WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher cd concentrations

  1. The soluble receptor for vitamin B12 uptake (sCD320) increases during pregnancy and occurs in higher concentration in urine than in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Andreasen, Birgitte H; Kronborg, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cellular uptake of vitamin B12 (B12) demands binding of the vitamin to transcobalamin (TC) and recognition of TC-B12 (holoTC) by the receptor CD320, a receptor expressed in high quantities on human placenta. We have identified a soluble form of CD320 (sCD320) in serum and here we...... gestational weeks 17-41. sCD320, holoTC, total TC and complex formation between holoTC and sCD320 were measured by in-house ELISA methods, while creatinine was measured on the automatic platform Cobas 6000. Size exclusion chromatography was performed on a Superdex 200 column. RESULTS: Median (range) of serum...... was around two fold higher than in serum. Urinary sCD320/creatinine ratio correlated with serum sCD320 and reached a peak median level of 53 (30-101) pmol/mmol creatinine (week 35). sCD320 present in serum and urine showed the same elution pattern upon size exclusion chromatography. CONCLUSION: We report...

  2. Trace element concentrations in higher fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Ravnik, V.; Kosta, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of ten trace elements, As, Br, Cd, Cu, Hg, I, Mn, Se, Zn and V, have been determined in up to 27 species of higher fungi from several sites in Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Analyses were based on destructive neutron activation techniques. Data are presented and compared with the concentrations found in soils. Previously values were non-existent or scanty for these elements, so that the data represent typical levels for basidiomycetes. In addition to confirming high levels of mercury in many species, the survey also found that cadmium is accumulated to a surprising extent by most fungi, the average value being 5 ppm. Among other accumulations found was bromine by the genus Amanita, and selenium by edible Boletus. Correlation analysis between all pairs of trace elements gave values for r of from 0.75 to 0.43 for 7 pairs (Cu and Hg, 0.75; Se and As, 0.69). As well as these features of biochemical interest, the values found and the pattern of accumulation suggest potential uses of fungi in environmental studies

  3. Influence of Ag doping concentration on structural and optical properties of CdS thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pragati; Saxena, Nupur; Gupta, Vinay; Agarwal, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the influence of Ag concentration on structural properties of pulsed laser deposited nanocrystalline CdS thin film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirm the dopant concentration in CdS films and atomic concentration of elements. XPS studies show that the samples are slightly sulfur deficient. GAXRD scan reveals the structural phase transformation from cubic to hexagonal phase of CdS without appearance of any phase of CdO, Ag 2 O or Ag 2 S suggesting the substitutional doping of Ag ions. Photoluminescence studies illustrate that emission intensity increases with increase in dopant concentration upto 5% and then decreases for higher dopant concentration

  4. Assessment of potential soybean cadmium excluder cultivars at different concentrations of Cd in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yang; He, Kangxin; Sun, Ting; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-09-01

    The selection of cadmium-excluding cultivars has been used to minimize the transfer of cadmium into the human food chain. In this experiment, five Chinese soybean plants were grown in three soils with different concentrations of Cd (0.15, 0.75 and 1.12mg/kg). Variations in uptake, enrichment, and translocation of Cd among these soybean cultivars were studied. The results indicated that the concentration of Cd in seeds that grew at 1.12mg/kg Cd in soils exceeded the permitted maximum levels in soybeans. Therefore, our results indicated that even some soybean cultivars grown on soils with permitted levels of Cd might accumulate higher concentrations of Cd in seeds that are hazardous to human health. The seeds of these five cultivars were further assessed for interactions between Cd and other mineral nutrient elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn. High Cd concentration in soil was found to inhibit the uptake of Mn. Furthermore, Fe and Zn accumulations were found to be enhanced in the seeds of all of the five soybean cultivars in response to high Cd concentration. Cultivar Tiefeng 31 was found to fit the criteria for a Cd-excluding cultivar under different concentrations of Cd in soils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Increased concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand platelet in patients with primary antiphospholipidic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia López, Aida; Olguín Ortega, Lourdes; Saavedra, Miguel A; Méndez Cruz, René; Jimenez Flores, Rafael; García de la Peña, Maximiliano

    2013-01-01

    To determine the concentrations of sCD40L in patients with PAPS, and establish its association with the number of thrombosis. We included patients with PAPS and healthy controls of the same age and sex. For analysis, patients with PAPS were divided into 2 groups: 1) patients with 1 thrombosis, and 2) patients with >1 thrombosis. Soluble CD40L concentrations were determined by ELISA method. sCD40L concentrations were significantly higher in patients with PAPS compared with the controls (9.72 ng ± 11.23 ng/ml vs. 4.69 ± 4.04 ng/ml) (P=.04) There was no association between serum levels of sCD40L and the number of thrombosis (1 thrombosis: 9.81 ± 9.87 ng/ml vs 9.63 ± 12.75 ng/ml in ≥ 1thrombosis (P=.13). In women with pregnancy and abortions, (13 patients) concentrations of sCD40L were higher than in those patients without a history of abortion (26 patients) but without statically significant difference (12.11 ± 16.46 ng/ml vs. 8.80 ± 8.61 ng/ml) (P=.33). There was no correlation between levels of sCD40L and the total number of thrombosis. Patients with PAPS have higher concentrations of sCD40L compared with healthy subjects, although this is not associated with a greater number of thrombosis. Among patients with PAPS, there is a tendency to higher concentrations of sCD40L in women with pregnancy and history of abortion. Since the platelet is the main cellular source of sCD40L, is possible that this pathway plays a pathogenic role in patients with PAPS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Ag doping concentration on structural and optical properties of CdS thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pragati, E-mail: pkumar.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bareilly College, Bareilly, 243 005, Uttar Pradesh (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110 007 (India); Saxena, Nupur; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110 007 (India); Agarwal, Avinash [Department of Physics, Bareilly College, Bareilly, 243 005, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-05-15

    This work shows the influence of Ag concentration on structural properties of pulsed laser deposited nanocrystalline CdS thin film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirm the dopant concentration in CdS films and atomic concentration of elements. XPS studies show that the samples are slightly sulfur deficient. GAXRD scan reveals the structural phase transformation from cubic to hexagonal phase of CdS without appearance of any phase of CdO, Ag{sub 2}O or Ag{sub 2}S suggesting the substitutional doping of Ag ions. Photoluminescence studies illustrate that emission intensity increases with increase in dopant concentration upto 5% and then decreases for higher dopant concentration.

  7. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-01-01

    concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The

  8. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-01-01

    concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste

  9. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-02-28

    concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste

  10. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The

  11. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The

  12. Soluble CD30 concentrations in ESRD patients with and without panel reactive HLA antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Smita; Partlow, David; Barnes, Titus; Thomas, Phillip; Gugliuzza, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    In this retrospective study we compared accuracy of panel reactive antibodies (PRA) with serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) contents in predicting acute rejection crisis post-renal transplant. Pre-transplant sera from 115 patients were evaluated for their PRA and sCD30 concentrations. All patients received calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppressive therapy. Objective measurements for rejection were biopsy-proven acute rejection (AR) episodes within first six months of the transplant. Post-transplant sera of patients with AR were tested for the presence of donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA). Overall AR rate was 16% (18/115). Patients positive for PRA and sCD30 tests were at significantly higher risk for AVR compared with those patients negative for both the tests (36% vs. 5%, p=0.01). Among negative PRA patients risk for AR was significantly elevated if they were also tested positive for sCD30 concentrations (21% vs. 5%, p=0.04). Of the 18 patients with AR, 14 were positive for sCD30, and 13 of them (93%) developed DSA post-transplant (p=0.001). These data showed that patients positive for sCD30 contents are at high risk for the development of DSA and AR post-transplant regardless of their pre-transplant PRA.

  13. Determination of Cr and Cd concentration adsorbed by chicken feathers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, A.; Cuapio O, L.A.; Cardenas P, S.; Balcazar, M.; Jauregui, V.; Bonilla P, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the results of the samples analysis of chicken feathers are presented, used as adsorber of the heavy metals Cd and Cr present in water solutions with well-known concentrations of these metals. It was used the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (AAN), using the TRIGA Mark-III reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. The obtained results they show the advantages of having a versatile installation for the analysis of this type of samples. By means of the analysis of the results, it was determined the feasibility of using chicken feathers like adsorber of these metals present in polluted waters, additionally, it was detected the presence of others polluting elements in the inputs to prepare the reference solutions as well as in the processes, so much of preparation of the feathers like of the metals adsorption. (Author)

  14. CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cell numbers in peripheral blood are correlated with higher tumor burden in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Twardosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the commonest histological type of malignant lymphoma, andremains incurable in many cases. Developing more efficient immunotherapy strategies will require betterunderstanding of the disorders of immune responses in cancer patients. NKT (natural killer-like T cells wereoriginally described as a unique population of T cells with the co-expression of NK cell markers. Apart fromtheir role in protecting against microbial pathogens and controlling autoimmune diseases, NKT cells havebeen recently revealed as one of the key players in the immune responses against tumors. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the frequency of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells in the peripheral blood of 28 diffuse largeB-cell lymphoma (DLBCL patients in correlation with clinical and laboratory parameters. Median percentagesof CD3+/CD16+CD56+ were significantly lower in patients with DLBCL compared to healthy donors(7.37% vs. 9.01%, p = 0.01; 4.60% vs. 5.81%, p = 0.03, although there were no differences in absolute counts.The frequency and the absolute numbers of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells were lower in advanced clinical stagesthan in earlier ones. The median percentage of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells in patients in Ann Arbor stages 1–2 was5.55% vs. 3.15% in stages 3–4 (p = 0.02, with median absolute counts respectively 0.26 G/L vs. 0.41 G/L (p == 0.02. The percentage and absolute numbers of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells were significantly higher in DL-BCL patients without B-symptoms compared to the patients with B-symptoms, (5.51% vs. 2.46%, p = 0.04;0.21 G/L vs. 0.44 G/L, p = 0.04. The percentage of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells correlated adversely with serumlactate dehydrogenase (R= –445; p < 0.05 which might influence NKT count. These figures suggest a relationshipbetween higher tumor burden and more aggressive disease and decreased NKT numbers. But it remains tobe explained whether low NKT cell counts in the peripheral blood of patients with DLBCL are the result

  15. Interference of Cd2+ in functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Baszyński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual opinions concerning the role of Cd2+ in inhibition of photosynthesis have been reviewed. The light phase of photosynthesis, particularly the site of Cd2+ action in the photosynthetic transport chain has been given the greatest attention. Cd2+-induced inhibition of Photosystem II activity as the result of thylakoid membrane degradation has been discussed. The present studies on Cd2+-inhibited dark reactions occurring in stroma has been analysed. Attention has been drawn to the fact that the results of studies in vitro are not always compatible with the changes found in the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants growing in a Cd2 containing medium.

  16. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.J.P.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 μg g -1 dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd. - Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in the regulation of C. nemoralis soft tissue Cd concentrations at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the food

  17. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notten, M.J.M. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: martje.notten@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Oosthoek, A.J.P. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rozema, J. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aerts, R. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-01-15

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd. - Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in the regulation of C. nemoralis soft tissue Cd concentrations at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the food.

  18. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 μg g

  19. Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd concentrations in fish, water and sediment from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd concentrations in fish, water and sediment from the Azuabie Creek,. Port Harcourt. ... Heavy metal contamination in the aquatic ... Azuabie Creek and the associated water ..... Public in Tianjin, China via Consumption of.

  20. Low concentrations of metformin selectively inhibit CD133⁺ cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer and have anticancer action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmiao Gou

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. The prognosis remains dismal with little advance in treatment. Metformin is a drug widely used for the treatment of type II diabetes. Recent epidemiologic data revealed that oral administration of metformin is associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer, suggesting its potential as a novel drug for this disease. Many studies have demonstrated the in vitro anticancer action of metformin, but the typically used concentrations were much higher than the in vivo plasma and tissue concentrations achieved with recommended therapeutic doses of metformin, and low concentrations of metformin had little effect on the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. We examined the effect of low concentrations of metformin on different subpopulations of pancreatic cancer cells and found that these selectively inhibited the proliferation of CD133⁺ but not CD24⁺CD44⁺ESA⁺ cells. We also examined the effect of low concentrations of metformin on cell invasion and in vivo tumor formation, demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer action. Metformin was associated with a reduction of phospho-Erk and phospho-mTOR independent of Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. CD133⁺ pancreatic cancer cells are considered to be cancer stem cells that contribute to recurrence, metastasis and resistance to adjuvant therapies in pancreatic cancer. Our results provide a basis for combination of metformin with current therapies to improve the prognosis of this disease.

  1. Low Concentrations of Metformin Selectively Inhibit CD133+ Cell Proliferation in Pancreatic Cancer and Have Anticancer Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangsheng; Shi, Pengfei; Liu, Tao; Wang, Chunyou

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. The prognosis remains dismal with little advance in treatment. Metformin is a drug widely used for the treatment of type II diabetes. Recent epidemiologic data revealed that oral administration of metformin is associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer, suggesting its potential as a novel drug for this disease. Many studies have demonstrated the in vitro anticancer action of metformin, but the typically used concentrations were much higher than the in vivo plasma and tissue concentrations achieved with recommended therapeutic doses of metformin, and low concentrations of metformin had little effect on the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. We examined the effect of low concentrations of metformin on different subpopulations of pancreatic cancer cells and found that these selectively inhibited the proliferation of CD133+ but not CD24+CD44+ESA+ cells. We also examined the effect of low concentrations of metformin on cell invasion and in vivo tumor formation, demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer action. Metformin was associated with a reduction of phospho-Erk and phospho-mTOR independent of Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. CD133+ pancreatic cancer cells are considered to be cancer stem cells that contribute to recurrence, metastasis and resistance to adjuvant therapies in pancreatic cancer. Our results provide a basis for combination of metformin with current therapies to improve the prognosis of this disease. PMID:23667692

  2. Does pretransplant soluble CD30 serum concentration affect deceased-donor kidney graft function 3 years after transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, J; Arnol, M; Vidan-Jeras, B; Bren, A F; Kandus, A

    2008-06-01

    Elevated serum concentrations of soluble CD30 molecule (sCD30) have been related to acute cellular rejection and poor graft outcomes in kidney transplantation. This historical cohort study investigated the association of pretransplant sCD30 serum concentrations with kidney graft function expressed as estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 3 years after transplantation. Pretransplant sera from 176 adult deceased-donor kidney graft recipients were tested for sCD30 content using a commercially available automated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immunosuppression consisted of induction therapy with monoclonal anti-CD25 antibodies and a maintenance regimen of cyclosporine (CsA)-based therapy. GFR was estimated (eGFR) by the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. According to the distribution of pretransplant sCD30 levels (median 66.7 U/mL; interquartile range, 46.6 to 98.6 U/mL), a concentration of 66 U/mL or higher was defined as high (n = 89) and below 66 U/mL as low (n = 87). Three years after transplantation, eGFR was not significantly different among recipients in high versus low sCD30 groups (69 +/- 23 mL/min/1.73m2 vs 66 +/- 21 mL/min/1.73m2; P = .327) and there was no correlation between eGFR and pretransplant sCD30 levels (r2 = 0.001; P = .73). Upon multivariate regression analysis, donor age, recipient body mass index at transplantation, and acute rejection episodes were independent variables affecting eGFR at 3 years after transplantation. This study showed that pretransplant sCD30 serum concentrations were not associated with deceased-donor kidney graft function at 3 years after transplantation. The immunosuppression with anti-CD25 antibodies and a triple CsA-based maintenance regimen could possibly be decisive for our findings.

  3. Influence of dopant concentration on the electrical properties of the CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Ramneek; Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in, E-mail: surya-tr@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This paper reports the synthesis and electrical characterization of CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite. CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite has been prepared by ex-situ technique through chemical route. The influence of three different Ag doping concentrations on the electrical properties has been studied in the temperature range ∼ 303-353 K. Transmission electron micrograph reveals the spherical morphology of the CdSe nanoparticles and their proper dispersion in the PMMA matrix. The electrical conduction of the polymer nanocomposites is through thermally activated process with single activation energy. With Ag doping, initially the activation energy increases upto 0.2 % Ag doping concentration but with further increase in Ag concentration, it decreases. This behavior has been discussed on the basis of randomly oriented grain boundaries and defect states. Thus, the results indicate that the transport properties of the polymer nanocomposites can be tailored by controlled doping concentration.

  4. Influence of dopant concentration on the electrical properties of the CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Ramneek; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and electrical characterization of CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite. CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite has been prepared by ex-situ technique through chemical route. The influence of three different Ag doping concentrations on the electrical properties has been studied in the temperature range ∼ 303-353 K. Transmission electron micrograph reveals the spherical morphology of the CdSe nanoparticles and their proper dispersion in the PMMA matrix. The electrical conduction of the polymer nanocomposites is through thermally activated process with single activation energy. With Ag doping, initially the activation energy increases upto 0.2 % Ag doping concentration but with further increase in Ag concentration, it decreases. This behavior has been discussed on the basis of randomly oriented grain boundaries and defect states. Thus, the results indicate that the transport properties of the polymer nanocomposites can be tailored by controlled doping concentration.

  5. Influence of precursor concentration on physical properties of CdO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using nebulizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anitha, M.; Amalraj, L.; Anitha, N. [Virudhunagar Hindu Nadar' s Senthikumara Nadar College (Autonomous), Department of Physics, Virudhunagar, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-12-15

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were prepared with different concentrations of precursor solution (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25 M, respectively) at the optimized temperature (200 C) using the nebulized spray pyrolysis technique to obtain better crystallinity in polycrystalline thin films on amorphous glass substrates. The XRD characterization of those samples revealed a preferential orientation along the (111) plane having a cubic structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis displayed that all the as-deposited thin films have spherical shaped grains. The transmittance of the as-deposited CdO thin films had decreased from 88 to 71% for longer wavelength regions (600-900 nm) as the precursor concentration had increased and then increased for higher precursor concentration. The optical band gap was found to lie between 2.45 and 2.40 eV belonging to direct transition for those thin films. The presence of Cd-O bond (540 cm{sup -1}) was confirmed by FTIR spectrum. The emission properties of CdO thin films were studied by luminescence spectrum recorded at room temperature. A maximum carrier concentration and minimum resistivity values of 4.743 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and 1.06 x 10{sup -3} Ω-cm, respectively, were obtained for 0.2 M precursor concentration. These CdO thin films have high optical transmittance and high room temperature conductivity, which can be used as the TCO and Solar cell (window layer) material. (orig.)

  6. A higher risk of acute rejection of human kidney allografts can be predicted from the level of CD45RC expressed by the recipients' CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ordonez

    Full Text Available Although transplantation is the common treatment for end-stage renal failure, allograft rejection and marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs remain important limitations. A major challenge in the field is to identify easy, reliable and noninvasive biomarkers allowing the prediction of deleterious alloreactive immune responses and the tailoring of immunosuppressive therapy in individuals according to the rejection risk. In this study, we first established that the expression of the RC isoform of the CD45 molecule (CD45RC on CD4 and CD8 T cells from healthy individuals identifies functionally distinct alloreactive T cell subsets that behave differently in terms of proliferation and cytokine secretion. We then investigated whether the frequency of the recipients CD45RC T cell subsets before transplantation would predict acute graft rejection in a cohort of 89 patients who had undergone their first kidney transplantation. We showed that patients exhibiting more than 54.7% of CD8 CD45RC(high T cells before transplantation had a 6 fold increased risk of acute kidney graft rejection. In contrast, the proportions of CD4 CD45RC T cells were not predictive. Thus, a higher risk of acute rejection of human kidney allografts can be predicted from the level of CD45RC expressed by the recipients' CD8 T cells.

  7. Pretransplant soluble CD30 serum concentration does not affect kidney graft outcomes 3 years after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, J; Arnol, M; Vidan Jeras, B; Bren, A F; Kandus, A

    2010-12-01

    An elevated serum concentration of soluble the form of CD30 (sCD30), an activation marker of mainly T(H)2-type cytokines producing T lymphocytes, has been reported as a predictive factor for acute cellular rejection episodes and poor graft outcomes in kidney transplantation. This historic cohort study investigated the association of a pretransplant sCD30 serum concentrations with kidney graft function and graft survival 3 years posttransplantation in adult recipients of deceased donor kidney grafts, treated with monoclonal anti-CD25 antibodies as an induction treatment combined with a cyclosporine (CsA)-based maintenance triple therapy. The pretransplant sera of 296 recipients were tested for sCD30 content using a microsphere flow-cytometry assay. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined by the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. The incidences of graft loss were calculated with the use of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and compared using the log-rank test. According to the distribution of the pretransplant sCD30 levels concentration ≥2700 pg/mL was defined as high (n = 146) and concentration sCD30 groups (65 ± 24 vs 67 ± 21 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P = .43); there was no association between the eGFR 3 years after transplantation and the pretransplant sCD30 levels (r(2) = 0.002; P = .49). Graft survival 3 years after transplantation was also not different in the recipients in high and low sCD30 groups (P = .52). In our adult deceased-donor kidney graft recipients, the pretransplant sCD30 serum concentration was not a predictive factor of immunologic risk associated with the kidney graft function 3 years posttransplantation; neither did it affect graft survival 3 years after transplantation. The immunosuppression with anti-CD25 antibodies as an induction treatment combined with the CsA-based maintenance triple therapy could possibly be decisive for our findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Concentrations of /sup 113m/Cd in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Anglin, D.L.

    1980-09-18

    Reports on the detection of /sup 113m/Cd in any type of environmental sample have been rare. The 113 mass chain yield is small relative to other longer-lived fission products, such as /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs, produced from uranium, plutonium and thorium fissions. Also, only a small fraction of the 113 chain yield decays to /sup 113m/Cd. Salter estimated that the /sup 113m/Cd//sup 90/Sr activity quotient in thermonuclear fission should be 0.003. He stated that this ratio is in good agreement with data from a few samples measured in the northern hemisphere prior to 1962 which have no /sup 109/Cd. This, to our knowledge, was the first report of the detection of fission-produced /sup 113m/Cd in the environment. Salter also calculated that 0.062 MCi of /sup 113m/Cd and 0.25 MCi of /sup 109/Cd were produced by activation during the atmospheric detonation of the 1.4-megaton Starfish device on 9 July 1962 over Johnston Atoll. As both /sup 109/Cd and /sup 113m/Cd are produced during neutron activation of stable cadmium, and /sup 109/Cd is not a fission product, the last part of Salter's statement is significant. The absence of /sup 109/Cd in samples collected before 1962 indicates that all nuclear testing before this time, which included all tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls in the Marshall Islands, could have generated /sup 113m/Cd only as a fission product. It is therefore important to recognize that /sup 113m/Cd could be present in other environments contaminated with fission product wastes discharged to the aquatic environment from other nuclear facilities. /sup 113m/Cd has a half life of 14.6 +- 0.1 y and decays predominantly by beta-particle emission. We present here a preliminary report of /sup 113m/Cd concentrations measured in sediment and tissue samples of marine organisms collected around different atolls in the Marshall Islands.

  9. Higher milk fat content is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-05-01

    Current guidelines for cow's milk consumption in children older than age 2 years suggest 1% or 2% milk to reduce the risk of obesity. Given that milk is the main dietary source of vitamin D for North American children and that vitamin D is fat soluble, we hypothesized 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to be positively associated with the fat content of milk. The objective was to determine the relationship between the fat content of milk consumed and the serum 25(OH)D concentration; our secondary objective was to explore the role that the volume of milk consumed played in this relationship. We completed a cross-sectional study of children aged 12-72 months in the TARGetKids! research network. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between milk fat content and child 25(OH)D, adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. The interaction between volume of milk and fat content was examined. Two thousand eight hundred fifty-seven children were included in the analysis. The fat content of milk was positively associated with 25(OH)D (p = 0.03), and the interaction between the volume of milk consumed and the milk fat content was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Children who drank 1% milk needed 2.46 cups (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-2.54) of milk to have a 25(OH)D concentration similar to that of children who drank 1 cup of homogenized milk (3.25% fat). Children who consumed 1% milk had 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.42) times higher odds of having a 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L compared with children who consumed homogenized milk. In conclusion, recommendations for children to drink lower-fat milk (1% or 2%) may compromise serum 25(OH)D levels and may require study to ensure optimal childhood health.

  10. Effect of the sulfur and fluorine concentration on physical properties of CdS films grown by chemical bath deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Nieto-Zepeda

    Full Text Available Undoped and F-doped CdS thin films were grown on glass slides by chemical bath deposition using thiourea, cadmium acetate and ammonium fluoride as sulfur, cadmium, and fluorine sources, respectively. Undoped CdS films were deposited varying the concentration of thiourea. Once the optimal thiourea concentration was determined, based on the crystalline quality of the samples, this concentration was maintained and ammonium fluoride was added at different concentrations in order to explore the effect of the F nominal concentration on properties of CdS films. Undoped and F-doped CdS films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–Vis, room temperature photoluminescence, and four probe resistivity measurements. Results showed highly transparent F-doped CdS films with strong PL and low resistivity were obtained. Keywords: CdS films, F-doped CdS films, Chemical bath deposition, Optical properties, Room temperature photoluminescence

  11. Concentrations of sup(113m)Cd in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Anglin, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary report is presented of sup(113m)Cd concentrations measured in sediment and tissue samples of marine organisms collected around different atols in the Marshall Islands which are considered to be representative of the levels expected at these latitudes from global fallout deposition. (U.K.)

  12. [Effect of quantum dots CdSe/ZnS's concentration on its fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Min; Huang, Yu-hua; Luo, Ji-xiang

    2015-02-01

    The authors measured the absorption and the fluorescence spectra of the quantum dots CdSe/ZnS with 4 nm in size at different concentration with the use of the UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectrometer. The effect of quantum dots CdSe/ZnS's concentration on its fluorescence was especially studied and its physical mechanism was analyzed. It was observed that the optimal concentration of the quantum dots CdSe/ZnS for fluorescence is 2 micromole x L(-1). When the quantum dot's concentration is over 2 micromol x L(-1), the fluorescence is decreased with the increase in the concentration. While the quantum dot's concentration is less than 2 micromol x L(-1), the fluorescence is decreased with the decrease in the concentration. There are two main reasons: (1) fluorescence quenching and 2) the competition between absorption and fluorescence. When the quantum dot's concentration is over 2 micromol x L(-1), the distance between quantum dots is so close that the fluorescence quenching is induced. The closer the distance between quantum dots is, the more serious the fluorescence quenching is induced. Also, in this case, the absorption is so large that some of the quantum dots can not be excited because the incident light can not pass through the whole sample. As a result, the fluorescence is decreased with the increase in the quantum dot's concentration. As the quantum dot's concentration is below 2 micromol x L(-1), the distance between quantum dots is far enough that no more fluorescence quenching is induced. In this case, the fluorescence is determined by the particle number per unit volume. More particle number per unit volume produces more fluorescence. Therefore, the fluorescence is decreased with the decrease in the quantum dot's concentration.

  13. Influence of sol concentration on CdO nanostructure with gas sensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajput, Jeevitesh K. [Semiconductor Research Lab, Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (India); Pathak, Trilok K. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa); Kumar, Vinod [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India); Purohit, L.P., E-mail: lppurohit@gmail.com [Semiconductor Research Lab, Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • CdO thin films are prepared by spin coater of precursor solution of different molarity. • Nano-structure of CdO is cauliflower like change with concentration. • Relation of strain and crystal size with conductivity as a function of molarity. • A CdO thin film shows nitrogen sensing at room temperature. - Abstract: The effect of sol concentration has been investigated on the sol-gel derived CdO nanostructures to optimize the optical and electrical properties enhancing gas sensing properties at low temperatures. X-ray diffraction patterns show that 0.5 M CdO film has cubic structure (111) preferred orientation with 34 nm particle size. Scanning electron micrographs indicated concentration dependent surface morphology. The optical band gap energy for highly transparent thin films increases from 1.9 eV to 2.34 eV as molarity was increased from 0.2 M to 1.0 M. The photoluminescence spectra of the samples have a violet to blue emission peak centred at 435 nm. J-V characteristics show that thin film of 0.5 M has conductivity 1.41 × 10{sup −3} S/m. The sensor characteristic such as response curve, sensor response, response time and recovery time were measured for optimized thin film at different operating temperatures. The sensor response was found 20% near room temperature (32 °C) and proportional to temperature. Fastest response time 10 s and recovery time 20 s were observed near room temperature. The resistivity of sensor was found to decrease in presence of gas attribute to more charge carriers with flower like morphology. Our study is encouraging to get faster response by CdO thin films near room temperature.

  14. Trace metal concentrations are higher in cartilage than in bones of scaup and pochard wintering in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Salicki, Wieslaw; Kavetska, Katarzyna M.; Ligocki, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Bones and cartilage of two species of diving ducks: the scaup Aythya marila (n = 24) and the pochard A. ferina (n = 24) were studied. Scaup is protected in Poland where it spends only the winter, while pochard is a game bird, abundant and breeding in Poland. In winter, the two species form large flocks off the southern coast of the Baltic, particularly in the Szczecin Lagoon where they were collected for this study. The bones and cartilage (trachea) were assayed for concentrations (dry weight-based) of three essential metals: iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn); concentrations of the two toxic metals: lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were assayed as well. These hard tissues of the two species showed the following order of metal concentrations Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu > Cd. In scaup and pochard bones, the respective geometric mean concentrations of Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, and Cd were 94.4 and 102.0; 20.2 and 24.7; 6.2 and 9.6; 0.19 and 0.26; 0.114 and 0.162 mg/kg. The levels of all the metals in cartilage (Zn 149.1 and 165.8; Fe 58.4 and 116.3; Pb 10.6 and 14.9; Cu 1.41 and 3.31; Cd 0.144 and 0.175 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than in the bones of A. marila and A. ferina. However, statistically significant differences were found in respect to the essential metals only (Zn, Fe, Cu). The inter-species comparisons showed the two species to differ in their cartilage concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd and in their bone concentrations of Pb and Cd. In each case, the pochard exhibited higher concentrations of metals. This study showed distinct differences between trace element accumulation by two heavily mineralised avian body parts: leg bones (tarsometatarsus) and cartilage (trachea). The results are in agreement with data reported by other workers who analysed trace metals in cartilaginous and bone components of the femoral head in homoiotherm vertebrates, including humans. Therefore it is important that intra- and inter-species comparisons of hard biological components be based on

  15. Regional Variability of Cd, Hg, Pb and C Concentrations in Different Horizons of Swedish Forest Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alriksson, A.

    2001-01-01

    Contents of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and carbon(C) in the O, B and C horizons of podzolized forest soils in Sweden were surveyed. Concentrations and storage of Cd, Hg and Pb in the O and B horizons were high in southern Sweden and gradually decreased towards the north, though with considerable local variability. This pattern reflects the influence of anthropogenic emissions of these metals, as well as the effects of soil-forming processes. Parent till material, as represented by the C horizon concentration of the respective metal, accounted for little of the variation in metal concentration in the O horizon. For Cd and Pb, the correlations were not significant or slightly negative (R 2 = 0.12 and 0.09 respectively) depending on region, while for Hg the correlation was not significant or slightly positive (R 2 = 0.03 and 0.08). Furthermore, parent till material accounted for more of the variation in metal concentrations in the B horizons in the northern part of Sweden than in the middle and southernmost parts, where the concentration of total carbon had more influence. The correlation between the metal concentrations in the B and C horizon was strongest for Pb (R 2 = 0.63 and 0.36 in the two northernmost regions), lower for Cd (R 2 = 0.19 and 0.16) and not significant for Hg. For all soil horizons, total C concentration accounted for much of the variation in Hg concentration in particular (O-horizon R 2 = 0.15-0.69, B horizon R 2 = 0.36-0.50, C horizon R 2 = 0.23-0.50 and ns in one region). Ratios of metal concentrations between the B and C horizons were highest for Hg(maximum value of 30), indicating a relatively larger addition or retention of Hg compared to Cd and Pb (maximum value of 10)in the B horizon. This study indicate that factors other than parent material account for the large scale variation in O horizon concentrations of metals but patterns correspond well with those of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and acidifying substances

  16. Slow-release nitrogen fertilizers can improve yield and reduce Cd concentration in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran-Ran; Liu, Yue; Xue, Wan-Lei; Chen, Rong-Xin; Du, Shao-Ting; Jin, Chong-Wei

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution in vegetable crops has become a serious problem in recent years. Owing to the limited availability of arable land resources, large areas of Cd-contaminated lands are inevitably being used for the production of vegetables, posing great risks to human health via the food chain. However, strategies to improve yield and reduce Cd concentration in crops grown in contaminated soils are being developed. In the present study, using pot experiments, we investigated the effects of two slow-release nitrogen fertilizers (SRNFs), resin-coated ammonium nitrate (Osmocote 313s ), and resin-coated urea (urea 620 ), on the growth and Cd concentration of the Cd-contaminated pakchoi. The results showed that pakchoi grown in soil containing 5 mg kg -1 of Cd-induced oxidative stress (indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA), H 2 O 2 , and O 2 ·- ) and photosynthesis inhibition, which in turn was restored with the application of SRNFs. However, pakchoi grown in Cd-contaminated soil supplied with Osmocote 313s and urea 620 showed 103 and 203 % increase in fresh weight and 51-55 % and 44-56 % decrease in Cd concentration, respectively, as compared with their controls (pakchoi treated with instant soluble nitrogen fertilizers). On the basis of an increase in their tolerance index (47-238 %) and a decrease in their translocation factor (7.5-21.6 %), we inferred that the plants treated with SRNFs have a stronger tolerance to Cd and a lower efficiency of Cd translocation to edible parts than those treated with instant soluble nitrogen fertilizers. Therefore, in terms of both crop production and food safety, application of SRNFs could be an effective strategy for improving both biomass production and quality in pakchoi grown under Cd stress.

  17. Environmental cadmium and lead concentrations in the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina. Potential toxic effects of Cd and Pb on crab larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferrer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bahía Blanca Estuary includes a large tidal plain with an area close to 1150 km2. Mud is predominant in its sediments, where a significant population of the crab Chasmagnathus granulata lives during the whole year. Moreover, there are important urban and industrial discharges into this environment. Cd and Pb concentrations were determined in samples of water (for both dissolved and suspended particulate matter and surface sediments (total and 63 µm fractions. Organic matter was analysed in the sediments, while temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured in the estuarine water. The metal concentrations determined in this study were: 1.47 ± 1.08 µg Cd g–1 and 14.68 ± 4.31 µg Pb g–1 in surface sediments; 2.21 ± 1.33 µg Cd g–1 and 25.70 ± 7.09 µg Pb g–1 in the –1 and below the analytical detection limit of Pb in suspended particulate matter. Furthermore, dissolved Cd and Pb were lower than the norms for marine and estuarine waters (2 µg dm–3 for Cd and 5 µg dm–3 for Pb, E.P.A.. Simultaneously, the effects of Cd and Pb were studied on recently hatched larvae of Ch. granulata, through 96-hour semi-static acute assays. Viability was the criterion assessed in the assays. LC50 (96 h for Cd was 46.43 µg dm–3 (36.92 - 56.34 µg dm–3, whilst that for Pb was 1.00 mg m–3 (0.79 - 1.23 mg dm–3, which demonstrates that Cd is more toxic towards larvae. Finally, both LC50 values determined for Cd and Pb were higher than the corresponding metal concentrations measured in the Bahía Blanca environment.

  18. Analysis of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni concentrations in types of cabbage marketed in Hamedan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sobhanardakani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, due to the accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated with wastewater and treated with sewage sludge has become increasing concern in the field of food safety and health of consumers. Therefore this study was conducted for analysis of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni concentrations of 3 types of cabbage marketed in Hamedan City during 2013. For this purpose after buying 30 samples of each species of cabbage and then acid digestion of the samples according to standard methods, elements (Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were determined using ICP-OES (Varian, 710-ES, Australia. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. The results showed that mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in Cabbage samples were 15.53±3.43, 59.33±5.35, 2.22±1.61 and 14.97±2.83 mg/kg, respectively; mean concentrations of these elements in red cabbage samples were 23.03±5.89, 37.53±4.21, 13.33±3.24 and 15.03±3.04 mg/kg, respectively; and mean concentrations of elements in broccoli samples were 8.00±3.63, 45.90±5.86, 8.20±3.39 and 16.93±3.08 mg/kg, respectively. Also comparison of the mean concentrations of evaluated metals in specimens with FAO/WHO permissible limits showed that significant difference (p

  19. Dielectric functions and carrier concentrations of Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. J.; Peiris, F. C., E-mail: peirisf@kenyon.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022 (United States); Brill, G.; Doyle, K. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783-1197 (United States); Myers, T. H. [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry, ranging from 35 meV to 6 eV, was used to determine the dielectric functions of a series of molecular beam epitaxy-grown Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se thin films deposited on both ZnTe/Si(112) and GaSb(112) substrates. The fundamental band gap as well as two higher-order electronic transitions blue-shift with increasing Cd composition in Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se, as expected. Representing the free carrier absorption with a Drude oscillator, we found that the effective masses of Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se (grown on ZnTe/Si) vary between 0.028 and 0.050 times the free electron mass, calculated using the values of carrier concentration and the mobility obtained through Hall measurements. Using these effective masses, we determined the carrier concentrations of Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se samples grown on GaSb, which is of significance as films grown on such doped-substrates posit ambiguous results when measured by conventional Hall experiments. These models can serve as a basis for monitoring Cd-composition during sample growth through in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  20. Higher percentage of CD133+ cells is associated with poor prognosis in colon carcinoma patients with stage IIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem cell model suggested that tumor progression is driven by the overpopulation of cancer stem cells and eradicating or inhibiting the symmetric division of cancer stem cells would become the most important therapeutic strategy. However, clinical evidence for this hypothesis is still scarce. To evaluate the overpopulation hypothesis of cancer stem cells the association of percentage of CD133+ tumor cells with clinicopathological parameters in colon cancer was investigated since CD133 is a putative cancer stem cell marker shared by multiple solid tumors. Patients and methods Tumor tissues matched with adjacent normal tissues were collected from 104 stage IIIB colon cancer patients who were subject to radical resection between January, 1999 to July, 2003 in this center. The CD133 expression was examined with immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of the percentage of CD133+ cell with clinicopathological parameters and patients' 5-year survival was analyzed. Results The CD133+ cells were infrequent and heterogeneous distribution in the cancer tissue. Staining of CD133 was localized not only on the glandular-luminal surface of cancer cells but also on the invasive budding and the poorly differentiated tumors with ductal structures. Both univariate and multivariate survival analysis revealed that the percentage of CD133+ cancer cells and the invasive depth of tumor were independently prognostic. The patients with a lower percentage of CD133+ cancer cells (less than 5% were strongly associated with a higher 5-year survival rate than those with a higher percentage of CD133+ cancer cells (greater than or equal to 55%. Additionally, no correlation was obtained between the percentage of CD133+ cancer cells and the other clinicopathological parameters including gender, age, site of primary mass, pathologic types, grades, and invasive depth. Conclusion The fact that a higher percentage CD133+ cells were strongly associated

  1. Differential requirements of CD4(+) T-cell signals for effector cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) priming and functional memory CTL development at higher CD8(+) T-cell precursor frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeshappa, Channakeshava S; Nanjundappa, Roopa H; Xie, Yufeng; Freywald, Andrew; Xu, Qingyong; Xiang, Jim

    2013-04-01

    Increased CD8(+) T-cell precursor frequency (PF) precludes the requirement of CD4(+) helper T (Th) cells for primary CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, the key questions of whether unhelped CTLs generated at higher PF are functional effectors, and whether unhelped CTLs can differentiate into functional memory cells at higher PF are unclear. In this study, ovalbumin (OVA) -pulsed dendritic cells (DC(OVA)) derived from C57BL/6, CD40 knockout (CD40(-/-)) or CD40 ligand knockout (CD40L(-/-)) mice were used to immunize C57BL/6, Ia(b-/-), CD40(-/-) or CD40L(-/-) mice, whose PF was previously increased with transfer of 1 × 10(6) CD8(+) T cells derived from OVA-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic OTI, OTI(CD40(-/-)) or OTI(CD40L(-/-)) mice. All the immunized mice were then assessed for effector and memory CTL responses. Following DC immunization, relatively comparable CTL priming occurred without CD4(+) T-cell help and Th-provided CD40/CD40L signalling. In addition, the unhelped CTLs were functional effectors capable of inducing therapeutic immunity against established OVA-expressing tumours. In contrast, the functional memory development of CTLs was severely impaired in the absence of CD4(+) T-cell help and CD40/CD40L signalling. Finally, unhelped memory CTLs failed to protect mice against lethal tumour challenge. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CD4(+) T-cell help at higher PF, is not required for effector CTL priming, but is required for functional memory CTL development against cancer. Our data may impact the development of novel preventive and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients with compromised CD4(+) T-cell functions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. [Concentration of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr and As in liver Carcharhinus limbatus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) captured in Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Díaz, Fernando; Serrano, Arturo; Cuervo-López, Liliana; López-Jiménez, Alejandra; Galindo, José A; Basañez-Muñoz, Agustin

    2013-06-01

    Pollution by heavy metals in marine ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico is one of the hardest conservation issues to solve. Sharks as top predators are bioindicators of the marine ecosystem health, since they tend to bioaccumulate and biomagnify contaminants; they also represent a food source for local consumption. Thus, the objective of this study was to study the possible presence of heavy metals and a metalloid in livers of Carcharhinus limbatus. For this, a total of 19 shark livers were taken from animals captured nearby Tamihua, Veracruz, Mexico from December 2007 to April 2008. 12 out of the 19 captured sharks were males, one was an adult female, three were juvenile males, and three juvenile females. Four heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr) and one metaloid (As) were analyzed in shark livers using an atomic absorption spectrophotometry with flame and hydride generator. Our results showed that the maximum concentrations found were: Hg = 0.69 mg/kg, Cd = 0.43 mg/kg, As = 27.37 mg/kg, Cr = 0.70 mg/kg. The minimum concentrations found were: As = 14.91 mg/kg, Cr = 0.35 mg/kg. The Pb could not be determined because the samples did not have the spectrophotometer minimum detectable amount (0.1 mg/kg). None of the 19 samples analyzed showed above the permissible limits established by Mexican and American laws. There was a correlation between shark size and Cr and As concentration (Pearson test). The concentration of Cr and As was observed to be higher in bigger animals. There was not a significant difference in heavy metals concentration between juveniles and adults; however, there was a difference between males and females. A higher Cr concentration was found in females when compared to males. None of the samples exceed the maximum limit established by the laws of Mexico and the United States of America. Much longer studies are needed with C. limbatus and other species caught in the region, in order to determine the degree of contaminants exposure in aquatic ecosystems

  3. Seasonal variations in hepatic Cd and Cu concentrations and in the sub-cellular distribution of these metals in juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, Lisa D.; Campbell, Peter G.C.; Hare, Landis

    2006-01-01

    Temporal fluctuations in metal (Cd and Cu) concentrations were monitored over four months (May to August) in the liver of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) sampled from four lakes situated along a metal concentration gradient in northwestern Quebec: Lake Opasatica (reference lake, low metal concentrations), Lake Vaudray (moderate metal concentrations) and lakes Osisko and Dufault (high metal levels). The objectives of this study were to determine if hepatic metal concentrations and metal-handling strategies at the sub-cellular level varied seasonally. Our results showed that Cd and Cu concentrations varied most, in both absolute and relative values, in fish with the highest hepatic metal concentrations, whereas fish sampled from the reference lake did not show any significant variation. To examine the sub-cellular partitioning of these two metals, we used a differential centrifugation technique that allowed the separation of cellular debris, metal detoxified fractions (heat-stable proteins such as metallothionein) and metal sensitive fractions (heat-denaturable proteins (HDP) and organelles). Whereas Cd concentrations in organelle and HDP fractions were maintained at low concentrations in perch from Lakes Opasatica and Vaudray, concentrations in these sensitive fractions were higher and more variable in perch from Lakes Dufault and Osisko, suggesting that there may be some liver dysfunction in these two fish populations. Similarly, Cu concentrations in these sensitive fractions were higher and more variable in perch from the two most Cu-contaminated lakes (Dufault and Osisko) than in perch from the other two lakes, suggesting a breakdown of homeostatic control over this metal. These results suggest not only that metal concentrations vary seasonally, but also that concentrations vary most in fish from contaminated sites. Furthermore, at the sub-cellular level, homeostatic control of metal concentrations in metal-sensitive fractions is difficult to maintain in

  4. Effect of Applying Chemical Fertilizers on Concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn in Agricultural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Pourmoghadas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective:  Nowadays uncontrolled uses of chemical fertilizers which have many heavy metals such as Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in addition have economic problems, cause to serious damages in the environment. Therefore uncontrolled application of fertilizers can cause accumulation contaminants in soil, water sources and increasing in plants and human & animals’ food chain. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of chemical fertilizers application to increase heavy metals in agricultural soils at directions to prevent contamination in water sources, agricultural products and the best uses of chemical fertilizers. Methods: In this study, 20 soil samples and 5 useful chemical fertilizer samples were collected and investigated. After fertilizer and soil samples were prepared, digested and filtered, heavy metals were determined with using atomic absorption. Results: The results of this study showed that, Cd in Diammonum phosphate  fertilizer 1.25 times, Super phosphate triple 1.7 times and in Macro granular fertilizer 1.5 times were as much as maximum acceptable concentration in chemical fertilizers. Cadmium concentration in all of the Jarghoye (Isfahan agricultural soil samples 3 to 7 times and in the Mobarake village (Najaf abad agricultural soil samples 10 to 35 times were as much as maximum acceptable concentration in agricultural soils. But Pb and Zn concentration in all of the agricultural soil samples was less than the amount of maximum acceptable concentration. Conclusion: Phosphate chemical fertilizers were positive effects to increase concentration of Pb and Zn in agricultural soils. Therefore, application of the fertilizer must be more attention because of increasing heavy metals in the agriculture soils and probably increasing heavy metals in food chain.  

  5. Precursor concentration and temperature controlled formation of polyvinyl alcohol-capped CdSe-quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan P. Shah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol-capped CdSe quantum dots, with a size within their quantum confinement limit, were prepared in aqueous solution at room temperature, by a simple and environmentally friendly chemical method. The size of the CdSe quantum dots was found to be dependent on the concentrations of the precursors of cadmium and selenium ions, as well as on the aging time and the reaction temperature; all of which could be used conveniently for tuning the size of the particles, as well as their optical properties. The synthesized quantum dots were characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The samples were fluorescent at room temperature; the green fluorescence was assigned to band edge emission, and the near-infrared fluorescence peaks at about 665 and 865 nm were assigned to shallow and deep trap states emissions, respectively. The quantum dots were fairly stable up to several days.

  6. Investigation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg Concentrations in Groundwater Resources of Razan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is located in the dry and semi dry regions, thus almost 90% of the required fresh water is exploited from groundwater resources. Due to the increasing pol-lution of water resources, the purpose of this study was evaluation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg concentrations in groundwater resources of Razan Plain and preparing the zoning map using GIS. Materials & Methods: Groundwater samples were collected from 20 selected stations during two seasons in 2012. The samples were filtered (0.45 ?m and maintained cool in polyethyl-ene bottles. The samples were taken for the analysis of cations, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Minor elements were determined using ICP-OES. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Also, Kriging Method was used to prepare spatial distribution maps of elements in groundwater samples. Results: The results showed that the mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg in the groundwater samples during the spring were 5.60±0.66, 0.21±0.04, 32.10±2.21 and 6990.0±302.10 ppb, respectively, and the mean concentrations of these elements in the groundwater samples in the summer were 4.86±0.46, 0.30±0.08, 25.55±3.63 and 3654.05±215.65 ppb, respectively. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (p<0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Conclusion: Although the groundwater resources of Razan Plain are not currently polluted with heavy metals, long-term excessive use of agricultural inputs and establishment of pollut-ing industries, can pose a threat to groundwater resources of this area. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:319-329

  7. The effect of lidocaine on neutrophil CD11b/CD18 and endothelial ICAM-1 expression and IL-1beta concentrations induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lan, W

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Lidocaine has actions potentially of benefit during ischaemia-reperfusion. Neutrophils and endothelial cells have an important role in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Isolated human neutrophil CD11b and CD18, and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) ICAM-1 expression and supernatant IL-1beta concentrations in response to hypoxia-reoxygenation were studied in the presence or absence of different concentrations of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1)). Adhesion molecule expression was quantified by flow cytometry and IL- 1beta concentrations by ELISA. Differences were assessed with analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls as appropriate. Data are presented as mean+\\/-SD. RESULTS: Exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation increased neutrophil CD11b (94.33+\\/-40.65 vs. 34.32+\\/-6.83 mean channel fluorescence (MCF), P = 0.02), CD18 (109.84+\\/-35.44 vs. 59.05+\\/-6.71 MCF, P = 0.03) and endothelial ICAM-1 (146.62+\\/-16.78 vs. 47.29+\\/-9.85 MCF, P < 0.001) expression compared to normoxia. Neutrophil CD18 expression on exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation was less in lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated cells compared to control (71.07+\\/-10.14 vs. 109.84+\\/-35.44 MCF, P = 0.03). Endothelial ICAM-1 expression on exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation was less in lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated cells compared to control (133.25+\\/-16.05 vs. 146.62+\\/-16.78 MCF, P = 0.03). Hypoxia-reoxygenation increased HUVEC supernatant IL-1beta concentrations compared to normoxia (3.41+\\/-0.36 vs. 2.65+\\/-0.21 pg mL(-1), P = 0.02). Endothelial supernatant IL-1beta concentrations in lidocaine-treated HUVECs were similar to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Lidocaine at clinically relevant concentrations decreased neutrophil CD18 and endothelial ICAM-1 expression but not endothelial IL-1beta concentrations.

  8. A, B, CD, DVD: Marketing Higher Education to the Millennial Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbeck, Lee F.; Harding, Marc L.; Wohlgemuth, Darin R.; Bousquet, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Based on compelling financial and strategic reasons, Iowa State University replaced its paper viewbook with a CD-ROM digital viewbook following the Fall 1998 recruiting cycle. The first interactive DVD viewbook debuted for the Fall 2003 recruiting cycle, following a qualitative research study designed to gauge the effectiveness of the medium.…

  9. Study of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle tissue of cow and sheep marketed in Hamedan in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sobhanardakani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Importance of heavy metals in food safety and detrimental effects of their high concentrations in food stuff is well documented. In this study, concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in kidney, liver and muscle tissues of cow and sheep at Hamedan retails were evaluated. A total number of 180 samples was assessed for the amount of heavy metals as ppb in wet weight. For this, wet-digestion method was used to determine the concentration of given elements by ICP (Varian ES-710. Results showed that the highest concentration of heavy metals was determined in the liver and kidney samples, while the lowest concentration was found in muscle tissue. Among the heavy metals, Fe in cow’s liver had the highest concentration (25507±879 ppb and Cd in muscle tissue of sheep has the lowest concentration (192±54 ppb. In overall, accumulation of heavy metals in tissues of cows was higher than sheep. Statistical comparison of accumulated metals concentration in various tissues of these two animal groups showed significant difference (P

  10. Highly luminescent nanostructures of CdS and ZnS prepared by microwaves heating: effect of sulphide concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Samuel; Gomez, Idalia; Elizondo, Perla [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Universidad s/n, C.P. 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza (Mexico); Cavazos, Jose [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Universidad s/n, C.P. 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    Nearly monodisperse and highly luminescent ZnS and CdS NPs were obtained by microwave irradiation. The ZnS and CdS NPs solutions were prepared by adding freshly prepared ZnSO{sub 4} or CdSO{sub 4} solution to a thioacetamide solution at pH 8 in the presence of sodium citrate in solution used as stabilizer. The precursors concentration were such that the sulphide ion concentrations were 3 x 10{sup -2} M, 6 x 10{sup -2} M and 8 x 10{sup -2} M, for each of these [S] concentrations the [Zn] or [Cd] content were fixed at 3 x 10{sup -2} M. NPs were prepared under microwave irradiation for 1 min at 905 W of power. The NPs samples were taken when the temperature descended to ambient temperature for further analysis. Effect of concentration of Cd and Zn ions were studied in the luminescence property. RXD, AFM, TEM and UV-Vis were used too as analytical equipment for characterization. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Cigarette Smoking Is Associated with a Lower Concentration of CD105+ Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaul Beyth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is associated with musculoskeletal degenerative disorders, delayed fracture healing, and nonunion. Bone marrow progenitor cells (BMPCs, known to express CD105, are important in local trophic and immunomodulatory activity and central to musculoskeletal healing/regeneration. We hypothesized that smoking is associated with lower levels of BMPC. Iliac bone marrow samples were collected from individuals aged 18–65 years during the first steps of pelvic surgery, under IRB approval with informed consent. Patients with active infectious or neoplastic disease, a history of cytotoxic or radiation therapy, primary or secondary metabolic bone disease, or bone marrow dysfunction were excluded. Separation process purity and the number of BMPCs recovered were assessed with FACS. BMPC populations in self-reported smokers and nonsmokers were compared using the two-tailed t-test. 13 smokers and 13 nonsmokers of comparable age and gender were included. The average concentration of BMPCs was 3.52 × 105/mL ± 2.45 × 105/mL for nonsmokers versus 1.31 × 105/mL ± 1.61 × 105/mL for smokers (t= 3.2, P=0.004. This suggests that cigarette smoking is linked to a significant decrease in the concentration of BMPCs, which may contribute to the reduced regenerative capacity of smokers, with implications for musculoskeletal maintenance and repair.

  12. Nutrient concentrations in a Littorella uniflora community at higher CO2 concentrations and reduced light intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Pedersen, O.; Andersen, F. Ø.

    2005-01-01

    laboratory experiments with isoetid vegetation (Littorella uniflora) where water column CO2 and light could be manipulated in order to test whether (i) light and CO2 availability affect nutrient concentrations in isoetid vegetation, and (ii) if changes in light and CO2 climate affect fluxes of inorganic...... nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from sediment to water column, which potentially could result in increased growth of epiphytic algae. 3. The results showed that the standing stocks of phosphorus and nitrogen in the L. uniflora vegetation were significantly influenced by CO2 concentration and light...... intensity. Both standing stocks of P and N were significantly higher in the mesocosm treatments with high CO2 concentration than in those at low CO2 concentration. Similarly, standing stocks of P and N enhanced with increasing light intensity. 4. Measurements of nutrient fluxes both in the field...

  13. Effect of doping concentration on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Mn-doped CdO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of manganese-doped cadmium oxide (CdO:Mn with different Mn-doping levels (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 at.% were deposited on glass substrates by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer at 375 °C. The influence of Mn incorporation on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of CdO films has been studied. All the films exhibit cubic crystal structure with a (1 1 1 preferential orientation. Mn-doping causes a slight shift of the (1 1 1 diffraction peak towards higher angle. The crystallite size of the films is found to decrease from 34.63 nm to 17.68 nm with an increase in Mn doping concentration. The CdO:Mn film coated with 1 at.% Mn exhibit a high transparency of nearly 90 % which decreases for higher doping concentration. The optical band gap decreases with an increase in Mn doping concentration. All the films have electrical resistivity of the order of 10−4 Ω·cm.

  14. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  15. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Madenjian

    Full Text Available Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  16. Effective Phytoextraction of Cadmium (Cd) with Increasing Concentration of Total Phenolics and Free Proline in Cannabis sativa (L) Plant Under Various Treatments of Fertilizers, Plant Growth Regulators and Sodium Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayaz; Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The comparative effect of fertilizers (NPK), plant growth regulators (GA3, IAA, Zeatin) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on Cd phytoaccumulation, proline and phenolics production in Cannabis sativa was evaluated. Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant. Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application (in combination) most significantly increased the growth (19 cm root and 47 cm shoot) on Cd contaminated soil. All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues. This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants (1101, 121 and 544 ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively). Significantly positive correlation was found between Cd concentration and dry biomass of root (R2=0.7511) and leaves (R2=0.5524). All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers. Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves. The correlation between proline and phenolics was positive in leaf (R2=0.8439) and root (R2=0.5191). Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction.

  17. Effect of (Cd:ZnS Particle Concentration and Photoexcitation on the Electrical and Ferroelectric Properties of (Cd:ZnS/P(VDF-TrFE Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Engel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of semiconductor particle concentration and photoexcitation on the electrical and ferroelectric properties of ferroelectric-semiconductor-composites was investigated. For this purpose, 32 µm thin films of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene with (Cd:ZnS particle concentrations of between 0 and 20 vol % were fabricated and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy. It was shown that the particle concentration has only a negligible influence on the molecular structure of the polymer but strongly determines the optical properties of the composite. For (Cd:ZnS particle concentrations below 20 vol %, the I-V characteristics of the composites is only marginally affected by the particle concentration and the optical excitation of the composite material. On the contrary, a strong influence of both parameters on the ferro- and pyroelectric properties of the composite films was observed. For particle fractions that exhibit ferroelectric hysteresis, an increased remanent polarization and pyroelectric coefficient due to optical excitation was obtained. A theoretical approach that is based on a “three phase model” of the internal structure was developed to explain the observed results.

  18. Effect of Low Concentration Sn Doping on Optical Properties of CdS Films Grown by CBD Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabri Mohd Ghazali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thin and transparent films of doped cadmium sulfide (CdS were obtained on commercial glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD technique. The films were doped with low concentration of Sn, and annealed in air at 300 °C for 45 min. The morphological characterization of the films with different amounts of dopant was made using SEM and EDAX analysis. Optical properties of the films were evaluated by measuring transmittance using the UV-vis spectrophotometer. A comparison of the results revealed that lower concentration of Sn doping improves transmittance of CdS films and makes them suitable for application as window layer of CdTe/CIGS solar cells.

  19. Influence of manganese concentration on the electron magnetic resonance spectrum of Mn{sup 2+} in CdO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, R.S. de, E-mail: rsbiasi@ime.eb.b [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Grillo, M.L.N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-10-19

    Electron magnetic resonance spectra of manganese-doped cadmium oxide (CdO) have been studied at room temperature for Mn concentrations between 0.10 and 1.00 mol%. The results suggest that the range of the exchange interaction between Mn{sup 2+} ions is about 0.56 nm.

  20. Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT. The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: α (Group A = 20 patients, recombinant FSH-β (Group B = 20 patients, and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients. All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology, but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment.

  1. Influence of the Compositional Grading on Concentration of Majority Charge Carriers in Near-Surface Layers of n(p)-HgCdTe Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The capacitive characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures based on the compositionally graded Hg1-xCdxTe created by molecular beam epitaxy have been experimentally investigated in a wide temperature range (8-77 K). A program has been developed for numerical simulation of ideal capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics in the low-frequency and high-frequency approximations. The concentrations of the majority carriers in the near-surface semiconductor layer are determined from the values of the capacitances in the minima of low-frequency C-V curves. For MIS structures based on p-Hg1-xCdxTe, the effect of the presence of the compositionally graded layer on the hole concentration in the near-surface semiconductor layer, determined from capacitive measurements, has not been established. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the concentration of holes in the near-surface layer largely depends on the type of dielectric coating and the regimes of its application. For MIS structures based on n-Hg1-x Cd x Te (x = 0.22-0.23) without a graded-gap layer, the electron concentration determined by the proposed method is close to the average concentration determined by the Hall measurements. The electron concentration in the near-surface semiconductor layer of the compositionally graded n-Hg1-x Cd x Te (x = 0.22-0.23) found from the minimum capacitance value is much higher than the average electron concentration determined by the Hall measurements. The results are qualitatively explained by the creation of additional intrinsic donor-type defects in the near-surface compositionally graded layer of n-Hg1-x Cd x Te.

  2. Effect of precursor concentration, temperature and capping group on the morphology of CdS nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moloto, N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ligand to the synthesis of nanoparticles has been employed in this study. A Tetramethylthiuram disulphide cadmium complex (abundant in sulphur atoms) was used as a single-source precursor for the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles. The CdS...

  3. PIXE channeling for concentration and location measurements of Zn- and Cd-dopants in InP single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, J.; Krause, H.; Flagmeyer, R.; Otto, G.; Lux, M.

    1993-01-01

    We present results of the determination of Cd- and Zn-dopants in InP single crystals using the PIXE and RBS spectrometry at our 2 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The (100) oriented crystals were doped by thermodiffusion of Cd and Zn atoms. For concentration and localization measurements we used the ion-channeling technique and energy dispersive spectrometry of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Angular scans of the K-lines of In, Cd and Zn were obtained. The strong In X-rays were attenuated by a rhodium foil in front of the low energy Ge detector. The PIXE-channeling results were compared with SIMS and Hall-effect measurements. (orig.)

  4. Soluble CD44 concentration in the serum and peritoneal fluid samples of patients with different stages of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Farhad; Aryaee, Hadis; Mirzajani, Ebrahim; Yasin, Ashraf Ale; Fathi, Abdolsatar

    2015-09-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecological disease defined by the histological presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity, most commonly implanted over visceral and peritoneal surface within the female pelvis. CD44 is a membrane protein expressed by human endometrial cells, and it has been shown to promote the adhesion of endometrial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of soluble CD44 (sCD44) in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) samples of patients with different stages of endometriosis. 39 PF and serum samples from normal healthy and 130 samples from different stages of patients with endometriosis (33 cases of stage I, 38 stage II, 30 stage III and 29 stage IV) were included in this study. Total protein concentration (TPC) and the level of s-cMet in the serum were determined by Bio-Rad protein assay based on the Bradford dye procedure and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. No significant change in the TPC was seen in the serum of patients with endometriosis when compared to normal controls. Results obtained demonstrated that all serum and peritoneal fluid samples, presented sCD44 expression, whereas, starting from stages I to IV endometriosis, a significant increase of sCD44 expression was observed as compared to control group. The results of this study show that a high expression of sCD44 is correlated with advanced stages of endometriosis. It is also concluded that the detection of serum and/or peritoneal fluid sCD44 may be useful in classifying endometriosis.

  5. POSSIBLE RAMIFICATIONS OF HIGHER MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FILLET TISSUE OF SKINNIER FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury concentrations were found to be statistically higher in the fillet tissue of the skinnier individuals of a fish species (striped bass) that was experiencing starvation when collected from Lake Mead, which is located on the Arizona-Nevada border. This is considered a conse...

  6. Concentration and behavior of radiocesium in higher basidiomycetes in some Kanto and the Koshin districts, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Iwashima, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Hisashi.

    1990-01-01

    Concentration of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and potassium were measured in several higher fungi and in substrates, soils, woods and litters in some Kanto and the Koshin districts, Japan, following the Chernobyl accident during October to November 1989. 137 Cs concentrations in fungi were in the range of 0.7-101 Bq kg -1 · fresh. Maximum 137 Cs level in them was observed in Boletopsis leucomelas (Pers.: Fr.) Fayod. Significantly higher levels of concentration ratios of 137 Cs in fungi to substrates (e.g.; 137 Cs concentration · fresh in fungus/ 137 Cs concentration · dry in soil), 10 -1 to 10 x 10 -1 , were found nearly 10 to 1000 times as much as leaf vegetables, root crops and potatoes to substrates. It was confirmed that levels of concentration ratios of potassium were similar to those of 137 Cs. In all fungi, 134 Cs which released from the Chernobyl accident and is not present in nuclear weapons fallout was not detected. (author)

  7. Strategic Planning in Higher Education: A Guide for Leaders. Second Edition [with CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Sherrie A.; Ruben, Brent D.

    2010-01-01

    "Strategic Planning in Higher Education" unveils a comprehensive approach to planning that has proved successful at Rutgers University. The SPHE framework, developed by authors Tromp and Ruben, provides a blueprint for planning--a step-by-step approach that guides leaders on strategic thinking; helps them align organizational goals with…

  8. Flurbiprofen concentration in soft tissues is higher after topical application than after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Shuken; Kondo, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki; Kitamura, Nobuto; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare tissue concentrations of flurbiprofen resulting from topical application and oral administration according to the regulatory approved dosing guidelines. Method Sixteen patients were included in this study. Each patient was randomly assigned to the topical application or oral administration group. In each group, a pair of tapes or a tablet, containing a total of 40 mg flurbiprofen, was administered twice at 16 and 2 h before the surgery. Results The flurbiprofen concentration in the fat, tendon, muscle and periosteum tissues was significantly higher (P flurbiprofen to the human body, particularly to soft tissues near the body surface. PMID:22822928

  9. Preparation and characterization of pulsed laser deposited CdTe thin films at higher FTO substrate temperature and in Ar + O{sub 2} atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Chao; Ming, Zhenxun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Li, Bing, E-mail: libing70@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lianghuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Wu, Judy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Kansas University, Lawrence 66045 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: • CdTe films were deposited by PLD at high substrate temperatures (400 °C, 550 °C). • CdTe films were achieved under the atmosphere (1.2 Torr) of Ar mixed with O{sub 2}. • Deposited CdTe films were cubic phase and had strong (1 0 0) preferred orientation. • Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed an average grain size of 0.3–0.6 μm. • The ultra-thin film (CdS/PLD-CdTe) solar cell with efficiency of 6.68% was made. -- Abstract: Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is one of the promising techniques for depositing cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films. It has been reported that PLD CdTe thin films were almost deposited at the lower substrate temperatures (<300 °C) under vacuum conditions. However, the poor crystallinity of CdTe films prepared in this way renders them not conducive to the preparation of high-efficiency CdTe solar cells. To obtain high-efficiency solar cell devices, better crystallinity and more suitable grain size are needed, which requires the CdTe layer to be deposited by PLD at high substrate temperatures (>400 °C). In this paper, CdTe layers were deposited by PLD (KrF, λ = 248 nm, 10 Hz) at different higher substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). Excellent performance of CdTe films was achieved at higher substrate temperatures (400 °C, 550 °C) under an atmosphere of Ar mixed with O{sub 2} (1.2 Torr). X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of CdTe cubic phase with a strong (1 0 0) preferential orientation at all substrates temperatures on 60 mJ laser energy. The optical properties of CdTe were investigated, and the band gaps of CdTe films were 1.51 eV and 1.49 eV at substrate temperatures of 400 °C and 550 °C, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed an average grain size of 0.3–0.6 μm. Thus, under these conditions of the atmosphere of Ar + O{sub 2} (15 Torr) and at the relatively high T{sub s} (500 °C), an thin-film (FTO/PLD-CdS (100 nm)/PLD-CdTe (∼1.5 μm)/HgTe: Cu/Ag) solar cell with an

  10. Determination of concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Fe) in animal tissues using atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAZAFINTSALAMA, V.T.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metals are classified among the inorganic compounds. The latter type of metal is found in rocks, fertilizers, urban mud but may also originate from the atmospheric pollution. A particular characteristic of heavy metals is their bioaccumulation in the food chain. Therefore, lead and cadmium, which are classified as heavy metals may be easily found in animal products and can lead to food poisoning if their concentrations are higher than the maximum permissible values as requested by international agencies such as the c odex alimentarius . The values are set down and differ according to types of food for human consuption and the trading companies take action accordingly. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a quality control system through analytical laboratory measurements and testings. This study underlies the method of determination of lead, cadmium and iron in animal tissues by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the method is sensitive and reliable. For each analyte, the Z-score lies between -2 and 2, indicating that the method is working properly. The analytical results showed that: (i) only beef and chicken meats and beef liver contain lead [0,09μg.g - 1; 0,29μg.g - 1]. The limit value of 0,1μg.g - 1 is almost reached in beef and chicken meats, (ii) as far as cadmium is concerned, the five studied samples contain this analyte [0,02μg.g - 1; 0,9μg.g - 1]. Except the chicken liver of which the concentration (0,15μg.g - 1) exceeds the maximum permissible value (0,1μg.g - 1), the others are in conformity with the standards and appropriate to be consumed,(iii) iron is higher in the liver and kidney samples: beef liver 282mg.g - 1, chicken liver 250 mg.g - 1, pork kidney 247mg.g - 1. The study also showed that the calcium concentration in animal tissues is low and they can be classified as poor-calcium food. [fr

  11. Human leucocyte antigen class I-redirected anti-tumour CD4+ T cells require a higher T cell receptor binding affinity for optimal activity than CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M P; Dolton, G M; Gerry, A B; Brewer, J E; Bennett, A D; Pumphrey, N J; Jakobsen, B K; Sewell, A K

    2017-01-01

    CD4 + T helper cells are a valuable component of the immune response towards cancer. Unfortunately, natural tumour-specific CD4 + T cells occur in low frequency, express relatively low-affinity T cell receptors (TCRs) and show poor reactivity towards cognate antigen. In addition, the lack of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II expression on most cancers dictates that these cells are often unable to respond to tumour cells directly. These deficiencies can be overcome by transducing primary CD4 + T cells with tumour-specific HLA class I-restricted TCRs prior to adoptive transfer. The lack of help from the co-receptor CD8 glycoprotein in CD4 + cells might result in these cells requiring a different optimal TCR binding affinity. Here we compared primary CD4 + and CD8 + T cells expressing wild-type and a range of affinity-enhanced TCRs specific for the HLA A*0201-restricted NY-ESO-1- and gp100 tumour antigens. Our major findings are: (i) redirected primary CD4 + T cells expressing TCRs of sufficiently high affinity exhibit a wide range of effector functions, including cytotoxicity, in response to cognate peptide; and (ii) optimal TCR binding affinity is higher in CD4 + T cells than CD8 + T cells. These results indicate that the CD4 + T cell component of current adoptive therapies using TCRs optimized for CD8 + T cells is below par and that there is room for substantial improvement. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Immunology.

  12. Cocaine use is associated with a higher prevalence of elevated ST2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Xander M R; Vittinghoff, Eric; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L; Riley, Elise D

    2017-09-01

    Cocaine is a well-known risk factor for acute cardiac events, but the effects in users outside of acute events are less clear. We investigated a possible association between cocaine use and the concentration of a novel biomarker for cardiac stress and heart failure, ST2. A case-control study was conducted to compare ST2 concentrations by the presence of cocaine in patients presenting for care, but not cardiac care, at an urban safety net hospital. In samples taken from 100 cocaine-positive and 100 cocaine-negative patients, the presence of cocaine was associated with ST2 concentrations>35ng/mL. Serum concentrations of benzoylecgonine, a major cocaine metabolite, were significantly correlated with ST2 concentrations. Cocaine use is associated with subclinical cardiac stress and damage outside of acute cardiac events. This information could add to better stratification of cocaine users with elevated ST2 concentrations who may be at higher risk for developing heart failure and other cardiac complications. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum vitamin E concentrations among highly functioning hip fracture patients are higher than in nonfracture controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; Shardell, Michelle D; Hicks, Gregory E; Orwig, Denise L; Hochberg, Marc C; Semba, Richard D; Yu-Yahiro, Janet A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Magaziner, Jay S; Miller, Ram R

    2011-03-01

    fracture patients demonstrated higher vitamin E concentrations. Thus, the relatively high degree of function among this cohort of hip fracture patients may explain their higher-than-expected vitamin E concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cd and Zn concentrations in small mammals and willow leaves on disposal facilities for dredged material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Verbeeren, S.; Vervaeke, P; Lust, N

    2001-01-01

    Disposal sites for dredged material are often polluted with heavy metals. The uptake of Cd and Zn by small mammals and willow trees was assessed on three sites with a different pollution degree. Detailed soil sampling showed a huge variation in soil characteristics within the sites, typical for

  15. Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Clemens; Giehren, Franziska; Krämer, Ute; Müller, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Plants that are able to hyperaccumulate heavy metals show increased concentrations of these metals in their leaf tissue. However, little is known about the concentrations of heavy metals and of organic defence metabolites in the phloem sap of these plants in response to either heavy metal-amendment of the soil or biotic challenges such as aphid-infestation. In this study, we investigated the effects of heavy metal-exposure and of aphid-infestation on phloem exudate composition of the metal hyperaccumulator species Arabidopsis halleri L. O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz (Brassicaceae). The concentrations of elements and of organic defence compounds, namely glucosinolates, were measured in phloem exudates of young and old (mature) leaves of plants challenged either by amendment of the soil with cadmium and zinc and/or by an infestation with the generalist aphid Myzus persicae. Metal-amendment of the soil led to increased concentrations of Cd and Zn, but also of two other elements and one indole glucosinolate, in phloem exudates. This enhanced defence in the phloem sap of heavy metal-hyperaccumulating plants can thus potentially act as effective protection against aphids, as predicted by the elemental defence hypothesis. Aphid-infestation also caused enhanced Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates. This result provides first evidence that metal-hyperaccumulating plants can increase heavy metal concentrations tissue-specifically in response to an attack by phloem-sucking herbivores. Overall, the concentrations of most elements, including the heavy metals, and glucosinolates were higher in phloem exudates of young leaves than in those of old leaves. This defence distribution highlights that the optimal defence theory, which predicts more valuable tissue to be better defended, is applicable for both inorganic and organic defences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Higher CD3(+) and CD34(+) cell doses in the graft increase the incidence of acute GVHD in children receiving BMT for thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziev, J; Isgrò, A; Marziali, M; Daniele, N; Gallucci, C; Sodani, P; Simone, M D; Adorno, G; Paciaroni, K; Andreani, M; Lanti, A; Del Proposto, G; Testi, M; De Angelis, G; Roveda, A; Alfieri, C; Saltarelli, F; Lucarelli, G

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the incidence of GVHD, risk factors and the impact of graft composition on acute GVHD (aGVHD) in 92 children who underwent BMT for thalassemia following busulfan/cyclophosphamide (BUCY)-based conditioning regimens and GVHD prophylaxis with CSA/short-MTX and methylprednisolone. The incidence of grade 2-4 and 3-4 aGVHD was 35% (95% confidence interval (CI) 25-44) and 9% (95% CI 4-16), respectively. We found that CD3(+) and CD34(+) cell doses above the median were associated with high incidence of grade 2-4 aGVHD (49 vs 20%, P=0.005 and 46 vs 23%, P=0.021, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high CD3(+) (hazard ratio (HR) 4.6; 95% CI 1.4-14.7; P=0.010) and CD34(+) (HR 4.3; 95% CI 1.4-12.7; P=0.011) cell doses were associated with grade 2-4 aGVHD. We further examined the effect of CD3(+) and CD34(+) cell doses on aGVHD using quartile cutoff points and found a minimum threshold for CD3(+) (38 × 10(6)/kg) and CD34(+) (4 × 10(6)/kg) cells above which the incidence of grade 2-4 aGVHD is significantly increased. This study shows for the first time a positive correlation between the number of CD3(+) and CD34(+) cells and aGVHD in children receiving sibling BMT, and indicates that using tailored and more intensive post transplant immunosuppression may permit to better control aGVHD.

  17. Growth and characterization of CdTe absorbers on GaAs by MBE for high concentration PV solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ari, Ozan; Polat, Mustafa; Selamet, Yusuf [Department of Physics, Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir 35430 (Turkey); Karakaya, Merve [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir 35430 (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    CdTe based II-VI absorbers are promising candidates for high concentration PV solar cells with an ideal band gap for AM1.5 solar radiation. In this study, we propose single crystal CdTe absorbers grown on GaAs substrates with a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) which is a clean deposition technology. We show that high quality CdTe absorber layers can be grown with full width half maximum of X-ray diffraction rocking curves (XRD RC) as low as 227 arc-seconds with 0.5% thickness uniformity that a 2 μm layer is capable of absorbing 99% of AM1.5 solar radiation. Bandgap of the CdTe absorber is found as 1.483 eV from spetroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. Also, high absorption coefficient is calculated from the results, which is ∝5 x 10{sup 5}cm{sup -1} in solar radiation spectrum. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Higher Anti-CMV IgG Concentrations are Associated with Worse Neurocognitive Performance During Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Scott; Bharti, Ajay; Perez-Valero, Ignacio; Hanson, Barbara; Franklin, Donald; Woods, Steven Paul; Gianella, Sara; de Oliveira, Michelli Faria; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor; Landay, Alan L; Lurain, Nell

    2018-03-01

    To determine the association of CMV infection with neurocognitive performance in HIV+ adults. Cross-sectional, observational, exploratory study. Anti-CMV IgG concentrations in blood and CMV DNA copies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in stored specimens of 80 HIV+ adults who were previously assessed with a standardized, comprehensive neurocognitive test battery. Thirty-eight were taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART, HIV RNA ≤ 50 copies/mL) and 42 were not taking ART. A panel of 7 soluble biomarkers were also measured by immunoassay in CSF. Anti-CMV IgG concentrations ranged from 5.2 to 46.1 U/mL. CMV DNA was detected in 7 (8.8%) blood plasma but in none of the CSF specimens. Higher anti-CMV IgG levels were associated with older age (p=0.0017), lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count (pperformance overall (p=0.059). This correlation was present in those taking suppressive ART (p=0.0049) but not in those who were not taking ART (p=0.92). Worse neurocognitive performance remained associated with higher anti-CMV IgG levels after accounting for other covariates in multivariate models (Model p=0.0038). Detectable plasma CMV DNA was associated with AIDS (p=0.05) but not with neurocognitive performance. CMV may influence neurocognitive performance in HIV+ adults taking suppressive ART. Future clinical trials of anti-CMV therapy should help determine whether the observed relationships are causal.

  19. Ecophysiological and seasonal variations in Cd, Pb, Zn, and Ni concentrations in the leaves of urban deciduous trees in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baycu, Guelriz; Tolunay, Doganay; Ozden, Hakan; Guenebakan, Suereyya

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni were measured in the leaves of 7 species of deciduous trees, from the urban sites of Istanbul, in both the Spring and Autumn seasons. We detected some differences in the heavy metal concentrations of the control and urban site samples of identical species. Highest concentrations of Cd were detected in Populus, Pb in Aesculus and Robinia, Zn in Populus, and Ni in Robinia and Fraxinus. Lowest chlorophyll content and highest peroxidase (POD) activity was found in the urban site samples of Acer. We have found a positive correlation between the increase in the POD activity and the Pb concentration in Populus. Generally, the tree species investigated in this study, are considered to have different tolerance levels to heavy metal pollution. The data obtained show that the chlorophyll content and the POD activity may be used as heavy metal stress biomarkers in the urban trees. - Ecophysiological changes in the urban trees may be used as heavy metal stress biomarkers

  20. Physiologic oxygen concentration enhances the stem-like properties of CD133+ human glioblastoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Amy M; Jamal, Muhammad; Shankavaram, Uma T; Shankavarum, Uma T; Lang, Frederick F; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2009-04-01

    In vitro investigations of tumor stem-like cells (TSC) isolated from human glioblastoma (GB) surgical specimens have been done primarily at an atmospheric oxygen level of 20%. To determine whether an oxygen level more consistent with in situ conditions affects their stem cell-like characteristics, we compared GB TSCs grown under conditions of 20% and 7% oxygen. Growing CD133(+) cells sorted from three GB neurosphere cultures at 7% O(2) reduced their doubling time and increased the self-renewal potential as reflected by clonogenicity. Furthermore, at 7% oxygen, the cultures exhibited an enhanced capacity to differentiate along both the glial and neuronal pathways. As compared with 20%, growth at 7% oxygen resulted in an increase in the expression levels of the neural stem cell markers CD133 and nestin as well as the stem cell markers Oct4 and Sox2. In addition, whereas hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha was not affected in CD133(+) TSCs grown at 7% O(2), hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha was expressed at higher levels as compared with 20% oxygen. Gene expression profiles generated by microarray analysis revealed that reducing oxygen level to 7% resulted in the up-regulation and down-regulation of a significant number of genes, with more than 140 being commonly affected among the three CD133(+) cultures. Furthermore, Gene Ontology categories up-regulated at 7% oxygen included those associated with stem cells or GB TSCs. Thus, the data presented indicate that growth at the more physiologically relevant oxygen level of 7% enhances the stem cell-like phenotype of CD133(+) GB cells.

  1. [Changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in bone marrow of MDS and AA patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-Yu; Tian, Xu; Li, Ying; Yang, Mei-Rong; Zhang, Song; Wang, Xie-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Cheng, Nai-Yao

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in MDS and AA patients. A total of 25 cases MDS and 43 cases of AA (18 cases SAA and 25 cases of NSAA) from January 2010 to October 2013 in the Department of Hematology, affiliated hospital of Hebei United University were enrolled in this study. The complete blood count, bone marrow smears, bone marrow biopsy, karyotype analysis and bone marrow blood cell immune genotyping (mainly the proportion of CD34(+) cells, CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in nucleated cells) were carried out for all patients; the changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in patients with MDS and AA (SAA NSAA) were compared; the differences of white blood cell count, platelet count and hemoglobin concentration in patients with count of CD71(+)CD45(-) ≥ 15% or MDS group was higher than that in AA (NSAA and SAA) group (P MDS group was higher than that in SAA (P MDS group. In MDS group with CD71(+)CD45(-) ≥ 15%, the platelet count was significantly higher than that in NSAA group (P MDS and NSAA group with CD71(+)CD45(-) 0.05). It is concluded that the count of CD34(+) cells in MDS patients is significantly higher than that in AA and SAA patients. The count of CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in MDS group is significantly higher than that of SAA group. The platelet count in MDS patients with CD71(+)CD45(-) cells ≥ 15% is significantly higher than that of the NSAA group.

  2. Higher aluminum concentration in Alzheimer's disease after Box-Cox data transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusina, Robert; Matěj, Radoslav; Kašparová, Lucie; Kukal, Jaromír; Urban, Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Evidence regarding the role of mercury and aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. The aims of our project were to investigate the content of the selected metals in brain tissue samples and the use of a specific mathematical transform to eliminate the disadvantage of a strong positive skew in the original data distribution. In this study, we used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine mercury and aluminum concentrations in the hippocampus and associative visual cortex of 29 neuropathologically confirmed AD and 27 age-matched controls. The Box-Cox data transformation was used for statistical evaluation. AD brains had higher mean aluminum concentrations in the hippocampus than controls (0.357 vs. 0.090 μg/g; P = 0.039) after data transformation. Results for mercury were not significant. Original data regarding microelement concentrations are heavily skewed and do not pass the normality test in general. A Box-Cox transformation can eliminate this disadvantage and allow parametric testing.

  3. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in residential soil and drinking water obtained from springs and wells in Rosia Montana area.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in n=84 residential soil samples, in Rosia Montana area, analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are...

  4. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTION METHODS REPRESENTING AVAILABLE AND TOTAL CONCENTRATIONS OF Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivezić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various extraction methods are used to predict plant uptake of trace metals. Most commonly it is total concentration that is used for risk assessment and evaluation of trace metal availability. However, recent studies showed that total concentration is a poor indicator of availability while concentrations in soil solution show good correlation with plant uptake. Present study was conducted on magricultural soils with low levels of trace metals where 45 soil samples were collected from different soil types. The main objective was to compare four different extraction methods and examine how total and reactive (EDTA trace metal concentrations correlate ,with soil solution concentration (in this study determined by water extraction. The samples were analyzed by four extraction methods: strong acid extraction (ultra-pure HNO3 extraction and aqua regia, weak acid extraction by EDTA and the most available fraction, fraction in soil solution, were represented by water extraction (weakest extractant. Five elements were investigated (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Water extraction significantly correlated with EDTA extraction for Cu, Fe and Mn, while total extraction (HNO3 extraction and aqua regia correlated significantly with water extraction only for Cu. No correlation between water extraction and total extraction confirmed poor role of total concentration as an indicator of availability. EDTA extraction can be used to represent reactive pool of trace metals in soil but it should be also taken with caution when using it to describe available fraction.

  5. Landfill disposal of CCA-treated wood with construction and demolition (C&D) debris: arsenic, chromium, and copper concentrations in leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna R; Townsend, Timothy G; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2008-08-01

    Although phased out of many residential uses in the United States, the disposal of CCA-treated wood remains a concern because significant quantities have yet to be taken out of service, and it is commonly disposed in landfills. Catastrophic events have also led to the concentrated disposal of CCA-treated wood, often in unlined landfills. The goal of this research was to simulate the complex chemical and biological activity of a construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfill containing a realistic quantity of CCA-treated wood (10% by mass), produce leachate, and then evaluate the arsenic, copper, and chromium concentrations in the leachate as an indication of what may occur in a landfill setting. Copper concentrations were not significantly elevated in the control or experimental simulated landfill setting (alpha = 0.05). However, the concentrations of arsenic and chromium were significantly higher in the experimental simulated landfill leachate compared to the control simulated landfill leachate (alpha = 0.05, p debris can impact leachate quality which, in turn could affect leachate management practices or aquifers below unlined landfills.

  6. Factors affecting the concentration in seven-spotted ladybirds (Coccinella septempunctata L.) of Cd and Zn transferred through the food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, I.D., E-mail: igreen@bournemouth.ac.u [Centre for Conservation Ecology and Environmental Change, School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB (United Kingdom); Diaz, A., E-mail: adiaz@bournemouth.ac.u [Centre for Conservation Ecology and Environmental Change, School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB (United Kingdom); Tibbett, M., E-mail: mark.tibbett@uwa.edu.a [Centre for Land Rehabilitation, School of Earth and Environment, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    The transfer of Cd and Zn from soils amended with sewage sludge was followed through a food chain consisting of wheat, aphids and the predator Coccinella septempunctata. Multiple regression models were generated to predict the concentrations of Cd and Zn in C. septempunctata. No significant model could be generated for Cd, indicting that the concentration of this metal was maintained within relatively narrow limits. A model predicting 64% of the variability in the Zn concentration of C. septempunctata was generated from of the concentration of Zn in the diet, time and rate of Zn consumption. The results suggest that decreasing the rate of food consumption is an effective mechanism to prevent the accumulation of Zn and that the availability of Zn in the aphid prey increased with the concentration in the aphids. The results emphasise the importance of using ecologically relevant food chains and exposure pathways during ecotoxicological studies. - Arthropod predators can regulate trace metal body burden through physiological and behavioural mechanisms.

  7. Factors affecting the concentration in seven-spotted ladybirds (Coccinella septempunctata L.) of Cd and Zn transferred through the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, I.D.; Diaz, A.; Tibbett, M.

    2010-01-01

    The transfer of Cd and Zn from soils amended with sewage sludge was followed through a food chain consisting of wheat, aphids and the predator Coccinella septempunctata. Multiple regression models were generated to predict the concentrations of Cd and Zn in C. septempunctata. No significant model could be generated for Cd, indicting that the concentration of this metal was maintained within relatively narrow limits. A model predicting 64% of the variability in the Zn concentration of C. septempunctata was generated from of the concentration of Zn in the diet, time and rate of Zn consumption. The results suggest that decreasing the rate of food consumption is an effective mechanism to prevent the accumulation of Zn and that the availability of Zn in the aphid prey increased with the concentration in the aphids. The results emphasise the importance of using ecologically relevant food chains and exposure pathways during ecotoxicological studies. - Arthropod predators can regulate trace metal body burden through physiological and behavioural mechanisms.

  8. Performances of Water Management, Foliage Dressing, and Variation Screening in Controlling the Accumulation of As and Cd and Maintaining the Concentrations of Essential Elements in the Grains of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to understand why and how the technologies of variety screening, foliar dressing, and water management can reduce As/Cd accumulation and affect the concentrations of essential elements in different rice plants. In Trial I (variety screening, the grain As and Cd concentrations in Zhongguyou1361 variety (P3 were both lower than their individual National Food Hygiene Standard of China (NFHSC under insufficient field drying condition. The P3 also had a relatively high yield and high essential element contents among 15 selected rice varieties. In Trial II (foliar dressing, selenite foliar spray showed a better ability than silicate to reduce the grain As content in Guangliangyou1128 variety (P1. However, spraying Se and Si onto the Fengliangyou1 variety (P2 both showed a limited effect on the grain As and Cd contents, suggesting a different effect of Se on grain As content in various rice varieties. The insufficient field drying in Trial II resulted in the grain Cd content being lower but the grain As content being higher than their individual NFHSC in both P1 and Fengliangyou1 (P2 varieties. Se or Si did not affect the yields and the grain contents of most essential elements in P1 and P2. In Trial III (water management, increasing field drying time enhanced the Cd content but reduced the As content in the grains of P1, P2, and P3, and maintained their yields. Similar to the results of Trial II, the changes in soil pH, organic matter concentration and elemental available concentrations could hardly be used to explain why the contents of corresponding essential elements kept approximately constant in the grains of different rice varieties. Foliar dressing with selenite combined with water regulation can simultaneously reduce the As and Cd contents, and maintain the yields and the essential element contents in the grains of rice plants cultivated in As− and Cd− contaminated soil.

  9. Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum non-toxic concentrations for biological use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Valérie A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA capped have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12 cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly

  10. Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum non-toxic concentrations for biological use

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prasad, Babu R

    2010-03-25

    Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs) have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped) have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours) co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA) stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel) were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation) were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly susceptible to

  11. Responses of different water spinach cultivars and their hybrid to Cd, Pb and Cd-Pb exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Junliang; Huang, Baifei; Yang, Zhongyi; Yuan, Jiangang; Dai, Hongwen; Qiu, Qiu

    2010-03-15

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the stability of Cd and/or Pb accumulation in shoot of Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs), the hereditary pattern of shoot Cd accumulation, and the transfer potentials of Cd and Pb in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.). A typical Cd-PSC, a typical non-Cd-PSC (Cd accumulative cultivar), a hybrid from the former two cultivars, and two typical Cd+Pb-PSCs were grown in seven soils with different concentrations of Cd and Pb. The results showed that concentrations of Cd and Pb in shoot of the PSCs were always lower than the non-PSC and the highest Cd and Pb transfer factors were also always observed in the non-PSC, indicating the stability of the PSCs in Cd and Pb accumulation. Shoot Cd concentration seemed to be controlled by high Cd dominant gene(s) and thus crossbreeding might not minimize Cd accumulation in water spinach. Interaction between Cd and Pb in soils affected the accumulations of the metals in shoot of water spinach. Under middle Cd and Pb treatments, the presence of higher Pb promoted the accumulation of Cd. However, under high Pb treatment, accumulations of Cd and Pb were both restricted. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy at higher CD4 counts: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Ebrahim; Mia, Rafiq

    2012-10-08

    The package insert for nevirapine (NVP) cautions use in HIV-infected women (including pregnant women) with CD4 counts ≥250 cells/µl. However, recent studies showed that the CD4 count of pregnant women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not predictive of NVP toxicity. To determine whether ART-naive pregnant women initiating NVP-based ART at higher CD4 counts experience greater toxicity compared with pregnant women at lower CD4 counts. We reviewed studies comparing serious adverse NVP-related events among ART-naive pregnant women who commenced therapy at higher v. lower CD4 counts. Relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, SCOPUS and EMBASE, major journals and conference proceedings prior to December 2011. Authors were contacted for additional data. Data were independently extracted and entered into Review Manager. Fourteen studies (2 663 participants) were included for analysis. The odds ratio (OR) for overall NVP toxicity among pregnant women with CD4 <250 cells/µl was 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 - 0.85). When analysis was restricted to prospective studies only (7 studies, 1 318 participants), the results were consistent for overall NVP toxicity (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.25 - 0.73) and severe hepatotoxicity (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22 - 0.90), but not for severe cutaneous reaction (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.26 - 1.10). Initiating NVP-based ART during pregnancy at CD4 ≥250 cells/µl increases toxicity risk and should be avoided, necessitating urgent revision of current guidelines supporting this practice.

  13. Modelling the fine and coarse fraction of Pb, Cd, As and Ni air concentration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M. A.; Vivanco, M. G.

    2015-07-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic and nickel are present in the air due to natural and anthropogenic emissions, normally joined to particles. Human health and ecosystems can be damaged by high atmospheric levels of these metals, since they can be introduced in organisms via inhalation or ingestion. Small particles are inhaled and embebed in lungs and alveolus more easily than coarse particles. The CHIMERE model is a eulerian air quality model extensively used in air quality modelling. Metals have been recently included in this model in a special version developed in the CIEMAT modelling group (Madrid, Spain). Vivanco et al. (2011) and Gonzalez et al. (2012) showed an evaluation of the model performance for some metals in Spain and Europe. In these studies, metals were considered as fine particles. Nevertheless there is some observational evidence of the presence of some metals also in the coarse fraction. For this reason, a new attempt of modelling metals considering a fine (<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) fraction has been done. Measurements of metal concentration in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 recorded in Spain were used to obtain the new metal particle distribution size. On the other hand, natural emissions, not considered in the above mentioned studies, were implemented in the model, by considering metal emissions associated to dust resuspensiont. An evaluation of the new version is presented and discussed for two domains in Spain, centered on Barcelona and Huelva respectively. (Author)

  14. Modelling the fine and coarse fraction of Pb, Cd, As and Ni air concentration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Vivanco, M.

    2015-07-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic and nickel are present in the air due to natural and anthropogenic emissions, normally joined to particles. Human health and ecosystems can be damaged by high atmospheric levels of these metals, since they can be introduced in organisms via inhalation or ingestion. Small particles are inhaled and embebed in lungs and alveolus more easily than coarse particles. The CHIMERE model is a eulerian air quality model extensively used in air quality modelling. Metals have been recently included in this model in a special version developed in the CIEMAT modelling group (Madrid, Spain). Vivanco et al. (2011) and González et al. (2012) showed an evaluation of the model performance for some metals in Spain and Europe. In these studies, metals were considered as fine particles. Nevertheless there is some observational evidence of the presence of some metals also in the coarse fraction. For this reason, a new attempt of modelling metals considering a fine (<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) fraction has been done. Measurements of metal concentration in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 recorded in Spain were used to obtain the new metal particle distribution size. On the other hand, natural emissions, not considered in the above mentioned studies, were implemented in the model, by considering metal emissions associated to dust resuspensiont. An evaluation of the new version is presented and discussed for two domains in Spain, centered on Barcelona and Huelva respectively. (Author)

  15. Modelling the fine and coarse fraction of Pb, Cd, As and Ni air concentration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M. A.; Vivanco, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic and nickel are present in the air due to natural and anthropogenic emissions, normally joined to particles. Human health and ecosystems can be damaged by high atmospheric levels of these metals, since they can be introduced in organisms via inhalation or ingestion. Small particles are inhaled and embebed in lungs and alveolus more easily than coarse particles. The CHIMERE model is a eulerian air quality model extensively used in air quality modelling. Metals have been recently included in this model in a special version developed in the CIEMAT modelling group (Madrid, Spain). Vivanco et al. (2011) and Gonzalez et al. (2012) showed an evaluation of the model performance for some metals in Spain and Europe. In these studies, metals were considered as fine particles. Nevertheless there is some observational evidence of the presence of some metals also in the coarse fraction. For this reason, a new attempt of modelling metals considering a fine (<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) fraction has been done. Measurements of metal concentration in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 recorded in Spain were used to obtain the new metal particle distribution size. On the other hand, natural emissions, not considered in the above mentioned studies, were implemented in the model, by considering metal emissions associated to dust resuspensiont. An evaluation of the new version is presented and discussed for two domains in Spain, centered on Barcelona and Huelva respectively. (Author)

  16. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may imply higher risk of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, Szilvia; Puskás, Katalin; Vida, Gyula; Karsai, Ildikó; Balla, Krisztina; Komáromi, Judit; Veisz, Ottó

    2017-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO 2 (750 μmol mol -1 ) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO 2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO 2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level. Likewise, grain deoxynivalenol (DON) content was usually considerably higher at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level in the single-floret inoculation treatment, suggesting that the toxin content is not in direct relation to the level of Fusarium infection. In the whole-spike inoculation, DON production did not change, decreased or increased depending on the variety × experiment interaction. Cooler (18 °C) conditions delayed rachis penetration while 20 °C maximum temperature caused striking increases in the mycotoxin contents, resulting in extremely high DON values and also in a dramatic triggering of the grain zearalenone contamination at elevated CO 2 . The results indicate that future environmental conditions, such as rising CO 2 levels, may increase the threat of grain mycotoxin contamination.

  17. Higher plasma CD4 lymphocyte count correlates with better cognitive function in human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-AIDS) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, F. I.; Rambe, A. S.; Fitri, A.

    2018-03-01

    Neurocognitive disorders in HIV-AIDS are still prevalent despite the use of antiretroviral therapy and seem to be under-recognized. Plasma lymphocyte CD4 count is a marker for general immunology status, but its association with cognitive function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between plasma CD4 lymphocyte and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.This was a cross-sectional study involving 48 HIV-AIDS patients. All subjects underwent physical, neurologic examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian Version (MoCA-INA) to assess cognitive function and measurement of lymphocyte CD4 counts.This study included 48 subjects consisted of 29 males (60.4%) and 19 females (39.6%). The mean age was 39.17±11.21 years old. There was a significant correlation between CD4 lymphocyte counts and MoCA-INA score (r=0.347, p=0.016).Higher plasma CD4 lymphocyte count is correlated with better cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.

  18. Serum vitamin E concentrations among highly functioning hip fracture patients are higher than in nonfracture controls

    OpenAIRE

    D’Adamo, Christopher R.; Shardell, Michelle D.; Hicks, Gregory E.; Orwig, Denise L.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Semba, Richard D.; Yu-Yahiro, Janet A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Magaziner, Jay S.; Miller, Ram R.

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition after hip fracture is common and associated with poor outcomes and protracted recovery. Low concentrations of vitamin E have been associated with incident decline in physical function among older adults and may, therefore, be particularly important to functionally compromised patients hip fracture patients. Serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, the 2 major forms of vitamin E, were assessed in 148 female hip fracture patients 65 years or older from the Baltimore H...

  19. Higher prices at Canadian gas pumps: international crude oil prices or local market concentration? An empirical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anindya Sen

    2003-01-01

    There is little consensus on whether higher retail gasoline prices in Canada are the result of international crude oil price fluctuations or local market power exercised by large vertically-integrated firms. I find that although both increasing local market concentration and higher average monthly wholesale prices are positively and significantly associated with higher retail prices, wholesale prices are more important than local market concentration. Similarly, crude oil prices are more important than the number of local wholesalers in determining wholesale prices. These results suggest that movements in gasoline prices are largely the result of input price fluctuations rather than local market structure. (author)

  20. Sub-cellular partitioning of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the digestive gland of native Octopus vulgaris exposed to different metal concentrations (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimundo, J. [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research - IPIMAR, Av. Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: jraimundo@ipimar.pt; Vale, C. [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research - IPIMAR, Av. Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisbon (Portugal); Duarte, R.; Moura, I. [REQUIMTE - CQFB, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Qta Torre, 2829-516 Monte da Caparica (Portugal)

    2008-02-15

    Concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb and their sub-cellular distributions were determined in composite samples of digestive glands of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris caught from two areas of the Portuguese coast characterised by contrasting metal contamination. Minor contents of Zn (1%), Cu (2%), Cd (6%) and Pb (7%) were found in the insoluble fraction, consisting of nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes and microsome operationally separated from the whole digestive gland through a sequential centrifugation. A tendency for linear relationships between metal concentrations in nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes and whole digestive gland was observed. These relationships suggest that despite low metal content organelles responded to the increasing accumulated metals, which means that detoxifying mechanism in cytosol was incomplete. Poorer correlations between microsome and whole digestive gland did not point to metal toxicity in the analysed compartments. However, the high accumulated Cd indicated that O. vulgaris is an important vehicle of this element to its predators in the coastal environment.

  1. Sub-cellular partitioning of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the digestive gland of native Octopus vulgaris exposed to different metal concentrations (Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimundo, J.; Vale, C.; Duarte, R.; Moura, I.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb and their sub-cellular distributions were determined in composite samples of digestive glands of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris caught from two areas of the Portuguese coast characterised by contrasting metal contamination. Minor contents of Zn (1%), Cu (2%), Cd (6%) and Pb (7%) were found in the insoluble fraction, consisting of nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes and microsome operationally separated from the whole digestive gland through a sequential centrifugation. A tendency for linear relationships between metal concentrations in nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes and whole digestive gland was observed. These relationships suggest that despite low metal content organelles responded to the increasing accumulated metals, which means that detoxifying mechanism in cytosol was incomplete. Poorer correlations between microsome and whole digestive gland did not point to metal toxicity in the analysed compartments. However, the high accumulated Cd indicated that O. vulgaris is an important vehicle of this element to its predators in the coastal environment

  2. Elevated levels of peripheral blood CD14(bright) CD16+ and CD14(dim) CD16+ monocytes may contribute to the development of retinopathy in patients with juvenile onset type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryba-Stanisławowska, Monika; Myśliwska, Jolanta; Juhas, Ulana; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to analyze the CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocyte subsets in juvenile-onset complication-free diabetes mellitus type 1 in the context of their association with microvascular complications. 61 children with type 1 diabetes and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in a study. CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes were quantified in peripheral blood by means of flow cytometry. At the time of sampling blood glucose concentration was taken along with biochemical measurement of renal function, CRP and glycosylated hemoglobin. The Spearman's correlations were used to compare the relationship between CD16(+) monocyte subsets and the clinical parameters that can predict the development of microangiopathies. The flow cytometric analysis of monocyte subsets in peripheral blood of analyzed subjects revealed that the numbers of CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes were significantly higher in patients with type 1 diabetes than in the healthy individuals. As to the relationship between CD16(+) monocyte subsets and the clinical parameters that can predict development of microangiopathies, it was shown that both CD16(+) subsets were associated with increased risk of retinopathy development, defined as retinopathy development value. Elevated levels of intermediate CD14(bright) CD16(+) and non-classical CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes predict development of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Post-mortal changes in blood Cd levels in consideration of Cd levels in organs. Postmortale Veraenderung der Cadmiumkonzentration im Blut unter Beruecksichtigung der Organcadmiumkonzentrationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, D.

    1987-09-04

    After a detailed introduction, in which the properties and occurrence of Cd, the Cd metabolism and the Cd concentration in blood and organs, and the effects of smoking are discussed, the author presents the results of Cd concentration measurements in the biological materials of a collective of patients who died in the intensive care unit of an internal ward. In all cases, the postmortal Cd concentration in venal blood was much higher than the in-vivo concentration. The concentration increase is not noticeable in the first two hours post mortem; from the forensic view, it is therefore recommended to sample blood as early as possible in case of suspected Cd poisoning. After a latency period of 38 to 92 h, intracardial blood Cd concentrations will be high enough to suspect Cd intoxication, or at least a very high Cd exposure. This tentative diagnosis of Cd intoxication can be proved or disproved only by the rather tedions measurement of Cd concentrations in organs. Postmortal toxicological blood screening should, therefore, not lead to hasty conclusions. The contribution of smoking to Cd concentrations was clearly proved by comparisons of blood Cd concentrations and organ Cd concentrations of smokers and nonsmokers.

  4. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-02-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils.

  5. Targeting higher ferritin concentrations with intravenous iron dextran lowers erythropoietin requirement in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, M V; Frumkin, D; Mittal, S; Kamran, A; Fishbane, S; Michelis, M F

    2003-11-01

    Although clinical use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) since 1989 has improved anemia in most end-stage renal disease patients, there are still many hemodialysis patients unable to maintain an adequate hematocrit (HCT) without large doses of rHuEPO. This suggests that anemia is not solely a consequence of rHuEPO deficiency, but may be due to other factors including functional iron deficiency. Since the optimal prescription for iron replacement is not yet known, we evaluated the effect of intravenous iron dextran (IVFe) infusion on serum ferritin (SFer) concentration and rHuEPO dose. Our objective was to raise and maintain serum ferritin concentrations to 2 different levels above the National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative standard of 100 ng/ml to determine whether, and by what degree rHuEPO dose could be lowered. HD patients on i.v. rHuEPO with a SFer concentration > or = 70 ng/ml and an HCT of requirements.

  6. A prospective study of the effect of pregnancy on CD4 counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Donnell, Deborah; Kiarie, James; Rees, Helen; Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Were, Edwin; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2014-02-01

    In HIV-1-infected women, CD4 count declines occur during pregnancy, which has been attributed to hemodilution. However, for women who have not initiated antiretroviral therapy, it is unclear if CD4 declines are sustained beyond pregnancy and accompanied by increased viral levels, which could indicate an effect of pregnancy on accelerating HIV-1 disease progression. In a prospective study among 2269 HIV-1-infected antiretroviral therapy-naive women from 7 African countries, we examined the effect of pregnancy on HIV-1 disease progression. We used linear mixed models to compare CD4 counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations between pregnant, postpartum, and nonpregnant periods. Women contributed 3270 person-years of follow-up, during which time 476 women became pregnant. In adjusted analysis, CD4 counts were an average of 56 (95% confidence interval: 39 to 73) cells/mm lower during pregnant compared with nonpregnant periods and 70 (95% confidence interval: 53 to 88) cells/mm lower during pregnant compared with postpartum periods; these results were consistent when restricted to the subgroup of women who became pregnant. Plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations were not different between pregnant and nonpregnant periods (P = 0.9) or pregnant and postpartum periods (P = 0.3). Neither CD4 counts nor plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were significantly different in postpartum compared with nonpregnant periods. CD4 count declines among HIV-1-infected women during pregnancy are temporary and not sustained in postpartum periods. Pregnancy does not have a short-term impact on plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations.

  7. A prospective study of the effect of pregnancy on CD4 counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 infected women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Donnell, Deborah; Kiarie, James; Rees, Helen; Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Were, Edwin; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.

    2014-01-01

    Background In HIV-1 infected women, CD4 count declines occur during pregnancy, which has been attributed to hemodilution. However, for women who have not initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is unclear if CD4 declines are sustained beyond pregnancy and accompanied by increased viral levels, which could indicate an effect of pregnancy on accelerating HIV-1 disease progression. Methods In a prospective study among 2269 HIV-1 infected ART-naïve women from 7 African countries, we examined the effect of pregnancy on HIV-1 disease progression. We used linear mixed models to compare CD4 counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations between pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant periods. Results Women contributed 3270 person-years of follow-up, during which time 476 women became pregnant. In adjusted analysis, CD4 counts were an average of 56 (95% CI 39-73) cells/mm3 lower during pregnant compared to non-pregnant periods and 70 (95% CI 53-88) cells/mm3 lower during pregnant compared to postpartum periods; these results were consistent when restricted to the subgroup of women who became pregnant. Plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant periods (p=0.9) or pregnant and postpartum periods (p=0.3). Neither CD4 counts nor plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were significantly different in postpartum compared to non-pregnant periods. Conclusion CD4 count declines among HIV-1 infected women during pregnancy are temporary and not sustained in postpartum periods. Pregnancy does not have a short term impact on plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations. PMID:24442226

  8. Translocation of Cd and Mn from Bark to Leaves in Willows on Contaminated Sediments: Delayed Budburst Is Related to High Mn Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Vandecasteele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the hydrology of sediments in tidal marshes or landfills may affect the uptake of metals in the vegetation. Leaf and stem samples of Salix cinerea (grey sallow were collected during four consecutive growing seasons at six contaminated plots on a polluted dredged sediment landfill and one plot on an uncontaminated reference site. The first three contaminated plots were already emerged in the first half of the first growing season, while the other three were submerged in the first year, but became increasingly dry over the study period. Foliar and stem cutting concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn increased on the latter three plots over the four years. Willow bark contained high concentrations of Cd, Zn and Mn. In two consecutive greenhouse experiments with willow cuttings from different origins (uncontaminated and contaminated sites and grown under different soil conditions (uncontaminated and contaminated, we observed an important translocation of Mn from bark to shoots. In a third experiment with willow cuttings collected on soils with a range of heavy metal concentrations and, thus, with a broad range of Cd (4–67 mg/kg dry matter, Zn (247–660 mg/kg dry matter and Mn (38–524 mg/kg dry matter concentrations in the bark, high Mn concentrations in the bark were found to affect the budburst of willow cuttings, while no association of delayed budburst with Cd and Zn concentrations in the bark was found. We conclude that wood and, especially, bark are not a sink for metals in living willows. The high Mn concentrations in the bark directly or indirectly caused delayed or restricted budburst of the willow cuttings.

  9. Approaches to analysis of data that concentrate near higher-dimensional manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.H.; Tukey, J.W.; Tukey, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    The need to explore structure in high-dimensional clouds of data points that may concentrate near (possibly nonlinear) manifolds of lower dimension led to the current development of three new approaches. The first is a computer-graphic system (PRIM'79) that facilitates interactive viewing and manipulation of an ensemble of points. The other two are automatic procedures for separating a cloud into more manageable pieces. One of these (BIDEC) performs successive partitioning of the cloud by use of hyperplanes; the other (Cake Maker) explores expanding sequences of neighborhoods. Both procedures provide facilities for examining the resulting pieces and the relationships among them

  10. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campenhout, K. van [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, L. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be; Blust, R. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 {sup o}C to 15 {sup o}C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature.

  11. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campenhout, K. van; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 o C to 15 o C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature

  12. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, is associated with higher glucose and insulin concentrations but not higher blood pressure in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, C L; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    distribution. METHODS: In 103 obese men (mean age ± standard deviation: 49.4 ± 10.2 years) and 27 normal weight control men (mean age: 51.5 ± 8.4 years), taking no medication, we measured 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, fasting blood concentrations of copeptin, lipids, glucose and insulin, and determined body...... blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.29), 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.28), BMI (r = 0.09, P = 0.37), total body fatness percentage (r = 0.10, P = 0.33), android fat mass percentage (r = 0.04, P = 0.66) or serum triglyceride concentrations (r = 0.04; P = 0.68). In contrast, plasma copeptin......, and is associated with abnormalities in glucose and insulin metabolism, but not with higher blood pressure or an android fat distribution in obese men....

  13. The Changes of Elements Composition in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus at Different Co2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ Concentrations Using X-rays Microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray microanalysis in electron microscope allows simultaneous detection and quantitative analysis of several elements so it contributes to understand the role of ions in physiological processes. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis used to detect the changes in elements levels in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus when allowing to grow on Czapek's Dox liquid media amended with different Co 2+ , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ concentrations and these changes may play a role in fungal uptake for these heavy metal ions. Results showed that Ca, Zn and Cu levels in both fungal isolates significantly decreased (P<0.05) when concentrations of used metal ions increased, also O, Na, Cl and K levels for A. niger and C and P for A. terreus recorded significant reduction (P<0.05) in their percentages. Also, the results revealed that, C and P for A. niger and O, Na, Mg, Cl and K levels for A. terreus significantly increased (P<0.05) as a result of increasing metal ions concentrations. Lack of Cd and Pb peaks in X-ray spectrum for A. terreus led this work to conclude that, A. niger was more effective than A. terreus in Co, Cd, Pb uptake into fungal biomass. The increase or decrease of levels of detected elements could be related to the difference between two fungal isolates in uptake certain heavy metal ion (Co, Cd, Pb)

  14. Progress and challenges of engineering a biophysical CO2-concentrating mechanism into higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Benjamin D; Long, Benedict M; Förster, Britta; Nguyen, Nghiem D; Velanis, Christos N; Atkinson, Nicky; Hee, Wei Yih; Mukherjee, Bratati; Price, G Dean; McCormick, Alistair J

    2017-06-01

    Growth and productivity in important crop plants is limited by the inefficiencies of the C3 photosynthetic pathway. Introducing CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) into C3 plants could overcome these limitations and lead to increased yields. Many unicellular microautotrophs, such as cyanobacteria and green algae, possess highly efficient biophysical CCMs that increase CO2 concentrations around the primary carboxylase enzyme, Rubisco, to enhance CO2 assimilation rates. Algal and cyanobacterial CCMs utilize distinct molecular components, but share several functional commonalities. Here we outline the recent progress and current challenges of engineering biophysical CCMs into C3 plants. We review the predicted requirements for a functional biophysical CCM based on current knowledge of cyanobacterial and algal CCMs, the molecular engineering tools and research pipelines required to translate our theoretical knowledge into practice, and the current challenges to achieving these goals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Higher Leptin but Not Human Milk Macronutrient Concentration Distinguishes Normal-Weight from Obese Mothers at 1-Month Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Arnaud; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Gaud, Marie-Agnès; Christin, Patricia; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Millet, Christine; Herviou, Manon; Darmaun, Dominique; Robins, Richard J; Ingrand, Pierre; Hankard, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Exclusively breastfed infants born to obese mothers have previously been shown to gain less weight by 1-month postpartum than infants of normal-weight mothers. Our hypothesis is that human milk composition and volume may differ between obese and normal-weight mothers. To compare human milk leptin, macronutrient concentration, and volume in obese and normal-weight mothers. Mother and infant characteristics were studied as secondary aims. This cross-sectional observational study compared 50 obese mothers matched for age, parity, ethnic origin, and educational level with 50 normal-weight mothers. Leptin, macronutrient human milk concentration, and milk volume were determined at 1 month in exclusively breastfed infants. Mother characteristics and infant growth were recorded. Human milk leptin concentration was higher in obese mothers than normal-weight mothers (4.8±2.7 vs. 2.5±1.5 ng.mL-1, pobese and normal-weight mothers in protein, lipid, carbohydrate content, and volume, nor in infant weight gain. Leptin concentration was higher in the milk of obese mothers than that of normal-weight mothers, but macronutrient concentration was not. It remains to be established whether the higher leptin content impacts on infant growth beyond the 1-month of the study period.

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome is concentrated in people with higher educations in Iran: an inequality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Like any other health-related disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has a differential distribution with respect to socioeconomic factors. This study aimed to estimate and decompose educational inequalities in the prevalence of IBS. METHODS Sampling was performed using a multi-stage random cluster sampling approach. The data of 1,850 residents of Kish Island aged 15 years or older were included, and the determinants of IBS were identified using a generalized estimating equation regression model. The concentration index of educational inequality in cases of IBS was estimated and decomposed as the specific inequality index. RESULTS The prevalence of IBS in this study was 21.57% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.69 to 23.44%). The concentration index of IBS was 0.20 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.26). A multivariable regression model revealed that age, sex, level of education, marital status, anxiety, and poor general health were significant determinants of IBS. In the decomposition analysis, level of education (89.91%), age (−11.99%), and marital status (9.11%) were the three main contributors to IBS inequality. Anxiety and poor general health were the next two contributors to IBS inequality, and were responsible for more than 12% of the total observed inequality. CONCLUSIONS The main contributors of IBS inequality were education level, age, and marital status. Given the high percentage of anxious individuals among highly educated, young, single, and divorced people, we can conclude that all contributors to IBS inequality may be partially influenced by psychological factors. Therefore, programs that promote the development of mental health to alleviate the abovementioned inequality in this population are highly warranted. PMID:28171714

  17. Higher concentrations of branched-chain amino acids in breast milk of obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Arnaud; Hankard, Régis; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Darmaun, Dominique; Boquien, Clair-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during fetal life and early childhood is thought to play a crucial role in the risk for developing metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in the future adult and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) intake may play a role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the breast milk amino acid profiles of obese and normal weight (control) breast-feeding mothers. Fifty obese and 50 control breast-feeding mothers were enrolled. Age and parity were similar in both groups. Breast milk samples were collected at the end of the first month of lactation. Free amino acid (FAA) concentrations in breast milk were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were performed using a two-tailed paired t test. We analyzed 45 breast milk samples from each group. Body mass index was 34.3 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) in the obese group and 21.6 ± 1.4 kg/m(2) in the control group (P milk of obese mothers (95.5 ± 38.2 μM versus 79.8 ± 30.9 μM; P = 0.037), as was tyrosine concentration (13.8 ± 7.1 μM versus 10.6 ± 5.2 μM; P = 0.016). The mature breast milk of obese mothers contained 20% more BCAA and 30% more tyrosine than breast milk of control mothers. Whether altered breast milk FAA profile affects metabolic risk in the breast-fed child remains to be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Inflammatory Radicular Cysts Have Higher Concentration of TNF-α in Comparison to Odontogenic Keratocysts (Odontogenic Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Jurisic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available TNF-α is a pleiotropic cytokine that is considered as a primary modifier of inflammatory and immune reaction in response to various inflammatory diseases and tumour. We investigated levels of TNF-α in 43 radicular cysts and 15 odontogenic keratocysts, obtained from patients undergoing surgery, under local anaesthesia, and after aspiration of cystic fluid from non-ruptured cysts. TNF-α is elevated in both cysts’ fluid, but higher values were found in radicular cysts in comparison to keratocysts. The significantly higher concentration of TNF-α was associated with smaller radicular cysts, higher protein concentration, higher presence of inflammatory cells in peri cystic tissues, and the degree of vascularisation and cysts wall thickness (Mann-Whitney U-test, p<0.05. No correlation was found based on these parameters in odontogenic keratocyst, but all cysts have detectable concentrations of TNF-α. We here for the first time present that a difference in the concentration of TNF-α exists between these two cystic types.

  19. Concentrations of persistent organochlorine compounds in human milk and placenta are higher in Denmark than in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, H.; Main, K.M.; Andersson, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    , oxychlordane (OXC), cis-heptachloroepoxide (c-HE) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) were the other main organochlorines detected. Danish samples had significantly higher concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, HCB, dieldrin, c-HE and OXC than did the Finnish samples. Levels...

  20. Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons with Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Vladimir; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Trajkov, Dejan; Arsov, Todor; Strezova, Ana; Ajdinski, Ljubomir; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic…

  1. Mn concentration and quantum size effects on spin-polarized transport through CdMnTe based magnetic resonant tunneling diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnasri, S; Abdi-Ben Nasrallahl, S; Sfina, N; Lazzari, J L; Saïd, M

    2012-11-01

    Theoretical studies on spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunneling diodes with giant Zeeman splitting of the valence band are carried out. The studied structure consists of two nonmagnetic layers CdMgTe separated by a diluted magnetic semiconductor barrier CdMnTe, the hole is surrounded by two p-doped CdTe layers. Based on the parabolic valence band effective mass approximation and the transfer matrix method, the magnetization and the current densities for holes with spin-up and spin-down are studied in terms of the Mn concentration, the well and barrier thicknesses as well as the voltage. It is found that, the current densities depend strongly on these parameters and by choosing suitable values; this structure can be a good spin filter. Such behaviors are originated from the enhancement and suppression in the spin-dependent resonant states.

  2. Uptake and translocation of 109Cd and stable Cd within tobacco plants (Nicotiana sylvestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosén, K.; Eriksson, J.; Vinichuk, M.

    2012-01-01

    The availability, uptake, and translocation of recently added ( 109 Cd) and naturally occurring (stable) soil Cd within tobacco plants were compared. 109 Cd was added to soil in two treatments, A (0.25 MBq kg soil −1 DW) and B (eight-fold dose): stable Cd was measured in both treatments. Both the added and the stable Cd were higher in leaves and reproductive structures of the plant than in stalks and roots. The uptake of 109 Cd was 5.3 kBq plant −1 for treatment A and 36.7 kBq plant −1 for treatment B, and about 26 μg plant −1 for stable Cd. Leaves of the tobacco plants accumulated 40–45% of the total 109 Cd and about 50% of total stable Cd taken up by the plant. Cadmium concentration in the plant was three times higher than in roots and two times higher than the concentration in soil: the concentration in roots was lower than in the soil. - Capsule: The availability, uptake, and translocation of recently added ( 109 Cd) and naturally occurring (stable) soil Cd within tobacco plants (Nicotiana sylvestris) were investigated. - Highlights: ► We compared uptake recently added and naturally occurring soil Cd by tobacco plant. ► Both added and stable Cd display similar uptake and translocation within the plant. ► Leaves of tobacco plants accumulate half of the total Cd taken up by the plant. ► Recently added 109 Cd to soil is more available than naturally occurring cadmium.

  3. Study of heavy metal concentration (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Crin water resources and river of Borujerd city in 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahram kamarehei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available with industrial and economic growth and different material production that humans gained from natural resources for their comfort and walfare, inwardly introduced toxic material and heavy metal entered environment that there created serious problems for themselves and environment. This study accomplished to determine heavy metal concentration (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Crin water resources and river of Borujerd city in 2008-2009. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to determine heavy metal concentration (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr in water resources and river of Borujerd city. 54 samples of water were taken from 18 drinking water wells, and also in two times 8 samples of Borujerd river were taken from before and after the city. Then samples carried into the lab and were concentrated ten times using expressed methods and standard methods. Then heavy metal concentration determined by AAP (WFX 130 and results analyzed by SPSS and EXCEL software. Results: Heavy metal concentration average (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr in drinking water wells were 0. 0, 0. 3222, 0. 0014, 0. 0002, 0. 0077 mg/l respectively. and heavy metal concentration in river water after the city has been increased than before the city. Conclusion: Results indicated that heavy metal concentration average in Borujerd drinking water wells were lower than standard amounts and drinking water wells didn’t pollute with heavy metal. But heavy metal concentration in river water after the city has been increased than the before of it because city waste water enters the city river.

  4. Serum concentration of alpha-1 antitrypsin is significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Holanda, Sergio; Blanco, Ignacio; Menéndez, Manuel; Rodrigo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The association between alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently controversial. The present study compares AAT serum concentrations and gene frequencies between a group of CRC patients and a control group of healthy unrelated people (HUP). 267 CRC subjects (63% males, 72 ± 10 years old) were enlisted from a Hospital Clinic setting in Asturias, Spain. The HUP group comprised 327 subjects (67% males, mean age 70 ± 7.5 years old) from the same geographical region. Outcome measures were AAT serum concentrations measured by nephelometry, and AAT phenotyping characterization by isoelectric focusing. Significantly higher serum concentrations were found among CRC (208 ± 60) than in HUP individuals (144 ± 20.5) (p = 0.0001). No differences were found in the phenotypic distribution of the Pi*S and Pi*Z allelic frequencies (p = 0.639), although the frequency of Pi*Z was higher in CRC (21%) than in HUP subjects (15%). The only statistically significant finding in this study was the markedly higher AAT serum concentrations found in CRC subjects compared with HUP controls, irrespective of whether their Pi* phenotype was normal (Pi*MM) or deficient (Pi*MS, Pi*MZ and Pi*SZ). Although there was a trend towards the more deficient Pi* phenotype the more advanced the tumor, the results were inconclusive due to the small sample size. Consequently, more powerful studies are needed to reach firmer conclusions on this matter

  5. Regulatory function of cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+CD27-CD28- T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar-Salazar, Adriana; Patterson-Bartlett, Julie; Jesser, Renee; Weinberg, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    CMV infection is characterized by high of frequencies of CD27 - CD28 - T cells. Here we demonstrate that CMV-specific CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - cells are regulatory T cells (T R ). CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - cells sorted from CMV-stimulated PBMC of CMV-seropositive donors inhibited de novo CMV-specific proliferation of autologous PBMC in a dose-dependent fashion. Compared with the entire CMV-stimulated CD4 + T-cell population, higher proportions of CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - T R expressed FoxP3, TGFβ, granzyme B, perforin, GITR and PD-1, lower proportions expressed CD127 and PD1-L and similar proportions expressed CD25, CTLA4, Fas-L and GITR-L. CMV-CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - T R expanded in response to IL-2, but not to CMV antigenic restimulation. The anti-proliferative effect of CMV-CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - T R significantly decreased after granzyme B or TGFβ inhibition. The CMV-CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - T R of HIV-infected and uninfected donors had similar phenotypes and anti-proliferative potency, but HIV-infected individuals had higher proportions of CMV-CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - T R . The CMV-CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - T R may contribute to the downregulation of CMV-specific and nonspecific immune responses of CMV-infected individuals.

  6. Effects of copper concentration on electro-optical and structural properties of chemically deposited nanosized (Zn-Cd)S:Cu films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, Ayush

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline (Zn-Cd)S films have been co-deposited on glass slide substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique at 70 deg. C for 75 min. Electroluminescent (EL), photoluminescent (PL) and structural characteristics of these films doped with Cu have been investigated. Cu doping has significant effects on the growth, structural and optical properties of the deposited (Zn-Cd)S films. EL studies show the essentiality of copper for EL emission. The effect of Cu concentration is examined on XRD, SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, etc. The morphology of these films investigated with SEM and XRD is used to determine crystalline nature of the films. The optical absorption coefficient of the films has been found to increase with increase in Cu concentration. Voltage and frequency dependence shows the effectiveness of acceleration-collision mechanism. The trap-depth values are calculated from temperature dependence of EL brightness.

  7. HIV-infected patients with a large thymus maintain higher CD4 counts in a 5-year follow-up study of patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, L; Ryder, L P; Albrecht-Beste, E

    2009-01-01

    output determined as the number of CD4 + cells containing T-cell receptor-rearrangement excision DNA circles were measured prospectively in 25 HIV-infected patients with known thymic size during 5 years of HAART. Patients with larger thymic size had at all time points of follow-up significantly higher CD...

  8. sCD30, interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme and anti-Annexin V autoantibodies concentrations in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglen, Sławomir; Zakliczyński, Michał; Nozyński, Jerzy; Rogala, Barbara; Zembala, Marian

    2006-11-01

    sCD30 and ICE/caspase-1 as apoptosis-regulating factors are suspected to be involved in the survival rate of immunocompetent cells during immunosuppression after allotransplantation. Serum CD30 and ICE/caspase-1 concentrations were estimated and associated with unspecific serum apoptosis marker--anti-Annexin V antibodies and myocardial biopsies results. 28 clinically stabile patients--heart transplant recipients at least 3 months after cardiac transplantation performed due to heart failure caused by ischaemic and/or congestive cardiomyopathy or/and primary valvular heart disease (26 men and 2 women, mean age=36.8 years, S.D.=7.6) with normal heart function assessed by use of ultrasound scan--were involved in the trial. The patients were divided and analyzed in two ways: first according to the results of elective endomyocardial biopsies and second to main immunosuppressive agent used. The enzyme immunoassay (CD30, Dako; interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE)/Caspase-1 ELISA and anti-Annexin V BENDER MedSystem) for soluble CD30, caspase-1 and anti-Annexin V autoantibodies serum levels was used. sCD30 and caspase-1 concentrations were non-significantly up-regulated in all analysed groups--with or without rejection signs or immunosuppressed with cyclosporine or especially tacrolimus. In contrast anti-Annexin V autoantibodies concentration was non-significantly down-regulated also in all studied groups. Moreover in the group with signs of transplant rejection, strong negative correlation between anti-Annexin antibodies and rejection grade was observed (-0.65, psCD30 and caspase-1 as well as the decrease in anti-Annexin V autoantibodies concentrations in heart recipients could be the result of post-transplant apoptosis disturbances. This tendency seems to be inhibited in a greater degree by tacrolimus than by cyclosporine. Anti-Annexin V autoantibodies might be considered as negative rejection markers due to their strong negative correlation with the rejection grade.

  9. Zinc concentration effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaltun, Yunus [Department of Electrical and Electronic, Engineering Faculty, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey); Yıldırım, M. Ali, E-mail: mayildirim@erzincan.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Science and Art Faculty, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey); Ateş, Aytunç [Department of Material Engineering, Engineering and Natural Sciences Faculty, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara (Turkey); Yıldırım, Muhammet [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Atatürk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films were deposited using SILAR method. ► The electron effective mass, refractive index, dielectric constant values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values as a function of the zinc concentration (x). ► The resistivity and activation energy changed as a function of the zinc concentration (x). -- Abstract: Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films with different compositions (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) were deposited on glass substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The zinc concentration (x) effect on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all the films exhibited polycrystalline nature and were covered well on glass substrates. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis confirmed nearly stoichiometric deposition of the films. The energy bandgap values were changed from 1.99 to 2.82 eV depending on the zinc concentration. Bowing parameter was calculated as 0.08 eV. The electron effective mass (m{sub e}*/m{sub o}), refractive index (n), optical static and high frequency dielectric constants (ε{sub o}, ε{sub ∞}) values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values as a function of the zinc concentration. The resistivity values of the films changed between 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 7} Ω cm with increasing zinc concentration at room temperature.

  10. Visceral obesity is associated with increased soluble CD163 concentration in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Parkner, Tina; Søndergaard, Esben

    2015-01-01

    individuals. The objective was to examine the effect of male overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on associations between adiposity parameters and sCD163. A total of 23 overweight/obese non-diabetic men, 16 overweight/obese men with T2DM, and a control group of 20 normal-weight healthy men...... multiple linear regression analysis. In the normal-weight healthy men, there was no significant association between adiposity parameters and sCD163, whereas in the overweight/obese non-diabetic men, measures of general and regional adiposity were positively associated with sCD163. In the overweight/obese......-body fat, adjusted for BMI and age, VAT remained a significant predictor of sCD163 in the overweight/obese T2DM men, but not in the overweight/obese non-diabetic men. Our results indicate that VAT inflammation is exaggerated in men with T2DM, and that propensity to store excess body fat viscerally...

  11. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle, E-mail: helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lise Brantsaeter, Anne [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Borch-Iohnsen, Berit [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, Dag G. [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Alexander, Jan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Thomassen, Yngvar [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Stigum, Hein [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Chronic Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ydersbond, Trond A. [Statistics Norway, P.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  12. Control of luminescence emitted by Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}S nanocrystals in a glass matrix: x concentration and thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Neto, Ernesto S; Dantas, Noelio O [Laboratorio de Novos Materiais Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, CP 593, CEP 38400-902, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Barbosa Neto, Newton M [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiais (GEM), Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, CP 593, CEP 38400-902, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Guedes, Ilde [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, CEP 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Chen, Felipe, E-mail: ernestosfn@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, CEP 09210-170, Santo Andre, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-03-11

    Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}S nanocrystals (NCs) were successfully grown in a glass matrix and investigated by photoluminescence (PL), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). We verified that the luminescent properties of these NCs can be controlled both by changing the x concentration and by thermal annealing of the samples. The EPR and PL data showed that the characteristic emission of Mn{sup 2+} ions ({sup 4}T{sub 1}-{sup 6}A{sub 1}) is only observed when this magnetic impurity is substitutionally incorporated in the Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}S NC core (site S{sub I}). Besides, it was observed that the emission ({sup 4}T{sub 1}-{sup 6}A{sub 1}) suppression, caused by the Mn{sup 2+} ion presence near the surface (site S{sub II}) of the Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}S NCs, is independent of the host material. The MFM images also confirmed the high quality of the Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}S NC samples, showing a uniform distribution of total magnetic moments in the nanoparticles.

  13. Energy Band Gap, Intrinsic Carrier Concentration and Fermi Level of CdTe Bulk Crystal between 304 K and 1067 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Optical transmission measurements were performed on CdTe bulk single crystal. It was found that when a sliced and polished CdTe wafer was used, a white film started to develop when the sample was heated above 530 K and the sample became opaque. Therefore, a bulk crystal of CdTe was first grown in the window area by physical vapor transport; the optical transmission was then measured and from which the energy band gap was derived between 304 and 1067 K. The band gaps of CdTe can be fit well as a function of temperature using the Varshini expression: Eg (e V) = 1.5860 - 5.9117xl0(exp -4) T(sup 2)/(T + 160). Using the band gap data, the high temperature electron-hole equilibrium was calculated numerically by assuming the Kane's conduction band structure and a heavy-hole parabolic valance band. The calculated intrinsic carrier concentrations agree well with the experimental data reported previously. The calculated intrinsic Fermi levels between 270 and 1200 K were also presented.

  14. Increased Number of Circulating CD8/CD26 T Cells in the Blood of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients Is Associated with Augmented Binding of Adenosine Deaminase and Higher Muscular Strength Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Soslow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked disorder that leads to cardiac and skeletal myopathy. The complex immune activation in boys with DMD is incompletely understood. To better understand the contribution of the immune system into the progression of DMD, we performed a systematic characterization of immune cell subpopulations obtained from peripheral blood of DMD subjects and control donors. We found that the number of CD8 cells expressing CD26 (also known as adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2 was increased in DMD subjects compared to control. No differences, however, were found in the levels of circulating factors associated with pro-inflammatory activation of CD8/CD26 cells, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, granzyme B, and interferon-γ (IFNγ. The number of CD8/CD26 cells correlated directly with quantitative muscle testing (QMT in DMD subjects. Since CD26 mediates binding of adenosine deaminase (ADA to the T cell surface, we tested ADA-binding capacity of CD8/CD26 cells and the activity of bound ADA. We found that mononuclear cells (MNC obtained from DMD subjects with an increased number of CD8/CD26 T cells had a greater capacity to bind ADA. In addition, these MNC demonstrated increased hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine. Altogether, our data demonstrated that (1 an increased number of circulating CD8/CD26 T cells is associated with preservation of muscle strength in DMD subjects, and (2 CD8/CD26 T cells from DMD subjects mediated degradation of adenosine by adenosine deaminase. These results support a role for T cells in slowing the decline in skeletal muscle function, and a need for further investigation into contribution of CD8/CD26 T cells in the regulation of chronic inflammation associated with DMD.

  15. The Response of Duckweed (Lemna minor L. Roots to Cd and Its Chemical Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of duckweed (Lemna minor L. roots to Cd and its chemical forms was investigated. The relative root growth rate and concentrations of Cd and its different chemical forms in the root, that is, ethanol-extractable (FE-Cd, HCl-extractable (FHCl-Cd, and residual fractions (Fr-Cd, were quantified. Weibull model was used to unravel the regression between the relative root elongation (RRL with chemical forms of Cd. Parameters assessed catalase (CAT, peroxidases (POD, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (A-TOC. Our results show that both the relative root growth rate and relative frond number were affected by Cd concentrations. The chemical forms of Cd were influenced by Cd content in the medium. Relative root elongation (RRL showed a significant correlation with chemical forms of Cd. Additionally, POD and SOD increased at lower Cd concentrations followed by a decrease at higher Cd concentrations (at more than 5 μM Cd. Moreover, MDA and A-TOC increased and CAT decreased with increasing Cd exposure. Furthermore, CAT showed a significant correlation with FHCl-Cd. Taken together, it can be concluded that the chemical forms of Cd are statistically significant predictors of Cd toxicity to duckweed and to the other similar aquatic plants.

  16. Function and regulation of LAG3 on CD4+CD25- T cells in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qin-Yun; Huang, Da-Yu; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Xiao-Feng

    2017-11-15

    LAG3 is a surface molecule found on a subset of immune cells. The precise function of LAG3 appears to be context-dependent. In this study, we investigated the effect of LAG3 on CD4 + CD25 - T cells from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We found that in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of NSCLC patients, LAG3 was significantly increased in CD4 + T cells directly ex vivo and primarily in the CD4 + CD25 - fraction, which was regulated by prolonged TCR stimulation and the presence of IL-27. TCR stimulation also increased CD25 expression, but not Foxp3 expression, in LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - cells Compared to LAG3-nonexpressing CD4 + CD25 - cells, LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - cells presented significantly higher levels of PD1 and TIM3, two inhibitory receptors best described in exhausted CD8 + T effector cells. LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - cells also presented impaired proliferation compared with LAG3-nonexpressing CD4 + CD25 - cells but could be partially rescued by inhibiting both PD1 and TIM3. Interestingly, CD8 + T cells co-incubated with LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - cells at equal cell numbers demonstrated significantly lower proliferation than CD8 + T cells incubated alone. Co-culture with CD8 + T cell and LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - T cell also upregulated soluble IL-10 level in the supernatant, of which the concentration was positively correlated with the number of LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - T cells. In addition, we found that LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - T cells infiltrated the resected tumors and were present at higher frequencies of in metastases than in primary tumors. Taken together, these data suggest that LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - T cells represent another regulatory immune cell type with potential to interfere with anti-tumor immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristic analysis on the physical properties of nanostructured Mg-doped CdO thin films—Doping concentration effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Usharani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly conductive and transparent magnesium-doped cadmium oxide (CdO:Mg thin films have been deposited on suitably cleaned glass substrates maintained at 375 °C by spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer. The magnesium content in the films is varied from 0 to 8 at% in steps of 2 at%. The effect of Mg doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the CdO thin films has been studied. All the films exhibited cubic structure with a preferential orientation along the (1 1 1 plane irrespective of the Mg doping level. SEM analysis showed that the film morphology modifies from spherical shaped grains to closely packed cauliflower shaped nanostructures with Mg doping. Except for the film coated with 2 at% Mg dopant, all the other doped films exhibited a blue shift in the optical band gap. Electrical studies revealed that the CdO:Mg film coated with 8 at% Mg dopant had a minimum resistivity of 0.0853×101 Ω-cm.

  18. Correlation of Element Concentration of Cd, Cr, Co and Sc in Sea Water, Fish and Algae Samples from Beach of Lemahabang Muria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukirno; Rosidi; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of Cd, Cr, Co, Sb and Sc element in beach environmental samples Lemahabang Muria in the year 2004 has been carried out by using neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. All of heavy metals from sea water (2.0 μg/l) are obviously lower than the threshold value established by SKRI No 51/2004. From the observed data by Excel application of the correlation value (r) shows that between Cd, Cr, Co, Sb and Sc concentrations from dependent variable of sea water about tree independent variable of kerapu fish, green and brown algae shows a highly positive significant correlation (r > 0.92) except element of Sb was sufficiently positive high (r = 0.66). (author)

  19. Higher serum concentrations of vimentin and DAKP1 are associated with aggressive breast tumour phenotypes in Ghanaian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko-Boham, Benjamin; Lomotey, Justice Tanihu; Tetteh, Emmanuel Nomo; Tagoe, Emmanuel Ayitey; Aryee, Nii Ayite; Owusu, Ewurama Ampadu; Okai, Isaac; Blay, Richard Michael; Clegg-Lamptey, Joe-Nat

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women and leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, exhibits aggressive behavior in indigenous African women evidenced by high histologic grade tumours with low hormone receptor positivity. Aggressive breast cancers grow quickly, easily metastasize and recur and often have unfavourable outcomes. The current study investigated candidate genes that may regulate tumour aggression in Ghanaian women. We hypothesize that increased expression and function of certain genes other than the widely-held view attributing breast cancer aggression in African populations to their younger population age may be responsible for the aggressive nature of tumours. Employing ELISA, we assayed for vimentin and death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) from thawed archived (stored at -80 °C) serum samples obtained from 40 clinically confirmed Ghanaian breast cancer patients and 40 apparently healthy controls. Patients' clinical records and tumour parameters matching the samples were retrieved from the database of the hospital. ANOVA was used to compare means of serum protein concentration among groups while Chi-square analysis was used for the categorical data sets with p -value ≤0.05 considered significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between protein concentration and tumour parameters. Of the 80 samples, 27 (33.8%) and 53 (66.2%) were from young (<35 years) and old (≥35 years), respectively. Vimentin and DAPK1 concentration were higher in patients than controls with higher levels in "young" age group than "old" age group. Vimentin concentration was highest in grade 3 tumours followed by grade 2 and 1 but that for DAPK1 was not significant. For vimentin, tumour area strongly correlated with tumour grade ( r  = 0.696, p  < 0.05) but weakly correlated with tumour stage ( r  = 0.420, p  < 0.05). Patient's age correlated with DAPK1 concentration ( r  = 0

  20. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measured by spatial photon migration in CdSe-ZnS quantum dots colloidal systems as a function of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, G.; Monte, A. F. G.; Reis, A. F.; Messias, D. N. [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Óptica, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902 (Brazil)

    2014-11-17

    The study of the spatial photon migration as a function of the concentration brings into attention the problem of the energy transfer in quantum dot embedded systems. By measuring the photon propagation and its spatial dependence, it is possible to understand the whole dynamics in a quantum dot system, and also improve their concentration dependence to maximize energy propagation due to radiative and non-radiative processes. In this work, a confocal microscope was adapted to scan the spatial distribution of photoluminescence from CdSe-ZnS core-shell quantum dots in colloidal solutions. The energy migration between the quantum dots was monitored by the direct measurement of the photon diffusion length, according to the diffusion theory. We observed that the photon migration length decreases by increasing the quantum dot concentration, this kind of behavior has been regarded as a signature of Förster resonance energy transfer in the system.

  1. [Effect of high magnesium ion concentration on the electron transport rate and proton exchange in thylakoid membranes in higher plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'ev, A R; Khorobrykh, S A; Ivanov, B N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport in isolated pea thylakoids were investigated in the pH range from 4.0 up to 8.0. In the absence of magnesium ions in the medium and in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 in the experiments not only without added artificial acceptors but also with ferricyanide or methylviologen as an acceptor, this rate had a well-expressed maximum at pH 5.0. It was shown that, after depression to minimal values at pH 5.5-6.5, it gradually rose with increasing pH. An increase in magnesium ion concentration up to 20 mM essentially affected the electron transfer rate: it decreased somewhat at pH 4.0-5.0 but increased at higher pH values. At this magnesium ion concentration, the maximum rate was at pH 6.0-6.5 and the minimum, at pH 7.0. Subsequent rise upon increasing pH to 8.0 was expressed more sharply. The influence of high magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport was not observed in the presence of gramicidin D. It was found that without uncoupler, the changes in the electron transfer rate under the influence of magnesium ions correlated to the changes in the first-order rate constant of the proton efflux from thylakoids. It is supposed that the change in the ability of thylakoids to keep protons by the action of magnesium ions is the result of electrostatic interactions of these ions with the charges on the external surface of membranes. A possible role of regulation of the electron transport rate by magnesium ions in vivo is discussed.

  2. Study of CD69 antigen expression and integrity of leukocyte cellular membrane in stored platelet concentrates following irradiation and treatment with Mirasol® PRT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachert, Elżbieta; Woźniak, Jolanta; Antoniewicz-Papis, Jolanta; Krzywdzińska, Agnieszka; Kubis, Jolanta; Mikołowska, Agata; Letowska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Leukocytes in transfused blood components, particularly residual lymphocytes, have been shown to contribute to the occurrence of various adverse reactions. One of the most severe is transfusionassociated graft versus host disease (TA-GvHD) following transfusion of blood components contaminated with immunocompetent T lymphocytes. Irradiation is a routine method for protection against TA-GvHD. According to the literature, some pathogen reduction methods have also been proven effective for the inactivation of T lymphocytes, and so they may be considered as an alternative to irradiation. Comparison of CD69 antigen expression and the integrity of the leukocyte cellular membrane in stored platelet concentrates (PCs) following irradiation with the Gammacell 3000 Elan (Nordion Inc., Ottawa, Canada) and treatment with the Mirasol® Pathogen Reduction Technology (PRT) System (Terumo BCT, Lakewood, USA). The study included seven experiments. For each experiment we used 3 PCs, for Mirasol® PRT System treatment (M), for Gammacell 3000 Elan irradiation (R), and for the control (C). 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD, Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, USA) permeability was used to determine lymphocyte viability while CD69 antigen expression was the marker of lymphocyte activation. Analyses of 7-AAD and CD69 antigen expression were performed in a FACS Canto I flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson, USA). During 6 storage days, viable lymphocyte count decreased to 28% (p = 0.001) in the Mirasol® PRT System treated PCs and to 65% (p = 0.004) in the irradiated PCs. A statistically significant increase in CD69 expression in the irradiated PCs was observed; 1.3-fold on day 3 and 1.5-fold on day 6. In the Mirasol ® PRT System treated PCs, no statistically significant increase was observed. The in vitro results suggest that the Mirasol® PRT System is as effective as irradiation due to donor leukocyte inactivation capacity.

  3. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle; Lise Brantsaeter, Anne; Borch-Iohnsen, Berit; Ellingsen, Dag G.; Alexander, Jan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Stigum, Hein; Ydersbond, Trond A.

    2010-01-01

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin 2 for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110≤Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  4. Selection for Cd Pollution-Safe Cultivars of Chinese Kale (Brassica alboglabra L. H. Bailey) and Biochemical Mechanisms of the Cultivar-Dependent Cd Accumulation Involving in Cd Subcellular Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-Jie; Tan, Xiao; Fu, Hui-Ling; Chen, Jing-Xin; Lin, Xiao-Xia; Ma, Yuan; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2018-02-28

    Two pot experiments were conducted to compare and verify Cd accumulation capacities of different cultivars under Cd exposures (0.215, 0.543, and 0.925 mg kg -1 in Exp-1 and 0.143, 0.619, and 1.407 mg kg -1 in Exp-2) and Cd subcellular distributions between low- and high-Cd cultivars. Shoot Cd concentrations between the selected low- and high-Cd cultivars were 1.4-fold different and the results were reproducible. The proportions of Cd-in-cell-wall of shoots and roots were all higher in a typical low-Cd cultivar (DX102) than in a typical high-Cd cultivar (HJK), while those of Cd-in-chloroplast or Cd-in-trophoplast and Cd-in-membrane-and-organelle were opposite. The proportions of Cd-in-vacuoles-and-cytoplasm of roots in DX102 were always higher than in HJK under Cd stresses, while there was no clear pattern in those of shoots. These findings may help to reduce health risk of Cd from Chinese kale consumption and explained biochemical mechanisms of cultivar-dependent Cd accumulation among the species.

  5. Different thresholds of T cell activation regulate FIV infection of CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Garg, Himanshu; Tompkins, Mary B.; Tompkins, Wayne A.

    2005-01-01

    Cellular activation plays an important role in retroviral replication. Previously, we have shown that CD4 + CD25 + T cells by the virtue of their partially activated phenotype represent ideal candidates for a productive feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. In the present study, we extended our previous observations with regard to FIV replication in CD4 + CD25 + and CD4 + CD25 - cells under different stimulation conditions. Both CD4 + CD25 + and CD4 + CD25 - cells remain latently infected in the absence of IL-2 or concanvalinA (ConA), respectively; harboring a replication competent provirus capable of reactivation several days post-infection. While CD4 + CD25 + cells require low levels of exogenous IL-2 and virus inputs for an efficient FIV replication, CD4 + CD25 - T cells can only be productively infected in the presence of either high concentrations of IL-2 or high virus titers, even in the absence of mitogenic stimulation. Interestingly, while high virus input activates CD4 + CD25 - cells to replicate FIV, it induces apoptosis in a high percentage of CD4 + CD25 + T cells. High IL-2 concentrations but not high virus inputs lead to surface upregulation of CD25 and significant cellular proliferation in CD4 + CD25 - cells. These results suggest that CD4 + CD25 + and CD4 + CD25 - T cells have different activation requirements which can be modulated by both viral and cytokine stimuli to reach threshold activation levels in order to harbor a productive FIV infection. This holds implications in vivo for CD4 + CD25 + and CD4 + CD25 - cells to serve as potential reservoirs of a productive and latent FIV infection

  6. Changes in the Concentration of Heavy Metals (Cr, Cd, Ni During the Vermicomposting Process of Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra Zigmontienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge treatment and utilization is an important issue for a biodegradable waste management strategy. Heavy metals in sewage sludge complicate its use. Vermicomposting is one of the ways to improve the characteristics of sewage sludge and to reduce the residual concentrations of heavy metals. Study on changes in the concentration of heavy metals (Chromium, Nickel and Cadmium, when vermicomposting sewage sludge, was performed using Californian earthworms (Eisenia fetida. For that purpose, 60 kg of sewage sludge from Vilnius Waste Water Treatment Plant were taken thus inserting 1.5 kg of Californian earthworms into it. Optimal conditions for work (optimum temperature, moisture, pH for earthworms to survive were maintained in the course of the study that lasted 120 days and was conducted in June – August. The samples of sewage sludge and earthworms were taken every 10 days. The concentrations of heavy metals in sewage sludge were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  7. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krznaric, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Wevers, Jan H.L.; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V.

    2009-01-01

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  8. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krznaric, Erik [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Verbruggen, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP242, Bd du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wevers, Jan H.L. [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Carleer, Robert [Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Colpaert, Jan V., E-mail: jan.colpaert@uhasselt.b [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2009-05-15

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  9. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Leonardo Nieto, Gastón; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-09-30

    Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Nieto, Gastón Leonardo; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. ► Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. ► Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  11. Intrinsic carrier concentrations in long wavelength HgCdTe based on the new, nonlinear temperature dependence of Eg(x,T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, D.G.; Lowney, J.R.; Littler, C.L.; Yoon, I.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on intrinsic carrier concentrations of narrow-gap Hg 1-x Cd x Te alloys (0.17 ≤ x ≤ 0.30) calculated as a function of temperature between 0 and 300 K by using the new nonlinear temperature dependence of the energy gap obtained previously by two-photon magneto-absorption measurements for samples with 0.24 ≤ x ≤ 0.26. We report here experimental values for E g (x,T) for samples with x = 0.20 and 0.23 obtained by one-photon magneto-absorption measurements. These data confirm the validity of the new E g (x,T) relationship for these x values. In this range of composition and temperature, the energy gap of mercury cadmium telluride is small, and very accurate values are needed for the gap to obtain reliable values of the intrinsic carrier density

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin induces HIV expression in CD4 T cells from patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy at concentrations achieved by clinical dosing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsen George Wei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Persistent latent reservoir of replication-competent proviruses in memory CD4 T cells is a major obstacle to curing HIV infection. Pharmacological activation of HIV expression in latently infected cells is being explored as one of the strategies to deplete the latent HIV reservoir. In this study, we characterized the ability of romidepsin (RMD, a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphomas, to activate the expression of latent HIV. In an in vitro T-cell model of HIV latency, RMD was the most potent inducer of HIV (EC50 = 4.5 nM compared with vorinostat (VOR; EC50 = 3,950 nM and other histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors in clinical development including panobinostat (PNB; EC50 = 10 nM. The HIV induction potencies of RMD, VOR, and PNB paralleled their inhibitory activities against multiple human HDAC isoenzymes. In both resting and memory CD4 T cells isolated from HIV-infected patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, a 4-hour exposure to 40 nM RMD induced a mean 6-fold increase in intracellular HIV RNA levels, whereas a 24-hour treatment with 1 µM VOR resulted in 2- to 3-fold increases. RMD-induced intracellular HIV RNA expression persisted for 48 hours and correlated with sustained inhibition of cell-associated HDAC activity. By comparison, the induction of HIV RNA by VOR and PNB was transient and diminished after 24 hours. RMD also increased levels of extracellular HIV RNA and virions from both memory and resting CD4 T-cell cultures. The activation of HIV expression was observed at RMD concentrations below the drug plasma levels achieved by doses used in patients treated for T-cell lymphomas. In conclusion, RMD induces HIV expression ex vivo at concentrations that can be achieved clinically, indicating that the drug may reactivate latent HIV in patients on suppressive cART.

  13. Broader tropism and higher cytopathicity for CD4+ T cells of a syncytium-inducing compared to a non-syncytium-inducing HIV-1 isolate as a mechanism for accelerated CD4+ T cell decline in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouchier, R. A.; Meyaard, L.; Brouwer, M.; Hovenkamp, E.; Schuitemaker, H.

    1996-01-01

    The emergence of syncytium-inducing (SI) HIV-1 isolates in infected individuals precedes an accelerated CD4+ T cell decline and is associated with high virus load and rapid disease progression. The exact mechanism by which SI HIV-1 variants may cause this enhanced clinical progression is unknown.

  14. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Maria Julieta [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen, E-mail: jrodriguez@com.uncor.edu [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Nieto, Gaston Leonardo; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  15. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Concentration and Uptake of Macro Nutrients by Corn in a Cd-contaminated Calcareous Soil under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahrzad karami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd are found naturally in soils, but their amount can be changed by human activities. The study of the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals by plants is done in order to prevent their threats on human and animal’s health.Cadmium is a toxic element for living organisms. Cadmium competes with many of nutrients to be absorbed by the plant and interferes with their biological roles. Water stress affects the cell structure and the food is diverted from its normal metabolic pathway. It also reduces the availability and uptake of nutrients by the plant. One reason for the reduction of plant growth under drought stress is the accumulation of ethylene in plants. There are ways to mitigate the negative effects of drought stress that one of which is the use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria(PGPRs to increasing the availability of nutrients. Soil beneficial bacteria play an important role in the biological cycles and have been used to increase plant health and soil fertility over the past few decades.The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of PGPRson the concentration and uptake of macro nutrients by corn in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil under drought stress. Materials and Methods: A greenhouse factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were two levels of bacteria (with and without bacteria, four levels of Cd (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1, and three levels of drought stress (without stress, 80, and 65% of field capacity. The pots were filled with 3 kg of treated soil. Cd was treated as its sulfate salt in amounts of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1. The soil was mixed uniformly with 150 mg N kg-1 as urea, 20 mg P kg-1 as Ca (H2PO42, 5 mg Fe kg-1 as Fe-EDDHA and 10, 10 and 2.5 mg Zn, Mn and Cu kg-1, respectively as their sulfate salt in order to meet plant needs for these nutrients. Six seeds of Zea mays (var. HIDO were planted at

  16. Assessment of heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and micronutrients (Cu, Mn, and Zn) of paddy (Oryza sativa L.) field surface soil and water in a predominantly paddy-cultivated area at Puducherry (Pondicherry, India), and effects of the agricultural runoff on the elemental concentrations of a receiving rivulet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Vikram; Satpathy, Deepmala; Dhiviya, K Shyamala

    2013-08-01

    The concentrations of toxic heavy metals-Cd and Pb and micronutrients-Cu, Mn, and Zn were assessed in the surface soil and water of three different stages of paddy (Oryza sativa L.) fields, the stage I-the first stage in the field soon after transplantation of the paddy seedlings, holding adequate amount of water on soil surface, stage II-the middle stage with paddy plants of stem of about 40 cm length, with sufficient amount of water on the soil surface, and stage III-the final stage with fully grown rice plants and very little amount of water in the field at Bahour, a predominantly paddy cultivating area in Puducherry located on the southeast Coast of India. Comparison of the heavy metal and micronutrient concentrations of the soil and water across the three stages of paddy field showed their concentrations were significantly higher in soil compared with that of water (p soil. The elemental concentrations in paddy soil as well as water was in the ranking order of Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb indicating concentration of Cd was maximum and Pb was minimum. The elemental concentrations in both soil and water across the three stages showed a ranking order of stage II > stage III > stage I. The runoff from the paddy fields has affected the elemental concentrations of the water and sediment of an adjacent receiving rivulet.

  17. Gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations are higher in urban forests than adjacent open areas during summer but not in winter – Exploratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Tervo, Peatta; Setälä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    While the potential of plants to uptake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widely acknowledged, empirical evidence of the effects of this process on local atmospheric PAH concentrations and human health is tenuous. We measured gaseous PAH concentrations using passive samplers in urban tree-covered areas and adjacent open, treeless areas in a near-road environment in Finland to gain information on the ability of urban vegetation to improve air quality. The ability of urban, mostly deciduous, vegetation to affect PAHs was season dependent: during summer, concentrations were significantly higher in tree-covered areas, while in the fall, concentrations in open areas exceeded those in tree-covered areas. During winter, concentrations in tree-covered areas were either lower or did not differ from those in open areas. Results of this study imply that the commonly believed notion that trees unequivocally improve air quality does not apply to PAHs studied here. - Highlights: • Urban tree-cover increases gaseous PAH concentrations during summertime. • Elevated PAH concentrations do not clearly correspond with vegetation properties. • Tree-cover attenuates seasonal PAH concentration fluctuation. - Higher ambient gaseous PAH concentrations were detected within urban tree cover as compared to open areas during summertime.

  18. Higher Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Associate with a Faster Recovery of Skeletal Muscle Strength after Muscular Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindell K. Weaver

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to identify if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations predict muscular weakness after intense exercise. We hypothesized that pre-exercise serum 25(OHD concentrations inversely predict exercise-induced muscular weakness. Fourteen recreationally active adults participated in this study. Each subject had one leg randomly assigned as a control. The other leg performed an intense exercise protocol. Single-leg peak isometric force and blood 25(OHD, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin-4 were measured prior to and following intense exercise. Following exercise, serum 25(OHD concentrations increased (p < 0.05 immediately, but within minutes, subsequently decreased (p < 0.05. Circulating albumin increases predicted (p < 0.005 serum 25(OHD increases, while IFN-γ increases predicted (p < 0.001 serum 25(OHD decreases. Muscular weakness persisted within the exercise leg (p < 0.05 and compared to the control leg (p < 0.05 after the exercise protocol. Serum 25(OHD concentrations inversely predicted (p < 0.05 muscular weakness (i.e., control leg vs. exercise leg peak isometric force immediately and days (i.e., 48-h and 72-h after exercise, suggesting the attenuation of exercise-induced muscular weakness with increasing serum 25(OHD prior to exercise. Based on these data, we conclude that pre-exercise serum 25(OHD concentrations could influence the recovery of skeletal muscle strength after an acute bout of intense exercise.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy of iodine-doped CdTe and (CdMg)Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.; Waag, A.; Litz, Th.; Scholl, S.; Schmitt, M.; Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Bilger, G. (Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie und Wasserstofforschung, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1994-08-01

    The n-type doping of CdTe and (CdMg)Te by the use of the solid dopant source material ZnI[sub 2] is reported. Doping levels as high as 7x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] have been obtained in CdTe with carrier mobilities around 500 cm[sup 2]/V[center dot]s at room temperature. For a dopant incorporation higher than 1x10[sup 19] cm[sup -3] the free carrier concentration decreases, indicating the onset of a compensation mechanism, which is observed in the case of chlorine and bromine doping, too. Preliminary experiments show that with increasing Mg concentration the free carrier concentration decreases. Nevertheless, CdMgTe with a magnesium concentration x=0.37 (band gap 2.2 eV at room temperature) can be doped up to 2x10[sup 17] cm[sup -3]. The existence of deep donor levels in this CdTe based ternary is not supposed to be the only reason for the reduction of the free carrier concentration. For high Mg support during molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of wide gap (CdMg)Te layers, the ZnI[sub 2] incorporation is reduced, leading to low doping levels, too

  20. Optical studies of CdSe/PVA nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Kamal Kumar; Ramrakhaini, Meera

    2018-05-01

    The nanocomposite films of CdSe nanocrystals in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix were synthesized by environmental friendly chemical method. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction which indicates the hexagonal crystalline structure of CdSe with crystal size up to a few nm. The crystal size is found to decrease by increasing PVA Concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of these composite films with varying concentration of PVA as well as Cd2+ content have been investigated. The PL peak of CdSe was observed at 510 nm and higher intensity is observed by increasing PVA concentration without any change in position of PL peak. Due to proper passivation of surface states non-radiative transition are reduced which enhance the PL intensity. By increasing concentration of Cd2+ content in the CdSe/PVA nanocomposite films, smaller CdSe nanocrystals were obtained giving higher intensity and blue shift in the PL peak due to enhanced oscillator strength and quantum confinement effect. The PL peak in green and blue region makes these composite films promising materials for optical display devices. The Refractive index of these composites was also measured at sodium line with the help of Abee's refractometer and was found in the range of 2.20-2.45. It is seen that refractive index varies with polymer concentration. This may be useful for their potential application in anti-reflection coating, display devices and optical sensors.

  1. CD147-mediated chemotaxis of CD4+CD161+ T cells may contribute to local inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Minghua; Miao, Jinlin; Zhao, Peng; Luo, Xing; Han, Qing; Wu, Zhenbiao; Zhang, Kui; Zhu, Ping

    2018-01-01

    CD161 is used as a surrogate marker for Th17 cells, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we evaluated the percentage, clinical significance, and CD98 and CD147 expression of CD4 + CD161 + T cells. The potential role of CD147 and CD98 in cyclophilin A-induced chemotaxis of CD4 + CD161 + T cells was analyzed. Thirty-seven RA patients, 15 paired synovial fluid (SF) of RA, and 22 healthy controls were recruited. The cell populations and surface expression of CD98 and CD147 were analyzed by flow cytometry. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression were applied to calculate the correlations. Chemotaxis assay was used to investigate CD4 + CD161 + T cell migration. We found that the percentage of CD4 + CD161 + T cells and their expression of CD147 and CD98 in SF were higher than in the peripheral blood of RA patients. Percentage of SF CD4 + CD161 + T cells was positively correlated with 28-Joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). CD147 monoclonal antibody (HAb18) attenuated the chemotactic ability of CD4 + CD161 + T cells. An increased CD4 + CD161 + T cell percentage and expression of CD147 and CD98 were shown in RA SF. Percentage of SF CD4 + CD161 + T cells can be used as a predictive marker of disease activity in RA. CD147 block significantly decreased the chemotactic index of CD4 + CD161 + cells induced by cyclophilin A (CypA). These results imply that the accumulation of CD4 + CD161 + T cells in SF and their high expression of CD147 may be associated with CypA-mediated chemotaxis and contribute to local inflammation in RA.

  2. Biodegradation testing of chemicals with high Henry’s constants – separating mass and effective concentration reveals higher rate constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Comber, Mike

    Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relative to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Water phase biodegradation rate constants, kwater, were up to 72 times higher than test system...

  3. The enhancement by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of the Cd remediation ability and bioenergy quality-related factors of five switchgrass cultivars in Cd-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the growth, P and Cd concentrations and bioenergy quality-related factors of five cultivars of switchgrass, including three lowland cultivars (Alamo (Ala, Kanlow (Kan, Performer (Per and two highland cultivars (Blackwell (Bw, Summer (Sum, with 0, 1 and 10 mg/kg Cd addition levels. The results showed that AMF inoculation notably increased the biomass and P concentrations of all the cultivars. The Cd concentrations in the roots were higher than those in the shoots of all cultivars irrespective of inoculation, but the AMF had different effects on Cd accumulation in highland and lowland cultivars. AMF inoculation decreased the shoot and root concentrations in Ala and Kan, increased the shoot and root concentrations of Cd in Bw and Sum, and increased shoot Cd concentrations and decreased root Cd concentrations in Per. The highest Cd concentrations were detected in the roots of Bw and in the shoots of Sum with AMF symbiosis. Bw contained the highest total extracted Cd which was primarily in the roots. Ala had the second highest extracted Cd in the shoots, reaching 32% with 1 mg/kg of added Cd, whereas Sum had the lowest extracted Cd. AMF symbiosis had varied effects on bioenergy quality-related factors: for example, AMF decreased the ash lignin content in Ala and the C/N in Sum, increased the nitrogen, gross calorie values, and maintained the hemicellulose and cellulose contents in all cultivars with all tested concentrations of Cd. A principal component analysis (PCA showed that AMF inoculation could enhance, weaken or transform (positive-negative, PC1-PC2 the correlations of these factors with the principle components under Cd stress. Therefore, AMF symbiosis enhanced the growth of different cultivars of switchgrass, increased/decreased Cd accumulation, promoted Cd extraction, and regulated the bioenergy quality-related factors in Cd

  4. Lipopolysaccharide modulation of a CD14-like molecule on porcine alveolar macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielian, T. L.; Ross, C. R.; McVey, D. S.; Chapes, S. K.; Blecha, F.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation antigen 14 (CD14) functions as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) LPS-binding protein (LBP) complexes. Because LPS has varying effects on CD14 expression in vitro, we evaluated CD14 expression in response to LPS with a fully differentiated macrophage phenotype, the alveolar macrophage. By using flow microfluorometric analysis and a radioimmunoassay with an anti-human CD14 monoclonal antibody (My4) that cross-reacts with porcine CD14, we found that macrophages stimulated with LPS for 24 h exhibited a two- to fivefold increase in CD14-like antigen compared with unstimulated cells. At low concentrations of LPS, up-regulation of the CD14-like antigen was dependent on serum; at higher concentrations of LPS, serum was not required. In the absence of serum a 10-fold higher dose of LPS (10 ng/ml) was required to increase CD14-like expression. In addition, LPS-induced CD14-like up-regulation correlated with secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, regardless of serum concentration. Blockade with My4 antibody significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion at 1 ng/ml of LPS. However, inhibition decreased as we increased the LPS concentration, suggesting the existence of CD14-independent pathways of macrophage activation in response to LPS. Alternatively, My4 may have a lower affinity for the porcine CD14 antigen than LPS, which may have only partially blocked the LPS-LBP binding site at high concentrations of LPS. Therefore, these data suggest that LPS activation of porcine alveolar macrophages for 24 h increased CD14-like receptor expression. The degree of CD14-like up-regulation was related to LPS concentration, however, activation did not require the presence of serum at high concentrations of LPS.

  5. Higher blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentrations correlate with lower olfactory scores in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Rios, Eileen; Pellegrino, Kathryn M; Jiang, Wendy; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Zheng, Wei

    2008-05-01

    Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), a neurotoxin, may be an environmental risk factor for essential tremor (ET). Harmane and related chemicals are toxic to the cerebellum. Whether it is through this mechanism (cerebellar toxicity) that harmane leads to ET is unknown. Impaired olfaction may be a feature of cerebellar disease. To determine whether blood harmane concentrations correlate with olfactory test scores in patients with ET. Blood harmane concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Odor identification testing was performed with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). In 83 ET cases, higher log blood harmane concentration was correlated with lower UPSIT score (rho=-0.46, p<0.001). 25/40 (62.5%) cases with high log blood harmane concentration (based on a median split) had low UPSIT scores (based on a median split) vs. 12/43 (27.9%) ET cases with low log blood harmane concentration (adjusted odd ratios (OR) 4.04, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.42-11.50, p=0.009). When compared with the low log blood harmane tertile, the odds of olfactory dysfunction were 2.64 times higher in cases in the middle tertile and 10.95 times higher in cases in the high tertile. In 69 control subjects, higher log blood harmane concentration was not correlated with lower UPSIT score (rho=0.12, p=0.32). Blood harmane concentrations were correlated with UPSIT scores in ET cases but not controls. These analyses set the stage for postmortem studies to further explore the role of harmane as a cerebellar toxin in ET.

  6. Dissolved and labile concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho: Comparisons among chemical equilibrium models and implications for biotic ligand models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Blank, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate thermodynamic speciation calculations inherent in biotic ligand models, the speciation of dissolved Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in aquatic systems influenced by historical mining activities is examined using equilibrium computer models and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Several metal/organic-matter complexation models, including WHAM VI, NICA-Donnan, and Stockholm Humic model (SHM), are used in combination with inorganic speciation models to calculate the thermodynamic speciation of dissolved metals and concentrations of metal associated with biotic ligands (e.g., fish gills). Maximum dynamic metal concentrations, determined from total dissolved metal concentrations and thermodynamic speciation calculations, are compared with labile metal concentrations measured by DGT to assess which metal/organic-matter complexation model best describes metal speciation and, thereby, biotic ligand speciation, in the studied systems. Results indicate that the choice of model that defines metal/organic-matter interactions does not affect calculated concentrations of Cd and Zn associated with biotic ligands for geochemical conditions in the study area, whereas concentrations of Cu and Pb associated with biotic ligands depend on whether the speciation calculations use WHAM VI, NICA-Donnan, or SHM. Agreement between labile metal concentrations and dynamic metal concentrations occurs when WHAM VI is used to calculate Cu speciation and SHM is used to calculate Pb speciation. Additional work in systems that contain wide ranges in concentrations of multiple metals should incorporate analytical speciation methods, such as DGT, to constrain the speciation component of biotic ligand models. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. CD3+CD4negCD8neg (double negative) T lymphocytes and NKT cells as the main cytotoxic-related-CD107a+ cells in lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Raquel; Cunha, Clarissa F; Pimentel, Maria Inês F; Lyra, Marcelo R; Pereira-Da-Silva, Tatiana; Schubach, Armando O; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Bertho, Alvaro Luiz

    2017-05-03

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which infects dermal macrophages and dendritic cells, causing an intense immune-mediated-tissue inflammation and a skin ulcer with elevated borders that can heal spontaneously or after antimonial therapy. The resolution of lesions depends on an adaptive immune response, and cytotoxic cells seem to have a fundamental role in this process. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of cytotoxicity mediated mechanisms that occur during the immune response in the CL lesion milieu, considering distinct cytotoxic-related CD107a + cells, such as CD8 + , CD4 + , CD4 neg CD8 neg (double-negative, DN) and CD4 + CD8 + (double-positive, DP) T lymphocytes, as well as NK and NKT cells. Lesion derived cells were assessed for T cell subpopulations and NK cells, as well as CD107a expression by flow cytometry. In addition, cytometric bead array (CBA) was used to quantify cytokines and granzyme B concentrations in supernatants from macerated lesions. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that NKT cells are the major CD107a-expressing cell population committed to cytotoxicity in CL lesion, although we also observed high frequencies of CD4 + and DN T cells expressing CD107a. Analysing the pool of CD107a + -cell populations, we found a higher distribution of DN T cells (44%), followed by approximately 25% of NKT cells. Interestingly, NK and CD8 + T cells represented only 3 and 4% of the total-CD107a + -cell pool, respectively. The cytotoxicity activity that occurs in the lesion milieu of CL patients seems to be dominated by DN T and NKT cells. These findings suggest the need for a reevaluation of the role of classical-cytotoxic NK and CD8 + T cells in the pathogenesis of CL, implicating an important role for other T cell subpopulations.

  8. [Auxin synthesis by the higher fungus Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing in the presence of low concentrations of indole compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivileva, O M; Loshchinina, E A; Makarov, O E; Nikitina, V E

    2012-01-01

    The auxin formation in a submerged culture of the xylotrophic basidiomycete Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) (shiitake) is studied. Biologically active substances of an indole nature are identified, "the effect of small doses" of which lies in not only the stimulation of growth of the mycelium (indole-3-acetic acid, 2 x 10(-7)-2 x 10(-4) g/l), but also in the induction of tryptophan-independent paths of auxin biosynthesis. The above-mentioned path is realized in the presence of exogenous indole (1 x 10(-3)-1 x 10(-4) g/l), as well as while inducing the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by its microadditives (1 x 10(-5)-1 x 10(-8) g/l), and is accompanied by the formation of anthranilic acid (up to 1.5 mg/l). Induction of the generative development stage ofshiitake by indole derivatives is revealed. It was found that among the studied compounds only indoleacetamide at a concentration of an order of x 10(-4) g/l in the culture fluid of L. edodes had a pronounced stimulatory effect on the formation of shiitake's brown mycelial film.

  9. Delayed allogeneic skin graft rejection in CD26-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangli; Zhang, Kai; Daniel, Peter; Wisbrun, Natali; Fuchs, Hendrik; Fan, Hua

    2018-03-23

    Organ transplantation is an effective therapeutic tool for treating many terminal diseases. However, one of the biggest challenges of transplantation is determining how to achieve the long-term survival of the allogeneic or xenogeneic transplant by, for example, preventing transplant rejection. In the current study, CD26 gene-knockout mice were used to investigate the potential role of CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPPIV) in allogeneic skin graft rejection by tail-skin transplantation. Compared with wild-type (CD26 +/+ ) counterparts, CD26 -/- mice showed reduced necrosis of grafts and delayed graft rejection after skin transplantation. Concentrations of serum IgG, including its subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a, were significantly reduced in CD26 -/- mice during graft rejection. Moreover, after allogeneic skin transplantation, the secretion levels of the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-13 were significantly reduced, whereas the level of the cytokine IL-10 was increased in the serum of CD26 -/- mice compared with that in the serum of CD26 +/+ mice. Additionally, the concentration of IL-17 in serum and the percentage of cells secreting IL-17 in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (MPBLs) were both significantly lower, while the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was significantly higher in MPBLs of CD26 -/- mice than in those of CD26 +/+ mice. Furthermore, a lower percentage of CD8 + T cells in MPBLs and fewer infiltrated macrophages and T cells in graft tissues of CD26 -/- mice were detected during graft rejection. These results indicate that CD26 is involved in allogeneic skin graft rejection and provides another hint that CD26 deficiency leads to less rejection due to lower activation and proliferation of host immune cells.

  10. Expression differences for genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism in response to cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mortel, Judith E.; Schat, Henk; Moerland, Perry D.; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; van der Ent, Sjoerd; Blankestijn, Hetty; Ghandilyan, Artak; Tsiatsiani, Styliani; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread, naturally occurring element present in soil, rock, water, plants and animals. Cd is a non-essential element for plants and is toxic at higher concentrations. Transcript profiles of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Thlaspi caerulescens plants exposed to Cd

  11. In ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies depletes CD4+CD25+ T cells in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    The CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have T regulatory cell properties in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies (0.5 mg/egg) on CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion and on amounts of interleukin-2 mRNA and interferon-γ mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells posthatch. Anti-chicken CD25 or PBS (control) was injected into 16-d-old embryos. Chicks hatched from eggs injected with anti-chicken CD25 antibodies had a lower CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood until 25 d posthatch. The anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection nearly depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the blood until 16 d posthatch. At 30 d posthatch, the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the anti-CD25-antibody-injected group was comparable with the percentage in the control group. At 16 d posthatch, the anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils. Chickens hatched from anti-CD25-antibody-injected eggs had approximately 25% of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the cecal tonsils and thymus compared with those in the cecal tonsils and thymus of the control group. The CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of chicks hatched from anti-chicken-CD25-injected eggs had higher amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 mRNA than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the control group. It could be concluded that injecting anti-chicken CD25 antibodies in ovo at 16 d of incubation nearly depleted the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells until 25 d posthatch.

  12. Women Administered Standard Dose Imatinib for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Have Higher Dose-Adjusted Plasma Imatinib and Norimatinib Concentrations Than Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsey, Sarah L; Ireland, Robin; Lang, Kathryn; Kizilors, Aytug; Ho, Aloysius; Mufti, Ghulam J; Bisquera, Alessandra; De Lavallade, Hugues; Flanagan, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    The standard dose of imatinib for the treatment of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is 400 mg·d. A predose plasma imatinib concentration of >1 mg·L is associated with improved clinical response. This study aimed to assess the plasma imatinib and norimatinib concentrations attained in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia administered standard doses of imatinib adjusted for dose, age, sex, body weight, and response. We evaluated data from a cohort of patients treated between 2008 and 2014 with respect to dose, age, sex, body weight, and response. The study comprised 438 samples from 93 patients (54 male, 39 female). The median imatinib dose was 400 mg·d in men and in women. The plasma imatinib concentration ranged 0.1-5.0 mg·L and was below 1 mg·L in 20% and 16% of samples from men and women, respectively. The mean dose normalized plasma imatinib and norimatinib concentrations were significantly higher in women in comparison with men. This was partially related to body weight. Mixed effects ordinal logistic regression showed no evidence of an association between sex and plasma imatinib (P = 0.13). However, there was evidence of an association between sex and plasma norimatinib, with higher norimatinib concentrations more likely in women than in men (P = 0.02). Imatinib therapeutic drug monitoring only provides information on dosage adequacy and on short-term adherence; longer-term adherence cannot be assessed. However, this analysis revealed that approximately 1 in 5 samples had a plasma imatinib concentration <1 mg·L, which was suggestive of inadequate dosage and/or poor adherence and posed a risk of treatment failure. Higher imatinib exposure in women may be a factor in the increased rate of long-term, stable, deep molecular response (undetectable breakpoint cluster-Abelson (BCR-ABL) transcript levels with a PCR sensitivity of 4.5 log, MR4.5) reported in women.

  13. Cadmium accumulation, gill Cd binding, acclimation, and physiological effects during long term sublethal Cd exposure in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, L.; McGeer, J.C.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, on 3% of body weight daily ration, were exposed to 0 (control), 3, and 10 μg l -1 Cd (as Cd(NO 3 ) 2 · 4H 2 O) in moderately hard (140 mg l -1 as CaCO 3 ), alkaline (95 mg l -1 as CaCO 3 , pH 8.0) water for 30 days. Particular attention focused on acclimation, and on whether a gill surface binding model, originally developed in dilute softwater, could be applied in this water quality to fish chronically exposed to Cd. Only the higher Cd concentration caused mortality (30%, in the first few days). The costs of acclimation, if any, in our study were subtle since no significant effects of chronic Cd exposure were seen in growth rate, swimming performance (stamina and U Crit ), routine O 2 consumption, or whole body ion levels. Substantial acclimation occurred in both exposure groups, manifested as 11- to 13-fold increases in 96-h LC 50 values. In water quality regulations, which are based on toxicity tests with non-acclimated fish only, this remarkable protective effect of acclimation is not taken into account. Cd accumulated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion to 60-120x (gills), 8-20x (liver), 2-7x (carcass), and 5-12x (whole bodies) control levels by 30 days. Chronically accumulated gill Cd could not be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) challenge. These gill Cd concentrations were 20- to 40-fold greater than levels predicted by the gill-binding model to cause mortality during acute exposure. In short-term gill Cd-binding experiments (up to 70 μg l -1 exposures for 3 h), gill Cd burden increased as predicted in control fish, but was not detectable against the high background concentrations in acclimated fish. In light of these results, Cd uptake/turnover tests were performed using radioactive 109 Cd to improve sensitivity. With this approach, a small saturable binding component was seen, but could not be related to toxic response in acclimated fish. Acclimated trout internalized less 109 Cd than control fish, but

  14. High salinity helps the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum in defense against Cd toxicity by maintaining redox balance and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Gunsè, Benet; Llugany, Mercè; Corrales, Isabel; Abdelly, Chedly; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2016-08-01

    NaCl alleviates Cd toxicity in Sesvium portulacastrum by maintaining plant water status and redox balance, protecting chloroplasts structure and inducing some potential Cd (2+) chelators as GSH and proline. It has been demonstrated that NaCl alleviates Cd-induced growth inhibition in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. However, the processes that mediate this effect are still unclear. In this work we combined physiological, biochemical and ultrastructural studies to highlight the effects of salt on the redox balance and photosynthesis in Cd-stressed plants. Seedlings were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 25 and 50 µM Cd) combined with low (0.09 mM) (LS), or high (200 mM) NaCl (HS) in hydroponic culture. Plant-water relations, photosynthesis rate, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, chloroplast ultrastructure, and proline and glutathione concentrations were analyzed after 1 month of treatment. In addition, the endogenous levels of stress-related hormones were determined in plants subjected to 25 µM Cd combined with both NaCl concentrations. In plants with low salt supply (LS), Cd reduced growth, induced plant dehydration, disrupted chloroplast structure and functioning, decreased net CO2 assimilation rate (A) and transpiration rate (E), inhibited the maximum potential quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the quantum yield efficiency (Φ PSII) of PSII, and enhanced the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). The addition of 200 mM NaCl (HS) to the Cd-containing medium culture significantly mitigated Cd phytotoxicity. Hence, even at similar internal Cd concentrations, HS-Cd plants were less affected by Cd than LS-Cd ones. Hence, 200 mM NaCl significantly alleviates Cd-induced toxicity symptoms, growth inhibition, and photosynthesis disturbances. The cell ultrastructure was better preserved in HS-Cd plants but affected in LS-Cd plants. The HS-Cd plants showed also higher concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), proline and jasmonic acid (JA

  15. Downregulation of CD44 reduces doxorubicin resistance of CD44+CD24- breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc PV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pham Van Phuc, Phan Lu Chinh Nhan, Truong Hai Nhung, Nguyen Thanh Tam, Nguyen Minh Hoang, Vuong Gia Tue, Duong Thanh Thuy, Phan Kim NgocLaboratory of Stem Cell Research and Application, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh, VietnamBackground: Cells within breast cancer stem cell populations have been confirmed to have a CD44+CD24- phenotype. Strong expression of CD44 plays a critical role in numerous types of human cancers. CD44 is involved in cell differentiation, adhesion, and metastasis of cancer cells.Methods: In this study, we reduced CD44 expression in CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells and investigated their sensitivity to an antitumor drug. The CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells were isolated from breast tumors; CD44 expression was downregulated with siRNAs followed by treatment with different concentrations of the antitumor drug.Results: The proliferation of CD44 downregulated CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells was decreased after drug treatment. We noticed treated cells were more sensitive to doxorubicin, even at low doses, compared with the control groups.Conclusions: It would appear that expression of CD44 is integral among the CD44+CD24- cell population. Reducing the expression level of CD44, combined with doxorubicin treatment, yields promising results for eradicating breast cancer stem cells in vitro. This study opens a new direction in treating breast cancer through gene therapy in conjunction with chemotherapy.Keywords: antitumor drugs, breast cancer stem cells, CD44, CD44+CD24- cells, doxorubicin

  16. A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ding, Ning; Tucker, Katherine L; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration. Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations. Methods: These longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence. Short-term lead exposures were measured as blood lead concentrations by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dietary pattern scores were derived by using factor analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were utilized to predict blood lead concentrations among 983 men, aged 44-92 y at baseline, with a total of 3273 observations (during 1987-2008). We constructed linear regression models to determine the relations between dietary patterns and bone lead concentrations among 649 participants with an age range of 49-93 y. Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruit, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and seafood; and a Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy products, French fries, butter, and eggs. After adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass index, total energy intake, education, occupation, neighborhood-based education and income level, men in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score (compared with the lowest) had 0.91 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.41, 1.42 μg/dL) higher blood lead, 5.96 μg/g (95% CI: 1.76, 10.16 μg/g) higher patella lead, and 3.83 μg/g (95% CI: 0.97, 6.70 μg/g) higher tibia lead. No significant association was detected with the prudent dietary pattern in the adjusted model. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Western diet is associated with

  17. Determination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se concentrations by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in different Brazilian regional diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, D.I.T.; Maihara, V.A.; Armelin, M.J.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Cozzolino, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Radiochemical separation procedures developed for the determination of seven elements: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se in different Brazilian regional diets are described. In the case of the elements As, Hg, Sb and Se, the procedure was based on retention in inorganic exchanger TFO (tin dioxide) and determination of Hg by extraction with Ni(DDC) 2 . For determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Se the procedure chosen was based on retention in inorganic exchanger HMD (hydrated manganese dioxide) and extraction of Cu and Cd as diethyldithiocarbamate compounds. The accuracy and precision of the methods studied were tested by means of analyses of different reference materials-Due to the lack of data on trace element levels in Brazilian foodstuffs and diets, these methods were applied to determination of these elements in different Brazilian regional diets. These s were supplied by the Food and Experimental Nutrition Department of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Sao Paulo. The daily intake values for these diets are presented for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se. (author) 21 refs.; 6 tabs

  18. A lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation is associated with excess body weight and higher HOMA-IR in the presence of lower concentrations of plasma folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Badiga, Suguna; Alvarez, Ronald D; Partridge, Edward E; Johanning, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    Identification of associations between global DNA methylation and excess body weight (EBW) and related diseases and their modifying factors are an unmet research need that may lead to decreasing DNA methylation-associated disease risks in humans. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the following; 1) Association between the degree of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) L1 methylation and folate, and indicators of EBW, 2) Association between the degree of PBMC L1 methylation and folate, and insulin resistance (IR) as indicated by a higher homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The study population consisted of 470 child-bearing age women diagnosed with abnormal pap. The degree of PBMC L1 methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing. Logistic regression models specified indicators of EBW (body mass index-BMI, body fat-BF and waist circumference-WC) or HOMA-IR as dependent variables and the degree of PBMC L1 methylation and circulating concentrations of folate as the independent predictor of primary interest. Women with a lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation and lower plasma folate concentrations were significantly more likely to have higher BMI, % BF or WC (OR = 2.49, 95% CI:1.41-4.47, P = 0.002; OR = 2.49, 95% CI:1.40-4.51, P = 0.002 and OR = 1.98, 95% = 1.14-3.48 P = 0.0145, respectively) and higher HOMA-IR (OR = 1.78, 95% CI:1.02-3.13, P = 0.041). Our results demonstrated that a lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation is associated with excess body weight and higher HOMA-IR, especially in the presence of lower concentrations of plasma folate.

  19. Cadmium speciation and accumulation in periphyton in a small stream with dynamic concentration variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradac, Philippe [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Wagner, Bettina; Kistler, David; Traber, Jacqueline; Behra, Renata [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Sigg, Laura, E-mail: laura.sigg@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Accumulation of cadmium in periphyton was investigated under field conditions while Cd concentration and speciation were dynamically varying in a small stream during rain events. Speciation in water was determined in situ by diffusion gradient in thin-films (DGT) and by modeling of complexation with fulvic acids. During the rain events, dissolved Cd concentrations increased from 0.17 nM to 0.27-0.36 nM, and 70-97% were DGT-labile. Cd content in periphyton closely followed Cd concentrations in water, despite higher concentrations of Zn and Mn, and may be controlled by either free or DGT-labile Cd concentrations. Decrease of Cd content in periphyton after the rain events was slower than the decrease of Cd concentration in water. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Fe in periphyton also followed the dynamic variations of metal concentrations in water. Repeated exposure of periphyton to elevated dissolved Cd may lead to Cd accumulation. - Cadmium accumulation in periphyton was examined in a small stream during rain events in relation to Cd speciation.

  20. Cadmium speciation and accumulation in periphyton in a small stream with dynamic concentration variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradac, Philippe; Wagner, Bettina; Kistler, David; Traber, Jacqueline; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of cadmium in periphyton was investigated under field conditions while Cd concentration and speciation were dynamically varying in a small stream during rain events. Speciation in water was determined in situ by diffusion gradient in thin-films (DGT) and by modeling of complexation with fulvic acids. During the rain events, dissolved Cd concentrations increased from 0.17 nM to 0.27-0.36 nM, and 70-97% were DGT-labile. Cd content in periphyton closely followed Cd concentrations in water, despite higher concentrations of Zn and Mn, and may be controlled by either free or DGT-labile Cd concentrations. Decrease of Cd content in periphyton after the rain events was slower than the decrease of Cd concentration in water. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Fe in periphyton also followed the dynamic variations of metal concentrations in water. Repeated exposure of periphyton to elevated dissolved Cd may lead to Cd accumulation. - Cadmium accumulation in periphyton was examined in a small stream during rain events in relation to Cd speciation.

  1. [The expression and significance of CD(276) and CD(133) in colorectal cancer and precancerous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G F; Huang, L N; Ren, J L; Hu, G M; Zheng, Z H; Wu, J X; Zhu, Y P; Tang, F A

    2018-06-01

    In order to study the significance of CD(276) and CD(133) in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), the expression of CD(276) and CD(133) was detected by immunohistochemistry in CRC and precancerous lesions. The results showed that the intensity of CD(276) and CD(133) in CRC samples was higher than that in adenoma group and non-adenoma group. CD(276) and CD(133) single and double positive expression were significantly correlated with CRC lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and survival. CD(276) and CD(133) are significantly correlated to the development and progression of CRC and associated with poor prognosis.

  2. Higher concentrations of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in soil induced rice chlorosis due to inhibited active iron transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jie; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Yan, Xiaomin; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of concentrations 0, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg kg"−"1 of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on germination, seedlings growth, physiology and toxicity mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that nZVI had no effect on germination, but inhibited the rice seedlings growth in higher concentrations (>500 mg kg"−"1 nZVI). The highest suppression rate of the length of roots and shoots reached 46.9% and 57.5%, respectively. The 1000mg kg"−"1 nZVI caused the highest suppression rates for chlorophyll and carotenoids, at 91.6% and 85.2%, respectively. In addition, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by the translocation of nanoparticles and changes in active iron content. Visible symptoms of iron deficiency were observed at higher concentrations, at which the active iron content decreased 61.02% in the shoots, but the active iron content not decreased in roots. Interestingly, the total and available amounts of iron in the soil were not less than those in the control. Therefore, the plants iron deficiency was not caused by (i) deficiency of available iron in the soil and (ii) restraint of the absorption that plant takes in the available iron, while induced by (ⅲ) the transport of active iron from the root to the shoot was blocked. The cortex tissues were seriously damaged by nZVI which was transported from soil to the root, these were proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This current study shows that the mechanism of iron deficiency in rice seedling was due to transport of active iron from the root to the shoot blocked, which was caused by the uptake of nZVI. - Highlights: • Higher concentrations of nZVI induced iron deficiency in rice seedlings visibly. • nZVI was taken in rice seedlings and transported form root to shoot. • The pathway of active iron transport from root to shoot was inhibited. • The cortex tissues

  3. Mixed microalgae consortia growth under higher concentration of CO2 from unfiltered coal fired flue gas: Fatty acid profiling and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Manzoor, Maleeha; Jabeen, Faiza; Iqbal, Munawar; Uz Zaman, Qamar; Schenk, Peer M; Asif Tahir, M

    2018-02-01

    Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from oleaginous microalgae feedstock. Biodiesel fuel properties were studied and compared with biodiesel standards. Qualitative analysis of FAME was done while cultivating mixed microalgae consortia under three concentrations of coal fired flue gas (1%, 3.0% and 5.5% CO 2 ). Under 1% CO 2 concentration (flue gas), the FAME content was 280.3 μg/mL, whereas the lipid content was 14.03 μg/mL/D (day). Both FAMEs and lipid contents were low at other CO 2 concentrations (3.0 and 5.5%). However, mixed consortia in the presence of phosphate buffer and flue gas (PB + FG) showed higher saturated fatty acids (SFA) (36.28%) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (63.72%) versus 5.5% CO 2 concentration, which might be responsible for oxidative stability of biodiesel. Subsequently, higher cetane number (52) and low iodine value (136.3 gI 2 /100 g) biodiesel produced from mixed consortia (PB + FG) under 5.5% CO 2 along with 50 mM phosphate buffer were found in accordance with European (EN 14214) standard. Results revealed that phosphate buffer significantly enhanced the biodiesel quality, but reduced the FAME yield. This study intended to develop an integrated approach for significant improvement in biodiesel quality under surplus phosphorus by utilizing waste flue gas (as CO 2 source) using microalgae. The CO 2 sequestration from industrial flue gas not only reduced greenhouse gases, but may also ensure the sustainable and eco-benign production of biodiesel. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. High levels of CD8-positive lymphocytes expressing CD45R0, granzyme B, and Ki-67 in lymph nodes of HIV-infected individuals are not associated with increased mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, C; Pakkenberg, B; Harder, Eva

    2001-01-01

    -seropositive patients and seven HIV-negative patients. Eleven of the HIV-positive patients died within 78 months of biopsy time and 10 patients were alive on July 1, 1998. Double immunohistochemical staining procedures were developed to identify CD8(+) cells expressing CD45R0, granzyme B, and Ki-67. A stereological...... method was used to count the different cell types in the lymph nodes. There were no significant differences in the total cell (nucleated) and CD3(+) cell concentrations between the three groups. However, there were significantly higher concentrations of CD3(+)CD8(+), CD8(+)CD45R0(+), and CD8(+)Ki-67...... of biopsy time, were among the patients with the lowest concentrations of CD8(+)granzyme B(+) and CD8(+)Ki-67(+) lymphocytes. This finding allowed us to conclude that CD8(+) lymphocytes expressing high levels of CD45R0, granzyme B, and Ki-67 in lymph nodes of HIV patients are not related to increased...

  5. Detoxification and sensing mechanisms are of similar importance for Cd resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sarah A; Dölling, Ramona; Knopf, Burkhard; Mendelski, Martha N; Schäfers, Christoph; Paul, Rüdiger J

    2016-10-01

    The present study employed mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure the internal cadmium concentrations (Cd int ) in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine Cd uptake from a Cd-containing environment as well as Cd release under Cd-free conditions. To analyze the functional role of several ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters (e.g., HMT-1 and MRP-1) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS), we compared wild-type (WT) and different mutant strains of C. elegans . As a pre-test on selected mutant strains, several time-resolved experiments were performed to determine the survival rate and avoidance behavior of C. elegans under Cd stress, which confirmed the already known Cd sensitivity of the deletion mutants mrp-1 Δ, pcs-1 Δ, and hmt-1 Δ. In addition, these experiments revealed flight reactions under Cd stress to be almost completely absent in mrp-1 Δ mutants. The ICP-MS studies showed Cd uptake to be significantly higher in mrp-1 Δ and WT than in hmt-1 Δ. As Cd is ingested with food, food refusal due to very early Cd stress and its perception was likely the reason for the reduced Cd uptake of hmt-1 Δ. Cd release (detoxification) was found to be maximal in mrp-1 Δ, minimal in hmt-1 Δ, and intermediate in WT. High mortality under Cd stress, food refusal, and minimal Cd release in the case of hmt-1 Δ suggest a vital importance of the HMT-1/PCS-1 detoxification system for the survival of C. elegans under Cd stress. High mortality under Cd stress, absence of an avoidance behavior, missing food refusal, and maximal Cd release in the case of mrp-1 Δ indicate that MRP-1 is less important for Cd detoxification under severe stress, but is probably important for Cd perception. Accordingly, our results suggest that the survival of WT under Cd stress (or possibly other forms of metal stress) primarily depends on the function of the HMT-1/PCS-1 detoxification system and the presence of a sensing mechanism to control the uptake of Cd (or other metals), which keeps internal Cd (or

  6. DNA microarray revealed and RNAi plants confirmed key genes conferring low Cd accumulation in barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanism of low Cd accumulation in crops is crucial for sustainable safe food production in Cd-contaminated soils. Results Confocal microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence analyses revealed a distinct difference in Cd...... with a substantial difference between the two genotypes. Cd stress led to higher expression of genes involved in transport, carbohydrate metabolism and signal transduction in the low-grain-Cd-accumulating genotype. Novel transporter genes such as zinc transporter genes were identified as being associated with low Cd...... accumulation. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed our microarray data. Furthermore, suppression of the zinc transporter genes HvZIP3 and HvZIP8 by RNAi silencing showed increased Cd accumulation and reduced Zn and Mn concentrations in barley grains. Thus, HvZIP3 and HvZIP8 could be candidate genes related to low...

  7. Effect of fertilizer type on cadmium and fluorine concentrations in clover herbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated whether changing phosphatic fertilizer type affects the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and fluorine (F) in pasture herbage. North Carolina phosphate rock and partially acidulated fertilizers derived from this rock generally have higher Cd and F concentrations compared to single superphosphate currently manufactured in Australia. Clover herbage from sites of the National Reactive Phosphate Rock (RPR) trial was collected and analysed for concentrations of Cd (11 sites) and F (4 sites). A comparison was made between pastures fertilized with 4 rates of single superphosphate, North Carolina phosphate rock, and partially acidulated phosphate rock having Cd concentrations of 283, 481, and 420 mg Cd/kg P respectively, and 170, 271, and 274 g F/kg P respectively. One site used Hemrawein (Egypt) phosphate rock (HRP) having a Cd and F concentration of 78 mg Cd/kg P and 256 g F/kg P respectively. To help identify differences in herbage Cd concentrations between sites, unfertilised soils from each site were analyzed for total and extractable Cd contents. At one site Cd concentrations in bulk herbage (clover, grasses and weeds) were related to infestation of the pasture by capeweed (Arctotheca calendula L. Levyns). There were no significant differences between F in herbage from plots fertilized with single superphosphate, partially acidulated phosphate rock or North Carolina phosphate rock, or between sites. Concentrations of F in herbage were low, generally less than 10 mg F /kg. However, there were large differences in Cd concentrations in herbage between sites, while differences between fertilizer treatments were small in comparison. The site differences were only weakly related to total or extractable (0.01 mol/L CaCl 2 ) Cd concentrations in soil. Significant differences in Cd concentrations in clover due to fertilizer type were found at 5 sites. North Carolina phosphate rock treatments had significantly higher Cd concentrations in clover compared to

  8. Influence of CdCl{sub 2} activation treatment on ultra-thin Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S/CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, A.J., E-mail: a.clayton@glyndwr.ac.uk [Centre for Solar Energy Research, Glyndŵr University, OpTIC, St. Asaph LL17 0JD (United Kingdom); Baker, M.A.; Babar, S. [Faculty of Engineering & Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Gibson, P.N. [Institute for Health & Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra, VA (Italy); Irvine, S.J.C.; Kartopu, G.; Lamb, D.A.; Barrioz, V. [Centre for Solar Energy Research, Glyndŵr University, OpTIC, St. Asaph LL17 0JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-thin CdTe photovoltaic solar cells with an absorber thickness of 0.5 μm were produced by metal organic chemical vapour deposition onto indium tin oxide coated boroaluminosilicate glass. A wide band gap Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S alloy window layer was employed to improve spectral response in the blue region of the solar spectrum. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to monitor changes in the chemical composition and microstructure of the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S/CdTe solar cell after varying the post-deposition CdCl{sub 2} activation treatment time and annealing temperature. The CdCl{sub 2} treatment leached Zn from the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S layer causing a redshift in the spectral response onset of window absorption. S diffusion occurred across the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S/CdTe interface, which was more pronounced as the CdCl{sub 2} treatment was increased. A CdTe{sub 1−y}S{sub y} alloy was formed at the interface, which thickened with CdCl{sub 2} treatment time. Small concentrations of S (up to 2 at.%) were observed throughout the CdTe layer as the degree of CdCl{sub 2} treatment was increased. Greater S diffusion across the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S/CdTe interface caused the device open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) to increase. The higher V{sub oc} is attributed to enhanced strain relaxation and associated reduction of defects in the interface region as well as the increase in CdTe grain size. - Highlights: • Increased CdCl{sub 2} activation treatment resulted in loss of Zn from Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S. • Sulphur diffusion into CdTe was enhanced with greater CdCl{sub 2} activation treatment. • Improvement to V{sub oc} correlated with increased sulphur diffusion into CdTe.

  9. Superior integrin activating capacity and higher adhesion to fibrinogen matrix in buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates (PCs) compared to PRP-PCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkar, Pezhman; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat; Ghasemzadeh, Mehran

    2018-02-01

    Regardless of different sources, methods or devices which are applied for preparation of therapeutic platelets, these products are generally isolated from whole blood by the sedimentation techniques which are based on PRP or buffy coat (BC) separation. As a general fact, platelet preparation and storage are also associated with some deleterious changes that known as platelet storage lesion (PSL). Although these alternations in platelet functional activity are aggravated during storage, whether technical issues within preparation can affect integrin activation and platelet adhesion to fibrinogen were investigated in this study. PRP- and BC-platelet concentrates (PCs) were subjected to flowcytometry analysis to examine the expression of platelet activation marker, P-selectin as well as active confirmation of the GPIIb/IIIa (α IIb β 3 ) on day 0, 1, 3 and 5 post-storage. Platelet adhesion to fibrinogen matrix was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Glucose concentration and LDH activity were also measured by colorimetric methods. The increasing P-selectin expression during storage was in a reverse correlation with PAC-1 binding (r = -0.67; p = .001). PRP-PCs showed the higher level of P-selectin expression than BC-PCs, whereas the levels of PAC-1 binding and platelet adhesion to fibrinogen matrix were significantly lower in PRP-PCs. Higher levels of active confirmation of the GPIIb/IIIa in BC-PCs were also associated with greater concentration of glucose in these products. We demonstrated the superior capacities of integrin activation and adhesion to fibrinogen for BC-PCs compared to those of PRP-PCs. These findings may provide more advantages for BC method of platelet preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biochemical and photochemical feedbacks of acute Cd toxicity in Juncus acutus seedlings: The role of non-functional Cd-chlorophylls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, D.; Duarte, B.; Caçador, I.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing metal pollution in salt marshes and its influence on the plants that inhabit these ecosystems, has become a major concern with serious implications on the species establishment. Juncus acutus is a highly common halophyte specie in Portuguese marshes. Seeds from his specie were exposed to a range of different Cd concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 μM) in order to evaluate the effects of acute Cd stress on seed germination and growth as well as on seedling pigment composition, photosynthetic apparatus and oxidative stress biomarkers. Seedling length was higher than in control in every Cd treatment, however biomass showed a decrease. It was also observed that increasing Cd treatments, lead to a proportional increase in the Cd tissue concentration. Also the Cd-substituted chlorophylls showed an increase with increasing Cd doses that were applied. This substitution results in a non-functional chlorophyll molecule, highly unstable under moderate light intensities which inevitably reduces the efficiency of the LHC II. As consequence, there was a decrease in the use-efficiency of the harvested energy, leading to a decay in the photosynthetic capacity and energy accumulation, which was dissipated as heat. As for the antioxidant enzymes, SOD and APX presented higher activity, responding to increasing cadmium concentrations. Thus, becomes evident that Cd affects negatively, both biochemically and photochemically, the establishment by seed process of J. acutus highlighting the potential of the use of this specie seed as potential sentinel and ecotoxicity test in extreme conditions.

  11. Hg, Pb and Cd in zooplankton from an area of the Adriatic opposite the Romagna coast line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisetig, G; Cattani, O; Massa, D; Poletti, R

    1982-09-15

    The concentrations of heavy metals Hg, Pb and Cd found in zooplankton samples collected in two stations off Cesenatico (Northern Adriatic Sea) from March 1978 to January 1979, have been reported. The Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations showed large variations which did not seem to be correlated with taxonomic composition. The detected levels of metals were higher at the offshore than the nearshore station, accordingly with the sediment pattern. The high concentration of Hg were apparently associated with sources of local industrial pollution.

  12. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Concentration and Uptake of Macro Nutrients by Corn in a Cd-contaminated Calcareous Soil under Drought Stress

    OpenAIRE

    shahrzad karami; mehdi zarei; jafar yasrebi; najafali karimian; s.Ali Akbar Moosavi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) are found naturally in soils, but their amount can be changed by human activities. The study of the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals by plants is done in order to prevent their threats on human and animal’s health.Cadmium is a toxic element for living organisms. Cadmium competes with many of nutrients to be absorbed by the plant and interferes with their biological roles. Water stress affects the cell structure and the food is diverted fr...

  13. Concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, soluble CD14 and plasma lipids in relation to endotoxaemia in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, C.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Schütt, C.

    2002-01-01

    of endotoxin on its target cells (LPS-binding protein and sCD14) were increased. Endotoxin antagonists, such as bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and high-density lipoprotein, were increased in the pre-cirrhotic stages, whereas a significant reduction of the latter was observed in cirrhosis. Low......-density lipoprotein remained unchanged. The elevation of binding factors in the pre-cirrhotic stages of alcoholic liver disease might attenuate the effects of endotoxaemia, whereas in cirrhosis the reduction of high density lipoprotein, to which large quantities of endotoxin bind, may contribute to its pro...

  14. Detoxification and sensing mechanisms are of similar importance for Cd resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Winter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to measure the internal cadmium concentrations (Cdint in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine Cd uptake from a Cd-containing environment as well as Cd release under Cd-free conditions. To analyze the functional role of several ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters (e.g., HMT-1 and MRP-1 and phytochelatin synthase (PCS, we compared wild-type (WT and different mutant strains of C. elegans. As a pre-test on selected mutant strains, several time-resolved experiments were performed to determine the survival rate and avoidance behavior of C. elegans under Cd stress, which confirmed the already known Cd sensitivity of the deletion mutants mrp-1Δ, pcs-1Δ, and hmt-1Δ. In addition, these experiments revealed flight reactions under Cd stress to be almost completely absent in mrp-1Δ mutants. The ICP-MS studies showed Cd uptake to be significantly higher in mrp-1Δ and WT than in hmt-1Δ. As Cd is ingested with food, food refusal due to very early Cd stress and its perception was likely the reason for the reduced Cd uptake of hmt-1Δ. Cd release (detoxification was found to be maximal in mrp-1Δ, minimal in hmt-1Δ, and intermediate in WT. High mortality under Cd stress, food refusal, and minimal Cd release in the case of hmt-1Δ suggest a vital importance of the HMT-1/PCS-1 detoxification system for the survival of C. elegans under Cd stress. High mortality under Cd stress, absence of an avoidance behavior, missing food refusal, and maximal Cd release in the case of mrp-1Δ indicate that MRP-1 is less important for Cd detoxification under severe stress, but is probably important for Cd perception. Accordingly, our results suggest that the survival of WT under Cd stress (or possibly other forms of metal stress primarily depends on the function of the HMT-1/PCS-1 detoxification system and the presence of a sensing mechanism to control the uptake of Cd (or other metals, which keeps internal Cd (or metal

  15. CD sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Nándor

    2018-01-01

    In this paper I present various equatorial sundial designs that use diffraction on a CD to display time. The designs described in the paper include a transparent CD sundial equipped with a small terrestrial globe. This sundial is compact, pedagogically useful, can be used throughout the year, and provides the user with a wealth of information.

  16. An optimized multilayer structure of CdS layer for CdTe solar cells application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Junfeng; Liao Cheng; Jiang Tao; Spanheimer, C.; Haindl, G.; Fu, Ganhua; Krishnakumar, V.; Zhao Kui; Klein, A.; Jaegermann, W.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two different methods to prepare CdS films for CdTe solar cells. → A new multilayer structure of window layer for the CdTe solar cell. → Thinner CdS window layer for the solar cell than the standard CdS layer. → Higher performance of solar cells based on the new multilayer structure. - Abstract: CdS layers grown by 'dry' (close space sublimation) and 'wet' (chemical bath deposition) methods are deposited and analyzed. CdS prepared with close space sublimation (CSS) has better crystal quality, electrical and optical properties than that prepared with chemical bath deposition (CBD). The performance of CdTe solar cell based on the CSS CdS layer has higher efficiency than that based on CBD CdS layer. However, the CSS CdS suffers from the pinholes. And consequently it is necessary to prepare a 150 nm thin film for CdTe/CdS solar cell. To improve the performance of CdS/CdTe solar cells, a thin multilayer structure of CdS layer (∼80 nm) is applied, which is composed of a bottom layer (CSS CdS) and a top layer (CBD CdS). That bi-layer film can allow more photons to pass through it and significantly improve the short circuit current of the CdS/CdTe solar cells.

  17. The growth of hydroxyapatite on alkaline treated Ti-6Al-4V soaking in higher temperature with concentrated Ca2+/HPO42- simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, F.-H.; Hsu, Y.-S.; Lin, S.-H.; Chen, T.-M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, calcium and phosphorous ions in the simulated body fluid (SBF) was be increased to increase the rate of precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HA). The soaking temperature in concentrated calcium and phosphorous ion-SBF (CP-SBF) was increased to reduce the nucleation energy of the HA, which lead to an early precipitation to shorten the treatment process. When the metallic substrates treated with 10 M NaOH aqueous solution and subsequently heated at 600 deg. C, a thin sodium titanium oxide layer was formed on the surfaces as the linking layer for HA and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. After Ti-6Al-4V alloys treated with alkali solution, it would soak into a simulated body fluid with higher concentration of calcium and phosphorous ions (CP-SBF) to increase the possibility of nucleation of HA. When Ti-6Al-4V alloys treated with alkali solution, subsequently heated at 600 deg. C, and then soaked into CP-SBF at a temperature of 80 deg. C, it could form a dense and thick (50 μm) bone-like hydroxyapatite layer on the surface. The HA layer was appeared on the surface of the Ti-alloy at the first week soaking, which was greatly shorten the coating process. In the research, the characteristics of the coating layer will be analyzed by the results of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR)

  18. Naturally evolved enhanced Cd tolerance of Dianthus carthusianorum L. is not related to accumulation of thiol peptides and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Dresler, Sławomir; Plak, Andrzej; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum L., metallicolous (M) and nonmetallicolous (NM), were cultivated in hydroponics at 0-50 μM Cd for 14 days to compare their Cd accumulation, sensitivity and tolerance mechanisms. While both ecotypes contained similar concentrations of Cd in the shoots and roots, the M ecotype was more Cd-tolerant (as measured by fresh weight production and root and leaf viability). Both ecotypes accumulated phytochelatins (PCs) in response to Cd with a higher amount thereof found in the NM ecotype. Concentrations of PCs remained unchanged with increasing Cd concentrations in the root tissues, but their content in the shoots increased. The addition of L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) diminished glutathione (GSH) accumulation and arrested PC production, which increased the sensitivity to Cd of the NM, but not M ecotype. Organic acids (malate and citrate) as well as proline accumulation did not change significantly after Cd exposition and was at the same level in both ecotypes. The enhanced Cd tolerance of the M ecotype of D. carthusianorum cannot be explained in terms of restricted Cd uptake and differential production of PCs, organic acids or proline; some other mechanisms must be involved in its adaptation to the high Cd content in the environment.

  19. Cytotoxicity and cellular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of CdS quantum dots in hemocytes and gill cells of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsumiti, A. [CBET Research Group, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology and Research Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology PIE, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Basque Country (Spain); Gilliland, D. [EU Commission–Joint Research Centre, Institute of Health and Consumer Protection, NSB Unit, Ispra (Italy); Arostegui, I. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa (Spain); Cajaraville, M.P., E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es [CBET Research Group, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology and Research Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology PIE, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Basque Country (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    phagocytosis were found in hemocytes exposed to bulk CdS and to CdS QDs at concentrations equal or higher than 1.25 mg Cd/L but not in those exposed to ionic Cd, indicating a particle-specific effect on phagocytosis. In conclusion, cell-mediated immunity and gill cell function represent significant targets for CdS QDs toxicity.

  20. In-situ CdS/CdTe Heterojuntions Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Avila-Avendano, Jesus

    2016-04-09

    In this paper pulsed laser deposition (PLD) methods are used to study p-n CdTe/CdS heterojunctions fabricated in-situ. In-situ film deposition allows higher quality p-n interfaces by minimizing spurious contamination from the atmosphere. Morphologic and structural analyses were carried for CdTe films deposited on various substrates and different deposition conditions. The electrical characteristics and performance of the resulting p-n heterojunctions were studied as function of substrate and post-deposition anneal temperature. In-situ growth results on diodes with a rectification factor of ~ 105, an ideality factor < 2, and a reverse saturation current ~ 10-8 A. The carrier concentration in the CdTe film was in the range of ~ 1015 cm-3, as measured by C-V methods. The possible impact of sulfur diffusion from the CdS into the CdTe film is also investigated using High Resolution Rutherford Back-Scattering.

  1. In-situ CdS/CdTe Heterojuntions Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Avila-Avendano, Jesus; Mejia, Israel; Alshareef, Husam N.; Guo, Zaibing; Young, Chadwin; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper pulsed laser deposition (PLD) methods are used to study p-n CdTe/CdS heterojunctions fabricated in-situ. In-situ film deposition allows higher quality p-n interfaces by minimizing spurious contamination from the atmosphere. Morphologic and structural analyses were carried for CdTe films deposited on various substrates and different deposition conditions. The electrical characteristics and performance of the resulting p-n heterojunctions were studied as function of substrate and post-deposition anneal temperature. In-situ growth results on diodes with a rectification factor of ~ 105, an ideality factor < 2, and a reverse saturation current ~ 10-8 A. The carrier concentration in the CdTe film was in the range of ~ 1015 cm-3, as measured by C-V methods. The possible impact of sulfur diffusion from the CdS into the CdTe film is also investigated using High Resolution Rutherford Back-Scattering.

  2. Different Levels in Orexin Concentrations and Risk Factors Associated with Higher Orexin Levels: Comparison between Detoxified Opiate and Methamphetamine Addicts in 5 Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to explore the degree of orexin levels in Chinese opiate and methamphetamine addicts and the differences between them. The cross-sectional study was conducted among detoxified drug addicts from Mandatory Detoxification Center (MDC in five Chinese cities. Orexin levels were assayed with radioimmunoassay (RIA. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to detect differences across groups, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between orexin levels and characteristics of demographic and drug abuse. Between November 2009 and January 2011, 285 opiates addicts, 112 methamphetamine addicts, and 79 healthy controls were enrolled. At drug withdrawal period, both opiate and methamphetamine addicts had lower median orexin levels than controls, and median orexin levels in opiate addicts were higher than those in methamphetamine addicts (all above P<0.05. Adjusted odds of the above median concentration of orexin were higher for injection than “chasing the dragon” (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2–7.9. No significant factors associated with orexin levels of methamphetamine addicts were found. Development of intervention method on orexin system by different administration routes especially for injected opiate addicts at detoxification phase may be significant and was welcome.

  3. Bromine doping of CdTe and CdMnTe epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, A. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Scholl, S. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Schierstedt, K. von (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Hommel, D. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Bilger, G. (Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    We report on the n-type doping of CdTe and CdMnTe with bormine as a novel dopant material. /the thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. ZnBr[sub 2] was used as a source material for the n-type doping. Free carrier concentrations at room temperature of up to 2.8x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] could be readily obtained for both CdTe as well as CdMnTe thin films with Mn concentrations below 10%. This is to our knowledge the highest value ever obtained for the dilute magnetic semiconductor CdMnTe. For ZnBr[sub 2] source temperatures up to 60 C - corresponding to a free carrier concentration of (2-3)x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] - the free carrier concentration of the epitaxial film increases with ZnBr[sub 2] source temperature. For higher ZnBr[sub 2] source temperatures compensation becomes dominant, which is indicated by a steep decrease of the free carrier concentration with increasing ZnBr[sub 2] source temperature. In addition the carrier mobility decreases drastically for such high dopant fluxes. A model of bromine incorporation is proposed. (orig.)

  4. Enhancement of soluble CD28 levels in the serum of Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongwen; Yi, Lixian; Tao, Hong; Huang, Jingfang; Jin, Zhenghong; Xiao, Yang; Feng, Caiyun; Sun, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland mediated by T cells. CD28, a member of costimulatory molecules, plays a pivotal role in regulating T-cell responses. Plasma-soluble CD28 is one form of CD28 in peripheral blood. To investigate the concentrations of soluble CD28 in patients with Graves' disease, we used a sensitive dual monoclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the soluble form of CD28. Our results suggested that mean concentrations of soluble CD28 in plasma of patients with Graves' disease were 1.79 ±1.52 ng/ml, and levels of soluble CD28 in healthy subjects were only 0.83 ±1.35 ng/ml. Concentrations of soluble CD28 detected in patients with Graves' disease were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (p Graves' disease. Therefore, aberrant elevation of plasma-soluble CD28 in patients with Graves' disease may reflect the dysregulation of immune system, and may serve as a useful biomarker in Graves' disease diagnosis.

  5. The influence of humic substance on Cd accumulation of phytostabilizer Athyrium wardii (Hook.) grown in Cd-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Juan; Li, Tingxuan; Yu, Haiying; Zhang, Xizhou; Zhao, Li

    2016-09-01

    The application of organic amendments into heavy metal contaminated soil is considered as an environmentally friendly technique to promote the potential of phytoremediation. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of humic substances on growth, cadmium (Cd) accumulation and phytostabilization potential of the mining ecotype (ME) and the corresponding non-mining ecotype (NME) of Athyrium wardii (Hook.) grown in Cd-contaminated soils. The addition of the humic substances demonstrated great promotion for the growth and Cd uptake of ME. Both plant biomass and Cd concentration significantly increased with the increasing application of the humic substances up to 100 g kg(-1), beyond which no significant change of underground part biomass and Cd concentrations in underground part of A. wardii was observed. The maximum Cd concentration in underground part of ME was 180 mg kg(-1) when 150 g kg(-1) humic substances were applied. The ME showed greater Cd accumulation capability in underground part (0.47-0.68 mg plant(-1)) than that of NME (0.27-0.45 mg plant(-1)). Increasing bioaccumulation coefficient (BCF) values of A. wardii was observed with increasing application of the humic substances. The BCF values of ME were higher than those of NME. However, the use of the humic substances exhibited little impact on translocation factors (TFs) of ME, and the TF values of ME were less than NME. Furthermore, the application of the humic substances improved the remediation factors (RFs) of A. wardii. The RF values in underground part of ME ranging from 0.73 to 0.91 % were apparently higher than those of NME. These results indicated that the humic substances can be a potential candidate for enhancing the phytostabilization of A. wardii grown in Cd-contaminated soils.

  6. Co-contamination of Cu and Cd in paddy fields: Using periphyton to entrap heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jiali [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); College of Resource and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tang, Cilai [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Hydraulic & Environmental Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Wang, Fengwu [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); School of Civil Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, 808 Shuang Gang East Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330013 (China); Wu, Yonghong, E-mail: yhwu@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Periphyton was capable of simultaneously entrapping Cu and Cd from paddy fields. • Cu and Cd bioavailability decreased with time after exposure to periphyton. • Periodic adsorption–desorption was the main mechanism used to remove Cd and Cu. • Periphyton was able to adapt to steady accumulation of Cu and Cd. • The inclusion of periphyton will help entrap heavy metals in paddy fields. - Abstract: The ubiquitous native periphyton was used to entrap Cu and Cd from paddy fields. Results showed that Cu- and Cd-hydrate species such as CuOH{sup +}, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}{sup 2+}, CdOH{sup +}, and Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2+} decreased with time in the presence of periphyton. When the initial concentrations of Cu and Cd were 10 mg/L, the heavy metal content in the periphyton fluctuated from 145.20 mg/kg to 342.42 mg/kg for Cu and from 101.75 mg/kg to 236.29 mg/kg for Cd after 2 h exposure. The concentration of Cd in periphytic cells varied from 42.93 mg/kg to 174 mg/kg after 2 h. The dominant periphyton microorganism species shifted from photoautotrophs to heterotrophs during the exposure of periphyton to Cu and Cd co-contamination. Although Cu and Cd could inhibit periphyton photosynthesis and carbon utilization, the periphyton was able to adapt to the test conditions. Cu and Cd accumulation in rice markedly decreased in the presence of periphyton while the number of rice seeds germinating was higher in the periphyton treatments. These results suggest that the inclusion of native periphyton in paddy fields provides a promising buffer to minimize the effects of Cu and Cd pollution on rice growth and food safety.

  7. Percentages of CD4+CD161+ and CD4−CD8−CD161+ T Cells in the Synovial Fluid Are Correlated with Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Miao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. CD161 has been identified as a marker of human IL-17-producing T cells that are implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. This study aimed to investigate the potential link between the percentage of CD161+ T cells and disease activity in RA patients. Methods. Peripheral blood (PB from 54 RA patients and 21 healthy controls was evaluated. Paired synovial fluid (SF (n = 17 was analyzed. CD161 expression levels on CD4+, CD8+, and CD4−CD8− T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Results. The percentage of CD4+CD161+ T cells in RA SF was higher than RA PB, and it was positively correlated with DAS28, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein (CRP. CD4−CD8−CD161+ T cell percentage was decreased in RA PB and was further reduced in RA SF, and its level in SF was inversely correlated with DAS28, ESR, and CRP. However, CD8+CD161+ T cell percentage was neither changed in RA PB and SF nor correlated with disease activity indices. Conclusion. An increased CD4+CD161+ T cell percentage and a decreased CD4−CD8−CD161+ T cell percentage are present in RA SF and are associated with disease activity, and the accumulation of CD4+CD161+ T cells in SF may contribute to the local inflammation of RA.

  8. Electrical properties of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Chu, S.S.; Ang, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical properties of n-CdS/p-CdTe heterojunctions depend strongly on the cleanliness of the interface region. In this work, CdTe films were deposited on CdS/glass substrates by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) under various conditions. The dark current-voltage characteristics of the resulting heterojunctions were measured over a wide temperature range, and the capacitance-voltage characteristics were measured in the dark and under illumination. When the CdS surface is in situ cleaned prior to the deposition of the CdTe film, the current transport across the junction is controlled by a thermally activated process. Tunneling makes an important contribution to the interface recombination at temperatures below room temperature when the in situ cleaning of CdS is not used. The dark capacitance of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions prepared with in situ etching is essentially independent of the reverse bias due to intrinsic interface states. Under white light illumination, the 1/C 2 vs V relation is nearly linear. The CdS/CdTe heterojunctions without in situ cleaning showed different 1/C 2 vs V relations due to higher density of interface states. The in situ cleaning also has pronounced effects on the frequency dependence of dark and illuminated capacitances. Using the in situ cleaning technique, solar cells of about 1 cm 2 area have achieved an AM 1.5 (global) efficiency of about 10.5%

  9. LAP TGF-Beta Subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg Cells is Increased and Overexpresses LAP TGF-Beta in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Vazquez, Lorenzo; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Meneses-Flores, Manuel; Galicia-Velasco, Miriam; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Camacho-Mendoza, Catalina; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed histologic type of lung cancer, is associated with smoking. Cigarette smoke promotes inflammation on the airways, which might be mediated by Th17 cells. This inflammatory environment may contribute to tumor development. In contrast, some reports indicate that tumors may induce immunosuppressive Treg cells to dampen immune reactivity, supporting tumor growth and progression. Thus, we aimed to analyze whether chronic inflammation or immunosuppression predominates at the systemic level in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and several cytokines and Th17 and Treg cells were studied. Higher proportions of IL-17-producing CD4+ T-cells were found in smoking control subjects and in lung adenocarcinoma patients compared to nonsmoking control subjects. In addition, lung adenocarcinoma patients increased both plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and proportions of Latency Associated Peptide (LAP) TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells, which overexpressed LAP TGF-β. This knowledge may lead to the development of immunotherapies that could inhibit the suppressor activity mediated by the LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells to promote reactivity of immune cells against lung adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:26582240

  10. LAP TGF-Beta Subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg Cells is Increased and Overexpresses LAP TGF-Beta in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Islas-Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed histologic type of lung cancer, is associated with smoking. Cigarette smoke promotes inflammation on the airways, which might be mediated by Th17 cells. This inflammatory environment may contribute to tumor development. In contrast, some reports indicate that tumors may induce immunosuppressive Treg cells to dampen immune reactivity, supporting tumor growth and progression. Thus, we aimed to analyze whether chronic inflammation or immunosuppression predominates at the systemic level in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and several cytokines and Th17 and Treg cells were studied. Higher proportions of IL-17-producing CD4+ T-cells were found in smoking control subjects and in lung adenocarcinoma patients compared to nonsmoking control subjects. In addition, lung adenocarcinoma patients increased both plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and proportions of Latency Associated Peptide (LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells, which overexpressed LAP TGF-β. This knowledge may lead to the development of immunotherapies that could inhibit the suppressor activity mediated by the LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells to promote reactivity of immune cells against lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  11. Enabling optical metrology on small 5×5μm2 in-cell targets to support flexible sampling and higher order overlay and CD control for advanced logic devices nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Antonio; de la Fuente, Isabel; Hsu, Zack; Tai, Alan; Chang, Hammer; McNamara, Elliott; Cramer, Hugo; Li, Daoping

    2018-03-01

    In next generation Logic devices, overlay control requirements shrink to sub 2.5nm level on-product overlay. Historically on-product overlay has been defined by the overlay capability of after-develop in-scribe targets. However, due to design and dimension, the after development metrology targets are not completely representative for the final overlay of the device. In addition, they are confined to the scribe-lane area, which limits the sampling possibilities. To address these two issues, metrology on structures matching the device structure and which can be sampled with high density across the device is required. Conventional after-etch CDSEM techniques on logic devices present difficulties in discerning the layers of interest, potential destructive charging effects and finally, they are limited by the long measurement times[1] [2] [3] . All together, limit the sampling densities and making CDSEM less attractive for control applications. Optical metrology can overcome most of these limitations. Such measurement, however, does require repetitive structures. This requirement is not fulfilled by logic devices, as the features vary in pitch and CD over the exposure field. The solution is to use small targets, with a maximum pad size of 5x5um2 , which can easily be placed in the logic cell area. These targets share the process and architecture of the device features of interest, but with a modified design that replicates as close as possible the device layout, allowing for in-device metrology for both CD and Overlay. This solution enables measuring closer to the actual product feature location and, not being limited to scribe-lanes, it opens the possibility of higher-density sampling schemes across the field. In summary, these targets become the facilitator of in-device metrology (IDM), that is, enabling the measurements both in-device Overlay and the CD parameters of interest and can deliver accurate, high-throughput, dense and after-etch measurements for Logic

  12. Nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining soil alleviates Cd toxicity and increases Cd-phytoextraction in Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghnaya, Tahar; Mnassri, Majda; Ghabriche, Rim; Wali, Mariem; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-01-01

    Besides their role in nitrogen supply to the host plants as a result of symbiotic N fixation, the association between legumes and Rhizobium could be useful for the rehabilitation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction. A major limitation presents the metal-sensitivity of the bacterial strains. The aim of this work was to explore the usefulness of Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining site for Cd phytoextraction by Medicago sativa. Inoculated and non-inoculated plants were cultivated for 60 d on soils containing 50 and/or 100 mg Cd kg(-1) soil. The inoculation hindered the occurrence of Cd- induced toxicity symptoms that appeared in the shoots of non-inoculated plants. This positive effect of S. meliloti colonization was accompanied by an increase in biomass production and improved nutrient acquisition comparatively to non-inoculated plants. Nodulation enhanced Cd absorption by the roots and Cd translocation to the shoots. The increase of plant biomass concomitantly with the increase of Cd shoot concentration in inoculated plants led to higher potential of Cd-phytoextraction in these plants. In the presence of 50 mg Cd kg(-1) in the soil, the amounts of Cd extracted in the shoots were 58 and 178 μg plant(-1) in non-inoculated and inoculated plants, respectively. This study demonstrates that this association M. sativa-S. meliloti may be an efficient biological system to extract Cd from contaminated soils.

  13. Higher Urinary Heavy Metal, Phthalate, and Arsenic but Not Parabens Concentrations in People with High Blood Pressure, U.S. NHANES, 2011–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Shiue

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Link between environmental chemicals and human health has emerged but not been completely examined in risk factors. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and risk of high blood pressure (BP in a national, population-based study. Data were retrieved from United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011–2012 including demographics, BP readings, and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Analyses included chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment (adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index, urinary cesium (OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11–2.20, P = 0.014, molybden (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.06–2.01, P = 0.023, manganese (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.09–1.86, P = 0.012, lead (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.28–1.96, P < 0.001, tin (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.25–1.66, P < 0.001, antimony (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.10–1.77, P = 0.010, and tungsten (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.25–1.77, P < 0.001 concentrations were observed to be associated with high BP. People with higher urinary mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.00–1.62, P = 0.006, mono-n-butyl phthalate (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.13–1.62, P = 0.002, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.05–1.49, P = 0.014, mono-n-methyl phthalate (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.007, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.009, and monobenzyl phthalate (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.15–1.69, P = 0.002 tended to have high BP as well. However, there are no clear associations between environmental parabens and high BP, nor between pesticides and high BP. In addition, trimethylarsine oxide (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.27–4.81, P = 0.011 and dimethylarsonic acid concentrations (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.12–1.79, P = 0.006 were seen to be associated with high BP. In sum, urinary heavy metal, phthalate, and arsenic concentrations were associated with high BP, although the

  14. Concentración de metales pesados (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb en la biota y sedimentos de una playa artificial, en la bahía San Jorge 23°S, norte de Chile Heavy metals concentration (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, in biota and sediments of an artificial beach, in San Jorge bay 23°S, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Castro

    2012-07-01

    that area. Equidistant stations were located at each beach in which the organisms were extracted, that ranged from the intertidal to the subtidal. Sediment samples were taken at each beach and slopes were determined with the Emery method. The granulometric analysis evidenced the predominance of medium sand in El Lenguado beach, and medium and fine sand in Paraíso beach. The organic matter content was greater in El Lenguado. In Paraíso beach were determined 5 phylum/superclass, grouped in 19 taxa, while in El Lenguado were found 4 phylum/superclass grouped in cc taxa. The metal content in sediments and in the majority of organisms shows higher values in Paraíso beach. This results along with the Chilean and American quality norms suggest an evident deterioration of the environmental quality of Paraíso beach, which is demonstrated by an increase in the concentrations of these metals from its construction, which exceed the established limits by both norms.

  15. Effects of CdCl2 on the growth of CdTe on CdS films for solar cells by isothermal close-spaced vapor transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccaro, P.O.; Meyer, G.O.; Saura, J.

    1991-01-01

    CdS/CdTe solar cells were made by depositing CdTe films by an isothermal close-spaced vapor transport method on sintered CdS/glass substrates. The influence of amounts of CdCl2 ranging from 0 wt% to 8 wt% in the CdTe source on the solar cells performance was studied. Increasing the CdCl2 content enhances the CdTe grainsize but degrades the spectral response and increases the reverse saturation current. An optimal CdCl2 concentration of 1 wt% was found for a growth temperature of 620 deg C. (Author)

  16. Positive association between concentration of phthalate metabolites in urine and microparticles in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Lo, Shyh-Chyi; Chen, Pau-Chung; Torng, Pao-Ling; Hu, Anren; Sung, Fung-Chang; Su, Ta-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been used worldwide in various products for many years. In vitro studies have shown that exposure to DEHP and its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) induces endothelial cell apoptosis. Moreover, exposure to DEHP had been linked to cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in epidemiological studies. Circulating microparticles have been known to be indicators of vascular injury. However, whether DEHP or its metabolites are independently associated with microparticles in humans remains unknown. From 2006 to 2008, we recruited 793 subjects (12-30years) from a population-based sample to participate in this cardiovascular disease prevention examination. Each participant was subjected to interviews and biological sample collection to determine the relationship between concentrations of DEHP metabolites MEHP, mono(ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethly-5-oxoheyl) phthalate in urine and concentrations of endothelial microparticles (CD62E and CD31+/CD42a-), platelet microparticles (CD62P and CD31+/CD42a+), and CD14 in serum. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that an ln-unit increase in MEHP concentration in urine was positively associated with an increase in serum microparticle counts/μL of 0.132 (±0.016) in CD31+/CD42a- (endothelial apoptosis marker), 0.117 (±0.023) in CD31+/CD42a+ (platelet apoptosis marker), and 0.026 (±0.007) in CD14 (monocyte, macrophage, and neutrophil activation marker). There was no association between DEHP metabolite concentration and CD62E or CD62P. In conclusion, a higher MEHP concentration in urine was associated with an increase in endothelial and platelet microparticles in this cohort of adolescents and young adults. Further studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between exposure to DEHP and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A dynamic model for the nitrification of higher concentrated wastewaters and control by experiments; Ein dynamisches Prozessmodell fuer die Nitrifikation hoeher belasteter Abwaesser und praktische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirsing, A. [Siemens AG, Anlagentechnik ANL A73, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wiesmann, U. [Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    Wastewater with high ammonia concentration is produced by many industries. However, the removal of higher loaded industrial effluents still poses many questions. Dynamic modelling is helpful to understand the process of nitrification and to investigate algorithms of process control. Therefore, a dynamic model of nitrification in completely mixed reactors is proposed based on mass balances for the components ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, nitrosomonas and nitrobacter. The biological reaction rates consider oxygen limitation and substrate inhibition. The process model presented it tested by lab scale experiments using an aerated stirred tank reactor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird ein mathematisches Prozessmodell fuer die Nitrifikation von Industrieabwaessern mit hoher Ammoniumkonzentration vorgestellt, das bislang vernachlaessigte Phaenomene wie z.B. Substratueberschusshemmung und Sauerstofflimitierung beruecksichtigt. Als theoretische Grundlage dienen Bilanzgleichungen fuer insgesamt acht Komponenten. Das Simulationsmodell wird durch den Vergleich mit experimentellen Ergebnissen aus einer Laborversuchsanlage auf seine Richtigkeit ueberprueft. In dem Beitrag werden auf diesem Modell basierende Anwendungsbeispiele behandelt. So werden die Moeglichkeiten der dynamischen Prozesssimulation zur Steigerung der Betriebsstabilitaet bei schwankenden Zulaufkonzentrationen und -volumenstroemen gezeigt. Darueber hinaus gelingt die Rekonstruktion der Umsatzraten r(O{sub 2}) und r(NH{sub 3}) aus der Sauerstoff- und Kohlendioxidkonzentration in der Abluft. (orig.)

  18. Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand K.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Wu, Stewart; Chen, Jeffrey; Numata, Kenji; Kawa, Stephan R.; Yang, Mei Ying Melissa; DiGangi, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    Here we report on measurements made with an improved CO2 Sounder lidar during the ASCENDS 2014 and 2016 airborne campaigns. The changes made to the 2011 version of the lidar included incorporating a rapidly wavelength-tunable, step-locked seed laser in the transmitter, using a much more sensitive HgCdTe APD detector and using an analog digitizer with faster readout time in the receiver. We also improved the lidar's calibration approach and the XCO2 retrieval algorithm. The 2014 and 2016 flights were made over several types of topographic surfaces from 3 to 12 km aircraft altitudes in the continental US. The results are compared to the XCO2 values computed from an airborne in situ sensor during spiral-down maneuvers. The 2014 results show significantly better performance and include measurement of horizontal gradients in XCO2 made over the Midwestern US that agree with chemistry transport models. The results from the 2016 airborne lidar retrievals show precisions of ˜ 0.7 parts per million (ppm) with 1 s averaging over desert surfaces, which is an improvement of about 8 times compared to similar measurements made in 2011. Measurements in 2016 were also made over fresh snow surfaces that have lower surface reflectance at the laser wavelengths. The results from both campaigns showed that the mean values of XCO2 retrieved from the lidar consistently agreed with those based on the in situ sensor to within 1 ppm. The improved precision and accuracy demonstrated in the 2014 and 2016 flights should benefit future airborne science campaigns and advance the technique's readiness for a space-based instrument.

  19. Effects of in vivo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibody on regulatory T cell depletion and CD4+CD25- T cell properties in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2012-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are defined as CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in chickens. This study examined the effects of an anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibody injection (0.5 mg/bird) on in vivo depletion of Tregs and the properties of CD4(+)CD25(-) cells in Treg-depleted birds. The CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood was lower at 8 d post injection than at 0 d. Anti-CD25-mediated CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion in blood was maximum at 12 d post injection. The anti-CD25 antibody injection depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the spleen and cecal tonsils, but not in the thymus, at 12 d post antibody injection. CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of birds injected with the anti-chicken CD25 antibody had higher proliferation and higher IL-2 and IFNγ mRNA amounts than the controls at 12 d post injection. At 20 d post injection, CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the blood, spleen and thymus were comparable to that of the 0 d post injection. It could be concluded that anti-chicken CD25 injection temporarily depleted Treg population and increased and IL-2 and IFNγ mRNA amounts in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells at 12d post injection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uptake and translocation of Cd in different rice cultivars and the relation with Cd accumulation in rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianguo; Qian Min; Cai Guoliang; Yang Jianchang; Zhu Qingsen

    2007-01-01

    The variations among six rice cultivars in cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation were investigated with pot soil experiments. The results showed that only a very small portion (0.73%) of Cd absorbed by rice plant was transferred into grain. With regard to plant total Cd uptake, Cd concentrations and quantity accumulations in roots, stems and leaves, the differences among the cultivars (between the largest one and the smallest one) were less than one time. But for Cd concentrations and Cd quantity accumulations in the grains, the differences were more than five and eight times, respectively. With respect to Cd distribution portions in plant organs, the diversities among the cultivars were also small in roots, stems and leaves, but much larger in grains. Grain Cd concentrations correlated positively and significantly (P < 0.01) with Cd quantity accumulations in plant, Cd distribution ratios to aboveground parts, and especially with Cd distribution ratios from aboveground parts to the grain. The results indicated that Cd concentration in rice grain was governed somewhat by plant Cd uptake and the transport of Cd from root to shoot, and in a greater extent, by the transport of Cd from shoot to grain. Cd was not distributed evenly in different products after rice grain processing. The average Cd concentration in cortex (embryo) was five times more than that in chaff and polished rice. With regard to Cd quantity accumulation in the products, near 40% in cortex (embryo), 45% in polished rice and 15% in chaff averagely

  1. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The potential of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum was examined to determine its tolerance and ability to accumulate cadmium for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1.35 mmol l -1 on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of A. macrostachyum by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. We also determined ash, cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc concentrations, and C/N ratio. A. macrostachyum demonstrated hypertolerance to cadmium stress; it did not show phytotoxicity at shoot concentration as high as 70 mg kg -1 . The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) for all Cd treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has higher ability to transfer Cd from roots to shoots at lower Cd concentrations. At 1.35 mmol l -1 Cd A. macrostachyum showed 25% biomass reduction after a month of treatment. Long-term effects of cadmium on the growth were mainly determined by variations in net photosynthetic rate (P N ). Reductions in P N could be accounted by higher dark respiration and lower pigment concentrations. Finally, A. macrostachyum has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator and may be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated sites.

  2. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana, E-mail: susana@us.es [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The potential of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum was examined to determine its tolerance and ability to accumulate cadmium for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1.35 mmol l{sup -1} on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of A. macrostachyum by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. We also determined ash, cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc concentrations, and C/N ratio. A. macrostachyum demonstrated hypertolerance to cadmium stress; it did not show phytotoxicity at shoot concentration as high as 70 mg kg{sup -1}. The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) for all Cd treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has higher ability to transfer Cd from roots to shoots at lower Cd concentrations. At 1.35 mmol l{sup -1} Cd A. macrostachyum showed 25% biomass reduction after a month of treatment. Long-term effects of cadmium on the growth were mainly determined by variations in net photosynthetic rate (P{sub N}). Reductions in P{sub N} could be accounted by higher dark respiration and lower pigment concentrations. Finally, A. macrostachyum has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator and may be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated sites.

  3. Identification of rice cultivar with exclusive characteristic to Cd using a field-polluted soil and its foreground application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jie; Wei, Shuhe; Niu, Rongcheng; Li, Yunmeng; Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Jiangong

    2013-04-01

    Using low-accumulative plant, especially excluder crop, to safely produce food is one of the very important technologies of phytoremediation, which is practical to safe production and long-term remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil. A pot experiment using field cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil (Cd concentration was 0.75 mg kg(-1)) was conducted to compare Cd accumulation differences among 39 normal rice cultivars (Japonica) in Shenyang region of China for food safety and high grain yield aim. The results showed that brown grain Cd concentration in 12 rice cultivars of a total of 39 tested cultivars was lower than 0.2 mg kg(-1) (Agricultural Trade Standard of Nonpollution Food for Rice of China, NY 5115-2008). In these 12 cultivars, Cd enrichment factors (Cd concentration ratio in shoot to that in soil) of nine cultivars were lower than 1. Likewise, Cd translocation factors (Cd concentration ratio in shoot to that in root) of eight cultivars were lower than the 0.28 average. Furthermore, grain yield per pot of seven cultivars were higher than the average 18.4 g pot(-1). Four cultivars, i.e., Shendao 5, Tianfu 1, Fuhe 90, and Yanfeng 47 showed Cd-exclusive characteristic and better foreground application.

  4. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens - a field case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fayuan [Agricultural College, Henan University of Science and Technology, 70 Tianjin Road, Luoyang, Henan Province 471003 (China) and Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China)]. E-mail: wfy1975@163.com; Lin Xiangui [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China); Yin Rui [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction. - Co-application of microbial inocula and chitosan enhanced heavy metal phytoextraction by E. splendens.

  5. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens - a field case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fayuan; Lin Xiangui; Yin Rui

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction. - Co-application of microbial inocula and chitosan enhanced heavy metal phytoextraction by E. splendens

  6. Properties of electrospun CdS and CdSe filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mthethwa, T.P. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); Moloto, M.J., E-mail: mmoloto@uj.ac.za [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); De Vries, A.; Matabola, K.P. [CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, 4 Gomery avenue, Summerstrand, Port Elizabeth 6000 (South Africa)

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: SEM images of CdS/PMMA showing coiling as loading of CdS nanoparticles is increased. Thermal stability is increased with increase in %loading of both CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Research highlights: {yields} TOPO-capped CdS and HDA-capped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized and fully characterized. {yields} The nanoparticles were mixed with the polymer, PMMA using electrospinning technique using 2, 5 and 10% weight loadings. {yields} The mixture was spun to produce fibres with optical and thermal properties showing significant change and also the increase in loading causing bending or spiraling. {yields} Both TEM images for nanoparticles and SEM for fibres shows the morphology and sizes of the particles. -- Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibres incorporating CdS and CdSe quantum dots (nanoparticles). Different nanoparticle loadings (2, 5 and 10 wt% with respect to PMMA) were used and the effect of the quantum dots on the properties of the fibres was studied. The optical properties of the hybrid composite fibres were investigated by photoluminescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometry were also used to investigate the morphology and structure of the fibres. The optical studies showed that the size-tunable optical properties can be achieved in the polymer fibres by addition of quantum dots. SEM images showed that the morphologies of the fibres were dependent on the added amounts of quantum dots. A spiral type of morphology was observed with an increase in the concentration of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Less beaded structures and bigger diameter fibres were obtained at higher quantum dot concentrations. X-ray diffractometry detected the amorphous peaks of the polymer and even after the quantum dots were added and the FTIR analysis shows that there was no considerable interaction between the quantum dots and the

  7. Properties of electrospun CdS and CdSe filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mthethwa, T.P.; Moloto, M.J.; De Vries, A.; Matabola, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SEM images of CdS/PMMA showing coiling as loading of CdS nanoparticles is increased. Thermal stability is increased with increase in %loading of both CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Research highlights: → TOPO-capped CdS and HDA-capped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized and fully characterized. → The nanoparticles were mixed with the polymer, PMMA using electrospinning technique using 2, 5 and 10% weight loadings. → The mixture was spun to produce fibres with optical and thermal properties showing significant change and also the increase in loading causing bending or spiraling. → Both TEM images for nanoparticles and SEM for fibres shows the morphology and sizes of the particles. -- Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibres incorporating CdS and CdSe quantum dots (nanoparticles). Different nanoparticle loadings (2, 5 and 10 wt% with respect to PMMA) were used and the effect of the quantum dots on the properties of the fibres was studied. The optical properties of the hybrid composite fibres were investigated by photoluminescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometry were also used to investigate the morphology and structure of the fibres. The optical studies showed that the size-tunable optical properties can be achieved in the polymer fibres by addition of quantum dots. SEM images showed that the morphologies of the fibres were dependent on the added amounts of quantum dots. A spiral type of morphology was observed with an increase in the concentration of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Less beaded structures and bigger diameter fibres were obtained at higher quantum dot concentrations. X-ray diffractometry detected the amorphous peaks of the polymer and even after the quantum dots were added and the FTIR analysis shows that there was no considerable interaction between the quantum dots and the polymer fibres at low

  8. Cadmium spiked soil modulates root organic acids exudation and ionic contents of two differentially Cd tolerant maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M Tariq; Akram, M Sohail; Tanwir, Kashif; Javed Chaudhary, Hassan; Ali, Qasim; Stoltz, Eva; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Our earlier work described that the roots of two maize cultivars, grown hydroponically, differentially responded to cadmium (Cd) stress by initiating changes in medium pH depending on their Cd tolerance. The current study investigated the root exudation, elemental contents and antioxidant behavior of the same maize cultivars [cv. 3062 (Cd-tolerant) and cv. 31P41 (Cd-sensitive)] under Cd stress. Plants were maintained in a rhizobox-like system carrying soil spiked with Cd concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 μmol/kg soil. The root and shoot Cd contents increased, while Mg, Ca and Fe contents mainly decreased at higher Cd levels, and preferentially in the sensitive cultivar. Interestingly, the K contents increased in roots of cv. 3062 at low Cd treatments. The Cd stress caused acidosis of the maize root exudates predominantly in cv. 3062. The concentration of various organic acids was significantly increased in the root exudates of cv. 3062 with applied Cd levels. This effect was diminished in cv. 31P41 at higher Cd levels. Cd exposure increased the relative membrane permeability, anthocyanin (only in cv. 3062), proline contents and the activities of peroxidases (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The only exception was the catalase activity, which was diminished in both cultivars. Root Cd contents were positively correlated with the secretion of acetic acid, oxalic acid, glutamic acid, citric acid, and succinic acid. The antioxidants like POD and SOD exhibited a positive correlation with the organic acids under Cd stress. It is likly that a high exudation of dicarboxylic organic acids improves nutrient uptake and activities of antioxidants, which enables the tolerant cultivar to acclimatize in Cd polluted environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth of CdTe: Al films; Crecimiento de peliculas de CdTe: Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez A, M.; Zapata T, M. [CICATA-IPN, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Melendez L, M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  10. CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells reduce atherosclerosis in apoE(−/−) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianchang; Dimayuga, Paul C.; Zhao, Xiaoning; Yano, Juliana; Lio, Wai Man; Trinidad, Portia; Honjo, Tomoyuki; Cercek, Bojan; Shah, Prediman K.; Chyu, Kuang-Yuh, E-mail: Chyuk@cshs.org

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •The role of a sub-population of CD8{sup +} T cells with suppressor functions was investigated in atherosclerosis. •CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells from adult apoE(−/−) mice had phenotype characteristics of T suppressor cells. •These CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells reduced CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation and CD8{sup +} cytotoxic activity in vitro. •Adoptive transfer of CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells significantly reduced atherosclerosis. •CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells have a suppressive function in atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Background: It is increasingly evident that CD8{sup +} T cells are involved in atherosclerosis but the specific subtypes have yet to be defined. CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells exert suppressive effects on immune signaling and modulate experimental autoimmune disorders but their role in atherosclerosis remains to be determined. The phenotype and functional role of CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells in experimental atherosclerosis were investigated in this study. Methods and results: CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells were observed in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE(−/−) mice fed hypercholesterolemic diet. Characterization by flow cytometric analysis and functional evaluation using a CFSE-based proliferation assays revealed a suppressive phenotype and function of splenic CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells from apoE(−/−) mice. Depletion of CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} from total CD8{sup +} T cells rendered higher cytolytic activity of the remaining CD8{sup +}CD25{sup −} T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells into apoE(−/−) mice suppressed the proliferation of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and significantly reduced atherosclerosis in recipient mice. Conclusions: Our study has identified an athero-protective role for CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells in experimental atherosclerosis.

  11. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalloh, Mohamed Alpha; Chen Jinghong; Zhen Fanrong; Zhang Guoping

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg -1 soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH 4 + -N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH 4 + -N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO 3 - -N treatment, with urea-N and NH 4 + -N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form

  12. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloh, Mohamed Alpha; Chen, Jinghong; Zhen, Fanrong; Zhang, Guoping

    2009-03-15

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg(-1)soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH(4)(+)-N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO(3)(-)-N and NH(4)(+)-N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH(4)(+)-N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO(3)(-)-N treatment, with urea-N and NH(4)(+)-N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form.

  13. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalloh, Mohamed Alpha; Chen Jinghong; Zhen Fanrong [Department of Agronomy, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhang Guoping [Department of Agronomy, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: zhanggp@zju.edu.cn

    2009-03-15

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg{sup -1} soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N treatment, with urea-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form.

  14. Effects of environmental biomass-producing factors on Cd uptake in two Swedish ecotypes of Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekvall, Lars; Greger, Maria

    2003-03-01

    Cadmium uptake in Scots pine seedlings was mainly regulated by biomass production. - A factorial design was used to study direct effects of external biomass-producing factors such as light, temperature and photoperiod on cadmium (Cd) uptake and indirect effects, via change in biomass production in two ecotypes of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). The aim was to find out if the external factors affect the Cd uptake directly or via change in biomass production, and if the effect differs between ecotypes. Seedlings were grown under 10 combinations of external factors, i.e. temperature (15 and 20 deg. C), light intensity (50 and 200 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), photoperiod (18 h light/8 h darkness and continuous light) and external Cd concentration (totally 1.88 and 7.50 {mu}mol). The treatment lasted for 18 days and Cd concentrations in roots and shoots were determined by AAS. The results showed that an increased biomass production increased the total Cd uptake but had a dilution effect on the Cd concentration, especially in the root tissues. The external factors tested did not have any direct effects on the Cd uptake, only in the case of Cd translocation to the shoot did the higher temperature show a direct increase, but only in the southern ecotype. The two ecotypes reacted differently in Cd uptake and translocation to the external factors studied. The relative Cd uptake increased with increasing photoperiod in the northern but not in the southern ecotype. The southern ecotype decreased the Cd concentration in the shoot with increased light intensity caused by a dilution effect due to extensive shoot growth of this ecotype. The conclusion is that the uptake in pine seedlings is mainly regulated via biomass production, and not directly by light and temperature and that resulting plant Cd contents to a certain extent depend on plant origin.

  15. Effects of environmental biomass-producing factors on Cd uptake in two Swedish ecotypes of Pinus sylvestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekvall, Lars; Greger, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium uptake in Scots pine seedlings was mainly regulated by biomass production. - A factorial design was used to study direct effects of external biomass-producing factors such as light, temperature and photoperiod on cadmium (Cd) uptake and indirect effects, via change in biomass production in two ecotypes of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). The aim was to find out if the external factors affect the Cd uptake directly or via change in biomass production, and if the effect differs between ecotypes. Seedlings were grown under 10 combinations of external factors, i.e. temperature (15 and 20 deg. C), light intensity (50 and 200 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ), photoperiod (18 h light/8 h darkness and continuous light) and external Cd concentration (totally 1.88 and 7.50 μmol). The treatment lasted for 18 days and Cd concentrations in roots and shoots were determined by AAS. The results showed that an increased biomass production increased the total Cd uptake but had a dilution effect on the Cd concentration, especially in the root tissues. The external factors tested did not have any direct effects on the Cd uptake, only in the case of Cd translocation to the shoot did the higher temperature show a direct increase, but only in the southern ecotype. The two ecotypes reacted differently in Cd uptake and translocation to the external factors studied. The relative Cd uptake increased with increasing photoperiod in the northern but not in the southern ecotype. The southern ecotype decreased the Cd concentration in the shoot with increased light intensity caused by a dilution effect due to extensive shoot growth of this ecotype. The conclusion is that the uptake in pine seedlings is mainly regulated via biomass production, and not directly by light and temperature and that resulting plant Cd contents to a certain extent depend on plant origin

  16. The response of metallothionein and malondialdehyde after exclusive and combined Cd/Zn exposure in the crab Sinopotamon henanense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjun Li

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the interactions of Cd and Zn in the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense through metallothionein (MT and malondialdehyde (MDA level measurements. Laboratory acclimated S.henanense were exposed to Cd (50 µg/L, 100 µg/L, 500 µg/L , and Zn (100 µg/L, 1000 µg/L alone and in combined treatments (100 µg/L Zn+50 µg/L Cd, 100 µg/L Zn+100 µg/L Cd, 100 µg/L Zn+500 µg/L Cd, 1000 µg/L Zn+50 µg/L Cd, 1000 µg/L Zn+100 µg/L Cd, 1000 µg/L Zn+500 µg/L Cd for 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 days. The results demonstrated that the MDA contents increased with exposure time and dose and showed time- and dose-dependence in both gills and hepatopancreas of S.henanense after single Cd exposure, while the changes of MDA levels were not significant with single Zn exposure. The MDA levels decreased when the crabs were exposed to metal mixtures compared to Cd exposure alone, indicating that Zn mediated the cellular toxicity of Cd. MT contents increased after single Cd exposure and also showed a time- and dose-dependence, in a tissue-specific way. Zn showed a limited ability of MT induction both in gills and hepatopancreas of S.henanense. The MT contents represented not a simple addition of single metal exposures but were enhanced at a higher concentration of Zn combined with different Cd concentrations compared to single metal exposure. Whether MT can be used as a biomarker for complex field conditions need to be considered cautiously since different induction patterns of MT were found among single Zn, Cd and combined groups. It is suggested that several biomarkers together as a suite should be used in the monitoring of heavy metal pollution in the aquatic environment.

  17. Tropospheric Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical, Microphysical and Concentration Properties in the Frame of the Hygra-CD Campaign (Athens, Greece 2014: A Case Study of Long-Range Transport of Mixed Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papayannis Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar and sun photometry measurements were performed during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece during May-June 2014. The retrieved aerosol optical properties (3 aerosol backscatter at 355-532-1064 nm and 2 aerosol extinction profiles at 355-532 nm were used as input to an inversion code to retrieve the aerosol microphysical properties (effective radius reff and number concentration N using regularization techniques. Additionally, the volume concentration profile was derived for fine particles using the LIRIC code. In this paper we selected a complex case study of long-range transport of mixed aerosols (biomass burning particles mixed with dust arriving over Athens between 10-12 June 2014 in the 1.5-4 km height. Between 2-3 km height we measured mean lidar ratios (LR ranging from 45 to 58 sr (at 355 and 532 nm, while the Ångström exponent (AE aerosol extinction-related values (355nm/532nm ranged between 0.8-1.3. The retrieved values of reff and N ranged from 0.19±0.07 to 0.22±0.07 μm and 460±230 to 2200±2800 cm-3, respectively. The aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ at 532 nm was lower than 5-7% (except for the Saharan dust cases, where δ~10-15%.

  18. Detection and Significance of CD4+CD25+CD127dim Regulatory T Cells in Individuals with Severe Aplastic Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Qi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship between CD4+CD25+CD127dim regulatory T cells (Tregs and immune imbalance in acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA. Materials and Methods: The quantity of CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs in 44 SAA patients and 23 normal controls was measured by flow cytometry. Correlations between Tregs and T cell subsets, dendritic cell (DC subsets, granulocyte counts, and percentage of reticulocytes (RET% were analyzed. Results: The percentage of CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs of untreated patients was lower than in recovery patients and normal controls (0.83±0.44% vs. 2.91±1.24% and 2.18±0.55%, respectively, p<0.05. The percentage of CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs in CD4+ T lymphocytes of recovery patients was higher than that of untreated patients and normal controls (9.39±3.51% vs. 7.61±5.3% and 6.83±1.4%, respectively, p<0.05. The percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes in PBLs of untreated patients was lower than in recovery patients and normal controls (13.55±7.37% vs. 31.82±8.43% and 32.12±5.88%, respectively, p<0.05. T cell subset (CD4+/CD8+ ratio was 0.41±0.24 in untreated patients, which was lower than in recovery patients (1.2±0.4 and normal controls (1.11±0.23 (p<0.05. DC subset (myeloid DC/plasmacytoid DC ratio, DC1/DC2 ratio was 3.08±0.72 in untreated patients, which was higher than in recovery patients (1.61±0.49 and normal controls (1.39±0.36 (p<0.05. The percentage of CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs in PBLs was positively associated with T cell subset (r=0.955, p<0.01 and negatively associated with DC subset (r=-0.765, p<0.01. There were significant positive correlations between CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs/PBL and granulocyte counts and RET% (r=0.739 and r=0.749, respectively, p<0.01. Conclusion: The decrease of CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs in SAA patients may cause excessive functioning of T lymphocytes and thus lead to hematopoiesis failure in SAA.

  19. CdS/ZnS nanocomposites: from mechanochemical synthesis to cytotoxicity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baláž, Peter; Baláž, Matej; Dutková, Erika; Zorkovská, Anna; Kováč, Jaroslav; Hronec, Pavol; Kováč, Jaroslav; Čaplovičová, Mária; Mojžiš, Ján; Mojžišová, Gabriela; Eliyas, Alexander; Kostova, Nina G.

    2016-01-01

    CdS/ZnS nanocomposites have been prepared by a two-step solid-state mechanochemical synthesis. CdS has been prepared from cadmium acetate and sodium sulfide precursors in the first step. The obtained cubic CdS (hawleyite, JCPDS 00-010-0454) was then mixed in the second step with the cubic ZnS (sphalerite, JCPDS 00-005-0566) synthesized mechanochemically from the analogous precursors. The crystallite sizes of the new type CdS/ZnS nanocomposite, calculated based on the XRD data, were 3–4 nm for both phases. The synthesized nanoparticles have been further characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and micro-photoluminescence (μPL) spectroscopy. The PL emission peaks in the PL spectra are attributed to the recombination of holes/electrons in the nanocomposites occurring in depth associated with Cd, Zn vacancies and S interstitials. Their photocatalytic activity was also measured. In the photocatalytic activity tests to decolorize Methyl Orange dye aqueous solution, the process is faster and its effectivity is higher when using CdS/ZnS nanocomposite, compared to single phase CdS. Very low cytotoxic activity (high viability) of the cancer cell lines (selected as models of living cells) has been evidenced for CdS/ZnS in comparison with CdS alone. This fact is in a close relationship with Cd(II) ions dissolution tested in a physiological solution. The concentration of cadmium dissolved from CdS/ZnS nanocomposites with variable Cd:Zn ratio was 2.5–5.0 μg.mL"−"1, whereas the concentration for pure CdS was much higher — 53 μg.ml"−"1. The presence of ZnS in the nanocrystalline composite strongly reduced the release of cadmium into the physiological solution, which simulated the environment in the human body. The obtained CdS/ZnS quantum dots can serve as labeling media and co-agents in future anti-cancer drugs, because of their potential in theranostic applications. - Highlights: • CdS/ZnS nanocomposites with crystallite size 3–4

  20. CdS/ZnS nanocomposites: from mechanochemical synthesis to cytotoxicity issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baláž, Peter; Baláž, Matej [Institute of Geotechnics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Dutková, Erika, E-mail: dutkova@saske.sk [Institute of Geotechnics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Zorkovská, Anna [Institute of Geotechnics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Kováč, Jaroslav; Hronec, Pavol; Kováč, Jaroslav [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology and International Laser Centre, 81219 Bratislava (Slovakia); Čaplovičová, Mária [STU Centre for Nanodiagnostics, Slovak University of Technology, Vazovova 5, 812 43 Bratislava (Slovakia); Mojžiš, Ján; Mojžišová, Gabriela [Faculty of Medicine, P. J. Šafárik University, 04011 Košice (Slovakia); Eliyas, Alexander; Kostova, Nina G. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-01-01

    CdS/ZnS nanocomposites have been prepared by a two-step solid-state mechanochemical synthesis. CdS has been prepared from cadmium acetate and sodium sulfide precursors in the first step. The obtained cubic CdS (hawleyite, JCPDS 00-010-0454) was then mixed in the second step with the cubic ZnS (sphalerite, JCPDS 00-005-0566) synthesized mechanochemically from the analogous precursors. The crystallite sizes of the new type CdS/ZnS nanocomposite, calculated based on the XRD data, were 3–4 nm for both phases. The synthesized nanoparticles have been further characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and micro-photoluminescence (μPL) spectroscopy. The PL emission peaks in the PL spectra are attributed to the recombination of holes/electrons in the nanocomposites occurring in depth associated with Cd, Zn vacancies and S interstitials. Their photocatalytic activity was also measured. In the photocatalytic activity tests to decolorize Methyl Orange dye aqueous solution, the process is faster and its effectivity is higher when using CdS/ZnS nanocomposite, compared to single phase CdS. Very low cytotoxic activity (high viability) of the cancer cell lines (selected as models of living cells) has been evidenced for CdS/ZnS in comparison with CdS alone. This fact is in a close relationship with Cd(II) ions dissolution tested in a physiological solution. The concentration of cadmium dissolved from CdS/ZnS nanocomposites with variable Cd:Zn ratio was 2.5–5.0 μg.mL{sup −1}, whereas the concentration for pure CdS was much higher — 53 μg.ml{sup −1}. The presence of ZnS in the nanocrystalline composite strongly reduced the release of cadmium into the physiological solution, which simulated the environment in the human body. The obtained CdS/ZnS quantum dots can serve as labeling media and co-agents in future anti-cancer drugs, because of their potential in theranostic applications. - Highlights: • CdS/ZnS nanocomposites with crystallite

  1. Effects of heavy metal Cd pollution on microbial activities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weilin; Ma, Xiying

    2017-12-23

    Heavy metal contamination of soil occurs when heavy metals are introduced to soil through human activities, leading to the gradual deterioration of the ecology and environment. Microorganism activity reflects the intensity of various biochemical reactions in soil, and changes in it reflect the level of heavy metal pollution affecting the soil. The effects were studied of heavy metal Cd on the microbial activity of soil at different concentrations by investigating the respiratory intensity, urease activity, and catalase activity in forest soil and garden soil. The results showed that the respiratory intensity, urease and catalase activities in the garden soil were all higher than in the forest soil. Cd has obvious inhibitory effects on microbial activities. The three parameters exhibited a downward trend with increasing concentrations of Cd. Catalase activity increased when the mass concentration of Cd reached 1.0 mg/kg, indicating that low concentrations of Cd can promote the activity of some microorganisms. Respiratory intensity and urease activity also increased when the concentration reached 10.0 mg/kg, showing that respiratory intensity and urease activity have strong response mechanisms to adverse conditions. The effective state of Cd in soil, as well as inhibition of microbial activity, decreased with incubation time.

  2. Effects of heavy metal Cd pollution on microbial activities in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination of soil occurs when heavy metals are introduced to soil through human activities, leading to the gradual deterioration of the ecology and environment. Microorganism activity reflects the intensity of various biochemical reactions in soil, and changes in it reflect the level of heavy metal pollution affecting the soil. The effects were studied of heavy metal Cd on the microbial activity of soil at different concentrations by investigating the respiratory intensity, urease activity, and catalase activity in forest soil and garden soil. The results showed that the respiratory intensity, urease and catalase activities in the garden soil were all higher than in the forest soil. Cd has obvious inhibitory effects on microbial activities. The three parameters exhibited a downward trend with increasing concentrations of Cd. Catalase activity increased when the mass concentration of Cd reached 1.0 mg/kg, indicating that low concentrations of Cd can promote the activity of some microorganisms. Respiratory intensity and urease activity also increased when the concentration reached 10.0 mg/kg, showing that respiratory intensity and urease activity have strong response mechanisms to adverse conditions. The effective state of Cd in soil, as well as inhibition of microbial activity, decreased with incubation time.

  3. Optical and electrical properties of In-doped CdO thin films fabricated by pulse laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, B.J.; Lian, J.S.; Zhao, L.; Jiang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    Transparent indium-doped cadmium oxide (In-CdO) thin films were deposited on quartz glass substrates by pulse laser deposition (PLD) from ablating Cd-In metallic target at a fixed pressure 10 Pa and a fixed substrate temperature 300 deg. C. The influences of indium concentrations in target on the microstructure, optical and electrical performances were studied. When the indium concentration reaches to 3.9 wt%, the as-deposited In-CdO film shows high optical transmission in visible light region, obviously enhanced direct band gap energy (2.97 eV), higher carrier concentration and lower electric resistivity compared with the undoped CdO film, while a further increase of indium concentration to 5.6 wt% induces the formation of In 2 O 3 , which reverse the variation of these parameters and performance.

  4. The Volatile Anesthetic Isoflurane Increases Endothelial Adenosine Generation via Microparticle Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase (CD73) Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihwa; Ham, Ahrom; Kim, Katelyn Yu-Mi; Brown, Kevin M.; Lee, H. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is common in acute and chronic organ injury. Isoflurane is a widely used halogenated volatile anesthetic during the perioperative period and protects against endothelial cell death and inflammation. In this study, we tested whether isoflurane induces endothelial ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) and cytoprotective adenosine generation to protect against endothelial cell injury. Clinically relevant concentrations of isoflurane induced CD73 activity and increased adenosine generation in cultured human umbilical vein or mouse glomerular endothelial cells. Surprisingly, isoflurane-mediated induction of endothelial CD73 activity occurred within 1 hr and without synthesizing new CD73. We determined that isoflurane rapidly increased CD73 containing endothelial microparticles into the cell culture media. Indeed, microparticles isolated from isoflurane-treated endothelial cells had significantly higher CD73 activity as well as increased CD73 protein. In vivo, plasma from mice anesthetized with isoflurane had significantly higher endothelial cell-derived CD144+ CD73+ microparticles and had increased microparticle CD73 activity compared to plasma from pentobarbital-anesthetized mice. Supporting a critical role of CD73 in isoflurane-mediated endothelial protection, a selective CD73 inhibitor (APCP) prevented isoflurane-induced protection against human endothelial cell inflammation and apoptosis. In addition, isoflurane activated endothelial cells Rho kinase evidenced by myosin phosphatase target subunit-1 and myosin light chain phosphorylation. Furthermore, isoflurane-induced release of CD73 containing microparticles was significantly attenuated by a selective Rho kinase inhibitor (Y27632). Taken together, we conclude that the volatile anesthetic isoflurane causes Rho kinase-mediated release of endothelial microparticles containing preformed CD73 and increase adenosine generation to protect against endothelial apoptosis and inflammation. PMID:24945528

  5. Enhanced hepatic apoA-I secretion and peripheral efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid in CD36 null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Yue

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CD36 facilitates oxidized low density lipoprotein uptake and is implicated in development of atherosclerotic lesions. CD36 also binds unmodified high and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, VLDL but its role in the metabolism of these particles is unclear. Several polymorphisms in the CD36 gene were recently shown to associate with serum HDL cholesterol. To gain insight into potential mechanisms for these associations we examined HDL metabolism in CD36 null (CD36(-/- mice. Feeding CD36(-/- mice a high cholesterol diet significantly increased serum HDL, cholesterol and phospholipids, as compared to wild type mice. HDL apolipoproteins apoA-I and apoA-IV were increased and shifted to higher density HDL fractions suggesting altered particle maturation. Clearance of dual-labeled HDL was unchanged in CD36(-/- mice and cholesterol uptake from HDL or LDL by isolated CD36(-/- hepatocytes was unaltered. However, CD36(-/- hepatocytes had higher cholesterol and phospholipid efflux rates. In addition, expression and secretion of apoA-I and apoA-IV were increased reflecting enhanced PXR. Similar to hepatocytes, cholesterol and phospholipid efflux were enhanced in CD36(-/- macrophages without changes in protein levels of ABCA1, ABCG1 or SR-B1. However, biotinylation assays showed increased surface ABCA1 localization in CD36(-/- cells. In conclusion, CD36 influences reverse cholesterol transport and hepatic ApoA-I production. Both pathways are enhanced in CD36 deficiency, increasing HDL concentrations, which suggests the potential benefit of CD36 inhibition.

  6. Study of Te Inclusions in CdMnTe Crystals for Nuclear Detector Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babalola, O.S.; Bolotnikov, A.; Groza, M.; Hossain, A.; Egarievwe, S.; James, R.; Burger, A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration, size and spatial distribution of Te inclusions in the bulk of CdMnTe crystals mined from two batches of ingots were studied. An isolated planar layer decorated with Te inclusions was identified in CdMnTe crystals from the second ingot. The internal electric field of a CMT crystal was probed by infrared (IR) imaging employing Pockels electro-optic effect. The effect of an isolated plane of Te inclusions on the internal electric-field distribution within the CdMnTe crystal was studied. Space charge accumulation around the plane of Te inclusions was observed, which was found to be higher when the detector was reverse-biased. The effects of the plane of Te inclusions on the electric-field distribution within the CdMnTe crystal, and the quality of CdMnTe crystals for nuclear detector applications are discussed.

  7. Cadmium accumulation, gill Cd binding, acclimation, and physiological effects during long term sublethal Cd exposure in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, L.; McGeer, J.C.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, on 3% of body weight daily ration, were exposed to 0 (control), 3, and 10 {mu}g l{sup -1} Cd (as Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O) in moderately hard (140 mg l{sup -1} as CaCO{sub 3}), alkaline (95 mg l{sup -1} as CaCO{sub 3}, pH 8.0) water for 30 days. Particular attention focused on acclimation, and on whether a gill surface binding model, originally developed in dilute softwater, could be applied in this water quality to fish chronically exposed to Cd. Only the higher Cd concentration caused mortality (30%, in the first few days). The costs of acclimation, if any, in our study were subtle since no significant effects of chronic Cd exposure were seen in growth rate, swimming performance (stamina and U{sub Crit}), routine O{sub 2} consumption, or whole body ion levels. Substantial acclimation occurred in both exposure groups, manifested as 11- to 13-fold increases in 96-h LC{sub 50} values. In water quality regulations, which are based on toxicity tests with non-acclimated fish only, this remarkable protective effect of acclimation is not taken into account. Cd accumulated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion to 60-120x (gills), 8-20x (liver), 2-7x (carcass), and 5-12x (whole bodies) control levels by 30 days. Chronically accumulated gill Cd could not be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) challenge. These gill Cd concentrations were 20- to 40-fold greater than levels predicted by the gill-binding model to cause mortality during acute exposure. In short-term gill Cd-binding experiments (up to 70 {mu}g l{sup -1} exposures for 3 h), gill Cd burden increased as predicted in control fish, but was not detectable against the high background concentrations in acclimated fish. In light of these results, Cd uptake/turnover tests were performed using radioactive {sup 109}Cd to improve sensitivity. With this approach, a small saturable binding component was seen, but could not be related to toxic response in

  8. The Effect of Pollination on Cd Phytoextraction From Soil by Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wending; Lu, Guining; Wang, Rui; Guo, Chuling; Liao, Changjun; Yi, Xiaoyun; Dang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of pollination on cadmium (Cd) phytoextraction from soil by mature maize plants. The results showed that the unpollinated maize plants accumulated 50% more Cd than that of the pollinated plants, even though the dry weight of the former plants was 15% less than that of the latter plants. The Cd accumulation in root and leaf of the unpollinated maize plant was 0.47 and 0.89 times higher than that of the pollinated plant, respectively. The Cd concentration in the cob was significantly decreased because of pollination. Preventing pollination is a promising approach for enhancing the effectiveness of phytoextraction in Cd-contaminated soils by maize. This study suggested that in low Cd-contaminated soil pollination should be encouraged because accumulation of Cd in maize grains is very little and maize seeds can bring farmers economic benefits, while in high Cd-contaminated soil, inhibition of pollination can be applied to enhance phytoextraction of Cd from soil by maize plant.

  9. Study of the potential of barnyard grass for the remediation of Cd- and Pb-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Cai, Qiongyao; Wang, Hanxi; Liu, Xuejun; Lv, Jing; Yao, Difu; Lu, Yue; Li, Wei; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the microwave digestion method was used to determine total cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations, the BCR method was used to determine different states of Cd and Pb, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used to determine Cd and Pb concentrations in simulated soil and barnyard grass before and after planting barnyard grass to provide a theoretical basis for the remediation of Cd- and Pb-contaminated soil. The results showed that the bioconcentration factor changes with different Cd concentrations are relatively complex and that the removal rate increases regularly. The 100 mg kg -1 Cd treatment had the highest removal rate, which reached 36.66%. For Pb, the bioconcentration factor decreased and tended to reach equilibrium as the Pb concentration increased. The highest removal rate was 41.72% and occurred in the 500 mg kg -1 Pb treatment; however, this removal rate was generally lower than that of Cd. In addition, the reduction state had the highest change rate, followed by the residual, acid soluble and oxidation states. For Pb, the residual state has the highest change rate, followed by the acid soluble state, reduction state and oxidation state. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the soil Pb and Cd concentrations and the concentrations of Pb and Cd that accumulated in the belowground biomass of the barnyard grass, but no significant correlation was observed between the soil Pb and Cd concentrations and the amounts of Pb and Cd that accumulated in the aboveground biomass of the barnyard grass. The highest transfer factor of Cd was 0.49, which occurred in the 5 mg kg -1 Cd treatment. The higher transfer factor of Pb was 0.48 in the 100 mg kg -1 Pb treatment. All of these factors indicate that the belowground biomass of barnyard grass plays a more important role in the remediation of Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils than the aboveground

  10. Concentrations of higher dicarboxylic acids C5–C13 in fresh snow samples collected at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch during CLACE 5 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sieg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of freshly fallen snow were collected at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland in February and March 2006 and 2007, during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiments (CLACE 5 and 6. In this study a new technique has been developed and demonstrated for the measurement of organic acids in fresh snow. The melted snow samples were subjected to solid phase extraction and resulting solutions analysed for organic acids by HPLC-MS-TOF using negative electrospray ionization. A series of linear dicarboxylic acids from C5 to C13 and phthalic acid, were identified and quantified. In several samples the biogenic acid pinonic acid was also observed. In fresh snow the median concentration of the most abundant acid, adipic acid, was 0.69 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.70 μg L−1 in 2007. Glutaric acid was the second most abundant dicarboxylic acid found with median values of 0.46 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.61 μg L−1 in 2007, while the aromatic acid phthalic acid showed a median concentration of 0.34 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.45 μg L−1 in 2007. The concentrations in the samples from various snowfall events varied significantly, and were found to be dependent on the back trajectory of the air mass arriving at Jungfraujoch. Air masses of marine origin showed the lowest concentrations of acids whereas the highest concentrations were measured when the air mass was strongly influenced by boundary layer air.

  11. Variation of the mean square amplitude with concentration in Hg1-xCdxTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaiyandi, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    1989-01-01

    The mean square displacements (MSD) of Hg and Te in the mixed system Hg 1-x Cd x Te have been calculated for various concentrations of Cd atoms (x = 0.20, 0.40, 0.60, 0.80, 1.00) at 4, 77, and 300 K by means of the virtual crystal approximation. An unusual trend in MSD is found for x below 0.2: the higher mass has higher value of MS amplitude

  12. CD25, CD28 and CD38 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a tool to predict acute rejection after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleslawski, Emmanuel; BenOthman, Samia; Grabar, Sophie; Correia, Leonor; Podevin, Philippe; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Soubrane, Olivier; Calmus, Yvon; Conti, Filomena

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of CD25, CD28 and CD38 (which reflects the degree of T-cell activation) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells constitutes a useful means of measuring the immune status of liver transplant recipients. Fifty-two patients enrolled in a prospective randomized study comparing cyclosporine and tacrolimus as the principal immunosuppressive drugs were monitored prospectively. The expression of CD25, CD28 and CD38 was analyzed on CD3-, CD4- and CD8-positive cells from whole blood using flow cytometry. The prognostic value of baseline and day 14 measurements regarding acute rejection was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates for univariate analyses and the Cox model for multivariate analyses. The mean frequencies of CD28 and CD38-expressing T cells were significantly higher in patients with acute rejection (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively), whereas the frequency CD25-expressing T cells did not differ significantly. Under univariate analysis, baseline CD25 levels, the type of calcineurin inhibitor, as well as the CD28 and CD38 frequencies obtained at day 14 were associated with the subsequent development of acute rejection. Under multivariate analysis, only CD28 and CD38 frequencies obtained at day 14 were independently associated with acute rejection. The evaluation of CD28 and CD38 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a simple marker that could be used routinely in clinical practice to assess the level of immunosuppression.

  13. Diffusion and influence of Cu on properties of CdTe thin films and CdTe/CdS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhafarov, T.D.; Yesilkaya, S.S.; Yilmaz Canli, N.; Caliskan, M. [Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa, 34210 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-01-31

    The effective diffusion coefficients of Cu for thermal and photodiffusion in the CdTe films have been estimated from resistivity versus duration of thermal or photoannealing curves. In the temperature range 60-200{sup o}C the effective coefficient of thermal diffusion (D{sub t}) and photodiffusion (D{sub ph}) are described as D{sub t}=7.3x10{sup -7}exp(-0.33/kT) and D{sub ph}=4.7x10{sup -8}exp(-0.20/kT). It is found that the diffusion doping of CdTe thin films by Cu at 400{sup o}C results in a sharp decrease of resistivity up to 7 orders of magnitude of p-type material, depending on thickness of Cu film. The comparative study of performance of CdTe(Cu)/CdS and CdTe/CdS cells has been studied. It is shown that the diffusion doping of CdTe film by Cu increases efficiency of CdTe(Cu)/CdS cells from 0.9% to 6.8%. The degradation of photovoltaic parameters of CdTe(Cu)/CdS cell, during testing under forward and reverse bias at room temperature, proceeds at a larger rate than those of CdTe/CdS cell without Cu. The degradation of performance of CdTe(Cu)/CdS cells is tentatively assigned to electrodiffusion of Cu in CdTe, resulting in redistribution of concentration of Cu-related centers in CdTe film and heterojunction region.

  14. Soluble CD30 in renal transplant recipients: is it a good biomarker to predict rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpira, Negar; Aghdaie, Mahdokht Hosein; Malekpour, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) level may be a poten-tial marker for the prediction of acute allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Therefore, its serum concentrations might offer a promising non-invasive tool to recognize patients with an increased risk for developing an acute graft rejection. We retrospectively correlate pre and post transplant level on post transplant graft survival, incidence of acute rejection and graft function using stored serum samples. Ninety-nine patients were divided in two separate groups: Group A in whom sample collection was done one day before transplantation and Group B where sample collection was done five days after transplantation. Younger recipients (aged less than 20 years) had higher sCD30 levels (P= 0.02). There was neither significant difference in the incidence of acute rejection nor incomplete response rate after anti rejection therapy in relation to pre transplant or post transplant sCD30. We could not find a significantly inferior graft survival rate in the high sCD30 group. In conclusion, younger patients had higher sCD30 concentrations however no correlation existed between the serum concentrations and occurrence of rejection episodes or graft survival.

  15. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away.

  16. A Low Peripheral Blood CD4/CD8 Ratio Is Associated with Pulmonary Emphysema in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplette, Matthew; Attia, Engi F; Akgün, Kathleen M; Soo Hoo, Guy W; Freiberg, Matthew S; Butt, Adeel A; Wongtrakool, Cherry; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Brown, Sheldon T; Graber, Christopher J; Huang, Laurence; Crothers, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of emphysema is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals compared to HIV-uninfected persons. While greater tobacco use contributes, HIV-related effects on immunity likely confer additional risk. Low peripheral blood CD4+ to CD8+ T-lymphocyte (CD4/CD8) ratio may reflect chronic inflammation in HIV and may be a marker of chronic lung disease in this population. Therefore, we sought to determine whether the CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly the emphysema subtype, in a cohort of HIV+ subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 190 HIV+ subjects enrolled in the Examinations of HIV Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE) study. Subjects underwent baseline laboratory assessments, pulmonary function testing and chest computed tomography (CT) analyzed for emphysema severity and distribution. We determined the association between CD4/CD8 ratio and emphysema, and the association between CD4/CD8 ratio and pulmonary function markers of COPD. Mild or greater emphysema (>10% lung involvement) was present in 31% of subjects. Low CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with >10% emphysema in multivariable models, adjusting for risk factors including smoking, current and nadir CD4 count and HIV RNA level. Those with CD4/CD8 ratio 10% emphysema compared to those with a ratio >1.0 in fully adjusted models. A low CD4/CD8 ratio was also associated with reduced diffusion capacity (DLCO). A low CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with emphysema and low DLCO in HIV+ subjects, independent of other risk factors and clinical markers of HIV. The CD4/CD8 ratio may be a useful, clinically available, marker for risk of emphysema in HIV+ subjects in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era.

  17. Activation of PKA in cell requires higher concentration of cAMP than in vitro: implications for compartmentalization of cAMP signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2017-10-26

    cAMP is a ubiquitous second messenger responsible for the cellular effects of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters via activation of its main effector, protein kinase A (PKA). Multiple studies have shown that the basal concentration of cAMP in several cell types is about 1 μM. This value is well above the reported concentration of cAMP required to half-maximally activate PKA, which measures in the 100-300 nM range. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this apparent discrepancy including inaccurate measurements of intracellular free cAMP, inaccurate measurement of the apparent activation constant of PKA or shielding of PKA from bulk cytosolic cAMP via localization of the enzyme to microdomains with lower basal cAMP concentration. However, direct experimental evidence in support of any of these models is limited and a firm conclusion is missing. In this study we use multiple FRET-based reporters for the detection of cAMP and PKA activity in intact cells and we establish that the sensitivity of PKA to cAMP is almost twenty times lower when measured in cell than when measured in vitro. Our findings have important implications for the understanding of compartmentalized cAMP signalling.

  18. Higher Concentrations of BCAAs and 3-HIB Are Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Transition from Gestational Diabetes to Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Andersson-Hall

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Determine the metabolic profile and identify risk factors of women transitioning from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. 237 women diagnosed with GDM underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, anthropometrics assessment, and completed lifestyle questionnaires six years after pregnancy. Blood was analysed for clinical variables (e.g., insulin, glucose, HbA1c, adiponectin, leptin, and lipid levels and NMR metabolomics. Based on the OGTT, women were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and T2DM. Results. Six years after GDM, 19% of subjects had T2DM and 19% IGT. After BMI adjustment, the IGT group had lower HDL, higher leptin, and higher free fatty acid (FFA levels, and the T2DM group higher triglyceride, FFA, and C-reactive protein levels than the NGT group. IGT and T2DM groups reported lower physical activity. NMR measurements revealed that levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and the valine metabolite 3-hydroxyisobyturate were higher in T2DM and IGT groups and correlated with measures of insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Conclusion. In addition to well-known clinical risk factors, BCAAs and 3-hydroxyisobyturate are potential markers to be evaluated as predictors of metabolic risk after pregnancy complicated by GDM.

  19. T CD3+CD8+ Lymphocytes Are More Susceptible for Apoptosis in the First Trimester of Normal Human Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Darmochwal-Kolarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Normal human pregnancy is a complex process of many immunoregulatory mechanisms which protect fetus from the activation of the maternal immune system. The aim of the study was to investigate the apoptosis of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of normal pregnant patients and healthy nonpregnant women. Methods. Sixty pregnant women and 17 nonpregnant women were included in the study. Lymphocytes were isolated and labeled with anti-CD3, anti-CD4, and anti-CD8 monoclonal antibodies. Apoptosis was detected by CMXRos staining and analyzed using the flow cytometric method. Results. We found significantly higher apoptosis of total lymphocytes in peripheral blood of pregnant patients when compared to healthy nonpregnant women. The percentage of apoptotic T CD3+CD8+ cells in the first trimester was significantly higher when compared to the third trimester of normal pregnancy. The ratio of T CD3+CD4+ : T CD3+CD8+ apoptotic lymphocytes was significantly lower in the first trimester when compared to other trimesters of pregnancy and to both of the phases of the menstrual cycle. Conclusions. The higher apoptosis of T CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes and the lower ratio of T CD3+CD4+ : T CD3+CD8+ apoptotic cells in the first trimester of normal pregnancy may suggest a higher susceptibility of T CD3+CD8+ cells for apoptosis as a protective mechanism at the early stage of pregnancy.

  20. Combined cadmium and elevated ozone affect concentrations of cadmium and antioxidant systems in wheat under fully open-air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongyan; Tian, Ran; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Pei, Daping; Wang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Combined effect of elevated O 3 and Cd levels on wheat was studied using the free-air concentration enrichment system. ► Elevated O 3 levels result in an increased concentration of Cd in wheat plants grown on Cd-contaminated soils. ► Combined cadmium and elevated O 3 have a significantly synergic effect on oxidative stress in wheat shoots. - Abstract: Pollution of the environment with both ozone (O 3 ) and heavy metals has been steadily increasing. An understanding of their combined effects on plants, especially crops, is limited. Here we studied the effects of elevated O 3 on oxidative stress and bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) in wheat under Cd stress using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) system. In this field experiment in Jiangdu (Jiangsu Province, China), wheat plants were grown in pots containing soil with various concentrations of cadmium (0, 2, and 10 mg kg −1 Cd was added to the soil) under ambient conditions and under elevated O 3 levels (50% higher than the ambient O 3 ). Present results showed that elevated O 3 led to higher concentrations of Cd in wheat tissues (shoots, husk and grains) with respect to contaminated soil. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated O 3 levels strongly affected the antioxidant isoenzymes POD, APX and CAT and accelerated oxidative stress in wheat leaves. Our results suggest that elevated O 3 levels cause a reduction in food quality and safety.

  1. Characterisation of airborne Ce, Th and Cd in workplace and their correlation with their concentrations in body fluids and excreta of occupational workers using NAA, ICP-AES and XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.C.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Maniyan, C.G.; Haridasan, P.P.; Radhakrishnan, Sujata; Nair, Madhua G.; Sawant, Pramilla; Negi, B.S.; Jha, S.K.; Kumar, Anil; Krishnan, Narayani

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the respirable airborne particulate matter (APM) from the occupational settings at the zinc smelting, mineral beneficiation and mineral processing industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques, indicates elemental distribution specific to individual process. While the concentrations and their ratios in the raw material were reflected in the APM at the initial stages, these underwent significant modifications at subsequent stages. Detailed size characterisation studies showed that up to 50% of APM was below 2 μm in some process areas. Studies on the solubilisation of APM in lung serum simulant demonstrated fast and slow components for both Cd and Zn. Cadmium showed preferential solubilisation. Detailed analysis of the urine excreta of occupational workers showed significant correlation with APM. The study revealed usefulness of urine sample as biological integrator for monitoring the work place. The rate of excretion of Th and Ce through urine was related to the physico-chemical form of their respective APM. Cerium showed faster elimination when it was present as halides or hydrates. The study has been able to identify different chemical species and their relevance in the uptake, retention and biological elimination. The influence of specific site environmental background in the population was nearly 25% of the occupational levels for Th as revealed by analysis of urine samples and thoron in the exhaled breath. Participated in the Agency's intercomparison programmes. Results of NAT-3 Air Filters have been sent. Samples of lyophilised urine and welding fumes are being analysed. (author)

  2. Soluble CD30 in patients with antibody-mediated rejection of the kidney allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavcev, Antonij; Honsova, Eva; Lodererova, Alena; Pavlova, Yelena; Sajdlova, Helena; Vitko, Stefan; Skibova, Jelena; Striz, Ilja; Viklicky, Ondrej

    2007-07-01

    The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical significance of measurement of the soluble CD30 (sCD30) molecule for the prediction of antibody-mediated (humoral) rejection (HR). Sixty-two kidney transplant recipients (thirty-one C4d-positive and thirty-one C4d-negative patients) were included into the study. Soluble CD30 levels were evaluated before transplantation and during periods of graft function deterioration. The median concentrations of the sCD30 molecule were identical in C4d-positive and C4d-negative patients before and after transplantation (65.5 vs. 65.0 and 28.2 vs. 36.0 U/ml, respectively). C4d+ patients who developed DSA de novo had a tendency to have higher sCD30 levels before transplantation (80.7+/-53.6 U/ml, n=8) compared with C4d-negative patients (65.0+/-33.4 U/ml, n=15). Soluble CD30 levels were evaluated as positive and negative (>or=100 U/ml and sCD30 estimation with regard to finding C4d deposits in peritubular capillaries were determined. The sensitivity of sCD30+ testing was generally below 40%, while the specificity of the test, i.e. the likelihood that if sCD30 testing is negative, C4d deposits would be absent, was 82%. C4d+ patients who developed DSA de novo were evaluated separately; the specificity of sCD30 testing for the incidence of HR in this cohort was 86%. We could not confirm in our study that high sCD30 levels (>or=100 U/ml) might be predictive for the incidence of HR. Negative sCD30 values might be however helpful for identifying patients with a low risk for development of DSA and antibody-mediated rejection.

  3. Characterisation of airborne Ce, Th and Cd in workplace and their co-relation with their concentrations in body fluids and excreta of occupational workers using NAA, ICP - AES and XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.C.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Nair, M.G.; Sawant, P.; Lakshmanan, A.R.; Negi, B.S.; Kumar, A.; Krishnan, N.

    1998-01-01

    Airborne Ce, Th and Cd in the occupational settings were studied at the monazite mineral beneficiation and zinc ore concentrate processing using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Air samples were collected using grab and size selective samplers simultaneously. The size selective sampler consisted of 8-stage Anderson cascade impactor with back-up filter. Size characterisation showed that the Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) of the airborne dust at the monazite mineral beneficiation ranged from 3 to 10 μm. The Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) for Th and Ce were also in the same range. Over 85% of the airborne dust associated with zinc concentrate ore handling was above 9 μm however: the MMAD at the down stream processing was about 3 μm. Composite air samples were subjected to leaching in simulated lung serum to find the solubility class. The urine samples of occupational workers engaged in mineral beneficiation showed Th levels ranging from 39 to 552 ng l -1 with a geometric mean of 186 ng l -1 . The results were obtained using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The observed levels of Th in the urine samples were lower than the predicted levels, due to resistance of the mineral to biochemical leaching. In a limited number of urine samples Ce ranged from 312 to 1587 ng l -1 with a geometric mean of 700 ngl -1 . These values, also determined by NAA, are unique in occupational settings. The Ce to Th ratio in the samples works out to 3.7 as against their ratio of 2.9 in the monazite mineral. The biological levels of Th and Ce observed in occupational settings need refinement on account of the possible environmental contribution due to uptake of these elements in the natural high radiation background areas. Detailed work on characterisation of dust, simulated leaching and analysis of biological samples is in progress in connection with the CRP. (author)

  4. Higher TGF-beta With Lower CD124 and TSLP, But No Difference in PAR-2 Expression in Bronchial Biopsy of Bronchial Asthma Patients in Comparison With COPD Patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, R.; Vašáková, M.; Kukal, J.; Šterclová, M.; Olejár, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2014), s. 543-549 ISSN 1541-2016 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : bronchial asthma * chronic obstructive pulmonary disease * TGF-beta * TSPL * CD124 * PAR-2 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.012, year: 2014

  5. Soluble CD30 and Cd27 levels in patients undergoing HLA antibody-incompatible renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Rizwan; Roche, Laura; Smillie, David; Harmer, Andrea; Mitchell, Daniel; Molostvov, Guerman; Lam, For T; Kashi, Habib; Tan, Lam Chin; Imray, Chris; Fletcher, Simon; Briggs, David; Lowe, David; Zehnder, Daniel; Higgins, Rob

    2010-08-01

    HLA antibody-incompatible transplantation has a higher risk of rejection when compared to standard renal transplantation. Soluble CD30 (sCD30) has been shown in many, but not all, studies to be a biomarker for risk of rejection in standard renal transplant recipients. We sought to define the value of sCD30 and soluble CD27 (sCD27) in patients receiving HLA antibody-incompatible transplants. Serum taken at different time points from 32 HLA antibody-incompatible transplant recipients was retrospectively assessed for sCD30 and sCD27 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This was compared to episodes of acute rejection, post-transplant donor-specific antibody (DSA) levels and 12 month serum creatinine levels. No association was found between sCD27 and sCD30 levels and risk of acute rejection or DSA levels. Higher sCD30 levels at 4-6 weeks post-transplantation were associated with a higher serum creatinine at 12 months. Conclusion patients undergoing HLA antibody-incompatible transplantation are at a high risk of rejection but neither sCD30 (unlike in standard transplantation) nor sCD27 was found to be a risk factor. High sCD30 levels measured at 4-6 weeks post-transplantation was associated with poorer graft function at one year. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lead and cadmium in human teeth from Jordan by atomic absorption spectrometry: Some factors influencing their concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alomary, A. [Department of Chemistry, Yarmouk University, Irbid (Jordan)]. E-mail: ahmedalomary1000@hotmail.com; Al-Momani, I.F. [Department of Chemistry, Yarmouk University, Irbid (Jordan); Massadeh, A.M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in human teeth and to investigate the affecting factors. Teeth samples (n = 268) were collected from people living in different cities in Jordan including Amman, Zarqa, Al-Mafraq and Irbid and analyzed for Pb and Cd using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). A questionnaire was used to gather information on each person, such as age, sex, place where the patient lives, smoking, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and whether the patient uses toothpaste or not. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd were 28.91 {mu}g/g and 0.44 {mu}g/g, respectively. The results indicate that there is a clear relation between Pb and Cd concentrations and the presence of amalgam fillings, smoking, and place of living. Pb was sex-dependent, whereas Cd was not. Our results show that Pb and Cd concentrations in samples obtained from Al-Mafraq and Irbid are higher than those obtained from Amman and Zarqa. Pb was highest in Mafraq, whereas Cd was highest in Irbid. The Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth from smokers (means: Pb = 31.89 {mu}g/g, Cd = 0.49 {mu}g/g) were significantly higher than those from nonsmokers (means: Pb = 24.07 {mu}g/g, Cd = 0.37 {mu}g/g). Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth of patients with amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 31.02 {mu}g/g and Cd = 0.52 {mu}g/g) were significantly higher than those from patients without amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 26.87 {mu}g/g and Cd = 0.41 {mu}g/g). Our results show that brushing the teeth daily with toothpaste does not significantly decrease the concentration of both Pb and Cd. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd do not vary significantly between the ages 20-30, 31-40, and 41-50, but both increased rapidly at age 51-60.

  7. Lead and cadmium in human teeth from Jordan by atomic absorption spectrometry: Some factors influencing their concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomary, A.; Al-Momani, I.F.; Massadeh, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in human teeth and to investigate the affecting factors. Teeth samples (n = 268) were collected from people living in different cities in Jordan including Amman, Zarqa, Al-Mafraq and Irbid and analyzed for Pb and Cd using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). A questionnaire was used to gather information on each person, such as age, sex, place where the patient lives, smoking, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and whether the patient uses toothpaste or not. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd were 28.91 μg/g and 0.44 μg/g, respectively. The results indicate that there is a clear relation between Pb and Cd concentrations and the presence of amalgam fillings, smoking, and place of living. Pb was sex-dependent, whereas Cd was not. Our results show that Pb and Cd concentrations in samples obtained from Al-Mafraq and Irbid are higher than those obtained from Amman and Zarqa. Pb was highest in Mafraq, whereas Cd was highest in Irbid. The Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth from smokers (means: Pb = 31.89 μg/g, Cd = 0.49 μg/g) were significantly higher than those from nonsmokers (means: Pb = 24.07 μg/g, Cd = 0.37 μg/g). Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth of patients with amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 31.02 μg/g and Cd = 0.52 μg/g) were significantly higher than those from patients without amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 26.87 μg/g and Cd = 0.41 μg/g). Our results show that brushing the teeth daily with toothpaste does not significantly decrease the concentration of both Pb and Cd. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd do not vary significantly between the ages 20-30, 31-40, and 41-50, but both increased rapidly at age 51-60

  8. Structure and properties of CdO-B2O3 and CdO-MnO-B2O3 glasses; Criteria of getting the fraction of four coordinated boron atoms from infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doweidar, H.; El-Damrawi, G.; El-Stohy, Sh.

    2017-11-01

    IR spectra of CdO-B2O3 and xCdO·(50 - x)MnO·50B2O3 glasses (0 ≤ x ≤ 50 mol%) have been analyzed. The fraction N4 of four coordinated boron atoms obtained from the integrated area under the IR spectra of CdO-B2O3 glasses is markedly higher than the reported NMR values. In both cases, N4 does not change with CdO content. The difference between N4 values of both techniques has been correlated with the relative absorption coefficient of BO4 unit with respect to BO3 unit, as suggested by Chryssikos et al. N4 data of xCdO·(50 - x)MnO·50B2O3 glasses could be used to calculate the fraction of modifier and former CdO and MnO in the borate matrix, as a function of composition. There is a linear increase in both the density and molar volume with increasing CdO content. The change has been correlated with the contribution of CdO and MnO. Electric conduction is assumed to take place via hopping of small polarons. There is a decrease in conductivity with increasing CdO concentration, which suggests that the electrons related to Cd sites are more localized than those at Mn sites.

  9. Decreased Expression of T-Cell Costimulatory Molecule CD28 on CD4 and CD8 T Cells of Mexican Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Bernal-Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with tuberculosis frequently develop anergy, a state of T-cell hyporesponsiveness in which defective T-cell costimulation could be a factor. To know if the expression of T-cell costimulatory molecules was altered in tuberculosis, we analyzed the peripheral blood T-cell phenotype of 23 Mexican patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. There was severe CD4 (P<.001 and CD8 (P<.01 lymphopenia and upregulation of costimulatory molecule CD30 on CD4 and CD8 T cells (P<.05; this increase was higher in relapsing tuberculosis. The main finding was severe downregulation of the major costimulatory molecule CD28 on both CD8 and CD4 T cells (P<.001. Depletion of the CD4/CD28 subset, a hitherto undescribed finding, is relevant because CD4 T cells constitute the main arm of the cell-mediated antimycobacterial immune response.

  10. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin.......001) and women (r = 0.08, p = 0.05). In non-smokers, alcohol consumption > 14 drinks/week and more than seven drinks/week for men and women, respectively, increased mean haemoglobin by 1.3% in men and by average 1.9% in women compared with those consuming a parts per thousand currency sign14 and less than...... small changes in haemoglobin do not justify the use of separate reference ranges in smokers and alcohol consumers....

  11. Innate recognition of bacteria in human milk is mediated by a milk-derived highly expressed pattern recognition receptor, soluble CD14.

    OpenAIRE

    Lab?ta, MO; Vidal, K; Nores, JE; Arias, M; Vita, N; Morgan, BP; Guillemot, JC; Loyaux, D; Ferrara, P; Schmid, D; Affolter, M; Borysiewicz, LK; Donnet-Hughes, A; Schiffrin, EJ

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about innate immunity to bacteria after birth in the hitherto sterile fetal intestine. Breast-feeding has long been associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory and allergic diseases. We found in human breast milk a 48-kD polypeptide, which we confirmed by mass spectrometry and sequencing to be a soluble form of the bacterial pattern recognition receptor CD14 (sCD14). Milk sCD14 (m-sCD14) concentrations were up to 20-fold higher than serum ...

  12. Innate Recognition of Bacteria in Human Milk Is Mediated by a Milk-Derived Highly Expressed Pattern Recognition Receptor, Soluble Cd14

    OpenAIRE

    Labéta, Mario O.; Vidal, Karine; Nores, Julia E. Rey; Arias, Mauricio; Vita, Natalio; Morgan, B. Paul; Guillemot, Jean Claude; Loyaux, Denis; Ferrara, Pascual; Schmid, Daniel; Affolter, Michael; Borysiewicz, Leszek K.; Donnet-Hughes, Anne; Schiffrin, Eduardo J.

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about innate immunity to bacteria after birth in the hitherto sterile fetal intestine. Breast-feeding has long been associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory and allergic diseases. We found in human breast milk a 48-kD polypeptide, which we confirmed by mass spectrometry and sequencing to be a soluble form of the bacterial pattern recognition receptor CD14 (sCD14). Milk sCD14 (m-sCD14) concentrations were up to 20-fold higher than serum ...

  13. Electrical properties of MIS devices on CdZnTe/HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Seok; Jeoung, Y. T.; Kim, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Jae Mook; Song, Jinhan; Ann, S. Y.; Lee, Ji Y.; Kim, Young Hun; Kim, Sun-Ung; Park, Mann-Jang; Lee, S. D.; Suh, Sang-Hee

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, we report the capacitance-voltage (C-V) properties of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices on CdTe/HgCdTe by the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and CdZnTe/HgCdTe by thermal evaporation. In MOCVD, CdTe layers are directly grown on HgCdTe using the metal organic sources of DMCd and DiPTe. HgCdTe layers are converted to n-type and the carrier concentration, ND is low 1015 cm-3 after Hg-vacancy annealing at 260 degrees Celsius. In thermal evaporation, CdZnTe passivation layers were deposited on HgCdTe surfaces after the surfaces were etched with 0.5 - 2.0% bromine in methanol solution. To investigate the electrical properties of the MIS devices, the C-V measurement is conducted at 80 K and 1 MHz. C-V curve of MIS devices on CdTe/HgCdTe by MOCVD has shown nearly flat band condition and large hysteresis, which is inferred to result from many defects in CdTe layer induced during Hg-vacancy annealing process. A negative flat band voltage (VFB approximately equals -2 V) and a small hysteresis have been observed for MIS devices on CdZnTe/HgCdTe by thermal evaporation. It is inferred that the negative flat band voltage results from residual Te4+ on the surface after etching with bromine in methanol solution.

  14. Low uptake affinity cultivars with biochar to tackle Cd-tainted rice — A field study over four rice seasons in Hunan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, De; Guo, Hu; Li, Ruiyue [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Center of Biochar and Green Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Lianqing, E-mail: lqli@njau.edu.cn [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Center of Biochar and Green Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Pan, Genxing [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Center of Biochar and Green Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Chang, Andrew [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Joseph, Stephen [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Center of Biochar and Green Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Biochar is becoming an environmentally friendly material for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and improving food safety. A field trial over four rice seasons was conducted to investigate the use of biochar and low Cd accumulating cultivars on Cd uptake in a heavy metal contaminated soil. Wheat straw derived biochar was applied at 0, 20 and 40 t ha{sup −1}. Two rice cultivars with differing Cd accumulation abilities were selected in each season. The results showed that both biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars significantly reduced rice grain Cd accumulation. Biochar had no significant effect the first season but thereafter consistently reduced rice grain Cd by a maximum of 61, 86 and 57% over the next three seasons. Zn accumulation in the rice grains was not decreased by biochar application, although available soil Zn was sharply reduced (35–91%). Indica conventional rice cultivars had much lower Cd, but higher Zn and lower Cd/Zn ratios in the grain than indica hybrid cultivars. Biochar was more effective for mitigating grain Cd accumulation in low Cd affinity cultivars than in high affinity cultivars. Soil pH was sustainably increased (up to nearly 1 unit) while available Cd significantly decreased by a maximum of 85% after biochar addition. The translocation of Cd from rice roots to shoots was reduced from 20 to 80% by biochar. Low uptake affinity cultivars combined with biochar reduced late rice grain Cd concentration and Cd/Zn ratios by 69–80% and 72–80%, respectively. It indicated that the management of combining biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars should be an efficient way to remediate Cd contaminated rice paddies and reduce health risk associated with consuming rice from these soils. - Highlights: • Biochar sustainably reduced soil Cd availability and Cd translocation in rice plant. • Indica conventional cultivars had lower Cd but higher Zn in grains than hybrid ones. • Biochar significantly reduced grain Cd and Cd/Zn ratio

  15. Low uptake affinity cultivars with biochar to tackle Cd-tainted rice — A field study over four rice seasons in Hunan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, De; Guo, Hu; Li, Ruiyue; Li, Lianqing; Pan, Genxing; Chang, Andrew; Joseph, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is becoming an environmentally friendly material for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and improving food safety. A field trial over four rice seasons was conducted to investigate the use of biochar and low Cd accumulating cultivars on Cd uptake in a heavy metal contaminated soil. Wheat straw derived biochar was applied at 0, 20 and 40 t ha"−"1. Two rice cultivars with differing Cd accumulation abilities were selected in each season. The results showed that both biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars significantly reduced rice grain Cd accumulation. Biochar had no significant effect the first season but thereafter consistently reduced rice grain Cd by a maximum of 61, 86 and 57% over the next three seasons. Zn accumulation in the rice grains was not decreased by biochar application, although available soil Zn was sharply reduced (35–91%). Indica conventional rice cultivars had much lower Cd, but higher Zn and lower Cd/Zn ratios in the grain than indica hybrid cultivars. Biochar was more effective for mitigating grain Cd accumulation in low Cd affinity cultivars than in high affinity cultivars. Soil pH was sustainably increased (up to nearly 1 unit) while available Cd significantly decreased by a maximum of 85% after biochar addition. The translocation of Cd from rice roots to shoots was reduced from 20 to 80% by biochar. Low uptake affinity cultivars combined with biochar reduced late rice grain Cd concentration and Cd/Zn ratios by 69–80% and 72–80%, respectively. It indicated that the management of combining biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars should be an efficient way to remediate Cd contaminated rice paddies and reduce health risk associated with consuming rice from these soils. - Highlights: • Biochar sustainably reduced soil Cd availability and Cd translocation in rice plant. • Indica conventional cultivars had lower Cd but higher Zn in grains than hybrid ones. • Biochar significantly reduced grain Cd and Cd/Zn ratio, though

  16. Effects of estrogen on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell in peripheral blood during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Huan Xiong; Zhen Yuan; Li He

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of estrogen (E2) level on regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood during pregnancy. Methods:A total of 30 healthy non-pregnant women were selected as control group, 90 pregnant women of early, middle and late pregnancy and 30 postpartum women at 1 month after parturition were selected as experimental groups including early pregnancy group, middle pregnancy group and late pregnancy group;the proportions of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg among CD4+T cells were detected by flow cytometry;the serum estrogen content in peripheral blood was detected by electrochemical immune luminescence method. Results: E2 level was coincident with the change of Tregs number during pregnancy. The estrogen content in peripheral blood increased gradually from early pregnancy to late pregnancy, then decreased significantly after parturition, and the level at 1 month after parturition down to the level in non-pregnancy group (P>0.05);the level of E2 in pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in non-pregnancy group (P0.05);the proportions in middle and late pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in early pregnancy group (P0.05). There was correlation between Tregs number with estrogen level during pregnancy. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127- Treg were positively correlated with estrogen level. Conclusions:High proportion of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg is closely related to the high level of E2 during pregnancy. It suggested that high level of estrogen may induce an increase of CD4+CD25+Treg in peripheral blood, and then influence the immune function of pregnant women. The results of this experiment might play an important role of estrogen in immune-modulation during pregnancy.

  17. Expression of CD152 and CD137 on T regulatory cells in rhinitis and bronchial asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rojas-Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Subjects with bronchial asthma and bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis disorders have a deficiency of CD4+, CD25hight and FoxP3+ Treg in peripheral blood; however, subjects with bronchial asthma had a higher frequency of CD152+ and CD137+ Treg cells.

  18. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup (aythya affinis) during spring migration in the upper midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatzki, A.E.; Neiger, R.D.; Chipps, S.R.; Higgins, K.F.; Thiex, N.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) population. We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) during the 2003 and 2004 spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of 117 lesser scaup. We found that only selenium concentrations were at levels (>3.0 ??g/g wet weight [ww)]) proposed to adversely affect reproduction. Approximately 49% of females (n = 61) had individual hepatic concentrations >3.0 ??g/g ww selenium (Se). Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium (Cd) concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction. Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. 乙炔提浓装置高级炔管线堵塞原因浅析%Analysis on causes of higher acetylene pipe blocking of acetylene concentration system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢全兵

    2011-01-01

    Causes of higher alkyne pipe blocking of acetylene concentration system in the natural gas-based acetylene production plant were found out by analyzing higher alkyne gas component concentration variation. Corresponding measures were proposed to prevent higher alkyne polymerization in the pipe and thus prolong the equipment operation cycle.%通过对高级炔气体组分含量变化进行分析,找出天然气制乙炔装置乙炔浓缩系统高级炔管线堵塞的原因,并提出了防止高级炔气体在管线内聚合、延长装置运行周期的措施.

  20. Effect of higher minimum inhibitory concentrations of quaternary ammonium compounds in clinical E. coli isolates on antibiotic susceptibilities and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet-Bataillon, S; Branger, B; Cormier, M; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Jolivet-Gougeon, A

    2011-10-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are cationic surfactants used as preservatives and environmental disinfectants. Limited data are available regarding the effect of QACs in the clinical setting. We performed a prospective cohort study in 153 patients with Escherichia coli bacteraemia from February to September 2008 at University Hospital in Rennes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics and QACs alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were determined by the agar dilution method. The capacity of biofilm production was assayed using the Crystal Violet method, and mutation frequencies by measuring the capacity of strains to generate resistance to rifampicin. Logistic regression analysis showed that one of the significant factors related to low MICs for ADBAC (≤16 mg/L) and DDAC (≤8 mg/L), was cotrimoxazole susceptibility (odds ratio: 3.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-11.24; P=0.02 and OR: 3.61; 95% CI: 1.56-7.56; PAntibiotic susceptibility to cotrimoxazole was strongly associated with susceptibility to amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (PE. coli isolates and antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S alloy composition and post-deposition air anneal on ultra-thin CdTe solar cells produced by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, A.J., E-mail: Andrew.J.Clayton@Swansea.ac.uk [Centre for Solar Energy Research, College of Engineering, Swansea University, OpTIC, St. Asaph, LL17 0JD (United Kingdom); Baker, M.A.; Babar, S.; Grilli, R. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Gibson, P.N. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, 21027, Ispra, VA (Italy); Kartopu, G.; Lamb, D.A. [Centre for Solar Energy Research, College of Engineering, Swansea University, OpTIC, St. Asaph, LL17 0JD (United Kingdom); Barrioz, V. [Engineering and Environment, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Northumbria University, Newcastle, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Irvine, S.J.C. [Centre for Solar Energy Research, College of Engineering, Swansea University, OpTIC, St. Asaph, LL17 0JD (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    Ultra-thin CdTe:As/Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S photovoltaic solar cells with an absorber thickness of 0.5 μm were deposited by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition on indium tin oxide coated boro-aluminosilicate substrates. The Zn precursor concentration was varied to compensate for Zn leaching effects after CdCl{sub 2} activation treatment. Analysis of the solar cell composition and structure by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling and X-ray diffraction showed that higher concentrations of Zn in the Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S window layer resulted in suppression of S diffusion across the CdTe/Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S interface after CdCl{sub 2} activation treatment. Excessive Zn content in the Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S alloy preserved the spectral response in the blue region of the solar spectrum, but increased series resistance for the solar cells. A modest increase in the Zn content of the Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S alloy together with a post-deposition air anneal resulted in an improved blue response and an enhanced open circuit voltage and fill factor. This device yielded a mean efficiency of 8.3% over 8 cells (0.25 cm{sup 2} cell area) and best cell efficiency of 8.8%. - Highlights: • CdCl{sub 2} anneal treatment resulted in S diffusing to the back contact. • High Zn levels created mixed cubic/hexagonal structure at the p-n junction. • Increased Zn in Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S supressed S diffusion into CdTe. • Device V{sub oc} was enhanced overall with an additional back surface air anneal.

  2. High serum soluble CD30 does not predict acute rejection in liver transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinlauri, I; Höckerstedt, K; Isoniemi, H

    2006-12-01

    Increased pre- and posttransplantation values of soluble CD30 (sCD30) have been shown to be associated with acute kidney transplant rejection. We sought to study whether high sCD30 could predict rejection early after liver transplantation. The study population included 54 consecutive liver transplant patients, whose samples were collected before liver transplantation and at discharge, which was at a mean time of 3 weeks after transplantation. During the first 6 months posttransplantation, 22 patients experienced an acute rejection episode. Serum sCD30 concentrations were measured by an enzyme-linked immunoassay; changes in serum sCD30 levels posttransplantation were also expressed as relative values compared with pretransplantation results. Liver patients before transplantation displayed higher serum sCD30 values compared with healthy controls: mean values +/- SD were 93 +/- 58 IU/mL vs 17 +/- 8 IU/mL, respectively. At 3 weeks after transplantation the mean sCD30 concentration in liver transplant patients decreased to 59 +/- 42 IU/mL (P = .005). The mean pretransplantation serum sCD30 value was slightly lower among rejecting vs nonrejecting patients: 78 +/- 43 IU/mL vs 104 +/- 65 IU/mL (P = NS). Posttransplantation values in both groups decreased significantly: 47 +/- 34 IU/mL in patients with rejection (P = .014) vs 69 +/- 45 IU/mL in patients without rejection (P = .012). The relative value at 3 weeks posttransplantation decreased slightly more among patients with vs without rejection (70% vs 88%; NS). No correlation was found between serum sCD30 and anti-HLA class I antibodies or crossmatch positivity. In conclusion, neither pre- nor posttransplantation sCD30 levels were associated with acute rejection in liver transplant patients.

  3. Influence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on Cd adsorption by bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Xing [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fang Linchuan [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Cai Peng, E-mail: cp@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang Qiaoyun [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen Hao [College of Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liang Wei; Rong, Xinming [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in Cd adsorption by Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida was investigated using a combination of batch adsorption experiments, potentiometric titrations, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). An increased adsorption capacity of Cd was observed for untreated bacteria relative to that for EPS-free bacteria. Surface complexation modeling of titration data showed the similar pK{sub a} values of functional groups (carboxyl, phosphate and hydroxyl) between untreated and EPS-free bacteria. However, site concentrations on the untreated bacteria were found to be higher than those on the EPS-free bacteria. FTIR spectra also showed that no significant difference in peak positions was observed between untreated and EPS-free bacteria and carboxyl and phosphate groups were responsible for Cd adsorption on bacterial cells. The information obtained in this study is of fundamental significance for understanding the interaction mechanisms between heavy metals and biofilms in natural environments. - Highlights: > The presence of EPS on bacterial surfaces facilitates the adsorption of Cd. > The promoting effects on Cd adsorption are more remarkable on Gram-positive B. subtilis cells than that on Gram-negative P. putida cells. > Carboxyl and phosphate groups are mostly responsible for Cd binding on untreated and EPS-free cells. > Intact bacterial cells and EPS-free cells have similar binding mechanisms for Cd. - Intact bacterial cells and EPS-free cells have similar binding mechanisms for Cd.

  4. Enhanced electrical and optical properties of CdS:Na thin films by photochemical deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V. Nirmal; Suriakarthick, R.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2017-06-01

    CdS:Na thin film was deposited on a glass substrate by photochemical deposition from aqueous solution contained CdSO4.5H2O and Na2S2O3 as cation and anion sources, respectively. The anion source Na2S2O3 served as Na dopant source. The deposited film exhibited cubic phase of CdS and incorporation of Na was revealed from X-ray diffraction study. The incorporation of Na in CdS changed the surface morphology from spherical to nano rods. CdS:Na thin film showed blue shift in its absorption spectrum which was more desirable for transmitting higher energy photons (visible region) in thin film solar cells. The Raman analysis confirmed 1 LO and 2 LO process at 297 and 593 cm-1, respectively. The carrier concentration of CdS increased with the inclusion of Na and its resistivity value decreased. Both the electrical and optical properties of CdS were enhanced in CdS:Na thin films which was desirable as a window layer material for photovoltaic application.

  5. Effects of Interaction between Cadmium (Cd) and Selenium (Se) on Grain Yield and Cd and Se Accumulation in a Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) on their accumulation in three rice cultivars, which remains unclear. The results showed that Se reduced Cd-induced growth inhibition, and increased and decreased Se and Cd concentrations in brown rice, respectively. Cadmium concentrations in all tissues of the hybrid were similar to those in its male parent yet significantly lower than those in its female parent. Selenium reduced Cd accumulation in rice when Cd concentration exceeded 2.0 mg kg -1 ; however Se accumulation depended on the levels of Cd exposure. Finally, Cd had minimal effect on Se translocation within the three cultivars. We concluded that Cd concentration in brown rice is a heritable trait, making crossbreeding a feasible method for cultivating high-yield, low-Cd rice cultivars. Selenium effectively decreased the toxicity and accumulation of Cd, and Cd affected Se uptake but not translocation.

  6. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretts, Amanda M; Follis, Jack L; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Ngwa, Julius S; Wojczynski, Mary K; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Varga, Tibor V; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Houston, Denise K; Lahti, Jari; Ericson, Ulrika; van den Hooven, Edith H; Mikkilä, Vera; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Rice, Kenneth; Renström, Frida; North, Kari E; McKeown, Nicola M; Feitosa, Mary F; Kanoni, Stavroula; Smith, Caren E; Garcia, Melissa E; Tiainen, Anna-Maija; Sonestedt, Emily; Manichaikul, Ani; van Rooij, Frank JA; Dimitriou, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Pankow, James S; Djoussé, Luc; Province, Michael A; Hu, Frank B; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Keller, Margaux F; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Rotter, Jerome I; Hofman, Albert; Graff, Misa; Kähönen, Mika; Mukamal, Kenneth; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ordovas, Jose M; Liu, Yongmei; Männistö, Satu; Uitterlinden, André G; Deloukas, Panos; Seppälä, Ilkka; Psaty, Bruce M; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B; Franks, Paul W; Arnett, Donna K; Nalls, Mike A; Eriksson, Johan G; Orho-Melander, Marju; Franco, Oscar H; Lehtimäki, Terho; Dedoussis, George V; Meigs, James B; Siscovick, David S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. Objective: We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus. Design: Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined 1) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results: Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049–ln-pmol/L (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063–ln-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic

  7. Improved survival in rhesus macaques immunized with modified vaccinia virus Ankara recombinants expressing simian immunodeficiency virus envelope correlates with reduction in memory CD4+ T-cell loss and higher titers of neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourmanov, Ilnour; Kuwata, Takeo; Goeken, Robert; Goldstein, Simoy; Iyengar, Ranjani; Buckler-White, Alicia; Lafont, Bernard; Hirsch, Vanessa M

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that immunization of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol and Env recombinants of the attenuated poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) provided protection from high viremia and AIDS following challenge with a pathogenic strain of SIV. Although all animals became infected, plasma viremia was significantly reduced in animals that received the MVA-SIV recombinant vaccines compared with animals that received nonrecombinant MVA. Most importantly, the reduction in viremia resulted in a significant increase in median and cumulative survival. Continued analysis of these animals over the subsequent 9 years has shown that they maintain a survival advantage, although all but two of the macaques have progressed to AIDS. Importantly, improved survival correlated with preservation of memory CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood. The greatest survival advantage was observed in macaques immunized with regimens containing SIV Env, and the titer of neutralizing antibodies to the challenge virus prior to or shortly following challenge correlated with preservation of CD4(+) T cells. These data are consistent with a role for neutralizing antibodies in nonsterilizing protection from high viremia and associated memory CD4(+) T-cell loss.

  8. Investigation of Cd Uptake and Transfer in Different Parts of Wheat, Spinach, Cucumber and Carrot Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Yargholi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution due to the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their subsequent transfer to crops is a global concern that arises from improper application of industrial wastewaters. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of soil Cd on its accumulation rate in the various organs of four common crops in Iran (namely, wheat, spinach, cucumber, and carrot. The experiment was performed in a factorial design with random blocks including 3 treatments with 0 (control, 50, and 100 mg/kg.soil in 4 replicates. Soil was collected from the farm belonging to the Research Institute for Plant and Seed Breeding (Karaj and filtered twice using 2-mm sieves before Cadmium Nitrate (Cd(NO32 was added and completely mixed. Crops were planted in plastic pots 40 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. The water demand was determined using the Jenman Mantite method. At the end of the growing season, samples were taken from various organs of the crops and their Cd concentrations were measured. The results revealed a direct relationship between Cd accumulation and Cd concentration in the root region. All the treatments other than the control exhibited Cd concentrations higher than the standard limits for human consumption. Cadmium accumulation in the different organs of the crops exhibited the following orders: Root: Cucumber

  9. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of Cd, biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. In this work the potential of using the method Electrodialytic Remediation to reduce the concentration of Cd in different biomass combustion....... The initial Cd concentration in the ashes varied between 8.8 mg Cd/kg DM (co-firing ash) and 64 mg Cd/kg DM (pre-washed straw ash), and pH varied from 3.7 to 13.3. In spite of large differences in ash characteristics, the electrodialytic remediation experiments indicated a good remediation potential for all...... four ashes. Final Cd concentrations below 2.0 mg Cd/kg were reached in all ashes within 14 days of remediation and legislative requirements were met. After further optimization of the remediation process on the pre-washed straw ash, limiting concentrations were reached after only 48 hours...

  10. Characterisation of airborne Ce, Th and Cd in workplace and their co-relation with their concentrations in body fluids and excreta of occupational workers using NAA, ICP - AES and XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A C; Pillai, P M.B.; Radhakrishnan, S [Health Physics Unit, Environmental Radiological Laboratory (BARC), Indian Rare Earths Ltd., Udyogamandal, Kerala (India); Nair, M G; Sawant, P [Environmental Studies Section, Health Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai (India); Lakshmanan, A R [Health Physics Unit, Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad (India); Negi, B S [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai (India); Kumar, A; Krishnan, N [Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC, Mumbai (India)

    1999-12-31

    Airborne Ce, Th and Cd in the occupational settings were studied at the monazite mineral beneficiation and zinc ore concentrate processing using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Air samples were collected using grab and size selective samplers simultaneously. The size selective sampler consisted of 8-stage Anderson cascade impactor with back-up filter. Size characterisation showed that the Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) of the airborne dust at the monazite mineral beneficiation ranged from 3 to 10 {mu}m. The Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) for Th and Ce were also in the same range. Over 85% of the airborne dust associated with zinc concentrate ore handling was above 9 {mu}m however: the MMAD at the down stream processing was about 3 {mu}m. Composite air samples were subjected to leaching in simulated lung serum to find the solubility class. The urine samples of occupational workers engaged in mineral beneficiation showed Th levels ranging from 39 to 552 ng l{sup -1} with a geometric mean of 186 ng l{sup -1}. The results were obtained using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The observed levels of Th in the urine samples were lower than the predicted levels, due to resistance of the mineral to biochemical leaching. In a limited number of urine samples Ce ranged from 312 to 1587 ng l{sup -1} with a geometric mean of 700 ngl{sup -1}. These values, also determined by NAA, are unique in occupational settings. The Ce to Th ratio in the samples works out to 3.7 as against their ratio of 2.9 in the monazite mineral. The biological levels of Th and Ce observed in occupational settings need refinement on account of the possible environmental contribution due to uptake of these elements in the natural high radiation background areas. Detailed work on characterisation of dust, simulated leaching and analysis of biological samples is in progress in connection with the CRP. (author) 19 refs, 7 figs, 6 tabs

  11. Relationships among developmental stage, metamorphic timing, and concentrations of elements in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snodgrass, J.W.; Hopkins, W.A.; Roe, J.H. [Towson University, Towson, MD (United States). Dept. for Biological Science

    2003-07-01

    We collected bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) larvae from a coal combustion waste settling basin to investigate the effects of developmental stage and timing of metamorphosis on concentrations of a series of trace elements in bullfrog tissues. Bullfrogs at four stages of development (from no hind limbs to recently metamorphosed juveniles) and bullfrogs that metamorphosed in the fall or overwintered in the contaminated basin and metamorphosed in the spring were analyzed for whole-body concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ag, Sr, and Se. After the effects of dry mass were removed, tissue concentrations of six elements (Al, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, and Pb) decreased from the late larval stage through metamorphosis. Decreases in concentrations through metamorphosis ranged from 40% for Cu to 97% for Al. Tissue concentrations of these elements were also similar or higher in spring; Al and Cr concentrations were 34 and 90% higher in the spring, respectively, whereas As, Ni, Cu, and Pb concentrations were {lt} 10% higher. Concentrations of Cd, Se, and Ag varied among seasons but not among stages; Cd and Ag concentrations were 40 and 62% lower, respectively, and Se concentrations were 21% higher in spring. Concentrations of Zn varied only among stages; concentrations decreased gradually through late larval stage and then increased through metamorphosis. Concentrations of Sr varied among stages, but this variation was dependent on the season. Concentrations of Sr were higher in larval stages during the spring, but because concentrations of Sr increased 122% through metamorphosis in the fall and only 22% in the spring, concentrations were higher in fall metamorphs when compared with spring metamorphs. Our results indicate that metamorphosis and season of metamorphosis affects trace element concentrations in bullfrogs and may have important implications for the health of juveniles and the transfer of pollutants from the aquatic to the terrestrial environment.

  12. Involvement of CD244 in regulating CD4+ T cell immunity in patients with active tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfen Yang

    Full Text Available CD244 (2B4 is a member of the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM family of immune cell receptors and it plays an important role in modulating NK cell and CD8(+ T cell immunity. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of CD244/2B4 on CD4(+ T cells from active TB patients and latent infection individuals. Active TB patients had significantly elevated CD244/2B4 expression on M. tuberculosis antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells compared with latent infection individuals. The frequencies of CD244/2B4-expressing antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells were significantly higher in retreatment active TB patients than in new active TB patients. Compared with CD244/2B4-dull and -middle CD4(+ T cells, CD244/2B4-bright CD4(+ T cell subset had significantly reduced expression of IFN-γ, suggesting that CD244/2B4 expression may modulate IFN-γ production in M. tuberculosis antigen-responsive CD4(+ T cells. Activation of CD244/2B4 signaling by cross-linking led to significantly decreased production of IFN-γ. Blockage of CD244/2B4 signaling pathway of T cells from patients with active TB resulted in significantly increased production of IFN-γ, compared with isotype antibody control. In conclusion, CD244/2B4 signaling pathway has an inhibitory role on M. tuberculosis antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell function.

  13. Evaluation of pre- and posttransplantation serum interferon-gamma and soluble CD30 for predicting liver allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Oh, E-J; Jung, E-S; Park, Y-J; Choi, J Y; Kim, D-G; Lee, K Y; Kang, C S

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify whether the serum interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), a Th1 cytokine, or soluble CD30 (sCD30), a marker for activation of Th2 cytokine-producing T cells, predict acute cellular rejection episodes among liver graft patients. Pretransplant and posttransplant sera from 32 living donor liver transplant recipients obtained on days 1, 3, and 7 after surgery were tested for serum IFNgamma and sCD30 concentrations using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Recipients with an acute rejection episode (ARE) (n=14) displayed significantly higher IFNgamma concentrations pretransplant than did the patients with no ARE (n=18) (PsCD30 were not different between the non-ARE and ARE groups. However, in comparison with the non-ARE group, who showed steadily decreasing serum sCD30 levels after transplantation, 12 among the 14 patients in the ARE group showed increasing sCD30 levels from day 1 to day 3 after transplantation (PsCD30 increment during the early period after liver transplantation affects the immune response of rejection. This observation emphasizes the clinical relevance of serum sCD30, in addition to serum IFNgamma, as predictive markers for acute liver graft rejection.

  14. pH dependent interaction of biofunctionalized CdS nanoparticles with nucleobases and nucleotides: A fluorimetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Anindita; Priyam, Amiya; Bhattacharya, Subhash C.; Saha, Abhijit

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of DNA bases and corresponding nucleotides with CdS nanoparticles (NPs), biofunctionalized by cysteine, has been investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Unique enhancement effect of adenine, in contrast to other nucleobases, on the luminescence of cysteine capped CdS (cys-CdS) NPs at both pH 7.5 and 10.5 was found, the extent of enhancement being much higher at pH 10.5. At the latter pH, the difference optical absorption spectra show development of new peak at 278 nm with corresponding decrease in the absorption of adenine at 260 nm, which is attributed to binding of adenine anion to the CdS surface through N7 of the purine ring. Appearance of a new band at 478 cm -1 and concomitant shift in the C 8 -N 7 vibrations to 1610 cm -1 in the FTIR spectra of cys-CdS NPs with adenine also suggest Cd-N7 binding on the particle surface. Amongst various nucleotides, ATP exhibited maximum luminescence enhancement on CdS NPs for a given change in concentration in the micro-molar range at physiological pH. A quantitative correlation between ATP concentration and PL enhancement of CdS NPs has been established, a step which in future might assist in developing new protocols for fluorescence sensing of adenine nucleotides under certain pathological conditions

  15. Heavy Metal Concentration in Black Tea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Tea is one of the most important beverages that consumes in several parts of the world including Iran. Tea plant can be contaminated during manufacturing processes and growth period by pollutants such as heavy metals. In this study, the concentration of some heavy metals in different brands of both Iranian and imported black tea to Iran was investigated to survey the human exposure to such pollutants. Materials & Methods: The study was carried out on different brands of black tea that most widely consume in Iran. The samples were collected from available supermarkets in Tehran city and concentrations of Mn, Cd and Cu were determined in black tea, using ICP-OES. Finally obtained results, by one way ANOVA analysis, compared to maximum contaminant concentration which is determined by WHO. Results: Results showed that concentrations of measured heavy metals in sampled black tea were different according to the brand of tea. The mean of Mn, Cu and Cd elements in all tea samples were 664.78, 26.15 and 0.194 µg/g, respectively. Generally, Cu content in studied samples was not significantly above WHO but Cd content, in some cases, was significantly higher than WHO. The guideline value is not given by WHO for Mn content of tea. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, Cd content is exceeding than WHO standards, therefore, control of Cd, as a toxic element that can accumulate in living systems, is necessary.

  16. Photovoltaic properties of sintered CdS/CdTe solar cells doped with Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.W.; Ahn, B.T.; Im, H.B.; Kim, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, all polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells doped with Cu are prepared by a screen printing and sintering method. Cell parameters of the sintered CdS/CdTe solar cells have been investigated in an attempt to find out the optimum doping conditions and concentrations of Cu by adding various amounts of CuCl 2 either into CdTe layer or into back contact carbon layer. Cell parameters of the sintered CdS/CdTe solar cells which contained various amounts of CuCl 2 in the CdTe layers before sintering stay at about the same values as the amount of CuCl 2 increases up to 25 ppm, and then decreases sharply as the amount of CuCl 2 further increases. The Cu added in the CdTe layer diffuses into the CdS layer during the sintering of the CdS-CdTe composite at 625 degrees C to densify the CdTe layer and causes the decrease in the optical transmission of CdS resulting in the degradation of the cell performance. In case the Cu dopant was dispersed in the back carbon paint and was followed by annealing, all cell parameters are improved significantly compared with those fabricated by adding CuCl 2 in the CdTe layer before sintering. A sintered CdS/CdTe solar cell which contained 25 ppm CuCl 2 in the carbon paste and was annealed at 350 degrees C for 10 min shows the highest efficiency. The efficiency of this cell is 12.4% under solar irradiation with an intensity of 80.4 mW/cm 2

  17. Expression of CD133 in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Fetnat M; Foda, Mona E; Kamal, Howyda M; Elshabrawy, Deena A

    2013-06-01

    There have been conflicting results regarding a correlation between CD133 expression and disease outcome. To assess CD133 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to evaluate its correlation with the different clinical and laboratory data as well as its relation to disease outcome, the present study included 60 newly diagnosed acute leukemic patients; 30 ALL patients with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1 and their ages ranged from 9 months to 48 years, and 30 AML patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 and their ages ranged from 17 to 66 years. Flow cytometric assessment of CD133 expression was performed on blast cells. In ALL, no correlations were elicited between CD133 expression and some monoclonal antibodies, but in AML group, there was a significant positive correlation between CD133 and HLA-DR, CD3, CD7 and TDT, CD13 and CD34. In ALL group, patients with negative CD133 expression achieved complete remission more than patients with positive CD133 expression. In AML group, there was no statistically significant association found between positive CD133 expression and treatment outcome. The Kaplan-Meier curve illustrated a high significant negative correlation between CD133 expression and the overall survival of the AML patients. CD133 expression is an independent prognostic factor in acute leukemia, especially ALL patients and its expression could characterize a group of acute leukemic patients with higher resistance to standard chemotherapy and relapse. CD133 expression was highly associated with poor prognosis in acute leukemic patients.

  18. CD28-Negative CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Antiretroviral Therapy–Naive HIV-Infected Adults Enrolled in Adult Clinical Trials Group Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Landay, Alan; Collier, Ann C.; Connick, Elizabeth; Deeks, Steven G.; Hunt, Peter; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Wilson, Cara; Bosch, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have higher risk than HIV-negative individuals for diseases associated with aging. T-cell senescence, characterized by expansion of cells lacking the costimulatory molecule CD28, has been hypothesized to mediate these risks. Methods We measured the percentage of CD28−CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from HIV-infected treatment-naive adults from 5 Adult Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) antiretroviral therapy (ART) studies and the ALLRT (ACTG Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials) cohort, and from 48 HIV-negative adults. Pretreatment and 96-week posttreatment %CD28− cells were assessed using linear regression for associations with age, sex, race/ethnicity, CD4 count, HIV RNA, ART regimen, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Results In total, 1291 chronically HIV-infected adults were studied. Pretreatment, lower CD4 count was associated with higher %CD28−CD4+ and %CD28−CD8+ cells. For CD8+ cells, younger age and HCV infection were associated with a lower %CD28−. ART reduced %CD28− levels at week 96 among virally suppressed individuals. Older age was strongly predictive of higher %CD28−CD8+. Compared to HIV-uninfected individuals, HIV-infected individuals maintained significantly higher %CD28−. Conclusions Effective ART reduced the proportion of CD28− T cells. However, levels remained abnormally high and closer to levels in older HIV-uninfected individuals. This finding may inform future research of increased rates of age-associated disease in HIV-infected adults. PMID:22448010

  19. A viral long terminal repeat expressed in CD4+CD8+ precursors is downregulated in mature peripheral CD4-CD8+ or CD4+CD8- T cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Paquette, Y; Doyon, L; Laperrière, A; Hanna, Z; Ball, J; Sekaly, R P; Jolicoeur, P

    1992-01-01

    The long terminal repeat from a thymotropic mouse mammary tumor virus variant, DMBA-LV, was used to drive the expression of two reporter genes, murine c-myc and human CD4, in transgenic mice. Expression was observed specifically in thymic immature cells. Expression of c-myc in these cells induced oligoclonal CD4+ CD8+ T-cell thymomas. Expression of human CD4 was restricted to thymic progenitor CD4- CD8- and CD4+ CD8+ T cells and was shut off in mature CD4+ CD8- and CD4- CD8+ T cells, known to...

  20. Soluble CD40 ligand contributes to blood-brain barrier breakdown and central nervous system inflammation in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hiroki; Mori, Masahiro; Uchida, Tomohiko; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Ohtani, Ryohei; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-04-15

    Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is reported to disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum sCD40L levels were measured in 29 multiple sclerosis (MS), 29 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and 27 disease control (DC) patients. In MS, serum sCD40L levels were higher than in DCs and positively correlated with the CSF/serum albumin ratio (Qalb). In NMOSD, CSF sCD40L levels were significantly increased compared to DCs, and were correlated to Qalb, CSF cell counts, protein concentrations, and interleukin-6 levels. sCD40L could be involved in BBB disruption in MS, whereas it may contribute to CNS inflammation in NMOSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  2. Non-traditional CD4+CD25-CD69+ regulatory T cells are correlated to leukemia relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-su; Wang, Xu-hua; Zhao, Xiang-yu; Chang, Ying-jun; Xu, Lan-ping; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Huang, Xiao-jun

    2014-07-01

    Non-traditional CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells were found to be involved in disease progression in tumor-bearing mouse models and cancer patients recently. We attempted to define whether this subset of T cells were related to leukemia relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The frequency of CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells among the CD4+ T cell population from the bone marrow of relapsed patients, patients with positive minimal residual disease (MRD+) and healthy donors was examined by flow cytometry. The CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells were also stained with the intracellular markers to determine the cytokine (TGF-β, IL-2 and IL-10) secretion. The results showed that the frequency of CD4+CD25-CD69 + T cells was markedly increased in patients in the relapsed group and the MRD + group compared to the healthy donor group. The percentage of this subset of T cells was significantly decreased after effective intervention treatment. We also analyzed the reconstitution of CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells at various time points after allo-HSCT, and the results showed that this subset of T cells reconstituted rapidly and reached a relatively higher level at +60 d in patients compared to controls. The incidence of either MRD+ or relapse in patients with a high frequency of CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells (>7%) was significantly higher than that of patients with a low frequency of CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells at +60 d, +90 d and +270 d after transplant. However, our preliminary data indicated that CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells may not exert immunoregulatory function via cytokine secretion. This study provides the first clinical evidence of a correlation between non-traditional CD4+CD25-CD69+ Tregs and leukemia relapse after allo-HSCT and suggests that exploration of new methods of adoptive immunotherapy may be beneficial. Further research related to regulatory mechanism behind this phenomenon would be necessary.

  3. Leaching of cadmium and tellurium from cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film solar panels under simulated landfill conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Wilkening, Jean V; Field, James A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2017-08-15

    A crushed non-encapsulated CdTe thin-film solar cell was subjected to two standardized batch leaching tests (i.e., Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and California Waste Extraction Test (WET)) and to a continuous-flow column test to assess cadmium (Cd) and tellurium (Te) dissolution under conditions simulating the acidic- and the methanogenic phases of municipal solid waste landfills. Low levels of Cd and Te were solubilized in both batch leaching tests (<8.2% and <3.6% of added Cd and Te, respectively). On the other hand, over the course of 30days, 73% of the Cd and 21% of the Te were released to the synthetic leachate of a continuous-flow column simulating the acidic landfill phase. The dissolved Cd concentration was 3.24-fold higher than the TCLP limit (1mgL -1 ), and 650-fold higher than the maximum contaminant level established by the US-EPA for this metal in drinking water (0.005mgL -1 ). In contrast, the release of Cd and Te to the effluent of the continuous-flow column simulating the methanogenic phase of a landfill was negligible. The remarkable difference in the leaching behavior of CdTe in the columns is related to different aqueous pH and redox conditions promoted by the microbial communities in the columns, and is in agreement with thermodynamic predictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical proteomics identifies urinary CD14 as a potential biomarker for diagnosis of stable coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Recently, urinary proteins were found to be useful markers for reflecting inflammation status of different organs. To identify potential biomarker for diagnosis of CAD, we performed one-dimensional SDS-gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Among the proteins differentially expressed in urine samples, monocyte antigen CD14 was found to be consistently expressed in higher amounts in the CAD patients as compared to normal controls. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to analyze the concentrations of CD14 in urine and serum, we confirmed that urinary CD14 levels were significantly higher in patients (n = 73 with multi-vessel and single vessel CAD than in normal control (n = 35 (P < 0.001. Logistic regression analysis further showed that urinary CD14 concentration level is associated with severity or number of diseased vessels and SYNTAX score after adjustment for potential confounders. Concomitantly, the proportion of CD14+ monocytes was significantly increased in CAD patients (59.7 ± 3.6% as compared with healthy controls (14.9 ± 2.1% (P < 0.001, implicating that a high level of urinary CD14 may be potentially involved in mechanism(s leading to CAD pathogenesis. By performing shotgun proteomics, we further revealed that CD14-associated inflammatory response networks may play an essential role in CAD. In conclusion, the current study has demonstrated that release of CD14 in urine coupled with more CD14+ monocytes in CAD patients is significantly correlated with severity of CAD, pointing to the potential application of urinary CD14 as a novel noninvasive biomarker for large-scale diagnostic screening of susceptible CAD patients.

  5. Cadmium (Cd) Localization in Tissues of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and Its Phytoremediation Potential for Cd-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Fan, Lidong; Xing, Liteng; Yang, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation using economically valuable, large biomass, non-edible plants is a promising method for metal-contaminated soils. This study investigated cotton's tolerance for Cd and remediation potential through analyzing Cd bioaccumulation and localization in plant organs under different soil Cd levels. Results showed cotton presents good tolerance when soil Cd concentration ≤20.26 mg kg(-1). Cotton had good Cd accumulation ability under low soil Cd levels (soil Cd, while roots and stems were the main compartments of Cd storage. Cd complexation to other organic constituents in root and stem cell sap could be a primary detoxifying strategy. Therefore, cotton is a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  6. Ecotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots to freshwater mussels: Impacts on immune system, oxidative stress and genotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, F.; Auclair, J.; Turcotte, P.; Fournier, M.; Gagnon, C.; Sauve, S.; Blaise, C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the toxic effects of cadmium-telluride (CdTe) quantum dots on freshwater mussels. Elliption complanata mussels were exposed to increasing concentrations of CdTe (0, 1.6, 4 and 8 mg/L) and cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 , 0.5 mg/L) for 24 h at 15 o C. After the exposure period, they were removed for assessments of immunocompetence, oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and genotoxicity (DNA strand breaks). Preliminary experiments revealed that CdTe dissolved in aquarium water tended to aggregate in the particulate phase (85%) while 15% of CdTe was found in the dissolved phase. Immunotoxicity was characterized by a significant decrease in the number of hemocytes capable of ingesting fluorescent beads, and hemocyte viability. The cytotoxic capacity of hemocytes to lyse mammalian K-562 cells was significantly increased, but the number of circulating hemocytes remained unchanged. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased at a threshold concentration of 5.6 mg/L in gills and significantly reduced in digestive glands at a threshold concentration <1.6 mg/L CdTe. The levels of DNA strand breaks were significantly reduced in gills at <1.6 mg/L CdTe. In digestive glands, a transient but marginal increase in DNA strand breaks occurred at the lowest concentration and dropped significantly at the higher concentrations. A multivariate analysis revealed that the various response patterns differed based on the concentration of CdTe, thus permitting the identification of biomarkers associated with the form (colloidal vs. molecular) of cadmium

  7. Ecotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots to freshwater mussels: Impacts on immune system, oxidative stress and genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne, F. [Fluvial Ecosystem Research, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada)], E-mail: francois.gagne@ec.gc.ca; Auclair, J.; Turcotte, P. [Fluvial Ecosystem Research, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Fournier, M. [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus, Pointe-Claire, Quebec, H9R 3G6 (Canada); Gagnon, C. [Fluvial Ecosystem Research, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Sauve, S. [Departement de Chimie, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Blaise, C. [Fluvial Ecosystem Research, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada)

    2008-02-18

    The purpose of this study was to examine the toxic effects of cadmium-telluride (CdTe) quantum dots on freshwater mussels. Elliption complanata mussels were exposed to increasing concentrations of CdTe (0, 1.6, 4 and 8 mg/L) and cadmium sulfate (CdSO{sub 4}, 0.5 mg/L) for 24 h at 15 {sup o}C. After the exposure period, they were removed for assessments of immunocompetence, oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and genotoxicity (DNA strand breaks). Preliminary experiments revealed that CdTe dissolved in aquarium water tended to aggregate in the particulate phase (85%) while 15% of CdTe was found in the dissolved phase. Immunotoxicity was characterized by a significant decrease in the number of hemocytes capable of ingesting fluorescent beads, and hemocyte viability. The cytotoxic capacity of hemocytes to lyse mammalian K-562 cells was significantly increased, but the number of circulating hemocytes remained unchanged. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased at a threshold concentration of 5.6 mg/L in gills and significantly reduced in digestive glands at a threshold concentration <1.6 mg/L CdTe. The levels of DNA strand breaks were significantly reduced in gills at <1.6 mg/L CdTe. In digestive glands, a transient but marginal increase in DNA strand breaks occurred at the lowest concentration and dropped significantly at the higher concentrations. A multivariate analysis revealed that the various response patterns differed based on the concentration of CdTe, thus permitting the identification of biomarkers associated with the form (colloidal vs. molecular) of cadmium.

  8. [Cd Runoff Load and Soil Profile Movement After Implementation of Some Typical Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation Strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Wei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-15

    Owing to the strong ability to immobilize and hyperaccumulate some toxic heavy metals in contaminated soils, the biochar, lime and such as hyperaccumulator ramie received increasing interests from crops and environment safety in recent years. Outdoor pot experiment was conducted to compare the impacts of lime and biochar addition in paddy rice treatment, hyperaccumulator ramie and ramie combined with EDTA of plant Phytoremediation methods on soil available Cd dynamics in rainfall runoff and the mobility along soil profile, under both natural acid precipitation and acid soil conditions. The results showed that, biochar addition at a 2% mass ratio application amount significantly increased soil pH, while ramie with EDTA application obviously decreased soil pH compared to ramie monoculture. Within the same rainfall events, water soluble Cd concentration in surface runoff of ramie treatments was significantly higher than those of waterlogged rice treatments, and Cd concentration in runoff was obviously increased after EDTA addition, whereas lime at a 0.3% mass ratio application amount as additive had no obvious impact on soil pH and Cd speciation change, which may be due to the low application amount. During the whole experimental period , water soluble Cd concentration of rainfall runoff in spring was higher than that in summer, showing the same seasonal characteristics in all treatments. Biochar addition could significantly decrease available Cd content in 0-20 cm soil layer and with certain preferable persistency effects, whereas EDTA addition treatment obviously increased available Cd of 0-20 cm soil layer compared to other treatments, and obvious Cd element activation phenomenon in 20-40 cm soil layer was observed after EDTA addition. In conclusion, lime and biochar as environmental and friendly alkaline Cd immobilization materials showed lower environment risk to surface and ground receiving water, but attention should be paid to phytoremediation enhanced with

  9. Cellular reactions of CD3+ CD4+ CD45RO+ T-lymphocytes on dexamethason in in normal patients and in patients with with rheumatoid arthritis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Litvinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of glucocorticoid (GC dexamethasone (Dex on changes in CD4+ T-cells expressing the surface molecule of activation (CD25, CD71, HLA-DR and CD95 and their ability to produce proinflammatory mediators in cultures of TCR-stimulated CD3+CD45RO+ T-lymphocytes obtained from healthy donors and patients with rheumatoid arthritis in vitro.Materials and methods. The study included 50 patients and 20 healthy donors. T-cell cultures (CD3+ CD45RO+ were obtained from mononuclear leukocytes of immunomagnetic separation (MACS® technology. As an activator of T-lymphocytes, antibiotic particles with biotinylated antibodies against CD2+, CD3+, CD28+, which simulate the process of costimulation of T cells by antigen-presenting cells, were used. The following concentrations of dexamethasone (2, 8, 16, 32, 64 mg were used in the experiment. The change in the immunophenotype of T-lymphocytes was analyzed by flow cytofluoometry. The secretion of CD3+CD45RO+ T-cells of proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-17 and IL-21 was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results. The general suppressor effect of Dex on CD3+CD45RO+ T-cell cultures mediated by a decrease in the number of CD4 + T cells expressing activation molecules (CD25 and proliferation (CD71, as well as inhibition of the production of inflammatory mediators: IFNγ, IL-2 and TNFα. It is shown that against the background of TCR activation Dex increases the number of CD4+CD95+HLA-DR+ cells in CD3+CD45RO+ cultures obtained from RA patients and does not change their content in the control. The correlations between the number of proinflammatory factors (IL-17, IL-21 and TNFα in CD4+CD45RO+CD95+HLA-DR+ T cells in supernatants of cell cultures in RA patients indicate the presence of a pro-inflammatory potential of this population of T cells. We assume that the resistance of CD4+CD45RO+CD95+HLA-DR+ T cells in RA patients to the suppressor effect of

  10. S and Te inter-diffusion in CdTe/CdS hetero junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez, J. Pantoja [Cuerpo Academico-Energia y Sustentabilidad, Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, Eduardo J. Selvas S/N, Col. Magisterial, Tuxtla Gutierrez 29010, Chiapas (Mexico); Gomez Barojas, E. [CIDS-ICUAP, Apdo. Postal 1651, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Silva Gonzalez, R.; Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2007-09-22

    Effects of post formation thermal annealing of the CdTe-CdS device on the inter-diffusion of S and Te at the junction in a substrate configuration device have been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. While the migration of S and Te atoms increases with annealing temperature, the extent of S diffusion is always higher than the diffusion of Te atoms. Inter-diffusion of S and Te causes the formation of CdTe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} ternary compound at the CdTe-CdS interface. (author)

  11. Is vetiver grass of interest for the remediation of Cu and Cd to protect marketing gardens in Burkina Faso?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondo Zue Abaga, Norbert; Dousset, Sylvie; Mbengue, Saliou; Munier-Lamy, Colette

    2014-10-01

    In Burkina-Faso, urban vegetable agriculture is often characterized by urban solid waste fertilizer inputs containing heavy metals such as Cu and Cd. Thus, the relevance of surrounding urban vegetable plots with vetiver hedges to reduce environmental pollution by Cu and Cd was investigated by adsorption studies and pot experiments. Vetiver biomass, its metal contents and, its total and MgCl2 extractable soil metals were monitored over 6months in the presence of a mixture of metal at two concentrations: 2-10 and 100-500mgkg(-1), for Cd and Cu, respectively. The Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kf) values increased after vetiver growth and were significantly higher for vertisol than for lixisol. After 6months, the vetiver that was grown on lixisol accumulated more metal, increasing up to 4635mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 21.8mgkg(-1) for Cd, than did the vetiver that was grown on vertisol, increasing up to 1534mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 7.2mgkg(-1) for Cd. The metal bioconcentration factor, which was significantly higher for Cd, increased with the applied concentration and ranged from 1.6 to 14 for Cu and from 2.3 to 22 for Cd. Additionally, the translocation factors were higher for Cd (0.38-7.3) than for Cu (0.07-2.6), and the translocation was easiest from lixisol than from vertisol. Thus our results demonstrate the ability of vetiver for Cu and Cd phytoremediation in Burkina Faso soils. Nevertheless, these results should be confirmed across the field to advocate the establishment of vetiver hedges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional dichotomy between NKG2D and CD28-mediated co-stimulation in human CD8+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakannan Rajasekaran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Both CD28 and NKG2D can function as co-stimulatory receptors in human CD8+ T cells. However, their independent functional contributions in distinct CD8+ T cell subsets are not well understood. In this study, CD8+ T cells in human peripheral blood- and lung-derived lymphocytes were analyzed for CD28 and NKG2D expression and function. We found a higher level of CD28 expression in PBMC-derived naïve (CD45RA+CD27+ and memory (CD45RA-CD27+ CD8+ T cells (CD28Hi, while its expression was significantly lower in effector (CD45RA+CD27- CD8+ T cells (CD28Lo. Irrespective of the differences in the CD28 levels, NKG2D expression was comparable in all three CD8+ T cell subsets. CD28 and NKG2D expressions followed similar patterns in human lung-resident GILGFVFTL/HLA-A2-pentamer positive CD8+ T cells. Co-stimulation of CD28Lo effector T cells via NKG2D significantly increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. On the contrary, irrespective of its comparable levels, NKG2D-mediated co-stimulation failed to augment IFN-γ and TNF-α production in CD28Hi naïve/memory T cells. Additionally, CD28-mediated co-stimulation was obligatory for IL-2 generation and thereby its production was limited only to the CD28Hi naïve/memory subsets. MICA, a ligand for NKG2D was abundantly expressed in the tracheal epithelial cells, validating the use of NKG2D as the major co-stimulatory receptor by tissue-resident CD8+ effector T cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that NKG2D may provide an expanded level of co-stimulation to tissue-residing effector CD8+ T cells. Thus, incorporation of co-stimulation via NKG2D in addition to CD28 is essential to activate tumor or tissue-infiltrating effector CD8+ T cells. However, boosting a recall immune response via memory CD8+ T cells or vaccination to stimulate naïve CD8+ T cells would require CD28-mediated co-stimulation.

  13. Impact of CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio at the invasive front of primary tumors on distant metastasis development in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Eiró

    Full Text Available Tumors are infiltrated by macrophages, T and B-lymphocytes, which may favor tumor development by promoting angiogenesis, growth and invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of the relative amount of macrophages (CD68⁺, T-cells (CD3⁺ and B-cells (CD20⁺ at the invasive front of breast carcinomas, and the expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs either at the invasive front or at the tumor center. We performed an immunohistochemical study counting CD3, CD20 and CD68 positive cells at the invasive front, in 102 breast carcinomas. Also, tissue sections were stained with MMP-2, -9, -11, -14 and TIMP-2 antibodies, and immunoreactivity location, percentage of reactive area and intensity were determined at the invasive front and at the tumor center. The results showed that an increased CD68 count and CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio were directly associated with both MMP-11 and TIMP-2 expression by mononuclear inflammatory cells at the tumor center (p = 0.041 and p = 0.025 for CD68 count and p = 0.001 and p = 0.045 for ratio, respectively for MMP-11 and TIMP-2. In addition, a high CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio (>0.05 was directly associated with a higher probability of shortened relapse-free survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio was an independent factor associated with distant relapse-free survival (RR: 2.54, CI: (1.23-5.24, p<0.01. Therefore, CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio at the invasive front could be used as an important prognostic marker.

  14. Soluble CD52 is an indicator of disease activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vojdeman, Fie J.; Herman, Sarah E. M.; Kirkby, Nikolai; Wiestner, Adrian; van T' Veer, Mars B.; Tjønnfjord, Geir E.; Itälä-Remes, Maija A.; Kimby, Eva; Farooqui, Mohammed Z.; Polliack, Aaron; Wu, Ka Lung; Doorduijn, Jeanette K.; Alemayehu, Wendimagegn G.; Wittebol, Shulamiet; Kozak, Tomas; Walewski, Jan; Abrahamse-Testroote, Martine C. J.; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Geisler, Christian H.; Niemann, Carsten U.

    2017-01-01

    CD52 is a glycoprotein expressed on normal as well as leukemic immune cells and shed as soluble CD52 (sCD52). We studied sCD52 levels in three CLL cohorts: the 'early', the 'high-risk', and the 'ibrutinib-treated'. The 'high-risk' patients had significantly higher sCD52 levels than the 'early'

  15. Structure of Cd-Ga melts. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, G.; Rainer-Harbach, G.; Steeb, S.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray small-angle scattering experiments were performed on nine melts of the Cd-Ga system at different temperatures up to 440 0 C. Evaluation of the data follows the Ornstein-Zernike theory of critical scattering, thus yielding correlation lengths xi of concentration fluctuations and the long-wavelenght limit Ssub(C)sub(C)(0) of the Bhatia-Thornton structure factor. Studies of the concentration and temperature dependence of xi and Ssub(C)sub(C)(0) indicate that the critical point occurs at csub(c) = 50.0 +- 1.0 at% Ga and Tsub(c) = 295.2 +- 0.1 0 C. For a melt with the critical concentration, Ssub(C)sub(C)(0) increases up to 3500 times the ideal Ssup(i)sup(d)sub(c)sub(c)(0) = csub(A)csub(B). This indicates a strong segregation tendency. In the vicinity of the critical point of the Cd-Ga system, experimental correlation lengths xi > 100 Angstroem were obtained. The critical-point exponents ν and γ were determined. It follows that the behaviour of a critical Cd-Ga melt satisfies the prediction of the classical mean-field theory for higher temperatures, whereas, within experimental accuracy, the lattice-gas predictions are satisfied upon approaching the critical temperature. (orig.)

  16. Improved photoluminescence quantum yield and stability of CdSe-TOP, CdSe-ODA-TOPO, CdSe/CdS and CdSe/EP nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shutian; Zhu, Zhilin; Wang, Zhixiao; Wei, Gugangfen; Wang, Pingjian; Li, Hai; Hua, Zhen; Lin, Zhonghai

    2016-07-01

    Size-controllable monodisperse CdSe nanocrystals with different organic capping were prepared based on the hot-injection method. The effective separation of nucleation and growth was achieved by rapidly mixing two highly reactive precursors. As a contrast, we prepared CdSe/CdS nanocrystals (NCs) successfully based on the selective ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. This inorganic capping obtained higher photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 59.3% compared with organic capping of 40.8%. Furthermore, the CdSe-epoxy resin (EP) composites were prepared by adopting a flexible ex situ method, and showed excellent stability in the ambient environment for one year. So the composites with both high PLQY of nanocrystals and excellent stability are very promising to device application.

  17. Higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea are independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating homocysteine concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We investigated the hypothesis that intakes of nutrients and foods are associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, intakes of all B vitamins (folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and riboflavin) were inversely associated with homocysteine concentration. However, only vitamin B-6 remained significant after further adjustment for other B vitamins. Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake showed an inverse association, but this was not independent of intakes of B vitamins. For foods, pulses, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were independently and inversely associated with homocysteine concentration, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for intakes of other foods. Conversely, an inverse association for dairy products and a positive association for green and oolong tea remained even after adjustment for other foods. To conclude, in a group of young Japanese women, higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea were independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased Aqueous Humor CD4+/CD8+ Lymphocyte Ratio in Sarcoid Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Namita; Chevour, Priyanka; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Venkatesh, Anitha; Kawali, Ankush; Shetty, Rohit; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Sethu, Swaminathan

    2018-02-08

    To determine aqueous humor CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocyte ratio changes in sarcoid and non-sarcoid uveitis with anterior chamber involvement. The case-control study includes 61 patients with either anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis with anterior spill, or panuveitis. A total of 21 of them were categorized as sarcoid uveitis and 40 as non-sarcoid uveitis according to diagnostic criteria. CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the aqueous humor was determined using flow cytometry. Significantly higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the aqueous humor was observed in patients with sarcoid uveitis (6.3 ± 1.4; mean ± SEM) compared to non-sarcoid uveitis (1.6 ± 0.1; mean ± SEM). Whole blood CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not elevated in subjects with sarcoid and non-sarcoid uveitis. Aqueous humor CD4+/CD8+ ratio >3.5 was observed to be associated with sarcoid uveitis (OR 38, 95% CI 7.0-205.2). Increased aqueous humor CD4+/CD8+ ratio in sarcoid uveitis. Immunophenotyping of localized lymphocytosis in aqueous humor could be utilized as an additional confirmatory marker for ocular sarcoidosis.

  19. IL-17-Expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Human Toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Líver Alves Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the synthesis of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by mononuclear cells after culture with live T. gondii and identified Th17 (CD4+ and Tc17 (CD8+ cells in toxoplasma-seronegative and toxoplasma-seropositive parturient and nonpregnant women. Cytometric bead arrays were used to measure cytokine levels (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10; immunophenotyping was used to characterize Th17 and Tc17 cells, and the cells were stained with antibodies against CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing IL-17. The addition of tachyzoites to cell cultures induced the synthesis of IL-5, IL-10, and TNF-α by cells from seronegative parturient women and of IL-5 and IL-10 by cells from seropositive, nonpregnant women. We observed a lower level of IL-17-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in cultures of cells from seronegative and seropositive parturient and nonpregnant women that were stimulated with tachyzoites, whereas analysis of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations showed a higher level of CD4+ T cells compared with CD8+ T cells. These results suggest that the cytokine pattern and IL-17-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes may have important roles in the inflammatory response to T. gondii, thus contributing to the maintenance of pregnancy and control of parasite invasion and replication.

  20. Measurements of Neuronal Soma Size and Estimated Peptide Concentrations in Addition to Cell Abundance Offer a Higher Resolution of Seasonal and Reproductive Influences of GnRH-I and GnIH in European Starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorin, Nelson; Calisi, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in vertebrate reproduction, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-I) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), can vary in the abundance of immunoreactive cells as a function of the reproductive status and nest box occupation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). While using the abundance of cells as an indicator of the activity of neurohormones is informative, incorporating information on cell size (readily observed using immunohistochemistry) can offer a more detailed understanding of environmentally-mediated changes in hormonal dynamics. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the size of cells' somas and the estimated concentration of peptides in cells immunoreactive (ir) for GnRH-I and GnIH would vary throughout the breeding season and as a function of nest-box status (resident or not). In the absence of a direct assay of protein, we estimated an index of the concentration of hypothalamic peptides via the relative optical density (i.e., the difference between the mean optical density and the optical density of background staining). In support of our hypothesis, we found that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration changed both in males and females throughout the breeding season. Somas were largest and estimated peptide concentration was highest mid-season when compared with earlier in the season or to the non-breeding period. For nest-box residents, GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration were higher during the middle of the breeding season than earlier in the breeding season, although residence in the nest box was not related to GnRH-I-ir variables. Our results confirm that previously reported changes in cell abundance mimic changes we see in GnRH-I and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration. However, investigating changes in the soma of GnRH-I-ir cells revealed a peak in size during the middle of the breeding season, a change not evident when solely examining data on the

  1. [Increased expressions of peripheral PD-1+ lymphocytes and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells in gastric adenocarcinoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Li, Songyan; Hu, Shidong; Zou, Guijun; Hu, Zilong; Wei, Huahua; Wang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Objective To detect the frequencies of peripheral programmed death-1 + (PD-1 + ) lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods The study enrolled 29 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Frequencies of PD-1 + lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells were detected using flow cytometry. Results The number of PD-1 + lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in peripheral blood was higher in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma than that in the control group. Moreover, linear correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between PD-1 expression and frequency of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of the patients. Conclusion Gastric adenocarcinoma patients present with increased PD-1 + lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood.

  2. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Erin R. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States)]. E-mail: erin-harper@hotmail.com; St Leger, Judy A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Westberg, Jody A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Mazzaro, Lisa [Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Schmitt, Todd [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Reidarson, Tom H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Tucker, Melinda [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Cross, Dee H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Puschner, Birgit [California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring.

  3. Comparative assessment of image quality for coronary CT angiography with iobitridol and two contrast agents with higher iodine concentrations: iopromide and iomeprol. A multicentre randomized double-blind trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, Stephan [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Paul, Jean-Francois [Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Department of Radiology, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Laurent, Francois [University of Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, U1045, Bordeaux (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Becker, Hans-Christoph [University Hospital Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Rengo, Marco [Sapienza - University of Rome, ICOT Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Caudron, Jerome [University Hospital of Rouen, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Leschka, Sebastian [Saint Gallen Hospital, Department of Radiology, Saint Gallen (Switzerland); Vignaux, Olivier [Cochin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Knobloch, Gesine [La Charite, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Benea, Giorgio [Ospedale del Delta, Ferrara (Italy); Schlosser, Thomas [Elisabeth-Krankenhaus Hospital, Essen (Germany); Andreu, Jordi [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Cabeza, Beatriz [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Jacquier, Alexis [La Timone Adult Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Souto, Miguel [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Revel, Didier [Louis Pradel Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lyon (France); Qanadli, Salah Dine [University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cademartiri, Filippo [Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Department of Radiology, Monastier di Treviso (Italy); Collaboration: X-ACT Study Group

    2017-02-15

    To demonstrate non-inferiority of iobitridol 350 for coronary CT angiography (CTA) compared to higher iodine content contrast media regarding rate of patients evaluable for the presence of coronary artery stenoses. In this multicentre trial, 452 patients were randomized to receive iobitridol 350, iopromide 370 or iomeprol 400 and underwent coronary CTA using CT systems with 64-detector rows or more. Two core lab readers assessed 18 coronary segments per patient regarding image quality (score 0 = non diagnostic to 4 = excellent quality), vascular attenuation, signal and contrast to noise ratio (SNR, CNR). Patients were considered evaluable if no segment had a score of 0. Per-patient, the rate of fully evaluable CT scans was 92.1, 95.4 and 94.6 % for iobitridol, iopromide and iomeprol, respectively. Non-inferiority of iobitridol over the best comparator was demonstrated with a 95 % CI of the difference of [-8.8 to 2.1], with a pre-specified non-inferiority margin of -10 %. Although average attenuation increased with higher iodine concentrations, average SNR and CNR did not differ between groups. With current CT technology, iobitridol 350 mg iodine/ml is not inferior to contrast media with higher iodine concentrations in terms of image quality for coronary stenosis assessment. (orig.)

  4. ADP ribosyl-cyclases (CD38/CD157), social skills and friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Anne; Malavasi, Fabio; Israel, Salomon; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Yap, Von Bing; Monakhov, Mikhail; Chew, Soo Hong; Lai, Poh San; Ebstein, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    Why some individuals seek social engagement while others shy away has profound implications for normal and pathological human behavior. Evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT), the paramount human social hormone, and CD38 that governs OT release, contribute to individual differences in social skills from intense social involvement to extreme avoidance that characterize autism. To explore the neurochemical underpinnings of sociality, CD38 expression of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) was measured in Han Chinese undergraduates. First, CD38 mRNA levels were correlated with lower Autism Quotient (AQ), indicating enhanced social skills. AQ assesses the extent of autistic-like traits including the propensity and dexterity needed for successful social engagement in the general population. Second, three CD157 eQTL SNPs in the CD38/CD157 gene region were associated with CD38 expression. CD157 is a paralogue of CD38 and is contiguous with it on chromosome 4p15. Third, association was also observed between the CD157 eQTL SNPs, CD38 expression and AQ. In the full model, CD38 expression and CD157 eQTL SNPs altogether account for a substantial 14% of the variance in sociality. Fourth, functionality of CD157 eQTL SNPs was suggested by a significant association with plasma oxytocin immunoreactivity products. Fifth, the ecological validity of these findings was demonstrated with subjects with higher PBL CD38 expression having more friends, especially for males. Furthermore, CD157 sequence variation predicts scores on the Friendship questionnaire. To summarize, this study by uniquely leveraging various measures reveals salient elements contributing to nonkin sociality and friendship, revealing a likely pathway underpinning the transition from normality to psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of intermixing at CdS/CdTe interface on defect properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji-Sang, E-mail: jspark@anl.gov; Yang, Ji-Hui; Barnes, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Wei, Su-Huai, E-mail: suhuaiwei@csrc.ac.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2016-07-25

    We investigated the stability and electronic properties of defects in CdTe{sub 1−x}S{sub x} that can be formed at the CdS/CdTe interface. As the anions mix at the interface, the defect properties are significantly affected, especially those defects centered at cation sites like Cd vacancy, V{sub Cd}, and Te on Cd antisite, Te{sub Cd}, because the environment surrounding the defect sites can have different configurations. We show that at a given composition, the transition energy levels of V{sub Cd} and Te{sub Cd} become close to the valence band maximum when the defect has more S atoms in their local environment, thus improving the device performance. Such beneficial role is also found at the grain boundaries when the Te atom is replaced by S in the Te-Te wrong bonds, reducing the energy of the grain boundary level. On the other hand, the transition levels with respect to the valence band edge of CdTe{sub 1−x}S{sub x} increases with the S concentration as the valence band edge decreases with the S concentration, resulting in the reduced p-type doping efficiency.

  6. Cd Toxicity and Accumulation in Rice Plants Vary with Soil Nitrogen Status and Their Genotypic Difference can be Partly Attributed to Nitrogen Uptake Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin DU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two indica rice genotypes, viz. Milyang 46 and Zhenshan 97B differing in Cd accumulation and tolerance were used as materials in a hydroponic system consisting of four Cd levels (0, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 µmol/L and three N levels (23.2, 116.0 and 232.0 mg/L to study the effects of nitrogen status and nitrogen uptake capacity on Cd accumulation and tolerance in rice plants. N-efficient rice genotype, Zhenshan 97B, accumulated less Cd and showed higher Cd tolerance than N-inefficient rice genotype, Milyang 46. There was consistency between nitrogen uptake capacity and Cd tolerance in rice plants. Increase of N level in solution slightly increased Cd concentration in shoots but significantly increased in roots of both genotypes. Compared with the control at low N level, Cd tolerance in both rice genotypes could be significantly enhanced under normal N level, but no significant difference was observed between the Cd tolerances under normal N (116.0 mg/L and high N (232.0 mg/L conditions. The result proved that genotypic differences in Cd accumulation and toxicity could be, at least in part, attributed to N uptake capacity in rice plants.

  7. Subcellular compartmentalization of Cd and Zn in two bivalves. II. Significance of trophically available metal (TAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W.G.; Luoma, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines how the subcellular partitioning of Cd and Zn in the bivalves Macoma balthica and Potamocorbula amurensis may affect the trophic transfer of metal to predators. Results show that the partitioning of metals to organelles, 'enzymes' and metallothioneins (MT) comprise a subcellular compartment containing trophically available metal (TAM; i.e. metal trophically available to predators), and that because this partitioning varies with species, animal size and metal, TAM is similarly influenced. Clams from San Francisco Bay, California, were exposed for 14 d to 3.5 ??g 1-1 Cd and 20.5 ??g 1-1 Zn, including 109Cd and 65Zn as radiotracers, and were used in feeding experiments with grass shrimp Palaemon macrodatylus, or used to investigate the subcellular partitioning of metal. Grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated P. amurensis absorbed ???60% of ingested Cd, which was in accordance with the partitioning of Cd to the bivalve's TAM compartment (i.e. Cd associated with organelles, 'enzymes' and MT); a similar relationship was found in previous studies with grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated oligochaetes. Thus, TAM may be used as a tool to predict the trophic transfer of at least Cd. Subcellular fractionation revealed that ???34% of both the Cd and Zn accumulated by M. balthica was associated with TAM, while partitioning to TAM in P. amurensis was metal-dependent (???60% for TAM-Cd%, ???73% for TAM-Zn%). The greater TAM-Cd% of P. amurensis than M. balthica is due to preferential binding of Cd to MT and 'enzymes', while enhanced TAM-Zn% of P. amurensis results from a greater binding of Zn to organelles. TAM for most species-metal combinations was size-dependent, decreasing with increased clam size. Based on field data, it is estimated that of the 2 bivalves, P. amurensis poses the greater threat of Cd exposure to predators because of higher tissue concentrations and greater partitioning as TAM; exposure of Zn to predators would be similar between these species.

  8. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: a fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznaric, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Wevers, Jan H L; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2009-05-01

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils.

  9. Bio-remediation of Pb and Cd polluted soils by switchgrass: A case study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kalpana; Sharma, Satyawati; Monti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the present study bioremediation potential of a high biomass yielding grass, Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), along with plant associated microbes (AM fungi and Azospirillum), was tested against lead and cadmium in pot trials. A pot trial was set up in order to evaluate bioremediation efficiency of P. virgatum in association with PAMs (Plant Associated Microbes). Growth parameters and bioremediation potential of endomycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Azospirillum against different concentrations of Pb and Cd were compared. AM fungi and Azospirillum increased the root length, branches, surface area, and root and shoot biomass. The soil pH was found towards neutral with AMF and Azospirillum inoculations. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) for Pb (12 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (10 mg kg(-1)) were found to be 0.25 and 0.23 respectively and translocation index (Ti) was 17.8 and 16.7 respectively (approx 45% higher than control). The lower values of BCF and Ti, even at highest concentration of Pb and Cd, revealed the capability of switchgrass of accumulating high concentration of Pb and Cd in the roots, while preventing the translocation of Pb and Cd to aerial biomass.

  10. A Critical Role for CD200R Signaling in Limiting the Growth and Metastasis of CD200+ Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Qing; Talebian, Fatemeh; Wu, Lisha; Liu, Zhihao; Li, Ming-Song; Wu, Laichu; Zhu, Jianmin; Markowitz, Joseph; Carson, William E; Basu, Sujit; Bai, Xue-Feng

    2016-08-15

    CD200 is a cell surface glycoprotein that functions through engaging CD200R on cells of the myeloid lineage and inhibits their functions. Expression of CD200 was implicated in a variety of human cancer cells, including melanoma cells; however, its roles in tumor growth and immunity are not clearly understood. In this study, we used CD200R-deficient mice and the B16 tumor model to evaluate this issue. We found that CD200R-deficient mice exhibited accelerated growth of CD200(+), but not CD200(-), B16 tumors. Strikingly, CD200R-deficient mice receiving CD200(+) B16 cells i.v. exhibited massive tumor growth in multiple organs, including liver, lung, kidney, and peritoneal cavity, whereas the growth of the same tumors in wild-type mice was limited. CD200(+) tumors grown in CD200R-deficient mice contained higher numbers of CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) myeloid cells, exhibited increased expression of VEGF and HIF1α genes with increased angiogenesis, and showed significantly reduced infiltration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, presumably as the result of reduced expression of T cell chemokines, such as CXCL9 and CXCL16. The liver from CD200R-deficient mice, under metastatic growth of CD200(+) tumors, contained significantly increased numbers of CD11b(+)Gr1(-) myeloid cells and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and reduced numbers of NK cells. Liver T cells also had a reduced capacity to produce IFN-γ or TNF-α. Taken together, we revealed a critical role for CD200R signaling in limiting the growth and metastasis of CD200(+) tumors. Thus, targeting CD200R signaling may potentially interfere with the metastatic growth of CD200(+) tumors, like melanoma. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Apoptotic effects of antilymphocyte globulins on human pro-inflammatory CD4+CD28- T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Duftner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory, cytotoxic CD4(+CD28(- T-cells with known defects in apoptosis have been investigated as markers of premature immuno-senescence in various immune-mediated diseases. In this study we evaluated the influence of polyclonal antilymphocyte globulins (ATG-Fresenius, ATG-F on CD4(+CD28(- T-cells in vivo and in vitro. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surface and intracellular three colour fluorescence activated cell sorting analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 consecutive transplant recipients and short-term cell lines were performed. In vivo, peripheral levels of CD3(+CD4(+CD28(- T-cells decreased from 3.7 ± 7.1% before to 0 ± 0% six hours after ATG-F application (P = 0.043 in 5 ATG-F treated but not in 11 control patients (2.9 ± 2.9% vs. 3.9 ± 3.0%. In vitro, ATG-F induced apoptosis even in CD4(+CD28(- T-cells, which was 4.3-times higher than in CD4(+CD28(+ T-cells. ATG-F evoked apoptosis was partially reversed by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk and prednisolon-21-hydrogensuccinate. ATG-F triggered CD25 expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and induced down-regulation of the type 1 chemokine receptors CXCR-3, CCR-5, CX3CR-1 and the central memory adhesion molecule CD62L predominately in CD4(+CD28(- T-cells. CONCLUSION: In summary, in vivo depletion of peripheral CD3(+CD4(+CD28(- T-cells by ATG-F in transplant recipients was paralleled in vitro by ATG-F induced apoptosis. CD25 expression and chemokine receptor down-regulation in CD4(+CD28(- T-cells only partly explain the underlying mechanism.

  12. Soluble CD146, an innovative and non-invasive biomarker of embryo selection for in vitro fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Bouvier

    Full Text Available Although progress was made in in vitro fertilization (IVF techniques, the majority of embryos transferred fail to implant. Morphology embryo scoring is the standard procedure for most of IVF centres for choosing the best embryo, but remains limited since even the embryos classified as "top quality" may not implant. As it has been shown that i CD146 is involved in embryo implantation and ii membrane form is shed to generate soluble CD146 (sCD146, we propose that sCD146 in embryo supernatants may constitute a new biomarker of embryo selection. Immunocytochemical staining showed expression of CD146 in early embryo stages and sCD146 was detected by ELISA and Western-blot in embryo supernatants from D2. We retrospectively studied 126 couples who underwent IVF attempt. The embryo culture medium from each transferred embryo (n = 222 was collected for measurement of sCD146 by ELISA. Significantly higher sCD146 concentrations were present in embryo supernatants that did not implant (n = 185 as compared to those that successfully implanted (n = 37 (1310 +/- 1152 pg.mL-1 vs. 845+/- 1173 pg.mL-1, p = 0.024. Sensitivity analysis performed on single embryo transfers (n = 71 confirmed this association (p = 0.0054. The computed ROC curve established that the optimal sCD146 concentration for embryo implantation is under 1164 pg.mL-1 (sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 48%, PPV: 25% and NPV: 92%. Over this sCD146 threshold, the implantation rate was significantly lower (9% with sCD146 levels >1164 pg.ml-1 vs. 22% with sCD146 levels ≤ 1164 pg.mL-1, p = 0.01. Among the embryos preselected by morphologic scoring, sCD146 determination could allow a better selection of the embryo(s, thus improving the success of elective single embryo transfer. This study establishes the proof of concept for the use of sCD146 as a biomarker for IVF by excluding the embryo with the highest sCD146 level. A multicentre prospective study will now be necessary to further establish its use in

  13. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Commercially Important Oysters from Goa, Central-West Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, Prachi S; Gauns, Mangesh U; Ansari, Zakir A

    2016-12-01

    The major beds of oyster along the central-west coast of India are exposed to different anthropogenic activities and are severely exploited for human consumption. In this viewpoint, tissues of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, C. gryphoides and Saccostrea cucullata were analyzed for Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations (dry weight) from Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek and Chapora Bay in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. A higher concentration of Cu (134.4-2167.9 mg kg -1 ) and Cd (7.1-88.5 mg kg -1 ) was found, which is greater than the recommended limits in all the three species (and sites). Moreover, significant (p metals concentrations among the species, seasons and sites. The high concentrations of Cd and Cu in tissues of edible oyster pose a threat to human health. Therefore, continuous monitoring, people awareness and a stringent government policy should be implemented to mitigate the metal pollution along the studied sites.

  14. High-Quality ZnCdS Nanosheets Prepared Using Solvothermal Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi, M.A.; Hassan, J.J.; Ng, S.S.; Hassan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, Zn X Cd 1-X S nanosheets with different Zn and Cd ion concentrations were prepared using solvothermal synthesis at 200 degree C for 4 and 24 h. The crystalline structure of the nanosheets was wurtzite. The optical band gaps of the nanosheets increased with increasing Zn ratio; this increase is consistent with the band gaps estimated using Vegard’s formula. The photoluminescence spectra for the 24 h nanosheets had higher emission intensities than those for the 4 h nanosheets. The emission band corresponding to intrinsic near-band-edge emission and a broad peak associated with extrinsic deep-level emission were observed in the photoluminescence spectra.

  15. CD25 shedding by human natural occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells does not inhibit the action of IL-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst

    2009-01-01

    Tregs are known to inhibit CD4+ T cell in a contact-dependent manner, but at the same time, various suppressive factors are secreted. We, here, demonstrate that human naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Tregs are able to shed large amounts of soluble CD25 upon activation. Secretion of sCD25 could add......Regulatory T (Treg) cells are important for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and inhibition of pathogenic T-cell responses. Therefore, they are important for the limitation of chronic inflammation but can also be deleterious by e.g. limiting antitumour immune responses. Natural occurring...... to the inhibitory effect of Tregs as such secretion in other settings has been proposed to act as a sink for local IL-2. However, we here demonstrate that supernatant from human Tregs containing high concentration of sCD25 does not inhibit proliferation of CD4+CD25(-) T cells or inhibit the action of IL-2...

  16. Root morphological responses of three hot pepper cultivars to Cd exposure and their correlations with Cd accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Liu, Aiqun; Zhou, Wenjing; Yi, Yumei; Liao, Kebing

    2015-01-01

    Cultivars of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) differ widely in their fruit cadmium (Cd) concentrations. Previously, we suggested that low-Cd cultivars are better able to prevent the translocation of Cd from roots to aboveground parts, but the corresponding mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we aimed to improve understanding of the root morphological characteristics of the mechanisms involved in two low-Cd and a high-Cd cultivar. Seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions containing 0 (control), 2, and 10 μM Cd for 20 days, and Cd contents for the three cultivars were compared with changes in root morphology. The total root length (RL), root surface area (SA), number of root tips (RT), and specific root length (SRL) of all cultivars were decreased significantly by the 10 μM Cd treatment with the exception of the SA in JFZ, which showed no obvious change. For each cultivar, the 10 μM Cd treatment decreased significantly RL and SA specifically in roots with diameters (RD) of RD ≤ 0.2 mm or 0.2 mm roots with diameters of 0.6 mm root morphology. In the 10 μM Cd treatment, root volume (RV), SA, and RT of all cultivars were negatively correlated with Cd concentration and amount in roots. However, RL, SA, RV, and RT of all cultivars were positively correlated with Cd concentration and amount in shoots, and translocation rate of Cd. The two low-Cd cultivars of hot pepper had less root tips, shorter root length, and smaller root surface area than the high-Cd cultivar in 10 μM Cd treatment, which may play a vital role in reducing root-to-shoot Cd translocation.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of a novel nitric oxide fluorescent probe CdS-PMMA nanocomposite via in-situ bulk polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liyun; Li, Tao; Zhong, Yunming; Fan, Chao; Huang, Jun

    2014-02-01

    A novel nitric oxide (NO) fluorescent probe CdS-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites with different molar ratios of CdS quantum dots (QDs) to PMMA are developed successfully via in-situ bulk polymerization method. The optical properties of CdS/PMMA nanocomposites are studied by UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence (FL) spectra in detail. It is demonstrated that the optical properties from such nanocomposite solution are tuned and stabilized by simply varying the concentration of CdS in the final product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of CdS-PMMA nanocomposite with higher loading of CdS show broad pattern for cubic CdS, which has narrow particle size distribution with less than 5 nm in PMMA observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphological characterization of the CdS-PMMA nanocomposite has been done through atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirm the enhanced thermal stability of CdS-PMMA nanocomposites than PMMA. NO can coordinate with Cd(2+) as a ligand for transition metal complexes, which will cause a quenching effect on the fluorescence of CdS QDs. Therefore, a significant quenching effect on the fluorescence of the CdS-PMMA nanocomposite is observed in the presence of NO. The fluorescence responses are concentration-dependent and can be well described by the typical Stern-Volmer equation, and a linear calibration I0/I=1.0021+0.1944[NO] (R(2)=0.96052) is obtained in the range from 1.4×10(-5) to 9.3×10(-3) mol/L NO with a detection limit of 1.0×10(-6) mol/L (S/N=3). © 2013.

  18. The Function of CD3+CD56+ NKT-Like Cells in HIV-Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells are one of the critical effectors in the immune response to viral infection and tumors, but the functional features of NKT-like cells in HIV infection have been rarely reported. In this study, we observed and described the state of NKT-like cell functions in primary HIV-infected individuals (PHIs, chronic HIV-infected individuals (CHIs, long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs, and HIV-negative controls (NCs. The results showed that the percentage of IFN-γ+CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells was notably higher in LTNPs compared with CHIs, and the proportion of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells with dual function (IFN-γ+CD107a+ NKT-like cells in LTNPs was also much higher than in CHIs. Additionally, the percentages of IFN-γ+CD107a+ NKT-like cells negatively correlated with viral load. Taken together, our data demonstrated that good functions of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells in LTNPs likely occurred as a protective mechanism that slows down HIV disease progression.

  19. The function of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongjun; Cui, Xiaojian; Cui, Chen; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Fangyuan; Zhang, Zining; Fu, Yajing; Xu, Junjie; Chu, Zhenxing; Liu, Jing; Han, Xiaoxu; Liao, Christina; Wang, Yanan; Cao, Yaming; Shang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells are one of the critical effectors in the immune response to viral infection and tumors, but the functional features of NKT-like cells in HIV infection have been rarely reported. In this study, we observed and described the state of NKT-like cell functions in primary HIV-infected individuals (PHIs), chronic HIV-infected individuals (CHIs), long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs), and HIV-negative controls (NCs). The results showed that the percentage of IFN-γ(+)CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells was notably higher in LTNPs compared with CHIs, and the proportion of CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells with dual function (IFN-γ(+)CD107a(+) NKT-like cells) in LTNPs was also much higher than in CHIs. Additionally, the percentages of IFN-γ(+)CD107a(+) NKT-like cells negatively correlated with viral load. Taken together, our data demonstrated that good functions of CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells in LTNPs likely occurred as a protective mechanism that slows down HIV disease progression.

  20. Ag/CdS heterostructural composites: Fabrication, characterizations and photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Chi, Mei; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Husheng; Xu, Bingshe; Zhang, Zhuxia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel Ag/CdS core–shell heterostructural composites were fabricated using a two-step chemical method. • A formation mechanism of Ag/CdS heterostructural composites. • The photocatalytic activity of Ag/CdS heterostructural composites was found to be improved. • PL emissions are markedly quenched in the Ag/CdS composites than in CdS nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ag/CdS heterostructural materials were successfully synthesized by ultrasound-assisted polyols and hydrothermal method. Under hydrothermal condition, thiourea adsorbed on Ag nanowires releases S 2− ions, which react with vicinal Cd 2+ ions to form CdS clusters on Ag nanowires. Thereafter, the Ag/CdS composites grow into core–shell structure through CdS aggregation, Ostwald ripening, and preferential growth. The obtained core–shell structures and morphologies were investigated by XRD, SEM, and TEM; the experimental results indicate that the composites are composed of Ag nanowires serving as the core and CdS particles as the shell. The photocatalytic property of Ag/CdS core–shell materials was then investigated in detail. Comparing studies on the degradation of methylene blue were employed by using pure CdS, pure Ag, and Ag/CdS composites, respectively. The results show that the Ag/CdS composites possess higher photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Moreover, the Ag/CdS composites show improved stability, and the photocatalytic activity remains almost unchanged after four recycles. The enhanced photocatalytic effect for Ag/CdS composites is mainly attributed to the photogenerated electron transfer from CdS to Ag nanowire, while photogenerated holes still remain in CdS's valence band. Consequently, the effective separation of photogenerated electrons and holes and the resulting OH radicals improve the photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/CdS composites greatly

  1. Lineage determination of CD7+ CD5- CD2- and CD7+ CD5+ CD2- lymphoblasts: studies on phenotype, genotype, and gene expression of myeloperoxidase, CD3 epsilon, and CD3 delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, N; Tatsumi, E; Teshigawara, K; Nagata, S; Nagano, T; Kishimoto, Y; Kimura, T; Yasunaga, K; Yamaguchi, N

    1994-04-01

    The gene expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO), CD3 epsilon, and CD3 delta molecules, the gene rearrangement of T-cell receptor (TCR) delta, gamma, and beta and immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain, and the expression of cell-surface antigens were investigated in seven cases of CD7+ CD5- CD2- and four cases of CD7+ CD5+ CD2- acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma (ALL/LBL) blasts, which were negative for cytochemical myeloperoxidase (cyMPO). More mature T-lineage blasts were also investigated in a comparative manner. In conclusion, the CD7+ CD5- CD2- blasts included four categories: undifferentiated blasts without lineage commitment, T-lineage blasts, T-/myeloid lineage blasts, and cyMPO-negative myeloblasts. The CD7+ CD5+ CD2- blasts included two categories; T-lineage and T-/myeloid lineage blasts. The 11 cases were of the germ-line gene (G) for TCR beta and IgH. Four cases were G for TCR delta and TCR gamma. The others were of the monoclonally rearranged gene (R) for TCR delta and G for TCR gamma or R for both TCR delta and TCR gamma. The expression or in vitro induction of CD13 and/or CD33 antigens correlated with the immaturity of these neoplastic T cells, since it was observed in all 11 CD7+ CD5- CD2- and CD7+ CD5+ CD2-, and some CD7+ CD5+ CD2+ (CD3- CD4- CD8-) cases, but not in CD3 +/- CD4+ CD8+ or CD3+ CD4+ CD8- cases. CD3 epsilon mRNA, but not CD3 delta mRNA, was detected in two CD7+ CD5- CD2- cases, while mRNA of neither of the two CD3 molecules was detected in the other tested CD7+ CD5- CD2- cases. In contrast, mRNA of both CD3 epsilon and CD3 delta were detected in all CD7+ CD5+ CD2- cases, indicating that CD7+ CD5- CD2- blasts at least belong to T-lineage. The blasts of two CD7+ CD5- CD2- cases with entire germ-line genes and without mRNA of the three molecules (MPO, CD3 epsilon, and CD3 delta) were regarded as being at an undifferentiated stage prior to their commitment to either T- or myeloid-lineage. The co-expression of the genes of MPO

  2. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar eGhnaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 µM Cd, 100 µM Ni and the combination of 50 µM Cd + 100 µM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected plant development. Cadmium and Ni concentrations in tissues and xylem sap were higher in plants individually exposed to heavy metal application than in those subjected to the combined treatment Cd + Ni, suggesting a possible competition between these metals for absorption. Both metals applied separately or in combination induced an increase in citrate concentration in shoots and xylem sap but a decrease of this concentration in the roots. However a minor relationship was observed between metal application and fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in Cd, Ni translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could be involved in metal chelation and thus contributes to heavy metal tolerance in this species.

  3. Soluble CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger J

    2012-01-01

    CD163 is an endocytic receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes and is expressed solely on macrophages and monocytes. As a result of ectodomain shedding, the extracellular portion of CD163 circulates in blood as a soluble protein (sCD163) at 0.7-3.9 mg/l in healthy individuals. The function o...

  4. CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells in HIV-positive individuals on cART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojdeman, Fie Juhl; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Hartling, Hans Jakob

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immune defect virus (HIV) persists in a latent state in quiescent CD4+ T cells preventing eradication of HIV. CD52 is a surface molecule modulated by HIV. We aimed at examining factors related to CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells in HIV-positive individuals and the impact...... of initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 18 HIV-positive individuals and 10 uninfected age and gender matched controls were examined by flow cytometry for CD38 and CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells. Stimulation assays were performed on 8...... healthy blood donors to determine a cut-off for CD52 expression. RESULTS: All examined CD4+ T cells expressed CD52. However, both CD4+ T cells with higher (CD52++) and with lower CD52 expression (CD52dim) were found in HIV-positive individuals compared to uninfected controls. Two % CD52dim cells defined...

  5. The simultaneous ex vivo detection of low-frequency antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses using overlapping peptide pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satwinder Kaur; Meyering, Maaike; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H; Stynenbosch, Linda F M; Redeker, Anke; Kuppen, Peter J K; Melief, Cornelis J M; Welters, Marij J P; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2012-11-01

    The ability to measure antigen-specific T cells at the single-cell level by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) is a promising immunomonitoring tool and is extensively applied in the evaluation of immunotherapy of cancer. The protocols used to detect antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses generally work for the detection of antigen-specific T cells in samples that have undergone at least one round of in vitro pre-stimulation. Application of a common protocol but now using long peptides as antigens was not suitable to simultaneously detect antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells directly ex vivo in cryopreserved samples. CD8 T-cell reactivity to monocytes pulsed with long peptides as antigens ranged between 5 and 25 % of that observed against monocytes pulsed with a direct HLA class I fitting minimal CTL peptide epitope. Therefore, we adapted our ICS protocol and show that the use of tenfold higher concentration of long peptides to load APC, the use of IFN-α and poly(I:C) to promote antigen processing and improve T-cell stimulation, does allow for the ex vivo detection of low-frequency antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in an HLA-independent setting. While most of the improvements were related to increasing the ability to measure CD8+ T-cell reactivity following stimulation with long peptides to at least 50 % of the response detected when using a minimal peptide epitope, the final analysis of blood samples from vaccinated patients successfully showed that the adapted ICS protocol also increases the ability to ex vivo detect low-frequency p53-specific CD4+ T-cell responses in cryopreserved PBMC samples.

  6. Platelet released growth factors boost expansion of bone marrow derived CD34(+) and CD133(+) endothelial progenitor cells for autologous grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippross, Sebastian; Loibl, Markus; Hoppe, Sven; Meury, Thomas; Benneker, Lorin; Alini, Mauro; Verrier, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell based autologous grafting has recently gained mayor interest in various surgical fields for the treatment of extensive tissue defects. CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells that can be isolated from the pool of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) are capable of differentiating into mature endothelial cells in vivo. These endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are believed to represent a major portion of the angiogenic regenerative cells that are released from bone marrow when tissue injury has occurred. In recent years tissue engineers increasingly looked at the process of vessel neoformation because of its major importance for successful cell grafting to replace damaged tissue. Up to now one of the greatest problems preventing a clinical application is the large scale of expansion that is required for such purpose. We established a method to effectively enhance the expansion of CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells by the use of platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) as a media supplement. PRGF were prepared from thrombocyte concentrates and used as a media supplement to iscove's modified dulbecco's media (IMDM). EPC were immunomagnetically separated from human bone morrow monocyte cells and cultured in IMDM + 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), IMDM + 5%, FCS + 5% PRGF and IMDM + 10% PRGF. We clearly demonstrate a statistically significant higher and faster cell proliferation rate at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of culture when both PRGF and FCS were added to the medium as opposed to 10% FCS or 10% PRGF alone. The addition of 10% PRGF to IMDM in the absence of FCS leads to a growth arrest from day 14 on. In histochemical, immunocytochemical, and gene-expression analysis we showed that angiogenic and precursor markers of CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells are maintained during long-term culture. In summary, we established a protocol to boost the expansion of CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells. Thereby we provide a technical step towards the clinical application of autologous stem cell

  7. The early activation marker CD69 regulates the expression of chemokines and CD4 T cell accumulation in intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Radulovic

    Full Text Available Migration of naïve and activated lymphocytes is regulated by the expression of various molecules such as chemokine receptors and ligands. CD69, the early activation marker of C-type lectin domain family, is also shown to regulate the lymphocyte migration by affecting their egress from the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of CD69 in accumulation of CD4 T cells in intestine using murine models of inflammatory bowel disease. We found that genetic deletion of CD69 in mice increases the expression of the chemokines CCL-1, CXCL-10 and CCL-19 in CD4(+ T cells and/or CD4(- cells. Efficient in vitro migration of CD69-deficient CD4 T cells toward the chemokine stimuli was the result of increased expression and/or affinity of chemokine receptors. In vivo CD69(-/- CD4 T cells accumulate in the intestine in higher numbers than B6 CD4 T cells as observed in competitive homing assay, dextran sodium sulphate (DSS-induced colitis and antigen-specific transfer colitis. In DSS colitis CD69(-/- CD4 T cell accumulation in colonic lamina propria (cLP was associated with increased expression of CCL-1, CXCL-10 and CCL-19 genes. Furthermore, treatment of DSS-administrated CD69(-/- mice with the mixture of CCL-1, CXCL-10 and CCL-19 neutralizing Abs significantly decreased the histopathological signs of colitis. Transfer of OT-II×CD69(-/- CD45RB(high CD4 T cells into RAG(-/- hosts induced CD4 T cell accumulation in cLP. This study showed CD69 as negative regulator of inflammatory responses in intestine as it decreases the expression of chemotactic receptors and ligands and reduces the accumulation of CD4 T cells in cLP during colitis.

  8. Preparation of water-soluble CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots with enhanced photostability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hui; Zhang Lijuan; Soeller, Christian; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2007-01-01

    CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized in an aqueous phase using thioacetamide as a sulfur source. The quantum yield was greatly enhanced by the epitaxial growth of a CdS shell, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. The quantum yield of as-prepared CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs without any post-preparative processing reached 58%. The experimental results illustrate that the QDs with core/shell structure show better photostability than thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe QDs. The cyclic voltammograms reveal higher oxidation potentials for CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs than for TGA-capped CdTe QDs, which explains the superior photostability of QDs with a core/shell structure. This enhanced photostability makes these QDs with core/shell structure more suitable for bio-labeling and imaging

  9. Growth and Cd uptake by rice (Oryza sativa) in acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils amended with steel slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaidong; Tam, Nora F Y; Yao, Aijun; Qiu, Rongliang; Li, Wai Chin; Ye, Zhihong

    2017-12-01

    Contamination of rice (Oryza sativa) by Cd is of great concern. Steel slag could be used to amend Cd-contaminated soils and make them safe for cereal production. This work was conducted to study the effects of steel slag on Cd uptake and growth of rice plants in acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils and to determine the possible mechanisms behind these effects. Pot (rhizobag) experiments were conducted using rice plants grown on two acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils with or without steel slag amendment. Steel slag amendment significantly increased grain yield by 36-45% and root catalase activity, and decreased Cd concentrations in brown rice by 66-77% compared with the control, in both soils. Steel slag amendment also markedly decreased extractable soil Cd, Cd concentrations in pore-water and Cd translocation from roots to above-ground parts. It also significantly increased soil pH, extractable Si and Ca in soils and Ca concentrations in roots. Significant positive correlations were found between extractable soil Cd and Cd concentrations in rice tissues, but it was negatively correlated with soil pH and extractable Si. Calcium in root tissues significantly and negatively correlated with Cd translocation factors from roots to straw. Overall, steel slag amendment not only significantly promoted rice growth but decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice. These benefits appear to be related to improvements in soil conditions (e.g. increasing pH, extractable Si and Ca), a reduction in extractable soil Cd, and suppression of Cd translocation from roots to above-ground parts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Regulatory B cells activated by CpG-ODN combined with anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody inhibit CD4(+)T cell proliferation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keng; Tao, Lei; Su, Jianbing; Zhang, Yueyang; Zou, Binhua; Wang, Yiyuan; Li, Xiaojuan

    2016-09-01

    Objective To observe the immunosuppressive function of regulatory B cells (Bregs) in vitro after activated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) and anti-CD40 mAb. Methods Mice splenic CD5(+)CD1d(high)B cells and CD5(-)CD1d(low)B cells were sorted by flow cytometry. These B cells were first stimulated with CpG-ODN combined with anti-CD40 mAb for 24 hours, and then co-cultured with purified CD4(+)T cells. The interleukin 10 (IL-10) expression in the activated Bregs and other B cell subset, as well as the proliferation and interferon γ (IFN-γ) expression in the CD4(+) T cells activated by anti-CD3 mAb plus anti-CD28 mAb were determined by flow cytometry. Results CD5(+)CD1d(high) B cells activated by CpG-ODN plus anti-CD40 mAb blocked the up-regulated CD4(+)T proliferation and significantly reduced the IFN-γ level. At the same time, activated CD5(-)CD1d(low)B cells showed no inhibitory effect on CD4(+)T cells. Further study revealed that IL-10 expression in the CD5(+)CD1d(high) B cells were much higher than that in the CD5(-)CD1d(low)B cells after stimulated with CpG-ODN combined with anti-CD40 mAb for 24 hours. Conclusion CD5(+)CD1d(high) B cells activated by CpG-ODN combined with anti-CD40 mAb have immune inhibitory effects on CD4(+)T cell activation in vitro , which possibly due to IL-10 secretion.

  11. Increasing CO2 differentially affects essential and non-essential amino acid concentration of rice grains grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huibin; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Zhongqi; Tang, Shirong

    2016-09-01

    Environmental pollution by both ambient CO2 and heavy metals has been steadily increasing, but we do not know how fluctuating CO2 concentrations influence plant nutrients under high Cd pollution, especially in crops. Here, we studied the effects of elevated CO2 and Cd accumulation on proteins and amino acids in rice under Cd stress. In this pot experiment, we analyzed the amino-acid profile of 20 rice cultivars that accumulate Cd differently; the plants were grown in Cd-containing soils under ambient conditions and elevated CO2 levels. We found that although Cd concentrations appeared to be higher in most cultivars under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2, the effect was significant only in seven cultivars. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated CO2 strongly decreased rice protein and amino acid profiles, including essential and non-essential amino acids. Under elevated CO2, the ratios of specific amino acids were either higher or lower than the optimal ratios provided by FAO/WHO, suggesting that CO2 may flatten the overall amino-acid profile, leading to an excess in some amino acids and deficiencies in others when the rice is consumed. Thus, Cd-tainted rice limits the concentration of essential amino acids in rice-based diets, and the combination with elevated CO2 further exacerbates the problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emitter/absorber interface of CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tao, E-mail: tsong241@gmail.com; Sites, James R. [Physics Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Kanevce, Ana [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    The performance of CdTe solar cells can be very sensitive to the emitter/absorber interface, especially for high-efficiency cells with high bulk lifetime. Performance losses from acceptor-type interface defects can be significant when interface defect states are located near mid-gap energies. Numerical simulations show that the emitter/absorber band alignment, the emitter doping and thickness, and the defect properties of the interface (i.e., defect density, defect type, and defect energy) can all play significant roles in the interface recombination. In particular, a type I heterojunction with small conduction-band offset (0.1 eV ≤ ΔE{sub C} ≤ 0.3 eV) can help maintain good cell efficiency in spite of high interface defect density, much like with Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) cells. The basic principle is that positive ΔE{sub C}, often referred to as a “spike,” creates an absorber inversion and hence a large hole barrier adjacent to the interface. As a result, the electron-hole recombination is suppressed due to an insufficient hole supply at the interface. A large spike (ΔE{sub C} ≥ 0.4 eV), however, can impede electron transport and lead to a reduction of photocurrent and fill-factor. In contrast to the spike, a “cliff” (ΔE{sub C} < 0 eV) allows high hole concentration in the vicinity of the interface, which will assist interface recombination and result in a reduced open-circuit voltage. Another way to mitigate performance losses due to interface defects is to use a thin and highly doped emitter, which can invert the absorber and form a large hole barrier at the interface. CdS is the most common emitter material used in CdTe solar cells, but the CdS/CdTe interface is in the cliff category and is not favorable from the band-offset perspective. The ΔE{sub C} of other n-type emitter choices, such as (Mg,Zn)O, Cd(S,O), or (Cd,Mg)Te, can be tuned by varying the elemental ratio for an optimal positive value of ΔE{sub C}. These

  13. Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Bautista-Covarrubias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96 h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12 of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96 h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment.

  14. Antifibrotic Therapy in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Preserves CD4+ T-Cell Populations and Improves Immune Reconstitution With Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Jacob D.; Reilly, Cavan; Trubey, Charles M.; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Cory, Theodore J.; Piatak, Michael; Russ, Samuel; Anderson, Jodi; Reimann, Thomas G.; Star, Robert; Smith, Anthony; Tracy, Russell P.; Berglund, Anna; Schmidt, Thomas; Coalter, Vicky; Chertova, Elena; Smedley, Jeremy; Haase, Ashley T.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Schacker, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Even with prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART), many human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals have <500 CD4+ T cells/µL, and CD4+ T cells in lymphoid tissues remain severely depleted, due in part to fibrosis of the paracortical T-cell zone (TZ) that impairs homeostatic mechanisms required for T-cell survival. We therefore used antifibrotic therapy in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques to determine whether decreased TZ fibrosis would improve reconstitution of peripheral and lymphoid CD4+ T cells. Treatment with the antifibrotic drug pirfenidone preserved TZ architecture and was associated with significantly larger populations of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Combining pirfenidone with an ART regimen was associated with greater preservation of CD4+ T cells than ART alone and was also associated with higher pirfenidone concentrations. These data support a potential role for antifibrotic drug treatment as adjunctive therapy with ART to improve immune reconstitution. PMID:25246534

  15. Residual endotoxin contaminations in recombinant proteins are sufficient to activate human CD1c+ dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Schwarz

    Full Text Available Many commercially available recombinant proteins are produced in Escherichia coli, and most suppliers guarantee contamination levels of less than 1 endotoxin unit (EU. When we analysed commercially available proteins for their endotoxin content, we found contamination levels in the same range as generally stated in the data sheets, but also some that were higher. To analyse whether these low levels of contamination have an effect on immune cells, we stimulated the monocytic cell line THP-1, primary human monocytes, in vitro differentiated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and primary human CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs with very low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; ranging from 0.002-2 ng/ml. We show that CD1c+ DCs especially can be activated by minimal amounts of LPS, equivalent to the levels of endotoxin contamination we detected in some commercially available proteins. Notably, the enhanced endotoxin sensitivity of CD1c+ DCs was closely correlated with high CD14 expression levels observed in CD1c+ DCs that had been maintained in cell culture medium for 24 hours. When working with cells that are particularly sensitive to LPS, even low endotoxin contamination may generate erroneous data. We therefore recommend that recombinant proteins be thoroughly screened for endotoxin contamination using the limulus amebocyte lysate test, fluorescence-based assays, or a luciferase based NF-κB reporter assay involving highly LPS-sensitive cells overexpressing TLR4, MD-2 and CD14.

  16. Immobilization remediation of Cd-polluted soil with different water condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianrui; Xu, Yingming

    2017-05-15

    To demonstrate effects of water management on soil Cd immobilization using palygorskite, the investigation evaluated impacts of palygorskite on uptake of Cd present in soils with different water condition by rice plant. Pot experiment results showed that, pH, available Fe and P in untreated soils were higher in continuous flooding than in traditional irrigation and wetting irrigation, which were reasons for lower soil exchangeable Cd and plant Cd in continuous flooding. In control group (untreated soils), compared to traditional irrigation, continuous flooding reduced brown rice Cd by 37.9%, that in wetting irrigation increased by 31.0%. At palygorskite concentrations of 5 g kg -1 , 10 g kg -1 and 15 g kg -1 , brown rice Cd reduced by 16.7%, 44.4% and 55.6% under continuous flooding, 13.8%, 34.5% and 44.8% under traditional irrigation, 13.1%, 36.8% and 47.3% under wetting irrigation (p soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of serum sCD30 in renal transplantation patients with and without acute rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, C; Fontecchio, G; Scimitarra, M; Azzarone, R; Famulari, A; Pisani, F; Battistoni, C; Di Iulio, B; Fracassi, D; Scarnecchia, M A; Papola, F

    2009-05-01

    Despite new immunosuppressive approaches, acute rejection episodes (ARE) are still a major cause of early kidney dysfunction with a negative impact on long-term allograft survival. Noninvasive markers able to identify renal ARE earlier than creatinine measurement include sCD30. We sought to establish whether circulating levels of sCD30 in pretransplantation and posttransplantation periods were of clinical relevance to avoid graft damage. Quantitative detection of serum sCD30 was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated that the mean concentrations of sCD30 were significantly higher in the sera of renal transplant recipients with ARE (30.04 U/mL) and in uremic patients on the waiting list (37.7 U/mL) compared with healthy controls (HC; 9.44 U/mL), but not nonrejecting patients (12.01 U/mL). Statistical analysis revealed a strong association between high sCD30 levels in posttransplantation sera and ARE risk. This study suggested that sCD30 levels were a reliable predictor of ARE among deceased-donor kidney recipients.

  18. Temperature dependence of the Faraday rotation for CdMnCoTe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J. Y.; Tanaka, M.; Imamura, M.

    2001-01-01

    The temperature dependence of magneto-optical property in the visible wavelength region has been studied on four-element semimagnetic semiconductor CdMnCoTe films deposited on quartz glass substrates by using MBE equipment. A large dispersion of Faraday rotation was observed, and the peak of the Faraday rotation was shifted to the higher photon energies with increasing Mn concentration at low temperatures. At 180 K, the value of the Faraday rotation observed for the Cd 0.647 Mn 0.34 Co 0.013 Te film on quartz glass was -0.36 deg/cmG at 630 nm. It is equivalent to the value of -0.36 deg/cmG observed at 77 K for the Cd 0.52 Mn 0.48 Te film on quartz glass. At 77 K, the Faraday rotation observed for the Cd 0.647 Mn 0.34 Co 0.013 Te film on quartz glass was -0.49 deg/cmG at 610 nm. The value is approximately two times larger than that of the Cd 0.52 Mn 0.48 Te film deposited on the same quartz glass substrate. The origin of the enhancement of Faraday rotation in CdMnCoTe films has been discussed in terms of the magnetic susceptibility χ. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. Optimization of Ex Vivo Murine Bone Marrow Derived Immature Dendritic Cells: A Comparative Analysis of Flask Culture Method and Mouse CD11c Positive Selection Kit Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ashok Gosavi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 12–14 days of culturing of bone marrow (BM cells containing various growth factors is widely used method for generating dendritic cells (DCs from suspended cell population. Here we compared flask culture method and commercially available CD11c Positive Selection kit method. Immature BMDCs’ purity of adherent as well as suspended cell population was generated in the decreasing concentration of recombinant-murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF in nontreated tissue culture flasks. The expression of CD11c, MHCII, CD40, and CD86 was measured by flow cytometry. We found significant difference (P<0.05 between the two methods in the adherent cells population but no significant difference was observed between the suspended cell populations with respect to CD11c+ count. However, CD11c+ was significantly higher in both adhered and suspended cell population by culture method but kit method gave more CD11c+ from suspended cells population only. On the other hand, using both methods, immature DC expressed moderate level of MHC class II molecules as well as low levels of CD40 and CD86. Our findings suggest that widely used culture method gives the best results in terms of yield, viability, and purity of BMDCs from both adherent and suspended cell population whereas kit method works well for suspended cell population.

  20. Growth and characterization of EDTA assisted CBD-CdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumarage, W.G.C.; Wijesundera, R. P.; Seneviratne, V. A.; Jayalath, C. P.; Varga, Tamas; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Dassanayake, B. S.

    2017-10-01

    Chemical bath deposition of CdS (CBD-CdS) thin films with the assistance of a cationic surfactant, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), is reported in this work. Also the EDTA treated CdS thin films are compared with that of conventional CBD-CdS. Fabricated thin, compact, uniform and adherent EDTA treated CdS films show enhanced effective surface area and roughness compared to conventional CBD-CdS. The grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis shows all the fabricated CdS films are hexagonally crystallized. EDTA-treated CdS films show excellent photo activity compared to conventional CBDCdS. The flat band potential (Vfb) value was found to be tunable with EDTA concentration.

  1. Korelasi Kadar Feritin dengan Jumlah CD4, CD8, dan Rasio CD4/CD8 pada Penyandang Talasemia Mayor Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Arseno

    2017-11-01

    Hasil. Didapatkan jumlah CD4 absolut, CD4%, CD8 absolut dan rasio CD4/CD8 menurun. Selain itu, terdapat jumlah CD4 absolut, CD8 absolut dan CD8% meningkat. Pada kelompok usia ≤5 tahun, korelasi kadar feritin dengan CD8 absolut, CD8%, dan rasio CD4/CD8 berturut-turut menghasilkan koefisien korelasi 0,691, 0,557, -0,680, dan p<0,05. Sementara pada kelompok lama terapi ≤5 tahun korelasi kadar feritin dengan CD8 absolut, CD8%, dan rasio CD4/CD8 menghasilkan koefisien korelasi 0,709, 0,571, -0,726 dengan p<0,05. Kesimpulan. Tidak terdapat korelasi antara kadar feritin dengan jumlah CD4, CD8, rasio CD4/CD8. Peningkatan kadar feritin akan diikuti dengan peningkatan jumlah CD8 absolut dan CD8%, serta penurunan rasio CD4/CD8 pada penyandang talasemia mayor anak berdasar atas usia dan lama terapi ≤5 tahun.

  2. Cd translocation into generative organs of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, M.; Woerner, A.; Schubert, S. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenernaehrung

    1997-12-31

    Linseed is able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in generative organs, the dietary critical value of 0.3 {mu}g Cd/g seed often being exceeded. Differences between genotypes of linseed in this respect, however, have been observed but the underlying mechanisms responsible for these differences are unknown. The aim of the present work was to identify these mechanisms by studying the Cd accumulation of the linseed genotypes Antares and McGregor which differ in their ability to accumulate Cd in the seeds. Cultivar Antares is a high and cv. McGregor is low Cd accumulator which was confirmed in a pot experiment. It was found that the differences between these genotypes were Cd-specific and were caused neither by single seed weight nor by Cd translocation into the shoot. The distribution pattern of Cd within mature capsules between the pericarp and the seeds differed from that of Ca which was used as a phloem-immobile reference ion. From these results we conclude that Cd was translocated from the pericarp into the seeds via the phloem. This conclusion was supported by direct Cd determination in collected phloem sap from linseed stems. As sources of seed-Cd we identified the pericarps of capsules and the leaves. The genotype differences concerning the Cd concentrations in the seeds may be explained in terms of differences in phloem translocation of Cd. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oellein vermag Cd in betraechtlichen Konzentrationen in den Samen zu akkumulieren. Aus diesem Grund wird der Grenzwert fuer Diaetlein von 0,3 {mu}g/g Samen im Anbau haeufig ueberschritten. Es gibt jedoch genotypische Unterschiede, deren zugrundeliegende Mechanismen nicht bekannt sind. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit bestand darin, diese Mechanismen an den Oelleinsorten Antares und McGregor zu untersuchen. Antares akkumuliert grosse, McGregor hingegen geringe Mengen Cd in den Samen. Diese Beobachtungen konnten in einem Gefaessversuch bestaetigt werden. Es wurde gezeigt, dass die

  3. CD133 expression in osteosarcoma and derivation of CD133⁺ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Zhong, Xiao-Yan; Li, Zong-Yu; Cai, Jin-Fang; Zou, Lin; Li, Jian-Min; Yang, Tao; Liu, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133) is recognized as a stem cell marker for normal and cancerous tissues. Using cell culture and real‑time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction, CD133 expression was analyzed in osteosarcoma tissue and Saos‑2 cell lines. In addition, cancer stem cell‑related gene expression in the Saos‑2 cell line was determined to explore the mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis and high drug resistance in osteosarcoma. CD133+ cells were found to be widely distributed in various types of osteosarcoma tissue. Following cell culture, cells entered the G2/M and S cell cycle stages from G0/G1. Levels of CD133+ cells decreased to normal levels rapidly over the course of cell culture. Colony forming efficiency was higher in the CD133+ compared with the CD133‑ subpopulation of Saos‑2 cells. Expression levels of stem cell‑related genes, including multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and sex determining region Y‑box 2 (Sox2) in the CD133+ subpopulation of cells were found to be significantly higher compared with the CD133‑ subpopulation. These observations indicate that CD133+ Saos‑2 cells exhibit stem cell characteristics, including low abundance, quiescence and a high potential to undergo differentiation, as well as expression of key stem cell regulatory and drug resistance genes, which may cause osteosarcoma and high drug resistance.

  4. Influence of radiotherapy on CD4+ CD25high regulatory cells in peripheral blood of NPC patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Ding Qian; Song Yingqiu; Cao Rubo; Yao Junxia; Huang Shiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to investigate the changes in peripheral CD4 + CD25 high regulatory T (CD4 + CD25 high Tr) cells in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the influence of radiotherapy on immunity function. Methods: The peripheral blood was collected from 36 patients with NPC and 30 healthy controls. By using monoclonal antibodies, the blood samples were evaluated with flow cytometry for lymphocyte subsets and Tr cells. Results: The ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + in the NPC group was not significantly less than that in the healthy controls (P>0.05), but the prevalence of the CD4 + CD25 high Tr cells was significantly higher than that of the healthy group [(2.76 ± 1.06)% versus (2.06 ± 0.98)%, P + CD25 high Tr cells was higher than before it [(4.88 ± 1.02)%, P + CD25 high Tr cells in peripheral blood of NPC patients with or without radiotherapy was significantly higher than those in healthy controls, which may be related to immunosupression and tumor progression in such patients. This finding suggests that CD4 + CD25 high Tr cells in peripheral blood of NPC patients can be a useful index for monitoring the immunity function. (authors)

  5. In-line CD metrology with combined use of scatterometry and CD-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masafumi; Ikeda, Takahiro; Koike, Toru; Abe, Hideaki

    2006-03-01

    Measurement characteristics in scatterometry and CD-SEM for lot acceptance sampling of inline critical dimension (CD) metrology were investigated by using a statistical approach with Monte Carlo simulation. By operation characteristics curve analysis, producer's risk and consumer's risk arising from sampling were clarified. Single use of scatterometry involves a higher risk, such risk being particularly acute in the case of large intra-chip CD variation because it is unable to sufficiently monitor intra-chip CD variation including local CD error. Substituting scatterometry for conventional SEM metrology is accompanied with risks, resulting in the increase of unnecessary cost. The combined use of scatterometry and SEM metrology in which the sampling plan for SEM is controlled by scatterometry is a promising metrology from the viewpoint of the suppression of risks and cost. This is due to the effect that CD errors existing in the distribution tails are efficiently caught.

  6. Accumulation of Pb, Cd and Zn from contaminated soil to various plants and evaluation of soil remediation with indicator plant (Plantago lanceolata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupan, M.; Lobnik, F.; Kadunc, V. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Agronomy Dept., Center for Soil and Environmental Science; Hudnik, V. [National Institute of Chemistry Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1997-12-31

    The accumulation of cadmium, lead, and zinc by different major cultivated plants from soils contaminated with heavy metals, is presented. The vegetables, crops, and the indicator plant narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) were used in a field experiment including 3 areas with different levels of pollution. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were observed in edible green parts of vegetables (endive, spinach, lettuce) and roots (carrot, red beet, radish). The heavy metal content in leguminous plants (pods and seeds) was very low compared to high soil concentrations. Wheat and maize showed lower concentrations in grains and kernels than in green parts. Lime and vermiculite were used for reduction of Cd availability to plants in polluted soil. The Cd concentration decreased in the narrow leaf plantain in the presence of both lime and vermiculite in acid soil. In the higher-pH soil the Cd availability to spinach was greatly reduced in the presence of vermiculite

  7. Analysis of the electrical conduction in CdHgTe crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziuba, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The electrical conduction versus magnetic field in p-like CdHgTe samples at 77 K is investigated by analysing the conductivity tensor components. The electrical conduction is mainly due to electrons in the conduction band and low-mobility carriers in an impurity band. In the investigated samples Cd/sub x/Hg/sub 1-x/Te with the composition x approximately 0.17 the concentration of electrons in the conduction band is higher than the intrinsic one and in samples with the composition close to HgTe the concentration of electrons in the conduction band is equal to or lower than the intrinsic one. The model of a half-filled impurity band situated close to the bottom of the conduction band is proposed to account for the concentration of electrons in the conduction band. (author)

  8. Unconventional Pro-inflammatory CD4+ T Cell Response in B Cell-Deficient Mice Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gorosito Serrán

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America but has become a global public health concern by migration of infected people. It has been reported that parasite persistence as well as the intensity of the inflammatory immune response are determinants of the clinical manifestations of the disease. Even though inflammation is indispensable for host defense, when deregulated, it can contribute to tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Here, we report the importance of B cells in conditioning T cell response in T. cruzi infection. Mice deficient in mature B cells (muMT mice infected with T. cruzi exhibited an increase in plasma TNF concentration, TNF-producing CD4+ T cells, and mortality. The increase in TNF-producing CD4+ T cells was accompanied by a reduction in IFNγ+CD4+ T cells and a decrease of the frequency of regulatory Foxp3+, IL-10+, and IL17+CD4+ T cells populations. The CD4+ T cell population activated by T. cruzi infection, in absence of mature B cells, had a high frequency of Ly6C+ cells and showed a lower expression of inhibitory molecules such as CTLA-4, PD-1, and LAG3. CD4+ T cells from infected muMT mice presented a high frequency of CD62LhiCD44− cells, which is commonly associated with a naïve phenotype. Through transfer experiments we demonstrated that CD4+ T cells from infected muMT mice were able to condition the CD4+ T cells response from infected wild-type mice. Interestingly, using Blimp-flox/flox-CD23icre mice we observed that in absence of plasmablast/plasma cell T. cruzi-infected mice exhibited a higher number of TNF-producing CD4+ T cells. Our results showed that the absence of B cells during T. cruzi infection affected the T cell response at different levels and generated a favorable scenario for unconventional activation of CD4+ T cell leading to an uncontrolled effector response and inflammation. The product of B cell differentiation, the plasmablast/plasma cells, could be able

  9. CD4+/CD8+ double-positive T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana H; Jung, Ji-Won; Steptoe, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    CD4(+)/CD8(+) DP thymocytes are a well-described T cell developmental stage within the thymus. However, once differentiated, the CD4(+) lineage or the CD8(+) lineage is generally considered to be fixed. Nevertheless, mature CD4(+)/CD8(+) DP T cells have been described in the blood and peripheral...... cells, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell populations, outside of the thymus, have recently been described to express concurrently ThPOK and Runx3. Considerable heterogeneity exists within the CD4(+)/CD8(+) DP T cell pool, and the function of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell populations remains controversial, with conflicting...... reports describing cytotoxic or suppressive roles for these cells. In this review, we describe how transcriptional regulation, lineage of origin, heterogeneity of CD4 and CD8 expression, age, species, and specific disease settings influence the functionality of this rarely studied T cell population....

  10. A comparison investigation of optical, structural and luminescence properties of CdOxTe1-x and CdTexSe1-x nanoparticles prepared by a simple one pot method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprotich, Sharon; Onani, Martin O.; Dejene, Francis B.

    2018-04-01

    We present L-cysteine capped CdOXTe1-X and CdTeXSe1-X nanoparticles (NPs) prepared in one pot. The as-prepared CdOXTe1-X NPs were found to have a hexagonal crystal structure of CdTe with a cubic phase of CdO. There was, however, change in phase to cubic type when 2 mM of Se was introduced into the CdTe at 60 min of reaction time. The average crystallite sizes obtained from X-ray diffraction analysis for CdOXTe1-X and CdTeXSe1-X NPs were in the range of 10-36 nm. The diffraction peaks shifted to higher diffraction angle with longer growth time. Scanning electron microscope images display change in shape and size as reaction progress. Photoluminescence (PL) emission was observed to shift from 510-566 nm and 620-653 nm for CdOXTe1-X and CdTeXSe1-X NPs respectively followed by variation in the peak intensities. The emission spectra displayed a good symmetry and a narrow full width at half maximum ranging from 41 to 100 nm in both cases. The absorbance analysis of the as-prepared NPs displayed well-resolved absorption bands. The optical band gaps of the as-prepared NPs were found to decrease with increase in reaction time. Reaction parameters such as pH, reaction time, reaction temperature and the molar concentration could have major effects on the optical properties of the as-prepared nanoparticles hence their need to control them.

  11. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  12. Removal and Remediation Effects of Cd from Cadmium-contaminated Farmland Soils by A Magnetic Solid Chelator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Xin-xing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simulated experiment was carried out to study the removal and remediation effects of Cd from cadmium-contaminated farmland soils by a magnetic solid chelator(MSC at different application rates as well as its recovery rates and chelating capacity for Cd. The results showed that when the application rates of MSC materials was between 0.4% and 1.2%, the removal rate of total Cd and available Cd were 15.91%~17.69% and 33.33%~50.26%, respectively. And the MSC recovery rates were between 74.01% and 94.33% which increased with the increase of application rates of MSC and gradually tended to be stable. The content of Cd in recycled magnetic materials(mainly MSC was between 19.31 mg·kg-1 to 25.72 mg·kg-1, reaching to the highest at the application rates of 0.4% which was significantly higher than those of 0.8%, 1% and 1.2% treatment. But the content of Cd in magnetic materials had the trend that decreased with the increase of the recovery amount of MSC. The amount of Cd chelated by magnetic materials was nearly equal to the removal amount of Cd from soil at the 0.8% and 1.2% treatments. Besides, the Cd concentration in water samples was lower thanⅠ-level standard issued by the surface water environment quality standard(GB 3838-2002, meaning that it would not be a new pollution source. Therefore, MSC does have some removal and remediation effects on soil Cd and will provide a new method for remediation of heavy metals in farmland soils.

  13. Soluble CD30 and Hepatocyte growth factor as predictive markers of antibody-mediated rejection of the kidney allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Yelena; Viklicky, Ondrej; Slatinska, Janka; Bürgelova, Marcela; Süsal, Caner; Skibova, Jelena; Honsová, Eva; Striz, Ilja; Kolesar, Libor; Slavcev, Antonij

    2011-07-01

    Our retrospective study was aimed to assess the relevance of pre- and post-transplant measurements of serum concentrations of the soluble CD30 molecule (soluble CD30, sCD30) and the cytokine Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) for prediction of the risk for development of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in kidney transplant patients. Evaluation of sCD30, HGF levels and the presence of HLA-specific antibodies in a cohort of 205 patients was performed before, 2weeks and 6months after transplantation. Patients were followed up for kidney graft function and survival for two years. We found a tendency of higher incidence of AMR in retransplanted patients with elevated pre-transplant sCD30 (≥100U/ml) (p=0.051), however no such correlation was observed in first-transplant patients. Kidney recipients with simultaneously high sCD30 and HLA-specific antibodies (sCD30+/Ab+) before transplantation had significantly lower AMR-free survival compared to the other patient groups (psCD30 showed increased incidence of AMR in recipients with elevated pretransplant sCD30 and low HGF levels. the predictive value of pretransplant sCD30 for the development of antibody-mediated rejection after transplantation is significantly potentiated by the co-presence of HLA specific antibodies. The role of HGF as a rejection-protective factor in patients with high pretransplant HGF levels would need further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electronic structure and transport properties of Ba2Cd2Pn3 (Pn = As and Sb): An efficient materials for energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshak, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    The full potential method within the recently modified Becke-Johnson potential explore that the Ba 2 Cd 2 Pn 3 (Pn = As and Sb) compounds are narrow band gap semiconductors of about 0.49 and 0.32 eV, which confute the finding of the previous TB-LMTO-ASA calculation that Ba 2 Cd 2 Sb 3 is a poor metal. It has been found that there are subtle difference in band desperations of the two compounds, resulting in significant influence on the electronic and transport properties, taking into account the size and the electro-negativity differences between As and Sb atoms. Calculation show that there exists a strong hybridization between the orbitals which may lead to form covalent bonding which is more favorable for the transport of the carriers than ionic one. The electronic structure, the anisotropy and the inter-atomic interactions are further analyzed by calculating the valence electronic charge density distribution in two crystallographic planes. The semi-classical Boltzmann theory as incorporated in BoltzTraP code was used to calculate the transport properties of Ba 2 Cd 2 As 3 and Ba 2 Cd 2 Sb 3 at different temperatures and chemical potentials to ascertain the influence of temperatures and substituting As by Sb on the transport properties. The carries mobility decreases with increasing the temperature also with increasing the carriers concentration. We have observed that substituting As by Sb lead to increase the carries mobility of Ba 2 Cd 2 Sb 3 along the whole temperature interval and the carries concentration range. It has been found that Ba 2 Cd 2 As 3 exhibit higher carriers concentration, electronic electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient than that of Ba 2 Cd 2 Sb 3 along the investigated temperature range. The highest value of Seebeck coefficient occurs at 300 K, which show good agreement with the experimental data. The power factor increases linearly with increasing the temperature and Ba 2 Cd 2 As 3 exhibit a bit higher power factor than that of Ba

  15. Regulatory B cells (CD19(+)CD38(hi)CD24(hi)) in alloimmunized and non-alloimmunized children with β-thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Asmaa M; Elsayh, Khalid I; Saad, Khaled; Embaby, Mostafa; Ali, Ahmed M

    2016-03-01

    β-Thalassemia major (BTM) is considered the most common hemoglobinopathy in Egypt and is one of the major health problems in our locality. We investigated the frequency of B-regulatory cells (CD19(+)CD38(hi)CD24(hi)); (Bregs) among polytransfused alloimmunized and non-alloimmunized children with BTM. The study included 110 polytransfused pediatric patients with β-thalassemia major. Clinical and transfusion records of all studied patients were reviewed. Indirect antiglobulin test was performed to detect the presence of alloantibodies. We used flow cytometry for detection of CD19(+)CD38(hi)CD24(hi) regulatory B cells. Alloimmunization was detected in 35.5% of thalassemic patients (39/110). The analysis of our data showed a significantly higher frequency of Bregs (CD19(+)CD38(hi)CD24(hi)) in the peripheral blood of both alloimmunized and non-alloimmunized patients as compared to healthy controls. Our data showed that the frequencies of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) Bregs cells were significantly increased in children with BTM. Our data suggested that Bregs cells could play a role in the clinical course of BTM. The relationship of Bregs to immune disorders in BTM children remains to be determined. Further longitudinal study with a larger sample size is warranted to explore the mechanisms of Breg cells in the disease process in BTM patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative study of CD4 and CD45RO T cells and CD20 B cells in cerebrospinal fluid of syphilitic meningitis and tuberculous meningitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nian; Zhang, Qiao-Quan; Zhang, Kang; Xie, Yuan; Zhu, Hai-Qing; Lin, Xing-Jian; Di, Qing

    2016-09-01

    This study was to investigate the differences of lymphocyte in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with syphilis meningitis (SM) and tuberculous meningitis (TBM) for new diagnostic insights. Totally, 79 cases of SM and 45 cases of TBM were enrolled. In the CSF, the CD4, CD45RO or CD20 positive lymphocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry. The proportion of CD4 T cells in the CSF lymphocytes in patients with SM was significantly higher than that in patients with TBM (p CD4 T-cell proportion in both groups (p CD45RO T cells in CSF lymphocytes of patients with SM was less than that of patients with TBM (p CD45RO T cells was increased in the CSF of both group patients (p cells in the CSF lymphocytes was not obviously different between the two groups during every stage. In conclusion, there are strong differences of CD4 and CD45RO T-cell ratio, but not the CD20 B cells in the meningitis. CD4 and CD45RO T cells in CSF are a useful complement in differentially diagnosing SM and TBM; it contributes to further understand the pathogenesis and prognosis of SM and TBM. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Biotransfer of Cd along a soil-plant- mealybug-ladybird food chain: A comparison with host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingmin; Zhang, Can; Qiu, Baoli; Ashraf, Umair; Azad, Rashid; Wu, Jianhui; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-02-01

    Agro-ecosystem contamination by the heavy metals present in different agricultural products is a serious challenge faced by the living organisms. This study explains the cadmium (Cd) transfer from soils contaminated with different cadmium concentrations through a plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - predator (Cryptolaemus-montrouzieri) food chain. The soils were amended with Cd at the rates of 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (w/w). Our findings showed that considerably higher Cd transfer through tomato plant. Cadmium was biomagnified during soil-root transfer while bio-minimization of Cd was observed for shoot-mealybug - ladybird transfer. Our results further showed sequestration of Cd during the metamorphosis of ladybird beetle whilst transfer of Cd through soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird multi-trophic food chain increased in a dose dependent manner. Our results emphasize the need of further studies to elaborate possible mechanisms of Cd bio-minimization by plants, mealybugs and ladybirds observed during this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. One dimensional well-aligned CdO nanocrystal by solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaviyarasu, K.; Manikandan, E.; Paulraj, P.; Mohamed, S.B.; Kennedy, J.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cadmium oxide (CdO) emerged as one of the important semiconducting materials. • Iodine concentration increases intensity of the peak around 300 cm −1 becomes stronger. • Surface morphology of these crystals has been modified by varying complexing agent. • Nanofibers structure like CdO crystals first time achieved. • The diameters of these nanofibers range mostly between 40 nm and 70 nm. - Abstract: Cadmium oxide (CdO) is a category of the practical semiconductor metal oxides, which is widely applied in various scientific and industrial fields because of its catalytic, optical, and electrical properties. CdO nanocrystal was successfully synthesized by a virtue of a single source precursor method at mild reaction conditions between cadmium oxide, and element iodine by a solvothermal route. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet spectroscopy studies (UV–vis), Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), μ-Raman spectroscopy and cyclic voltammogram (CV) were used to characterize the CdO nanocrystals. The ultra-violet visible absorption peaks of CdO exhibited a large blue shift and the luminescent spectra had a strong and broad emission band centered at 228 nm. The various functional groups present in the CdO nanocrystals were identified by FTIR analysis. Intense PL was also observed with some spectral tuning possibly giving a range of emission photon energies approximately spanning from 2.5 to 3.4 eV. Scanning electron microscopy and μ-Raman microscopy images indicated that the morphology of the product is spherical nanoparticles with an average particle size of 46 nm with standard deviation. The electrochemical response of CdO which is proved the nano-cadmium has high functionality due to the small size and it has higher electrochemical activity without any modifications. The above studies demonstrate the potential for the utilization of cadmium nitrite nanocrystal in visible

  19. Toxicity assessment of zebrafish following exposure to CdTe QDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang@ecust.edu.cn [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lin, Kuangfei, E-mail: kflin@ecust.edu.cn [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Miao, Youna [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang; Wang, Huili [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Guo, Meijin [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Cui, Xinhong [Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The LC{sub 50} of TGA-CdTe for zebrafish at 120 hpf was 185.9 nM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zebrafish exposed to TGA-CdTe resulted in lower hatch rate and more malformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Body length and heart beat of zebrafish declined after exposure to TGA-CdTe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Larvae exposure to TGA-CdTe elicited a higher basal swimming rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Abnormal vascular of FLI-1 transgenic zebrafish larvae exposed to TGA-CdTe occurred. - Abstract: CdTe quantum dots (QDs) are nanocrystals of unique composition and properties that have found many new commercial applications; therefore, their potential toxicity to aquatic organisms has become a hot research topic. The lab study was performed to determine the developmental and behavioral toxicities to zebrafish under continuous exposure to low concentrations of CdTe QDs (1-400 nM) coated with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The results show: (1) the 120 h LC{sub 50} of 185.9 nM, (2) the lower hatch rate and body length, more malformations, and less heart beat and swimming speed of the exposed zebrafish, (3) the brief burst and a higher basal swimming rate of the exposed zebrafish larvae during a rapid transition from light-to-dark, and (4) the vascular hyperplasia, vascular bifurcation, vascular crossing and turbulence of the exposed FLI-1 transgenic zebrafish larvae.

  20. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  1. Uptake pathways and toxicity of Cd and Zn in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.-Z.; Zhou, D.-M.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Wang, P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Jin, S.-Y.; Wang, Q.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    The uptake of Cd and Zn by the earthworm Eisenia fetida was determined at varying Ca concentrations and with pre-exposure to different metabolic inhibitors in simulated soil solutions over a 48-h period. The presence of Ca in the solution had complex actions on Cd uptake. At a low Cd concentration

  2. Response of lettuce to Cd-enriched water and irrigation frequencies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, shoot Cd content showed a significant positive correlation with the final accumulated Cd concentration of soil and was expressed by a plateau model under the dry irrigation regime and linear models at other irrigation intervals. Overall, shoot Cd concentration was predicted by using a simple linear regression model ...

  3. CdS/CdSSe quantum dots in glass matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CdSSe and melted at 1200–1300°C. The glass samples were transparent and pale yellow in colour due to presence of CdS/CdSSe tiny nano crystal (Q-dots). in situ growth of CdS/CdSSe nano crystals imparts the yellow/orange/red colour to ...

  4. Indian women with higher serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 are significantly less likely to be infected with carcinogenic or high-risk (HR types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrika J Piyathilake

    2010-01-01

    , type of fuel used for cooking and smoking status.Results: Women with higher concentrations of serum folate (>6 ng/mL and vitamin B12 (>356 pg/mL were at lower risk of being positive for HR-HPVs compared to those with serum folate ≤6 ng/mL and serum vitamin B12 ≤ 356 pg/mL (odds ratio = 0.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.08–0.89; P = 0.03.Conclusions: These results demonstrated that improving folate and vitamin B12 status in Indian women may have a beneficial impact on the prevention of CC. Micronutrient based interventions for control of HR-HPV infections may represent feasible alternatives to vaccine based approaches to HPV disease prevention, which are currently unaffordable for use in resource limited areas in rural India.Keywords: folate, vitamin B12, human papillomavirus, cervical cancer

  5. CD147 overexpression promotes tumorigenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yu-Le; Liao, Cheng-Gong; Wei, Ding; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Bian, Huijie

    2016-04-01

    CD147 overexpresses in many epithelium-originated tumors and plays an important role in tumor migration and invasion. Most studies aim at the role of CD147 in tumor progression using tumor cell models. However, the influence of abnormal overexpression of CD147 on neoplastic transformation of normal cells is unknown. Here, the role of CD147 in malignant phenotype transformation in CHO cells was investigated. Three CHO cell lines that stably overexpressed CD147 (CHO-CD147), EGFP-CD147 (CHO-EGFP-CD147), and EGFP (CHO-EGFP) were generated by transfection of plasmids containing human CD147, EGFP-human CD147, and EGFP genes into CHO cells. Cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing and transwell matrix penetration assay. Trypan blue exclusion, MTT, cell cycle analysis, and BrdU cell proliferation assay were used to detect cell viability and cell proliferation. Annexin V-FITC analysis was performed to detect apoptosis. We found that CD147 overexpression promoted the migration and invasion of CHO cells. CD147 accelerated the G1 to S phase transition and enhanced the CHO cell proliferation. Overexpression of CD147 inhibited both early- and late-stages of apoptosis of CHO-CD147 cells, which is caused by serum deprivation. CHO-EGFP-CD147 cells showed an increased anchorage-independent growth compared with CHO-EGFP cells as detected by soft-agar colony formation assay. The tumors formed by CHO-CD147 cells in nude mice were larger and coupled with higher expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 than that of CHO cells. In conclusion, human CD147 overexpression induces malignant phenotype in CHO cells. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  6. CD133(+) niches and single cells in glioblastoma have different phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karina; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2011-01-01

    with CD133 and the candidate stem cell markers Sox2, Bmi-1, EGFR, podoplanin and nestin, the proliferation marker Ki67 and the endothelial cell markers CD31, CD34, and VWF. Cell counting showed that the CD133(+) cells in the niches had a significantly higher expression of Sox2, EGFR and nestin compared...

  7. A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. In this study, we employed diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT and traditional chemical extraction methods (soil solution, HOAc, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaOAc to determine the Cd bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of Pb. Two typical terrestrial species (wheat, Bainong AK58; maize, Zhengdan 958 were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues. The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues. Moreover, the Pearson regression coefficients between the different indicators obtained Cd concentrations and plants uptake Cd concentrations were further indicated significant correlations (p < 0.01. However, the values of Pearson regression coefficients showed the merits of DGT, CaCl2, and Csol over the other three methods. Consequently, the in situ measurement of DGT and the ex situ traditional methods could all reflect the inhibition effects between Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil.

  8. A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Wang, Teng; Yao, Yu; Wang, Chao; Liu, Cui; Yuan, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. In this study, we employed diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) and traditional chemical extraction methods (soil solution, HOAc, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaOAc) to determine the Cd bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of Pb. Two typical terrestrial species (wheat, Bainong AK58; maize, Zhengdan 958) were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues. The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues. Moreover, the Pearson regression coefficients between the different indicators obtained Cd concentrations and plants uptake Cd concentrations were further indicated significant correlations (p < 0.01). However, the values of Pearson regression coefficients showed the merits of DGT, CaCl2, and Csol over the other three methods. Consequently, the in situ measurement of DGT and the ex situ traditional methods could all reflect the inhibition effects between Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil. PMID:27271644

  9. Lipopolysaccharide-Elicited TSLPR Expression Enriches a Functionally Discrete Subset of Human CD14+ CD1c+ Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Di Somma, Sarah; Vastolo, Viviana; Petrosino, Giuseppe; Visconte, Feliciano; Raia, Maddalena; Scalia, Giulia; Loffredo, Stefania; Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Granata, Francescopaolo; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Portella, Giuseppe; Marone, Gianni

    2017-05-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine produced mainly by epithelial cells in response to inflammatory or microbial stimuli and binds to the TSLP receptor (TSLPR) complex, a heterodimer composed of TSLPR and IL-7 receptor α (CD127). TSLP activates multiple immune cell subsets expressing the TSLPR complex and plays a role in several models of disease. Although human monocytes express TSLPR and CD127 mRNAs in response to the TLR4 agonist LPS, their responsiveness to TSLP is poorly defined. We demonstrate that TSLP enhances human CD14 + monocyte CCL17 production in response to LPS and IL-4. Surprisingly, only a subset of CD14 + CD16 - monocytes, TSLPR + monocytes (TSLPR + mono), expresses TSLPR complex upon LPS stimulation in an NF-κB- and p38-dependent manner. Phenotypic, functional, and transcriptomic analysis revealed specific features of TSLPR + mono, including higher CCL17 and IL-10 production and increased expression of genes with important immune functions (i.e., GAS6 , ALOX15B , FCGR2B , LAIR1 ). Strikingly, TSLPR + mono express higher levels of the dendritic cell marker CD1c. This evidence led us to identify a subset of peripheral blood CD14 + CD1c + cells that expresses the highest levels of TSLPR upon LPS stimulation. The translational relevance of these findings is highlighted by the higher expression of TSLPR and CD127 mRNAs in monocytes isolated from patients with Gram-negative sepsis compared with healthy control subjects. Our results emphasize a phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in an apparently homogeneous population of human CD14 + CD16 - monocytes and prompt further ontogenetic and functional analysis of CD14 + CD1c + and LPS-activated CD14 + CD1c + TSLPR + mono. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Distribution and speciation of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in agricultural and non-agricultural soils near a stream upriver from the Pearl River, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Silin; Zhou, Dequn; Yu, Huayong; Wei, Rong; Pan, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and chemical speciation of typical metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in agricultural and non-agricultural soils were investigated in the area of Nanpan River, upstream of the Pearl River. The investigated four metals showed higher concentrations in agricultural soils than in non-agricultural soils, and the site located in factory district contained metals much higher than the other sampling sites. These observations suggested that human activities, such as water irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide applications might have a major impact on the distribution of metals. Metal speciation analysis presented that Cu, Zn and Cd were dominated by the residual fraction, while Pb was dominated by the reducible fraction. Because of the low mobility of the metals in the investigated area, no remarkable difference could be observed between upstream and downstream separated by the factory site. -- Highlights: ► Agricultural soils contain higher metal concentrations than non-agricultural soils. ► The site located in the factory district has the highest metal concentration. ► Cu, Zn and Cd are dominated by residual fraction, and Pb by reducible fraction. ► Cd pollution should not be overlooked in soils upstream of Pearl River. -- The mobility of four investigated metals is low but Cd pollution should not be overlooked in soils upstream of Pearl River

  11. Upregulation of CD19⁺CD24(hi)CD38(hi) regulatory B cells is associated with a reduced risk of acute lung injury in elderly pneumonia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haihan; Xi, Jianjun; Li, Guang-Gang; Xu, Shumin; Wang, Chunmei; Cheng, Tingting; Li, Hongqiang; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiandong; Bai, Jianwen

    2016-04-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication in elderly pneumonia patients who have a rapid progression, and is accompanied by a high mortality rate. Because the treatment options of ALI are limited to supportive care, identifying pneumonia patients who are at higher risk of ALI development is the emphasis of many studies. Here, we approach this problem from an immunological perspective by examining CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells, an important participant in acute and chronic inflammation. We find that elderly pneumonia patients have elevated CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cell frequency compared to healthy individuals. This B cell population may express a higher level of IL-10, which has been was shown to suppress CD4(+) T cell-mediated proinflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFNg) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) production, through an IL-10-dependent mechanism. We also observe that the frequency of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cell is positively correlated with the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Tregs in peripheral blood. Moreover, consistent with CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cell's anti-inflammatory role, we find that pneumonia patients who later developed ALI have reduced level of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells. Together, our results demonstrated that CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells in pneumonia patients possess regulatory function in vivo, and are associated with a reduced ALI risk.

  12. Recent advances in Tl Br, Cd Te and CdZnTe semiconductor radiation detectors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Icimone B.

    2011-01-01

    The success in the development of radiation spectrometers operating at room temperature is based on many years of effort on the part of large numbers of workers around the world. These individuals have contributed to the understanding of the fundamental materials issues associated with the growth of semiconductors for this application, the development of device fabrication and processing technology, and advances in low noise electronics and pulse processing. Progress in this field continues at an accelerated pace, as in evidenced by the improvements in detector performance and by the growing number of commercial products. Thus, the last years have been seen continued effort in the development of room temperature compound semiconductors devices. High-Z compound semiconductor detectors has been explored for high energy resolution, high detection efficiency and are of low cost. Compound semiconductors detectors are well suited for addressing needs of demanding applications such as bore hole logging where high operating temperature are encountered. In this work recent developments in semiconductors detectors were reviewed. This review concentrated on thallium bromide (TlBr), cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) crystals detectors. TlBr has higher stopping power compared to common semiconductor materials because it has the higher photoelectric and total attenuation coefficients over wide energy range from 100 keV to 1 MeV. CdTe and CdZnTe detectors have several attractive features for detecting X-ray and low energy gamma ray. Their relatively large band gaps lead to a relatively low leakage current and offer an excellent energy resolution at room temperature. A literature survey and bibliography was also included. (author)

  13. Recent advances in Tl Br, Cd Te and CdZnTe semiconductor radiation detectors: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Icimone B. [Universidade Bandeirante (UNIBAN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The success in the development of radiation spectrometers operating at room temperature is based on many years of effort on the part of large numbers of workers around the world. These individuals have contributed to the understanding of the fundamental materials issues associated with the growth of semiconductors for this application, the development of device fabrication and processing technology, and advances in low noise electronics and pulse processing. Progress in this field continues at an accelerated pace, as in evidenced by the improvements in detector performance and by the growing number of commercial products. Thus, the last years have been seen continued effort in the development of room temperature compound semiconductors devices. High-Z compound semiconductor detectors has been explored for high energy resolution, high detection efficiency and are of low cost. Compound semiconductors detectors are well suited for addressing needs of demanding applications such as bore hole logging where high operating temperature are encountered. In this work recent developments in semiconductors detectors were reviewed. This review concentrated on thallium bromide (TlBr), cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) crystals detectors. TlBr has higher stopping power compared to common semiconductor materials because it has the higher photoelectric and total attenuation coefficients over wide energy range from 100 keV to 1 MeV. CdTe and CdZnTe detectors have several attractive features for detecting X-ray and low energy gamma ray. Their relatively large band gaps lead to a relatively low leakage current and offer an excellent energy resolution at room temperature. A literature survey and bibliography was also included. (author)

  14. Monitoring for Pb and Cd pollution using feral pigeons in rural, urban, and industrial environments of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Lee, Doo-Pyo

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination status using resident pigeons from rural (island), central urban (Seoul), and four industrial complex areas in Korea with varying traffic density as well as atmospheric metal pollution records. We also discussed the results with respect to metal exposure trends in urban area after introduction of lead-free gasoline in Korea. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd in bone and kidney of pigeons from Seoul were comparable to those from industrial complex areas and were about 15-20 times those at the reference site. This suggests that exposure to metals in the urban environment is as high as in the industrial areas. Lead and Cd concentrations in lungs of pigeons from Seoul were significantly higher by more than three times in 2000 than in 1991 (p < 0.01), whereas the residues in liver, kidney, and bone remained at a similar level, despite the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1993. The Pb and Cd concentrations in tissues of pigeons did not decrease as atmospheric metal levels decreased. Ingestion may be more important than inhalation in exposing pigeons to Pb and Cd in this study

  15. Monitoring for Pb and Cd pollution using feral pigeons in rural, urban, and industrial environments of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Dong-Ha [Laboratory for Animal Ecology, School of Environment and Applied Chemistry, Kyunghee University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Doo-Pyo [Science of Biology, Department of Biological Science, Honam University (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: dplee@honam.ac.kr

    2006-03-15

    This study was aimed at evaluating the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination status using resident pigeons from rural (island), central urban (Seoul), and four industrial complex areas in Korea with varying traffic density as well as atmospheric metal pollution records. We also discussed the results with respect to metal exposure trends in urban area after introduction of lead-free gasoline in Korea. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd in bone and kidney of pigeons from Seoul were comparable to those from industrial complex areas and were about 15-20 times those at the reference site. This suggests that exposure to metals in the urban environment is as high as in the industrial areas. Lead and Cd concentrations in lungs of pigeons from Seoul were significantly higher by more than three times in 2000 than in 1991 (p < 0.01), whereas the residues in liver, kidney, and bone remained at a similar level, despite the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1993. The Pb and Cd concentrations in tissues of pigeons did not decrease as atmospheric metal levels decreased. Ingestion may be more important than inhalation in exposing pigeons to Pb and Cd in this study.

  16. HRM Cd-ROM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. C.A.G. Huijsmans; ir. R.B. Opsteeg; drs. H.J.J.L. Seegers

    2006-01-01

    De cd-rom HRM biedt een compleet en actueel overzicht van het totale HRM-gebied. Het bevat een unieke verzameling informatie over personeelsmanagement en sociaal beleid. Deze cd-rom geeft richtlijnen, maatregelen en handige tips op het gebied van personeelsmanagement. Het is samen met het zakboek de

  17. Heavy metal concentrations in gill and liver tissues of Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata in the coast of Babolsar, southern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kardel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal accumulation in the aquatic ecosystems is a main concern which threats human health. In this study two commercial fish species, Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata were selected for assessing heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn concentrations in gill and liver tissues at Babolsar’s coast, the southern Caspian Sea, Iran. Babolsar is one of the important fishery stations in the southern Caspian Sea. The results showed that liver tissue of C. aurata significantly accumulated higher concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn compared to that of R. kutum, but these results were not significant for gill tissue. Liver tissue accumulated higher concentration of Cd and Pb compared to gill tissue in C. aurata, but these results were not significant for R. kutum. It is concluded that the liver tissue of C. aurata has higher potential to accumulate heavy metal pollution compared to liver tissue of R. kutum

  18. Polymorphism 1936A > G in the AKAP10 gene (encoding A-kinase-anchoring protein 10) is associated with higher cholesterol cord blood concentration in Polish full-term newsborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łoniewska, Beata; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Clark, Jeremy Simon; Kordek, Agnieszka; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) coordinate the specificity of protein kinase A signaling by localizing the kinase to subcellular sites. The 1936G (V646) AKAP10 allele has been associated with adults with low cholinergic/vagus nerve sensitivity and with newborns with increased blood pressure. Decreased activity of the parasympathetic system is associated with risk of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to answer the question of whether 1936A > G AKAP10 polymorphism is associated with metabolic changes in full-term newborns that are predictive factors for the metabolic phenotype in adulthood. The study included 114 consecutive healthy Polish newborns born after the end of the 37 th week of gestation to healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies. At birth, cord blood of neonates was obtained for isolation of genomic DNA and cholesterol as well as triglyceride concentration. The cholesterol level in homozygotes GG was significantly higher than that in 1936A variant carriers (AG + AA, recessive mode of inheritance). Our results demonstrate a possible association between the 1936G AKAP10 variant and the total cholesterol level in the cord blood of the Polish newborn population.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a novel nitric oxide fluorescent probe CdS-PMMA nanocomposite via in-situ bulk polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Liyun, E-mail: dlyw@whut.edu.cn; Li, Tao; Zhong, Yunming; Fan, Chao; Huang, Jun

    2014-02-01

    A novel nitric oxide (NO) fluorescent probe CdS-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites with different molar ratios of CdS quantum dots (QDs) to PMMA are developed successfully via in-situ bulk polymerization method. The optical properties of CdS/PMMA nanocomposites are studied by UV–Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence (FL) spectra in detail. It is demonstrated that the optical properties from such nanocomposite solution are tuned and stabilized by simply varying the concentration of CdS in the final product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of CdS-PMMA nanocomposite with higher loading of CdS show broad pattern for cubic CdS, which has narrow particle size distribution with less than 5 nm in PMMA observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphological characterization of the CdS-PMMA nanocomposite has been done through atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirm the enhanced thermal stability of CdS-PMMA nanocomposites than PMMA. NO can coordinate with Cd{sup 2+} as a ligand for transition metal complexes, which will cause a quenching effect on the fluorescence of CdS QDs. Therefore, a significant quenching effect on the fluorescence of the CdS-PMMA nanocomposite is observed in the presence of NO. The fluorescence responses are concentration-dependent and can be well described by the typical Stern–Volmer equation, and a linear calibration I{sub 0}/I = 1.0021 + 0.1944[NO] (R{sup 2} = 0.96052) is obtained in the range from 1.4 × 10{sup −5} to 9.3 × 10{sup −3} mol/L NO with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10{sup −6} mol/L (S/N = 3). - Highlights: • CdS-PMMA nanocomposite was developed by in-situ bulk polymerization for NO detection. • The fluorescence quenching mechanism relies on the interaction between NO and Cd{sup 2+}. • The fluorescence response shows a good linear reproducibility with NO concentrations. • A linear calibration is

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a novel nitric oxide fluorescent probe CdS-PMMA nanocomposite via in-situ bulk polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Liyun; Li, Tao; Zhong, Yunming; Fan, Chao; Huang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A novel nitric oxide (NO) fluorescent probe CdS-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites with different molar ratios of CdS quantum dots (QDs) to PMMA are developed successfully via in-situ bulk polymerization method. The optical properties of CdS/PMMA nanocomposites are studied by UV–Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence (FL) spectra in detail. It is demonstrated that the optical properties from such nanocomposite solution are tuned and stabilized by simply varying the concentration of CdS in the final product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of CdS-PMMA nanocomposite with higher loading of CdS show broad pattern for cubic CdS, which has narrow particle size distribution with less than 5 nm in PMMA observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphological characterization of the CdS-PMMA nanocomposite has been done through atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirm the enhanced thermal stability of CdS-PMMA nanocomposites than PMMA. NO can coordinate with Cd 2+ as a ligand for transition metal complexes, which will cause a quenching effect on the fluorescence of CdS QDs. Therefore, a significant quenching effect on the fluorescence of the CdS-PMMA nanocomposite is observed in the presence of NO. The fluorescence responses are concentration-dependent and can be well described by the typical Stern–Volmer equation, and a linear calibration I 0 /I = 1.0021 + 0.1944[NO] (R 2 = 0.96052) is obtained in the range from 1.4 × 10 −5 to 9.3 × 10 −3 mol/L NO with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10 −6 mol/L (S/N = 3). - Highlights: • CdS-PMMA nanocomposite was developed by in-situ bulk polymerization for NO detection. • The fluorescence quenching mechanism relies on the interaction between NO and Cd 2+ . • The fluorescence response shows a good linear reproducibility with NO concentrations. • A linear calibration is obtained in the range from 1.4 × 10

  1. ImmunoPET Imaging of Murine CD4+ T Cells Using Anti-CD4 Cys-Diabody: Effects of Protein Dose on T Cell Function and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freise, Amanda C; Zettlitz, Kirstin A; Salazar, Felix B; Lu, Xiang; Tavaré, Richard; Wu, Anna M

    2017-08-01

    Molecular imaging of CD4 + T cells throughout the body has implications for monitoring autoimmune disease and immunotherapy of cancer. Given the key role of these cells in regulating immunity, it is important to develop a biologically inert probe. GK1.5 cys-diabody (cDb), a previously developed anti-mouse CD4 antibody fragment, was tested at different doses to assess its effects on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and CD4 + T cell viability, proliferation, CD4 expression, and function. The effect of protein dose on image contrast (lymphoid tissue-to-muscle ratio) was assessed by administering different amounts of 89 Zr-labeled GK1.5 cDb to mice followed by PET imaging and ex vivo biodistribution analysis. To assess impact of GK1.5 cDb on T cell biology, GK1.5 cDb was incubated with T cells in vitro or administered intravenously to C57BL/6 mice at multiple protein doses. CD4 expression and T cell proliferation were analyzed with flow cytometry and cytokines were assayed. For immunoPET imaging, the lowest protein dose of 2 μg of 89 Zr-labeled GK1.5 cDb resulted in significantly higher % injected dose/g in inguinal lymph nodes (ILN) and spleen compared to the 12-μg protein dose. In vivo administration of GK1.5 cDb at the high dose of 40 μg caused a transient decrease in CD4 expression in spleen, blood, lymph nodes, and thymus, which recovered within 3 days postinjection; this effect was reduced, although not abrogated, when 2 μg was administered. Proliferation was inhibited in vivo in ILN but not the spleen by injection of 40 μg GK1.5 cDb. Concentrations of GK1.5 cDb in excess of 25 nM significantly inhibited CD4 + T cell proliferation and interferon-γ production in vitro. Overall, using low-dose GK1.5 cDb minimized biological effects on CD4 + T cells. Low-dose GK1.5 cDb yields high-contrast immunoPET images with minimal effects on T cell biology in vitro and in vivo and may be a useful tool for investigating CD4 + T cells in the context of

  2. Effects of warming on uptake and translocation of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li-Qiang; Cang, Long; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    Global warming has received growing attentions about its potential threats to human in recent, however little is known about its effects on transfer of heavy metals in agro-ecosystem, especially for Cd in rice. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate Cd/Cu translocation in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI). The results showed that warming gradually decreased soil porewater pH and increased water-soluble Cd/Cu concentration, reduced formation of iron plaque on root surface, and thus significantly increased total uptake of Cd/Cu by rice. Subsequently, warming significantly promoted Cd translocation from root to shoot, and increased Cd distribution percentage in shoot, while Cu was not significantly affected. Enhanced Cd uptake and translocation synergistically resulted in higher rice grain contamination with increasing concentration from 0.27 to 0.65 and 0.14-0.40 mg kg(-1) for Indica and Japonica rice, respectively. However increase of Cu in brown grain was only attributed to its uptake enhancement under warming. Our study provides a new understanding about the food production insecurity of heavy metal contaminated soil under the future global warming. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC.: An accumulator of Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Zhou Qixing; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Xiao Hong; Yang Chuanjie; Zhang Qianru

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a traditional technique that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil and sediments. This is a solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective technology. In a former published article, Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC. indicated some basic properties of hyperaccumulators for cadmium (Cd). In this study, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were used to assess whether this plant is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The results showed the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of K. integrifolia was basically >1 in concentration gradient experiment. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. Thus, K. integrifolia should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments conducted in a Pb-Zn mine area and a wastewater irrigation region, K. integrifolia also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, K. integrifolia could be identified as a Cd-accumulator

  4. Bidens tripartite L.: A Cd-accumulator confirmed by pot culture and site sampling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Niu Rongcheng; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Zhou Qixing; Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng; Hu Yahu; Li Yunmeng

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of cadmium (Cd) in Bidens tripartite L. were investigated to identify Cd-accumulating properties. In this study, pot culture experiment and site sampling experiments were conducted to assess whether this plant is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator or accumulator. The results indicated that the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of B. tripartite was principally >1 in pot culture and concentration gradient experiments. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. In the site sampling experiment, B. tripartite also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, B. tripartite could be identified as a Cd-accumulator. Thus, B. tripartite should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator.

  5. Mercury and cadmium concentrations in milk in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellappan, S.; Pedersen, K.B.; Plaza, H.

    1975-01-01

    Milk samples were analyzed statistically for Hg and Cd by thermal neutron activation (NAA). A Ge(Li) detector and a 4096 channel pulse-height analyzer were used. Mean values of the concentrations of Hg and Cd in milk are tabulated with their standard deviations. Observed variations in Cd and Hg concentrations were small; however NAA was found to be relatively insensitive for the determination of Cd. A significant peak was not observed in the energy range used for the determination. (JGB)

  6. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  7. Evolution of oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) during high-temperature CdTe solar cell fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meysing, Daniel M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Warren, Charles W.; Abbas, Ali; Burst, James M.; Mahabaduge, Hasitha P.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Walls, John M.; Lonergan, Mark C.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Wolden, Colin A.

    2016-12-01

    Oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) produced by reactive sputtering has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional CdS for use as the n-type window layer in CdTe solar cells. Here, complementary techniques are used to expose the window layer (CdS or CdS:O) in completed superstrate devices and combined with a suite of materials characterization to elucidate its evolution during high temperature device processing. During device fabrication amorphous CdS:O undergoes significant interdiffusion with CdTe and recrystallization, forming CdS1-yTey nanocrystals whose Te fraction approaches solubility limits. Significant oxygen remains after processing, concentrated in sulfate clusters dispersed among the CdS1-yTey alloy phase, accounting for ~30% of the post-processed window layer based on cross-sectional microscopy. Interdiffusion and recrystallization are observed in devices with un-oxygenated CdS, but to a much lesser extent. Etching experiments suggest that the CdS thickness is minimally changed during processing, but the CdS:O window layer is reduced from 100 nm to 60-80 nm, which is confirmed by microscopy. Alloying reduces the band gap of the CdS:O window layer to 2.15 eV, but reductions in thickness and areal density improve its transmission spectrum, which is well matched to device quantum efficiency. The changes to the window layer in the reactive environments of device fabrication are profoundly different than what occurs by thermal annealing in an inert environment, which produced films with a band gap of 2.4 eV for both CdS and CdS:O. These results illustrate for the first time the significant changes that occur to the window layer during processing that are critical to the performance of CdTe solar cells.

  8. Elevated Temperature Photophysical Properties and Morphological Stability of CdSe and CdSe/CdS Nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Clare E. [Department; Center; Fedin, Igor [Department; Diroll, Benjamin T. [Center; Liu, Yuzi [Center; Talapin, Dmitri V. [Center; Department; Schaller, Richard D. [Department; Center

    2018-01-03

    Elevated temperature optoelectronic performance of semiconductor nanomaterials remains an important issue for applications. Here we examine two-dimensional CdSe nanoplatelets (NPs) and CdS/CdSe/CdS shell/core/shell sandwich NPs at temperatures ranging from 300-700 K using static and transient spectroscopies as well as in-situ transmission electron microscopy. NPs exhibit reversible changes in PL intensity, spectral position, and emission linewidth with temperature elevation up to ~500 K, losing a factor of ~8 to 10 in PL intensity at 400 K relative to ambient. Temperature elevation above ~500 K yields thickness dependent, irreversible degradation in optical properties. Electron microscopy relates stability of the NP morphology up to near 600 K followed by sintering and evaporation at still higher temperatures. The mechanism of reversible PL loss, based on differences in decay dynamics between time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption, arise primarily from hole trapping in both NPs and sandwich NPs.

  9. Analysis of CdS/CdTe devices incorporating a ZnTe:Cu/Ti Contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessert, T.A.; Asher, S.; Johnston, S.; Young, M.; Dippo, P.; Corwine, C.

    2007-01-01

    High-performance CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices can be produced using a ZnTe:Cu/Ti back contact deposited onto the CdTe layer. We observe that prolonged exposure of the ZnTe:Cu and Ti sputtering targets to an oxygen-containing plasma significantly reduces device open-circuit voltage and fill factor. High-resolution compositional analysis of these devices reveals that Cu concentration in the CdTe and CdS layers is lower for devices with poor performance. Capacitance-voltage analysis and related numerical simulations indicate that the net acceptor concentration in the CdTe is also lower for devices with poor performance. Photoluminescence analyses of the junction region reveal that the intensity of a luminescent peak associated with a defect complex involving interstitial Cu (Cu i ) and oxygen on Te (O Te ) is reduced in devices with poor performance. Combined with thermodynamic considerations, these results suggest that oxygen incorporation into the ZnTe:Cu sputtering target reduces the ability of sputtered ZnTe:Cu film to diffuse Cu into the CdTe

  10. Cd isotopes as a potential source tracer of metal pollution in river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Bo; Zhou, Haidong; Liang, Xirong; Tu, Xianglin

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the sources of heavy metals in water environment is key important for our understanding of their pollution behavior. In this present study, Cd concentrations and Cd isotopic compositions in sediments were determined to effectively identify possible Cd sources. Results showed that elevated concentrations and high enrichment factor for Cd were found in all sediments, suggesting anthropogenic Cd origin. Cd isotopic compositions in sediments yielded relative variations ranged from −0.35‰ to 0.07‰ in term of δ 114/110 Cd (the mean: −0.08‰). Large fractionated Cd was found in sediments collected from a smelter and an E-waste town. Cd isotopic compositions and Cd concentrations measured in sediments allowed the identification of three main origins (dust from metal refining (δ 114/110 Cd 114/110 Cd > 0), and those δ 114/110 Cd = 0, such as background and mining activity). According to the actual precision obtained, Cd isotopes could be a potential tool for tracing metal pollution sources in water environment. -- The information and application of Cd isotopic compositions will provide a new direction in tracing metal pollution in water environment

  11. High pretransplantation soluble CD30 levels: impact in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoli, C; Bonnet, M C; Perrat, G; Houillon, A; Reydet, S; Pouteil-Noble, C; Villar, E; Lefrançois, N; Morelon, E; Dubois, V

    2007-10-01

    In a retrospective study, the impact of the level of pretransplantation soluble CD30 molecule (sCD30) was evaluated on 3 year transplant survival, as well as the number and grade of acute rejection episodes among kidney recipients engrafted between 2000 and 2002. One hundred and ninety sera of 190 patients sampled on the cross-match day were tested for sCD30 concentrations using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Biotest). For the analysis, a sCD30 cutoff level of 100 U/mL was chosen: 87 (46%) recipients had a level >100, and 103 (54%) sCD30 level. The rate of biopsy-proven acute rejection was 26% in the sCD30 >100 group versus 22% in the sCD30 sCD30 >100 versus 20% for the lower level. The difference was more important for grade II acute rejection (Banff criteria): 6/87 (7%) showed high sCD30 versus 2/103 (2%) with sCD30 sCD30 >100) versus 1 (1%) in the second group (sCD30 sCD30 was not a significant risk factor for an acute rejection episode, but it seemed to be more predictive for antibody-mediated acute rejection and immunological graft loss. However, many recipients showed an increased pretransplantation concentration without any rejection episode or graft loss. Consequently, sCD30 pregraft measurements cannot be used as a predictor for acute kidney rejection among our transplant center, nor as an aid to adapt the immunosuppressive regimen.

  12. Effectiveness Study of Drinking Water Treatment Using Clays/Andisol Adsorbent in Lariat Heavy Metal Cadmium (Cd) and Bacterial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranoto; Inayati; Firmansyah, Fathoni

    2018-04-01

    Water is a natural resource that is essential for all living creatures. In addition, water also caused of disease affecting humans. The existence of one of heavy metal pollutants cadmium (Cd) in the body of water is an environmental problem having a negative impact on the quality of water resources. Adsorption is one of the ways or methods that are often used for the treatment of wastewater. Clay and allophanic soil were used as Cd adsorbent by batch method. Ceramic filter was used to reduce Cd concentration in the ground water. This study aims to determine the effect of the composition of clay and Allophane, activation temperature and contact time on the adsorption capacity of Cd in the model solution. The optimum adsorption condition and the effectiveness of drinking water treatment in accordance with Regulation of the Minister of Health using clay/Andisol adsorbents in ensnare heavy metals Cd and bacterial pathogens. Identification and characterization of adsorbent is done by using NaF, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area and total acidity specific. The Cd metal concentrations were analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Adsorption isotherms determined by Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Modified water purification technology using ceramic filters are made with a mixture of clay and Andisol composition. The results showed samples of clay and Andisol containing minerals. The optimum condition of adsorption was achieved at 200 °C of activation temperature, 60 minutes of contact time and the 60:40 of clay:Andisol adsorbent composition. Freundlich isotherm represented Cd adsorption on the clay/Andisol adsorbent with a coefficient of determination (R2=0.99) and constant (k=1.59), higher than Langmuir (R2=0.89). The measurement results show the water purification technology using ceramic filters effectively reduce E. coli bacterial and Cd content in the water.

  13. Thermodynamic evaluation of liquid Cd cathode containing U and Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Masaki; Uozumi, Koichi; Kato, Tetsuya; Iizuka, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    In our previous study, a mixture of U and Pu was recovered in liquid Cd cathode from molten salt under various conditions of the U:Pu ratio. Two important things were observed. The first was that three kinds of precipitated phase had been detected in the saturated liquid Cd cathode, such as a U metal and two kinds of U-Pu-Cd compound. The compositions of the compounds were roughly (U+Pu):Cd=1:11 and (U+Pu):Cd=1:6. The second was that the U metal had selectively precipitated in the saturated liquid Cd cathode under the condition that the U:Pu ratio is higher than about 0.8 in the liquid Cd phase. In the present study, phase diagrams were evaluated by the CALPHAD method on the liquid Cd cathode containing U and Pu. The U-Pu-Cd compounds were modeled as MCd 11 -type and MCd 6 -type, respectively, based on the reported binary phase diagrams of U-Cd and Pu-Cd. The calculated result reasonably agreed with the experimental observations. The variations in the U and Pu activities were estimated along with the U:Pu ratio, which is related to the precipitation of various phases in the liquid Cd cathode. (author)

  14. A Limited Survey of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fresh and Frozen Cuttlefish Ink and Mantle Used As Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conficoni, Daniele; Alberghini, Leonardo; Bissacco, Elisa; Contiero, Barbara; Giaccone, Valerio

    2018-02-01

    Cuttlefish ink is consumed as a delicacy worldwide. The current study is the first assessment of heavy metal concentrations in cuttlefish ink versus mantle under different storage methods. A total of 212 samples (64 of fresh mantle, 42 of frozen mantle, 64 of fresh ink, and 42 of frozen ink) were analyzed for the detection of the following heavy metals: arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd). The median As concentrations were 12.9 mg/kg for fresh mantle, 8.63 mg/kg for frozen mantle, 10.8 mg/kg for frozen ink, and 0.41 mg/kg for fresh ink. The median Cr concentrations were 0.06 mg/kg for fresh mantle and frozen ink, 0.03 mg/kg for frozen mantle, and below the limit of quantification (LOQ) for fresh ink. The median Fe concentrations were 4.08 mg/kg for frozen ink, 1.51 mg/kg for fresh mantle, 0.73 mg/kg for frozen mantle, and below the LOQ for fresh ink. The median Pb concentrations of almost all samples were below the LOQ; only two frozen ink, one fresh ink, one frozen mantle, and one fresh mantle sample exceeded the limit stipulated by the European Union. The Hg concentrations were statistically similar among the four categories of samples; the median Hg concentrations were below the LOQ, and the maximum concentrations were found in frozen ink, at 1.62 mg/kg. The median Cd concentrations were 0.69 mg/kg for frozen ink and 0.11 mg/kg for frozen mantle, fresh mantle and fresh ink concentrations were below the LOQ, and in 11.3% of the tested samples, Cd concentrations were higher than the European Union limit. The probability of samples having a Cd concentration above the legal limit was 35.75 times higher in frozen than in fresh products. Fresh ink had significantly lower concentrations of As, Cr, Fe, and Cd, but the concentrations of Hg and Pb were not significantly different from those of other products. Frozen ink had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Fe, but concentrations of As were lower than those in

  15. Transplantation of Immortalized CD34+ and CD34- Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Improve Cardiac Function and Mitigate Systemic Pro-Inflammatory Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Kim

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs have the potential to differentiate into various cell lineages and they are easily obtainable from patients, which makes them a promising candidate for cell therapy. However, a drawback is their limited life span during in vitro culture. Therefore, hTERT-immortalized CD34+ and CD34- mouse ADSC lines (mADSCshTERT tagged with GFP were established. We evaluated the proliferation capacity, multi-differentiation potential, and secretory profiles of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT in vitro, as well as their effects on cardiac function and systemic inflammation following transplantation into a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI to assess whether these cells could be used as a novel cell source for regeneration therapy in the cardiovascular field. CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT demonstrated phenotypic characteristics and multi-differentiation potentials similar to those of primary mADSCs. CD34+ mADSCshTERT exhibited a higher proliferation ability compared to CD34- mADSCshTERT, whereas CD34- mADSCshTERT showed a higher osteogenic differentiation potential compared to CD34+ mADSCshTERT. Primary mADSCs, CD34+, and CD34- mADSCshTERT primarily secreted EGF, TGF-β1, IGF-1, IGF-2, MCP-1, and HGFR. CD34+ mADSCshTERT had higher secretion of VEGF and SDF-1 compared to CD34- mADSCshTERT. IL-6 secretion was severely reduced in both CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT compared to primary mADSCs. Transplantation of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT significantly improved the left ventricular ejection fraction and reduced infarct size compared to AMI-induced rats after 28 days. At 28 days after transplantation, engraftment of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT was confirmed by positive Y chromosome staining, and differentiation of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT into endothelial cells was found in the infarcted myocardium. Significant decreases were observed in circulating IL-6 levels in CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT groups compared to the AMI

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) in the pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P; Zhang, A T; Wang, C; Azzam, M M M; Zou, X T

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an important role in transporting long-chain fatty acids. In the current study, a full-length cDNA of FAT/CD36 was first cloned from the intestine of White King pigeon by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length cDNA of pigeon FAT/CD36 was 2,282 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region of 224 bp, a 3'-untranslated region of 642 bp, and an open reading frame of 1,416 bp encoding a protein of 471 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 52.7 kDa. Sequence comparison indicated that FAT/CD36 of pigeon had high identity with other avian FAT/CD36. Using quantitative real-time PCR, expression of FAT/CD36 was the greatest in the duodenum at 28 d posthatch, and in the jejunum, the expression of FAT/CD36 at 14 d posthatch was greater than at 8 d but the same as 28 d posthatch. However, in the ileum, expression of FAT/CD36 peaked at embryonic d 15 and 8 d posthatch. The effects of long-chain fatty acids on pigeon FAT/CD36 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mRNA expression were also investigated in vitro. It showed that a low concentration (5 μM) of oleic acid, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid can significantly increase FAT/CD36 and PPARγ mRNA level in pigeon jejunum. However, for linolenic acid or arachidonic acid, the induction of both gene expressions needed a higher concentration (50 μM or 250 μM). Two hundred and 50 μM palmitic acid was shown to suppress FAT/CD36 gene expression. The results suggest that FAT/CD36 may be a representative of intestine development in pigeon, and it could be regulated by long-chain fatty acids via PPARγ pathway.

  17. Prognostic impact of CD168 expression in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigami, Sumiya; Yoshiaki, Kita; Kijima, Yuko; Kitazono, Masaki; Natsugoe, Shoji; Ueno, Shinichi; Nishizono, Yuka; Matsumoto, Masataka; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Arigami, Takaaki; Uchikado, Yasuto; Setoyama, Tetsuro; Arima, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Interactions of stromal hyaluronic acid (HA) with its binding protein RHAMM (receptor for HA-mediated motility) (CD168) have been reported to affect tumor extension and the migration of crucial molecules to promote tumor progression and metastases. Cancerous CD168 expression is correlated with aggressive biological features in several cancers. However, the clinical implications of CD168 positivity in gastric cancer have remained unclear. We examined the CD168 expression of 196 consecutive gastric cancer patients by immunohistochemistry. According to CD168 positivity, the 196 gastric cancer patients were divided into two groups (57 CD168-positive and 139 CD168-negative patients). The correlation between