on commercial production lines. This prototype tool, unlike the previous successful laser-based laboratory approaches, is based on the use of LEDs for controlling the charge state of the hydrogen atoms. The illumination from the LEDs is also used in this work to passivate process-induced defects and contamination from the respective production lines with significant improvements in both efficiency and stability. The results indicate that the low-cost LED-based industrial tool performs as well as the laser-based laboratory tool for implementing these advanced hydrogen passivation approaches.

  20. Triphenylene columnar liquid crystals: spectroscopic study of triplets states and charge carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondkowski, Jens

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of three oxygenated derivatives of triphenylene (two monomers, a symmetric one and an asymmetric one, and a tetramer) by using different experimental techniques: absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy in stationary regime, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (also said single photon counting). Moreover, the author adapted an existing experiment of transient absorption spectroscopy time-resolved at the microsecond level to obtain spectra of thin layers under electric field. A cyclic voltammetry experiment and a spectro-electrochemistry experiment have also been performed. The report first presents the studied materials, the characterisation of singlet states, and the study of the effect molecular symmetry decreasing have on molecular transitions. Then, the author reports the study of cationic species of the triphenylene derivatives. The next chapters address the characterisation of derivative triplet states, and the study of energy transfer within the meso phase of one of these derivatives. The last chapters address charge carriers of columnar liquid crystals, and the molecular nature of these charge carriers

  1. 'Memory' and sustention of microdischarges in a steady-state DBD: volume plasma or surface charge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishev, Yuri; Aponin, Gregory; Balakirev, Anton; Grushin, Mikhail; Karalnik, Vladimir; Petryakov, Alexander; Trushkin, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    The results of a numerical study on the spatio-temporal behavior of transient microdischarges (MDs) in a steady-state dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) excited by a sinusoidal voltage are presented. MDs have a spatial 'memory'-every subsequent MD appears at exactly the same location occupied by the MD at the preceding half-period (HP). In the majority of cases each MD appears at its location only once during every HP. For such a case, the memory effect is not attributed to the residual surface charge deposited by the preceding MD but determined by the residual MD plasma column shunting the gap right up to the beginning of the next HP. In contrast to good memory in space, each individual MD has a large scatter with time in its appearance within every HP, i.e. there is no 'memory' concerning the phase of an applied voltage. This MD jittering within the period is attributed to the stochastic nature of partial surface breakdowns around the bases of the MD plasma column. Numerical calculations show that surface breakdown provides an MD current splash at every HP. Hence, in the steady-state DBD, the volume plasma is responsible for the existence of MD spatial 'memory' (i.e. where the MD appears), and the deposited surface charge is responsible for MD jittering in time (i.e. when the MD appears).

  2. Ni-MH batteries state-of-charge prediction based on immune evolutionary network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bo; Zhou Yanlu; Zhang Jiexin; Wang Junping; Cao Binggang

    2009-01-01

    Based on clonal selection theory, an improved immune evolutionary strategy is presented. Compared with conventional evolutionary strategy algorithm (CESA) and immune monoclonal strategy algorithm (IMSA), experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is of high efficiency and can effectively prevent premature convergence. A three-layer feed-forward neural network is presented to predict state-of-charge (SOC) of Ni-MH batteries. Initially, partial least square regression (PLSR) is used to select input variables. Then, five variables, battery terminal voltage, voltage derivative, voltage second derivative, discharge current and battery temperature, are selected as the inputs of NN. In order to overcome the weakness of BP algorithm, the new algorithm is adopted to train weights. Finally, under the state of dynamic power cycle, the predicted SOC and the actual SOC are compared to verify the proposed neural network with acceptable accuracy (5%).

  3. Long-lived charge-separated states in ligand-stabilized silver clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Pelton, Matthew; Tang, Yun; Bakr, Osman; Stellacci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Recently developed synthesis methods allow for the production of atomically monodisperse clusters of silver atoms stabilized in solution by aromatic thiol ligands, which exhibit intense absorption peaks throughout the visible and near-IR spectral regions. Here we investigated the time-dependent optical properties of these clusters. We observed two kinetic processes following ultrafast laser excitation of any of the absorption peaks: a rapid decay, with a time constant of 1 ps or less, and a slow decay, with a time constant that can be longer than 300 ns. Both time constants decrease as the polarity of the solvent increases, indicating that the two processes correspond to the formation and recombination, respectively, of a charge-separated state. The long lifetime of this state and the broad optical absorption spectrum mean that the ligand-stabilized silver clusters are promising materials for solar energy harvesting. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Long-lived charge-separated states in ligand-stabilized silver clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Pelton, Matthew

    2012-07-25

    Recently developed synthesis methods allow for the production of atomically monodisperse clusters of silver atoms stabilized in solution by aromatic thiol ligands, which exhibit intense absorption peaks throughout the visible and near-IR spectral regions. Here we investigated the time-dependent optical properties of these clusters. We observed two kinetic processes following ultrafast laser excitation of any of the absorption peaks: a rapid decay, with a time constant of 1 ps or less, and a slow decay, with a time constant that can be longer than 300 ns. Both time constants decrease as the polarity of the solvent increases, indicating that the two processes correspond to the formation and recombination, respectively, of a charge-separated state. The long lifetime of this state and the broad optical absorption spectrum mean that the ligand-stabilized silver clusters are promising materials for solar energy harvesting. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. State of charge monitoring of vanadium redox flow batteries using half cell potentials and electrolyte density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressel, Simon; Bill, Florian; Holtz, Lucas; Janshen, Niklas; Chica, Antonio; Flower, Thomas; Weidlich, Claudia; Struckmann, Thorsten

    2018-02-01

    The operation of vanadium redox flow batteries requires reliable in situ state of charge (SOC) monitoring. In this study, two SOC estimation approaches for the negative half cell are investigated. First, in situ open circuit potential measurements are combined with Coulomb counting in a one-step calibration of SOC and Nernst potential which doesn't need additional reference SOCs. In-sample and out-of-sample SOCs are estimated and analyzed, estimation errors ≤ 0.04 are obtained. In the second approach, temperature corrected in situ electrolyte density measurements are used for the first time in vanadium redox flow batteries for SOC estimation. In-sample and out-of-sample SOC estimation errors ≤ 0.04 demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Both methods allow recalibration during battery operation. The actual capacity obtained from SOC calibration can be used in a state of health model.

  6. Charged Randall-Sundrum Braneworld Type II with Higher Order Curvature Corrections from Superstring Arguments and Dominated by Quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rami, El-nabulsi Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a new class of RSII braneworld cosmology exhibiting accelerated expansion and dominated by quintessence. It is explicitly demonstrated that the universe expansion history (transition from inflation to deceleration epoch to acceleration and effective quintessence era) may naturally occur in such unified theory for some classes of inverse scalar potentials. Besides a decaying effective cosmological constant, the model incorporates an increasing black hole mass, an increasing Maxwellian electrical charge with cosmic time and a time-dependent brane tension. The cosmological model exhibits several features of cosmological and astrophysical interest for both the early and late universe consistent with recent observations, in particular the ones concerned with the gravitational constants, black holes masses and charges and variation of the gauge coupling parameters with cosmic time. One interesting mark of the constructed model concerns the fact that a black hole mass surrounded by quintessence energy may increase with time even if the horizon disappears. (general)

  7. Supervised chaos genetic algorithm based state of charge determination for LiFePO4 batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanqing

    2018-04-01

    LiFePO4 battery is developed rapidly in electric vehicle, whose safety and functional capabilities are influenced greatly by the evaluation of available cell capacity. Added with adaptive switch mechanism, this paper advances a supervised chaos genetic algorithm based state of charge determination method, where a combined state space model is employed to simulate battery dynamics. The method is validated by the experiment data collected from battery test system. Results indicate that the supervised chaos genetic algorithm based state of charge determination method shows great performance with less computation complexity and is little influenced by the unknown initial cell state.

  8. Rydberg-state reionization of multiply charged ions escaping from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedeljkovic, Lj.D.; Nedeljkovic, N.N.

    2003-01-01

    Reionization rates of Rydberg states (n>>1 and l=0, 1, and 2) of multiply charged ionic projectiles escaping solid surfaces are calculated. These rates are obtained in an analytic form as a function of the ion-surface distance R. A phenomenological model of the reionization process, based on two-state quantum dynamics, is adopted for the vicinity of the potential barrier top. The results of calculations show that ionization rates for different Rydberg states are strictly localized and relatively separated. Universality of the reionization rate as a function of the scaling parameter α, describing the turning point configurations, is demonstrated. The reionization is discussed within the framework of a nonresonant population-reionization process at intermediate ionic velocities (v∼1 a.u.). The influence of reionization on the population of ionic Rydberg states is expressed in terms of a renormalized neutralization rate. It is demonstrated that the reionization effect significantly changes the population curves for all Rydberg states. The population curves obtained correlate with beam-foil experimental data concerning the S VI, Cl VII, and Ar VIII ions

  9. InN/GaN quantum dot superlattices: Charge-carrier states and surface electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanouni, F.; Brezini, A.; Djenane, M.; Zou, Q.

    2018-03-01

    We have theoretically investigated the electron energy spectra and surface states energy in the three dimensionally ordered quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) made of InN and GaN semiconductors. The QDSL is assumed in this model to be a matrix of GaN containing cubic dots of InN of the same size and uniformly distributed. For the miniband’s structure calculation, the resolution of the effective mass Schrödinger equation is done by decoupling it in the three directions within the framework of Kronig-Penney model. We found that the electrons minibands in infinite ODSLs are clearly different from those in the conventional quantum-well superlattices. The electrons localization and charge-carrier states are very dependent on the quasicrystallographic directions, the size and the shape of the dots which play a role of the artificial atoms in such QD supracrystal. The energy spectrum of the electron states localized at the surface of InN/GaN QDSL is represented by Kronig-Penney like-model, calculated via direct matching procedure. The calculation results show that the substrate breaks symmetrical shape of QDSL on which some localized electronic surface states can be produced in minigap regions. Furthermore, we have noticed that the surface states degeneracy is achieved in like very thin bands located in the minigaps, identified by different quantum numbers nx, ny, nz. Moreover, the surface energy bands split due to the reduction of the symmetry of the QDSL in z-direction.

  10. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O.; Hockgeiger, E. [BMW Group, Powertrain Development, Energy Storage, Hufelandstrasse 4, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 C and at 3 C battery temperature. (author)

  11. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  12. Search for light charged Higgs bosons in hadronic {tau} final states with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrich, Thies

    2010-07-07

    Charged Higgs bosons are predicted in theories with a non-minimal Higgs sector like the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). At the LHC, light charged Higgs Bosons might be produced in on-shell top quark decays t{yields} H{sup +}b, if m{sub H{sup {+-}}}states to suppress the backgrounds. The subject of this study is the estimation of the sensitivity of the ATLAS detector for charged Higgs boson searches in t anti t events. Leptons from the decay chain of the second top quark allow for efficient triggering. A search strategy is developed and estimates of signal significances and exclusion limits in the MSSM m{sub h}-max scenario are presented based on Monte Carlo simulations. For an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}, the discovery of charged Higgs bosons is possible for tan{beta}>32. Exclusion limits are given for values of tan{beta}>17, significantly improving the current best limits from the Tevatron. The most important systematic uncertainties were found to be the errors on the jet energy scale and the missing transverse energy, resulting in a total systematic uncertainty of 40% on the signal. To reduce the systematic uncertainty for the most important Standard Model background, t anti t production, emphasis is put on estimating this background using data instead of Monte Carlo simulations. The t anti t background consists of two contributions, one with a correctly identified {tau}-jet in the final state, which is irreducible, and one where the hadronic {tau} decay is faked by a light parton jet. For each background a method has been developed to estimate its contribution with minimal use of Monte Carlo simulations. In this way, the systematic uncertainty on the background can be significantly reduced. (orig.)

  13. Possible impact of multi-electron loss events on the average beam charge state in an HIF target chamber and a neutral beam approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, L. R.

    2001-05-01

    Experiments were carried out during the early 1980s to assess the obtainable atomic neutralization of energetic beams of negative ions ranging from lithium to silicon. The experiments found (Grisham et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53 (1982) 281; Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report PPPL-1857, 1981) that, for higher atomic number elements than lithium, it appeared that a substantial fraction of the time more than one electron was being lost in a single collision. This result was inferred from the existence of more than one ionization state in the product beam for even the thinnest line densities at which any electron removal took place. Because of accelerator limitations, these experiments were limited to maximum energies of 7 MeV. However, based upon these results, it is possible that multi-electron loss events may also play a significant role in determining the average ion charge state of the much higher Z and more energetic beams traversing the medium in an heavy ion fusion chamber. This could result in the beam charge state being considerably higher than previously anticipated, and might require designers to consider harder vacuum ballistic focusing approaches, or the development of additional space charge neutralization schemes. This paper discusses the measurements that gave rise for these concerns, as well as a description of further measurements that are proposed to be carried out for atomic numbers and energies per amu which would be closer to those required for heavy ion fusion drivers. With a very low current beam of a massive, but low charge state energetic ion, the charge state distribution emerging from a target gas cell could be measured as a function of line density and medium composition. Varying the line density would allow one to simulate the charge state evolution of the beam as a function of distance into the target chamber. This paper also briefly discusses a possible alternative driver approach using photodetachment-neutralized atomic beams

  14. Interfacial electronic charge transfer and density of states in short period Cu/Cr multilayers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T W; Bello, A F; Klepeis, J E; Van Buuren, T

    1999-01-01

    Nanometer period metallic multilayers are ideal structures to investigate electronic phenomena at interfaces between metal films since interfacial atoms comprise a large atomic fraction of the samples. The Cu/Cr binary pair is especially suited to study the interfaces in metals since these elements are mutually insoluble, thus eliminating mixing effects and compound formation and the lattice mismatch is very small. This allows the fabrication of high structural quality Cu/Cr multilayers that have a structure which can be approximated in calculations based on idealized atomic arrangements. The electronic structure of the Cu and the Cr layers in several samples of thin Cu/Cr multilayers were studied using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Total electron yield was measured and used to study the white lines at the Cu L(sub 2) and L(sub 3) absorption edges. The white lines at the Cu absorption edges are strongly related to the unoccupied d-orbitals and are used to calculate the amount of charge transfer between the Cr and Cu atoms in interfaces. Analysis of the Cu white lines show a charge transfer of 0.026 electrons/interfacial Cu atom to the interfacial Cr atoms. In the Cu XAS spectra we also observe a van Hove singularity between the L(sub 2) and L(sub 3) absorption edges as expected from the structural analysis. The absorption spectra are compared to partial density of states obtained from a full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital calculation. The calculations support the presence of charge transfer and indicate that it is localized to the first two interfacial layers in both Cu and Cr

  15. A novel ultrasonic velocity sensing approach to monitoring state of charge of vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yi-Sin; Hsu, Ning-Yih; Jeng, King-Tsai; Chen, Kuan-Hsiang; Yen, Shi-Chern

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first to apply ultrasonic sensing technique to monitor SOC of VRB. • Ultrasound velocity is affected by concentration and temperature of a solution. • The ultrasonic sensing is applicable to both positive and negative sides of VRB. • An empirical model equation fits the results of this two-component system well. • The SOC of a VRB can be properly measured using ultrasonic sensing. - Abstract: A novel ultrasonic velocity sensing approach is proposed and investigated to monitor the state of charge (SOC) of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB, or VRFB). The positive electrode is designated as the energy storage capacity-limiting one so that the molar ratio of the V"5"+ ion in the positive electrolyte solution determines the SOC of a VRB. The tested single-cell VRB is connected to an ultrasonic sensor and charged/discharged almost to its two extremes at a constant current of 2 A under various operating temperatures. It is found that the ultrasound velocity exhibits distinct variations in accordance with changes of vanadium ion compositions in the positive electrolyte solution as the SOC of the VRB varies. The SOC obtained can be depicted in a 3D plot in terms of ultrasound velocity and operating temperature. An empirical model equation is proposed and found to fit the experimental results of both charging and discharging stages quite well. The advantages of this SOC sensing approach are that it is totally independent of VRB operations and can be readily applied to both sides of the electrodes. It is expected to develop into a dependable method for accurate and real-time monitoring of SOC for VRB.

  16. Effect of trap states and microstructure on charge carrier conduction mechanism through semicrystalline poly(vinyl alcohol) granular film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A. K.; Bhowmik, R. N.; Meikap, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    We report a comprehensive study on hysteresis behaviour of current-voltage characteristic and impedance spectroscopy of granular semicrystalline poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film. The charge carrier conduction mechanism and charge traps of granular PVA film by measuring and analyzing the temperature dependent current-voltage characteristic indicate a bi-stable electronic state in the film. A sharp transformation of charge carrier conduction mechanism from Poole-Frenkel emission to space charge limited current mechanism has been observed. An anomalous oscillatory behaviour of current has been observed due to electric pulse effect on the molecular chain of the polymer. Effect of microstructure on charge transport mechanism has been investigated from impedance spectroscopy analysis. An equivalent circuit model has been proposed to explain the result.

  17. State-of-charge estimation in lithium-ion batteries: A particle filter approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsyan, Aditya; Tsai, Yiting; Gopaluni, R. Bhushan; Braatz, Richard D.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of lithium-ion batteries are complex and are often approximated by models consisting of partial differential equations (PDEs) relating the internal ionic concentrations and potentials. The Pseudo two-dimensional model (P2D) is one model that performs sufficiently accurately under various operating conditions and battery chemistries. Despite its widespread use for prediction, this model is too complex for standard estimation and control applications. This article presents an original algorithm for state-of-charge estimation using the P2D model. Partial differential equations are discretized using implicit stable algorithms and reformulated into a nonlinear state-space model. This discrete, high-dimensional model (consisting of tens to hundreds of states) contains implicit, nonlinear algebraic equations. The uncertainty in the model is characterized by additive Gaussian noise. By exploiting the special structure of the pseudo two-dimensional model, a novel particle filter algorithm that sweeps in time and spatial coordinates independently is developed. This algorithm circumvents the degeneracy problems associated with high-dimensional state estimation and avoids the repetitive solution of implicit equations by defining a 'tether' particle. The approach is illustrated through extensive simulations.

  18. Spin Solid versus Magnetic Charge Ordered State in Artificial Honeycomb Lattice of Connected Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavic, Artur; Summers, Brock; Dahal, Ashutosh; Kline, Joseph; Van Herck, Walter; Sukhov, Alexander; Ernst, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The nature of magnetic correlation at low temperature in two‐dimensional artificial magnetic honeycomb lattice is a strongly debated issue. While theoretical researches suggest that the system will develop a novel zero entropy spin solid state as T → 0 K, a confirmation to this effect in artificial honeycomb lattice of connected elements is lacking. This study reports on the investigation of magnetic correlation in newly designed artificial permalloy honeycomb lattice of ultrasmall elements, with a typical length of ≈12 nm, using neutron scattering measurements and temperature‐dependent micromagnetic simulations. Numerical modeling of the polarized neutron reflectometry data elucidates the temperature‐dependent evolution of spin correlation in this system. As temperature reduces to ≈7 K, the system tends to develop novel spin solid state, manifested by the alternating distribution of magnetic vortex loops of opposite chiralities. Experimental results are complemented by temperature‐dependent micromagnetic simulations that confirm the dominance of spin solid state over local magnetic charge ordered state in the artificial honeycomb lattice with connected elements. These results enable a direct investigation of novel spin solid correlation in the connected honeycomb geometry of 2D artificial structure. PMID:29721429

  19. Commodification of Higher Education: Students, Study Loan Systems and State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The main argument presented in this paper is that the application of economic principles in the higher education sector, turning higher education institutes into undertakings operating on markets, leads to the application of rules on State aid. This has consequences for the financial support systems

  20. Clapeyron equation and phase equilibrium properties in higher dimensional charged topological dilaton AdS black holes with a nonlinear source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huai-Fan; Zhao, Hui-Hua; Zhang, Li-Chun; Zhao, Ren [Shanxi Datong University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Datong (China); Shanxi Datong University, Department of Physics, Datong (China)

    2017-05-15

    Using Maxwell's equal area law, we discuss the phase transition of higher dimensional charged topological dilaton AdS black hole with a nonlinear source. The coexisting region of the two phases is found and we depict the coexistence region in the P-v diagrams. The two-phase equilibrium curves in the P-T diagrams are plotted, and we take the first order approximation of volume v in the calculation. To better compare with a general thermodynamic system, the Clapeyron equation is derived for a higher dimensional charged topological black hole with a nonlinear source. The latent heat of an isothermal phase transition is investigated. We also study the effect of the parameters of the black hole on the region of two-phase coexistence. The results show that the black hole may go through a small-large phase transition similar to those of usual non-gravity thermodynamic systems. (orig.)

  1. Wellbeing in the Welfare State: level not higher, distribution not more equitable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstract'Wellbeing' and 'welfare' are often bracketed together, in particular wellbeing and state-welfare. The level of wellbeing is believed to be higher in welfare states, and its distribution more equitable. This theory is tested in a comparative study of 40 nations 1980-1990. The size of

  2. The Teaching of Italian in Institutions of Higher Learning in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istituto Italiano di Cultura, New York, NY.

    This booklet contains a list of institutions of higher learning in the United States and Canada which teach Italian. Italian is taught, according to the booklet, in 383 colleges and universities in the United States (including 28 community or junior colleges), and in 15 colleges and universities in Canada. Other information includes the number of…

  3. The Demise of Higher Education Performance Funding Systems in Three States. CCRC Working Paper No.17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Natow, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    Performance funding in higher education ties state funding directly to institutional performance on specific indicators, such as rates of retention, graduation, and job placement. One of the great puzzles about performance funding is that it has been both popular and unstable. Between 1979 and 2007, 26 states enacted it, but 14 of those states…

  4. The Demise of Higher Education Performance Funding Systems in Three States. CCRC Brief. Number 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Natow, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    Performance funding in higher education ties state funding directly to institutional performance on specific indicators, such as rates of retention, graduation, and job placement. One of the great puzzles about performance funding is that it has been both popular and unstable. Between 1979 and 2007, 26 states enacted it, but 14 of those states…

  5. Charged hadron composition of the final state in e+e annihilation at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althoff, M.; Brandelik, R.; Braunschweig, W.; Gather, K.; Kirschfink, F.J.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Martyn, H.U.; Peise, G.; Rimkus, J.; Sander, H.G.; Schmitz, D.; Siebke, H.; Trines, D.; Wallraff, W.; Duchovni, E.; Eisenberg, Y.; Karshon, U.; Mikenberg, G.; Revel, D.; Ronat, E.; Shapira, A.; Barklow, T.; Freeman, J.; Lecomte, P.; Meyer, T.; Rudolph, G.; Venkataramania, H.; Wicklund, E.; Sau Lan Wu; Zobernig, G.; Burkhardt, H.; Cooper, S.; Franzke, J.; Hultschig, H.; Joos, P.; Koch, W.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Ladage, A.; Loehr, B.; Lueke, D.; Maettig, P.; Mess, K.H.; Notz, D.; Pyrlik, J.; Quarrie, D.R.; Riethmueller, R.; Schuette, W.; Soeding, P.; Wolf, G.; Yekutieli, G.

    1982-10-01

    The inclusive production of πsup(+-) and Ksup(+-) mesons and of protons and antiprotons in e + e - annihilation has been measured at c.m. energies of W = 14, 22 and 34 GeV. Using time of flight measurements and Cerenkov counters the full momentum range has been covered. Differential cross sections and total particle yields are given. At particle momenta of 0.4 GeV/c more than 90% of the charged hadrons are pions. With increasing momentum the fraction of pions among the charged hadrons decreases. At W = 34 GeV and a momentum of 5 GeV/c the particle fractions are approximately πsup(+-) : Ksup(+-) : p,anti p = 0.55 : 0.3 : 0.15. On average an event at W = 34 GeV contains 10.3 +- 0.4 πsup(+-), 2.0 +- 0.2 Ksup(+-) and 0.8 +- 0.1 p,anti p. In addition, we present results on baryon correlations using a sample of events where two or more protons and/or antiprotons are observed in the final state. (orig.)

  6. State of Charge Estimation Based on Microscopic Driving Parameters for Electric Vehicle's Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, battery-powered electric vehicle (EV has received wide attention due to less pollution during use, low noise, and high energy efficiency and is highly expected to improve urban air quality and then mitigate energy and environmental pressure. However, the widespread use of EV is still hindered by limited battery capacity and relatively short cruising range. This paper aims to propose a state of charge (SOC estimation method for EV’s battery necessary for route planning and dynamic route guidance, which can help EV drivers to search for the optimal energy-efficient routes and to reduce the risk of running out of electricity before arriving at the destination or charging station. Firstly, by analyzing the variation characteristics of power consumption rate with initial SOC and microscopic driving parameters (instantaneous speed and acceleration, a set of energy consumption rate models are established according to different operation modes. Then, the SOC estimation model is proposed based on the presented EV power consumption model. Finally, by comparing the estimated SOC with the measured SOC, the proposed SOC estimation method is proved to be highly accurate and effective, which can be well used in EV route planning and navigation systems.

  7. State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using an Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SOC estimation is of great significance for a lithium-ion battery to ensure its safe operation and to prevent it from over-charging or over-discharging. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC since it is an inner sate of a battery cell, which cannot be directly measured. This paper presents an Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter (ACKF-based SOC estimation algorithm for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Firstly, the lithium-ion battery is modeled using the second-order resistor-capacitor (RC equivalent circuit and parameters of the battery model are determined by the forgetting factor least-squares method. Then, the Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation is introduced and the estimated process is presented. Finally, two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC are applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed method by comparing with the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF and cubature Kalman filter (CKF algorithms. Experimental results show that the ACKF algorithm has better performance in terms of SOC estimation accuracy, convergence to different initial SOC errors and robustness against voltage measurement noise as compared with the traditional EKF and CKF algorithms.

  8. Measuring the Total Economic Value of State-Funded Higher Education in Iowa

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This is an evaluation of the statewide total economic value of state-funded higher education in Iowa. The analysis is based on Fiscal Year 2010 final budgeted values for Iowa's three Board of Regents universities and their teaching hospital, as well as the state's 15 community colleges. Final budget year data were obtained from the respective state universities' web sites, from the Board of Regents, and from the Annual Condition of Iowa's Community Colleges, 2010, report published by the Iowa...

  9. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  10. A quantum-dot spin qubit with coherence limited by charge noise and fidelity higher than 99.9%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Allison, Giles; Honda, Takumu; Kodera, Tetsuo; Oda, Shunri; Hoshi, Yusuke; Usami, Noritaka; Itoh, Kohei M.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2018-02-01

    The isolation of qubits from noise sources, such as surrounding nuclear spins and spin-electric susceptibility1-4, has enabled extensions of quantum coherence times in recent pivotal advances towards the concrete implementation of spin-based quantum computation. In fact, the possibility of achieving enhanced quantum coherence has been substantially doubted for nanostructures due to the characteristic high degree of background charge fluctuations5-7. Still, a sizeable spin-electric coupling will be needed in realistic multiple-qubit systems to address single-spin and spin-spin manipulations8-10. Here, we realize a single-electron spin qubit with an isotopically enriched phase coherence time (20 μs)11,12 and fast electrical control speed (up to 30 MHz) mediated by extrinsic spin-electric coupling. Using rapid spin rotations, we reveal that the free-evolution dephasing is caused by charge noise—rather than conventional magnetic noise—as highlighted by a 1/f spectrum extended over seven decades of frequency. The qubit exhibits superior performance with single-qubit gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% on average, offering a promising route to large-scale spin-qubit systems with fault-tolerant controllability.

  11. Prediction Model of Battery State of Charge and Control Parameter Optimization for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction of a battery state of charge (SOC prediction model and the optimization method of the said model to appropriately control the number of parameters in compliance with the SOC as the battery output objectives. Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences has tested its electric vehicle research prototype on the road, monitoring its voltage, current, temperature, time, vehicle velocity, motor speed, and SOC during the operation. Using this experimental data, the prediction model of battery SOC was built. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was able to efficiently develops the battery prediction model that describes the multiple control parameters in relation to the characteristic values such as SOC. It was demonstrated that particle swarm optimization (PSO succesfully and efficiently calculated optimal control parameters to optimize evaluation item such as SOC based on the model.

  12. Adaptive online state-of-charge determination based on neuro-controller and neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yanqing, E-mail: network_hawk@126.co [Department of Automation, Chongqing Industry Polytechnic College, Jiulongpo District, Chongqing 400050 (China)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents a novel approach using adaptive artificial neural network based model and neuro-controller for online cell State of Charge (SOC) determination. Taking cell SOC as model's predictive control input unit, radial basis function neural network, which can adjust its structure to prediction error with recursive least square algorithm, is used to simulate battery system. Besides that, neuro-controller based on Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and modified PID controller is used to decide the control input of battery system, i.e., cell SOC. Finally this algorithm is applied for the SOC determination of lead-acid batteries, and results of lab tests on physical cells, compared with model prediction, are presented. Results show that the ANN based battery system model adaptively simulates battery system with great accuracy, and the predicted SOC simultaneously converges to the real value quickly within the error of +-1 as time goes on.

  13. Battery pack state of charge balancing algorithm for cascaded H-Bridge multilevel converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Máthé, Lászlo; Burlacu, Paul Dan; Schaltz, Erik

    2016-01-01

    For most of the Multilevel Converter (MC) applications a commonly discussed issue is the maintenance of balance between the energy storage elements from the SubModules (SM). In applications where a battery pack is also part of the SM storage, such as STATCOMs or motor drives, the SM voltage...... is not in linear relation with the State Of Charge (SOC) of the entire battery; thus, the balancing becomes more cumbersome. A method to balance the SOC of the battery packs in a system using cascaded H-Bridge is proposed in this paper. The method uses nearest level control followed by sorting and selection based...... on the SOC of the battery packs. Based on the simulation results the number of switching is reduced considerably compared to the method where the phase shifted PWM is used. In addition, the time needed to achieve the balanced SOC is also reduced. The proposed method has been verified through experiments...

  14. Modulation of Amyloid-β Conformation by Charge State of N-Terminal Disordered Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Wen-Hui; Li Wen-Fei; Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we show that variations of the charge states of the histidines, which are the main effects of pH-value change and metal binding, can lead to a drastic change of the intra-peptide interactions of the segment 17–42 and the conformational distribution of the monomeric amyloid-β (Aβ). Since we already knew that the conformational distribution of monomeric Aβ can largely affect Aβ fibrillar aggregation, our results suggest that the pH value change and metal binding can affect the Aβ aggregation by much more complex mechanism than just affecting the inter-peptide interactions. To fully understand the mechanism of metal binding and pH-value induced Aβ aggregation, we also need to consider their effects on the conformational distribution of monomeric Aβ. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzheim, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)

  16. Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzheim, Henrik

    2009-01-14

    The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)

  17. Direct observations of the charge states of low energy solar particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fan, C. Y.; Hovestadt, D.

    1974-01-01

    The charge states of carbon and oxygen of solar origin have been measured directly in interplanetary space. At 100 keV per nucleon the C(+5)/C(+6) and O(+7)/O(+8) ratios are 1.8 and 1.6, respectively. Abundance ratios of low energy heavy nuclei to He are found which are significantly larger than the corresponding photospheric values. The enhancement of O/He is 35, and both Si/He and Fe/He are overabundant by a factor of 100. To explain these observations a mechanism is proposed which first preferentially accelerates heavy ions and is followed by either storage of these ions in the coronal regions or strong adiabatic deceleration.

  18. Mechanism of track formation by charged particles in inorganic and organic solid-state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Pretzsch, G.; Streubel, G.

    1979-01-01

    Knowledge of the individual phases of track formation mechanism is necessary in some applications of solid-state track detectors. The generation of latent tracks is described by energy transfer processes of the charged particles along their paths using several different models. Etchability of the latent tracks is discussed on the basis of some distinct criteria taking into account different fractions of energy release by the primary and secondary particles during track generation. If these etchability criteria for latent tracks are fulfilled, visual particle tracks can be produced by a chemical etching process. Etch pit formation depends on the etching conditions. The geometrical parameters of the etching pits are given on the basis of known etching rates. Evaluation of individual particle tracks or determination of track density yields results depending on both the properties of the particles and the etching conditions. Determination of particle energy and particle fluence is discussed as an example. (author)

  19. Recent developments in high charge state heavy ion beams at the LBL 88-inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.; Clark, D.J.; Glasgow, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in design and operation of the internal PIG sources at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron have led to the development of high charge state (0.4 16 O 8+ . Total external intensities of these beams range from 10 12 particles/s for 6 Li 3+ to 0.1 particles/s for 16 O 8+ . Techniques have been developed for routine tune-out of the low intensity beams. These include use of model beams and reliance on the large systematic data base of cyclotron parameters which has been developed over many years of operation. Techniques for delivery of these weak beams to the experimental target areas are presented. Source design and operation, including special problems associated with Li, Be, and B beams are discussed

  20. Nonvolatile Solid-State Charged-Polymer Gating of Topological Insulators into the Topological Insulating Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, R. M.; Wu, Liang; Salehi, M.; Oh, S.; Armitage, N. P.; Katz, H. E.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the ability to reduce the carrier concentration of thin films of the topological insulator (TI) Bi2 Se3 by utilizing a nonvolatile electrostatic gating via corona charging of electret polymers. Sufficient electric field can be imparted to a polymer-TI bilayer to result in significant electron density depletion, even without the continuous connection of a gate electrode or the chemical modification of the TI. We show that the Fermi level of Bi2 Se3 is shifted toward the Dirac point with this method. Using terahertz spectroscopy, we find that the surface chemical potential is lowered into the bulk band gap (approximately 50 meV above the Dirac point and 170 meV below the conduction-band minimum), and it is stabilized in the intrinsic regime while enhancing electron mobility. The mobility of surface state electrons is enhanced to a value as high as approximately 1600 cm2/V s at 5 K.

  1. BRIC: An EBIS design for charge state breeding in RIB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brautti, G.; Clauser, T.; Raino, A.; Stagno, V.; Variale, V.; Logatchov, P.

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the 'charge state breeder' that will be tested at INFN Laboratory of Bari (Italy). The breeder, based on the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) scheme, is designed for applications in Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) production facilities based on the Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) method in the framework of the SPES project of the INFN LNL laboratory (Legnaro). Some modifications with respect to the classical EBIS have been proposed to increase the containment efficiency. The insertion in the ion chamber of a RF-Quadrupole, aiming to filtering the unwanted masses, is the most relevant change with respect to the classical EBIS. The breeder design and numerical simulation results of the electron and ion beam propagation are reported

  2. Charge-state dependence of binary-encounter-electron cross sections and peak energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidmi, H.I.; Richard, P.; Sanders, J.M.; Schoene, H.; Giese, J.P.; Lee, D.H.; Zouros, T.J.M.; Varghese, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The charge-state dependence of the binary-encounter-electron (BEE) double-differential cross section (DDCS) at 0 degree with respect to the beam direction resulting from collisions of 1 MeV/amu H + , C q+ , N q+ , O q+ , F q+ , Si q+ , and Cl q+ , and 0.5 MeV/amu Cu q+ with H 2 is reported. The data show an enhancement in the BEE DDCS as the charge state of the projectile is decreased, in agreement with the data reported by Richard et al. [J. Phys. B 23, L213 (1990)]. The DDCS enhancement ratios observed for the three-electron isoelectronic sequence C 3+ :C 6+ , N 4+ :N 7+ , O 5+ :O 8+ , and F 6+ :F 9+ are about 1.35, whereas a DDCS enhancement of 3.5 was observed for Cu 4+ . The BEE enhancement with increasing electrons on the projectile has been shown by several authors to be due to the non-Coulomb static potential of the projectile and additionally to the e-e exchange interaction. An impulse-approximation (IA) model fits the shape of the BEE DDCS and predicts a Z p 2 dependence for the bare-ion cross sections. The IA also predicts a binary peak energy that is independent of q and Z p and below the classical value of 4t, where t is the energy of electrons traveling with the projectile velocity. We observed a BEE energy shift ΔE (ΔE=4t-E peak , where E peak is the measured energy at the peak of the binary encounter electrons) that is approximately independent of q for the low-Z p ions, whereas the measured ΔE values for Si, Cl, and Cu were found to be q dependent

  3. Theoretical Study of the Charge-Transfer State Separation within Marcus Theory: The C60-Anthracene Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Nassau, Racine; Nørby, Morten Steen; Linares, Mathieu

    2016-09-21

    We study, within Marcus theory, the possibility of the charge-transfer (CT) state splitting at organic interfaces and a subsequent transport of the free charge carriers to the electrodes. As a case study we analyze model anthracene-C60 interfaces. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations on the cold CT state were performed at a range of applied electric fields, and with the fields applied at a range of angles to the interface to simulate the action of the electric field in a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) interface. The results show that the inclusion of polarization in our model increases CT state dissociation and charge collection. The effect of the electric field on CT state splitting and free charge carrier conduction is analyzed in detail with and without polarization. Also, depending on the relative orientation of the anthracene and C60 molecules at the interface, CT state splitting shows different behavior with respect to both applied field strength and applied field angle. The importance of the hot CT in helping the charge carrier dissociation is also analyzed in our scheme.

  4. Magnetic properties of the charged Anderson-Brinkman-Morel state: Absence of Hc1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, T.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic properties of the charged Anderson-Brinkman-Morel state are investigated theoretically as a special case of time-reversal-symmetry-breaking superconductivity. The magnetic field is expressed as a superposition of the one from the supercurrent j s (r) and that from the magnetic moment l(r) due to the internal motion of each Cooper pair. This procedure enables us to get rid of the paradox in zero external field that the moments are ordered (l=const) with no magnetic field nor supercurrent, leading to a natural conclusion that there is indeed a field due to l(r) which is screened almost completely by j s (r). If the system size is large enough compared with the penetration depth, the direction l(r) changes gradually toward the surface and the current j s (r) flows over the bulk. This means that the system is essentially nonuniform and forms a coreless vortex in zero external field. As for the magnetization process, the lattice of coreless vortices grows from the infinitesimal external field without H c1 (i.e., no Meissner state), which is subsequently followed by the first-order transition to the lattice with cores. Finally, the transition to the normal state occurs at H c2 enhanced over that of the conventional type-II superconductor due to the field l. An example of the magnetization curve is also given

  5. Magnetic properties of the charged Anderson-Brinkman-Morel state: Absence of Hc1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, T.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic properties of the charged Anderson-Brinkman-Morel (ABM) state are investigated theoretically as a special case of time-reversal-symmetry-breaking (T-symmetry breaking) superconductivity, the possibility of which is discussed in heavy-fermion and high T c superconductors. In the ABM state there are two sources of current: The one from the supercurrent j s (r) and that from the moment l(r) due to the internal motion of Cooper pairs. In zero external field, the field h m (r) from l(r) is screened almost completely by j s (r), as expected, with l(r) changing gradually towards the surface and j s (r) flowing over the bulk. This means changing gradually towards the surface and j s (r) flowing over the bulk. This means that the system as a whole is a nonsingular vortex. As for the magnetization process, the lattice of nonsingular vortices grows from the infinitesimal external field without H c1 , subsequently followed by the first-order transition to the lattice with singular cores. Finally, the transition to the normal state occurs at H c2 which is enhanced over that of the conventional type-II superconductor due to the field l. (orig.)

  6. Average equilibrium charge state of 278113 ions moving in a helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, D.; Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.

    2005-01-01

    Difficulty to identify a new heavy element comes from the small production cross section. For example, the production cross section was about 0.5 pb in the case of searching for the 112th element produced by the cold fusion reaction of 208 Pb( 70 Zn,n) 277 ll2. In order to identify heavier elements than element 112, the experimental apparatus with a sensitivity of sub-pico barn level is essentially needed. A gas-filled recoil separator, in general, has a large collection efficiency compared with other recoil separators as seen from the operation principle of a gas-filled recoil separator. One of the most important parameters for a gas-filled recoil separator is the average equilibrium charge state q ave of ions moving in a used gas. This is because the recoil ion can not be properly transported to the focal plane of the separator, if the q ave of an element of interest in a gas is unknown. We have systematically measured equilibrium charge state distributions of heavy ions ( 169 Tm, 208 Pb, 193,209 Bi, 196 Po, 200 At, 203,204 Fr, 212 Ac, 234 Bk, 245 Fm, 254 No, 255 Lr, and 265 Hs) moving in a helium gas by using the gas-filled recoil separator GARIS at RIKEN. Ana then, the empirical formula on q ave of heavy ions in a helium gas was derived as a function of the velocity and the atomic number of an ion on the basis of the Tomas-Fermi model of the atom. The formula was found to be applicable to search for transactinide nuclides of 271 Ds, 272 Rg, and 277 112 produced by cold fusion reactions. Using the formula on q ave , we searched for a new isotope of element 113 produced by the cold fusion reaction of 209 Bi( 70 Zn,n) 278 113. As a result, a decay chain due to an evaporation residue of 278 113 was observed. Recently, we have successfully observed the 2nd decay chain due to an evaporation residue of 278 113. In this report, we will present experimental results in detail, and will also discuss the average equilibrium charge sate of 278 113 in a helium gas by

  7. Physical states and BRST operators for higher-spin W strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Xiao; Wei, Shao-Wen; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhang, Li-Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we mainly investigate the W 2,s M x W 2,s L system, in which the matter and the Liouville subsystems generate the W 2,s M and W 2,s L algebras, respectively. We first give a brief discussion of the physical states for the corresponding W strings. The lower states are given by freezing the spin-2 and spin-s currents. Then, introducing two pairs of ghost-like fields, we give the realizations of the W 1,2,s algebras. Based on these linear realizations, the BRST operators for the W 2,s algebras are obtained. Finally, we construct new BRST charges of the Liouville system for the W 2,s L strings at the specific values of the central charges c: c=-(22)/(5) for the W 2,3 L algebra, c=-24 for the W 2,4 L algebra and c=-2,-(286)/(3) for the W 2,6 L algebra, at which the corresponding W 2,s L algebras are singular. (orig.)

  8. Energy of charged states in the acetanilide crystal: Trapping of charge-transfer states at vacancies as a possible mechanism for optical damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiaousis, D.; Munn, R. W.

    2004-04-01

    Calculations for the acetanilide crystal yield the effective polarizability (16.6 Å3), local electric field tensor, effective dipole moment (5.41 D), and dipole-dipole energy (-12.8 kJ/mol). Fourier-transform techniques are used to calculate the polarization energy P for a single charge in the perfect crystal (-1.16 eV); the charge-dipole energy WD is zero if the crystal carries no bulk dipole moment. Polarization energies for charge-transfer (CT) pairs combine with the Coulomb energy EC to give the screened Coulomb energy Escr; screening is nearly isotropic, with Escr≈EC/2.7. For CT pairs WD reduces to a term δWD arising from the interaction of the charge on each ion with the change in dipole moment on the other ion relative to the neutral molecule. The dipole moments calculated by density-functional theory methods with the B3LYP functional at the 6-311++G** level are 3.62 D for the neutral molecule, changing to 7.13 D and 4.38 D for the anion and cation, relative to the center of mass. Because of the large change in the anion, δWD reaches -0.9 eV and modifies the sequence of CT energies markedly from that of Escr, giving the lowest two CT pairs at -1.98 eV and -1.41 eV. The changes in P and WD near a vacancy are calculated; WD changes for the individual charges because the vacancy removes a dipole moment and modifies the crystal dielectric response, but δWD and EC do not change. A vacancy yields a positive change ΔP that scatters a charge or CT pair, but the change ΔWD can be negative and large enough to outweigh ΔP, yielding traps with depths that can exceed 150 meV for single charges and for CT pairs. Divacancies yield traps with depths nearly equal to the sum of those produced by the separate vacancies and so they can exceed 300 meV. These results are consistent with a mechanism of optical damage in which vacancies trap optically generated CT pairs that recombine and release energy; this can disrupt the lattice around the vacancy, thereby favoring

  9. Effect of charged and excited states on the decomposition of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, Anna V.; Sushko, Peter V.; Shluger, Alexander L.; Kuklja, Maija M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have calculated the electronic structure of individual 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene molecules (FOX-7) in the gas phase by means of density functional theory with the hybrid B3LYP functional and 6-31+G(d,p) basis set and considered their dissociation pathways. Positively and negatively charged states as well as the lowest excited states of the molecule were simulated. They found that charging and excitation can not only reduce the activation barriers for decomposition reactions but also change the dominating chemistry from endo- to exothermic type. In particular, they found that there are two competing primary initiation mechanisms of FOX-7 decomposition: C-NO 2 bond fission and C-NO 2 to CONO isomerization. Electronic excitation or charging of FOX-7 disfavors CONO formation and, thus, terminates this channel of decomposition. However, if CONO is formed from the neutral FOX-7 molecule, charge trapping and/or excitation results in spontaneous splitting of an NO group accompanied by the energy release. Intramolecular hydrogen transfer is found to be a rare event in FOX-7 unless free electrons are available in the vicinity of the molecule, in which case HONO formation is a feasible exothermic reaction with a relatively low energy barrier. The effect of charged and excited states on other possible reactions is also studied. Implications of the obtained results to FOX-7 decomposition in condensed state are discussed

  10. Static states and dynamic behaviour of charges: observation and control by scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews charges that locally functionalize materials. Microscopic analyses and operation of charges using various scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have revealed static, quasi-static/quasi-dynamic and dynamic charge behaviours. Charge-sensitive SPM has allowed for the visualization of the distribution of functionalized charges in electronic devices. When used as bit data in a memory system, the charges can be operated by SPM. The behaviour of quasi-static/quasi-dynamic charges is discussed here. In the data-writing process, spatially dispersive charges rather than a fast injection rate are introduced, but the technical problems can be solved by using nanostructures. Careful charge operations using SPM should realize a memory with a larger density than Tbit/inch 2 . Dynamic charges have been introduced in physical analyses and chemical processes. Although the observable timescale is limited by the SPM system response time of the order of several seconds, dynamics such as photon-induced charge redistributions and probe-assisted chemical reactions are observed. (topical review)

  11. Static states and dynamic behaviour of charges: observation and control by scanning probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Masashi, E-mail: ISHII.Masashi@nims.go.j [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2010-05-05

    This paper reviews charges that locally functionalize materials. Microscopic analyses and operation of charges using various scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have revealed static, quasi-static/quasi-dynamic and dynamic charge behaviours. Charge-sensitive SPM has allowed for the visualization of the distribution of functionalized charges in electronic devices. When used as bit data in a memory system, the charges can be operated by SPM. The behaviour of quasi-static/quasi-dynamic charges is discussed here. In the data-writing process, spatially dispersive charges rather than a fast injection rate are introduced, but the technical problems can be solved by using nanostructures. Careful charge operations using SPM should realize a memory with a larger density than Tbit/inch{sup 2}. Dynamic charges have been introduced in physical analyses and chemical processes. Although the observable timescale is limited by the SPM system response time of the order of several seconds, dynamics such as photon-induced charge redistributions and probe-assisted chemical reactions are observed. (topical review)

  12. Charge Energy Transport in Hopping Systems with Rapidly Decreasing Density of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendels, Dan; Organic Electronics Group Technion Team

    2014-03-01

    An accurate description of the carrier hopping topology in the energy domain of hopping systems incorporating a rapidly decreasing density of states and the subsequent energetic position of these systems' so called effective conduction band is crucial for rationalizing and quantifying these systems' thermo-electric properties, doping related phenomena and carrier gradient effects such as the emergence of the General Einstein Relation under degenerate conditions. Additionally, as will be shown, the 'mobile' carriers propagating through the system can have excess energies reaching 0.3eV above the system quasi-Fermi energy. Hence, since these mobile carriers are most prone to reach systems interfaces and interact with oppositely charged carriers, their excess energy should be considered in determining the efficiencies of energy dependent processes such as carrier recombination and exciton dissociation. In light of the stated motivations, a comprehensive numerical and analytical study of the topology of hopping in the energetic density of such systems (i.e. the statistics regarding which energy values carriers visit most and in what manner) was implemented and the main statistical features of the hopping process that determine the position in energy of the system's effective conduction band were distilled. The obtained results also help shed light on yet to be elucidated discrepancies between predictions given by the widely employed transport energy concept and Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Determination of Fe charge-state distributions in PLT by Bragg crystal x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.

    1978-08-01

    A curved-crystal Bragg x-ray spectrometer has been used to measure Kα or 1s-2p radiation from highly stripped Fe XVIII to Fe XXV impurity ions in the PLT tokamak. The spectrometer has sufficient energy resolution (approximately < 4 eV at 6400 eV) to distinguish between the different ionization states of iron by measuring the energy shift of the Kα x rays. The measured wavelengths agree well with theory and with spectra from solar flares and from laser-produced plasmas. The distribution of Fe charge states in the center of the discharge has been inferred from a comparison of the measured x-ray spectrum with theory. The shape of the spectrum depends strongly on electron temperature (T/sub e/) in the range T/sub e/ = 800 to 1500 eV. Within the factor of two uncertainty in L-shell ionization cross sections, measured intensities agree with theory, which is based on coronal equilibrium, indicating that the ion life-time in the center of the plasma is approximately equal to or greater than the equilibration time

  14. Evaluation of Model Based State of Charge Estimation Methods for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyue Zou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four model-based State of Charge (SOC estimation methods for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are studied and evaluated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, this work evaluates different aspects of the SOC estimation, such as the estimation error distribution, the estimation rise time, the estimation time consumption, etc. The equivalent model of the battery is introduced and the state function of the model is deduced. The four model-based SOC estimation methods are analyzed first. Simulations and experiments are then established to evaluate the four methods. The urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS current profiles are applied to simulate the drive situations of an electrified vehicle, and a genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the model parameters to find the optimal parameters of the model of the Li-ion battery. The simulations with and without disturbance are carried out and the results are analyzed. A battery test workbench is established and a Li-ion battery is applied to test the hardware in a loop experiment. Experimental results are plotted and analyzed according to the four aspects to evaluate the four model-based SOC estimation methods.

  15. Design and Experiment of Nonlinear Observer with Adaptive Gains for Battery State of Charge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is an important evaluation index for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in electric vehicles (EVs. This paper proposes a nonlinear observer with a new adaptive gain structure for SOC estimation based on a second-order RC model. It is able to dynamically adjust the gains and obtain a better balance between convergence speed and estimation accuracy with less computational time. A sufficient condition is derived to guarantee the uniform asymptotic stability of the observer, and its robustness with respect to disturbances and uncertainties is analyzed with the help of input-to-state stability (ISS theory. A selection guide of the observer gains in practical application is presented. The estimation accuracy and convergence rate of the observer are evaluated and compared with those of extended Kalman filter (EKF based on multi-temperature datasets from two different types of LIB cells. The robustness against different disturbances and uncertainties that may appear in a real vehicle is validated and discussed in detail. The experimental results show that the proposed observer is capable of achieving better performance with less computational time in comparison to EKF for different types of LIB cells under various working conditions. The observer is also capable of estimating SOC accurately for real life conditions according to the validation results of datasets from a battery management system (BMS in an EV battery pack. Furthermore, the observer is simple enough, and is suitable for implementation on embedded hardware for LIB cells of EVs.

  16. Three years of lightning impulse charge moment change measurements in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummer, Steven A.; Lyons, Walter A.; Stanley, Mark A.

    2013-06-01

    We report and analyze 3 years of lightning impulse charge moment change (iCMC) measurements obtained from an automated, real time lightning charge moment change network (CMCN). The CMCN combines U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) lightning event geolocations with extremely low frequency (≲1 kHz) data from two stations to provide iCMC measurements across the entire United States. Almost 14 million lightning events were measured in the 3 year period. We present the statistical distributions of iCMC versus polarity and NLDN-measured peak current, including corrections for the detection efficiency of the CMCN versus peak current. We find a broad distribution of iCMC for a given peak current, implying that these parameters are at best only weakly correlated. Curiously, the mean iCMC does not monotonically increase with peak current, and in fact, drops for positive CG strokes above +150 kA. For all positive strokes, there is a boundary near 20 C km that separates seemingly distinct populations of high and low iCMC strokes. We also explore the geographic distribution of high iCMC lightning strokes. High iCMC positive strokes occur predominantly in the northern midwest portion of the U.S., with a secondary peak over the gulf stream region just off the U.S. east coast. High iCMC negative strokes are also clustered in the midwest, although somewhat south of most of the high iCMC positive strokes. This is a region far from the locations of maximum occurrence of high peak current negative strokes. Based on assumed iCMC thresholds for sprite production, we estimate that approximately 35,000 positive polarity and 350 negative polarity sprites occur per year over the U.S. land and near-coastal areas. Among other applications, this network is useful for the nowcasting of sprite-producing storms and storm regions.

  17. Magnetism tuned by the charge states of defects in bulk C-doped SnO2 materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Ling, Z C; Cong, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Peng

    2015-10-21

    To analyze the controversial conclusions on the magnetism of C-doped SnO2 (SnO2:C) bulk materials between theoretical calculations and experimental observations, we propose the critical role of the charge states of defects in the geometric structures and magnetism, and carry out a series of first principle calculations. By changing the charge states, we can influence Bader charge distributions and atomic orbital occupancies in bulk SnO2:C systems, which consequently conduct magnetism. In all charged SnO2:C supercells, C-2px/py/pz electron occupancies are significantly changed by the charge self-regulation, and thus they make the C-2p orbitals spin polarized, which contribute to the dominant magnetic moment of the system. When the concentration of C dopant in the SnO2 supercell increases, the charge redistribution assigns extra electrons averagely to each dopant, and thus effectively modulates the magnetism. These findings provide an experimentally viable way for controlling the magnetism in these systems.

  18. Infinite number of solvable generalizations of XY-chain, with cluster state, and with central charge c = m/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kazuhiko

    2017-12-01

    An infinite number of spin chains are solved and it is derived that the ground-state phase transitions belong to the universality classes with central charge c = m / 2, where m is an integer. The models are diagonalized by automatically obtained transformations, many of which are different from the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The free energies, correlation functions, string order parameters, exponents, central charges, and the phase diagram are obtained. Most of the examples consist of the stabilizers of the cluster state. A unified structure of the one-dimensional XY and cluster-type spin chains is revealed, and other series of solvable models can be obtained through this formula.

  19. Public Expenditure and Scheduled Community Enrolment in Higher Education: A Comparison across Indian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithra, S.; Vardhan, R. Vishnu; Aruna, C.

    2014-01-01

    In India, the gross enrolment ratio has increased from 13.1 per cent in 2007-2008 to 15 per cent in 2011-2012 which moves the country from elite to a mass higher education system. This article seeks to examine the enrolment of scheduled caste (SC) students across various states in the country and the expenditure by each state and its effect on SC…

  20. Materials Characterization at Utah State University: Facilities and Knowledge-base of Electronic Properties of Materials Applicable to Spacecraft Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Thomson, C. D.; Kite, J.; Zavyalov, V.; Corbridge, Jodie

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to improve the reliability and versatility of spacecraft charging models designed to assist spacecraft designers in accommodating and mitigating the harmful effects of charging on spacecraft, the NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program has funded development of facilities at Utah State University for the measurement of the electronic properties of both conducting and insulating spacecraft materials. We present here an overview of our instrumentation and capabilities, which are particularly well suited to study electron emission as related to spacecraft charging. These measurements include electron-induced secondary and backscattered yields, spectra, and angular resolved measurements as a function of incident energy, species and angle, plus investigations of ion-induced electron yields, photoelectron yields, sample charging and dielectric breakdown. Extensive surface science characterization capabilities are also available to fully characterize the samples in situ. Our measurements for a wide array of conducting and insulating spacecraft materials have been incorporated into the SEE Charge Collector Knowledge-base as a Database of Electronic Properties of Materials Applicable to Spacecraft Charging. This Database provides an extensive compilation of electronic properties, together with parameterization of these properties in a format that can be easily used with existing spacecraft charging engineering tools and with next generation plasma, charging, and radiation models. Tabulated properties in the Database include: electron-induced secondary electron yield, backscattered yield and emitted electron spectra; He, Ar and Xe ion-induced electron yields and emitted electron spectra; photoyield and solar emittance spectra; and materials characterization including reflectivity, dielectric constant, resistivity, arcing, optical microscopy images, scanning electron micrographs, scanning tunneling microscopy images, and Auger electron spectra. Further

  1. Active and fast charge-state switching of single NV centres in diamond by in-plane Al-Schottky junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schreyvogel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate an active and fast control of the charge state and hence of the optical and electronic properties of single and near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centres (NV centres in diamond. This active manipulation is achieved by using a two-dimensional Schottky-diode structure from diamond, i.e., by using aluminium as Schottky contact on a hydrogen terminated diamond surface. By changing the applied potential on the Schottky contact, we are able to actively switch single NV centres between all three charge states NV+, NV0 and NV− on a timescale of 10 to 100 ns, corresponding to a switching frequency of 10–100 MHz. This switching frequency is much higher than the hyperfine interaction frequency between an electron spin (of NV− and a nuclear spin (of 15N or 13C for example of 2.66 kHz. This high-frequency charge state switching with a planar diode structure would open the door for many quantum optical applications such as a quantum computer with single NVs for quantum information processing as well as single 13C atoms for long-lifetime storage of quantum information. Furthermore, a control of spectral emission properties of single NVs as a single photon emitters – embedded in photonic structures for example – can be realized which would be vital for quantum communication and cryptography.

  2. The calculation of electron chemical potential and ion charge state and their influence on plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Kun; Li, Yao; Shi, Yuanjie; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli

    2014-01-01

    The electron chemical potential and ion charge state (average ion charge and ion distribution) are important parameters in calculating plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire. In this paper, the calculating method of electron chemical potential and ion charge state is discussed at first. For the calculation of electron chemical potential, the ideal free electron gas model and Thomas-Fermi model are compared and analyzed in terms of the coupling constant of plasma. The Thomas-Fermi ionization model, which is used to calculate ion charge state, is compared with the method based on Saha equation. Furthermore, the influence of electron degenerated energy levels and ion excited states in Saha equation on the ion charge state is also analyzed. Then the influence of different calculating methods of electron chemical potential and ion charge state on plasma conductivity is discussed by applying them in the Lee-More conductivity model

  3. STATE LEVEL MECHANISMS FOR LEARNING FROM WHISTLEBLOWING CASES AT INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available State level mechanisms for soliciting, validating, and learning from whistleblower claims of fraud, theft, or misconduct against public colleges and universities are explored in four US states: California, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Ohio. Sequential public information requests were used to understand the methods that were used in each state, the types of claims that each state experienced, and to understand their processes for learning from such claims. The types of claims, breadth of scope that the claims span, and disposition of the claims is used to characterize each state’s approach and compare and contrast results with other states in the sample. There was a wide variation in responses and approaches used in each state. Varying from no information solicited or maintained (Michigan to full histories that include case level detail (Ohio, excellent multi-year case tracking and reporting (California to the voluminous tracking of every property loss or damage in every institution (Massachusetts. An organic rubric is developed and used to compare and contrast the responses and service level provided by each of the states. Although anonymous whistleblower claims are essential to the governance and administration of higher education, state level mechanisms vary widely in their approaches to administering this process and ensuring better future outcomes. Establishing a standard based upon best practices would ensure that institutions are making the best use of all information available to them to improve their immunity from employee fraud and theft and misconduct.

  4. Correlation of Mn charge state with the electrical resistivity of Mn doped indium tin oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. R. Sarath; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Kasiviswanathan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Correlation of charge state of Mn with the increase in resistivity with Mn concentration is demonstrated in Mn-doped indium tin oxide films. Bonding analysis shows that Mn 2p3/2 core level can be deconvoluted into three components corresponding to Mn2+ and Mn4+ with binding energies 640.8 eV and 642.7 eV, respectively, and a Mn2+ satellite at ∼5.4 eV away from the Mn2+ peak. The presence of the satellite peak unambiguously proves that Mn exists in the +2 charge state. The ratio of concentration of Mn2+ to Mn4+ of ∼4:1 suggests that charge compensation occurs in the n-type films causing the resistivity increase.

  5. Charge-state distributions of 100, 175, 275, and 352 MeV gold ions emerging from thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.; Auble, R.L.; Erb, K.A.; Jones, C.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    These measurements were undertaken as a consequence of our failure early this year to accelerate Au +46 ions in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron using an injected beam of 352 MeV 197 Au +17 from the 25 MV tandem accelerator. Following that unsuccessful test, we made a preliminary measurement of the charge-state distribution of 352 MeV 197 Au ions emerging from a carbon foil using the bending magnet that is a part of the cyclotron beam injection system. The measured mean charge was approx.38.5, about 4.5 charge-states lower than predicted by the Sayer semi-empirical formula. The measurements reported here were done more precisely and systematically confirm that preliminary result. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Charge-state distributions of 100, 175, 275, and 352 MeV gold ions emerging from thin carbon foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.A.; Auble, R.L.; Erb, K.A.; Jones, C.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    These measurements were undertaken as a consequence of our failure early this year to accelerate Au/sup +46/ ions in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron using an injected beam of 352 MeV /sup 197/Au/sup +17/ from the 25 MV tandem accelerator. Following that unsuccessful test, we made a preliminary measurement of the charge-state distribution of 352 MeV /sup 197/Au ions emerging from a carbon foil using the bending magnet that is a part of the cyclotron beam injection system. The measured mean charge was approx.38.5, about 4.5 charge-states lower than predicted by the Sayer semi-empirical formula. The measurements reported here were done more precisely and systematically confirm that preliminary result. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Correlation of Mn charge state with the electrical resistivity of Mn doped indium tin oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. R. Sarath

    2010-09-15

    Correlation of charge state of Mn with the increase in resistivity with Mn concentration is demonstrated in Mn-doped indium tin oxide films. Bonding analysis shows that Mn 2p3/2 core level can be deconvoluted into three components corresponding to Mn2+ and Mn4+ with binding energies 640.8 eV and 642.7 eV, respectively, and a Mn2+ satellite at ∼5.4 eV away from the Mn2+ peak. The presence of the satellite peak unambiguously proves that Mn exists in the +2 charge state. The ratio of concentration of Mn2+ to Mn4+ of ∼4:1 suggests that charge compensation occurs in the n-type films causing the resistivity increase.

  8. The Changing Role of State Appropriations for Higher Education: An Econometric Analysis from 1985-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrush, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, public funding of higher education has been viewed as cyclical, where support falls during times of economic downturn and then recovers as the economy improves. This view, however, is being challenged as budgetary shortfalls are becoming more common for states, even in times of economic growth, due to structural constraints. Using…

  9. Problems and Issues in Higher Education: Perspectives on Iran-United States Educational Relations and Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshteh, M. Hussein

    This review evaluates the writings and opinions of Americans and Iranians on relations and influences between institutions of higher education in Iran and the United States before and after the 1979 revolution. The review explores the arrival of modern western education in Iran, Egypt, and Turkey where a traditional education system had prevailed…

  10. Policy Internationalization, National Variety and Governance: Global Models and Network Power in Higher Education States

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes policy convergence and the adoption of globalizing models by higher education states, a process we describe, following Thatcher (2007), as policy internationalization. This refers to processes found in many policy domains and which increasingly are exemplified in tertiary education systems too. The focus is on governmental…

  11. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education Systems: A Study of Four States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, William H.; Bullis, Bruce

    Systemwide bargaining in higher education in four states (Florida, Minnesota, New York, Illinois) was studied to determine whether institutions were affected in the manner predicted by previous literature, whether the amounts of influence, or power, of various institutional decision-makers were affected, and whether the viewpoints of respondents…

  12. The Changing Discourse on Higher Education and the Nation-State, 1960-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines changing ideas about the relationship between the nation-state and the university in international higher education development discourse through a quantitative content analysis of over 700 academic articles, conference proceedings and research reports published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural…

  13. Second- and Higher-Order Virial Coefficients Derived from Equations of State for Real Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Derivation of the second- and higher-order virial coefficients for models of the gaseous state is demonstrated by employing a direct differential method and subsequent term-by-term comparison to power series expansions. This communication demonstrates the application of this technique to van der Waals representations of virial coefficients.…

  14. The Concept of Public Goods, the State, and Higher Education Finance: A View from the BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; Froumin, Isak; Loyalka, Prashant K.; Tilak, Jandhyala B.

    2014-01-01

    Because higher education serves both public and private interests, the way it is conceived and financed is contested politically, appearing in different forms in different societies. What is public and private in education is a political--social construct, subject to various political forces, primarily interpreted through the prism of the state.…

  15. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Teacher training in the formation of the higher education system in the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisi Teresinha Chapani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The higher education system in the state of Bahia, Brazil, comprises four universities offering, altogether, several undergraduation and graduation courses, in a number of areas. The system configuration is around 20 years old, but the colleges which gave rise to it were structured back in the late sixties. The aim of this study is to highlight the teacher training role in the system formation. Also, it is presented a discussion on the possibilities and limitations originated from the teacher training colleges in the higher education democratization process. The conclusion is that, although the teacher training courses have been the driving force of the higher education system in Bahia for more than 40 years, the number of vacancies offered by the course is not sufficient to equate the historical problem regarding the lack of titled teachers in the state.

  17. State of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on an improved parameter identification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Bizhong; Chen, Chaoren; Tian, Yong; Wang, Mingwang; Sun, Wei; Xu, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    The SOC (state of charge) is the most important index of the battery management systems. However, it cannot be measured directly with sensors and must be estimated with mathematical techniques. An accurate battery model is crucial to exactly estimate the SOC. In order to improve the model accuracy, this paper presents an improved parameter identification method. Firstly, the concept of polarization depth is proposed based on the analysis of polarization characteristics of the lithium-ion batteries. Then, the nonlinear least square technique is applied to determine the model parameters according to data collected from pulsed discharge experiments. The results show that the proposed method can reduce the model error as compared with the conventional approach. Furthermore, a nonlinear observer presented in the previous work is utilized to verify the validity of the proposed parameter identification method in SOC estimation. Finally, experiments with different levels of discharge current are carried out to investigate the influence of polarization depth on SOC estimation. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the SOC estimation accuracy as compared with the conventional approach, especially under the conditions of large discharge current. - Highlights: • The polarization characteristics of lithium-ion batteries are analyzed. • The concept of polarization depth is proposed to improve model accuracy. • A nonlinear least square technique is applied to determine the model parameters. • A nonlinear observer is used as the SOC estimation algorithm. • The validity of the proposed method is verified by experimental results.

  18. Energy awareness for supercapacitors using Kalman filter state-of-charge tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Andrew; Hassanalieragh, Moeen; Sharma, Gaurav; Soyata, Tolga

    2015-11-01

    Among energy buffering alternatives, supercapacitors can provide unmatched efficiency and durability. Additionally, the direct relation between a supercapacitor's terminal voltage and stored energy can improve energy awareness. However, a simple capacitive approximation cannot adequately represent the stored energy in a supercapacitor. It is shown that the three branch equivalent circuit model provides more accurate energy awareness. This equivalent circuit uses three capacitances and associated resistances to represent the supercapacitor's internal SOC (state-of-charge). However, the SOC cannot be determined from one observation of the terminal voltage, and must be tracked over time using inexact measurements. We present: 1) a Kalman filtering solution for tracking the SOC; 2) an on-line system identification procedure to efficiently estimate the equivalent circuit's parameters; and 3) experimental validation of both parameter estimation and SOC tracking for 5 F, 10 F, 50 F, and 350 F supercapacitors. Validation is done within the operating range of a solar powered application and the associated power variability due to energy harvesting. The proposed techniques are benchmarked against the simple capacitive model and prior parameter estimation techniques, and provide a 67% reduction in root-mean-square error for predicting usable buffered energy.

  19. Charge State Coalescence During Electrospray Ionization Improves Peptide Identification by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jesse G.; A. Komives, Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    We report the effects of supercharging reagents dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and m-nitrobenzyl alcohol ( m-NBA) applied to untargeted peptide identification, with special emphasis on non-tryptic peptides. Peptides generated from a mixture of five standard proteins digested with trypsin, elastase, or pepsin were separated with nanoflow liquid chromatography using mobile phases modified with either 5 % DMSO or 0.1 % m-NBA. Eluting peptides were ionized by online electrospray and sequenced by both CID and ETD using data-dependent MS/MS. Statistically significant improvements in peptide identifications were observed with DMSO co-solvent. In order to understand this observation, we assessed the effects of supercharging reagents on the chromatographic separation and the electrospray quality. The increase in identifications was not due to supercharging, which was greater for the 0.1 % m-NBA co-solvent and not observed for the 5.0 % DMSO co-solvent. The improved MS/MS efficiency using the DMSO modified mobile phase appeared to result from charge state coalescence.

  20. Design of a 4D emittance measurement device for high charge state ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yangyang; Yang Yao; Zhao Hongwei; Sun Liangting; Cao Yun; Wang Yun

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of on-line beam quality diagnostics and transverse emittance coupling investigation of the ion beams delivered by an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source, a real-time 4D Pepper Pot type emittance scanner is under development at IMP (Institute of Moden Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The high charge state ECR ion source at IMP could produce CW or pulsed heavy ion beam intensities in the range of 1 eμA∼1 emA with the kinetic energy of 10∼35 keV/q, which needs the design of the Pepper Pot scanner to be optimized accordingly. The Pepper Pot scanner has many features, such as very short response time and wide dynamic working range that the device could be applied. Since intense heavy ion beam bombardment is expected for this device, the structure and the material selection for the device is specially considered during the design, and a feasible solution to analyze the pictures acquired after the data acquisition is also made. (authors)

  1. An adaptive state of charge estimation approach for lithium-ion series-connected battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Simin; Zhu, Xuelai; Xing, Yinjiao; Shi, Hongbing; Cai, Xu; Pecht, Michael

    2018-07-01

    Due to the incorrect or unknown noise statistics of a battery system and its cell-to-cell variations, state of charge (SOC) estimation of a lithium-ion series-connected battery system is usually inaccurate or even divergent using model-based methods, such as extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). To resolve this problem, an adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) based on a noise statistics estimator and a model parameter regulator is developed to accurately estimate the SOC of a series-connected battery system. An equivalent circuit model is first built based on the model parameter regulator that illustrates the influence of cell-to-cell variation on the battery system. A noise statistics estimator is then used to attain adaptively the estimated noise statistics for the AUKF when its prior noise statistics are not accurate or exactly Gaussian. The accuracy and effectiveness of the SOC estimation method is validated by comparing the developed AUKF and UKF when model and measurement statistics noises are inaccurate, respectively. Compared with the UKF and EKF, the developed method shows the highest SOC estimation accuracy.

  2. State of Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Battery with a Temperature-Compensated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC of batteries is crucial in a battery management system. Many studies on battery SOC estimation have been investigated recently. Temperature is an important factor that affects the SOC estimation accuracy while it is still not adequately addressed at present. This paper proposes a SOC estimator based on a new temperature-compensated model with extended Kalman Filter (EKF. The open circuit voltage (OCV, capacity, and resistance and capacitance (RC parameters in the estimator are temperature dependent so that the estimator can maintain high accuracy at various temperatures. The estimation accuracy decreases when applied in high current continuous discharge, because the equivalent polarization resistance decreases as the discharge current increases. Therefore, a polarization resistance correction coefficient is proposed to tackle this problem. The estimator also demonstrates a good performance in dynamic operating conditions. However, the equivalent circuit model shows huge uncertainty in the low SOC region, so measurement noise variation is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy there.

  3. Aerosol charging state at an urban site: new analytical approach and implications for ion-induced nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gagné

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The charging state of aerosol populations was determined using an Ion-DMPS in Helsinki, Finland between December 2008 and February 2010. We extrapolated the charging state and calculated the ion-induced nucleation fraction to be around 1.3 % ± 0.4 % at 2 nm and 1.3 % ± 0.5 % at 1.5 nm, on average. We present a new method to retrieve the average charging state for a new particle formation event, at a given size and polarity. We improve the uncertainty assessment and fitting technique used previously with an Ion-DMPS. We also use a new theoretical framework that allows for different concentrations of small ions for different polarities (polarity asymmetry. We extrapolate the ion-induced fraction using polarity symmetry and asymmetry. Finally, a method to calculate the growth rates from the behaviour of the charging state as a function of the particle diameter using polarity symmetry and asymmetry is presented and used on a selection of new particle formation events.

  4. Accuracy analysis of the State-of-Charge and remaining run-time determination for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the various error sources in a real-time State-of-Charge (SoC) evaluation system and their effects on the overall accuracy in the calculation of the remaining run-time of a battery-operated system. The SoC algorithm for Li-ion batteries studied in this paper combines direct

  5. Accuracy analysis of the state-of-charge and remaining run-time determination for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the various error sources in a real-time State-of-Charge (SoC) evaluation system and their effects on the overall accuracy in the calculation of the remaining run-time of a battery-operated system. The SoC algorithm for Li-ion batteries studied in this paper combines direct

  6. State-of-Charge Balance Using Adaptive Droop Control for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in DC MicroGrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the coordinated control of distributed energy storage systems (DESSs) in DC micro-grids. In order to balance the state-of-charge (SoC) of each energy storage unit (ESU), an SoC-based adaptive droop control method is proposed. In this decentralized control method, the droop...

  7. EVOLUTION OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HELIUM ABUNDANCE, MINOR ION CHARGE STATE, AND SOLAR WIND SPEED OVER THE SOLAR CYCLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, J. C.; Stevens, M. L.; Korreck, K. E.; Maruca, B. A.; Kiefer, K. K.; Schwadron, N. A.; Lepri, S. T.

    2012-01-01

    The changing relationships between solar wind speed, helium abundance, and minor ion charge state are examined over solar cycle 23. Observations of the abundance of helium relative to hydrogen (A He ≡ 100 × n He /n H ) by the Wind spacecraft are used to examine the dependence of A He on solar wind speed and solar activity between 1994 and 2010. This work updates an earlier study of A He from 1994 to 2004 to include the recent extreme solar minimum and broadly confirms our previous result that A He in slow wind is strongly correlated with sunspot number, reaching its lowest values in each solar minima. During the last minimum, as sunspot numbers reached their lowest levels in recent history, A He continued to decrease, falling to half the levels observed in slow wind during the previous minimum and, for the first time observed, decreasing even in the fastest solar wind. We have also extended our previous analysis by adding measurements of the mean carbon and oxygen charge states observed with the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft since 1998. We find that as solar activity decreased, the mean charge states of oxygen and carbon for solar wind of a given speed also fell, implying that the wind was formed in cooler regions in the corona during the recent solar minimum. The physical processes in the coronal responsible for establishing the mean charge state and speed of the solar wind have evolved with solar activity and time.

  8. Uncertainty analysis in a real-time state-of-charge evaluation system for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, B.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) is the most commonly used battery chemistry in portable applications nowadays. Accurate State-of-Charge (SoC) and remaining run-time (t,) calculation for portable devices is important for the user convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. A new SoC algorithm for

  9. Coherence, energy and charge transfers in de-excitation pathways of electronic excited state of biomolecules in photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Malik, F. Bary

    2013-01-01

    The observed multiple de-excitation pathways of photo-absorbed electronic excited state in the peridinin–chlorophyll complex, involving both energy and charge transfers among its constituents, are analyzed using the bio-Auger (B-A) theory. It is also shown that the usually used F¨orster–Dexter...

  10. Multiagent-Based Distributed State of Charge Balancing Control for Distributed Energy Storage Units in AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Coelho, Ernane Antônio Alves; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multiagent-based distributed control algorithm has been proposed to achieve state of charge (SoC) balance of distributed energy storage (DES) units in an ac microgrid. The proposal uses frequency scheduling instead of adaptive droop gain to regulate the active power. Each DES unit...

  11. Cation-mediated conversion of the state of charge in uranium arene inverted-sandwich complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, Clement; Mougel, Victor; Pecaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella [Laboratoire de Reconnaissance Ionique et Chimie de Coordination, SCIB, UMR-E3 CEA-UJF, INAC, CEA-Grenoble (France); Maron, Laurent [LCPNO, CNRS and INSA, UPS, Universite de Toulouse (France)

    2013-12-16

    Two new arene inverted-sandwich complexes of uranium supported by siloxide ancillary ligands [K{U(OSi(OtBu)_3)_3}{sub 2}(μ-η{sup 6}:η{sup 6}-C{sub 7}H{sub 8})] (3) and [K{sub 2}{U(OSi(OtBu)_3)_3}{sub 2}(μ-η{sup 6}:η{sup 6}-C{sub 7}H{sub 8})] (4) were synthesized by the reduction of the parent arene-bridged complex [{U(OSi(OtBu)_3)_3}{sub 2}(μ-η{sup 6}:η{sup 6}-C{sub 7}H{sub 8})] (2) with stoichiometric amounts of KC{sub 8} yielding a rare family of inverted-sandwich complexes in three states of charge. The structural data and computational studies of the electronic structure are in agreement with the presence of high-valent uranium centers bridged by a reduced tetra-anionic toluene with the best formulation being U{sup V}-(arene{sup 4-})-U{sup V}, KU{sup IV}-(arene{sup 4-})-U{sup V}, and K{sub 2}U{sup IV}-(arene{sup 4-})-U{sup IV} for complexes 2, 3, and 4 respectively. The potassium cations in complexes 3 and 4 are coordinated to the siloxide ligands both in the solid state and in solution. The addition of KOTf (OTf=triflate) to the neutral compound 2 promotes its disproportionation to yield complexes 3 and 4 (depending on the stoichiometry) and the U{sup IV} mononuclear complex [U(OSi(OtBu){sub 3}){sub 3}(OTf)(thf){sub 2}] (5). This unprecedented reactivity demonstrates the key role of potassium for the stability of these complexes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Ion sources development at GANIL for radioactive beams and high charge state ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine-Landre, F.; Rataud, J.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.C.; Maunoury, L.

    2001-01-01

    The GANIL laboratory has in charge the production of ion beams for nuclear and non nuclear physics. This article reviews the last developments that are underway in the fields of radioactive ion beam production, increase of the metallic ion intensities and production of highly charges ion beams. (authors)

  13. Scattering length and effective range for charged-particle scattering in a plane and in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaar, B.J.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The concepts of scattering length a and effective range r/sub e/ previously introduced for low-energy scattering from a potential V(r) in a plane and in higher dimensions are extended to include a 1/r potential (strength parameter γ). Both a and r/sub e/ have the physical significance of being equal to the radius of an equivalent hard sphere giving rise to the same O(k 0 ) and O(k 2 ) terms in the expression for the phase shift. The method used is based on the properties of the ''local scattering length'' a(r,γ) for the potential V(r) cut off at radius r and an ''equivalent hard-sphere radius'' a(r,k,γ) for wave number knot =0. It is shown that these quantities have a smooth behavior for γ→0 and for dimension n→2

  14. Preparation of Schrödinger cat states of a cavity field via coupling to a superconducting charge qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Dagoberto S.; Nemes, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    We extend the approach in Ref. 5 [Y.-X. Liu, L. F. Wei and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. A 71 (2005) 063820] for preparing superposition states of a cavity field interacting with a superconducting charge qubit. We study effects of the nonlinearity on the creation of such states. We show that the main contribution of nonlinear effects is to shorten the time necessary to build the superposition.

  15. High rate partial-state-of-charge operation of VRLA batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The world market for 12 V SLI batteries currently stands at around US$ 12 billion. The lack of a serious challenge from other battery types has allowed lead-acid products to serve this market exclusively, with minimal demand for product improvement through research and development, and a sharp competition has, over time, cut sales prices to commodity levels. The electrochemical storage of energy in automobiles now faces the possibility of a major change, in the form of the proposed 36/42 V electrical systems for vehicles that remain primarily powered by internal combustion engines, and of the hybrid electric vehicle. The duty cycle for these two applications sees the battery held at a partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) for most of its life and required to supply, and to accept, charge at unprecedented rates. The remarkable advances achieved with VRLA battery technology for electric vehicles during the past 8-10 years will be of only passing value in overcoming the challenges posed by high rate PSoC service in 36/42 V and HEV duty. This is because the failure modes seen in PSoC are quite different from those faced in EV (deep cycle) use. The replacement of the 12 V SLI will not take place rapidly. However, if the applications which take its place are to be satisfied by a lead-acid product (probably VRLA), rather than by a battery of a different chemistry, a program of development as successful as that mounted for deep cycle duty will be required. The present phase of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) R&D program has begun to shed light on those aspects of the function of a VRLA battery which currently limit its life in high rate PSoC duty. The program is also pursuing the several technologies which show promise of overcoming those limits, including multiple tab plate design, mass transport facilitation and minor component (both beneficial and detrimental impurity) management. This paper presents a brief review of the changes which are taking place in

  16. Transportation Safety of Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries - A Feasibility Study of Storing at Very Low States of Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, Anup; Uddin, Kotub; Chevalier, Julie; Chouchelamane, Gael H; McGordon, Andrew; Low, John; Jennings, Paul

    2017-07-11

    In freight classification, lithium-ion batteries are classed as dangerous goods and are therefore subject to stringent regulations and guidelines for certification for safe transport. One such guideline is the requirement for batteries to be at a state of charge of 30%. Under such conditions, a significant amount of the battery's energy is stored; in the event of mismanagement, or indeed an airside incident, this energy can lead to ignition and a fire. In this work, we investigate the effect on the battery of removing 99.1% of the total stored energy. The performance of 8Ah C 6 /LiFePO 4 pouch cells were measured following periods of calendar ageing at low voltages, at and well below the manufacturer's recommended value. Battery degradation was monitored using impedance spectroscopy and capacity tests; the results show that the cells stored at 2.3 V exhibited no change in cell capacity after 90 days; resistance rise was negligible. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results indicate that there was no significant copper dissolution. To test the safety of the batteries at low voltages, external short-circuit tests were performed on the cells. While the cells discharged to 2.3 V only exhibited a surface temperature rise of 6 °C, cells at higher voltages exhibited sparks, fumes and fire.

  17. Charge-Transfer Dynamics in the Lowest Excited State of a Pentacene–Fullerene Complex: Implications for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Joseph, Saju

    2017-10-02

    We characterize the dynamic nature of the lowest excited state in a pentacene/C60 complex on the femtosecond time scale, via a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics and time-dependent density functional theory. We analyze the correlations between the molecular vibrations of the complex and the oscillations in the electron-transfer character of its lowest excited state, which point to vibration-induced coherences between the (pentacene-based) local-excitation (LE) state and the complex charge-transfer (CT) state. We discuss the implications of our results on this model system for the exciton-dissociation process in organic solar cells.

  18. Course Notes: United States Particle Accelerator School Beam Physics with Intense Space-Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Lund, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the physics of beams with intense space charge. This course is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in accelerator systems that require sufficient high intensity where mutual particle interactions in the beam can no longer be neglected. This course is intended to give the student a broad overview of the dynamics of beams with strong space charge. The emphasis is on theoretical and analytical methods of describing the acceleration and transport of beams. Some aspects of numerical and experimental methods will also be covered. Students will become familiar with standard methods employed to understand the transverse and longitudinal evolution of beams with strong space charge. The material covered will provide a foundation to design practical architectures. In this course, we will introduce you to the physics of intense charged particle beams, focusing on the role of space charge. The topics include: particle equations of motion, the paraxial ray equation, and the Vlasov equation; 4-D and 2-D equilibrium distribution functions (such as the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij, thermal equilibrium, and Neuffer distributions), reduced moment and envelope equation formulations of beam evolution; transport limits and focusing methods; the concept of emittance and the calculation of its growth from mismatches in beam envelope and from space-charge non-uniformities using system conservation constraints; the role of space-charge in producing beam halos; longitudinal space-charge effects including small amplitude and rarefaction waves; stable and unstable oscillation modes of beams (including envelope and kinetic modes); the role of space charge in the injector; and algorithms to calculate space-charge effects in particle codes. Examples of intense beams will be given primarily from the ion and proton accelerator communities with applications from, for example, heavy-ion fusion, spallation

  19. Weaker gun state laws are associated with higher rates of suicide secondary to firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Rodrigo F; Nuño, Miriam; Ko, Ara; Barmparas, Galinos; Lewis, Azaria V; Margulies, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Firearm-related suicides comprise over two-thirds of gun-related violence in the United States, and gun laws and policies remain under scrutiny, with many advocating for revision of the regulatory map for lawful gun ownership, aiming at restricting access and distribution of these weapons. However, the quantitative relationship between how strict gun laws are and the incidence of firearm violence with their associated mortality is largely unknown. We therefore, sought to explore the impact of firearm law patterns among states on the incidence and outcomes of firearm-related suicide attempts, utilizing established objective criteria. The National Inpatient Sample for the years 1998-2011 was queried for all firearm-related suicides. Discharge facilities were stratified into five categories (A, B, C, D, and F, with A representing states with the most strict and F representing states with the least strict laws) based on the Brady Campaign to prevent Gun Violence that assigns scorecards for every state. The primary outcomes were suicide attempts and in-hospital mortality per 100,000 populations by Brady state grade. During the 14-year study period, 34,994 subjects met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 42.0 years and 80.1% were male. A handgun was utilized by 51.8% of patients. The overall mortality was 33.3%. Overall, 22.0% had reported psychoses and 19.3% reported depression. After adjusting for confounding factors and using group A as reference, there were higher adjusted odds for suicide attempts for patients admitted in group C, D, and F category states (1.73, 2.09, and 1.65, respectively, all P gun laws, and these injuries tend to be associated with a higher mortality. Efforts aimed at nationwide standardization of firearm state laws are warranted, particularly for young adults and suicide-prone populations. III. Trauma Outcomes study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. State Fiscal Constraints and Higher Education Spending: The Role of Medicaid and the Business Cycle. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Thomas J.; Orszag, Peter R.; Gunter, David L.

    This study used state-level data on expenditures since 1977 to study the forces underlying the shift in state financing of higher education. The focus is on interactions between state appropriations for higher education, other state budget items, especially Medicaid, and the business cycle. The first section documents the substantial decline in…

  1. Effect of higher frequency on the classification of steady-state visual evoked potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Dong-Ok; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Dähne, Sven; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Most existing brain-computer interface (BCI) designs based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) primarily use low frequency visual stimuli (e.g., visual fatigue and no stimulus-related seizures. The fundamental objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimulation frequency and duty-cycle on the usability of an SSVEP-based BCI system. Approach. We developed an SSVEP-based BCI speller using multiple LEDs flickering with low frequencies (6-14.9 Hz) with a duty-cycle of 50%, or higher frequencies (26-34.7 Hz) with duty-cycles of 50%, 60%, and 70%. The four different experimental conditions were tested with 26 subjects in order to investigate the impact of stimulation frequency and duty-cycle on performance and visual fatigue, and evaluated with a questionnaire survey. Resting state alpha powers were utilized to interpret our results from the neurophysiological point of view. Main results. The stimulation method employing higher frequencies not only showed less visual fatigue, but it also showed higher and more stable classification performance compared to that employing relatively lower frequencies. Different duty-cycles in the higher frequency stimulation conditions did not significantly affect visual fatigue, but a duty-cycle of 50% was a better choice with respect to performance. The performance of the higher frequency stimulation method was also less susceptible to resting state alpha powers, while that of the lower frequency stimulation method was negatively correlated with alpha powers. Significance. These results suggest that the use of higher frequency visual stimuli is more beneficial for performance improvement and stability as time passes when developing practical SSVEP-based BCI applications.

  2. Observation of the Hadronic Final State Charge Asymmetry in High Q^2 Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Asmone, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.

    2009-01-01

    A first measurement is presented of the charge asymmetry in the hadronic final state from the hard interaction in deep-inelastic ep neutral current scattering at HERA. The measurement is performed in the range of negative squared four momentum transfer 100charged particles, measured in the current region of the Breit frame, is studied together with its evolution as a function of Q. The results are compared to Monte Carlo models at the hadron and parton level.

  3. Observation of the hadronic final state charge asymmetry in high Q2 deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.

    2009-06-01

    A first measurement is presented of the charge asymmetry in the hadronic final state from the hard interaction in deep-inelastic ep neutral current scattering at HERA. The measurement is performed in the range of negative squared four momentum transfer 100 2 2 . The difference between the event normalised distributions of the scaled momentum, x p , for positively and negatively charged particles, measured in the current region of the Breit frame, is studied together with its evolution as a function of Q. The results are compared to Monte Carlo models at the hadron and parton level. (orig.)

  4. Mean charge states of MeV/u Fe, Co, Ni and Cu ions in Au and Bi solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciortea, C.; Dumitriu, D.E.; Enescu, S.E.; Enulescu, A.; Fluerasu, D.; Piticu, I.; Szilagyi, Z.S.

    2001-01-01

    The average charge states of 0.1 - 1.5 MeV/u Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu ions in solid Au and Bi targets have been determined by estimating the mean numbers of outer-shell spectator vacancies during the K-vacancy decay. The latter quantities were obtained from the yield and energy shifts of the K α , β X-rays, by comparing with calculations in the independent electron approximation. The reported equilibrium charges, mostly characteristic for the inside of the target, are in fairly agreement with Nikolaev and Dmitriev semi-empirical formula. (authors)

  5. Development of the balance equations model for calculation of ion charge-state distribution in ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.V.; Shirkov, G.D.; Consoli, F.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Barbarino, S.

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of the widespread model for the calculation of ion charge-state distributions (CSD) in electron cyclotron-resonance ion source based on the set of balance equations is given. The modification of this model that allows one to describe the confinement and accumulation processes of highly charged ions in ECR plasma for gas mixing case more precisely is discussed. The new approach for the time confinement calculation (ions and electrons) based on the theory of Pastukhov is offered, viz. - calculation of confinement times during two step minimization of special type functionals. The results obtained by this approach have been compared with available experimental data

  6. Effective equations for matter-wave gap solitons in higher-order transversal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, A Muñoz; Delgado, V

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate that an important class of nonlinear stationary solutions of the three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) exhibiting nontrivial transversal configurations can be found and characterized in terms of an effective one-dimensional (1D) model. Using a variational approach we derive effective equations of lower dimensionality for BECs in (m,n(r)) transversal states (states featuring a central vortex of charge m as well as n(r) concentric zero-density rings at every z plane) which provides us with a good approximate solution of the original 3D problem. Since the specifics of the transversal dynamics can be absorbed in the renormalization of a couple of parameters, the functional form of the equations obtained is universal. The model proposed finds its principal application in the study of the existence and classification of 3D gap solitons supported by 1D optical lattices, where in addition to providing a good estimate for the 3D wave functions it is able to make very good predictions for the μ(N) curves characterizing the different fundamental families. We have corroborated the validity of our model by comparing its predictions with those from the exact numerical solution of the full 3D GPE.

  7. Defect states and charge trapping characteristics of HfO2 films for high performance nonvolatile memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Shao, Y. Y.; Lu, X. B.; Zeng, M.; Zhang, Z.; Gao, X. S.; Zhang, X. J.; Liu, J.-M.; Dai, J. Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present significant charge trapping memory effects of the metal-hafnium oxide-SiO 2 -Si (MHOS) structure. The devices based on 800 °C annealed HfO 2 film exhibit a large memory window of ∼5.1 V under ±10 V sweeping voltages and excellent charge retention properties with only small charge loss of ∼2.6% after more than 10 4  s retention. The outstanding memory characteristics are attributed to the high density of deep defect states in HfO 2 films. We investigated the defect states in the HfO 2 films by photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation measurements and found that the defect states distributed in deep energy levels ranging from 1.1 eV to 2.9 eV below the conduction band. Our work provides further insights for the charge trapping mechanisms of the HfO 2 based MHOS devices.

  8. Multi-charge-state molecular dynamics and self-diffusion coefficient in the warm dense matter regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongsheng; Hou, Yong; Kang, Dongdong; Gao, Cheng; Jin, Fengtao; Yuan, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    We present a multi-ion molecular dynamics (MIMD) simulation and apply it to calculating the self-diffusion coefficients of ions with different charge-states in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime. First, the method is used for the self-consistent calculation of electron structures of different charge-state ions in the ion sphere, with the ion-sphere radii being determined by the plasma density and the ion charges. The ionic fraction is then obtained by solving the Saha equation, taking account of interactions among different charge-state ions in the system, and ion-ion pair potentials are computed using the modified Gordon-Kim method in the framework of temperature-dependent density functional theory on the basis of the electron structures. Finally, MIMD is used to calculate ionic self-diffusion coefficients from the velocity correlation function according to the Green-Kubo relation. A comparison with the results of the average-atom model shows that different statistical processes will influence the ionic diffusion coefficient in the WDM regime.

  9. First-Principles Study of Charge Diffusion between Proximate Solid-State Qubits and Its Implications on Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jyh-Pin; Bodrog, Zoltán; Gali, Adam

    2018-03-01

    Solid-state qubits from paramagnetic point defects in solids are promising platforms to realize quantum networks and novel nanoscale sensors. Recent advances in materials engineering make it possible to create proximate qubits in solids that might interact with each other, leading to electron spin or charge fluctuation. Here we develop a method to calculate the tunneling-mediated charge diffusion between point defects from first principles and apply it to nitrogen-vacancy (NV) qubits in diamond. The calculated tunneling rates are in quantitative agreement with previous experimental data. Our results suggest that proximate neutral and negatively charged NV defect pairs can form a NV-NV molecule. A tunneling-mediated model for the source of decoherence of the near-surface NV qubits is developed based on our findings on the interacting qubits in diamond.

  10. Ionization, evaporation and fragmentation of C{sub 60} in collisions with highly charged C, O and F ions-effect of projectile charge state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, A H; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai -5 (India)

    2007-09-15

    We study the various inelastic processes such ionization, fragmentation and evaporation of C{sub 60} molecule in collisions with fast heavy ions. We have used 2.33 MeV/u C, O and F projectile ion beams. Various ionization and fragmentation products were detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The multiply charged C{sub 60}{sup r+} ions were detected for maximum r = 4. The projectile charge state (q{sub p}) dependence of the single and double ionization cross sections is well reproduced by a model based on the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The q{sub p}-dependence of the fragmentation yields, was found to be linear. Variation of relative yields of the evaporation products of C{sub 60}{sup 2+} (i.e. C{sub 58}{sup 2+}, C{sub 56}{sup 2+} etc) and C{sub 60}{sup 3+} (i.e. C{sub 58}{sup 3+}, C{sub 56}{sup 3+} etc) with q{sub p} has also been investigated for various projectiles.

  11. Discrimination of Li-ion batteries based on Hamming network using discharging-charging voltage pattern recognition for improved state-of-charge estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongjun; Cho, B.H. [Power Electronics System Laboratory, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Differences in electrochemical characteristics among Li-ion batteries and factors such as temperature and ageing result in erroneous state-of-charge (SoC) estimation when using the existing extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm. This study presents an application of the Hamming neural network to the identification of suitable battery model parameters for improved SoC estimation. The discharging-charging voltage (DCV) patterns of ten fresh Li-ion batteries are measured, together with the battery parameters, as representative patterns. Through statistical analysis, the Hamming network is applied for identification of the representative DCV pattern that matches most closely of the pattern of the arbitrary battery to be measured. Model parameters of the representative battery are then applied to estimate the SoC of the arbitrary battery using the EKF. This avoids the need for repeated parameter measurement. Using model parameters selected by the proposed method, all SoC estimates (off-line and on-line) based on the EKF are within {+-}5% of the values estimated by ampere-hour counting. (author)

  12. The Roles of Public Higher Education Expenditure and the Privatization of the Higher Education on U.S. States Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curs, Bradley R.; Bhandari, Bornali; Steiger, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Previous empirical literature finds that government expenditure on higher education has a negative, or null, effect on U.S. economic growth rates. This empirical result may be driven by omission of an important variable--the privatization of higher education. Using state-level panel data from 1970 to 2005, this analysis investigates whether the…

  13. Modeling and state-of-charge prediction of lithium-ion battery and ultracapacitor hybrids with a co-estimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujie; Liu, Chang; Pan, Rui; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-01-01

    The modeling and state-of-charge estimation of the batteries and ultracapacitors are crucial to the battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system. In recent years, the model based state estimators are welcomed widely, since they can adjust the gain according to the error between the model predictions and measurements timely. In most of the existing algorithms, the model parameters are either configured by theoretical values or identified off-line without adaption. But in fact, the model parameters always change continuously with loading wave or self-aging, and the lack of adaption will reduce the estimation accuracy significantly. To overcome this drawback, a novel co-estimator is proposed to estimate the model parameters and state-of-charge simultaneously. The extended Kalman filter is employed for parameter updating. To reduce the convergence time, the recursive least square algorithm and the off-line identification method are used to provide initial values with small deviation. The unscented Kalman filter is employed for the state-of-charge estimation. Because the unscented Kalman filter takes not only the measurement uncertainties but also the process uncertainties into account, it is robust to the noise. Experiments are executed to explore the robustness, stability and precision of the proposed method. - Highlights: • A co-estimator is proposed to estimate the model parameters and state-of-charge. • The extended Kalman filter is used for model parameter adaption. • The unscented Kalman filter is designed for state estimation with strong robust. • The dynamic profiles are employed to verify the proposed co-estimator.

  14. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  15. Higher cigarette taxes--healthier people, wealthier state: the Hungarian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Tibor

    2007-09-01

    To prove that higher cigarette taxes eventually decrease smoking and do also increase state incomes from tobacco taxes by using Hungarian figures. Collection and analysis of available data on tobacco use, levels of excise and value added taxes on tobacco products and state incomes originating from the tobacco sector. In Hungary, regular tobacco tax increases resulted in decreased cigarette consumption and its lower prevalence figures in some population groups. State incomes have increased in spite of regular cigarette tax raises. Therefore, there is on conflict of interest between the health and finance portfolios in supporting further tobacco tax increases. Hungary should use regular, above the inflation tobacco tax raises as means for improving population health. Tobacco control advocates should prevent tobacco companies' attempts aimed at deterring decision makers from supporting such tax policies.

  16. Why the EU-15 Maintains Higher CIT Rates than the New Member States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpowicz Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is not a homogenous area. This lack of homogeneity extends to taxes, which vary across jurisdictions. On average, Western Europe imposes significantly higher taxes on capital than New Member States, which joined the Community in 2004 and 2007. Often this fact is simply taken for granted. However, there are several arguments that can explain this variance. Although several of these arguments are well known and have been researched, they have not been assessed in combination, or used in a comparative analysis of corporate income tax (CIT rates between EU member states. Because of interest in harmonizing CIT throughout the EU, the roots of divergent CIT is of particular and timely value. Therefore, this article we attempts to demonstrate the differences in CIT rates in the EU-15 and New Member States. In so doing the general characteristics of these country grouping is identified, and then discussed in the context of the taxation theory.

  17. Decay characteristics of electronic charged states of Si quantum dots as evaluated by an AFM/Kelvin probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Junichiro; Makihara, Katsunori; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Murakami, Hideki; Higashi, Seiichiro; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    Si quantum dots (Si-QDs) with an areal dot density of 8 x 10 11 cm -2 on SiO 2 have been prepared by the thermal decomposition of monosilane to characterize charged states of Si-QDs using AFM/Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM). The temporal changes in the surface potential induced by electron charging and discharging at Si-QDs covered with a ∼ 2-nm-thick oxide layer have been measured. In electron charging and discharging at Si-QDs, a Rh-coated AFM tip was electrically biased in the range of - 5 to 5 V and scanned on the sample surface in a tapping mode. The surface potential changes on Si-QDs by electron injection and extraction were observable, while no potential change was detected elsewhere. The surface potential of charged Si-QDs decays with time at rates depending on charge injection conditions. The observed decay characteristics can be interpreted in terms of discharging of stored electrons in Si-QDs due to electron tunneling through the bottom oxide to the substrate and neutralization of stored holes due to recombination with electrons tunneling from the substrates. The defect generation in oxide is likely to be responsible for a fairly slow decay as observed in the case of electron extraction by the tip bias as high as + 4.8 V with respect to p-Si(100)

  18. Direct measurement of the concurrence for two-qubit electron spin entangled pure state based on charge detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiong; Zhou Lan; Sheng Yu-Bo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a protocol for directly measuring the concurrence of a two-qubit electronic pure entangled state. To complete this task, we first design a parity-check measurement (PCM) which is constructed by two polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and a charge detector. By using the PCM for three rounds, we can achieve the concurrence by calculating the total probability of picking up the odd parity states from the initial states. Since the conduction electron may be a good candidate for the realization of quantum computation, this protocol may be useful in future solid quantum computation. (paper)

  19. In situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy investigation of the state of charge of all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Liu, Qi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Fan; Ren, Yang; Heald, Steve M; Liu, Yadong; Li, Zhe-Fei; Lu, Wenquan; Xie, Jian

    2014-10-22

    Synchrotron-based in situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) has been used to study the valence state evolution of the vanadium ion for both the catholyte and anolyte in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) under realistic cycling conditions. The results indicate that, when using the widely used charge-discharge profile during the first charge process (charging the VRB cell to 1.65 V under a constant current mode), the vanadium ion valence did not reach V(V) in the catholyte and did not reach V(II) in the anolyte. Consequently, the state of charge (SOC) for the VRB cell was only 82%, far below the desired 100% SOC. Thus, such incompletely charged mix electrolytes results in not only wasting the electrolytes but also decreasing the cell performance in the following cycles. On the basis of our study, we proposed a new charge-discharge profile (first charged at a constant current mode up to 1.65 V and then continuously charged at a constant voltage mode until the capacity was close to the theoretical value) for the first charge process that achieved 100% SOC after the initial charge process. Utilizing this new charge-discharge profile, the theoretical charge capacity and the full utilization of electrolytes has been achieved, thus having a significant impact on the cost reduction of the electrolytes in VRB.

  20. Method of estimating the State-of-Charge and of the use time left of a rechageable battery, and apparatus for executing such a method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Hendrik Johannes; Pop, V.; Notten, Petrus Henricus Laurentius

    2006-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of estimating the state-of-charge of a rechargeable battery, taking into account the factors battery spread and ageing. The method comprises the steps of: determining the starting state-of-charge of the battery by measuring the voltage across the battery and converting this

  1. Long-lived, charge-shift states in heterometallic, porphyrin-based dendrimers formed via click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pleux, Loïc; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Odobel, Fabrice; Harriman, Anthony

    2011-05-26

    A series of multiporphyrin clusters has been synthesized and characterized in which there exists a logical gradient for either energy or electron transfer between the porphyrins. A central free-base porphyrin (FbP), for example, is equipped with peripheral zinc(II) porphyrins (ZnP) which act as ancillary light harvesters and transfer excitation energy to the FbP under visible light illumination. Additional energy-transfer steps occur at the triplet level, and the series is expanded by including magnesium(II) porphyrins and/or tin(IV) porphyrins as chromophores. Light-induced electron transfer is made possible by incorporating a gold(III) porphyrin (AuP(+)) into the array. Although interesting by themselves, these clusters serve as control compounds by which to understand the photophysical processes occurring within a three-stage dendrimer comprising an AuP(+) core, a second layer formed from four FbP units, and an outer layer containing 12 ZnP residues. Here, illumination into a peripheral ZnP leads to highly efficient electronic energy transfer to FbP, followed by charge transfer to the central AuP(+). Charge recombination within the resultant charge-shift state is intercepted by secondary hole transfer to the ZnP, which occurs with a quantum yield of around 20%. The final charge-shift state survives for some microseconds in fluid solution at room temperature.

  2. Rapid Estimation Method for State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Continual Variable Order Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the fractional order model has been employed to state of charge (SOC estimation. The non integer differentiation order being expressed as a function of recursive factors defining the fractality of charge distribution on porous electrodes. The battery SOC affects the fractal dimension of charge distribution, therefore the order of the fractional order model varies with the SOC at the same condition. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the SOC. A fractional continuous variable order model is used to characterize the fractal morphology of charge distribution. The order identification results showed that there is a stable monotonic relationship between the fractional order and the SOC after the battery inner electrochemical reaction reaches balanced. This feature makes the proposed model particularly suitable for SOC estimation when the battery is in the resting state. Moreover, a fast iterative method based on the proposed model is introduced for SOC estimation. The experimental results showed that the proposed iterative method can quickly estimate the SOC by several iterations while maintaining high estimation accuracy.

  3. Charge transfer in low-energy collisions of H with He+ and H+ with He in excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreau, J.; Ryabchenko, S.; Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Vaeck, N.

    2018-04-01

    The charge transfer process in collisions of excited (n = 2, 3) hydrogen atoms with He+ and in collisions of excited helium atoms with H+ is studied theoretically. A combination of a fully quantum-mechanical method and a semi-classical approach is employed to calculate the charge-exchange cross sections at collision energies from 0.1 eV u‑1 up to 1 keV u‑1. These methods are based on accurate ab initio potential energy curves and non-adiabatic couplings for the molecular ion HeH+. Charge transfer can occur either in singlet or in triplet states, and the differences between the singlet and triplet spin manifolds are discussed. The dependence of the cross section on the quantum numbers n and l of the initial state is demonstrated. The isotope effect on the charge transfer cross sections, arising at low collision energy when H is substituted by D or T, is investigated. Rate coefficients are calculated for all isotopes up to 106 K. Finally, the impact of the present calculations on models of laboratory plasmas is discussed.

  4. Molecular approaches to solar energy conversion: the energetic cost of charge separation from molecular-excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, James R

    2013-08-13

    This review starts with a brief overview of the technological potential of molecular-based solar cell technologies. It then goes on to focus on the core scientific challenge associated with using molecular light-absorbing materials for solar energy conversion, namely the separation of short-lived, molecular-excited states into sufficiently long-lived, energetic, separated charges capable of generating an external photocurrent. Comparisons are made between different molecular-based solar cell technologies, with particular focus on the function of dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells as well as parallels with the function of photosynthetic reaction centres. The core theme of this review is that generating charge carriers with sufficient lifetime and a high quantum yield from molecular-excited states comes at a significant energetic cost-such that the energy stored in these charge-separated states is typically substantially less than the energy of the initially generated excited state. The role of this energetic loss in limiting the efficiency of solar energy conversion by such devices is emphasized, and strategies to minimize this energy loss are compared and contrasted.

  5. Assessment of building maintenance management practices of higher education institutions in Niger State - Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofide Blessing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions face immediate pressure to preserve existing building facilities within the campuses and enhance the capacity of their higher education system to address growing demands of an increasing influx of students and academic activities. There is no doubt that dilapidated and unhealthy buildings in a decaying environment depresses the quality of life and contributes in some measure to antisocial behaviours. The buildings of higher education institutions in Nigeria only receive top management attention when there is a problem. Hence, the paper assessed the building maintenance management practices of 6 higher institutions available (2 universities, 2 polytechnics and 2 colleges of education in Niger State. This was done by interviewing the Directors of Works of the 6 institutions using a structured interview method. The study revealed that there was no maintenance manual in any of the Works Department of the higher education institution, no user satisfaction survey has ever been conducted and none of the institutions had a computerised maintenance management system (CMMS in place. In addition to these, corrective maintenance was mostly adopted and there was inadequate staffing of the field operatives. All these shortcomings might be responsible for the backlog of maintenance work experienced in the institutions studied. A proactive maintenance system should be put in place, CMMS should be adopted to enhance effective maintenance work, and top management should be enlightened on the imperative of maintenance among other issues competing for funds within the institutions and be more flexible in allocation of resources to enhance maintenance works.

  6. Unraveling the Solution-State Supramolecular Structures of Donor-Acceptor Polymers and their Influence on Solid-State Morphology and Charge-Transport Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Qing; Yao, Ze-Fan; Lei, Ting; Dou, Jin-Hu; Yang, Chi-Yuan; Zou, Lin; Meng, Xiangyi; Ma, Wei; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Polymer self-assembly in solution prior to film fabrication makes solution-state structures critical for their solid-state packing and optoelectronic properties. However, unraveling the solution-state supramolecular structures is challenging, not to mention establishing a clear relationship between the solution-state structure and the charge-transport properties in field-effect transistors. Here, for the first time, it is revealed that the thin-film morphology of a conjugated polymer inherits the features of its solution-state supramolecular structures. A "solution-state supramolecular structure control" strategy is proposed to increase the electron mobility of a benzodifurandione-based oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) (BDOPV)-based polymer. It is shown that the solution-state structures of the BDOPV-based conjugated polymer can be tuned such that it forms a 1D rod-like structure in good solvent and a 2D lamellar structure in poor solvent. By tuning the solution-state structure, films with high crystallinity and good interdomain connectivity are obtained. The electron mobility significantly increases from the original value of 1.8 to 3.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . This work demonstrates that "solution-state supramolecular structure" control is critical for understanding and optimization of the thin-film morphology and charge-transport properties of conjugated polymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Fusion-Related Ionization and Recombination Data for Tungsten Ions in Low to Moderately High Charge States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Müller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Collisional processes and details of atomic structure of heavy many-electron atoms and ions are not yet understood in a fully satisfying manner. Experimental studies are required for guiding new theoretical approaches. In response to fusion-related needs for collisional and spectroscopic data on tungsten atoms in all charge states, a project has been initiated in which electron-impact and photon-induced ionization as well as photorecombination of Wq+ ions are studied. Cross sections and rate coefficients were determined for charge states q ranging from q = 1 to q = 5 for photoionization, for q = 1 up to q = 19 for electron-impact ionization and for q = 18 to q = 21 for electron-ion recombination. An overview, together with a critical assessment of the methods and results is provided.

  8. Infinite number of solvable generalizations of XY-chain, with cluster state, and with central charge c=m/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Minami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An infinite number of spin chains are solved and it is derived that the ground-state phase transitions belong to the universality classes with central charge c=m/2, where m is an integer. The models are diagonalized by automatically obtained transformations, many of which are different from the Jordan–Wigner transformation. The free energies, correlation functions, string order parameters, exponents, central charges, and the phase diagram are obtained. Most of the examples consist of the stabilizers of the cluster state. A unified structure of the one-dimensional XY and cluster-type spin chains is revealed, and other series of solvable models can be obtained through this formula.

  9. Low to High Spin-State Transition Induced by Charge Ordering in Antiferromagnetic YBaCo2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, T.; Woodward, P. M.; Karen, P.; Hunter, B. A.; Henning, P.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen-deficient double perovskite YBaCo 2 O 5 , containing corner-linked CoO 5 square pyramids as principal building units, undergoes a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic spin ordering at 330 K. This is accompanied by a tetragonal to orthorhombic distortion. Below 220 K orbital ordering and long-range Co 2+ /Co 3+ charge ordering occur as well as a change in the Co 2+ spin state from low to high spin. This transition is shown to be very sensitive to the oxygen content of the sample. To our knowledge this is the first observation of a spin-state transition induced by long-range orbital and charge ordering. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  10. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions of 2.0 MeV/u carbon ions passing through carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, M.; Sataka, M.; Matsuda, M.; Okayasu, S.; Kawatsura, K.; Takahiro, K.; Komaki, K.; Shibata, H.; Nishio, K.

    2015-01-01

    Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions were studied experimentally for 2.0 MeV/u carbon ions after passing through carbon foils. Measured charge-state distribution established the equilibrium at a target thickness of 10 μg/cm 2 and this remained unchanged until a maximum target thickness of 98 μg/cm 2 . The equilibrium charge-state distribution, the equilibrium mean charge-state, and the width and skewness of the equilibrium distribution were compared with predictions using existing semi-empirical formulae as well as simulation results, including the ETACHA code. It was found that charge-state distributions, mean charge states, and distribution widths for C 2+ , C 3+ , and C 4+ incident ions merged into quasi-equilibrium values at a target thickness of 5.7 μg/cm 2 in the pre-equilibrium region and evolved simultaneously to the ‘real equilibrium’ values for all of the initial charge states, including C 5+ and C 6+ ions, as previously demonstrated for sulfur projectile ions at the same velocity (Imai et al., 2009). Two kinds of simulation, ETACHA and solution of rate equations taking only single electron transfers into account, were used, and both of them reproduced the measured charge evolution qualitatively. The quasi-equilibrium behavior could be reproduced with the ETACHA code, but not with solution of elementary rate equations

  11. Space charge and steady state current in LDPE samples containing a permittivity/conductivity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Bambery, K. R.; Fleming, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic theory predicts that a dielectric sample in which a steady DC current of density ε is flowing, and in which the ratio of permittivity ε to conductivity σ varies with position, will acquire a space charge density j·grad(ε/σ). A simple and convenient way to generate an ε/σ gradient...... in a homogeneous sample is to establish a temperature gradient across it. The resulting spatial variation in ε is usually small in polymeric insulators, but the variation in σ can be appreciable. Laser induced pressure pulse (LIPP) measurements were made on 1.5 mm thick plaques of ultra pure LDPE equipped...... with vacuum-evaporated aluminium electrodes. Temperature differences up to 27°C were maintained across the samples, which were subjected to DC fields up to 20 kV/mm. Current density was measured as a function of temperature and field. Negligible thermally generated space charge was observed. The charge...

  12. Hierarchical Control with Virtual Resistance Optimization for Efficiency Enhancement and State-of-Charge Balancing in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical control scheme which applies optimization method into DC microgrids in order to improve the system overall efficiency while considering the State-of-Charge (SoC) balancing at the same time. Primary droop controller, secondary voltage restoration controller...... and tertiary optimization tool formulate the complete hierarchical control system. Virtual resistances are taken as the decision variables for achieving the objective. simulation results are presented to verify the proposed approach....

  13. Modeling of charge-transfer transitions and excited states in d6 transition metal complexes by DFT techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Antonín; Záliš, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 251, 3-4 (2007), s. 258-287 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC068; GA MŠk OC 139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : charge-transfer transition * DFT technique * excited states * spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 8.568, year: 2007

  14. Charge state distribution studies of pure and oxygen mixed krypton ECR plasma - signature of isotope anomaly and gas mixing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin; Mal, Kedar; Rodrigues, G

    2016-11-01

    We report the charge state distributions of the pure, 25% and 50% oxygen mixed krypton plasma to shed more light on the understanding of the gas mixing and the isotope anomaly [A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63 (1992) 2875 and Y Kawai, D Meyer, A Nadzeyka, U Wolters and K Wiesemann, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10 (2001) 451] in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas. The krypton plasma was produced using a 10 GHz all-permanent-magnet ECR ion source. The intensities of the highly abundant four isotopes, viz. 82 Kr (~11.58%), 83 Kr (~11.49%), 84 Kr (~57%) and 86 Kr (17.3%) up to ~ +14 charge state have been measured by extracting the ions from the plasma and analysing them in the mass and the energy using a large acceptance analyzer-cum-switching dipole magnet. The influence of the oxygen gas mixing on the isotopic krypton ion intensities is clearly evidenced beyond +9 charge state. With and without oxygen mixing, the charge state distribution of the krypton ECR plasma shows the isotope anomaly with unusual trends. The anomaly in the intensities of the isotopes having quite closer natural abundance, viz. 82 Kr, 86 Kr and 83 Kr, 86 Kr is prominent, whereas the intensity ratio of 86 Kr to 84 Kr shows a weak signature of it. The isotope anomaly tends to disappear with increasing oxygen mixing in the plasma. The observed trends in the intensities of the krypton isotopes do not follow the prediction of linear Landau wave damping in the plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Physical state of the second mature age men working as teachers of higher educational establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Penzie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is presented characteristic of physical state of the second mature age men working as teachers of higher educational establishments. The experiment involved 46 teachers - men second mature age.The investigation shows that the studied people have most data of cardiovascular and respiratory system of a low level. It indicates the necessity of improvement of body’s functional systems and increasing a hypoxia tolerance level. Planning of selection of physical education means in the sphere of preventive and sanitary classes with male – teachers of higher educational establishments is substantiated. It is marked that in the system prophylactic health-improvement employments it is necessary to utillize individual approach for men with the high, middle and low level of physical preparedness. The necessity of account of motivational priorities, decisions of the personal aims and tasks, specifics of pedagogical activity, is marked, selection of facilities which have a high health effect.

  16. Transferring Instantly the State of Higher-Order Linear Descriptor (Regular Differential Systems Using Impulsive Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios D. Karageorgos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, and generally speaking in many dynamical differential systems, the problem of transferring the initial state of the system to a desired state in (almost zero-time time is desirable but difficult to achieve. Theoretically, this can be achieved by using a linear combination of Dirac -function and its derivatives. Obviously, such an input is physically unrealizable. However, we can think of it approximately as a combination of small pulses of very high magnitude and infinitely small duration. In this paper, the approximation process of the distributional behaviour of higher-order linear descriptor (regular differential systems is presented. Thus, new analytical formulae based on linear algebra methods and generalized inverses theory are provided. Our approach is quite general and some significant conditions are derived. Finally, a numerical example is presented and discussed.

  17. A comparative study of kalman filtering based observer and sliding mode observer for state of charge estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Hicham; Errahimi, Fatima; Es-Sbai, Najia; Alaoui, Chakib

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, electric mobility is starting to define society and is becoming more and more irreplaceable and essential to daily activities. Safe and durable battery is of a great significance for this type of mobility, hence the increasing interest of research activity oriented to battery studies, in order to assure safe operating mode and to control the battery in case of any abnormal functioning conditions that could damage the battery if not properly managed. Lithium-ion technology is considered the most suitable existing technology for electrical storage, because of their interesting features such as their relatively long cycle life, lighter weight, their high energy density, However, there is a lot of work that is still needed to be done in order to assure safe operating lithium-ion batteries, starting with their internal status monitoring, cell balancing within a battery pack, and thermal management. Tasks that are accomplished by the battery management system (BMS) which uses the state of charge (SOC) as an indicator of the internal charge level of the battery, in order to avoid unpredicted system interruption. Since the state of charge is an inner state of a the battery which cannot be directly measured, a powerful estimation technique is inevitable, in this paper we investigate the performances of tow estimation strategies; kalman filtering based observers and sliding mode observers, both strategies are compared in terms of accuracy, design requirement, and overall performances.

  18. A combination Kalman filter approach for State of Charge estimation of lithium-ion battery considering model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanwen; Wang, Chao; Gong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    An accurate battery State of Charge estimation plays an important role in battery electric vehicles. This paper makes two contributions to the existing literature. (1) A recursive least squares method with fuzzy adaptive forgetting factor has been presented to update the model parameters close to the real value more quickly. (2) The statistical information of the innovation sequence obeying chi-square distribution has been introduced to identify model uncertainty, and a novel combination algorithm of strong tracking unscented Kalman filter and adaptive unscented Kalman filter has been developed to estimate SOC (State of Charge). Experimental results indicate that the novel algorithm has a good performance in estimating the battery SOC against initial SOC errors and voltage sensor drift. A comparison with the unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms and adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms shows that the proposed SOC estimation method has better accuracy, robustness and convergence behavior. - Highlights: • Recursive least squares method with fuzzy adaptive forgetting factor is presented. • The innovation obeying chi-square distribution is used to identify uncertainty. • A combination Karman filter approach for State of Charge estimation is presented. • The performance of the proposed method is verified by comparison results.

  19. Influence of different open circuit voltage tests on state of charge online estimation for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fangdan; Xing, Yinjiao; Jiang, Jiuchun; Sun, Bingxiang; Kim, Jonghoon; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two common tests for observing battery open circuit voltage performance are compared. • The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated. • Two estimators are evaluated in terms of accuracy and robustness for estimating battery SOC. • The incremental OCV test is better to predetermine the OCV-SOCs for SOC online estimation. - Abstract: Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is a crucial function of battery management systems (BMSs), since accurate estimated SOC is critical to ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicles. A widely used technique for SOC estimation is based on online inference of battery open circuit voltage (OCV). Low-current OCV and incremental OCV tests are two common methods to observe the OCV-SOC relationship, which is an important element of the SOC estimation technique. In this paper, two OCV tests are run at three different temperatures and based on which, two SOC estimators are compared and evaluated in terms of tracking accuracy, convergence time, and robustness for online estimating battery SOC. The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated and its influence on SOC estimation results is discussed. In addition, four dynamic tests are presented, one for estimator parameter identification and the other three for estimator performance evaluation. The comparison results show that estimator 2 (based on the incremental OCV test) has higher tracking accuracy and is more robust against varied loading conditions and different initial values of SOC than estimator 1 (based on the low-current OCV test) with regard to ambient temperature. Therefore, the incremental OCV test is recommended for predetermining the OCV-SOCs for battery SOC online estimation in BMSs.

  20. A multi-passage spectrometer for charge-state separation at MLLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christine; Gartzke, Eva; Habs, Dietrich; Krug, Kevin; Szerypo, Jerzy; Thirolf, Peter [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU - Muenchen (Germany); Kolhinen, Veli [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    MLLTRAP is a Penning trap mass spectrometer facility which is currently being commissioned at the Maier-Leibnitz Tandem Accelerator Laboratory in Garching. Here, atomic mass values are determined by comparison of cyclotron frequencies, {omega}{sub c}=qB/m, of stored ions with mass m and charge q in a strong magnetic field B, relative to those of well-known ion species. One of the future goals of MLLTRAP is to utilize highly-charged ions for an improvement in the achievable mass accuracy {delta}m/m. For this purpose, singly-charged ions will have to be injected into a charge-breeding device, such as an EBIT, and transferred back towards the Penning traps, while being q/A selected. A multi-passage-spectrometer (MPS) is being built to fulfill these tasks. It consists of a fast-ramping, round-pole dipole magnet with a four-way electrostatic mirror system. In this presentation, the planned MLLTRAP setup focussing on the q/A-selection with the MPS system is presented.

  1. Enhanced intersystem crossing via a high energy charge transfer state in a perylenediimide-perylenemonoimide dyad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, D.; Chopin-Cado, S.M.A; Meskers, S.C.J.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The electronic relaxation processes of a photoexcited linear perylenediimide-perylenemonoimide (PDI-PMI) acceptor-donor dyad were studied. PDI-PMI serves as a model compound for donor-acceptor systems in photovoltaic devices and has been designed to have a high-energy PDI--PMI + charge transfer (CT)

  2. Optoelectronic processes at polymer-fullerene heterojunctions : charge transfer states in organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nuzzo, D.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer photovoltaic cells currently achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCE) above 10% on lab scale. To compete with the efficiencies above 20% of inorganic solar cells, understanding and elimination of all the loss channels is necessary. This thesis investigates charge generation and

  3. Charge transport of graphene ferromagnetic-insulator-superconductor junction with pairing state of broken time reversal symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Hajati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the charge transport through a graphene-based ferromagnetic-insulator-superconductor junction with a broken time reversal symmetry (BTRS of dx2−y2 + is and dx2−y2 + idxy superconductor using the extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. Our analysis have shown several charateristics in this junction, providing a useful probe to understand the role of the order parameter symmetry in the superconductivity. We find that the presence of the BTRS (X state in the superconductor region has a strong effect on the tunneling conductance curves which leads to a decrease in the height of the zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP. In particular, we show that the magnitude of the superconducting proximity effect depends to a great extent on X and by increasing X, the zero-bias charge conductance oscillations with respect to the rotation angle β are suppressed. In addition, we find that at the maximum rotation angle β = π/4, introducing BTRS in the FIS junction causes oscillatory behavior of the zero-bias charge conductance with the barrier strength (χG by a period of π and by approaching the X to 1, the amplitude of charge conductance oscillations increases. This behavior is drastically different from none BTRS similar graphene junctions. At last, we suggest an experimental setup for verifying our predicted effects.

  4. Phase transitions in local equation-of-state approximation and anomalies of spatial charge profiles in non-uniform plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigvintsev, A. Yu; Zorina, I. G.; Noginova, L. Yu; Iosilevskiy, I. L.

    2018-01-01

    Impressive appearance of discontinuities in equilibrium spatial charge profiles in non-uniform Coulomb systems is under discussions in wide number of thermoelectrostatics problems. Such discontinuities are considered as peculiar micro-level manifestation of phase transitions and intrinsic macro-level non-ideality effects in local equation of state (EOS), which should be used for description of non-ideal ionic subsystem in frames of local-density (or “pseudofluid”, or “jellium” etc) approximation. Such discontinuities were discussed already by the authors for electronic subsystems. Special emphasis is made in present paper on the mentioned above non-ideality effects in non-uniform ionic subsystems, such as micro-ions profile within screening “cloud” around macro-ion in complex (dusty, colloid etc) plasmas, equilibrium charge profile in ionic traps or (and) in the neighborhood vicinity of “charged wall” etc). Multiphase EOS for simplified ionic model of classical charged hard spheres on uniformly compressible electrostatic compensating background was constructed and several illustrative examples of discussed discontinuous ionic profiles were calculated.

  5. Charge state distribution of 16O from the 4He(12C,16O)γ reaction of astrophysical interest studied both experimentally and theoretically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shengjin; Sakurai, Makoto; Sagara, Kenshi; Teranishi, Takashi; Fujita, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Sayaka; Mitsuzumi, Tatsuki; Iwazaki, Makoto; Rosary, Mariya T.; Kato, Daiji; Tolstikhina, I.Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In astrophysics, 4 He( 12 C, 16 O)γ reaction places an important role. At Kyushu University Tandem accelerator Laboratory (KUTL), the measurement of 4 He( 12 C, 16 O)γ cross section is in progress in the energy range of astrophysical nuclear reaction. Since the charge state of product 16 O ions after passing through the gas target is spread and only one charge state can be measured at terminal detector, it is necessary to know the charge state distribution of 16 O ions passing through the He gas target precisely. Here, we report the charge state distribution of the 16 O recoils both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, we measured the equilibrium charge state distribution of 16 O ions in the windowless helium gas target with the beam energy of primary 16 O ions at 7.2, 4.5, and 3.45 MeV at KUTL. The measured results showed a Gaussian distribution for the charge state fraction. Theoretically, we proposed a framework for the charge state distribution study. Charge state distribution was computed by solving a set of differential equations including a series of charge exchange cross sections. For the ionization cross section, plane-wave Born approximation was applied and modified by taking target atomic screening as a function of momentum transfer into account. For the capture cross section, continuum distorted wave approximation was applied and the influence of the gas target density was taken into account in the process of electron capture. Using above charge exchange cross sections, the charge state evolution was simulated. According to the equilibrium distribution, we compared the theoretical calculation to the experimental data. After taking into account the density effects in the charge exchange process, the theoretical charge state distributions shows a good agreement with the experimental data. Both experimental and theoretical results are useful to understand the charge fraction of recoil oxygen created via 4 He( 12 C, 16 O)γ reaction

  6. Acute administration of nicotine into the higher order auditory Te2 cortex specifically decreases the fear-related charge of remote emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Grosso, Anna; Renna, Annamaria; Concina, Giulia; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Nicotine elicits several behavioural effects on mood as well as on stress and anxiety processes. Recently, it was found that the higher order components of the sensory cortex, such as the secondary auditory cortex Te2, are essential for the long-term storage of remote fear memories. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of acute nicotine injection into the higher order auditory cortex Te2, on the remote emotional memories of either threat or incentive experiences in rats. We found that intra-Te2 nicotine injection decreased the fear-evoked responses to a tone previously paired with footshock. This effect was cue- and dose-specific and was not due to any interference with auditory stimuli processing, innate anxiety and fear processes, or with motor responses. Nicotine acts acutely in the presence of threat stimuli but it did not determine the permanent degradation of the fear-memory trace, since memories tested one week after nicotine injection were unaffected. Remarkably, nicotine did not affect the memory of a similar tone that was paired to incentive stimuli. We conclude from our results that nicotine, when acting acutely in the auditory cortex, relieves the fear charge embedded by learned stimuli. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Higher Fock states and power counting in exclusive P-wave quarkonium decays

    CERN Document Server

    Bolz, J; Schuler, G A; Bolz, Jan; Kroll, Peter; Schuler, Gerhard A.

    1998-01-01

    Exclusive processes at large momentum transfer Q factor into perturbatively calculable short-distance parts and long-distance hadronic wave functions. Usually, only contributions from the leading Fock states have to be included to leading order in 1/Q. We show that for exclusive decays of P-wave quarkonia the contribution from the next-higher Fock state |Q Qbar g> contributes at the same order in 1/Q. We investigate how the constituent gluon attaches to the hard process in order to form colour-singlet final-state hadrons and argue that a single additional long-distance factor is sufficient to parametrize the size of its contribution. Incorporating transverse degrees of freedom and Sudakov factors, our results are perturbatively stable in the sense that soft phase-space contributions are largely suppressed. Explicit calculations yield good agreement with data on chi_{c J} decays into pairs of pions, kaons, and etas. We also comment on J/psi decays into two pions.

  8. Merely Measuring the UV-Visible Spectrum of Gold Nanoparticles Can Change Their Charge State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Jose; Siefe, Chris; Alcantar, Samuel; Belt, Michael; Stucky, Galen D; Moskovits, Martin

    2018-02-14

    Metallic nanostructures exhibit a strong plasmon resonance at a wavelength whose value is sensitive to the charge density in the nanostructure, its size, shape, interparticle coupling, and the dielectric properties of its surrounding medium. Here we use UV-visible transmission and reflectance spectroscopy to track the shifts of the plasmon resonance in an array of gold nanoparticles buried under metal-oxide layers of varying thickness produced using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and then coated with bulk layers of one of three metals: aluminum, silver, or gold. A significant shift in the plasmon resonance was observed and a precise value of ω p , the plasmon frequency of the gold comprising the nanoparticles, was determined by modeling the composite of gold nanoparticles and metal-oxide layer as an optically homogeneous film of core-shell particles bounded by two substrates: one of quartz and the other being one of the aforementioned metals, then using a Maxwell-Garnett effective medium expression to extract ω p for the gold nanoparticles before and after coating with the bulk metals. Under illumination, the change in the charge density of the gold nanoparticles per particle determined from the change in the values of ω p is found to be some 50-fold greater than what traditional electrostatic contact electrification models compute based on the work function difference of the two conductive materials. Moreover, when using bulk gold as the capping layer, which should have resulted in a negligible charge exchange between the gold nanoparticles and the bulk gold, a significant charge transfer from the bulk gold layer to the nanoparticles was observed as with the other metals. We explain these observations in terms of the "plasmoelectric effect", recently described by Atwater and co-workers, in which the gold nanoparticles modify their charge density to allow their resonant wavelength to match that of the incident light, thereby achieving, a lower value of the

  9. A study of charge state approach to the stopping power of MeV B, N, and O ions in carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.M.; O'Connor, D.J.; Timmers, H.; Dastoor, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    The charge state approach has been applied to treat the electronic stopping powers of swift O, N and B ions in carbon foil. According to the charge state model, the contributions to the electronic stopping power of energetic projectiles passing through solid targets are due to collisional interactions and from the charge exchange process. The definition of fractional effective charge from Brandt and Kitagawa has been combined into the current charge state model. Extensive applications of this approach require data of the equilibrium charge state distributions and knowledge of charge-exchange cross sections-involving electronic capture and loss processes. Both measured data and empirical calculations of the equilibrium charge state fraction are used in the study, and the electronic capture cross sections are obtained with the eikonal Brinkman-Kramers approximation (EBK). By comparing the numerical results with the latest experimental data as well as empirical values, it is shown that the present approach slightly overestimates the energy loss at the intermediate velocity region

  10. Quasiparticle Scattering off Defects and Possible Bound States in Charge-Ordered YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, R; Hirata, M; Wu, T; Vinograd, I; Mayaffre, H; Krämer, S; Horvatić, M; Berthier, C; Reyes, A P; Kuhns, P L; Liang, R; Hardy, W N; Bonn, D A; Julien, M-H

    2017-01-06

    We report the NMR observation of a skewed distribution of ^{17}O Knight shifts when a magnetic field quenches superconductivity and induces long-range charge-density-wave (CDW) order in YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y}. This distribution is explained by an inhomogeneous pattern of the local density of states N(E_{F}) arising from quasiparticle scattering off, yet unidentified, defects in the CDW state. We argue that the effect is most likely related to the formation of quasiparticle bound states, as is known to occur, under specific circumstances, in some metals and superconductors (but not in the CDW state, in general, except for very few cases in 1D materials). These observations should provide insight into the microscopic nature of the CDW, especially regarding the reconstructed band structure and the sensitivity to disorder.

  11. Characterization of electronic charged states of P-doped Si quantum dots using AFM/Kelvin probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihara, Katsunori; Xu, Jun; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Murakami, Hideki; Higashi, Seiichiro; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorous doping to Si quantum dots was performed by a pulse injection of 1% PH 3 diluted with He during the dot formation on thermally grown SiO 2 from thermal decomposition of pure SiH 4 , and electron charging to and discharging from P-doped Si dots were studied to characterize their electronic charged states using a Kelvin probe technique in atomic force microscopy (AFM). The potential change corresponding to the extraction of one electron from each of the P-doped Si dots was observed after applying a tip bias as low as + 0.2 V while for undoped Si dots, with almost the same size as P-doped Si dots, almost the same amount of the potential change was detectable only when the tip bias was increased to ∼ 1 V. It is likely that, for P-doped Si dots, the electron extraction from the conduction band occurs and results in a positively charged state with ionized P donor

  12. Electronic structure and charge transfer excited states of endohedral fullerene containing electron donoracceptor complexes utilized in organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerikheirabadi, Fatemeh

    Organic Donor-Acceptor complexes form the main component of the organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The open circuit voltage of OPVs is directly related to the charge transfer excited state energies of these complexes. Currently a large number of different molecular complexes are being tested for their efficiency in photovoltaic devices. In this work, density functional theory as implemented in the NRLMOL code is used to investigate the electronic structure and related properties of these donor-acceptor complexes. The charge transfer excitation energies are calculated using the perturbative delta self-consistent field method recently developed in our group as the standard time dependent density functional approaches fail to accurately provide them. The model photovoltaics systems analyzed are as follows: Sc3N C 80--ZnTPP, Y3 N C80-- ZnTPP and Sc3 N C80-- ZnPc. In addition, a thorough analysis of the isolated donor and acceptor molecules is also provided. The studied acceptors are chosen from a class of fullerenes named trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes. These molecules have shown to possess advantages as acceptors such as long lifetimes of the charge-separated states.

  13. The development of an ECRIS charge-state breeder for generating RIB's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, T.; Geller, R.; Bouly, J.L.; Chauvin, N.; Curdy, J.C.; Lacoste, A.; Sole, P.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Vieux-Rochaz, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    ECRIS have proven their ability to fulfill the requirements of all types of accelerators. Initially developed for radioactive ion beam production, the ECR charge breeder shows that the beam injection of a primary beam inside an ECR ion source is a very general process for beam production and better understanding of the ECRIS physics. A new dedicated ECRIS PHOENIX has been specifically built to improve a means for the already very satisfying results obtained with the MINIMAFIOS source adapted to the so called ''1+/n+'' method. In this paper, we will review the latest results obtained on the ISN Grenoble test bench for the production of c.w. or pulsed metallic ion beams. The results are already very promising thanks to an improved and versatile magnetic field configuration. The efficiencies of specific charges have been improved and the overall breeding time has been decreased by factors of 3 to 9 (i.e.: 25 ms to obtain Ag19+)

  14. Influence of Charge State on the Reaction of FeO3^+/- with Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveles, J. U.; Khanna, S. N.; Reilly, N. M.; Johnson, G. E.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    2007-03-01

    A synergistic study combining experiments in molecular beams and first principles electronic structure calculations within a gradient corrected density functional approach is used to investigate the reactivity of charged FeO3 clusters with CO. It is shown that highly oxidized iron clusters are able to readily effect the oxidation of CO to CO2 at ambient temperature. Calculated energy profiles of the reaction demonstrate that the oxidation efficiency is governed by the strength of oxygen binding to the iron atom. Results for FeO3^+/- are presented and reveal that cation clusters are more efficient than the corresponding anion clusters at effecting the oxidation reaction due to different bond energies resulting from charge distribution.

  15. Vacuum state structure and the screening mechanism of a charge in two-dimensional massless electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, G.S.; Dyatlov, I.T.; Petrov, V.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    In two-dimensional electrodynamics (QED 2 ) of massless fermions (quarks) the screening and confinement of a charge is due to the transition of local charges into vacuum of the system under the action of the field changing the topological number. An exact solution of the problem of the quark structure of vacuum for two variants of QED 2 shows that it is consistent with the phenomenon. The structure of vacuum is therefore related directly to the Adler anomaly and to the character of variation of the field topological numbers in dynamic processes. The solutions obtained permit one to investigate in an explicit form the properties of a chiral condensate, the existence of which is also a direct consequence of the Adler anomaly

  16. Top Quark Pair Properties - Spin Correlation, Charge Asymmetry, and Complex Final States - at ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brost Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of top quark pair properties performed with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV. The latest measurements of spin correlation and charge asymmetry in tt¯$t\\overline t $ events, as well as measurements of the cross section for tt¯$t\\overline t $ production in association with vector bosons, are presented.

  17. Spin state of negative charge-transfer material SrCoO.sub.3./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jan; Křápek, Vlastimil; Parragh, N.; Sangiovanni, G.; Toschi, A.; Kozhevnikov, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 11 (2012), "117206-1"-"117206-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0284 Keywords : negative charge tranfer * dynamical mean-field theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.117206

  18. Comparative Study of Online Open Circuit Voltage Estimation Techniques for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Chaoui

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least mean square, LMS, along with an adaptive observer. The proposed techniques use the battery’s terminal voltage and current to estimate the OCV, which is correlated to the state of charge (SOC. Experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methods in online estimation at different charge/discharge conditions and temperatures. The comparative study illustrates the advantages and limitations of each online estimation method.

  19. On the investigation of electronic defect states in ZnO thin films by space charge spectroscopy with optical excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthias; Wenckstern, Holger von; Pickenhain, Rainer; Grundmann, Marius

    2012-09-01

    Electronic defect states in a n-type conducting zinc oxide thin film sample were investigated by means of space charge spectroscopy focussing on levels in the midgap region as well as on hole traps. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the wide bandgap and the lack of p-type conduction, optical excitation was employed to measure the emission of trapped charge carriers from these levels. Therefore - besides deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements - photo-capacitance, optically chopped photo-current, minority carrier transient spectroscopy, and optical capacitance-voltage experiments were conducted. In doing so, a midgap level labelled T4, and hole traps labelled TH1 and TH2 were detected. In the case of T4 and TH1 the photo-ionisation cross-section spectra were determined.

  20. Confinement in a cryogenic Penning trap of highest charge state ions from EBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1994-01-01

    The retrapping of highly charged Xe 44+ and Th 68+,72+ ions extracted from an open-quotes Electron Beam Ion Trapclose quotes (EBIT) is demonstrated after injection of the ions into RETRAP, a cryogenic Penning trap (up to 6 Tesla magnetic field) currently with an open cylinder design. Ion extraction in a short pulse (5-20 μsec) from EBIT, essential for efficient retrapping, is employed. The ions are slowed down upon entering a deceleration tube mounted above the trap within the magnetic field. The potential is then rapidly (100 ns) decreased, enabling low energy ions to enter the trap. Capture efficiencies up to 25% are observed via detection of the delayed ion release pulse with a detector below the trap. Signal voltages induced in a tuned circuit due to single and multiple ions have been observed by tuning the ion resonant axial oscillation frequencies for different ions. Results from transporting and retrapping of the ions, as well as their detection, are described and the trapping efficiency is discussed, The motivation for these studies is to cool the trapped very highly charged ions to low temperatures (< 4 K) in order to perform ultrahigh resolution precision spectroscopy, collision studies at ultra low energies and to observe phase transitions in Coulomb clusters of highly charged ions

  1. Influence of Structure and Charge State on the Mechanism of CO Oxidation on Gold Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant; Burgel, Christian; Reilly, Nelly; Mitric, Roland; Kimble, Michele; Tyo, Eric; Castleman, A. W.; Bonacic-Koutecky, Vlasta

    2008-05-01

    Gas-phase reactivity experiments and high level theoretical calculations have been employed to study the interaction of both positively and negatively charged gold oxide clusters with carbon monoxide (CO). We demonstrate that for negatively charged clusters CO is oxidized to CO2 by an Eley-Ridel-like (ER-) mechanism involving the attack of CO on oxygen rather than gold. In contrast, for positively charged clusters, the oxidation reaction may also occur by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-like (LH-) mechanism involving the initial binding of CO to a gold atom followed by subsequent migration to an oxygen site. The LH mechanism is made possible through the large energy gain associated with the adsorption of two CO molecules onto cationic gold clusters. Structure-reactivity relationships are also established which demonstrate that terminally bound oxygen atoms are the most active sites for CO oxidation. Bridge bonded oxygen atoms and molecularly bound O2 units are shown to be inert. We also establish an inverse relationship between the binding energy of CO to gold clusters and the energy of the clusters lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO).

  2. Charge state mapping of mixed valent iron and manganese mineral particles using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecher, K.; Nealson, K.; Kneedler, E.; Rothe, J.; Meigs, G.; Warwick, T.; Tonner, B.

    2000-01-01

    The interfaces between solid mineral particles and water play a crucial role in partitioning and chemical transformation of many inorganic as well as organic pollutants in environmental systems. Among environmentally significant minerals, mixed-valent oxides and hydroxides of iron (e.g. magnetite, green rusts) and manganese (hausmanite, birnessite) have been recognized as particularly strong sorbents for metal ions. In addition, minerals containing Fe(II) have recently been proven to be powerful reductants for a wide range of pollutants. Chemical properties of these minerals strongly depend on the distribution and availability of reactive sites and little is known quantitatively about the nature of these sites. We have investigated the bulk distribution of charge states of manganese (Mn (II, III, IV)) and iron (Fe(II, III)) in single particles of natural manganese nodules and synthetic green rusts using Scanning Transmission X-ray SpectroMicroscopy (STXM). Pixel resolved spectra (XANES) extracted from stacks of images taken at different wave lengths across the metal absorption edge were fitted to total electron yield (TEY) spectra of single valent reference compounds. Two dimensional maps of bulk charge state distributions clearly reveal domains of different oxidation states within single particles of Mn-nodules and green rust precipitates. Changes of oxidation states of iron were followed as a result of reductive transformation of an environmental contaminant (CCl 4 ) using green rust as the only reductant

  3. Long-wavelength behaviour of charge-charge structure factor in insulating and metallic ground state of condensed hydrogen under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, M.A.; March, N.H.

    1988-09-01

    Using the quantum Monte Carlo charge-charge structure factor S qq (k) it is argued that (i) in the metallic phase the small k expasion is non-analytic at order k 5 , reflecting plasmon dispersion, while in the insulating phase the non-analyticity occurs at O(k 3 ), due to van der Waals interaction between the protons. (author) [pt

  4. Battery State-of-Charge and Parameter Estimation Algorithm Based on Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Sucic, Stjepan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical battery is the most widely used energy storage technology, finding its application in various devices ranging from low power consumer electronics to utility back-up power. All types of batteries show highly non-linear behaviour in terms of dependence of internal parameters...... on operating conditions, momentary replenishment and a number of past charge/discharge cycles. A good indicator for the quality of overall customer service in any battery based application is the availability and reliability of these informations, as they point out important runtime variables...

  5. Identification of charged particles by etching the solid state nuclear track detectors in successive intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randhawa, G.S.; Virk, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    The suitability of the method of charged particle identification by etching the samples in successive intervals developed by Grabez et al. has been checked in CR-39 exposed to heavy ions 238 U, 208 Pb, 197 Au and 132 Xe in the interval 11.0 to 17.0 MeV/u. A similar study has been made on soda glass detectors irradiated by 238 U, 132 Xe, 56 Fe and 48 Ti ions having energy 4.0 to 6.0 MeV/u. It is concluded that this method of particle identification can be used successfully in CR-39 and soda glass detectors. (author)

  6. Influence of charge state on the reaction of FeO3+/- with carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Nelly M.; Ulises Reveles, J.; Johnson, Grant E.; Khanna and, Shiv N., Jr.; Castleman, A. W.

    2007-02-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study shows that highly oxidized iron clusters are able to readily effect the oxidation of CO to CO 2 at ambient temperature. Calculated energy profiles of the reaction demonstrate that the oxidation efficiency is governed by the strength of oxygen binding to the iron atom. Results for FeO3+/- are presented and reveal that cation clusters are more efficient than the corresponding anion clusters at effecting the oxidation reaction due to different oxygen bond energies resulting from charge distribution.

  7. Manipulating charge transfer excited state relaxation and spin crossover in iron coordination complexes with ligand substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenkai; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Alonso-Mori, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    iron complexes with four cyanide (CN-;) ligands and one 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) ligand. This enables MLCT excited state and metal-centered excited state energies to be manipulated with partial independence and provides a path to suppressing spin crossover. We have combined X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL...... state lifetime of iron based complexes due to spin crossover-the extremely fast intersystem crossing and internal conversion to high spin metal-centered excited states. We revitalize a 30 year old synthetic strategy for extending the MLCT excited state lifetimes of iron complexes by making mixed ligand...

  8. ESIprot: a universal tool for charge state determination and molecular weight calculation of proteins from electrospray ionization mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometers with relatively low resolution are frequently used for the analysis of natural products and peptides. Although ESI spectra of multiply charged protein molecules also can be measured on this type of devices, only average spectra are produced for the majority of naturally occurring proteins. Evaluating such ESI protein spectra would provide valuable information about the native state of investigated proteins. However, no suitable and freely available software could be found which allows the charge state determination and molecular weight calculation of single proteins from average ESI-MS data. Therefore, an algorithm based on standard deviation optimization (scatter minimization) was implemented for the analysis of protein ESI-MS data. The resulting software ESIprot was tested with ESI-MS data of six intact reference proteins between 12.4 and 66.7 kDa. In all cases, the correct charge states could be determined. The obtained absolute mass errors were in a range between -0.2 and 1.2 Da, the relative errors below 30 ppm. The possible mass accuracy allows for valid conclusions about the actual condition of proteins. Moreover, the ESIprot algorithm demonstrates an extraordinary robustness and allows spectral interpretation from as little as two peaks, given sufficient quality of the provided m/z data, without the necessity for peak intensity data. ESIprot is independent from the raw data format and the computer platform, making it a versatile tool for mass spectrometrists. The program code was released under the open-source GPLv3 license to support future developments of mass spectrometry software. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Estimating Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge and Parameters Using a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Diab

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A real-time determination of battery parameters is challenging because batteries are non-linear, time-varying systems. The transient behaviour of lithium-ion batteries is modelled by a Thevenin-equivalent circuit with two time constants characterising activation and concentration polarization. An experimental approach is proposed for directly determining battery parameters as a function of physical quantities. The model’s parameters are a function of the state of charge and of the discharge rate. These can be expressed by regression equations in the model to derive a continuous-discrete extended Kalman estimator of the state of charge and of other parameters. This technique is based on numerical integration of the ordinary differential equations to predict the state of the stochastic dynamic system and the corresponding error covariance matrix. Then a standard correction step of the extended Kalman filter (EKF is applied to increase the accuracy of estimated parameters. Simulations resulting from this proposed estimator model were compared with experimental results under a variety of operating scenarios—analysis of the results demonstrate the accuracy of the estimator for correctly identifying battery parameters.

  10. Effect of charged deep states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the behavior of iron oxides nanoparticles deposited on its surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmucova, Katarina; Weis, Martin; Nadazdy, Vojtech; Capek, Ignac; Satka, Alexander; Chitu, Livia; Cirak, Julius; Majkova, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett technique has been used for the deposition of ordered two-dimensional arrays of iron oxides (Fe 3 O 4 /Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles onto the photovoltaic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film. Electric field at the a-Si:H/iron oxides nanoparticles interface was directly in the electrochemical cell modified by light soaking and bias voltage (negative or positive) pretreatment resulting in the change of the dominant type of charged deep states in the a-Si:H layer. Induced reversible changes in the nanoparticle redox behavior have been observed. We suggest two possible explanations of the data obtained, both of them are needed to describe measured electrochemical signals. The first one consists in the electrocatalytical effect caused by the defect states (negatively or positively charged) in the a-Si:H layer. The second one consists in the possibility to manipulate the nanoparticle cores in the prepared structure immersed in aqueous solution via the laser irradiation under specific bias voltage. In this case, the nanoparticle cores are assumed to be covered with surface clusters of heterovalent complexes created onto the surface regions with prevailing ferrous or ferric valency. Immersed in the high viscosity surrounding composed of the wet organic nanoparticle envelope these cores are able to perform a field-assisted pivotal motion. The local electric field induced by the deep states in the a-Si:H layer stabilizes their 'orientation ordering' in an energetically favourable position

  11. Estimation of State of Charge for Two Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Nonlinear Predictive Filter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of state of charge (SOC is of great importance for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. This paper presents a state of charge estimation method using nonlinear predictive filter (NPF and evaluates the proposed method on the lithium-ion batteries with different chemistries. Contrary to most conventional filters which usually assume a zero mean white Gaussian process noise, the advantage of NPF is that the process noise in NPF is treated as an unknown model error and determined as a part of the solution without any prior assumption, and it can take any statistical distribution form, which improves the estimation accuracy. In consideration of the model accuracy and computational complexity, a first-order equivalent circuit model is applied to characterize the battery behavior. The experimental test is conducted on the LiCoO2 and LiFePO4 battery cells to validate the proposed method. The results show that the NPF method is able to accurately estimate the battery SOC and has good robust performance to the different initial states for both cells. Furthermore, the comparison study between NPF and well-established extended Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation indicates that the proposed NPF method has better estimation accuracy and converges faster.

  12. An All-vanadium Continuous-flow Photoelectrochemical Cell for Extending State-of-charge in Solar Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zi; Shen, Yi; Liu, Dong; Liu, Fuqiang

    2017-04-04

    Greater levels of solar energy storage provide an effective solution to the inherent nature of intermittency, and can substantially improve reliability, availability, and quality of the renewable energy source. Here we demonstrated an all-vanadium (all-V) continuous-flow photoelectrochemical storage cell (PESC) to achieve efficient and high-capacity storage of solar energy, through improving both photocurrent and photocharging depth. It was discovered that forced convective flow of electrolytes greatly enhanced the photocurrent by 5 times comparing to that with stagnant electrolytes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study revealed a great reduction of charge transfer resistance with forced convective flow of electrolytes as a result of better mass transport at U-turns of the tortuous serpentine flow channel of the cell. Taking advantage of the improved photocurrent and diminished charge transfer resistance, the all-V continuous-flow PESC was capable of producing ~20% gain in state of charge (SOC) under AM1.5 illumination for ca. 1.7 hours without any external bias. This gain of SOC was surprisingly three times more than that with stagnant electrolytes during a 25-hour period of photocharge.

  13. The use of iron charge state changes as a tracer for solar wind entry and energization within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Fritz

    Full Text Available The variation of the charge state of iron [Fe] ions is used to trace volume elements of plasma in the solar wind into the magnetosphere and to determine the time scales associated with the entry into and the action of the magnetospheric energization process working on these plasmas. On 2–3 May 1998 the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE spacecraft located at the L1 libration point observed a series of changes to the average charge state of the element Fe in the solar wind plasma reflecting variation in the coronal temperature of their original source. Over the period of these two days the average Fe charge state was observed to vary from + 15 to + 6 both at the Polar satellite in the high latitude dayside magnetosphere and at ACE. During a period of southward IMF the observations at Polar inside the magnetosphere of the same Fe charge state were simultaneous with those at ACE delayed by the measured convection speed of the solar wind to the subsolar magnetopause. Comparing the phase space density as a function of energy at both ACE and Polar has indicated that significant energization of the plasma occurred on very rapid time scales. Energization at constant phase space density by a factor of 5 to 10 was observed over a range of energy from a few keV to about 1 MeV. For a detector with a fixed energy threshold in the range from 10 keV to a few hundred keV this observed energization will appear as a factor of ~103 increase in its counting rate. Polar observations of very energetic O+ ions at the same time indicate that this energization process must be occurring in the high latitude cusp region inside the magnetosphere and that it is capable of energizing ionospheric ions at the same time.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  14. Estimation of State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in HEV Using Robust Extended Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman M. Sharkh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A robust extended Kalman filter (EKF is proposed as a method for estimation of the state of charge (SOC of lithium-ion batteries used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An equivalent circuit model of the battery, including its electromotive force (EMF hysteresis characteristics and polarization characteristics is used. The effect of the robust EKF gain coefficient on SOC estimation is analyzed, and an optimized gain coefficient is determined to restrain battery terminal voltage from fluctuating. Experimental and simulation results are presented. SOC estimates using the standard EKF are compared with the proposed robust EKF algorithm to demonstrate the accuracy and precision of the latter for SOC estimation.

  15. Cross-sections of charge and electronic states change of particles at ion-ion and ion-molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, M.N.; Afrosimov, V.V.; Basalaev, A.A.; Guschina, N.A.; Nikulin, V.K.

    2006-01-01

    The interactions of protons and alpha-particles with hydrocarbons are investigated. A quantum-mechanical computation of the electronic structure of all hydrocarbons from methane to butane and its fragment ions was performed in the Hartree-Fock RHF/UHF approximation using a GAMESS program (General Atomic Molecular Electron Structure System). The correlation energy was taken into account within the framework of MP2 perturbation theory. The structural parameters of the hydrocarbon molecules and their charged and neutral fragments were calculated in two cases: in the geometry of the parent molecule or of the relaxation states. The difference of the full energy of the same fragments in and out of brackets gives us the vibration excitation energies of the fragments at the moment of creation. Additional Mulliken effective charges (in electron charge units) of atoms in the fragments have been calculated. The calculations show that removing one electron from the ethane molecule without electronic excitation produced a single charged molecular ion in vibration state with binding energy of hydrogen atoms, some decimal eV. As results we obtain C 2 H 6 + and C 2 H 5 + . Additional fragmentation of hydrocarbon needs electronic excitation of produced single charged ions. Cross sections for electron capture and excitation processes in collisions between the hydrogen-like He + , B 4+ and O 7+ ions have been evaluated. The purpose of the theory within this project during the period under review was to get for the first time new data on Single-Electron Capture (SEC) and Excitation Processes (EP) in collisions of He + (1s) ions with hydrogen-like impurity ions B 4+ (1s) and O 7+ (1s) in the energy range for He + ions from 0.2 MeV to 3.0 MeV. The calculations were carried out by using the method of close-coupling equations with basis sets of eleven and ten quasimolecular two-electron states for reactions (1, 2) and (3, 4), respectively (entrance channel, seven charge transfer channels

  16. Observation of enhanced zero-degree binary encounter electron production with decreasing charge-state q in 30 MeV Oq+ + O2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, T.J.M.; Wong, K.L.; Hidmi, H.I.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured binary encounter electron production in collisions of 30 MeV O q+ projectiles (q=4-8) and O 2 targets. Measured double differential BEe cross-sections are found to increase with decreasing charge-state q, in agreement with similar previously reported zero-degree investigations for H 2 and He targets. However, measurements for the same system but at 25 degrees shows the opposite trend, that BEe cross sections decrease slightly with decreasing charge state

  17. A Collimation Scheme for Ions Changing Charge State in the LEIR Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Pasternak, Jaroslaw; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Mahner, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Avalanche-like pressure rise and an associated decrease of the beam life-time, caused by (i) beam loss due to charge exchange interactions with rest gas molecules and (ii) electron capture from the electron beam of the electron cooler and (iii) ion impact induced outgassing, is a potential limitation for heavy ion accelerators. The vacuum system of the LEIR ring as to be upgraded to reach the dynamical vacuum pressure in the low 10-12 Torr range necessary to reach design performance. A collimation system to intercept lost ions by absorber blocks made of low beam-induced outgassing material will be installed. This paper reviews the collimation scheme and simulations of beam loss patterns around the ring.

  18. Electron loss and capture from low-charge-state oxygen projectiles in methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A C F; Wolff, W; Sant’Anna, M M; Sigaud, G M; DuBois, R D

    2013-01-01

    Absolute cross sections for single- and double-electron loss and single- and multiple-electron capture of 15–1000 keV oxygen projectiles (q = −1, 0, 1, 2) colliding with the methane molecule are presented. The experimental data are used to examine cross-section scaling characteristics for the electron loss of various projectiles. In addition, a modified version of the free-collision model was employed for the calculation of the single- and total-electron-loss cross sections of oxygen projectiles presented in this work. The comparison of the calculated cross sections with the present experimental data shows very good agreement for projectile velocities above 1.0 au. The comparison of the present single-electron-capture cross sections with other projectiles having the same charge shows good agreement, and a common curve can be drawn through the different data sets. (paper)

  19. Tight-binding molecular dynamics simulation of charge state effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Khakimov, Z M; Sulaymonov, N T; Kiv, A E; Levin, A A

    2002-01-01

    New model of Si-H bond dissociation has been proposed and tested in the cluster Si sub 1 sub 0 H sub 1 sub 6 by the simulation approach that combines classical molecular dynamics method and the self-consistent tight-binding electronic and total energy calculation one. It is shown that the monohydride Si-H bond is unstable with respect to formation of silicon dangling bond and bend bridge Si-H-Si bond when this cluster traps the single positive charge. In this case hydrogen atom migrates rather rotating around Si-Si bond than crossing the center of this bond (the bond-centered position). The model can be useful for understanding hydrogen related phenomena at surfaces, interfaces, internal voids of various hydrogenated silicon systems: electronic devices, silicon solar cells, and nanocrystalline and porous silicon. (author)

  20. Alternating space charge and ambiguity of quantum states in double-barrier structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashkovskij, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    Solution for nonstationary self-consistent Schroedinger and Poisson equations describing resonance interaction of electrons tunneled through asymmetric double-barrier structures with a high-frequency electric field was obtained by summing perturbation theory series. In case of uniform distribution of electrons by energy the solution is obtained analytically, whereas in case of monoenergy beam, it is reduced to finding the roots of power five algebraic polynomial. It is shown that in some cases the influence of spatial charge gives rise to quite a new effect for the systems: several different electron wave functions will correspond to the same amplitude of high-frequency voltage applied to the structure and, accordingly, the values of high-frequency conductivity, transmission and reflection factors may differ by several times. As a result, instability of current transmission and hysteresis of volt-ampere characteristics may be observed in the structures [ru