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Sample records for higher cd accumulation

  1. The early activation marker CD69 regulates the expression of chemokines and CD4 T cell accumulation in intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Radulovic

    Full Text Available Migration of naïve and activated lymphocytes is regulated by the expression of various molecules such as chemokine receptors and ligands. CD69, the early activation marker of C-type lectin domain family, is also shown to regulate the lymphocyte migration by affecting their egress from the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of CD69 in accumulation of CD4 T cells in intestine using murine models of inflammatory bowel disease. We found that genetic deletion of CD69 in mice increases the expression of the chemokines CCL-1, CXCL-10 and CCL-19 in CD4(+ T cells and/or CD4(- cells. Efficient in vitro migration of CD69-deficient CD4 T cells toward the chemokine stimuli was the result of increased expression and/or affinity of chemokine receptors. In vivo CD69(-/- CD4 T cells accumulate in the intestine in higher numbers than B6 CD4 T cells as observed in competitive homing assay, dextran sodium sulphate (DSS-induced colitis and antigen-specific transfer colitis. In DSS colitis CD69(-/- CD4 T cell accumulation in colonic lamina propria (cLP was associated with increased expression of CCL-1, CXCL-10 and CCL-19 genes. Furthermore, treatment of DSS-administrated CD69(-/- mice with the mixture of CCL-1, CXCL-10 and CCL-19 neutralizing Abs significantly decreased the histopathological signs of colitis. Transfer of OT-II×CD69(-/- CD45RB(high CD4 T cells into RAG(-/- hosts induced CD4 T cell accumulation in cLP. This study showed CD69 as negative regulator of inflammatory responses in intestine as it decreases the expression of chemotactic receptors and ligands and reduces the accumulation of CD4 T cells in cLP during colitis.

  2. DNA microarray revealed and RNAi plants confirmed key genes conferring low Cd accumulation in barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanism of low Cd accumulation in crops is crucial for sustainable safe food production in Cd-contaminated soils. Results Confocal microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence analyses revealed a distinct difference in Cd...... with a substantial difference between the two genotypes. Cd stress led to higher expression of genes involved in transport, carbohydrate metabolism and signal transduction in the low-grain-Cd-accumulating genotype. Novel transporter genes such as zinc transporter genes were identified as being associated with low Cd...... accumulation. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed our microarray data. Furthermore, suppression of the zinc transporter genes HvZIP3 and HvZIP8 by RNAi silencing showed increased Cd accumulation and reduced Zn and Mn concentrations in barley grains. Thus, HvZIP3 and HvZIP8 could be candidate genes related to low...

  3. Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC.: An accumulator of Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Zhou Qixing; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Xiao Hong; Yang Chuanjie; Zhang Qianru

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a traditional technique that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil and sediments. This is a solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective technology. In a former published article, Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC. indicated some basic properties of hyperaccumulators for cadmium (Cd). In this study, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were used to assess whether this plant is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The results showed the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of K. integrifolia was basically >1 in concentration gradient experiment. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. Thus, K. integrifolia should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments conducted in a Pb-Zn mine area and a wastewater irrigation region, K. integrifolia also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, K. integrifolia could be identified as a Cd-accumulator

  4. Impacts of rapeseed dregs on Cd availability in contaminated acid soil and Cd translocation and accumulation in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Zou, Jia-Ling; Zhou, Hang; Zeng, Qing-Ru; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of rapeseed dregs (RSD, a commonly organic fertilizer in rural China) at application rates of 0, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 % on Cd availability in soil and its accumulation in rice plants (Oryza sativa L., Xiangwanxian 12 # , and Weiyou 46 # ) by means of a pot experiment. The results showed that application of RSD resulted in a sharp decrease in the soil TCLP-extractable Cd content. However, the soil TCLP-extractable Cd content in amended soil gradually increased during the rice growing period. Application of RSD significantly increased Cd transport from root to shoot and the amount of Cd accumulated in the aerial part. RSD was an effective organic additive for increasing rice grain yield, but total Cd content in rice grain was also increased. At an application rate of 1.5-3.0 % RSD, the total Cd content in Weiyou 46 # brown rice was 0.27-0.31 mg kg -1 , which exceeded the standard safe limit (0.2 mg kg -1 ) and was also higher than that of Xiangwanxian 12 # (0.04-0.14 mg kg -1 ). Therefore, Weiyou 46 # had a higher dietary risk than Xiangwanxian 12 # with RSD application. We do not recommend planting Weiyou 46 # and applying more than 0.75 % RSD in Cd-contaminated paddy fields.

  5. Accumulation of Cd in Indian mustard and sunflower for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Satoshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Fukui, Masami

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a new method that uses plants to remove contaminants from soil without affecting soil fertility. It can therefore be used for contaminated agricultural land. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are used in phytoremediation to remove Cadmium (Cd), which they can accumulate in large quantities. It is important to know when plants have accumulated significant Cd, so that we can decide when the plants should be harvested and synthetic chelates applied. Brassica juncea seeds and Helianthus annuus L. seeds were planted in a field in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus L. were collected at time intervals ranging from 1 to 6 months and 2 to 7 weeks, respectively, after seedling emergence and the concentration of Cd in the plants was analyzed. These results indicated that Brassica juncea should be harvested before beginning flowering and Helianthus annuus L. should be harvested after it becomes old enough. The solubility of Cd in soil is enhanced when the soil is heated or dried, and black vinyl mulch was therefore used to absorb the heat from sunlight. The difference in the Cd uptake of Brassica juncea between mulching cultivation and non-mulching cultivation was investigated in a field, and this indicated that there is no probability that mulching enhances Cd uptake in plants. The solubility of Cd in soil decreases over time. Repeated pot experiments were done. We planted Brassica juncea in pots, and investigated the uptake of Cd and the solid phase fractions in which Cd was present in each pot experiment. These did not change considerably over time, indicating that age has a negligible effect on Cd uptake in plants. (author)

  6. Cadmium accumulation, gill Cd binding, acclimation, and physiological effects during long term sublethal Cd exposure in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, L.; McGeer, J.C.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, on 3% of body weight daily ration, were exposed to 0 (control), 3, and 10 μg l -1 Cd (as Cd(NO 3 ) 2 · 4H 2 O) in moderately hard (140 mg l -1 as CaCO 3 ), alkaline (95 mg l -1 as CaCO 3 , pH 8.0) water for 30 days. Particular attention focused on acclimation, and on whether a gill surface binding model, originally developed in dilute softwater, could be applied in this water quality to fish chronically exposed to Cd. Only the higher Cd concentration caused mortality (30%, in the first few days). The costs of acclimation, if any, in our study were subtle since no significant effects of chronic Cd exposure were seen in growth rate, swimming performance (stamina and U Crit ), routine O 2 consumption, or whole body ion levels. Substantial acclimation occurred in both exposure groups, manifested as 11- to 13-fold increases in 96-h LC 50 values. In water quality regulations, which are based on toxicity tests with non-acclimated fish only, this remarkable protective effect of acclimation is not taken into account. Cd accumulated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion to 60-120x (gills), 8-20x (liver), 2-7x (carcass), and 5-12x (whole bodies) control levels by 30 days. Chronically accumulated gill Cd could not be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) challenge. These gill Cd concentrations were 20- to 40-fold greater than levels predicted by the gill-binding model to cause mortality during acute exposure. In short-term gill Cd-binding experiments (up to 70 μg l -1 exposures for 3 h), gill Cd burden increased as predicted in control fish, but was not detectable against the high background concentrations in acclimated fish. In light of these results, Cd uptake/turnover tests were performed using radioactive 109 Cd to improve sensitivity. With this approach, a small saturable binding component was seen, but could not be related to toxic response in acclimated fish. Acclimated trout internalized less 109 Cd than control fish, but

  7. Root anatomy and element distribution vary between two Salix caprea isolates with different Cd accumulation capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaculík, Marek; Konlechner, Cornelia; Langer, Ingrid; Adlassnig, Wolfram; Puschenreiter, Markus; Lux, Alexander; Hauser, Marie-Theres

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the influence of toxic elements on root anatomy and element distribution is still limited. This study describes anatomical responses, metal accumulation and element distribution of rooted cuttings of Salix caprea after exposure to Cd and/or Zn. Differences in the development of apoplastic barriers and tissue organization in roots between two distinct S. caprea isolates with divergent Cd uptake and accumulation capacities in leaves might reflect an adaptive predisposition based on different natural origins. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) revealed that Cd and Zn interfered with the distribution of elements in a tissue- and isolate-specific manner. Zinc, Ca, Mg, Na and Si were enriched in the peripheral bark, K and S in the phloem and Cd in both vascular tissues. Si levels were lower in the superior Cd translocator. Since the cuttings originated from stocks isolated from polluted and unpolluted sites we probably uncovered different strategies against toxic elements. - Highlights: ► We describe responses in roots of S. caprea exposed to Cd and Zn. ► Apoplastic barrier development varied among isolates from differently polluted sites. ► EDX analyses revealed variations of element distributions in root tissues. ► Si weight% was lower in the isolate with a higher Cd translocation capacity. ► S. caprea isolates possessed different strategies to respond to Cd and Zn. - S. caprea altered element distribution and translocation, apoplastic barrier development and root anatomy upon Cd and/or Zn exposure.

  8. The influence of humic substance on Cd accumulation of phytostabilizer Athyrium wardii (Hook.) grown in Cd-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Juan; Li, Tingxuan; Yu, Haiying; Zhang, Xizhou; Zhao, Li

    2016-09-01

    The application of organic amendments into heavy metal contaminated soil is considered as an environmentally friendly technique to promote the potential of phytoremediation. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of humic substances on growth, cadmium (Cd) accumulation and phytostabilization potential of the mining ecotype (ME) and the corresponding non-mining ecotype (NME) of Athyrium wardii (Hook.) grown in Cd-contaminated soils. The addition of the humic substances demonstrated great promotion for the growth and Cd uptake of ME. Both plant biomass and Cd concentration significantly increased with the increasing application of the humic substances up to 100 g kg(-1), beyond which no significant change of underground part biomass and Cd concentrations in underground part of A. wardii was observed. The maximum Cd concentration in underground part of ME was 180 mg kg(-1) when 150 g kg(-1) humic substances were applied. The ME showed greater Cd accumulation capability in underground part (0.47-0.68 mg plant(-1)) than that of NME (0.27-0.45 mg plant(-1)). Increasing bioaccumulation coefficient (BCF) values of A. wardii was observed with increasing application of the humic substances. The BCF values of ME were higher than those of NME. However, the use of the humic substances exhibited little impact on translocation factors (TFs) of ME, and the TF values of ME were less than NME. Furthermore, the application of the humic substances improved the remediation factors (RFs) of A. wardii. The RF values in underground part of ME ranging from 0.73 to 0.91 % were apparently higher than those of NME. These results indicated that the humic substances can be a potential candidate for enhancing the phytostabilization of A. wardii grown in Cd-contaminated soils.

  9. Accumulation of Cd in agricultural soil under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weiping; Lu, Sidan; Peng, Chi; Jiao, Wentao; Wang, Meie

    2013-01-01

    Safety of agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water is of great concern as some potential hazardous compounds like heavy metals may be accumulated in soils over time. Impacts of long-term reclaimed water on soil Cd pollution were evaluated based on the field investigation in two main crop areas in Beijing with long irrigation history and on simulation results of STEM-profile model. Under long-term reclaimed water, Cd content in the top 20 cm soil layer was greatly elevated and was more than 2 times higher than that in the deep soil layer. There was very small differences between the field measured and model simulated Cd content in the plow layer (top 20 cm) and entire soil layer. Long-term model prediction showed that reclaimed water irrigation had a low environmental risk of soil Cd pollution, but the risk would be aggravated when there were high metal loading from other sources. The risk is also depending on the soil and plant properties. -- Highlights: •Root zone soil Cd content was elevated by one time under long-term reclaimed water irrigation. •The STEM-profile model can well track the Cd balance in the soil profile. •Reclaimed water irrigation plays a limited role on soil Cd accumulation in Beijing croplands. -- There was a low risk of soil Cd pollution under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

  10. Uptake and translocation of Cd in different rice cultivars and the relation with Cd accumulation in rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianguo; Qian Min; Cai Guoliang; Yang Jianchang; Zhu Qingsen

    2007-01-01

    The variations among six rice cultivars in cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation were investigated with pot soil experiments. The results showed that only a very small portion (0.73%) of Cd absorbed by rice plant was transferred into grain. With regard to plant total Cd uptake, Cd concentrations and quantity accumulations in roots, stems and leaves, the differences among the cultivars (between the largest one and the smallest one) were less than one time. But for Cd concentrations and Cd quantity accumulations in the grains, the differences were more than five and eight times, respectively. With respect to Cd distribution portions in plant organs, the diversities among the cultivars were also small in roots, stems and leaves, but much larger in grains. Grain Cd concentrations correlated positively and significantly (P < 0.01) with Cd quantity accumulations in plant, Cd distribution ratios to aboveground parts, and especially with Cd distribution ratios from aboveground parts to the grain. The results indicated that Cd concentration in rice grain was governed somewhat by plant Cd uptake and the transport of Cd from root to shoot, and in a greater extent, by the transport of Cd from shoot to grain. Cd was not distributed evenly in different products after rice grain processing. The average Cd concentration in cortex (embryo) was five times more than that in chaff and polished rice. With regard to Cd quantity accumulation in the products, near 40% in cortex (embryo), 45% in polished rice and 15% in chaff averagely

  11. Naturally evolved enhanced Cd tolerance of Dianthus carthusianorum L. is not related to accumulation of thiol peptides and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Dresler, Sławomir; Plak, Andrzej; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum L., metallicolous (M) and nonmetallicolous (NM), were cultivated in hydroponics at 0-50 μM Cd for 14 days to compare their Cd accumulation, sensitivity and tolerance mechanisms. While both ecotypes contained similar concentrations of Cd in the shoots and roots, the M ecotype was more Cd-tolerant (as measured by fresh weight production and root and leaf viability). Both ecotypes accumulated phytochelatins (PCs) in response to Cd with a higher amount thereof found in the NM ecotype. Concentrations of PCs remained unchanged with increasing Cd concentrations in the root tissues, but their content in the shoots increased. The addition of L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) diminished glutathione (GSH) accumulation and arrested PC production, which increased the sensitivity to Cd of the NM, but not M ecotype. Organic acids (malate and citrate) as well as proline accumulation did not change significantly after Cd exposition and was at the same level in both ecotypes. The enhanced Cd tolerance of the M ecotype of D. carthusianorum cannot be explained in terms of restricted Cd uptake and differential production of PCs, organic acids or proline; some other mechanisms must be involved in its adaptation to the high Cd content in the environment.

  12. Selection for Cd Pollution-Safe Cultivars of Chinese Kale (Brassica alboglabra L. H. Bailey) and Biochemical Mechanisms of the Cultivar-Dependent Cd Accumulation Involving in Cd Subcellular Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-Jie; Tan, Xiao; Fu, Hui-Ling; Chen, Jing-Xin; Lin, Xiao-Xia; Ma, Yuan; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2018-02-28

    Two pot experiments were conducted to compare and verify Cd accumulation capacities of different cultivars under Cd exposures (0.215, 0.543, and 0.925 mg kg -1 in Exp-1 and 0.143, 0.619, and 1.407 mg kg -1 in Exp-2) and Cd subcellular distributions between low- and high-Cd cultivars. Shoot Cd concentrations between the selected low- and high-Cd cultivars were 1.4-fold different and the results were reproducible. The proportions of Cd-in-cell-wall of shoots and roots were all higher in a typical low-Cd cultivar (DX102) than in a typical high-Cd cultivar (HJK), while those of Cd-in-chloroplast or Cd-in-trophoplast and Cd-in-membrane-and-organelle were opposite. The proportions of Cd-in-vacuoles-and-cytoplasm of roots in DX102 were always higher than in HJK under Cd stresses, while there was no clear pattern in those of shoots. These findings may help to reduce health risk of Cd from Chinese kale consumption and explained biochemical mechanisms of cultivar-dependent Cd accumulation among the species.

  13. Bidens tripartite L.: A Cd-accumulator confirmed by pot culture and site sampling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Niu Rongcheng; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Zhou Qixing; Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng; Hu Yahu; Li Yunmeng

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of cadmium (Cd) in Bidens tripartite L. were investigated to identify Cd-accumulating properties. In this study, pot culture experiment and site sampling experiments were conducted to assess whether this plant is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator or accumulator. The results indicated that the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of B. tripartite was principally >1 in pot culture and concentration gradient experiments. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. In the site sampling experiment, B. tripartite also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, B. tripartite could be identified as a Cd-accumulator. Thus, B. tripartite should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator.

  14. Cadmium accumulation, gill Cd binding, acclimation, and physiological effects during long term sublethal Cd exposure in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, L.; McGeer, J.C.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, on 3% of body weight daily ration, were exposed to 0 (control), 3, and 10 {mu}g l{sup -1} Cd (as Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O) in moderately hard (140 mg l{sup -1} as CaCO{sub 3}), alkaline (95 mg l{sup -1} as CaCO{sub 3}, pH 8.0) water for 30 days. Particular attention focused on acclimation, and on whether a gill surface binding model, originally developed in dilute softwater, could be applied in this water quality to fish chronically exposed to Cd. Only the higher Cd concentration caused mortality (30%, in the first few days). The costs of acclimation, if any, in our study were subtle since no significant effects of chronic Cd exposure were seen in growth rate, swimming performance (stamina and U{sub Crit}), routine O{sub 2} consumption, or whole body ion levels. Substantial acclimation occurred in both exposure groups, manifested as 11- to 13-fold increases in 96-h LC{sub 50} values. In water quality regulations, which are based on toxicity tests with non-acclimated fish only, this remarkable protective effect of acclimation is not taken into account. Cd accumulated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion to 60-120x (gills), 8-20x (liver), 2-7x (carcass), and 5-12x (whole bodies) control levels by 30 days. Chronically accumulated gill Cd could not be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) challenge. These gill Cd concentrations were 20- to 40-fold greater than levels predicted by the gill-binding model to cause mortality during acute exposure. In short-term gill Cd-binding experiments (up to 70 {mu}g l{sup -1} exposures for 3 h), gill Cd burden increased as predicted in control fish, but was not detectable against the high background concentrations in acclimated fish. In light of these results, Cd uptake/turnover tests were performed using radioactive {sup 109}Cd to improve sensitivity. With this approach, a small saturable binding component was seen, but could not be related to toxic response in

  15. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The potential of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum was examined to determine its tolerance and ability to accumulate cadmium for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1.35 mmol l -1 on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of A. macrostachyum by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. We also determined ash, cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc concentrations, and C/N ratio. A. macrostachyum demonstrated hypertolerance to cadmium stress; it did not show phytotoxicity at shoot concentration as high as 70 mg kg -1 . The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) for all Cd treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has higher ability to transfer Cd from roots to shoots at lower Cd concentrations. At 1.35 mmol l -1 Cd A. macrostachyum showed 25% biomass reduction after a month of treatment. Long-term effects of cadmium on the growth were mainly determined by variations in net photosynthetic rate (P N ). Reductions in P N could be accounted by higher dark respiration and lower pigment concentrations. Finally, A. macrostachyum has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator and may be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated sites.

  16. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana, E-mail: susana@us.es [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The potential of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum was examined to determine its tolerance and ability to accumulate cadmium for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1.35 mmol l{sup -1} on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of A. macrostachyum by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. We also determined ash, cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc concentrations, and C/N ratio. A. macrostachyum demonstrated hypertolerance to cadmium stress; it did not show phytotoxicity at shoot concentration as high as 70 mg kg{sup -1}. The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) for all Cd treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has higher ability to transfer Cd from roots to shoots at lower Cd concentrations. At 1.35 mmol l{sup -1} Cd A. macrostachyum showed 25% biomass reduction after a month of treatment. Long-term effects of cadmium on the growth were mainly determined by variations in net photosynthetic rate (P{sub N}). Reductions in P{sub N} could be accounted by higher dark respiration and lower pigment concentrations. Finally, A. macrostachyum has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator and may be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated sites.

  17. Body size-dependent Cd accumulation in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha from different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Li; Evans, Douglas; Kraemer, Lisa; Zhong, Huan

    2017-02-01

    Understanding body size-dependent metal accumulation in aquatic organisms (i.e., metal allometry) is critical in interpreting biomonitoring data. While growth has received the most attention, little is known about controls of metal exposure routes on metal allometry. Here, size-dependent Cd accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from different routes were investigated by exposing mussels to A.( 111 Cd spiked algae+ 113 Cd spiked river water) or B.( 111 Cd spiked sediments+ 113 Cd spiked river water). After exposure, 111 Cd or 113 Cd levels in mussel tissue were found to be negatively correlated with tissue weight, while Cd allometry coefficients (b values) were dependent on Cd exposure routes: -0.664 for algae, -0.241 for sediments and -0.379 for river water, compared to -0.582 in un-exposed mussels. By comparing different Cd exposure routes, we found that size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation from algae or river water could be more responsible for the overall size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels, and the relative importance of the two sources was dependent on mussel size ranges: Cadmium obtained from algae (algae-Cd) was more important in size-dependent Cd accumulation in smaller mussels (tissue dry weight  5 mg). In contrast, sediment-Cd contributed only a small amount to Cd accumulation in zebra mussels and may have little effect on size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation. Our results suggest that size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels could be largely affected by exposure routes, which should be considered when trying to interpret Cd biomonitoring data of zebra mussels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Different patterns of 123I-BMIPP myocardial accumulation in patients with type I and II CD36 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Toba, K; Ogawa, Y; Aizawa, Y; Tanabe, N; Miyajima, S; Kusano, Y; Nagatomo, T; Hirokawa, Y

    1997-12-01

    The CD36 molecule is a multifunctional membrane type receptor glycoprotein that reacts with thrombospondin, collagen, oxidized LDL and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). LCFA are one of the major cardiac energy substrates, hence LCFA metabolism may have an important role in cardiac diseases. In this study, we analyzed CD36 expression in 200 patients with heart diseases [44 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 16 with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 26 with old myocardial infarction (OMI), 55 with angina pectoris (AP) and 59 with other miscellaneous heart diseases] using a flow cytometer. 123I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial accumulation was also examined in some patients. Eight patients (2 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 2 with OMI, and 3 with AP) were diagnosed as having type I CD36 deficiency (neither platelets nor monocytes expressed CD36). Sixteen patients (3 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 1 with OMI, 8 with AP, and 3 with other heart diseases) showed type II CD36 deficiency (monocytes expressed CD36 but platelets did not). In all 8 patients with type I CD36 deficiency, there was no BMIPP accumulation in the heart. However, in 13 patients with type II CD36 deficiency, focally reduced BMIPP accumulation was observed, but there were no patients without BMIPP accumulation. CD36 deficiency was observed in a higher proportion (12%) of patients with heart disease in this study than in a reported control study. Type I CD36 deficiency is associated with absence of BMIPP accumulation in the heart, hence it may have an important role in LCFA metabolic disorders and some types of cardiac hypertrophy as well as other heart diseases.

  19. Different patterns of 123I-BMIPP myocardial accumulation in patients with type I and II CD36 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Nagatomo, Takafumi; Toba, Ken; Ogawa, Yusuke; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Tanabe, Naohito; Miyajima, Seiichi; Kusano, Yoriko; Hirokawa, Yoichi.

    1997-01-01

    The CD36 molecule is a multifunctional membrane type receptor glycoprotein that reacts with thrombospondin, collagen, oxidized LDL and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). LCFA are one of the major cardiac energy substrates, hence LCFA metabolism may have an important role in cardiac diseases. In this study, we analyzed CD36 expression in 200 patients with heart diseases (44 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 16 with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 26 with old myocardial infarction (OMI), 55 with angina pectoris (AP) and 59 with other miscellaneous heart diseases) using a flow cytometer. 123 I-β-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial accumulation was also examined in some patients. Eight patients (2 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 2 with OMI, and 3 with AP) were diagnosed as having type I CD36 deficiency (neither platelets nor monocytes expressed CD36). Sixteen patients (3 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 1 with OMI, 8 with AP, and 3 with other heart diseases) showed type II CD36 deficiency (monocytes expressed CD36 but platelets did not). In all 8 patients with type I CD36 deficiency, there was no BMIPP accumulation in the heart. However, in 13 patients with type II CD36 deficiency, focally reduced BMIPP accumulation was observed, but there were no patients without BMIPP accumulation. CD36 deficiency was observed in a higher proportion (12%) of patients with heart disease in this study than in a reported control study. Type I CD36 deficiency is associated with absence of BMIPP accumulation in the heart, hence it may have an important role in LCFA metabolic disorders and some types of cardiac hypertrophy as well as other heart diseases. (author)

  20. Different patterns of {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial accumulation in patients with type I and II CD36 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Nagatomo, Takafumi [Niigata Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan); Toba, Ken; Ogawa, Yusuke; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Tanabe, Naohito; Miyajima, Seiichi; Kusano, Yoriko; Hirokawa, Yoichi

    1997-12-01

    The CD36 molecule is a multifunctional membrane type receptor glycoprotein that reacts with thrombospondin, collagen, oxidized LDL and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). LCFA are one of the major cardiac energy substrates, hence LCFA metabolism may have an important role in cardiac diseases. In this study, we analyzed CD36 expression in 200 patients with heart diseases (44 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 16 with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 26 with old myocardial infarction (OMI), 55 with angina pectoris (AP) and 59 with other miscellaneous heart diseases) using a flow cytometer. {sup 123}I-{beta}-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial accumulation was also examined in some patients. Eight patients (2 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 2 with OMI, and 3 with AP) were diagnosed as having type I CD36 deficiency (neither platelets nor monocytes expressed CD36). Sixteen patients (3 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 1 with OMI, 8 with AP, and 3 with other heart diseases) showed type II CD36 deficiency (monocytes expressed CD36 but platelets did not). In all 8 patients with type I CD36 deficiency, there was no BMIPP accumulation in the heart. However, in 13 patients with type II CD36 deficiency, focally reduced BMIPP accumulation was observed, but there were no patients without BMIPP accumulation. CD36 deficiency was observed in a higher proportion (12%) of patients with heart disease in this study than in a reported control study. Type I CD36 deficiency is associated with absence of BMIPP accumulation in the heart, hence it may have an important role in LCFA metabolic disorders and some types of cardiac hypertrophy as well as other heart diseases. (author)

  1. Comparison of sup(115m)Cd accumulation from sediments and sea water by polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taishi; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    1976-01-01

    To know the role played by marine sediments in influencing the fate of discharged metals, (1) the interaction of metals between sediments and deposit-feeder marine worms (Nereis japonica), and (2) uptake and excretion of metals by worms were examined by laboratory experiments using sup(115m)Cd. Worms directly in contact with sup(115m)Cd-sediments accumulated sup(115m)Cd six times more than worms that were not in contact with the sup(115m)Cd sediments during the 8 days of experimentation and 12% of sup(115m)Cd in sediments were noted to be transfered to worms per unit. Comparing the concentration factor of 22 (from sea water) with accumulation from sediments, it was assumed that sup(115m)Cd in sediments would give the effect of 1/200 to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd by worms in sea water to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd. Further, to simulate these results close to that occuring in the natural ecosystem, the distribution of sup(115m)Cd in sea water, sediments and alga were also examined by means of a curve analysis of the distribution pattern by a three compartment model. It proved that the activity ratios of sup(115m)Cd were 9 for sediments and 21 for alga, which was similar to 22 for worms. (auth.)

  2. Metals Accumulation and Leaf Surface Anatomy of Murdannia spectabilis Growing in Zn/Cd Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladawan Rattanapolsan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Murdannia spectabilis (Kurz Faden was identified as a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulative plant. Leaf surface anatomy of the plant growing in non-contaminated soil (control and Zn/Cd contaminated soil,was studied and compared by a light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(SEM/EDS. The similarities were reticulate cuticle on epidermises, uniform polygonal cell, stomatal arrangement in six surrounding subsidiary cells, and submarginal sclerenchyma. The dissimilarities were uniserate trichomes spreading on both adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil, whereas the uniserate trichomes were only on the submarginal-adaxial epidermis of the control plants. The trichomes on leaves of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil were found to have both uniseriate non-glandular and uniseriate glandular trichomes;whereas, leaves of the plants growing in the contaminated soil were merely non-glandular trichomes. The different shape and location of trichomes, the number of stomata and trichome indicated the effect of Zn and Cd on M. spectabilis. The higher percentages of Zn and Cd in the vascular bundle than in the cross section and epidermis areas showed both solutes could move along each route, with diffusion through the symplast and apoplast. The increase of Ca in M. spectabilis growing in Zn/Cd contaminated soil corresponded to the Zn and Cd distributed in the leaves. Zn K-edge and S K-edge XANES spectra proposed that Zn2+ ions were accumulated and/or adsorbed on the epidermis of the tuber, and then absorbed into the root and transport to the xylem. The double peaks of Zn-cysteine in the leaf samples proposed the metal sequestration was by sulphur proteins.

  3. Effects of Interaction between Cadmium (Cd) and Selenium (Se) on Grain Yield and Cd and Se Accumulation in a Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) on their accumulation in three rice cultivars, which remains unclear. The results showed that Se reduced Cd-induced growth inhibition, and increased and decreased Se and Cd concentrations in brown rice, respectively. Cadmium concentrations in all tissues of the hybrid were similar to those in its male parent yet significantly lower than those in its female parent. Selenium reduced Cd accumulation in rice when Cd concentration exceeded 2.0 mg kg -1 ; however Se accumulation depended on the levels of Cd exposure. Finally, Cd had minimal effect on Se translocation within the three cultivars. We concluded that Cd concentration in brown rice is a heritable trait, making crossbreeding a feasible method for cultivating high-yield, low-Cd rice cultivars. Selenium effectively decreased the toxicity and accumulation of Cd, and Cd affected Se uptake but not translocation.

  4. Accumulation of Heavy Metals (Pb, Cd, V) in Sediment, roots and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Accumulation of Heavy Metals (Pb, Cd, V) in Sediment, roots and leaves of ... ABSTRACT: Sirik mangrove forests harbour two species, Avicennia marina and .... Based on the soil critical concentration value of Pb.

  5. Screening for Cd-Safe Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage and a Preliminary Study on the Mechanisms of Cd Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjie Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress of industrialization, the effects of environmental contamination on plant toxicity, and subsequently on human health, is a growing concern. For example, the heavy metal pollution of soil such as that caused by cadmium (Cd is a serious threat. Therefore, screening for pollution-safe edible plants is an essential approach for growing plants under heavy metal-contaminated soils. In the current study, 35 Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L. cultivars were selected with the aim of screening for Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs, analyzing their safety, and exploring the mechanism of Cd accumulation. Our field-culture experiments revealed that the Cd content in the edible parts of the cultivars were varied and were determined to possibly be CSCs. Hydroponics experiments were used to simulate six different degrees of soil contamination (high and low Cd concentrations on possible CSCs. The results indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05 in Cd concentration in the cultivars, and verified the safety of these possible CSCs. The analyses of the transport coefficient and expression levels showed that the differences in Cd accumulation among the Chinese cabbage cultivars were related to the expression of genes involved in absorption and transport rather than a root-to-shoot translocation limitation.

  6. Ageing combines CD4 T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs and T cell accumulation in gut associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Kim Zita; Bloquet, Stéphane; Bourgeois, Christine

    2014-01-01

    CD4 T cell lymphopenia is an important T cell defect associated to ageing. Higher susceptibility to infections, cancer, or autoimmune pathologies described in aged individuals is thought to partly rely on T cell lymphopenia. We hypothesize that such diverse effects may reflect anatomical heterogeneity of age related T cell lymphopenia. Indeed, no data are currently available on the impact of ageing on T cell pool recovered from gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), a crucial site of CD4 T cell accumulation. Primary, secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs of C57BL/6 animals were analysed at three intervals of ages: 2 to 6 months (young), 10 to 14 months (middle-aged) and 22 to 26 months (old). We confirmed that ageing preferentially impacted CD4 T cell compartment in secondary lymphoid organs. Importantly, a different picture emerged from gut associated mucosal sites: during ageing, CD4 T cell accumulation was progressively developing in colon and small intestine lamina propria and Peyer's patches. Similar trend was also observed in middle-aged SJL/B6 F1 mice. Interestingly, an inverse correlation was detected between CD4 T cell numbers in secondary lymphoid organs and colonic lamina propria of C57BL/6 mice whereas no increase in proliferation rate of GALT CD4 T cells was detected. In contrast to GALT, no CD4 T cell accumulation was detected in lungs and liver in middle-aged animals. Finally, the concomitant accumulation of CD4 T cell in GALT and depletion in secondary lymphoid organs during ageing was detected both in male and female animals. Our data thus demonstrate that T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs currently associated to ageing is not sustained in gut or lung mucosa associated lymphoid tissues or non-lymphoid sites such as the liver. The inverse correlation between CD4 T cell numbers in secondary lymphoid organs and colonic lamina propria and the absence of overt proliferation in GALT suggest that marked CD4 T cell decay in secondary

  7. Testing the validity of a Cd soil quality standard in representative Mediterranean agricultural soils under an accumulator crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recatala, L.; Sanchez, J.; Arbelo, C.; Sacristan, D.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of a quality standard for cadmium (Cd) in representative agricultural Mediterranean soils under an accumulator crop (Lactuca sativa L.) is evaluated in this work considering both its effect on the crop growth (biomass production) and the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. Four soils with different properties relevant to regulate the behaviour of heavy metals were selected from the Valencian Region, a representative area of the European Mediterranean Region. For all soils, the effective concentration of added Cd causing 50% inhibition (EC 50 ) on the biomass production was much higher than the minimum legal concentration used to declare soils as contaminated by cadmium, i.e. 100 times the baseline value for Cd, in Spain (Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005). As expected, Cd toxicity in the crop was higher in the soils having less carbonate content. On the other hand, for all soils, from the second dose on, which represents 10-times the baseline value for Cd, the metal content in crops exceeded the maximum level established for leaf crops by the European legislation (Regulation EC no. 466/2001). Soil salinity and coarse textures make the accumulation of Cd in the edible part of the plant easier. Therefore, the legal baseline soil cadmium content established by the Spanish legislation seems not valid neither from the point of view of the effect on the crop growth nor from the point of view of the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. In order to realistically declare contaminated soils by heavy metals, soil quality standards should be proposed taking into account the soil properties. Further research in other agricultural areas of the region would improve the basis for proposing adequate soil quality standards for heavy metals as highlighted by the European Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection.

  8. Testing the validity of a Cd soil quality standard in representative Mediterranean agricultural soils under an accumulator crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recatala, L., E-mail: luis.recatala@uv.es [Departamento de Planificacion Territorial, Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion-CIDE (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia-Generalitat Valenciana), Cami de la Marjal S/N, 46470 Albal (Valencia) (Spain); Sanchez, J. [Departamento de Planificacion Territorial, Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion-CIDE (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia-Generalitat Valenciana), Cami de la Marjal S/N, 46470 Albal (Valencia) (Spain); Arbelo, C. [Departamento de Edafologia y Geologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife), Islas Canarias (Spain); Sacristan, D. [Departamento de Planificacion Territorial, Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion-CIDE (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia-Generalitat Valenciana), Cami de la Marjal S/N, 46470 Albal (Valencia) (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    The validity of a quality standard for cadmium (Cd) in representative agricultural Mediterranean soils under an accumulator crop (Lactuca sativa L.) is evaluated in this work considering both its effect on the crop growth (biomass production) and the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. Four soils with different properties relevant to regulate the behaviour of heavy metals were selected from the Valencian Region, a representative area of the European Mediterranean Region. For all soils, the effective concentration of added Cd causing 50% inhibition (EC{sub 50}) on the biomass production was much higher than the minimum legal concentration used to declare soils as contaminated by cadmium, i.e. 100 times the baseline value for Cd, in Spain (Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005). As expected, Cd toxicity in the crop was higher in the soils having less carbonate content. On the other hand, for all soils, from the second dose on, which represents 10-times the baseline value for Cd, the metal content in crops exceeded the maximum level established for leaf crops by the European legislation (Regulation EC no. 466/2001). Soil salinity and coarse textures make the accumulation of Cd in the edible part of the plant easier. Therefore, the legal baseline soil cadmium content established by the Spanish legislation seems not valid neither from the point of view of the effect on the crop growth nor from the point of view of the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. In order to realistically declare contaminated soils by heavy metals, soil quality standards should be proposed taking into account the soil properties. Further research in other agricultural areas of the region would improve the basis for proposing adequate soil quality standards for heavy metals as highlighted by the European Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection.

  9. Cd Toxicity and Accumulation in Rice Plants Vary with Soil Nitrogen Status and Their Genotypic Difference can be Partly Attributed to Nitrogen Uptake Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin DU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two indica rice genotypes, viz. Milyang 46 and Zhenshan 97B differing in Cd accumulation and tolerance were used as materials in a hydroponic system consisting of four Cd levels (0, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 µmol/L and three N levels (23.2, 116.0 and 232.0 mg/L to study the effects of nitrogen status and nitrogen uptake capacity on Cd accumulation and tolerance in rice plants. N-efficient rice genotype, Zhenshan 97B, accumulated less Cd and showed higher Cd tolerance than N-inefficient rice genotype, Milyang 46. There was consistency between nitrogen uptake capacity and Cd tolerance in rice plants. Increase of N level in solution slightly increased Cd concentration in shoots but significantly increased in roots of both genotypes. Compared with the control at low N level, Cd tolerance in both rice genotypes could be significantly enhanced under normal N level, but no significant difference was observed between the Cd tolerances under normal N (116.0 mg/L and high N (232.0 mg/L conditions. The result proved that genotypic differences in Cd accumulation and toxicity could be, at least in part, attributed to N uptake capacity in rice plants.

  10. Variations in cadmium accumulation among Chinese cabbage cultivars and screening for Cd-safe cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weitao; Zhou Qixing; An Jing; Sun Yuebing; Liu Rui

    2010-01-01

    Variations in cadmium accumulation and translocation among 40 Chinese cabbage cultivars were studied to identify and screen out Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), i.e. cultivars with low enough accumulation of Cd in their edible parts even when grown in contaminated soils. It was observed in the pot-culture experiment that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in shoot Cd concentrations under three Cd treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg), with corresponding average values 0.88, 4.45 and 7.76 mg/kg, respectively. Shoot Cd concentrations in 16 cabbage cultivars were lower than 0.50 mg/kg. The translocation factors (TFs) and the extraction factors (EFs) in five cabbage cultivars were lower than 1.0 in the pot-culture experiment. The field-culture experiment further validated that New Beijing 3 and Fengyuanxin 3 could be considered as CSCs. In particular, the two cultivars can be cultivated in low to moderate Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration <1.25 mg/kg) to minimize the Cd accumulation in the food.

  11. [Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showing no 123I-BMIPP myocardial accumulation with type I CD36 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Miyajima, S; Kusano, Y; Tanabe, N; Hirokawa, Y

    1997-07-01

    A 57 years old male consulted our hospital in complaining chest oppression and short of breath. Familial and dilated phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was detected by ECG, echocardiography, left ventriculography and left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. 201T1 SPECT showed regional increased accumulation in the ventricular septum, however, no myocardial accumulation of 123I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) was observed. We analyzed CD36 in this patient, and found he had type 1 CD36 deficiency. Myocardial uptake of long-chain fatty acids occurs via a specific transporter, which is homologous with human CD36. We hypothesize that CD36 deficiency, especially type 1 CD36 deficiency, might be one factor of no myocardial 123I-BMIPP uptake.

  12. Comparison Of Cd And Zn Accumulation In Tissues Of Different Vascular Plants: A Radiometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dürešová Zuzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the accumulation and translocation of Cd and Zn in plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., celery (Apium graveolens L., maize (Zea mays L., giant reed (Arundo donax L., and alpine pennycress (Noccaea caerulescens L. under conditions of short-term hydroponic experiments using nutrient solutions spiked with radionuclides 109Cd or 65Zn, and direct gamma-spectrometry. It was found that the time-course of metals accumulation in studied plants was not different in terms of target metal, but it was significantly different on the level of plant species. The highest values of Cd accumulation showed plants of giant reed, whereby the accumulation decreased in the order: giant reed > tobacco > alpine pennycress >> maize and celery. On the basis of concentration ratios (CR [Me]shoot / [Me]root calculation for both metals, it was found that Cd and Zn were in prevailing part accumulated in the root tissues and only partially accumulated in the shoots, where the amount of accumulated Cd and Zn increased from the oldest developed leaves to the youngest developed leaves. The CR values corresponding to these facts were calculated in the range 0.06 – 0.27 for Cd and for Zn 0.06 – 0.48. In terms of plant species, the CR values obtained for Cd decreased in the order: maize > celery > tobacco and giant reed > alpine pennycress. The similarity between studied objects – individual plant species on the basis of the obtained variables defining Cd or Zn accumulation at different conditions of the experiments as well as the relationships between obtained variables and conditions of the experiments were subjected to multivariate analysis method – cluster analysis (CA. According to the findings and this analysis, it can be expected that plants of tobacco and giant reed will dispose with similar characteristics as plants of alpine pennycress, which are classified as Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators, in terms of Cd or Zn accumulation

  13. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar eGhnaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 µM Cd, 100 µM Ni and the combination of 50 µM Cd + 100 µM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected plant development. Cadmium and Ni concentrations in tissues and xylem sap were higher in plants individually exposed to heavy metal application than in those subjected to the combined treatment Cd + Ni, suggesting a possible competition between these metals for absorption. Both metals applied separately or in combination induced an increase in citrate concentration in shoots and xylem sap but a decrease of this concentration in the roots. However a minor relationship was observed between metal application and fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in Cd, Ni translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could be involved in metal chelation and thus contributes to heavy metal tolerance in this species.

  14. Micro-PIXE studies of elemental distribution in Cd-accumulating Brassica juncea L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Thorsten; Haag-Kerwer, Angela; Maetz, Mischa; Niecke, Manfred; Povh, Bogdan; Rausch, Thomas; Schuessler, Arthur

    1999-01-01

    Brassica juncea L. is a high biomass producing crop plant, being able to accumulate Cd and other heavy metals in their roots and shoots. It is a good candidate for efficient phytoextraction of heavy metals - such as Cd - from polluted soils. PIXE and STIM analyses were applied to investigate Cd-uptake in roots and the resulting effects on the elemental distribution of Cd stressed plants. The axial distribution of trace elements as a function of distance from the root tip as well as the radial distribution within cross-sections were analysed. The results are compared with the elemental distribution in control plants

  15. Micro-PIXE studies of elemental distribution in Cd-accumulating Brassica juncea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thorsten; Haag-Kerwer, Angela; Maetz, Mischa; Niecke, Manfred; Povh, Bogdan; Rausch, Thomas; Schüßler, Arthur

    1999-10-01

    Brassica juncea L. is a high biomass producing crop plant, being able to accumulate Cd and other heavy metals in their roots and shoots. It is a good candidate for efficient phytoextraction of heavy metals - such as Cd - from polluted soils. PIXE and STIM analyses were applied to investigate Cd-uptake in roots and the resulting effects on the elemental distribution of Cd stressed plants. The axial distribution of trace elements as a function of distance from the root tip as well as the radial distribution within cross-sections were analysed. The results are compared with the elemental distribution in control plants.

  16. Micro-PIXE studies of elemental distribution in Cd-accumulating Brassica juncea L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Thorsten E-mail: thorsten.schneider@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Haag-Kerwer, Angela; Maetz, Mischa; Niecke, Manfred; Povh, Bogdan; Rausch, Thomas; Schuessler, Arthur

    1999-09-02

    Brassica juncea L. is a high biomass producing crop plant, being able to accumulate Cd and other heavy metals in their roots and shoots. It is a good candidate for efficient phytoextraction of heavy metals - such as Cd - from polluted soils. PIXE and STIM analyses were applied to investigate Cd-uptake in roots and the resulting effects on the elemental distribution of Cd stressed plants. The axial distribution of trace elements as a function of distance from the root tip as well as the radial distribution within cross-sections were analysed. The results are compared with the elemental distribution in control plants.

  17. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Bidens pilosa L. as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuebing; Zhou Qixing; Wang Lin; Liu Weitao

    2009-01-01

    Recently, researchers are becoming interested in using hyperaccumulators for decontamination of heavy metal polluted soils, whereas few species that hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd) has been identified in the plant kingdom. In this study, the physiological mechanisms at the seedling stage and growth responses and Cd uptake and accumulation at flowering and mature stages of Bidens pilosa L. under Cd treatments were investigated. At the seedling stage, when soil Cd was lower than 16 mg kg -1 , the plant did not show obvious symptom of phytoxicity, and the alterations of chlorophyll (CHL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and soluble protein (SP) did not have significant differences when compared with the control. At the flowering and mature stages, under low Cd treatments (≤16 mg kg -1 ), the application of Cd could facilitate plant growth, resulting in 3.9-11.0% and 5.9-13.8%, respectively, increase in shoots dry biomass compared with the control. The Cd concentrations in stems, leaves and shoots exceeded 100 mg kg -1 when soil Cd was at 8 mg kg -1 , and they were positively correlated with Cd concentration in soils, the bioaccumulation factor (BF) and translocation factor (TF) values were all greater than 1.0. Thus, it is clear that B. pilosa has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator. All the results elementarily indicated that B. pilosa is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulating plant

  18. MOLECULAR-GENETIC BASIS OF HIGHER PLANTS TOLERANCE TO, AND ACCUMULATION OF, CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Kulaeva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is one of the most wide-ranged and dangerous pollutants for all living organisms, including plants. At present time the intensive studies of mechanisms of Cd accumulation in plant tissues and plant tolerance to its toxic influence are performed. Data about variation of Cd tolerance and accumulation traits in natural populations of hyperaccumulators species as well as important crops were obtained. A series of mutants with changed sensitivity to Cd was obtained. In recent decade several classes of proteins involving in cell responses to Cd ions were revealed. An important role of microRNA in plant adaptation to Cd was recently demonstrated. Studies of molecular-genetic mechanisms of Cd accumulation and plant tolerance to it are theoretical basis for development of phytoremediation technologies of soil contaminated with heavy metals and breeding of crop varieties with decreased Cd accumulation.

  19. Mitigation of Cd accumulation in paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Fe fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Tang, Ye-Tao; Yao, Ai-Jun; Cao, Jian; Wu, Zhuo-Hao; Peng, Zhe-Ran; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Xiao, Shi; Baker, Alan J M; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium uptake in rice is believed to be mediated by the Fe transport system. Phyto-available Cd can be changed by Fe fertilization of substrates. This work investigated whether and how Fe fertilization affects mitigation of Cd accumulation in paddy rice. A 90-d soil column experiment was conducted to study the change of Cd and Fe availability in soil after Fe fertilization (ionic and chelated Fe). A low-Cd accumulating cultivar (TY116) and a high-Cd accumulating cultivar (JY841) were grown in two Cd-polluted paddy soils amended with chelated Fe fertilizers. Additionally, both cultivars were grown in hydroponics to compare Fe-related gene expression in EDDHAFe-deficient and EDDHAFe-sufficient roots. The column experiment showed that EDTANa 2 Fe(II) and EDDHAFe(III) fertilization had a better mitigation effect on soil Cd availability compared to FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O. Moreover, the field experiment demonstrated that these two chelated fertilizations could reduce Cd concentrations in brown rice by up to 80%. Iron concentrations in the brown rice were elevated by Fe chelates. Compared to EDDHAFe(III), EDTANa 2 Fe(II) fertilization had a stronger mitigation effect by generating more EDTANa 2 Cd(II) in the soil solution to decrease phyto-available Cd in the soil. While EDDHAFe(III) fertilization could increase soil pH and decrease soil Eh which contributed to decreasing phyto-available Cd in a contaminated soil. In the hydroponic experiment, Fe sufficiency significantly reduced Cd concentrations in above-ground organs. In some cases, the expression of OsIRT1, OsNRAMP1 and OsNRAMP5 was inhibited under Fe sufficiency relative to Fe deficiency conditions. These results suggest that mitigation of rice Cd by Fe chelate fertilization results from a decrease in available Cd in substrates and the inhibition of the expression of several Fe-related genes in the IRT and NRAMP families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of Cd Adsorption and Accumulation from Contaminated Soil in Different Parts of Root Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Yargholi

    2010-01-01

        Environmental pollution with heavy metals and their absorption by plants form a universal problem around the world. Numerous investigations have been conducted to put wastewaters containing heavy metals to agricultural reuse. Little is known, however, about the absorption of cadmium in the root zone and its accumulation in the different organs of crops, particularly in root crops. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of different levels of Cd concentration in the root zone on the accumulation rate in various parts of four different types of common root crops in karaj Iran. The experiment was performed in a factorial testing plan in random blocks and in four treatments with three replicates. The treatments included four levels of Cd concentration in soil (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, control without Cd addition and water with 0.5 molar of EDTA. The soil used in this study was prepared by passing through a sieve with a 2mm mesh and adding Nitrate Cadmium (Cd(NO32. Cylinder plastic vases 40 Cm in diameter and 60 cm high were employed to cultivate vegetables. Water demandwas estimated via the Penman-Mantith method, in which Kc was calculated by means of recorded data at Meshgin-Abad synoptic station in Karaj. At the end of the growing season, samples were taken from different organs of the plants to measure Cadmium accumulation. The SPSS software was used for the variance analysis of the collected data. The Dunkan test (at 0.01 and 0.05 levels was then used to evaluate averages of the specifications in the factorial testing levels. The results indicate a direct relationship between Cd concentration in the root zone and Cd accumulation in plant organs. Adding 0.5 molar of EDTA to the irrigation water caused Cd accumulation in plant organs to exceed 60 percent. The results also show that Cd concentration, except for the control, was in excess of the limit for human consumption and that its accumulation levels in the different species tested

  1. Lesional accumulation of CD163-expressing cells in the gut of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Franzè

    Full Text Available Monocytes/macrophages displaying different markers of activation/differentiation infiltrate the inflamed gut of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, but the role that each monocyte/macrophage subpopulation plays in the pathogenesis of IBD is not fully understood. The hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163, a specific marker of monocytes/macrophages, has been associated with either anti-inflammatory or inflammatory functions of macrophages in several pathologies. In this study we examined the tissue distribution and function of CD163-expressing monocytes/macrophages in IBD. CD163 RNA and protein expression was more pronounced in IBD in comparison to normal controls, with no significant difference between Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis. In IBD, over-expression of CD163 was restricted to areas with active inflammation and not influenced by current therapy. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the accumulation of CD163-expressing cells in IBD, mostly around and inside blood vessels, thus suggesting that these cells are partly recruited from the systemic circulation. Indeed, FACS analysis of circulating mononuclear cells showed that the fractions of CD163-positive monocytes were increased in IBD patients as compared to controls. Functionally, interleukin-6 up-regulated CD163 expression in lamina propria mononuclear cells and mucosal explants of normal subjects. In IBD blood and mucosal cell cultures, cross-linking of CD163 with a specific monoclonal anti-CD163 antibody enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis. These findings indicate that IBD mucosa is abundantly infiltrated with CD163-positive cells, which could contribute to amplify the inflammatory cytokine response.

  2. Herpes simplex virus-1 evasion of CD8+ T cell accumulation contributes to viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Naoto; Imai, Takahiko; Shindo, Keiko; Sato, Ayuko; Fujii, Wataru; Ichinohe, Takeshi; Takemura, Naoki; Kakuta, Shigeru; Uematsu, Satoshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Maruzuru, Yuhei; Arii, Jun; Kato, Akihisa; Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    2017-10-02

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is the most common cause of sporadic viral encephalitis, which can be lethal or result in severe neurological defects even with antiviral therapy. While HSV-1 causes encephalitis in spite of HSV-1-specific humoral and cellular immunity, the mechanism by which HSV-1 evades the immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. Here we describe a strategy by which HSV-1 avoids immune targeting in the CNS. The HSV-1 UL13 kinase promotes evasion of HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell accumulation in infection sites by downregulating expression of the CD8+ T cell attractant chemokine CXCL9 in the CNS of infected mice, leading to increased HSV-1 mortality due to encephalitis. Direct injection of CXCL9 into the CNS infection site enhanced HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell accumulation, leading to marked improvements in the survival of infected mice. This previously uncharacterized strategy for HSV-1 evasion of CD8+ T cell accumulation in the CNS has important implications for understanding the pathogenesis and clinical treatment of HSV-1 encephalitis.

  3. Higher lung accumulation of intravenously injected organic nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitani Y

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoshie Maitani,1 Yuri Nakamura,1 Masao Kon,1 Emi Sanada,1 Kae Sumiyoshi,1 Natsuki Fujine,1 Masumi Asakawa,2 Masaki Kogiso,2 Toshimi Shimizu21Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nanotube Research Center (NTRC, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Tsukuba, JapanAbstract: The size and shape of intravenously injected particles can affect their biodistribution and is of importance for the development of particulated drug carrier systems. In this study, organic nanotubes (ONTs with a carboxyl group at the surface, a length of approximately 2 µm and outer diameter of 70–90 nm, were injected intravenously into tumor-bearing mice. To use ONTs as drug carriers, the biodistribution in selected organs of ONTs postinjection was examined using irinotecan, as an entrapped water-soluble marker inside ONTs, and gadolinium-chelated ONT, as an ONT marker, and compared with that of a 3 µm fluorescently labeled spherical microparticle which was similar size to the length of ONTs. It was found that for irinotecan, its active metabolite and gadolinium-chelated ONTs were highly accumulated in the lung, but to a lower level in the liver and spleen. On the other hand, microparticles deposited less in the lung and more highly in the liver. Moreover, histologic examination showed ONTs distributed more in lung tissues in part, whereas microparticles were present in blood vessels postinjection. These preliminary results support the notion of using negatively charged ONTs as intravascular carriers to maximize accumulation in the lung whilst reducing sequestration by the liver and spleen. This finding suggested that ONTs are potential carriers for lung-targeting drug delivery.Keywords: organic nanotube, lung, biodistribution, microparticle, particle shape

  4. Can liming reduce cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) in slightly acidic soils? A contradictory dynamic equilibrium between Cd uptake capacity of roots and Cd immobilisation in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongjie; Chen, Jiangmin; Huang, Qina; Tang, Shaoqing; Wang, Jianlong; Hu, Peisong; Shao, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice is strongly controlled by liming, but information on the use of liming to control Cd accumulation in rice grown in slightly acidic soils is inconsistent. Here, pot experiments were carried out to investigate the mechanisms of liming on Cd accumulation in two rice varieties focusing on two aspects: available/exchangeable Cd content in soils that were highly responsive to liming, and Cd uptake and transport capacity in the roots of rice in terms of Cd accumulation-relative gene expression. The results showed that soil availability and exchangeable iron, manganese, zinc and Cd contents decreased with increased liming, and that genes related to Cd uptake (OsNramp5 and OsIRT1) were sharply up-regulated in the roots of the two rice varieties. Thus, iron, manganese, zinc and Cd contents in rice plants increased under low liming applications but decreased in response to high liming applications. However, yield and rice quantities were only slightly affected. These results indicated that Cd accumulation in rice grown in slightly acidic soils presents a contradictory dynamic equilibrium between Cd uptake capacity by roots and soil Cd immobilisation in response to liming. The enhanced Cd uptake capacity under low liming dosages increases risks to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Obesity-driven prepartal hepatic lipid accumulation in dairy cows is associated with increased CD36 and SREBP-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanović, Radiša; Korićanac, Goran; Vujanac, Ivan; Djordjević, Ana; Pantelić, Marija; Romić, Snježana; Stanimirović, Zoran; Kirovski, Danijela

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that obesity in dairy cows enhanced expression of proteins involved in hepatic fatty acid uptake and metabolism. Sixteen Holstein-Friesian close-up cows were divided into 2 equal groups based on their body condition score (BCS) as optimal (3.25≤BCS≤3.5) and high (4.0≤BCS≤4.25). Intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT) and liver biopsies were carried out at day 10 before calving. Blood samples were collected before (basal) and after glucose infusion, and glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels were determined at each sample point. In addition, β-hydroxybutyrate and triglycerides levels were measured in the basal samples. The liver biopsies were analyzed for total lipid content and protein expression of insulin receptor beta (IRβ), fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). Basal glucose and insulin were higher in high-BCS cows, which coincided with higher circulating triglycerides and hepatic lipid content. Clearance rate and AUC for NEFA during GTT were higher in optimal-BCS cows. The development of insulin resistance and fatty liver in obese cows was paralleled by increased hepatic expression of the IRβ, CD36 and SREBP-1. These results suggest that increased expression of hepatic CD36 and SREBP-1 is relevant in the obesity-driven lipid accumulation in the liver of dairy cows during late gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genotypic-dependent effects of N fertilizer, glutathione, silicon, zinc, and selenium on proteomic profiles, amino acid contents, and quality of rice genotypes with contrasting grain Cd accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fangbin; Fu, Manman; Wang, Runfeng; Cheng, Wangda; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2017-07-01

    Soil heavy metal (HM) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production. For restricting the translocation of HM into grain, many proteins were regulated to involve in the process. To identify these proteins, 2D-based proteomic analysis was carried out using different rice genotypes with distinct Cd accumulation in grains and as affected by an alleviating regulator (AR) in field experiments. AR application improved grain quality, with increased contents in Glu, Cys, His, Pro, and protein. Twenty-six low-grain HM accumulation-associated protein species were identified and categorized as physiological functions via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry. Among these proteins, 8, 9, and 9 proteins exhibited higher accumulation, lower accumulation, and unchanged accumulation, respectively, in Xiushui817 (low accumulator) vs R8097 (high accumulator) under control conditions but showed differential accumulation patterns after AR application. These proteins included sucrose synthase 3, alanine aminotransferase, glutelin, cupin family protein, and zinc finger CCCH domain-containing protein 32. The differential expression of these protein species might contribute to decreased HM accumulation in grain via decreasing the protein accumulation which had high affinity to HM or regulating energy metabolism and signal transduction. Our findings provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of low-grain HM accumulation in rice and possible utilization of candidate protein species in developing low-grain HM accumulation genotypes.

  7. Activation of AMPK by berberine induces hepatic lipid accumulation by upregulation of fatty acid translocase CD36 in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, You-Jin; Lee, Kang-Yo; Jung, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyung Sik; Shim, Gayong; Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Oh, Seon-Hee; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that berberine has a protective effect against metabolic syndrome such as obesity and type II diabetes mellitus by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK induces CD36 trafficking to the sarcolemma for fatty acid uptake and oxidation in contracting muscle. However, little is known about the effects of AMPK on CD36 regulation in the liver. We investigated whether AMPK activation by berberine affects CD36 expression and fatty acid uptake in hepatocytes and whether it is linked to hepatic lipid accumulation. Activation of AMPK by berberine or transduction with adenoviral vectors encoding constitutively active AMPK in HepG2 and mouse primary hepatocytes increased the expression and membrane translocation of CD36, resulting in enhanced fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation as determined by BODIPY-C16 and Nile red fluorescence, respectively. Activation of AMPK by berberine induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and subsequently induced CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) binding to the C/EBP-response element in the CD36 promoter in hepatocytes. In addition, hepatic CD36 expression and triglyceride levels were increased in normal diet-fed mice treated with berberine, but completely prevented when hepatic CD36 was silenced with adenovirus containing CD36-specific shRNA. Taken together, prolonged activation of AMPK by berberine increased CD36 expression in hepatocytes, resulting in fatty acid uptake via processes linked to hepatocellular lipid accumulation and fatty liver. - Highlights: • Berberine increases the expression and membrane translocation of CD36 in hepatocytes. • The increase of CD36 results in enhanced fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation. • Berberine-induced fatty liver is mediated by AMPK-ERK-C/EBPβ pathway. • CD36-specific shRNA inhibited berberine-induced lipid accumulation in liver.

  8. Activation of AMPK by berberine induces hepatic lipid accumulation by upregulation of fatty acid translocase CD36 in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, You-Jin; Lee, Kang-Yo; Jung, Seung-Hwan [College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Gayong; Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung [College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seon-Hee [The Division of Natural Medical Sciences, College of Health Science, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Dae Won [Internal Medicine, Hanyang University School of Medicine, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Hoon, E-mail: lee@snu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that berberine has a protective effect against metabolic syndrome such as obesity and type II diabetes mellitus by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK induces CD36 trafficking to the sarcolemma for fatty acid uptake and oxidation in contracting muscle. However, little is known about the effects of AMPK on CD36 regulation in the liver. We investigated whether AMPK activation by berberine affects CD36 expression and fatty acid uptake in hepatocytes and whether it is linked to hepatic lipid accumulation. Activation of AMPK by berberine or transduction with adenoviral vectors encoding constitutively active AMPK in HepG2 and mouse primary hepatocytes increased the expression and membrane translocation of CD36, resulting in enhanced fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation as determined by BODIPY-C16 and Nile red fluorescence, respectively. Activation of AMPK by berberine induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and subsequently induced CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) binding to the C/EBP-response element in the CD36 promoter in hepatocytes. In addition, hepatic CD36 expression and triglyceride levels were increased in normal diet-fed mice treated with berberine, but completely prevented when hepatic CD36 was silenced with adenovirus containing CD36-specific shRNA. Taken together, prolonged activation of AMPK by berberine increased CD36 expression in hepatocytes, resulting in fatty acid uptake via processes linked to hepatocellular lipid accumulation and fatty liver. - Highlights: • Berberine increases the expression and membrane translocation of CD36 in hepatocytes. • The increase of CD36 results in enhanced fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation. • Berberine-induced fatty liver is mediated by AMPK-ERK-C/EBPβ pathway. • CD36-specific shRNA inhibited berberine-induced lipid accumulation in liver.

  9. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Xin; Ma, Mi; Zhang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  10. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Hui [Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Deng, Xin [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ma, Mi [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyz@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  11. Mechanisms of Fe biofortification and mitigation of Cd accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown hydroponically with Fe chelate fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Tang, Ye-Tao; Zhou, Can; Xie, Shu-Ting; Xiao, Shi; Baker, Alan J M; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium contaminated rice from China has become a global food safety issue. Some research has suggested that chelate addition to substrates can affect metal speciation and plant metal content. We investigated the mitigation of Cd accumulation in hydroponically-grown rice supplied with EDTANa 2 Fe(II) or EDDHAFe(III). A japonica rice variety (Nipponbare) was grown in modified Kimura B solution containing three concentrations (0, 10, 100 μΜ) of the iron chelates EDTANa 2 Fe(II) or EDDHAFe(III) and 1 μΜ Cd. Metal speciation in solution was simulated by Geochem-EZ; growth and photosynthetic efficiency of rice were evaluated, and accumulation of Cd and Fe in plant parts was determined. Net Cd fluxes in the meristematic zone, growth zone, and maturation zone of roots were monitored by a non-invasive micro-test technology. Expression of Fe- and Cd-related genes in Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient roots and leaves were studied by QRT-PCR. Compared to Fe deficiency, a sufficient or excess supply of Fe chelates significantly enhanced rice growth by elevating photosynthetic efficiency. Both Fe chelates increased the Fe content and decreased the Cd content of rice organs, except for the Cd content of roots treated with excess EDDHAFe(III). Compared to EDDHAFe(III), EDTANa 2 Fe(II) exhibited better mitigation of Cd accumulation in rice by generating the EDTANa 2 Cd complex in solution, decreasing net Cd influx and increasing net Cd efflux in root micro-zones. Application of EDTANa 2 Fe(II) and EDDHAFe(III) also reduced Cd accumulation in rice by inhibiting expression of genes involved in transport of Fe and Cd in the xylem and phloem. The 'win-win' situation of Fe biofortification and Cd mitigation in rice was achieved by application of Fe chelates. Root-to-stem xylem transport of Cd and redistribution of Cd in leaves by phloem transport can be regulated in rice through the use of Fe chelates that influence Fe availability and Fe-related gene expression. Fe fertilization

  12. Immunosenescent CD57+CD4+ T-cells Accumulate and Contribute to Interferon-γ Responses in HIV Patients Responding Stably to ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals responding to antiretroviral therapy (ART after severe CD4+ T-cell depletion may retain low responses to recall antigens [eg: cytomegalovirus (CMV] and altered expression of T-cell co-stimulatory molecules consistent with immunosenescence. We investigated the capacity of phenotypically senescent cells to generate cytokines in HIV patients receiving long-term ART (n = 18 and in healthy controls (n = 10. Memory T-cells were assessed by interferon (IFN-γ ELISpot assay and flow cytometrically via IFN-γ or IL-2. Proportions of CD57brightCD28null CD4+ T-cells correlated with IFN-γ responses to CMV (p = 0.009 and anti-CD3 (p = 0.002 in HIV patients only. Proportions of CD57brightCD28null CD8+ T-cells and CD8+ T-cell IFN-γ responses to CMV peptides correlated in controls but not HIV patients. IL-2 was predominantly produced by CD28+T-cells from all donors, whereas IFN-γ was mostly produced by CD57+ T-cells. The findings provide evidence of an accumulation of immunosenescent T-cells able to make IFN-γ. This may influence the pathogenesis of secondary viral infections in HIV patients receiving ART.

  13. Differences in grain ultrastructure, phytochemical and proteomic profiles between the two contrasting grain Cd-accumulation barley genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low-grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars.

  14. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: an effect of hepatic irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martius, Gesa; Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is known to induce inflammation and affect fat metabolic pathways. The current study investigates hepatic fat accumulation and fatty acid transportation in a rat model of single dose liver irradiation (25-Gy). Rat livers were selectively irradiated in-vivo (25-Gy), sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Hepatic lipids were studied by colorimetric assays in liver and serum. Intracellular lipids, protein and mRNA were studied by Nile red staining, immunohistology, Western Blot analysis and RT-PCR in liver, respectively. Changes in FAT/CD36 expression were studied in-vitro in a human monocyte cell line U937 after irradiation in presence or absence of infliximab (IFX). Nile Red staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (12-48 h) increase in fat droplets. Accordingly, hepatic triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were elevated. An early increase (3-6 h) in the serum level of HDL-C, TG and cholesterol was measured after single dose irradiation followed by a decrease thereafter. Furthermore, expression of the fat transporter protein FAT/CD36 was increased, immunohistochemistry revealed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, apolipoprotein-B100, -C3 and enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein-lipase, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase, malonyl-CoA-decarboxylase) involved in fat metabolism were induced at 12-24 h. Early activation of the NFkβ pathway (IκBα) by TNF-α was seen, followed by a significant elevation of serum markers for liver damage (AST and GLDH). TNF-α blockage by anti-TNF-α in cell culture (U937) prevented the increase of FAT/CD36 caused by irradiation. Selective liver irradiation is a model for rapid induction of steatosis hepatis and fat accumulation could be triggered by irradiation-induced inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-α). PMID:25197426

  15. CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cell numbers in peripheral blood are correlated with higher tumor burden in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

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    Anna Twardosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the commonest histological type of malignant lymphoma, andremains incurable in many cases. Developing more efficient immunotherapy strategies will require betterunderstanding of the disorders of immune responses in cancer patients. NKT (natural killer-like T cells wereoriginally described as a unique population of T cells with the co-expression of NK cell markers. Apart fromtheir role in protecting against microbial pathogens and controlling autoimmune diseases, NKT cells havebeen recently revealed as one of the key players in the immune responses against tumors. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the frequency of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells in the peripheral blood of 28 diffuse largeB-cell lymphoma (DLBCL patients in correlation with clinical and laboratory parameters. Median percentagesof CD3+/CD16+CD56+ were significantly lower in patients with DLBCL compared to healthy donors(7.37% vs. 9.01%, p = 0.01; 4.60% vs. 5.81%, p = 0.03, although there were no differences in absolute counts.The frequency and the absolute numbers of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells were lower in advanced clinical stagesthan in earlier ones. The median percentage of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells in patients in Ann Arbor stages 1–2 was5.55% vs. 3.15% in stages 3–4 (p = 0.02, with median absolute counts respectively 0.26 G/L vs. 0.41 G/L (p == 0.02. The percentage and absolute numbers of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells were significantly higher in DL-BCL patients without B-symptoms compared to the patients with B-symptoms, (5.51% vs. 2.46%, p = 0.04;0.21 G/L vs. 0.44 G/L, p = 0.04. The percentage of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells correlated adversely with serumlactate dehydrogenase (R= –445; p < 0.05 which might influence NKT count. These figures suggest a relationshipbetween higher tumor burden and more aggressive disease and decreased NKT numbers. But it remains tobe explained whether low NKT cell counts in the peripheral blood of patients with DLBCL are the result

  16. Remediation and Safe Production of cd Contaminated Soil Via Multiple Cropping Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and Low Accumulation Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingfen; Wei, Shuhe; Bai, Jiayi; Wang, Siqi; Ji, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple crop experiment of hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. with low accumulation Chinese cabbage Fenyuanxin 3 were conducted in a cadmium (Cd) contaminated vegetable field. In the first round, the average removal rate of S. nigrum to Cd was about 10% without assisted phytoextraction reagent addition for the top soil (0-20 cm) with Cd concentration at 0.53-0.97 mg kg(-1) after its grew 90 days. As for assisted phytoextraction reagent added plots, efficiency of Cd remediation might reach at 20%. However, in the second round, Cd concentration in Chinese cabbage was edible, even in the plots with assisted phytoextraction reagent added. Thus, multiple cropping hyperaccumulator with low accumulation crop could normally remediate contaminated soil and produce crop (obtain economic benefit) in one year, which may be one practical pathway of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soil in the future.

  17. β-Amyloid promotes accumulation of lipid peroxides by inhibiting CD36-mediated clearance of oxidized lipoproteins

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    Khan Tayeba

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that hypercholesterolemia, an established risk factor for atherosclerosis, is also a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The myeloid scavenger receptor CD36 binds oxidized lipoproteins that accumulate with hypercholesterolemia and mediates their clearance from the circulation and peripheral tissues. Recently, we demonstrated that CD36 also binds fibrillar β-amyloid and initiates a signaling cascade that regulates microglial recruitment and activation. As increased lipoprotein oxidation and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products have been reported in Alzheimer's disease, we investigated whether β-amyloid altered oxidized lipoprotein clearance via CD36. Methods The availability of mice genetically deficient in class A (SRAI & II and class B (CD36 scavenger receptors has facilitated studies to discriminate their individual actions. Using primary microglia and macrophages, we assessed the impact of Aβ on: (a cholesterol ester accumulation by GC-MS and neutral lipid staining, (b binding, uptake and degradation of 125I-labeled oxidized lipoproteins via CD36, SR-A and CD36/SR-A-independent pathways, (c expression of SR-A and CD36. In addition, using mice with targeted deletions in essential kinases in the CD36-signaling cascade, we investigated whether Aβ-CD36 signaling altered metabolism of oxidized lipoproteins. Results In primary microglia and macrophages, Aβ inhibited binding, uptake and degradation of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL in a dose-dependent manner. While untreated cells accumulated abundant cholesterol ester in the presence of oxLDL, cells treated with Aβ were devoid of cholesterol ester. Pretreatment of cells with Aβ did not affect subsequent degradation of oxidized lipoproteins, indicating that lysosomal accumulation of Aβ did not disrupt this degradation pathway. Using mice with targeted deletions of the scavenger receptors, we demonstrated that Aβ inhibited oxidized

  18. Influence of iron plaque on uptake and accumulation of Cd by rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Houjun; Zhang, Junling; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo

    2008-05-15

    Iron plaque is ubiquitously formed on the root surfaces of rice. However, little is known about the role of iron plaque in Cd movement from soil to the plant aboveground parts. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of iron plaque in Cd uptake and accumulation by rice seedlings in soil. Rice seedlings were pre-cultivated in solution culture for 16 days. Two seedlings were transplanted in a nylon bag containing no substrate but surrounded by soil amended with Fe and Cd combined at rates of 0, 1, or 2 g Fe kg(-1) and 0, 2.0, or 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil. Fe was added to induce different amounts of iron plaque, and Cd to simulate Cd-polluted soils. Plants were grown for a further 43 days and then harvested. The length of the longest leaf and SPAD values of the newly mature leaves were measured during plant growth. Fe and Cd concentrations were determined in dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) soil extracts and in plant roots and shoots. Shoot and root dry weights were significantly affected by Fe supply level but not by added Cd. Root dry weight declined with increasing Fe supply but shoot dry weight decreased at 2 g Fe kg(-1) and increased at 1 g Fe kg(-1) (except at 2 mg Cd kg(-1)). The length of the longest leaf and SPAD values of the newly mature leaves were significantly affected by plant growth stage and added Fe and Cd. Fe tended to diminish the negative effect of Cd on these two parameters. Cd concentrations in DCB extracts increased with increasing Cd and Fe supply. In contrast, external Fe supply markedly reduced shoot and root Cd concentrations and there was generally no significant difference between the two Fe supply levels. Shoot and root Cd concentrations increased with increasing Cd addition. Root Cd concentrations were negatively correlated with root Fe concentrations. The proportion of Cd in DCB extracts was significantly lower than in roots or shoots. The results indicate that enhanced Fe uptake by plants can diminish the negative

  19. Interference of Cd2+ in functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants

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    Tadeusz Baszyński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual opinions concerning the role of Cd2+ in inhibition of photosynthesis have been reviewed. The light phase of photosynthesis, particularly the site of Cd2+ action in the photosynthetic transport chain has been given the greatest attention. Cd2+-induced inhibition of Photosystem II activity as the result of thylakoid membrane degradation has been discussed. The present studies on Cd2+-inhibited dark reactions occurring in stroma has been analysed. Attention has been drawn to the fact that the results of studies in vitro are not always compatible with the changes found in the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants growing in a Cd2 containing medium.

  20. Root morphological responses of three hot pepper cultivars to Cd exposure and their correlations with Cd accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Liu, Aiqun; Zhou, Wenjing; Yi, Yumei; Liao, Kebing

    2015-01-01

    Cultivars of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) differ widely in their fruit cadmium (Cd) concentrations. Previously, we suggested that low-Cd cultivars are better able to prevent the translocation of Cd from roots to aboveground parts, but the corresponding mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we aimed to improve understanding of the root morphological characteristics of the mechanisms involved in two low-Cd and a high-Cd cultivar. Seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions containing 0 (control), 2, and 10 μM Cd for 20 days, and Cd contents for the three cultivars were compared with changes in root morphology. The total root length (RL), root surface area (SA), number of root tips (RT), and specific root length (SRL) of all cultivars were decreased significantly by the 10 μM Cd treatment with the exception of the SA in JFZ, which showed no obvious change. For each cultivar, the 10 μM Cd treatment decreased significantly RL and SA specifically in roots with diameters (RD) of RD ≤ 0.2 mm or 0.2 mm roots with diameters of 0.6 mm root morphology. In the 10 μM Cd treatment, root volume (RV), SA, and RT of all cultivars were negatively correlated with Cd concentration and amount in roots. However, RL, SA, RV, and RT of all cultivars were positively correlated with Cd concentration and amount in shoots, and translocation rate of Cd. The two low-Cd cultivars of hot pepper had less root tips, shorter root length, and smaller root surface area than the high-Cd cultivar in 10 μM Cd treatment, which may play a vital role in reducing root-to-shoot Cd translocation.

  1. Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.D.; Alloway, B.J.; Dourado, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Metal contaminants in garden and allotment soils could possibly affect human health through a variety of pathways. This study focused on the potential pathway of consumption of vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Five cultivars each of six common vegetables were grown in a control and in a soil spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Highly significant differences in metal content were evident between cultivars of a number of vegetables for several of the contaminants. Carrot and pea cultivars exhibited significant differences in accumulated concentrations of Cd and Cu with carrot cultivars also exhibiting significant differences in Zn. Distinctive differences were also identified when comparing one vegetable to another, legumes (Leguminosae) tending to be low accumulators, root vegetables (Umbelliferae and Liliaceae) tending to be moderate accumulators and leafy vegetables (Compositae and Chenopodiaceae) being high accumulators. - Genotypic differences between cultivars of vegetable species can be important in determining the extent of accumulation of metals from contaminated soil

  2. Combined effects of elevated CO_2 and Cd-contaminated water on growth, photosynthetic response, Cd accumulation and thiolic components status in Lemna minor L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrini, F.; Bianconi, D.; Massacci, A.; Iannelli, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO_2 did not affect the ability of L. minor plants to accumulate Cd in their tissues. • Elevated CO_2 decreased Cd toxicity in L. minor plants by increasing photosynthesis. • Elevated CO_2 reduced Cd toxicity in duckweed by enhancing antioxidant system. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO_2 and cadmium (Cd) treatments on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and phytoremediation ability in Lemna minor L. Plants of L. minor were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 1.5, 2.5 and 5 mg L"−"1 Cd) for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h at ambient (AC) and at elevated (EC) CO_2 (350 and 700 ppm, respectively). Cadmium concentration, bioconcentration factor, enzyme activities and thiols content enhanced in plants with the increase of Cd treatments, time of exposure and at both CO_2 levels. Glutathione levels increased only at AC. Growth, photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio declined in plants with increasing exposure time, Cd treatments and at both CO_2 levels. Our results suggested that the alleviation of toxicity, at low Cd doses, observed in L. minor grown at EC is dependent on both increased photosynthesis and an enhanced antioxidant capacity.

  3. Combined effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and Cd-contaminated water on growth, photosynthetic response, Cd accumulation and thiolic components status in Lemna minor L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrini, F.; Bianconi, D.; Massacci, A. [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council of Italy, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Iannelli, M.A., E-mail: adelaide.iannelli@ibba.cnr.it [Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology, National Research Council of Italy, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} did not affect the ability of L. minor plants to accumulate Cd in their tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} decreased Cd toxicity in L. minor plants by increasing photosynthesis. • Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced Cd toxicity in duckweed by enhancing antioxidant system. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and cadmium (Cd) treatments on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and phytoremediation ability in Lemna minor L. Plants of L. minor were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 1.5, 2.5 and 5 mg L{sup −1} Cd) for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h at ambient (AC) and at elevated (EC) CO{sub 2} (350 and 700 ppm, respectively). Cadmium concentration, bioconcentration factor, enzyme activities and thiols content enhanced in plants with the increase of Cd treatments, time of exposure and at both CO{sub 2} levels. Glutathione levels increased only at AC. Growth, photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio declined in plants with increasing exposure time, Cd treatments and at both CO{sub 2} levels. Our results suggested that the alleviation of toxicity, at low Cd doses, observed in L. minor grown at EC is dependent on both increased photosynthesis and an enhanced antioxidant capacity.

  4. Accumulation of Pb, Cd and Zn from contaminated soil to various plants and evaluation of soil remediation with indicator plant (Plantago lanceolata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupan, M.; Lobnik, F.; Kadunc, V. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Agronomy Dept., Center for Soil and Environmental Science; Hudnik, V. [National Institute of Chemistry Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1997-12-31

    The accumulation of cadmium, lead, and zinc by different major cultivated plants from soils contaminated with heavy metals, is presented. The vegetables, crops, and the indicator plant narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) were used in a field experiment including 3 areas with different levels of pollution. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were observed in edible green parts of vegetables (endive, spinach, lettuce) and roots (carrot, red beet, radish). The heavy metal content in leguminous plants (pods and seeds) was very low compared to high soil concentrations. Wheat and maize showed lower concentrations in grains and kernels than in green parts. Lime and vermiculite were used for reduction of Cd availability to plants in polluted soil. The Cd concentration decreased in the narrow leaf plantain in the presence of both lime and vermiculite in acid soil. In the higher-pH soil the Cd availability to spinach was greatly reduced in the presence of vermiculite

  5. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accumulation of Trace Metal Elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Surface Sediment via Decomposed Seagrass Leaves: A Mesocosm Experiment Using Zostera marina L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sediment of seagrass ecosystems was examined using mesocosm experiments containing Zostera marina (eelgrass and reference pools. Lead was approximately 20-fold higher in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool than in eelgrass leaves and epiphytes on the eelgrass leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium were significantly lower in the surface sediment than in the leaves, with intermediate concentrations in epiphytes. Copper concentrations were similar in both the surface sediment and leaves but significantly lower in epiphytes. Carbon and nitrogen contents increased significantly with increasing δ13C in surface sediments of both the eelgrass and reference pools. Copper, Zn, Cd, and Pb also increased significantly with increasing δ13C in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool but not in the reference pool. By decomposition of eelgrass leaves with epiphytes, which was examined in the eelgrass pool, copper and lead concentrations increased more than 2-fold and approximately a 10-fold, whereas zinc and cadmium concentrations decreased. The high copper and lead concentrations in the surface sediment result from accumulation in decomposed, shed leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium remobilized from decomposed shed leaves but may remain at higher concentrations in the leaves than in the original sediments. The results of our mesocosm study demonstrate that whether the accumulation or remobilization of trace metals during the decomposition of seagrass leaves is trace metal dependent, and that the decomposed seagrass leaves can cause copper and lead accumulation in sediments in seagrass ecosystems.

  7. Relationship between Pb and Cd accumulations in house crow, their habitat, and food content from Klang area, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaydeh, Mohammed; Ismail, Ahmad; Omar, Hishamuddin; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Aziz, Nor Azwady Abd

    2017-12-27

    Heavy metal pollution has become a global concern due to accumulation in tissue and transferable effects to humans via the food chain. This study focused on monitoring the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in surface soil and body content: bone, heart, brain, liver, lung, muscle, kidney, feathers, feces, and gizzard contents of house crow Corvus splendens in the Klang region, Malaysia. The results revealed the occurrence of Pb and Cd in all biological samples from house crows, food contents, and surface soil samples. Heart and kidney accrued high amounts of Cd, while high amounts of Pb were found to accumulate in bones and feathers. Major discrepancies were also discovered in the concentrations of metals between juvenile and adults, as well as female and male bird samples. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in house crow internal tissues correlated significantly with that of bird feathers, but none could be established with that of surface soil. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between Pb concentration in the internal tissues to that of the feces, but the same was not the case when compared with the surface soil concentration. Metal accrual in the house crows feathers and feces may be through a long-term transmission via the food chain, which are eliminated from feathers via molting. This may suggest the utility of molted breast feathers of house crow in the bio-monitoring of Cd and Pb contamination, whereas feces of house crow appear only to be suitable for the bio-monitoring of Pb contamination.

  8. A patient with type I CD36 deficiency whose myocardium accumulated 123I-BMIPP after 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K; Sugihara, H; Tanabe, T; Zen, K; Hikosaka, T; Adachi, Y; Katoh, S; Azuma, A; Nakagawa, M

    2001-06-01

    A 73-year-old man with aortic regurgitation was examined by 123I-alpha-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 1995. Myocardial accumulation was not evident on either the early or the delayed image obtained 15 minutes and 3 hours, respectively, after injecting 123I-BMIPP. Flow cytometric analysis of CD36 expression in monocytes and platelets identified a type I CD36 deficiency. The patient was hospitalized for severe heart failure in 1999. Upon admission, the cardiothoracic ratio on chest X-rays was 73%, and the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter on echocardiograms was enlarged to 77 mm. On the second day, we performed 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT. Myocardial accumulation was evident in the delayed, but not in the early image. We repeated 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT on the 10th day after admission. Myocardial accumulation was evident on both early and delayed images. 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPECT was immediately performed after 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT to distinguish myocardial from pooling images in the left ventricle, but, because the images from both 99Tc-tetrofosmin and 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT were idential, we considered that the 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT images reflected the actual myocardial condition. The CD36 molecule transports long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) on the myocardial membrane, but 123I-BMIPP scintigraphy does not show any myocardial accumulation in patients with type I CD36 deficiency, indicating that myocardial LCFA uptake occurs through CD36 on the human myocardial membrane. Even though our patient had type I CD36 deficiency, BMIPP was uptaken by the myocardium during heart failure, suggesting a variant pathway on the human myocardial membrane for LCFA uptake.

  9. Thorax irradiation triggers a local and systemic accumulation of immunosuppressive CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirsdörfer, Florian; Cappuccini, Federica; Niazman, Muska; Leve, Simone de; Westendorf, Astrid M; Lüdemann, Lutz; Stuschke, Martin; Jendrossek, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocyte infiltration is a common feature of radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis, but their contribution to the pathogenic processes is still unclear. Here, we addressed the impact of thorax irradiation on the T cell compartment with a focus on immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg). C57BL/6 wild type mice (WT) received anesthesia only (sham controls, 0 Gy) or were exposed to a single dose of whole thorax irradiation (15 Gy). Immune cells from lung tissue, spleen, and cervical lymph nodes were collected 10 to 84 days post-irradiation and phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. Whole thorax irradiation provoked an increased influx of CD3+ T cells at 42 and 84 days post-irradiation. In contrast, local irradiation caused a sustained reduction in CD3+ T cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues. Interestingly, we observed a significant local and systemic increase in the fraction of CD4+ T cells expressing the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3), the phenotypic marker for murine Treg, at day 21 post-irradiation. The accumulation of Treg was associated with increased levels of T cells expressing surface proteins characteristic for recruitment and immunosuppressive activity, e.g. CD103, CTLA-4 and CD73. Importantly, Treg isolated at this time point were able to suppress CD4+ effector T cells to a similar extent as Treg isolated from control mice. The response of the adaptive immune system to whole thorax irradiation is characterized by local immunoactivation and systemic immunosuppression. The transient accumulation of immunosuppressive CD4+ FoxP3+ Treg may be required to protect the lung against excessive inflammation-induced tissue damage. Further investigations shall define the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of Treg and their role for the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung disease

  10. Gomphrena claussenii, the first South American metallophyte species with indicator-like Zn and Cd accumulation and extreme metal tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina eT. Villafort Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant species with the capacity to tolerate heavy metals are potentially useful for phytoremediation since they have adapted to survive and reproduce under toxic conditions and to accumulate high metal concentrations. Gomphrena claussenii Moq., a South-American species belonging to the Amaranthaceae, is found at a zinc (Zn mining area in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Through soil and hydroponic experiments, the metal tolerance and accumulation capacities of G. claussenii were assessed and the effects on physiological characteristics were compared with a closely-related non-tolerant species, Gomphrena elegans Mart. Gomphrena. claussenii plants grown in soil sampled at the Zn smelting area accumulated up to 5318 µg g-1 of Zn and 287 µg g-1 of Cd in shoot dry biomass after 30 days of exposure. Plants were grown in hydroponics containing up to 3000 µM of Zn and 100 µM of Cd for G. claussenii and 100 µM of Zn and 5 µM of Cd for G. elegans. Gomphrena claussenii proved to be an extremely tolerant species to both Zn and Cd, showing only slight metal toxicity symptoms at the highest treatment levels, without significant decrease in biomass and no effects on root growth, whereas the non-tolerant species G. elegans showed significant toxicity effects at the highest exposure levels. Both species accumulated more Zn and Cd in roots than in shoots. In G. elegans over 90% of the Cd remained in the roots, but G. claussenii showed a root:shoot concentration ratio of around 2, with shoots reaching 0.93 % Zn and 0.13 % Cd on dry matter base. In G. claussenii shoots, the concentrations of other minerals, such as Fe and Mn, were only affected by the highest Zn treatment while in G. elegans the Fe and Mn concentrations in shoots decreased drastically at both Zn and Cd treatments. Taking together, these results indicate that G. claussenii is a novel metallophyte, extremely tolerant of high Zn and Cd exposure and an interesting species for further

  11. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  12. Comparative accumulation of 109Cd and 75Se from water and food by an estuarine fish (Tetractenos glaber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alquezar, Ralph; Markich, Scott J.; Twining, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available on the comparative accumulation of metal(loid)s from water and food in estuarine/marine fish. Smooth toadfish (Tetractenos glaber), commonly found in estuaries in south-eastern Australia, were separately exposed to radio-labelled seawater (14 kBq L -1 of 109 Cd and 24 kBq L -1 of 75 Se) and food (ghost shrimps; Trypaea australiensis: 875 Bq g -1109 Cd and 1130 Bq g -175 Se) for 25 days (uptake phase), followed by exposure to radionuclide-free water or food for 30 days (loss phase). Toadfish accumulated 109 Cd predominantly from water (85%) and 75 Se predominantly from food (62%), although the latter was lower than expected. For both the water and food exposures, 109 Cd was predominantly located in the gut lining (60-75%) at the end of the uptake phase, suggesting that the gut may be the primary pathway of 109 Cd uptake. This may be attributed to toadfish drinking large volumes of water to maintain osmoregulation. By the end of the loss phase, 109 Cd had predominantly shifted to the excretory organs - the liver (81%) in toadfish exposed to radio-labelled food, and in the liver, gills and kidney (82%) of toadfish exposed to radio-labelled water. In contrast, 75 Se was predominantly located in the excretory organs (gills, kidneys and liver; 66-76%) at the end of the uptake phase, irrespective of the exposure pathway, with minimal change in percentage distribution (76-83%) after the loss phase. This study emphasises the importance of differentiating accumulation pathways to better understand metal(loid) transfer dynamics and subsequent toxicity, in aquatic biota

  13. Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of Macleaya cordata: a newly potential plant for sustainable phytoremediation in Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jian; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Zheng, Bohong; Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Huan; Xie, Jieli; Gan, Chao; Liu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a major concern of the public due to their threats to the safety of food chains. A 60-day pot experiment was conducted using Macleaya cordata as plant material to investigate the phytoremediation potential and anti-oxidative responses of M. cordata under different Cd stress. Significant growth inhibition phenomenon and toxic symptoms were not detected in the experiment. The high biomass of the plant provided high accumulation capacity for Cd with an average dry weight of 3.6 g. The maximum extraction amount of Cd was 393 μg·plant(-1), suggesting that this species had potential for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. A slight increase of chlorophyll (CHL) content was observed in Cd10 treatment. The plant was confirmed to have relatively high tolerance to the Cd stress on the basis of tolerance indexes (TI), relative water content, and CHLa/CHLb ratio. M. cordata could maintain high level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity under Cd stress, indicating strong tolerance capacity for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells. Catalase (CAT) activity show a certain range of decline in the experiment compare to the control. And peroxidase (POD) activity in leaves changed irregularly when compared to the control. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased as Cd concentration elevated compared to the control. In addition, as an inedible crop with relatively high economic value, M. cordata have shown the advantage of high biomass and high tolerance under Cd stress, which can provide a new plant resource for sustainable phytoremediation.

  14. Study on accumulation of Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cd in Nerita lineata and Thais bitubercularis from Tanjung Harapan and Teluk Kemang, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Sn were attributed to metal industries. Cu contamination was associated with piggery industry. Shipping activities contribute to elevated levels of Pb, Cu and As. Elevated levels of metals in the sediments are attributed to anthropogenic activities. Samples were collected in April 2012 and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Fe is the most abundant metal in the tissue and shell compared to the rest of the metals. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soft tissues of Nerita lineata taken from Tanjung Harapan follow this order: Fe > Zn > Ni > Cu > Cd while in Thais bitubercularis, the metal concentrations were higher following the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd. The samples taken from Teluk Kemang were higher and exhibited different trend for both organisms. Results from this study are useful for further exploration of Thais bitubercularis as accumulators of Cu, Cd, and Zn. For recommendation, more studies on monitoring the concentration level of heavy metals in marine environment should be done regularly and increase numbers of samples use to biomonitor the heavy metals in marine environment as it is important to have information or data regarding the quality of marine environment in order to control pollution such as water pollution from being contaminated with heavy metals. This is essential as the pollutants emit in the marine environment may affect marine lives as well as human’s health

  15. Possible link between Hg and Cd accumulation in the brain of long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajdosechova, Zuzana [Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Meston Walk, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Brownlow, Andrew [SAC Wildlife Unit, Inverness (United Kingdom); Cottin, Nicolas T.; Fernandes, Mariana [Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Meston Walk, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Read, Fiona L. [Oceanlab, University of Aberdeen, Main Street, Newburgh AB41 6AA (United Kingdom); Urgast, Dagmar S.; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg; Krupp, Eva M. [Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Meston Walk, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-01

    The bioaccumulation of metals was investigated by analysis of liver, kidney, muscle and brain tissue of a pod of 21 long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) of all ages stranded in Scotland, UK. The results are the first to report cadmium (Cd) passage through the blood–brain barrier of pilot whales and provide a comprehensive study of the long-term (up to 35 years) mammalian exposure to the environmental pollutants. Additionally, linear accumulation of mercury (Hg) was observed in all studied tissues, whereas for Cd this was only observed in the liver. Total Hg concentration above the upper neurochemical threshold was found in the sub-adult and adult brains and methylmercury (MeHg) of 2.2 mg/kg was found in the brain of one individual. Inter-elemental analysis showed significant positive correlations of Hg with selenium (Se) and Cd with Se in all studied tissues. Furthermore, differences in the elemental concentrations in the liver and brain tissues were found between juvenile, sub-adult and adult groups. The highest concentrations of manganese, iron, zinc, Se, Hg and MeHg were noted in the livers, whereas Cd predominantly accumulated in the kidneys. High concentrations of Hg and Cd in the tissues of pilot whales presented in this study reflect ever increasing toxic stress on marine mammals. - Highlights: • Trace elements were measured in a pod of 21 pilot whales stranded in Scotland. • Bioaccumulation of mercury and methyl mercury was found in all studied tissues. • Cadmium age related accumulation was observed in the liver and brain tissues. • Cadmium-selenium correlations suggest formation of cadmium-selenium complexes.

  16. Possible link between Hg and Cd accumulation in the brain of long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdosechova, Zuzana; Brownlow, Andrew; Cottin, Nicolas T.; Fernandes, Mariana; Read, Fiona L.; Urgast, Dagmar S.; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg; Krupp, Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of metals was investigated by analysis of liver, kidney, muscle and brain tissue of a pod of 21 long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) of all ages stranded in Scotland, UK. The results are the first to report cadmium (Cd) passage through the blood–brain barrier of pilot whales and provide a comprehensive study of the long-term (up to 35 years) mammalian exposure to the environmental pollutants. Additionally, linear accumulation of mercury (Hg) was observed in all studied tissues, whereas for Cd this was only observed in the liver. Total Hg concentration above the upper neurochemical threshold was found in the sub-adult and adult brains and methylmercury (MeHg) of 2.2 mg/kg was found in the brain of one individual. Inter-elemental analysis showed significant positive correlations of Hg with selenium (Se) and Cd with Se in all studied tissues. Furthermore, differences in the elemental concentrations in the liver and brain tissues were found between juvenile, sub-adult and adult groups. The highest concentrations of manganese, iron, zinc, Se, Hg and MeHg were noted in the livers, whereas Cd predominantly accumulated in the kidneys. High concentrations of Hg and Cd in the tissues of pilot whales presented in this study reflect ever increasing toxic stress on marine mammals. - Highlights: • Trace elements were measured in a pod of 21 pilot whales stranded in Scotland. • Bioaccumulation of mercury and methyl mercury was found in all studied tissues. • Cadmium age related accumulation was observed in the liver and brain tissues. • Cadmium-selenium correlations suggest formation of cadmium-selenium complexes.

  17. Circulating CXCR5+CD4+ T cells participate in the IgE accumulation in allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fang; Zhu, Hua-Yan; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Qiao-Jing; Huang, Xuan; Jiang, Dong-Jin

    2018-05-01

    The pathogenesis of allergic asthma is primarily characterized by abnormality in immunoglobin(Ig)E pathway, suggesting a possible role for follicular helper T cells (Tfh) in the genesis of excessive IgE accumulation. The blood chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 5 (CXCR)5 + CD4 + T cells, known as "circulating" Tfh, share common functional characteristics with Tfh cells from germinal centers. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypes and functions of circulating CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells in allergic asthmatics. Here we found the frequency of the circulating CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells was raised in allergic asthma compared with healthy control (HC). Phenotypic assays showed that activated circulating CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells display the key features of Tfh cells, including invariably coexpressed programmed cell death (PD)-1 and inducible costimulator (ICOS). The frequency of interleukin IL-4 + -, IL-21 + -producing CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells was increased in allergic asthma patients compared with HC. Furthermore, sorted circulating CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells from allergic asthma patients boosted IgE production in coculture assay which could be inhibited by IL-4 or IL-21 blockage. Interestingly, IL-4 + -, IL-21 + -CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells positively correlated with total IgE in the blood. Our data indicated that circulating CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells may have a significant role in facilitating IgE production in allergic asthma patients. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An Assessment of the Accumulation Potential of Pb, Zn and Cd by Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh. in Vamleshwar Mangroves, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal KUMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the accumulation of Pb, Zn and Cd in an important mangrove species, Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh., in the Vamleshwar mangrove ecosystem, near Narmada estuary, West coast of Gujarat, India with height differences of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 meters and carried out under field conditions during October, 2009. The site was located on 21�30�11.55�� N latitude and 72�43�53.68�� E longitude. Mangrove receives heavy metal pollution from upstream areas of Narmada estuary and highly populated settlements. However, little is known about the capacity of mangrove plants to take up and store heavy metals in them. Water, sediment and plant parts such as roots, stems and leaves were analyzed for finding the trace metal accumulation of different height groups by Inductive Coupled Plasma Analyser (ICPA. Amount of the content of metals found in the water, sediment and plant parts were in the order of Pb>Zn>Cd. The average contents of heavy metals in the waters were 57.83 mg l-1 for Pb, 3.89 83 mg l-1 for Zn and 0.42 mg l-1 for Cd. It was observed that the average contents of Pb (73.6 mg l-1, Zn (8.1 mg l-1 and Cd (0.73 mg l-1 in the sediments were below the critical soil concentrations. The concentrations of heavy metals in different parts of Avicennia marina were in the order Roots>stem>leaf except for Cd, but Cd found higher in leaf. The ranges of the content of heavy metals in plants were 18.5-102.2 mg l-1 for Pb, 3.5-19.5 mg l-1 for Zn and 0.2-4.1 mg l-1 for Cd. The concentrations of all heavy metals in Avicennia marina except Pb were falling within the normal range and were much more in the plants have the highest height. The present study has shown the potential of Avicennia marina as a phytoremediation species for selected heavy metals in many mangrove ecosystems.

  19. An Assessment of the Accumulation Potential of Pb, Zn and Cd by Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh. in Vamleshwar Mangroves, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal KUMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the accumulation of Pb, Zn and Cd in an important mangrove species, Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh., in the Vamleshwar mangrove ecosystem, near Narmada estuary, West coast of Gujarat, India with height differences of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 meters and carried out under field conditions during October, 2009. The site was located on 213011.55 N latitude and 724353.68 E longitude. Mangrove receives heavy metal pollution from upstream areas of Narmada estuary and highly populated settlements. However, little is known about the capacity of mangrove plants to take up and store heavy metals in them. Water, sediment and plant parts such as roots, stems and leaves were analyzed for finding the trace metal accumulation of different height groups by Inductive Coupled Plasma Analyser (ICPA. Amount of the content of metals found in the water, sediment and plant parts were in the order of Pb>Zn>Cd. The average contents of heavy metals in the waters were 57.83 mg l-1 for Pb, 3.89 83 mg l-1 for Zn and 0.42 mg l-1 for Cd. It was observed that the average contents of Pb (73.6 mg l-1, Zn (8.1 mg l-1 and Cd (0.73 mg l-1 in the sediments were below the critical soil concentrations. The concentrations of heavy metals in different parts of Avicennia marina were in the order Roots>stem>leaf except for Cd, but Cd found higher in leaf. The ranges of the content of heavy metals in plants were 18.5-102.2 mg l-1 for Pb, 3.5-19.5 mg l-1 for Zn and 0.2-4.1 mg l-1 for Cd. The concentrations of all heavy metals in Avicennia marina except Pb were falling within the normal range and were much more in the plants have the highest height. The present study has shown the potential of Avicennia marina as a phytoremediation species for selected heavy metals in many mangrove ecosystems.

  20. A higher risk of acute rejection of human kidney allografts can be predicted from the level of CD45RC expressed by the recipients' CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ordonez

    Full Text Available Although transplantation is the common treatment for end-stage renal failure, allograft rejection and marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs remain important limitations. A major challenge in the field is to identify easy, reliable and noninvasive biomarkers allowing the prediction of deleterious alloreactive immune responses and the tailoring of immunosuppressive therapy in individuals according to the rejection risk. In this study, we first established that the expression of the RC isoform of the CD45 molecule (CD45RC on CD4 and CD8 T cells from healthy individuals identifies functionally distinct alloreactive T cell subsets that behave differently in terms of proliferation and cytokine secretion. We then investigated whether the frequency of the recipients CD45RC T cell subsets before transplantation would predict acute graft rejection in a cohort of 89 patients who had undergone their first kidney transplantation. We showed that patients exhibiting more than 54.7% of CD8 CD45RC(high T cells before transplantation had a 6 fold increased risk of acute kidney graft rejection. In contrast, the proportions of CD4 CD45RC T cells were not predictive. Thus, a higher risk of acute rejection of human kidney allografts can be predicted from the level of CD45RC expressed by the recipients' CD8 T cells.

  1. Th1 Differentiation Drives the Accumulation of Intravascular, Non-protective CD4 T Cells during Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallin, Michelle A; Sakai, Shunsuke; Kauffman, Keith D; Young, Howard A; Zhu, Jinfang; Barber, Daniel L

    2017-03-28

    Recent data indicate that the differentiation state of Th1 cells determines their protective capacity against tuberculosis. Therefore, we examined the role of Th1-polarizing factors in the generation of protective and non-protective subsets of Mtb-specific Th1 cells. We find that IL-12/23p40 promotes Th1 cell expansion and maturation beyond the CD73 + CXCR3 + T-bet dim stage, and T-bet prevents deviation of Th1 cells into Th17 cells. Nevertheless, IL- 12/23p40 and T-bet are also essential for the production of a prominent subset of intravascular CX3CR1 + KLRG1 + Th1 cells that persists poorly and can neither migrate into the lung parenchyma nor control Mtb growth. Furthermore, T-bet suppresses development of CD69 + CD103 + tissue resident phenotype effectors in lung. In contrast, Th1-cell-derived IFN-γ inhibits the accumulation of intravascular CX3CR1 + KLRG1 + Th1 cells. Thus, although IL-12 and T-bet are essential host survival factors, they simultaneously oppose lung CD4 T cell responses at several levels, demonstrating the dual nature of Th1 polarization in tuberculosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Th1 Differentiation Drives the Accumulation of Intravascular, Non-protective CD4 T Cells during Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Sallin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent data indicate that the differentiation state of Th1 cells determines their protective capacity against tuberculosis. Therefore, we examined the role of Th1-polarizing factors in the generation of protective and non-protective subsets of Mtb-specific Th1 cells. We find that IL-12/23p40 promotes Th1 cell expansion and maturation beyond the CD73+CXCR3+T-betdim stage, and T-bet prevents deviation of Th1 cells into Th17 cells. Nevertheless, IL- 12/23p40 and T-bet are also essential for the production of a prominent subset of intravascular CX3CR1+KLRG1+ Th1 cells that persists poorly and can neither migrate into the lung parenchyma nor control Mtb growth. Furthermore, T-bet suppresses development of CD69+CD103+ tissue resident phenotype effectors in lung. In contrast, Th1-cell-derived IFN-γ inhibits the accumulation of intravascular CX3CR1+KLRG1+ Th1 cells. Thus, although IL-12 and T-bet are essential host survival factors, they simultaneously oppose lung CD4 T cell responses at several levels, demonstrating the dual nature of Th1 polarization in tuberculosis.

  3. Th1 differentiation drives the accumulation of intravascular, non-protective CD4 T cells during tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallin, Michelle A.; Sakai, Shunsuke; Kauffman, Keith D.; Young, Howard A.; Zhu, Jinfang; Barber, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent data indicate that the differentiation state of Th1 cells determines their protective capacity against tuberculosis. Therefore, we examined the role of Th1 polarizing factors in the generation of protective and non-protective subsets of Mtb-specific Th1 cells. We find IL-12/23p40 promotes Th1 cell expansion and maturation beyond the CD73+CXCR3+T-betdim stage, and T-bet prevents deviation of Th1 cells into Th17 cells. Nevertheless, IL-12/23p40 and T-bet are also essential for the production of a prominent subset of intravascular CX3CR1+KLRG1+ Th1 cells that persists poorly and can neither migrate into the lung parenchyma nor control Mtb growth. Furthermore, T-bet suppresses development of CD69+CD103+ tissue resident phenotype effectors in lung. In contrast, Th1 cell-derived IFNγ inhibits the accumulation of intravascular CX3CR1+KLRG1+ Th1 cells. Thus, although IL-12 and T-bet are essential host survival factors, they simultaneously oppose lung CD4 T cell responses at several levels, demonstrating the dual nature of Th1 polarization in tuberculosis. PMID:28355562

  4. Soil geochemical factors regulate Cd accumulation by metal hyperaccumulating Noccaea caerulescens (J. Presl & C. Presl) F.K. Mey in field-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Carla E; Chaney, Rufus L; Martínez, Carmen E

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium contamination in soil is a substantial global problem, and of significant concern due to high food-chain transfer. Cadmium hyperaccumulators are of particular interest because of their ability to tolerate and take up significant amounts of heavy metal pollution from soils. One particular plant, Noccaea caerulescens (formerly, Thlaspi caerulescens), has been extensively studied in terms of its capacity to accumulate heavy metals (specifically Zn and Cd), though these studies have primarily utilized hydroponic and metal-spiked model soil systems. We studied Cd and nutrient uptake by two N. caerulescens ecotypes, Prayon (Zn-only hyperaccumulator) and Ganges (Zn- and Cd-hyperaccumulator) in four long-term field-contaminated soils. Our data suggest that individual soil properties such as total soil Cd, Zn:Cd molar ratio, or soil pH do not accurately predict Cd uptake by hyperaccumulating plants. Additionally, total Cd uptake by the hyperaccumulating Ganges ecotype was substantially less than its physiological capacity, which is likely due to Cd-containing solid phases (primarily iron oxides) and pH that play an important role in regulating and limiting Cd solubility. Increased P accumulation in the Ganges leaves, and greater plant Fe accumulation from Cd-containing soils suggests that rhizosphere alterations via proton, and potentially organic acid, secretion may also play a role in nutrient and Cd acquisition by the plant roots. The current study highlights the role that soil geochemical factors play in influencing Cd uptake by hyperaccumulating plants. While these plants may have high physiological potential to accumulate metals from contaminated soils, individual soil geochemical factors and the plant-soil interactions in that soil will dictate the actual amount of phytoextractable metal. This underlines the need for site-specific understanding of metal-containing solid phases and geochemical properties of soils before undertaking phytoextraction efforts

  5. Responses of different water spinach cultivars and their hybrid to Cd, Pb and Cd-Pb exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Junliang; Huang, Baifei; Yang, Zhongyi; Yuan, Jiangang; Dai, Hongwen; Qiu, Qiu

    2010-03-15

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the stability of Cd and/or Pb accumulation in shoot of Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs), the hereditary pattern of shoot Cd accumulation, and the transfer potentials of Cd and Pb in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.). A typical Cd-PSC, a typical non-Cd-PSC (Cd accumulative cultivar), a hybrid from the former two cultivars, and two typical Cd+Pb-PSCs were grown in seven soils with different concentrations of Cd and Pb. The results showed that concentrations of Cd and Pb in shoot of the PSCs were always lower than the non-PSC and the highest Cd and Pb transfer factors were also always observed in the non-PSC, indicating the stability of the PSCs in Cd and Pb accumulation. Shoot Cd concentration seemed to be controlled by high Cd dominant gene(s) and thus crossbreeding might not minimize Cd accumulation in water spinach. Interaction between Cd and Pb in soils affected the accumulations of the metals in shoot of water spinach. Under middle Cd and Pb treatments, the presence of higher Pb promoted the accumulation of Cd. However, under high Pb treatment, accumulations of Cd and Pb were both restricted. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ageing combines CD4 T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs and T cell accumulation in gut associated lymphoid tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Martinet , Kim ,; Bloquet , Stéphane; Bourgeois , Christine

    2014-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundCD4 T cell lymphopenia is an important T cell defect associated to ageing. Higher susceptibility to infections, cancer, or autoimmune pathologies described in aged individuals is thought to partly rely on T cell lymphopenia. We hypothesize that such diverse effects may reflect anatomical heterogeneity of age related T cell lymphopenia. Indeed, no data are currently available on the impact of ageing on T cell pool recovered from gut associated lymphoid tissue ...

  7. Phytochelatin and cadmium accumulation in wheat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolt, J.P.; Sneller, F.E.C.; Bryngelson, T.; Lundborg, T.; Schat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal that can be harmful at low concentrations in organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease Cd accumulation in the grains of wheats aimed for human consumption. In response to Cd, higher plants synthesize sulphur-rich peptides, phytochelatins (PCs).

  8. Model optimization of cadmium and accumulation in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.): potential use for ecological phytoremediation in Cd-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanzhen; Gu, Muyu; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Yafang; Cui, Jian; Gao, Wei; Gui, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Soil pollution with heavy metals is an increasingly serious threat to the environment, food security, and human health. Therefore, it is urgent to develop economic and highly efficient soil restoration technology for environmental improvement; phytoremediation is an option that is safe, has low cost, and is environmentally friendly. However, in selecting hyperaccumulators or tolerant plants, theories and operation technologies for optimal restoration should be satisfied. In this study, the switchgrass growth response and performance of phytoextraction under the coupling effect of Cd and pH were investigated by evaluating seed germination, seedling growth, and the Cd content in the plant to evaluate the potential use of switchgrass as a phytoremediation plant in cadmium contaminated soil. This study conducted three sets of independent experiments with five levels of Cd concentrations, including two orthogonal matrix designs of combining Cd with pH values. The results showed that switchgrass was germinated well under all treatments (Cd concentration of 0-500 μM), but the seedling growth was significantly affected by Cd and pH, as shown by multivariate regression analyses. Hormesis was found during the growth of switchgrass plants exposed to low Cd concentrations under hydroponic conditions, and switchgrass plants were capable of developing with a Cd concentration of 100-175 μM and pH of 4.1-5.9. Mild acidic conditions can enhance the ability of Cd to accumulate in switchgrass. Switchgrass was moderately tolerant to Cd and may be used as a phytoremediation plant for Cd-contaminated soils in the future. Our results also suggest that hormetic effects should be taken into consideration in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils. We discuss the physiological and biochemical mechanisms contributing to the effective application of the plant for the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  9. Expression of TpNRAMP5, a metal transporter from Polish wheat (Triticum polonicum L.), enhances the accumulation of Cd, Co and Mn in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fan; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Jianshu; Zeng, Jian; Kang, Houyang; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong; Wang, Yi

    2018-06-01

    TpRNAMP5 is mainly expressed in the plasma membrane of roots and basal stems. It functions as a metal transporter for Cd, Mn and Co accumulation. Numerous natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMPs) have been functionally identified in various plant species, including Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and tobacco, but no information is available on NRAMP genes in wheat. In this study, we isolated a TpNRAMP5 from dwarf Polish wheat (DPW, Triticum polonicum L.), a species with high tolerance to Cd and Zn. Expression pattern analysis revealed that TpNRAMP5 is mainly expressed in roots and basal stems of DPW. TpNRAMP5 was localized at the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis leaf protoplast. Expression of TpNRAMP5 in yeast significantly increased yeast sensitivity to Cd and Co, but not Zn, and enhanced Cd and Co concentrations. Expression of TpNRAMP5 in Arabidopsis significantly increased Cd, Co and Mn concentrations in roots, shoots and whole plants, but had no effect on Fe and Zn concentrations. These results indicate that TpNRAMP5 is a metal transporter enhancing the accumulation of Cd, Co and Mn, but not Zn and Fe. Genetic manipulation of TpNRAMP5 can be applied in the future to limit the transfer of Cd from soil to wheat grains, thereby protecting human health.

  10. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dechun; XING Jianping; JIAO Weiping; WONG Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions.The results showed that the maximal influx (Vmax) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties.The value of Vmax for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuangyou II-93.The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with Cd as CdSO4 for both the varieties.Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil.Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  11. Higher accumulation of F1-V fusion recombinant protein in plants after induction of protein body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Topal, Emel; Martin, Federico; Cardineau, Guy A

    2010-01-01

    Improving foreign protein accumulation is crucial for enhancing the commercial success of plant-based production systems since product yields have a major influence on process economics. Cereal grain evolved to store large amounts of proteins in tightly organized aggregates. In maize, gamma-Zein is the major storage protein synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and stored in specialized organelles called protein bodies (PB). Zera (gamma-Zein ER-accumulating domain) is the N-terminal proline-rich domain of gamma-zein that is sufficient to induce the assembly of PB formation. Fusion of the Zera domain to proteins of interest results in assembly of dense PB-like, ER-derived organelles, containing high concentration of recombinant protein. Our main goal was to increase recombinant protein accumulation in plants in order to enhance the efficiency of orally-delivered plant-made vaccines. It is well known that oral vaccination requires substantially higher doses than parental formulations. As a part of a project to develop a plant-made plague vaccine, we expressed our model antigen, the Yersinia pestis F1-V antigen fusion protein, with and without a fused Zera domain. We demonstrated that Zera-F1-V protein accumulation was at least 3x higher than F1-V alone when expressed in three different host plant systems: Ncotiana benthamiana, Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cells. We confirmed the feasibility of using Zera technology to induce protein body formation in non-seed tissues. Zera expression and accumulation did not affect plant development and growth. These results confirmed the potential exploitation of Zera technology to substantially increase the accumulation of value-added proteins in plants.

  12. The uptake and accumulation of phosphorous and nitrates and the activity of nitrate reductase in cucumber seedlings treated with PbCl2 or CdCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Burzyński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of 4-day-old cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings with PbCl2 or CdCl2 caused a significant increase in the accumulation of heavy metals by the plants, especially in the roots. The accumulated Pb initially enhanced the uptake of phosphorous after the plants had been transferred to a nutrient medium (6, 24 hrs, but after only 48 Ins the uptake had dropped to below control level. The plants treated with Cd exhibited a constant decreased phosphorous uptake level. The accumulated lead and cadmium also inhibited nitrate uptake and the activity of nitrate reductase. It is suggested that the reason for the decreased nitrate reductase activity lay rather in the lower nitrate uptake than in a direct effect of the heavy metals on the enzyme.

  13. CD147-mediated chemotaxis of CD4+CD161+ T cells may contribute to local inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Minghua; Miao, Jinlin; Zhao, Peng; Luo, Xing; Han, Qing; Wu, Zhenbiao; Zhang, Kui; Zhu, Ping

    2018-01-01

    CD161 is used as a surrogate marker for Th17 cells, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we evaluated the percentage, clinical significance, and CD98 and CD147 expression of CD4 + CD161 + T cells. The potential role of CD147 and CD98 in cyclophilin A-induced chemotaxis of CD4 + CD161 + T cells was analyzed. Thirty-seven RA patients, 15 paired synovial fluid (SF) of RA, and 22 healthy controls were recruited. The cell populations and surface expression of CD98 and CD147 were analyzed by flow cytometry. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression were applied to calculate the correlations. Chemotaxis assay was used to investigate CD4 + CD161 + T cell migration. We found that the percentage of CD4 + CD161 + T cells and their expression of CD147 and CD98 in SF were higher than in the peripheral blood of RA patients. Percentage of SF CD4 + CD161 + T cells was positively correlated with 28-Joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). CD147 monoclonal antibody (HAb18) attenuated the chemotactic ability of CD4 + CD161 + T cells. An increased CD4 + CD161 + T cell percentage and expression of CD147 and CD98 were shown in RA SF. Percentage of SF CD4 + CD161 + T cells can be used as a predictive marker of disease activity in RA. CD147 block significantly decreased the chemotactic index of CD4 + CD161 + cells induced by cyclophilin A (CypA). These results imply that the accumulation of CD4 + CD161 + T cells in SF and their high expression of CD147 may be associated with CypA-mediated chemotaxis and contribute to local inflammation in RA.

  14. Role of freeze-thaw cycles and chlorpyrifos insecticide use on diffuse Cd loss and sediment accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangli; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Jiao, Wei; Shan, Yushu; Lin, Chunye

    2016-06-01

    Freeze-thaw cycles are predicted to increase in cold temperate regions. The potential influence of the interactions of freeze-thaw cycles and agrochemicals on the release of Cd into river water is unknown. In this study, the interactions of freeze-thaw cycles and chlorpyrifos (FC) on Cd mobility in soils were analysed. The spatial variability of soil Cd under long-term intensive tillage in a freeze-thaw agro-system was also identified. The temporal variation of sediment Cd was detected based on analysis of the sediment geochemistry. The results showed that FC increased soil Cd mobility, with an increase of approximately 10% in CaCl2-extractable Cd. The increased mobile fractions of water-soluble and exchangeable Cd originated from the decreased fraction of Fe-Mn-oxide-associated Cd and organic matter-bound Cd. The total Cd content in the surface soil followed the zonally decreasing trend of dry land > paddy land > natural land. The Cd concentrations and sedimentation rates of the sediment core generally increased from 1943 to 2013 due to agricultural exploration and farmland irrigation system construction, indicating an increase of the Cd input flux into water. The results provide valuable information about the soil Cd transport response to the influence of climatic and anthropogenic factors in cold intensive agro-systems.

  15. Higher percentage of CD133+ cells is associated with poor prognosis in colon carcinoma patients with stage IIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem cell model suggested that tumor progression is driven by the overpopulation of cancer stem cells and eradicating or inhibiting the symmetric division of cancer stem cells would become the most important therapeutic strategy. However, clinical evidence for this hypothesis is still scarce. To evaluate the overpopulation hypothesis of cancer stem cells the association of percentage of CD133+ tumor cells with clinicopathological parameters in colon cancer was investigated since CD133 is a putative cancer stem cell marker shared by multiple solid tumors. Patients and methods Tumor tissues matched with adjacent normal tissues were collected from 104 stage IIIB colon cancer patients who were subject to radical resection between January, 1999 to July, 2003 in this center. The CD133 expression was examined with immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of the percentage of CD133+ cell with clinicopathological parameters and patients' 5-year survival was analyzed. Results The CD133+ cells were infrequent and heterogeneous distribution in the cancer tissue. Staining of CD133 was localized not only on the glandular-luminal surface of cancer cells but also on the invasive budding and the poorly differentiated tumors with ductal structures. Both univariate and multivariate survival analysis revealed that the percentage of CD133+ cancer cells and the invasive depth of tumor were independently prognostic. The patients with a lower percentage of CD133+ cancer cells (less than 5% were strongly associated with a higher 5-year survival rate than those with a higher percentage of CD133+ cancer cells (greater than or equal to 55%. Additionally, no correlation was obtained between the percentage of CD133+ cancer cells and the other clinicopathological parameters including gender, age, site of primary mass, pathologic types, grades, and invasive depth. Conclusion The fact that a higher percentage CD133+ cells were strongly associated

  16. Differential requirements of CD4(+) T-cell signals for effector cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) priming and functional memory CTL development at higher CD8(+) T-cell precursor frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeshappa, Channakeshava S; Nanjundappa, Roopa H; Xie, Yufeng; Freywald, Andrew; Xu, Qingyong; Xiang, Jim

    2013-04-01

    Increased CD8(+) T-cell precursor frequency (PF) precludes the requirement of CD4(+) helper T (Th) cells for primary CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, the key questions of whether unhelped CTLs generated at higher PF are functional effectors, and whether unhelped CTLs can differentiate into functional memory cells at higher PF are unclear. In this study, ovalbumin (OVA) -pulsed dendritic cells (DC(OVA)) derived from C57BL/6, CD40 knockout (CD40(-/-)) or CD40 ligand knockout (CD40L(-/-)) mice were used to immunize C57BL/6, Ia(b-/-), CD40(-/-) or CD40L(-/-) mice, whose PF was previously increased with transfer of 1 × 10(6) CD8(+) T cells derived from OVA-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic OTI, OTI(CD40(-/-)) or OTI(CD40L(-/-)) mice. All the immunized mice were then assessed for effector and memory CTL responses. Following DC immunization, relatively comparable CTL priming occurred without CD4(+) T-cell help and Th-provided CD40/CD40L signalling. In addition, the unhelped CTLs were functional effectors capable of inducing therapeutic immunity against established OVA-expressing tumours. In contrast, the functional memory development of CTLs was severely impaired in the absence of CD4(+) T-cell help and CD40/CD40L signalling. Finally, unhelped memory CTLs failed to protect mice against lethal tumour challenge. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CD4(+) T-cell help at higher PF, is not required for effector CTL priming, but is required for functional memory CTL development against cancer. Our data may impact the development of novel preventive and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients with compromised CD4(+) T-cell functions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Conditional Health-Related Benefits of Higher Education: An Assessment of Compensatory versus Accumulative Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneou...

  18. Dynamic changes in radial oxygen loss and iron plaque formation and their effects on Cd and As accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Yao, Haixin; Wong, Ming Hung; Ye, Zhihong

    2013-12-01

    Temporal variations and correlations between radial oxygen loss (ROL), iron (Fe) plaque formation, cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) accumulation were investigated in two rice cultivars at four different growth stages based upon soil pot and deoxygenated solution experiments. The results showed that there were significant differences in ROL (1.1-16 μmol O(2) plant(-1) h(-1)), Fe plaque formation (4,097-36,056 mg kg(-1)), Cd and As in root tissues (Cd 77-162 mg kg(-1); As 49-199 mg kg(-1)) and Fe plaque (Cd 0.4-24 mg kg(-1); As 185-1,396 mg kg(-1)) between these growth stages. ROL and Fe plaque increased dramatically from tillering to ear emergence stages and then were much reduced at the grain-filling stage. Furthermore, significantly positive correlations were detected between ROL and concentrations of Fe, Cd and As in Fe plaque. Our study indicates that increased Fe plaque forms on rice roots at the ear emergence stage due to the increased ROL. This stage could therefore be an important period to limit the transfer and distribution of Cd and As in rice plants when growing in soils contaminated with these toxic elements.

  19. Combined effects of elevated CO2 and Cd-contaminated water on growth, photosynthetic response, Cd accumulation and thiolic components status in Lemna minor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrini, F; Bianconi, D; Massacci, A; Iannelli, M A

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 and cadmium (Cd) treatments on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and phytoremediation ability in Lemna minor L. Plants of L. minor were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 1.5, 2.5 and 5 mg L(-1) Cd) for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h at ambient (AC) and at elevated (EC) CO2 (350 and 700 ppm, respectively). Cadmium concentration, bioconcentration factor, enzyme activities and thiols content enhanced in plants with the increase of Cd treatments, time of exposure and at both CO2 levels. Glutathione levels increased only at AC. Growth, photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio declined in plants with increasing exposure time, Cd treatments and at both CO2 levels. Our results suggested that the alleviation of toxicity, at low Cd doses, observed in L. minor grown at EC is dependent on both increased photosynthesis and an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Co-planted Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) on Cd Accumulation by Sunflower in Different Levels of Cd Contamination and Salinity: A Pot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Ali; Zahedi, Morteza; Soleimani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal bioaccumulation can be affected by various crop-weed interactions that potentially exist in agroecosystems. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of rhizosphere interaction of sunflower and purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) weed on cadmium (Cd) uptake and its allocation to sunflower grains. The experimental treatments consisted of two cropping systems (mono and mixed culture), two adjusted salinity levels (0 and 0.5% NaCl) and three artificial levels of Cd in soil (Control, 3 and 6 mg kg(-1)). The results showed that the growth of sunflower in the presence of purslane in comparison to mono culture of sunflower led to change of total Cd content and Cd allocated to grains only in saline conditions. Promoting effects of salinity on Cd concentration of grain were alleviated where sunflower was co-planted with purslane. Besides, supply of Zn in grains of co-planted sunflower was strongly affected by salinity. Results of this study revealed that although co-planted purslane could alter conditions in the shared rhizosphere, it had no effect on enhancing Cd uptake by neighboring sunflower directly.

  1. Conditional health-related benefits of higher education: an assessment of compensatory versus accumulative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneous treatment effects to examine how the effect of obtaining a college degree on the self-rated health of young adults varies across the likelihood of obtaining a college degree, a summary measure of advantage/disadvantage. Results indicate that a college degree has a greater effect on self-rated health for people from advantaged backgrounds. This finding differs from two recent studies, and possible reasons for the contrasting findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A, B, CD, DVD: Marketing Higher Education to the Millennial Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbeck, Lee F.; Harding, Marc L.; Wohlgemuth, Darin R.; Bousquet, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Based on compelling financial and strategic reasons, Iowa State University replaced its paper viewbook with a CD-ROM digital viewbook following the Fall 1998 recruiting cycle. The first interactive DVD viewbook debuted for the Fall 2003 recruiting cycle, following a qualitative research study designed to gauge the effectiveness of the medium.…

  3. Performances of Water Management, Foliage Dressing, and Variation Screening in Controlling the Accumulation of As and Cd and Maintaining the Concentrations of Essential Elements in the Grains of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to understand why and how the technologies of variety screening, foliar dressing, and water management can reduce As/Cd accumulation and affect the concentrations of essential elements in different rice plants. In Trial I (variety screening, the grain As and Cd concentrations in Zhongguyou1361 variety (P3 were both lower than their individual National Food Hygiene Standard of China (NFHSC under insufficient field drying condition. The P3 also had a relatively high yield and high essential element contents among 15 selected rice varieties. In Trial II (foliar dressing, selenite foliar spray showed a better ability than silicate to reduce the grain As content in Guangliangyou1128 variety (P1. However, spraying Se and Si onto the Fengliangyou1 variety (P2 both showed a limited effect on the grain As and Cd contents, suggesting a different effect of Se on grain As content in various rice varieties. The insufficient field drying in Trial II resulted in the grain Cd content being lower but the grain As content being higher than their individual NFHSC in both P1 and Fengliangyou1 (P2 varieties. Se or Si did not affect the yields and the grain contents of most essential elements in P1 and P2. In Trial III (water management, increasing field drying time enhanced the Cd content but reduced the As content in the grains of P1, P2, and P3, and maintained their yields. Similar to the results of Trial II, the changes in soil pH, organic matter concentration and elemental available concentrations could hardly be used to explain why the contents of corresponding essential elements kept approximately constant in the grains of different rice varieties. Foliar dressing with selenite combined with water regulation can simultaneously reduce the As and Cd contents, and maintain the yields and the essential element contents in the grains of rice plants cultivated in As− and Cd− contaminated soil.

  4. Effects of foliar dressing of selenite and silicate alone or combined with different soil ameliorants on the accumulation of As and Cd and antioxidant system in Brassica campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongzhen; Wang, Yongjiu; Zheng, Xiangqun; Cheng, Weimin; Shi, Rongguang; Feng, Renwei

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of using a combined technology to synchronously reduce As and Cd accumulation in the edible parts of Brassica campestris. The results showed that a foliar application of selenite (Se) and silicon (Si) combined with soil ameliorants (including Ca-Mg-P fertilizer, sodium silicate and red mud) showed limited effects on the growth of B. campestris. The As concentration in the leaves of B. campestris in all treatments was below the Chinese safety standard. When sodium silicate and Ca-Mg-P fertilizer were added to the soil, the additional foliar application of Se and Si could in some cases help further reduce the concentrations of As and Cd in the leaves of B. campestris. However, when red mud was applied to the soil, the foliar application of Se and Si enhanced the Cd concentration in the leaves of B. campestris. In most cases, high levels of soil ameliorants plus foliar application of Se and Si significantly enhanced the As concentrations in both the soil solution and the roots of B. campestris but reduced the soil solution Cd concentration and the leaf As concentration. Most of the treatments reduced the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration in the leaves of B. campestris, and the foliar application of Se and Si helped the soil ameliorants alleviate the oxidative stress resulting from As and Cd exposure. In this study, several treatments significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). However, the enzymes peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were not induced by most treatments. In summary, the combined treatment of 1gkg -1 Ca-Mg-P fertilizer plus foliar spraying 2mmolL -1 sodium selenite was most effective in reducing the Cd concentration and a rather strong ability to reduce the As concentration and trigger the activities of SOD and APX in the leaves of B. campestris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Exposure to Cd and Pb in the Form of a Drinking Water or Feed on the Accumulation and Distribution of These Metals in the Organs of Growing Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-02-01

    The degree of accumulation and distribution of Cd and Pb in the organs of young animals compared to the amount taken in with water or feed have not been thoroughly investigated yet. The experiment aimed to verify whether the source of toxic metals (feed, drinking water) administered to growing rats orally has an influence on the degree of accumulation of Cd and Pb in the organs (brain, spleen, lungs, heart, liver and kidneys). The rats received Cd and/or Pb respectively in the amount of 7 mg and/or 50 mg per 1 kg of feed or per 1 L of distilled water. The rats' organs accumulated in total about 0.5 % Cd and about 0.71 % Pb consumed with water and about 0.46 % Cd and about 0.63 % Pb taken in with feed. More than 60 % of Cd and more than 70 % of Pb absorbed by the studied organs was accumulated in the liver, and more than 30 % of Cd and 26-29 % of Pb in the kidneys and less than 1 % in other organs. The relationship between the distribution percentage of Cd in the studied organs can be presented as: liver > kidneys > brain > lungs > heart > spleen. The relationship between the distribution percentage of Pb can be presented as: liver > kidneys > brain > spleen > heart > lungs. Significantly (P water.

  6. Relationship of non-protein thiol pools and accumulated Cd or Hg in the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maserti, B.E.; Ferrillo, V.; Avdis, O.; Nesti, U.; Di Garbo, A.; Catsiki, A.; Maestrini, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium or mercury and the effect of these elements on the levels of non-protein thiols in the blades of the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica were investigated. A significant accumulation of cadmium or mercury, dependent on metal concentration supplied, was observed in metal-treated blades. In the blades treated either with cadmium or mercury, a significant increase in the levels of non-protein thiols (other than glutathione) and a marked depletion of the reduced glutathione content as a function of the metal, exposure time and metal concentration supplied were found. This investigation provides first experimental report on the relationship between non-protein thiol pools and accumulated cadmium or mercury in P. oceanica

  7. Percentages of CD4+CD161+ and CD4−CD8−CD161+ T Cells in the Synovial Fluid Are Correlated with Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Miao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. CD161 has been identified as a marker of human IL-17-producing T cells that are implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. This study aimed to investigate the potential link between the percentage of CD161+ T cells and disease activity in RA patients. Methods. Peripheral blood (PB from 54 RA patients and 21 healthy controls was evaluated. Paired synovial fluid (SF (n = 17 was analyzed. CD161 expression levels on CD4+, CD8+, and CD4−CD8− T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Results. The percentage of CD4+CD161+ T cells in RA SF was higher than RA PB, and it was positively correlated with DAS28, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein (CRP. CD4−CD8−CD161+ T cell percentage was decreased in RA PB and was further reduced in RA SF, and its level in SF was inversely correlated with DAS28, ESR, and CRP. However, CD8+CD161+ T cell percentage was neither changed in RA PB and SF nor correlated with disease activity indices. Conclusion. An increased CD4+CD161+ T cell percentage and a decreased CD4−CD8−CD161+ T cell percentage are present in RA SF and are associated with disease activity, and the accumulation of CD4+CD161+ T cells in SF may contribute to the local inflammation of RA.

  8. Cadmium accumulation in sunflower plants influenced by arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Sara Adrián López; da Silveira, Adriana Parada Dias; Jorge, Renato Atílio; de Abreu, Mônica Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the cadmium (Cd) accumulation patterns and possible alleviation of Cd stress by mycorrhization, sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in the presence or absence of Cd (20 micromol L(-1)) and inoculated or not inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices. No visual symptoms of Cd phytotoxicity were observed; nevertheless, in non-mycorrhizal plants the presence of Cd decreased plant growth. The addition of Cd had no significant effect on either mycorrhizal colonization or the amount of extra-radical mycelia that was produced by the AMF. Cd accumulated mainly in roots; only 22% of the total Cd absorbed was translocated to the shoots, where it accumulated to an average of 228 mg Cd kg(-1). Although the shoot-to-root ratio of Cd was similar in both the AMF inoculated and non-inoculated plants, the total absorbed Cd was 23% higher in mycorrhizal plants. Cd concentration in AMF extra-radical mycelium was 728 microg g(-1) dry weight. Despite the greater absorption of Cd, mycorrhizal plants showed higher photosynthetic pigment concentrations and shoot P contents. Cd also influenced mineral nutrition, leading to decreased Ca and Cu shoot concentrations; N, Fe and Cu shoot contents; and increased S and K shoot concentrations. Cd induced guaiacol peroxidase activity in roots in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, but this increase was much more accentuated in non-mycorrhizal roots. In conclusion, sunflower plants associated with G. intraradices were less sensitive to Cd stress than non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal sunflowers showed enhanced Cd accumulation and some tolerance to excessive Cd concentrations in plant tissues.

  9. Cadmium accumulation in the rootless macrophyte Wolffia globosa and its potential for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Ying; Huang, Qing; Li, Gang; Rensing, Christopher; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution around the world is a serious issue demanding acceptable solutions, one of which is phytoremediation that is both cost-effective and eco-friendly. Removal of Cd from contaminated water using plants with high growth rates and sufficient Cd accumulation abilities could be an appropriate choice. Here, we investigated a potential Cd accumulator, Wolffia, a rootless duckweed with high growth rate. Cd uptake, accumulation, tolerance, and phytofiltration ability by Wolffia globosa were examined. Furthermore, the effects of arsenic (As) on Cd uptake and phytofiltration by W. globosa were also studied. Cd uptake kinetics showed a linear pattern and a hyperbolic pattern without a plateau in lower (0-2 microM) and higher (0-200 microM) Cd concentration ranges, respectively, suggesting rapid Cd uptake by W. globosa Cd accumulation ability by W. globosa was higher at Cd concentrations 10 microM. All the five species of Wolffia exposed to I microM Cd for 5 days accumulated > 500 mg Cd kg(-1) DW. Ten gram fresh W. globosa could diminish almost all the Cd (2 microM) in a 200 mL solution. This enormous accumulation ability was mostly due to passive adsorption of Cd by the apoplast. Arsenic had no significant effect on Cd uptake and phytofiltration. The fresh fronds also showed a great As extracting ability. The results indicated that Wolffia is a strong Cd accumulator and has great Cd phytoremediation potential. Therefore, this plant can be used in fresh aquatic environments co-contaminated by low-levels of Cd and As.

  10. Anergic CD4+ T cells form mature immunological synapses with enhanced accumulation of c-Cbl and Cbl-b1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Melissa; Osborne, Douglas G.; Browning, Diana L.; Parker, David C.; Wetzel, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    CD4+ T cell recognition of MHC:peptide complexes in the context of a costimulatory signal results in the large-scale redistribution of molecules at the T-APC interface to form the immunological synapse. The immunological synapse is the location of sustained TCR signaling and delivery of a subset of effector functions. T cells activated in the absence of costimulation are rendered anergic and are hyporesponsive when presented with antigen in the presence of optimal costimulation. Several previous studies have looked at aspects of immunological synapses formed by anergic T cells, but it remains unclear whether there are differences in the formation or composition of anergic immunological synapses. In this study we anergized primary murine CD4+ T cells by incubation of costimulation-deficient, transfected fibroblast APC. Using a combination of TCR, MHC:peptide, and ICAM-1 staining, we found that anergic T cells make mature immunological synapses with characteristic cSMAC and pSMAC domains that were indistinguishable from control synapses. There were small increases in total phosphotyrosine at the anergic synapse along with significant decreases in phosphorylated ERK 1/2 accumulation. Most striking, there was specific accumulation of c-Cbl and Cbl-b to the anergic synapses. Cbl-b, previously shown to be essential in anergy induction, was found in both the pSMAC and the cSMAC of the anergic synapse. This Cbl-b (and c-Cbl) accumulation at the anergic synapse may play an important role in anergy maintenance and/or induction. PMID:20207996

  11. Preliminary study of Tl and Cd uptake in the heavy metal accumulating Brassica napus using the Debrecen proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Haag-Kerwer, A.; Povh, B.

    2003-01-01

    The high biomass producing crop plants, Brassica juncea L. and Brassica napus are very promising plant species for phytoremediation. The aim of further research is to help a better understanding of the transport mechanism within roots and roots to shoots of heavy metals, and to find out their distribution and translocation among different cell types in the root of these species. The distribution and concentration of major and trace elements was determined along the roots of Cd and Tl treated as well as control plants of Brassica napus on the ATOMKI proton microprobe. (R.P.)

  12. Differential effects of citric acid on cadmium uptake and accumulation between tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuTing; Dong, Qin; Wang, ZhaoLong

    2017-11-01

    Organic acids play an important role in cadmium availability, uptake, translocation, and detoxification. A sand culture experiment was designed to investigate the effects of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass. The results showed that two grass species presented different Cd chemical forms, organic acid components and amount in roots. The dormant Cd accumulated in roots of tall fescue was the pectate- and protein- integrated form, which contributed by 84.85%. However, in Kentucky bluegrass, the pectate- and protein- integrated Cd was only contributed by 35.78%, and the higher proportion of Cd form was the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes. In tall fescue, citric acid dramatically enhanced 2.8 fold of Cd uptake, 3 fold of root Cd accumulation, and 2.3 fold of shoot Cd accumulation. In Kentucky bluegrass, citric acid promoted Cd accumulation in roots, but significantly decreased Cd accumulation in shoots. These results suggested that the enhancements of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue was associated with its promotion of organic acids and the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes in roots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential requirement for the CD45 splicing regulator hnRNPLL for accumulation of NKT and conventional T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yabas

    Full Text Available Natural killer T (NKT cells represent an important regulatory T cell subset that develops in the thymus and contains immature (NK1.1(lo and mature (NK1.1(hi cell subsets. Here we show in mice that an inherited mutation in heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein L-like protein (hnRNPLL(thunder, that shortens the survival of conventional T cells, has no discernible effect on NKT cell development, homeostasis or effector function. Thus, Hnrpll deficiency effectively increases the NKT∶T cell ratio in the periphery. However, Hnrpll mutation disrupts CD45RA, RB and RC exon silencing of the Ptprc mRNA in both NKT and conventional T cells, and leads to a comparably dramatic shift to high molecular weight CD45 isoforms. In addition, Hnrpll mutation has a cell intrinsic effect on the expression of the developmentally regulated cell surface marker NK1.1 on NKT cells in the thymus and periphery but does not affect cell numbers. Therefore our results highlight both overlapping and divergent roles for hnRNPLL between conventional T cells and NKT cells. In both cell subsets it is required as a trans-acting factor to regulate alternative splicing of the Ptprc mRNA, but it is only required for survival of conventional T cells.

  14. Strategic Planning in Higher Education: A Guide for Leaders. Second Edition [with CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Sherrie A.; Ruben, Brent D.

    2010-01-01

    "Strategic Planning in Higher Education" unveils a comprehensive approach to planning that has proved successful at Rutgers University. The SPHE framework, developed by authors Tromp and Ruben, provides a blueprint for planning--a step-by-step approach that guides leaders on strategic thinking; helps them align organizational goals with…

  15. Blockade of αEβ7 integrin suppresses accumulation of CD8+ and Th9 lymphocytes from patients with IBD in the inflamed gut in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zundler, Sebastian; Schillinger, Daniela; Fischer, Anika; Atreya, Raja; López-Posadas, Rocío; Watson, Alastair; Neufert, Clemens; Atreya, Imke; Neurath, Markus F

    2017-11-01

    Therapeutically targeting lymphocyte adhesion is of increasing relevance in IBD. Yet, central aspects of the action of antiadhesion compounds are incompletely understood. We investigated the role of αEβ7 and α4β7 integrins and their blockade by vedolizumab and etrolizumab for trafficking of IBD T lymphocytes in an in vivo model of homing to and retention in the inflamed gut. We explored integrin expression in patients with IBD by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, while regulation of integrins was studied in T cell cultures. The functional relevance of integrins was assessed by adhesion assays and a recently established humanised mouse model in dextran sodium sulfate-treated immunodeficient mice. High expression of αEβ7 was noted on CD8 + and CD4 + Th9 cells, while α4β7 was expressed on CD8 + , Th2 and Th17 cells. T cell receptor stimulation and transforming growth factor β were key inducers of αEβ7 on human T cells, while butyric acid suppressed αEβ7. In comparison to α4β7 blockade via vedolizumab, blockade of β7 via etrolizumab surrogate antibody superiorly reduced colonic numbers of CD8 + and Th9 cells in vivo after 3 hours, while no difference was noted after 0.5 hours. AEβ7 expression was higher on CD8 + T cells from patients with IBD under vedolizumab therapy. AEβ7 is of key relevance for gut trafficking of IBD CD8 + T cells and CD4 + Th9 cells in vivo and mainly retention might account for this effect. These findings indicate that blockade of αEβ7 in addition to α4β7 may be particularly effective in intestinal disorders with expansion of CD8 + and Th9 cells such as IBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Preparation and characterization of pulsed laser deposited CdTe thin films at higher FTO substrate temperature and in Ar + O{sub 2} atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Chao; Ming, Zhenxun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Li, Bing, E-mail: libing70@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lianghuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Wu, Judy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Kansas University, Lawrence 66045 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: • CdTe films were deposited by PLD at high substrate temperatures (400 °C, 550 °C). • CdTe films were achieved under the atmosphere (1.2 Torr) of Ar mixed with O{sub 2}. • Deposited CdTe films were cubic phase and had strong (1 0 0) preferred orientation. • Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed an average grain size of 0.3–0.6 μm. • The ultra-thin film (CdS/PLD-CdTe) solar cell with efficiency of 6.68% was made. -- Abstract: Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is one of the promising techniques for depositing cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films. It has been reported that PLD CdTe thin films were almost deposited at the lower substrate temperatures (<300 °C) under vacuum conditions. However, the poor crystallinity of CdTe films prepared in this way renders them not conducive to the preparation of high-efficiency CdTe solar cells. To obtain high-efficiency solar cell devices, better crystallinity and more suitable grain size are needed, which requires the CdTe layer to be deposited by PLD at high substrate temperatures (>400 °C). In this paper, CdTe layers were deposited by PLD (KrF, λ = 248 nm, 10 Hz) at different higher substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). Excellent performance of CdTe films was achieved at higher substrate temperatures (400 °C, 550 °C) under an atmosphere of Ar mixed with O{sub 2} (1.2 Torr). X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of CdTe cubic phase with a strong (1 0 0) preferential orientation at all substrates temperatures on 60 mJ laser energy. The optical properties of CdTe were investigated, and the band gaps of CdTe films were 1.51 eV and 1.49 eV at substrate temperatures of 400 °C and 550 °C, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed an average grain size of 0.3–0.6 μm. Thus, under these conditions of the atmosphere of Ar + O{sub 2} (15 Torr) and at the relatively high T{sub s} (500 °C), an thin-film (FTO/PLD-CdS (100 nm)/PLD-CdTe (∼1.5 μm)/HgTe: Cu/Ag) solar cell with an

  17. Ocean acidification increases cadmium accumulation in marine bivalves: a potential threat to seafood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Che, Zhumei; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-21

    To date, the effects of ocean acidification on toxic metals accumulation and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown in marine bivalve species. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills, mantle and adductor muscles of three bivalve species, Mytilus edulis, Tegillarca granosa, and Meretrix meretrix, were investigated. The results obtained suggested that all species tested accumulated significantly higher Cd (p ocean acidification-induced increase in Cd accumulation may have occurred due to (i) the ocean acidification increased the concentration of Cd and the Cd(2+)/Ca(2+) in the seawater, which in turn increased the Cd influx through Ca channel; (ii) the acidified seawater may have brought about epithelia damage, resulting in easier Cd penetration; and (iii) ocean acidification hampered Cd exclusion.

  18. Human leucocyte antigen class I-redirected anti-tumour CD4+ T cells require a higher T cell receptor binding affinity for optimal activity than CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M P; Dolton, G M; Gerry, A B; Brewer, J E; Bennett, A D; Pumphrey, N J; Jakobsen, B K; Sewell, A K

    2017-01-01

    CD4 + T helper cells are a valuable component of the immune response towards cancer. Unfortunately, natural tumour-specific CD4 + T cells occur in low frequency, express relatively low-affinity T cell receptors (TCRs) and show poor reactivity towards cognate antigen. In addition, the lack of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II expression on most cancers dictates that these cells are often unable to respond to tumour cells directly. These deficiencies can be overcome by transducing primary CD4 + T cells with tumour-specific HLA class I-restricted TCRs prior to adoptive transfer. The lack of help from the co-receptor CD8 glycoprotein in CD4 + cells might result in these cells requiring a different optimal TCR binding affinity. Here we compared primary CD4 + and CD8 + T cells expressing wild-type and a range of affinity-enhanced TCRs specific for the HLA A*0201-restricted NY-ESO-1- and gp100 tumour antigens. Our major findings are: (i) redirected primary CD4 + T cells expressing TCRs of sufficiently high affinity exhibit a wide range of effector functions, including cytotoxicity, in response to cognate peptide; and (ii) optimal TCR binding affinity is higher in CD4 + T cells than CD8 + T cells. These results indicate that the CD4 + T cell component of current adoptive therapies using TCRs optimized for CD8 + T cells is below par and that there is room for substantial improvement. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Immunology.

  19. Higher CD3(+) and CD34(+) cell doses in the graft increase the incidence of acute GVHD in children receiving BMT for thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziev, J; Isgrò, A; Marziali, M; Daniele, N; Gallucci, C; Sodani, P; Simone, M D; Adorno, G; Paciaroni, K; Andreani, M; Lanti, A; Del Proposto, G; Testi, M; De Angelis, G; Roveda, A; Alfieri, C; Saltarelli, F; Lucarelli, G

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the incidence of GVHD, risk factors and the impact of graft composition on acute GVHD (aGVHD) in 92 children who underwent BMT for thalassemia following busulfan/cyclophosphamide (BUCY)-based conditioning regimens and GVHD prophylaxis with CSA/short-MTX and methylprednisolone. The incidence of grade 2-4 and 3-4 aGVHD was 35% (95% confidence interval (CI) 25-44) and 9% (95% CI 4-16), respectively. We found that CD3(+) and CD34(+) cell doses above the median were associated with high incidence of grade 2-4 aGVHD (49 vs 20%, P=0.005 and 46 vs 23%, P=0.021, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high CD3(+) (hazard ratio (HR) 4.6; 95% CI 1.4-14.7; P=0.010) and CD34(+) (HR 4.3; 95% CI 1.4-12.7; P=0.011) cell doses were associated with grade 2-4 aGVHD. We further examined the effect of CD3(+) and CD34(+) cell doses on aGVHD using quartile cutoff points and found a minimum threshold for CD3(+) (38 × 10(6)/kg) and CD34(+) (4 × 10(6)/kg) cells above which the incidence of grade 2-4 aGVHD is significantly increased. This study shows for the first time a positive correlation between the number of CD3(+) and CD34(+) cells and aGVHD in children receiving sibling BMT, and indicates that using tailored and more intensive post transplant immunosuppression may permit to better control aGVHD.

  20. Influence of a step-change in metal exposure (Cd, Cu, Zn) on metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning in a freshwater bivalve, Pyganodon grandis: A long-term transplantation experiment between lakes with contrasting ambient metal levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Sophie [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bonneris, Emmanuelle [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Bayer S.A.S., Bayer CropScience, 16 Rue Jean-Marie Leclair, CP 90106, F 69266 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Michaud, Annick [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Direction des Évaluations environnementales, Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 675, boul. René-Lévesque Est, 6e étage, Québec, QC G1R 5V7 (Canada); Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette [Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et Environnement Aquatique (GRIL), Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We transferred freshwater bivalves from a reference lake to a Cd and Zn contaminated lake. ? Changes in metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning were followed over time (up to 860 d). ? Metal detoxification strategies differed between target organs (gills vs. digestive gland). ? The ability to handle Cd is inherent in P. grandis, not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation. -- Abstract: The objective of the present field experiment was to identify detoxification responses in the gills and digestive gland of a freshwater unionid bivalve, Pyganodon grandis, subjected to a step-change in metal exposure. Adult bivalves were transferred from a reference site (Lake Opasatica) and a metal-contaminated lake (Lake Héva) to a second contaminated lake (Lake Vaudray) in northwestern Quebec, Canada. Changes in organ metal concentrations, in the subcellular distribution of metals and in metallothionein concentrations were followed over time (t = 0, 132, (400) and 860 days). At each collection time and for each bivalve, the gills and digestive gland were excised and gently homogenized; six sub-cellular fractions were separated by differential centrifugation and analyzed for their Cd, Cu and Zn content, and metallothionein was quantified independently. Metal detoxification strategies were shown to differ between target organs: in the gills, incoming metals were sequestered largely in the granules, whereas in the digestive gland the same metals primarily accumulated in the cytosol, in the metallothionein-like protein fraction. These metal-handling strategies, as employed by the metal-naïve bivalves originating in the reference lake, closely resemble those identified in free-living P. grandis chronically exposed in the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that the ability to handle incoming metals (Cd in particular) is inherent in P. grandis and is not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation of the bivalve to metal-contaminated environments. The

  1. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Leonardo Nieto, Gastón; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-09-30

    Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Nieto, Gastón Leonardo; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. ► Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. ► Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  3. Higher water plants in a lake contaminated with radionuclides: composition, distribution, reserves and accumulation of Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlyutin, A.P.; Babitskij, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    Species composition, specials distribution, seasonal pattern and accumulation of cesium-137 by aquatic plants had been investigated in the small not flowing meso trophic lake (Belarus) during vegetative season of 1993. Macrophyte phytomass storage is equal 10,56 t, and mass of its roots is 4.28 t of dry weight. Cesium-137 stock's in green mass and macrophytes roots are equal to 108.6 and 96.4 MBK respectively. Total accumulation of cesium-137 by macrophyte constituted 5% from its stock in the whole lake water mass

  4. Cadmium toxicity in Maize (Zea mays L.): consequences on antioxidative systems, reactive oxygen species and cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hussain, Saddam; Bao, Mingchen; Wang, Longchang; Khan, Imran; Ullah, Ehsan; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Samad, Rana Abdul; Shahzad, Babar

    2015-11-01

    Increased cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soils has led to tremendous environmental problems, with pronounced effects on agricultural productivity. Present study investigated the effects of Cd stress imposed at various concentrations (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 μM) on antioxidant activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Cd accumulation, and productivity of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars viz., Run Nong 35 and Wan Dan 13. Considerable variations in Cd accumulation and in behavior of antioxidants and ROS were observed under Cd stress in both maize cultivars, and such variations governed by Cd were concentration dependent. Exposure of plant to Cd stress considerably increased Cd concentration in all plant parts particularly in roots. Wan Dan 13 accumulated relatively higher Cd in root, stem, and leaves than Run Nong 35; however, in seeds, Run Nong 35 recorded higher Cd accumulation. All the Cd toxicity levels starting from 75 μM enhanced H2O2 and MDA concentrations and triggered electrolyte leakage in leaves of both cultivars, and such an increment was more in Run Nong 35. The ROS were scavenged by the enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase in response to Cd stress, and these antioxidant activities were higher in Wan Dan 13 compared with Run Nong 35 at all Cd toxicity levels. The grain yield of maize was considerably reduced particularly for Run Nong 35 under different Cd toxicity levels as compared with control. The Wan Dan 13 was better able to alleviate Cd-induced oxidative damage which was attributed to more Cd accumulation in roots and higher antioxidant activities in this cultivar, suggesting that manipulation of these antioxidants and enhancing Cd accumulation in roots may lead to improvement in Cd stress tolerance.

  5. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Taraxacum mongolicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Zhou Qixing; Mathews, Shiny

    2008-01-01

    Identification of hyperaccumulator and accumulator is still key step of phytoextracting-contaminated soils by heavy metals. In a former published experiment, Taraxacum mongolicum showed basic characteristics of hyperaccumulators. In order to confirm if this plant was a Cd-hyperaccumulator, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were designed and performed. The results showed that Cd enrichment factor and Cd transformation factor of T. mongolicum were all higher than 1 in concentration gradient experiment. The shoot biomasses did not reduced significantly (p -1 Cd spiked into soil. However, Cd concentration in shoot of T. mongolicum was not higher than 100 mg kg -1 the minimum a Cd-hyperaccumulator should have under the conditions of any concentration level of Cd spiked. Thus, T. mongolicum should be a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments settled in a Pb-Zn mine area and Shenyang wastewater irrigation region, T. mongolicum also showed that Cd-accumulator characteristics. Based on these results, T. mongolicum could be identified as a Cd-accumulator, which may have important implication in plant physiology and gene engineering

  6. The soluble receptor for vitamin B12 uptake (sCD320) increases during pregnancy and occurs in higher concentration in urine than in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Andreasen, Birgitte H; Kronborg, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cellular uptake of vitamin B12 (B12) demands binding of the vitamin to transcobalamin (TC) and recognition of TC-B12 (holoTC) by the receptor CD320, a receptor expressed in high quantities on human placenta. We have identified a soluble form of CD320 (sCD320) in serum and here we...... gestational weeks 17-41. sCD320, holoTC, total TC and complex formation between holoTC and sCD320 were measured by in-house ELISA methods, while creatinine was measured on the automatic platform Cobas 6000. Size exclusion chromatography was performed on a Superdex 200 column. RESULTS: Median (range) of serum...... was around two fold higher than in serum. Urinary sCD320/creatinine ratio correlated with serum sCD320 and reached a peak median level of 53 (30-101) pmol/mmol creatinine (week 35). sCD320 present in serum and urine showed the same elution pattern upon size exclusion chromatography. CONCLUSION: We report...

  7. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Maria Julieta [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen, E-mail: jrodriguez@com.uncor.edu [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Nieto, Gaston Leonardo; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  8. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing

    2007-01-01

     Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed...... of detached spike showed increase Cd accumulation for 5 days, followed by sharp decrease till day 10 and increase again after 12.5 days. Awn-removal and stem-girdling markedly decreased Cd concentration in grains, and sucrose or zinc (Zn) addition to the medium and higher relative humidity (RH) also induced...

  9. Cadmium Accumulation and Its Toxicity in Brittle Culm 1 (bc1, a Fragile Rice Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-sheng SHAO

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd accumulation and toxicity in rice plants were characterized and identified by using brittle culm 1 (bc1, a fragile rice mutant and its wild type (Shuangkezao, an indica rice as materials by hydroponics. The low Cd level didn't obviously affect the growth parameters in both rice genotypes, but under high Cd levels (1.0 and 5.0 μmol/L, the growth of both rice plants were substantially inhibited. Moreover, bc1 tended to suffer more seriously from Cd toxicity than Shuangkezao. Cd accumulation in both rice plants increased with the increase of Cd levels. There was a significant difference in Cd accumulation between the two rice genotypes with constantly higher Cd concentration in bc1, which also accumulated more Cd at 0, 0.1, and 1.0 μmol/L Cd levels. The same case was found in the two rice plants grown on Cd-contaminated soil. This suggested that cell wall might play an important role in Cd accumulation in rice plants by the physiological mechanisms. The malondialdehyde (MDA content, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities in rice plants were affected differently under Cd treatments, and which implied that POD might play the main role in detoxifying active oxygen free radical. A significant difference in antioxidative system between the two rice genotypes was found with constantly higher MDA content, SOD and POD activities in bc1. In summary, bc1 accumulated more Cd and appeared to be more sensitive to Cd stress compared with its wild type.

  10. Safety of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy at higher CD4 counts: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Ebrahim; Mia, Rafiq

    2012-10-08

    The package insert for nevirapine (NVP) cautions use in HIV-infected women (including pregnant women) with CD4 counts ≥250 cells/µl. However, recent studies showed that the CD4 count of pregnant women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not predictive of NVP toxicity. To determine whether ART-naive pregnant women initiating NVP-based ART at higher CD4 counts experience greater toxicity compared with pregnant women at lower CD4 counts. We reviewed studies comparing serious adverse NVP-related events among ART-naive pregnant women who commenced therapy at higher v. lower CD4 counts. Relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, SCOPUS and EMBASE, major journals and conference proceedings prior to December 2011. Authors were contacted for additional data. Data were independently extracted and entered into Review Manager. Fourteen studies (2 663 participants) were included for analysis. The odds ratio (OR) for overall NVP toxicity among pregnant women with CD4 <250 cells/µl was 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 - 0.85). When analysis was restricted to prospective studies only (7 studies, 1 318 participants), the results were consistent for overall NVP toxicity (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.25 - 0.73) and severe hepatotoxicity (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22 - 0.90), but not for severe cutaneous reaction (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.26 - 1.10). Initiating NVP-based ART during pregnancy at CD4 ≥250 cells/µl increases toxicity risk and should be avoided, necessitating urgent revision of current guidelines supporting this practice.

  11. Functional components of the bacterial CzcCBA efflux system reduce cadmium uptake and accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesler, Andrea; DalCorso, Giovanni; Fasani, Elisa; Manara, Anna; Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Argese, Emanuele; Furini, Antonella

    2017-03-25

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic trace element released into the environment by industrial and agricultural practices, threatening the health of plants and contaminating the food/feed chain. Biotechnology can be used to develop plant varieties with a higher capacity for Cd accumulation (for use in phytoremediation programs) or a lower capacity for Cd accumulation (to reduce Cd levels in food and feed). Here we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing components of the Pseudomonas putida CzcCBA efflux system. Plants were transformed with combinations of the CzcC, CzcB and CzcA genes, and the impact on Cd mobilization was analysed. Plants expressing PpCzcC showed no differences in Cd accumulation, whereas those expressing PpCzcB or PpCzcA accumulated less Cd in the shoots, but more Cd in the roots. Plants expressing both PpCzcB and PpCzcA accumulated less Cd in the shoots and roots compared to controls, whereas plants expressing all three genes showed a significant reduction in Cd levels only in shoots. These results show that components of the CzcCBA system can be expressed in plants and may be useful for developing plants with a reduced capacity to accumulate Cd in the shoots, potentially reducing the toxicity of food/feed crops cultivated in Cd-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Uptake and translocation of 109Cd and stable Cd within tobacco plants (Nicotiana sylvestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosén, K.; Eriksson, J.; Vinichuk, M.

    2012-01-01

    The availability, uptake, and translocation of recently added ( 109 Cd) and naturally occurring (stable) soil Cd within tobacco plants were compared. 109 Cd was added to soil in two treatments, A (0.25 MBq kg soil −1 DW) and B (eight-fold dose): stable Cd was measured in both treatments. Both the added and the stable Cd were higher in leaves and reproductive structures of the plant than in stalks and roots. The uptake of 109 Cd was 5.3 kBq plant −1 for treatment A and 36.7 kBq plant −1 for treatment B, and about 26 μg plant −1 for stable Cd. Leaves of the tobacco plants accumulated 40–45% of the total 109 Cd and about 50% of total stable Cd taken up by the plant. Cadmium concentration in the plant was three times higher than in roots and two times higher than the concentration in soil: the concentration in roots was lower than in the soil. - Capsule: The availability, uptake, and translocation of recently added ( 109 Cd) and naturally occurring (stable) soil Cd within tobacco plants (Nicotiana sylvestris) were investigated. - Highlights: ► We compared uptake recently added and naturally occurring soil Cd by tobacco plant. ► Both added and stable Cd display similar uptake and translocation within the plant. ► Leaves of tobacco plants accumulate half of the total Cd taken up by the plant. ► Recently added 109 Cd to soil is more available than naturally occurring cadmium.

  13. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-10-18

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain.

  15. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  16. Zinc and cadmium accumulation and tolerance in populations of Sedum alfredii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, D.M.; Shu, W.S.; Zhang, J.; Zou, H.L.; Lin, Z.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the variation of Zn and Cd accumulation and tolerance of Sedum alfredii (a newly reported Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator), field surveys and hydroponic experiments were conducted among three populations of this species: two originating from old Pb/Zn mines in Zhejiang (ZJ) and Hunan (HN) Provinces and one from a 'clean' site in Guangdong (GD) Province, China. Under field conditions, up to 12,524 and 12,253 mg kg -1 Zn, and 1400 and 97 mg kg -1 Cd in shoots of ZJ and HN plants were recorded respectively. Under hydroponic conditions, ZJ and HN plants accumulated significantly higher Zn and Cd in their leaves and stems, and possessed significantly higher Zn and Cd tolerance than GD plants. Among the two contaminated populations, ZJ plants showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation (in leaves) than HN plants. The present results indicate that significant differences in Zn and Cd accumulation and tolerance exist in populations of S. alfredii. - Marked variation of Zn and Cd tolerance and accumulation exist in populations of Sedum alfredii, a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator

  17. Accumulation of cytolytic CD8{sup +} T cells in B16-melanoma and proliferation of mature T cells in TIS21-knockout mice after T cell receptor stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Min Sook [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Min-Yeong [Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, The Graduate School, Ajou University (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Daeho [Department of Microbiology, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwon-do 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Allen E. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kye Yong [Department of Pathology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun [Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, In Kyoung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    In vivo and in vitro effects of TIS21 gene on the mature T cell activation and antitumor activities were explored by employing MO5 melanoma orthograft and splenocytes isolated from the TIS21-knockout (KO) mice. Proliferation and survival of mature T cells were significantly increased in the KO than the wild type (WT) cells, indicating that TIS21 inhibits the rate of mature T cell proliferation and its survival. In MO5 melanoma orthograft model, the KO mice recruited much more CD8{sup +} T cells into the tumors at around day 14 after tumor cell injection along with reduced tumor volumes compared with the WT. The increased frequency of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in splenocytes of the KO mice compared with the WT may account for antitumor-immunity of TIS21 gene in the melanoma orthograft. In contrast, reduced frequencies of CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in the splenocytes of KO mice may affect the loss of CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in the orthograft at around day 19. These results indicate that TIS21 exhibits antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in mature T cells, and differentially affects the frequencies of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells and CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells, thus transiently regulating in vivo anti-tumor immunity. - Highlights: • Constitutive expression of TIS21 in splenocytes and upregulation by TCR stimulation. • Proliferation of mature T-cells in spleen of TIS21KO mice after TCR stimulation. • Inhibition of cell death in mature T-cells of TIS21KO mice compared with the wild type. • Inhibition of melanoma growth in TIS21KO mice and CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in tumor. • Reduction of CD 107{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cells, but increased granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in TIS21KO mice.

  18. Higher plasma CD4 lymphocyte count correlates with better cognitive function in human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-AIDS) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, F. I.; Rambe, A. S.; Fitri, A.

    2018-03-01

    Neurocognitive disorders in HIV-AIDS are still prevalent despite the use of antiretroviral therapy and seem to be under-recognized. Plasma lymphocyte CD4 count is a marker for general immunology status, but its association with cognitive function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between plasma CD4 lymphocyte and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.This was a cross-sectional study involving 48 HIV-AIDS patients. All subjects underwent physical, neurologic examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian Version (MoCA-INA) to assess cognitive function and measurement of lymphocyte CD4 counts.This study included 48 subjects consisted of 29 males (60.4%) and 19 females (39.6%). The mean age was 39.17±11.21 years old. There was a significant correlation between CD4 lymphocyte counts and MoCA-INA score (r=0.347, p=0.016).Higher plasma CD4 lymphocyte count is correlated with better cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.

  19. Characterization of Cd-, Pb-, Zn-resistant endophytic Lasiodiplodia sp. MXSF31 from metal accumulating Portulaca oleracea and its potential in promoting the growth of rape in metal-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zujun; Zhang, Renduo; Shi, Yang; Hu, Li'ao; Tan, Hongming; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the features of a Cd-, Pb-, and Zn-resistant endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia sp. MXSF31 and to investigate the potential of MXSF31 to remove metals from contaminated water and soils. The endophytic fungus was isolated from the stem of Portulaca oleracea growing in metal-contaminated soils. The maximum biosorption capacities of MXSF31 were 3.0 × 10(3), 1.1 × 10(4), and 1.3 × 10(4) mg kg(-1) for Cd, Pb, and Zn, respectively. The biosorption processes of Cd, Pb, and Zn by MXSF31 were well characterized with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The biosorption isotherm processes of Pb and Zn by the fungus were fitted better with the Langmuir model, while the biosorption processes of Cd was better fitted with the Freundlich model. The biosorption process of MXSF31 was attributed to the functional groups of hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, and benzene ring on the cell wall. The active biomass of the strain removed more Cd, Pb, and Zn (4.6 × 10(4), 5.6 × 10(5), and 7.0 × 10(4) mg kg(-1), respectively) than the dead biomass. The inoculation of MXSF31 increased the biomass of rape (Brassica napus L.), the translocation factor of Cd, and the extraction amount of Cd by rape in the Cd+Pb-contaminated soils. The results indicated that the endophytic fungus strain had the potential to remove heavy metals from water and soils contaminated by multiple heavy metals, and plants accumulating multiple metals might harbor diverse fungi suitable for bioremediation of contaminated media.

  20. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylaran, Renante D; Adachi, Shunsuke; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Usuda, Hideaki; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-07-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20-30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production after heading in Takanari as compared with a japonica variety, Koshihikari. The rate of leaf photosynthesis and shoot dry weight became larger in Takanari after the panicle formation and heading stages, respectively, than in Koshihikari. Roots grew rapidly in the panicle formation stage until heading in Takanari compared with Koshihikari. The higher rate of leaf photosynthesis in Takanari resulted not only from the higher content of leaf nitrogen, which was caused by its elevated capacity for nitrogen accumulation, but also from higher stomatal conductance. When measured under light-saturated conditions, stomatal conductance was already decreased due to the reduction in leaf water potential in Koshihikari even under conditions of a relatively small difference in leaf-air vapour pressure difference. In contrast, the higher stomatal conductance was supported by the maintenance of higher leaf water potential through the higher hydraulic conductance in Takanari with the larger area of root surface. However, no increase in root hydraulic conductivity was expected in Takanari. The larger root surface area of Takanari might be a target trait in future rice breeding for increasing dry matter production.

  1. Cadmium accumulation and strategies to avoid its toxicity in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podazza, Griselda [Instituto de Ecologia, Fundacion Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 251, CP 4000, Tucuman (Argentina); Arias, Marta [Catedra de Anatomia Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e IML, Miguel Lillo 205, CP 4000, Tucuman (Argentina); Prado, Fernando E., E-mail: prad@arnet.com.ar [Catedra de Fisiologia Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e IML, Miguel Lillo 205, CP 4000, Tucuman (Argentina)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd induces oxidative stress, increasing the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SOD, G-POD, CAT activities are enhanced by Cd. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-POD activity participates in Cd-induced lignin synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd mainly accumulates in exodermis and vascular cylinder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd is mostly immobilized in roots, limiting its transport to aerial parts. - Abstract: In order to assess implications of Cd-induced oxidative stress in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo, seedlings were hydroponically exposed to two relatively realistic Cd concentrations during 7 days. Our results showed that increasing Cd concentrations in external solution were associated with higher Cd accumulations in roots. At 5 {mu}M Cd the accumulation of Cd in roots was over 70-f higher than in aerial part (stem + leaves). Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide radical (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and lipoxygenase activity (LOX) increased in Cd-exposed roots, suggesting a metal-induced oxidative stress. The Cd treatment enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol-type peroxidase (G-POD), as well as the content of secondary metabolites i.e. soluble phenolics (SPs) and lignin. Histochemical analyses of roots showed that Cd, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), lignin and G-POD displayed a similar location pattern. Almost all analyzed parameters showed a similar dynamic tendency with increases under 5 {mu}M Cd followed by decreases under 10 {mu}M Cd, suggesting that a complex coordinated Cd-defensive mechanism is operating in Citrumelo roots exposed to environmental realistic Cd concentrations.

  2. Cadmium accumulation and strategies to avoid its toxicity in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podazza, Griselda; Arias, Marta; Prado, Fernando E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cd induces oxidative stress, increasing the H 2 O 2 and O 2 · − generation. ► SOD, G-POD, CAT activities are enhanced by Cd. ► G-POD activity participates in Cd-induced lignin synthesis. ► Cd mainly accumulates in exodermis and vascular cylinder. ► Cd is mostly immobilized in roots, limiting its transport to aerial parts. - Abstract: In order to assess implications of Cd-induced oxidative stress in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo, seedlings were hydroponically exposed to two relatively realistic Cd concentrations during 7 days. Our results showed that increasing Cd concentrations in external solution were associated with higher Cd accumulations in roots. At 5 μM Cd the accumulation of Cd in roots was over 70-f higher than in aerial part (stem + leaves). Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide radical (O 2 · − ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and lipoxygenase activity (LOX) increased in Cd-exposed roots, suggesting a metal-induced oxidative stress. The Cd treatment enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol-type peroxidase (G-POD), as well as the content of secondary metabolites i.e. soluble phenolics (SPs) and lignin. Histochemical analyses of roots showed that Cd, H 2 O 2 , (O 2 · − ), lignin and G-POD displayed a similar location pattern. Almost all analyzed parameters showed a similar dynamic tendency with increases under 5 μM Cd followed by decreases under 10 μM Cd, suggesting that a complex coordinated Cd-defensive mechanism is operating in Citrumelo roots exposed to environmental realistic Cd concentrations.

  3. Toxic effects of two sources of dietborne cadmium on the juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. and tissue-specific accumulation of related minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang; Tan, Beiping

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. were fed diets contaminated by two different sources of cadmium: squid viscera meal (SVM-Cd, organic form) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2-Cd, inorganic form). The Cd concentrations in fish diet were approximate 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0mg Cd kg(-1) for both inorganic and organic forms. In the control diet (0.312mg Cd kg(-1) diet, Cd mainly come from fish meal), no cadmium was added. The experiment lasted for 16 weeks and a statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between specific growth rate (SGR) and the concentration of dietary Cd. The SGR of cobia fed a diet with SVM-Cd increased at the lowest doses and decreased with the increasing level of dietary SVM. Fish fed diet contaminated SVM-Cd had significantly higher SGR than those fed diets contaminated CdCl2-Cd among the high Cd level diets treatments. The dietary Cd levels also significantly affected the survival rate of the fish. Among the hematological characteristics and plasma constituents, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum and liver increased and hepatic superoxide dismutase activity decreased with the increasing dietary Cd levels. The cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of CdCl2-Cd had significantly higher ALP activity than cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of SVM-Cd. The results from these studies indicate no differences in toxicity response to dietborne SVM-Cd and CdCl2-Cd at a low level of Cd. However, at a higher level, cobia was more sensitive to dietborne CdCl2-Cd than SVM-Cd. Based on quadratic regression of SGR, The Cd concentrations was 3.617mg kg(-1) in the optimal diet, Cd source was SVM (126mg Cd kg(-1) in SVM) which stimulate the growth of cobia and the added level was determined to be 26.7g kg(-1) diet in the present study. Cd accumulations in the kidney of cobia fed both types of Cd were higher than other tissues, and the order of Cd accumulation in tissues

  4. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Drobne, Damjana; Regvar, Marjana

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg -1 Zn, 5960 mg kg -1 Cd and 3500 mg kg -1 Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

  5. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: katarina.vogel@uni-lj.si; Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 5960 mg kg{sup -1} Cd and 3500 mg kg{sup -1} Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  6. Accumulation of 111In-neutrophils in rabbit skin in allergic and non-allergic inflammatory reactions in vivo. Inhibition by neutrophil pretreatment in vitro with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the CD18 antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourshargh, S.; Rampart, M.; Hellewell, P.G.; Jose, P.J.; Harlan, J.M.; Edwards, A.J.; Williams, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The mAb 60.3 recognizes the neutrophil CD18 Ag. We have investigated the effect of in vitro pretreatment of radiolabeled neutrophils with mAb 60.3 on their accumulation in vivo. Further, we have compared the in vivo effects of mAb 60.3 with its effects on neutrophil adherence in vitro. Neutrophil accumulation in vivo was measured in response to: (1) exogenous mediators FMLP, C5a des Arg, LTB4 and IL-1; (2) endogenous mediators generated in a non-allergic inflammatory reaction induced by zymosan; and (3) endogenous mediators generated in two allergic inflammatory reactions, a passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction and a reversed passive Arthus reaction in rabbit skin. Pretreatment of neutrophils with mAb 60.3 inhibited their accumulation in all the responses. The results demonstrate that there is a common mechanism mediating neutrophil accumulation in these inflammatory reactions. Neutrophils pretreated with mAb 60.3 were also unresponsive to chemoattractants in in vitro adherence assays. However, the antibody-treated neutrophils responded normally to FMLP and C5a with respect to granular enzyme release. These results suggest that the basal expression of CD18 Ag is important for the adherence of neutrophils to microvascular endothelial cells stimulated by the local generation, or administration, of chemical mediators in vivo. Despite the fact that mediators such as FMLP can increase CD18 expression in vitro, it appears more likely that such mediators act in vivo by inducing a conformational change in the basally expressed neutrophil adhesive molecules

  7. Foliar application with nano-silicon alleviates Cd toxicity in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihua; Wang, Fayuan; Gao, Shuangcheng

    2015-02-01

    Nanofertilizers may be more effective than regular fertilizers in improving plant nutrition, enhancing nutrition use efficiency, and protecting plants from environmental stress. A hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the role of foliar application with 2.5 mM nano-silicon in alleviating Cd stress in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv Youyou 128) grown in solution added with or without 20 μM CdCl2. The results showed that Cd treatment decreased the growth and the contents of Mg, Fe, Zn, chlorophyll a, and glutathione (GSH), accompanied by a significant increase in Cd accumulation. However, foliar application with nano-Si improved the growth, Mg, Fe, and Zn nutrition, and the contents of chlorophyll a of the rice seedlings under Cd stress and decreased Cd accumulation and translocation of Cd from root to shoot. Cd treatment produced oxidative stress to rice seedlings indicated by a higher lipid peroxidation level (as malondialdehyde (MDA)) and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and a lower GSH content. However, those nano-Si-treated plants had lower MDA but higher GSH content and different antioxidant enzyme activities, indicating a higher Cd tolerance in them. The results suggested that nano-Si application alleviated Cd toxicity in rice by decreasing Cd accumulation, Cd partitioning in shoot and MDA level and by increasing content of some mineral elements (Mg, Fe, and Zn) and antioxidant capacity.

  8. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of a high-biomass tropical tree (Averrhoa carambola) and its potential for phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Lan, C Y; Ye, Z H; Baker, A J M; Shu, W S

    2010-01-01

    Averrhoa carambola is a high-biomass tropical tree that has been identified as a Cd accumulator. In the present study, field survey, pot, and hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of Cd tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of A. carambola as well as its potential for phytoextraction. In the field survey, it was found that concentrations of Cd in aerial tissues of A. carambola varied greatly among sites and cultivars. The Cd bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and Cd removals by the field-grown A. carambola differed significantly among sites but not among cultivars. Nonetheless, all four carambola cultivars investigated were able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in their shoots, which indicated that the 4-yr-old carambola stands could remove 0.3 to 51.8% of the total Cd content in the top 20-cm soil layer. When cultured in Cd-spiked soils, the carambola cultivar Hua-Di always showed higher Cd tolerance than the other cultivars; however, this tendency was not confirmed by hydroponic experiment. The Cd BCFs of cultivar Thailand grown in soils with 6 and 12 mg Cd kg(-1) were highest among cultivars, whereas this trend was reversed at 120 mg Cd kg(-1) treatment. Nevertheless, the pot- and hydroponics-grown carambola cultivars generally showed higher capacities to tolerate and accumulate Cd, compared with the control species. The present results indicate that a strong ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd seems to be a trait at the species level in A. carambola, although some degree of variances in both Cd tolerance and accumulation exists among cultivars.

  9. Short Communication: Immunohistochemical localization of the immune cell marker CD68 in bovine adipose tissue: impact of tissue alterations and excessive fat accumulation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, S; Germeroth, D; Laubenthal, L; Ruda, L F; Rehage, J; Dänicke, S; Sauerwein, H

    2017-01-01

    With the onset of lactation energy from feed intake is mostly insufficient to meet the requirements of dairy cows. Lipid mobilization from adipose tissue (AT) could lead to a compromised inflammatory response enhancing the incidence for diseases. In addition, tissue alterations can occur, displaying areas of necrosis and inflammation. Furthermore, over-conditioned cows mobilizing more lipids from AT than thin cows are prone to develop metabolic disorders. This might lead to an increased infiltration of phagocytic immune cells into AT. In the present study, CD68 positive cells were localized in AT from 10 early lactating Holstein cows displaying different grades of AT alterations. Biopsies were sampled from visceral and subcutaneous AT and the number of CD68 positive cells was immunohistochemically determined. In addition, AT biopsies from over-conditioned, non-pregnant, non-lactating cows (n=8) were immunohistochemically analyzed for CD68 positive cells. The percentage of CD68 positive cells was less than 2% in AT biopsies with tissue alterations and in AT from over-conditioned cows. Therefore, immune cell infiltration demonstrated via the localization of CD68 positive cells seems to play only a minor role in AT from over-conditioned cows as well as in different bovine AT depots with tissue alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxic effects of two sources of dietborne cadmium on the juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. and tissue-specific accumulation of related minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kang; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang; Tan, Beiping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdCl 2 –Cd showed a higher toxicity than SVM-Cd for cobia. • Cd accumulation in cobia fed diets contaminated SVM-Cd was higher than in cobia fed diets contaminated CdCl 2 –Cd. • Cd accumulation in tissues of cobia fed both types of Cd was kidney > liver > intestine > gill muscle. • Dietborne Cd decreased the Fe concentration in kidney and liver, Ca concentrations in vertebra and scale. - Abstract: In the present study, juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. were fed diets contaminated by two different sources of cadmium: squid viscera meal (SVM-Cd, organic form) and cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 –Cd, inorganic form). The Cd concentrations in fish diet were approximate 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg Cd kg −1 for both inorganic and organic forms. In the control diet (0.312 mg Cd kg −1 diet, Cd mainly come from fish meal), no cadmium was added. The experiment lasted for 16 weeks and a statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between specific growth rate (SGR) and the concentration of dietary Cd. The SGR of cobia fed a diet with SVM-Cd increased at the lowest doses and decreased with the increasing level of dietary SVM. Fish fed diet contaminated SVM-Cd had significantly higher SGR than those fed diets contaminated CdCl 2 –Cd among the high Cd level diets treatments. The dietary Cd levels also significantly affected the survival rate of the fish. Among the hematological characteristics and plasma constituents, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum and liver increased and hepatic superoxide dismutase activity decreased with the increasing dietary Cd levels. The cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of CdCl 2 –Cd had significantly higher ALP activity than cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of SVM-Cd. The results from these studies indicate no differences in toxicity response to dietborne SVM-Cd and CdCl 2 –Cd at a low level of Cd. However, at a higher level, cobia was

  11. Toxic effects of two sources of dietborne cadmium on the juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. and tissue-specific accumulation of related minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kang [Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China); Guangdong Yuehai Feed Group Co., Ltd., Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China); Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang [Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China); Tan, Beiping, E-mail: bptan@126.com [Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CdCl{sub 2}–Cd showed a higher toxicity than SVM-Cd for cobia. • Cd accumulation in cobia fed diets contaminated SVM-Cd was higher than in cobia fed diets contaminated CdCl{sub 2}–Cd. • Cd accumulation in tissues of cobia fed both types of Cd was kidney > liver > intestine > gill muscle. • Dietborne Cd decreased the Fe concentration in kidney and liver, Ca concentrations in vertebra and scale. - Abstract: In the present study, juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. were fed diets contaminated by two different sources of cadmium: squid viscera meal (SVM-Cd, organic form) and cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}–Cd, inorganic form). The Cd concentrations in fish diet were approximate 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg Cd kg{sup −1} for both inorganic and organic forms. In the control diet (0.312 mg Cd kg{sup −1} diet, Cd mainly come from fish meal), no cadmium was added. The experiment lasted for 16 weeks and a statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between specific growth rate (SGR) and the concentration of dietary Cd. The SGR of cobia fed a diet with SVM-Cd increased at the lowest doses and decreased with the increasing level of dietary SVM. Fish fed diet contaminated SVM-Cd had significantly higher SGR than those fed diets contaminated CdCl{sub 2}–Cd among the high Cd level diets treatments. The dietary Cd levels also significantly affected the survival rate of the fish. Among the hematological characteristics and plasma constituents, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum and liver increased and hepatic superoxide dismutase activity decreased with the increasing dietary Cd levels. The cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of CdCl{sub 2}–Cd had significantly higher ALP activity than cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of SVM-Cd. The results from these studies indicate no differences in toxicity response to dietborne SVM-Cd and CdCl{sub 2}–Cd at a low level of Cd

  12. Role of P-glycoprotein on CD69+CD4+ cells in the pathogenesis of proliferative lupus nephritis and non-responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Shizuyo; Adachi, Tomoko; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2017-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression on activated lymphocytes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) plays a role in active efflux of intracellular drugs, resulting in drug resistance. The role of P-gp-expressing lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of SLE remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of P-gp + CD4 + cells in organ manifestations in refractory SLE. The proportion of P-gp + CD4 + cells was determined by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of patients with SLE (n=116) and healthy adults (n=10). Renal biopsy specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry for P-gp expression. CD69 is a marker of CD4 cell activation. The proportion of both P-gp-expressing CD4 + cells and CD69-expressing CD4 + cells in peripheral blood was higher in SLE than control. The proportion of P-gp + CD69 + CD4 + cells correlated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index and was higher in poor responders to corticosteroids. Furthermore, the proportion of P-gp + CD69 + CD4 + cells was significantly higher in proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) with poor response to corticosteroids. The efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy depended on the regulation of the proportion of P-gp + CD69 + CD4 + cells. Marked accumulation of P-gp + CD4 + cells in renal interstitial tissue and high proportion of peripheral P-gp + CD69 + CD4 + cells were noted in patients with proliferative LN. The results showed high proportion of P-gp + CD69 + CD4 + cells in peripheral blood and their accumulation in renal tissue in patients with proliferative LN refractory to CS therapy, suggesting that P-gp expression on activated CD4 + T cells is a potentially useful marker for refractoriness to treatment and a novel target for treatment.

  13. Chemotherapeutic Effect of CD147 Antibody-labeled Micelles Encapsulating Doxorubicin Conjugate Targeting CD147-Expressing Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Shiraishi, Koichi; Aoki, Katsuhiko; Ohkawa, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    CD147 (basigin/emmprin) is expressed on the surface of carcinoma cells. For studying the efficacy of CD147-targeting medicine on CD147-expressing cells, we studied the effect of anti-CD147-labeled polymeric micelles (CD147ab micelles) that encapsulated a conjugate of doxorubicin with glutathione (GSH-DXR), with specific accumulation and cytotoxicity against CD147-expressing A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, Ishikawa human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, and PC3 human prostate carcinoma cells. By treatment of each cell type with CD147ab micelles for 1 h, a specific accumulation of CD147ab micelles in CD147-expressing cells was observed. In addition, the cytotoxicity of GSH-DXR-encapsulated micelles against each cell type was measured by treatment of the micelles for 1 h. The cytotoxic effect of CD147ab micelles carrying GSH-DXR was 3- to 10-fold higher for these cells than that of micelles without GSH-DXR. These results suggest that GSH-DXR-encapsulated CD147ab micelles could serve as an effective drug delivery system to CD147-expressing carcinoma cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on "1"3"7Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, N.

    2016-01-01

    Levels of soil contamination with "1"3"7Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of "1"3"7Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of "1"3"7Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of "1"3"7Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of "1"3"7Cs specific activity in fungi. - Highlights: • Factors influencing on the "1"3"7Cs accumulation by higher fungi have been studied. • "1"3"7Cs specific activity levels in one species fungi could change to up to 10 times during a vegetation season. • A reliable linear dependence of "1"3"7Cs content in fungi on precipitate quantity has not been determined.

  15. T cell activation inhibitors reduce CD8+ T cell and pro-inflammatory macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince N Montes

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue inflammation and specifically, pro-inflammatory macrophages are believed to contribute to insulin resistance (IR in obesity in humans and animal models. Recent studies have invoked T cells in the recruitment of pro-inflammatory macrophages and the development of IR. To test the role of the T cell response in adipose tissue of mice fed an obesogenic diet, we used two agents (CTLA-4 Ig and anti-CD40L antibody that block co-stimulation, which is essential for full T cell activation. C57BL/6 mice were fed an obesogenic diet for 16 weeks, and concomitantly either treated with CTLA-4 Ig, anti-CD40L antibody or an IgG control (300 µg/week. The treatments altered the immune cell composition of adipose tissue in obese mice. Treated mice demonstrated a marked reduction in pro-inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages and activated CD8+ T cells. Mice treated with anti-CD40L exhibited reduced weight gain, which was accompanied by a trend toward improved IR. CTLA-4 Ig treatment, however, was not associated with improved IR. These data suggest that the presence of pro-inflammatory T cells and macrophages can be altered with co-stimulatory inhibitors, but may not be a significant contributor to the whole body IR phenotype.

  16. Regulatory function of cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+CD27-CD28- T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar-Salazar, Adriana; Patterson-Bartlett, Julie; Jesser, Renee; Weinberg, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    CMV infection is characterized by high of frequencies of CD27 - CD28 - T cells. Here we demonstrate that CMV-specific CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - cells are regulatory T cells (T R ). CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - cells sorted from CMV-stimulated PBMC of CMV-seropositive donors inhibited de novo CMV-specific proliferation of autologous PBMC in a dose-dependent fashion. Compared with the entire CMV-stimulated CD4 + T-cell population, higher proportions of CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - T R expressed FoxP3, TGFβ, granzyme B, perforin, GITR and PD-1, lower proportions expressed CD127 and PD1-L and similar proportions expressed CD25, CTLA4, Fas-L and GITR-L. CMV-CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - T R expanded in response to IL-2, but not to CMV antigenic restimulation. The anti-proliferative effect of CMV-CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - T R significantly decreased after granzyme B or TGFβ inhibition. The CMV-CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - T R of HIV-infected and uninfected donors had similar phenotypes and anti-proliferative potency, but HIV-infected individuals had higher proportions of CMV-CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - T R . The CMV-CD4 + CD27 - CD28 - T R may contribute to the downregulation of CMV-specific and nonspecific immune responses of CMV-infected individuals.

  17. Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation of Triarrhena sacchariflora, a large amphibious ornamental grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, R N; Yu, S; Wang, S G; Zhang, Y; Tang, J Y; Liu, Y L; Nie, Y H

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the tolerance and accumulation of Triarrhena sacchariflora to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd). The results show that T. sacchariflora had strong tolerance to Cu and Cd stress. The tolerance indexes (TI) were greater than 0.5 for all treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) to Cu and Cd were both above 1.0. The accumulation ability of roots was stronger than that of shoots, and ranges of BCF to Cu and Cd in roots were 37.89-79.08 and 83.96-300.57, respectively. However, the translocation ability to Cu and Cd was weak, with more than 86% of Cu or Cd accumulated in roots, suggesting an exclusion strategy for heavy metal tolerance. The uptake efficiency (UE) and translocation efficiency (TE) to Cu and Cd increased linearly as the Cu and Cd concentration in the substrate increased. UE was higher than TE, with a maximum of 2,118.90 μg g(-1) root dry weight (DW) (50 mg L(-1) Cu) and 1,847.51 μg g(-1) root DW (20 mg L(-1)Cd), respectively. The results indicate that T. sacchariflora is a Cu- and Cd-tolerant non-hyperaccumulator plant, suggesting that T. sacchariflora could play an important role in phytoremediation in areas contaminated with Cu and Cd.

  18. HIV-infected patients with a large thymus maintain higher CD4 counts in a 5-year follow-up study of patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, L; Ryder, L P; Albrecht-Beste, E

    2009-01-01

    output determined as the number of CD4 + cells containing T-cell receptor-rearrangement excision DNA circles were measured prospectively in 25 HIV-infected patients with known thymic size during 5 years of HAART. Patients with larger thymic size had at all time points of follow-up significantly higher CD...

  19. Spatial pattern of heavy metals accumulation risk in urban soils of Beijing and its influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Peng, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Accumulations of heavy metals in urban soils are highly spatial heterogeneity and affected by multiple factors including soil properties, land use and pattern, population and climatic conditions. We studied accumulation risks of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in unban soils of Beijing and their influencing based on the regression tree analysis and a GIS-based overlay model. Result shows that Zinc causes the most extensive soil pollution and Cu result in the most acute soil pollution. The soil's organic carbon content and CEC and population growth are the most significant factors affecting heavy metal accumulation. Other influence factors in land use pattern, urban landscape, and wind speed also contributed, but less pronounced. The soils in areas with higher degree of urbanization and surrounded by intense vehicular traffics have higher accumulation risk of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. - Highlights: • Zn accumulations were the most extensive and Cu accumulations were the most acute. • Accumulations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils were caused by different sets of influence factors. • Soil's organic carbon content and CEC and population growth were the most significant factors. • Accumulation risks were highly related with urbanization level and human activities. - A combined approach of employing geographical information systems and regression tree analyses identify the potential risks of accumulation Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban soils according to soil properties, urban land use patterns, urban landscape, demographics, and microclimatic conditions.

  20. Increased Number of Circulating CD8/CD26 T Cells in the Blood of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients Is Associated with Augmented Binding of Adenosine Deaminase and Higher Muscular Strength Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Soslow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked disorder that leads to cardiac and skeletal myopathy. The complex immune activation in boys with DMD is incompletely understood. To better understand the contribution of the immune system into the progression of DMD, we performed a systematic characterization of immune cell subpopulations obtained from peripheral blood of DMD subjects and control donors. We found that the number of CD8 cells expressing CD26 (also known as adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2 was increased in DMD subjects compared to control. No differences, however, were found in the levels of circulating factors associated with pro-inflammatory activation of CD8/CD26 cells, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, granzyme B, and interferon-γ (IFNγ. The number of CD8/CD26 cells correlated directly with quantitative muscle testing (QMT in DMD subjects. Since CD26 mediates binding of adenosine deaminase (ADA to the T cell surface, we tested ADA-binding capacity of CD8/CD26 cells and the activity of bound ADA. We found that mononuclear cells (MNC obtained from DMD subjects with an increased number of CD8/CD26 T cells had a greater capacity to bind ADA. In addition, these MNC demonstrated increased hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine. Altogether, our data demonstrated that (1 an increased number of circulating CD8/CD26 T cells is associated with preservation of muscle strength in DMD subjects, and (2 CD8/CD26 T cells from DMD subjects mediated degradation of adenosine by adenosine deaminase. These results support a role for T cells in slowing the decline in skeletal muscle function, and a need for further investigation into contribution of CD8/CD26 T cells in the regulation of chronic inflammation associated with DMD.

  1. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity response to environmentally relevant complex metal mixture (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd) accumulated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Part I: importance of exposure time and tissue dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevičiūtė, Milda; Sauliutė, Gintarė; Svecevičius, Gintaras; Kazlauskienė, Nijolė; Baršienė, Janina

    2017-10-01

    Health impact of metal mixture at environment realistic concentrations are difficult to predict especially for long-term effects where cause-and-effect relationships may not be directly obvious. This study was aimed to evaluate metal mixture (Zn-0.1, Cu-0.01, Ni-0.01, Cr-0.01, Pb-0.005 and Cd-0.005 mg/L, respectively for 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days at concentrations accepted for the inland waters in EU) genotoxicity (micronuclei, nuclear buds, nuclear buds on filament), cytotoxicity (8-shaped nuclei, fragmented-apoptotic erythrocytes), bioaccumulation, steady-state and the reference level of geno-cytotoxicity in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon tissues. Metals accumulated mostly in gills and kidneys, to the lesser extent in the muscle. Uptake of metals from an entire mixture in the fish for 14 days is sufficient to reach steady-state Cr, Pb concentrations in all tissues; Zn, Cu-in kidneys and muscle, Ni-in liver, kidneys, muscle and Cd-in muscle. Treatment with metal mixture significantly increased summed genotoxicity levels at 7 days of exposure in peripheral blood and liver erythrocytes, at 14 days of exposure in gills and kidney erythrocytes. Significant elevation of cytotoxicity was detected after 2 and 14 days of exposure in gills erythrocytes and after 28 days-in peripheral blood erythrocytes. The amount of Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd accumulated in tissues was dependent upon duration of exposure; nuclear buds, 8-shaped nuclei frequencies also were dependent upon duration of exposure. This study indicates that metals at low levels when existing in mixture causes significant geno-cytotoxicity responses and metals bioaccumulation in salmon.

  2. Accumulation of Pb, Hg, Cd, Se, Sc, Cr, Rb, Fe, Zn, Co in the plants and sludges of the Lake Balaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teherani, D.K.; Altmann, H.; Wallisch, G.

    1981-01-01

    Various plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Myriophyllum spicatum) and mud samples taken from Lake Balaton (Paloznak, Balatonfuezfoe) in June 1978 were analyzed for Se, Cr, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn, Co by neutron activation analysis and for Cd, Pb, Hg by atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration values found for Se ranged between 0.25-1.2 ppm (plant) and 0.99-1.47 ppm (mud), for Cr 1.6-6 ppm (plant) and 4.85-40.75 ppm (mud), for Sc 0.4-0.75 ppm (plant) and 3.25-5.87 ppm (mud), for Rb 6.75-16 ppm (plant) and 17-48.75 ppm (mud), for Fe 636.7-4491 ppm (plant) and 11034-12057 ppm (mud), for Zn 20.5-38.5 ppm (plant) and 29.75-41.75 ppm (mud), for Co 0.77-4.75 ppm (plant) and 4.87-5.5 ppm (mud), for Pb 4.5-23.5 ppm (plant) and 18-28 ppm (mud), for Cd <0.03 ppm (plant, mud), for Hg <0.01-0.07 ppm (plant) and 0.04-0.08 ppm (mud). (author)

  3. Cadmium speciation and accumulation in periphyton in a small stream with dynamic concentration variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradac, Philippe [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Wagner, Bettina; Kistler, David; Traber, Jacqueline; Behra, Renata [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Sigg, Laura, E-mail: laura.sigg@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Accumulation of cadmium in periphyton was investigated under field conditions while Cd concentration and speciation were dynamically varying in a small stream during rain events. Speciation in water was determined in situ by diffusion gradient in thin-films (DGT) and by modeling of complexation with fulvic acids. During the rain events, dissolved Cd concentrations increased from 0.17 nM to 0.27-0.36 nM, and 70-97% were DGT-labile. Cd content in periphyton closely followed Cd concentrations in water, despite higher concentrations of Zn and Mn, and may be controlled by either free or DGT-labile Cd concentrations. Decrease of Cd content in periphyton after the rain events was slower than the decrease of Cd concentration in water. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Fe in periphyton also followed the dynamic variations of metal concentrations in water. Repeated exposure of periphyton to elevated dissolved Cd may lead to Cd accumulation. - Cadmium accumulation in periphyton was examined in a small stream during rain events in relation to Cd speciation.

  4. The Tolerance and Accumulation of Miscanthus Sacchariflorus (maxim.) Benth., an Energy Plant Species, to Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Shiyong; Huang, Yongjie; Zhou, Shoubiao

    2015-01-01

    Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Benth. is a metallophyte suitable for the phytoremediation of mine wastes. The tolerance and accumulation of M. sacchariflorus to cadmium was studied by pot experiments. The results showed that O2·- generation rate, plasma membrane permeability and MDA content of M. sacchariflorus leaves increased with increasing Cd concentrations in soil, but significant effect was only observed when Cd concentrations were ≥50 mg·kg(-1). SOD and POD activities increased initially but decreased later on, whereas CAT activity only increased significantly at higher Cd concentrations, 50-100 mg·kg(-1). The content of photosynthetic pigment and growth of M. sacchariflorus were both not significantly affected when Cd concentration was ≤25 mg·kg(-1). In contrast, both parameters were significantly affected when Cd concentration was ≥50 mg·kg(-1). M. sacchariflorus could accumulate much Cd, but most of the Cd assimilated was retained in the belowground part, suggesting that M. sacchariflorus has poor ability to translocate Cd to the aboveground part. Our results suggested that although M. sacchariflorus was not a hyper-accumulator, it has a strong capacity to tolerate and stabilize the Cd. Therefore, M. sacchariflorus has a certain potential in the phytostabilization of Cd-contaminated soils.

  5. Cadmium speciation and accumulation in periphyton in a small stream with dynamic concentration variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradac, Philippe; Wagner, Bettina; Kistler, David; Traber, Jacqueline; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of cadmium in periphyton was investigated under field conditions while Cd concentration and speciation were dynamically varying in a small stream during rain events. Speciation in water was determined in situ by diffusion gradient in thin-films (DGT) and by modeling of complexation with fulvic acids. During the rain events, dissolved Cd concentrations increased from 0.17 nM to 0.27-0.36 nM, and 70-97% were DGT-labile. Cd content in periphyton closely followed Cd concentrations in water, despite higher concentrations of Zn and Mn, and may be controlled by either free or DGT-labile Cd concentrations. Decrease of Cd content in periphyton after the rain events was slower than the decrease of Cd concentration in water. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Fe in periphyton also followed the dynamic variations of metal concentrations in water. Repeated exposure of periphyton to elevated dissolved Cd may lead to Cd accumulation. - Cadmium accumulation in periphyton was examined in a small stream during rain events in relation to Cd speciation.

  6. Water management practices affect arsenic and cadmium accumulation in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liming; Zheng, Manman; Liu, Hongyan; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grains is a great threat to its productivity, grain quality, and thus human health. Pot and field studies were carried out to unravel the effect of different water management practices (aerobic, aerobic-flooded, and flooded) on Cd and As accumulation in rice grains of two different varieties. In pot experiment, Cd or As was also added into the soil as treatment. Pots without Cd or As addition were maintained as control. Results indicated that water management practices significantly influenced the Cd and As concentration in rice grains and aerobic cultivation of rice furnished less As concentration in its grains. Nonetheless, Cd concentration in this treatment was higher than the grains of flooded rice. Likewise, in field study, aerobic and flooded rice cultivation recorded higher Cd and As concentration, respectively. However, growing of rice in aerobic-flooded conditions decreased the Cd concentration by 9.38 times on average basis as compared to aerobic rice. Furthermore, this treatment showed 28% less As concentration than that recorded in flooded rice cultivation. The results suggested that aerobic-flooded cultivation may be a promising strategy to reduce the Cd and As accumulations in rice grains simultaneously.

  7. Uncertainty-based calibration and prediction with a stormwater surface accumulation-washoff model based on coverage of sampled Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd field data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Ahlman, S.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    allows identifying a range of behavioral model parameter sets. The small catchment size and nearness of the rain gauge justified excluding the hydrological model parameters from the uncertainty assessment. Uniform, closed prior distributions were heuristically specified for the dry and wet removal...... of accumulated metal available on the conceptual catchment surface. Forward Monte Carlo analysis based on the posterior parameter sets covered 95% of the observed event mean concentrations, and 95% prediction quantiles for site mean concentrations were estimated to 470 μg/l ±20% for Zn, 295 μg/l ±40% for Cu, 20...

  8. TH-CD-206-08: An Anthropopathic Deformable Phantom for Geometric and Dose Accumulation Accuracy Validation of Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y; Chen, H; Chen, J; Zhen, X; Zhou, L [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To design and construct a three-dimensional (3D) anthropopathic abdominal phantom for evaluating deformable image registration (DIR) accuracy on images and dose deformation in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Method: Organ moulds, including liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, vertebra and two metastasis tumors, are 3D printed using the contours from an ovarian cancer patient. The organ moulds are molded with deformable gels that made of different mixtures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the softener dioctyl terephthalate. Gels with different densities are obtained by a polynomial fitting curve which describes the relation between the CT number and PVC-softener blending ratio. The rigid vertebras are constructed by moulding with white cement. The final abdominal phantom is assembled by arranging all the fabricated organs inside a hollow dummy according to their anatomies and sealed with deformable gel with averaged CT number of muscle and fat. Geometric and dosimetric landmarks are embedded inside the phantom for spatial accuracy and dose accumulation accuracy studies. Three DIR algorithms available in the open source DIR toolkit-DIRART, including the Demons, the Horn-Schunck and Lucas-Kanade method and the Level-Set Motion method, are tested using the constructed phantom. Results: Viscoelastic behavior is observed in the constructed deformable gel, which serves as an ideal material for the deformable phantom. The constructed abdominal phantom consists of highly realistic anatomy and the fabricated organs inside have close CT number to its reference patient. DIR accuracy studies conducted on the constructed phantom using three DIR approaches indicate that geometric accuracy of a DIR algorithm has achieved does not guarantee accuracy in dose accumulation. Conclusions: We have designed and constructed an anthropopathic abdominal deformable phantom with satisfactory elastic property, realistic organ density and anatomy. This physical phantom is recyclable and can

  9. Asthma and gender impact accumulation of T cell subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Stephen P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "Th2 hypothesis for asthma" asserts that an increased ratio of Th2:Th1 cytokine production plays an important pathogenic role in asthma. Although widely embraced, the hypothesis has been challenged by various empirical observations and has been described as overly simplistic. We sought to establish whether CD3+CD28-mediated and antigen-independent accumulation of type 1 and type 2 T cells differs significantly between nonasthmatic and asthmatic populations. Methods An ex vivo system was used to characterize the regulation of IFN-γ-producing (type 1 and IL-13-producing (type 2 T cell accumulation in response to CD3+CD28 and IL-2 stimulation by flow cytometry. Results IL-13-producing T cells increased in greater numbers in response to antigen-independent stimulation in peripheral blood lymphocytes from female atopic asthmatic subjects compared with male asthmatics and both male and female atopic non-asthmatic subjects. IFN-γ+ T cells increased in greater numbers in response to either antigen-independent or CD3+CD28-mediated stimulation in peripheral blood lymphocytes from atopic asthmatic subjects compared to non-asthmatic subjects, regardless of gender. Conclusions We demonstrate that T cells from asthmatics are programmed for increased accumulation of both type 2 and type 1 T cells. Gender had a profound effect on the regulation of type 2 T cells, thus providing a mechanism for the higher frequency of adult asthma in females.

  10. Cadmium toxicity affects chlorophyll a and b content, antioxidant enzyme activities and mineral nutrient accumulation in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhad Muradoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is well known as one of the most toxic metals affecting the environment and can severely restrict plant growth and development. In this study, Cd toxicities were studied in strawberry cv. Camarosa using pot experiment. Chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities and mineral nutrient concentrations were investigated in both roots and leaves of strawberry plant after exposure Cd. RESULTS: Cd content in both roots and leaves was increased with the application of increasing concentrations of Cd. We found higher Cd concentration in roots rather than in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b was decreased in leaves but MDA significantly increased under increased Cd concentration treatments in both roots and leaves. SOD and CAT activities was also increased with the increase Cd concentrations. K, Mn and Mg concentrations were found higher in leaves than roots under Cd stress. In general, increased Cd treatments increased K, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu and Zn concentration in both roots and leaves. Excessive Cd treatments reduced chlorophyll contents, increased antioxidant enzyme activities and changes in plant nutrition concentrations in both roots and leaves. CONCLUSION: The results presented in this work suggested that Cd treatments have negative effect on chlorophyll content and nearly decreased 30% of plant growth in strawberry. Strawberry roots accumulated higher Cd than leaves. We found that MDA and antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD and APX contents may have considered a good indicator in determining Cd tolerance in strawberry plant.

  11. An investigation of the evolution of evolution of distribution and accumulation of heavy metals(Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb) in Anzali wetland's sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartaj, M.; Fatollahi, F.; Filizadeh, Y.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the precipitation of heavy metals in Anzali wetland and evaluate its refining performance this study was carried out on the wetland. Monthly samples of sediments from 15 stations including inlets, outlets and some internal locations in the wetland were collected and analyzed over a period of six months (July - December 2002). Sediment samples were analyzed for six metals of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. Wet digestion method was employed for extraction of metals in samples by and through a solution containing HN03 and HCL. Atomic Adsorption spectrophotometry was employed for measurement of the heavy metals. Statistical methods, including analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and Cluster analysis were used for analysis of the data. The results indicated that concentration of heavy metals present in sediments (collected from different stations and at different times) here significantly different. Among the metals studied, Zn was of the highest concentration Heavy metal concentrations in stations 1 1, 12 and 13 were lower than in other stations. Sediments in station 5 contained the highest concentrations of heavy metals among all sediments. It can be stated that concentration of heavy metals decreases with an increase in the distance from delta of rivers entering the wetland.2. This is due to the role and performance of wetland chemical contents in reduction of pollutants, the self-purification action of wetland as well as precipitation of heavy metals at the beginning of the entries into the wetland

  12. Direct visualization of antigen-specific T cells: HTLV-1 Tax11-19- specific CD8(+) T cells are activated in peripheral blood and accumulate in cerebrospinal fluid from HAM/TSP patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greten, T F; Slansky, J E; Kubota, R; Soldan, S S; Jaffee, E M; Leist, T P; Pardoll, D M; Jacobson, S; Schneck, J P

    1998-06-23

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/tropic spastic paraparesis is a demyelinating inflammatory neurologic disease associated with HTLV-1 infection. HTLV-1 Tax11-19-specific cytotoxic T cells have been isolated from HLA-A2-positive patients. We have used a peptide-loaded soluble HLA-A2-Ig complex to directly visualize HTLV-1 Tax11-19-specific T cells from peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid without in vitro stimulation. Five of six HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropic spastic paraparesis patients carried a significant number (up to 13.87%) of CD8(+) lymphocytes specific for the HTLV-1 Tax11-19 peptide in their peripheral blood, which were not found in healthy controls. Simultaneous comparison of peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid from one patient revealed 2.5-fold more Tax11-19-specific T cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (23.7% vs. 9.4% in peripheral blood lymphocyte). Tax11-19-specific T cells were seen consistently over a 9-yr time course in one patient as far as 19 yrs after the onset of clinical symptoms. Further analysis of HTLV-1 Tax11-19-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes in HAM/TSP patients showed different expression patterns of activation markers, intracellular TNF-alpha and gamma-interferon depending on the severity of the disease. Thus, visualization of antigen-specific T cells demonstrates that HTLV-1 Tax11-19-specific CD8(+) T cells are activated, persist during the chronic phase of the disease, and accumulate in cerebrospinal fluid, showing their pivotal role in the pathogenesis of this neurologic disease.

  13. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland); Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T. [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: > We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. > We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. > Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. > Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. > Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  14. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.M.M.; Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: → We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. → We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. → Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. → Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. → Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  15. Adaptive response of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to accumulation of elements and translocation in Phragmites australis affected by cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaochen; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Zhu, Shishu; Ma, Fang; Wu, Jieting; Yang, Jixian; Wang, Li

    2017-07-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been reported to play a central role in improving plant tolerance to cadmium (Cd)-contaminated sites. This is achieved by enhancing both the growth of host plants and the nutritive elements in plants. This study assessed potential regulatory effects of AM symbiosis with regard to nutrient uptake and transport, and revealed different response strategies to various Cd concentrations. Phragmites australis was inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis in the greenhouse cultivation system, where it was treated with 0-20 mg L -1 of Cd for 21days to investigate growth parameters, as well as Cd and nutritive element distribution in response to AM fungus inoculation. Mycorrhizal plants showed a higher tolerance, particularly under high Cd-level stress in the substrate. Moreover, our results determined the roots as dominant Cd reservoirs in plants. The AM fungus improved Cd accumulation and saturated concentration in the roots, thus inhibiting Cd uptake to shoots. The observed distributions of nutritive elements and the interactions among these indicated the highest microelement contribution to roots, Ca contributed maximally in leaves, and K and P contributed similarly under Cd stress. In addition, AM fungus inoculation effectively impacted Mn and P uptake and accumulation while coping with Cd toxicity. This study also demonstrated translocation factor from metal concentration (TF) could be a good parameter to evaluate different transportation strategies induced by various Cd stresses in contrast to the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor from metal accumulation (TF'). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Euan; Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan; Kempson, Ivan M.; Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. ► We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. ► Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. ► Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 ± 15 mg Pb kg −1 ) was significantly higher (P −1 ). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  17. Seasonal changes of metal accumulation and distribution in common club rush (Schoenoplectus lacustris) and common reed (Phragmites australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Fatih; Cicek, Mehmet; Sezen, Goksal

    2007-08-01

    In this study, two aquatic macrophytes Phragmites australis and Schoenoplectus lacustris and corresponding sediment samples were collected every three months from Lake Sapanca (Turkey) and analysed for their heavy-metal contents (Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn and Cd). Accumulation factor ratios of plant parts were calculated for all metals, and the two species were compared in terms of accumulation properties. The highest concentrations were measured in the root systems while relatively low concentrations were found in the rhizome and above-ground parts of the plants. The accumulation ratios of root for P. australis were usually higher than the ratios for S. lacustris. While the accumulation ratios of root were higher in winter than in the other seasons for P. australis, for S. lacustris the highest accumulation ratios were found in the autumn. Both plant species were found to be root accumulators of Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn and Cd.

  18. Cadmium accumulation in and tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties with different rates of radial oxygen loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.Y.; Chen, A.K.; Wong, M.H.; Qiu, R.L.; Cheng, H.; Ye, Z.H.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake and tolerance were investigated among 20 rice cultivars based on a field experiment (1.2 mg Cd kg -1 in soil) and a soil pot trial (control, 100 mg Cd kg -1 ), and rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL) were measured under a deoxygenated solution. Significant differences were found among the cultivars in: (1) brown rice Cd concentrations (0.11-0.29 mg kg -1 ) in a field soil, (2) grain Cd tolerance (34-113%) and concentrations (2.1-6.5 mg kg -1 ) in a pot trial, and (3) rates of ROL (15-31 mmol O 2 kg -1 root d.w. h -1 ). Target hazard quotients were calculated for the field experiment to assess potential Cd risk. Significant negative relationships were found between rates of ROL and concentrations of Cd in brown rice or straw under field and greenhouse conditions, indicating that rice cultivars with higher rates of ROL had higher capacities for limiting the transfer of Cd to rice and straw. - Highlights: → There are significant differences in brown rice Cd concentrations and rates of ROL among the rice cultivars. → The rates of ROL are significantly correlated with concentrations of Cd in brown rice. → Rice cultivars with higher rates of ROL have higher capacities for limiting the transfer of Cd to rice and straw. - Rice cultivars with high rates of ROL tended to accumulate low Cd in grains.

  19. Enhanced Cadmium (Cd Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soil using Cd-Resistant Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunchaya Setkit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cadmium (Cd-resistant bacterium, Micrococcus sp. MU1, is able to produce indole-3-acetic acid and promotes root elongation and plant growth. The potential of this bacterium on enhancement of Cd uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd in Helianthus annuus L. planted in Cd-contaminated soil was evaluated in greenhouse condition. The results showed that Micrococcus sp. MU1promoted the growth of H. annuus L. by increasing the root length, stem height, dry biomass, root to shoot ratio and also significantly increased Cd accumulation in the root and above-ground tissues of H. annuus L. compared to uninoculated control. Re-inoculation with Micrococcus sp. MU1in contaminated soil helped in promoting plant growth and Cd phytoextraction throughout the cultivation period. In addition, phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor (TF of H. annuus L. inoculated with Micrococcus sp. MU1were higher than that of uninoculated control and TF continuously increased with time. Our results suggested that Micrococcus sp. MU1 has an ability to enhance plant growth and Cd uptake in H. annuus L. Synergistic interaction between Micrococcus sp. MU1 and H. annuus L. could be further applied for Cd phytoextraction in polluted areas.

  20. Influence of cadmium stress on root exudates of high cadmium accumulating rice line (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huijie; Yu, Haiying; Li, Tingxuan; Zhang, Xizhou

    2018-04-15

    A hydroponic experiment with two different cadmium (Cd) accumulating rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) was carried out to explore the links among Cd stress, root exudates and Cd accumulation. The results showed that (1) Cd stress increased quantities of organic acids, but had no effect on composition in root exudates of the two rice lines. In Cd treatments, the contents of every detected organic acid in root exudates of Lu527-8 were 1.76-2.43 times higher than those of Lu527-4. Significant positive correlations between organic acids contents and Cd contents in plants were observed in both rice lines, except that malic acid was only highly relevant to Lu527-8, but not to Lu527-4. (2) Both composition and quantities of amino acids in root exudates changed a lot under Cd stress and this change differed in two rice lines. In control, four amino acids (glutamic acid, glycine, tyrosine and histidine) were detected in two rice lines. Under Cd stress, eight amino acids in Lu527-8 and seven amino acids in Lu527-4 could be detected, among which phenylalanine was only secreted by Lu527-8 and alanine, methionine and lysine were secreted by both rice lines. The contents of those four newly secreted amino acids from Lu527-8 increased significantly with the increase of Cd dose and each had a high-positive correlation with Cd contents, but the same change did not appear in Lu527-4. The difference between two rice lines in secretion of organic acids and amino acids may be related to their different Cd uptake properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of Maize (Zea mays L.) for phytomanagement of Cd-contaminated soils: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Ok, Yong Sik; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Hannan, Fakhir

    2017-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) has been widely adopted for phytomanagement of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils due to its high biomass production and Cd accumulation capacity. This paper reviewed the toxic effects of Cd and its management by maize plants. Maize could tolerate a certain level of Cd in soil while higher Cd stress can decrease seed germination, mineral nutrition, photosynthesis and growth/yields. Toxicity response of maize to Cd varies with cultivar/varieties, growth medium and stress duration/extent. Exogenous application of organic and inorganic amendments has been used for enhancing Cd tolerance of maize. The selection of Cd-tolerant maize cultivar, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes is a representative agronomic practice to enhance Cd tolerance in maize. Proper selection of cultivar and agronomic practices combined with amendments might be successful for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils with maize. However, there might be the risk of food chain contamination by maize grains obtained from the Cd-contaminated soils. Thus, maize cultivation could be an option for the management of low- and medium-grade Cd-contaminated soils if grain yield is required. On the other hand, maize can be grown on Cd-polluted soils only if biomass is required for energy production purposes. Long-term field trials are required, including risks and benefit analysis for various management strategies aiming Cd phytomanagement with maize.

  2. Assessment of potential soybean cadmium excluder cultivars at different concentrations of Cd in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yang; He, Kangxin; Sun, Ting; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-09-01

    The selection of cadmium-excluding cultivars has been used to minimize the transfer of cadmium into the human food chain. In this experiment, five Chinese soybean plants were grown in three soils with different concentrations of Cd (0.15, 0.75 and 1.12mg/kg). Variations in uptake, enrichment, and translocation of Cd among these soybean cultivars were studied. The results indicated that the concentration of Cd in seeds that grew at 1.12mg/kg Cd in soils exceeded the permitted maximum levels in soybeans. Therefore, our results indicated that even some soybean cultivars grown on soils with permitted levels of Cd might accumulate higher concentrations of Cd in seeds that are hazardous to human health. The seeds of these five cultivars were further assessed for interactions between Cd and other mineral nutrient elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn. High Cd concentration in soil was found to inhibit the uptake of Mn. Furthermore, Fe and Zn accumulations were found to be enhanced in the seeds of all of the five soybean cultivars in response to high Cd concentration. Cultivar Tiefeng 31 was found to fit the criteria for a Cd-excluding cultivar under different concentrations of Cd in soils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a potential hyperaccumulator-Lonicera japonica Thunb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhouli [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); He Xingyuan, E-mail: hexy@iae.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Chen Wei; Yuan Fenghui [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yan Kun [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Tao Dali [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2009-09-30

    Phytoremediation using hyperaccumulators is a promising technique of removing soil pollutants. In the study, growth responses, cadmium (Cd) accumulation capability and physiological mechanisms of Lonicera japonica Thunb. under Cd stress were investigated. Exposed to 5 and 10 mg L{sup -1} Cd, the plants did not show any visual symptoms, furthermore, the height, dry biomass of leaves, roots and total and the chlorophyll (CHL) content were obtained different grade increase. When the concentration of Cd was up to 50 mg L{sup -1}, the height, dry biomass of leaves and roots had not significant differences compared with the control. The indexes of tolerance (IT) were all above 0.8. The maintenance of high superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, suggesting strong internal detoxification mechanisms inside plant cells. After 21 days exposure to 25 mg L{sup -1} Cd, stem and shoot Cd concentrations reached 344.49 {+-} 0.71 and 286.12 {+-} 9.38 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW, respectively and the plant had higher bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF). According to these results, it was shown L. japonica had strong tolerance and accumulation capability to Cd, therefore it is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  4. Broader tropism and higher cytopathicity for CD4+ T cells of a syncytium-inducing compared to a non-syncytium-inducing HIV-1 isolate as a mechanism for accelerated CD4+ T cell decline in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouchier, R. A.; Meyaard, L.; Brouwer, M.; Hovenkamp, E.; Schuitemaker, H.

    1996-01-01

    The emergence of syncytium-inducing (SI) HIV-1 isolates in infected individuals precedes an accelerated CD4+ T cell decline and is associated with high virus load and rapid disease progression. The exact mechanism by which SI HIV-1 variants may cause this enhanced clinical progression is unknown.

  5. The Effect of Pollination on Cd Phytoextraction From Soil by Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wending; Lu, Guining; Wang, Rui; Guo, Chuling; Liao, Changjun; Yi, Xiaoyun; Dang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of pollination on cadmium (Cd) phytoextraction from soil by mature maize plants. The results showed that the unpollinated maize plants accumulated 50% more Cd than that of the pollinated plants, even though the dry weight of the former plants was 15% less than that of the latter plants. The Cd accumulation in root and leaf of the unpollinated maize plant was 0.47 and 0.89 times higher than that of the pollinated plant, respectively. The Cd concentration in the cob was significantly decreased because of pollination. Preventing pollination is a promising approach for enhancing the effectiveness of phytoextraction in Cd-contaminated soils by maize. This study suggested that in low Cd-contaminated soil pollination should be encouraged because accumulation of Cd in maize grains is very little and maize seeds can bring farmers economic benefits, while in high Cd-contaminated soil, inhibition of pollination can be applied to enhance phytoextraction of Cd from soil by maize plant.

  6. Hemoglobin induces monocyte recruitment and CD163-macrophage polarization in abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Amaro Villalobos, Juan Manuel; Lindholt, Jes S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased hemoglobin (Hb) accumulation was reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). CD163 is a macrophage receptor involved in tissue Hb clearance, however its role in AAA has not been reported. We investigated the role of Hb on monocyte recruitment and differentiation towards CD......163 expressing macrophages ex vivo, in vitro and in human AAA. METHODS AND RESULTS: CD163 mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in human AAA (n=7) vs. healthy wall (n=6). CD163 was predominantly found in adventitia of AAA, coinciding with areas rich in hemosiderin and adjacent...

  7. Low uptake affinity cultivars with biochar to tackle Cd-tainted rice — A field study over four rice seasons in Hunan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, De; Guo, Hu; Li, Ruiyue [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Center of Biochar and Green Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Lianqing, E-mail: lqli@njau.edu.cn [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Center of Biochar and Green Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Pan, Genxing [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Center of Biochar and Green Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Chang, Andrew [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Joseph, Stephen [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Center of Biochar and Green Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Biochar is becoming an environmentally friendly material for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and improving food safety. A field trial over four rice seasons was conducted to investigate the use of biochar and low Cd accumulating cultivars on Cd uptake in a heavy metal contaminated soil. Wheat straw derived biochar was applied at 0, 20 and 40 t ha{sup −1}. Two rice cultivars with differing Cd accumulation abilities were selected in each season. The results showed that both biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars significantly reduced rice grain Cd accumulation. Biochar had no significant effect the first season but thereafter consistently reduced rice grain Cd by a maximum of 61, 86 and 57% over the next three seasons. Zn accumulation in the rice grains was not decreased by biochar application, although available soil Zn was sharply reduced (35–91%). Indica conventional rice cultivars had much lower Cd, but higher Zn and lower Cd/Zn ratios in the grain than indica hybrid cultivars. Biochar was more effective for mitigating grain Cd accumulation in low Cd affinity cultivars than in high affinity cultivars. Soil pH was sustainably increased (up to nearly 1 unit) while available Cd significantly decreased by a maximum of 85% after biochar addition. The translocation of Cd from rice roots to shoots was reduced from 20 to 80% by biochar. Low uptake affinity cultivars combined with biochar reduced late rice grain Cd concentration and Cd/Zn ratios by 69–80% and 72–80%, respectively. It indicated that the management of combining biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars should be an efficient way to remediate Cd contaminated rice paddies and reduce health risk associated with consuming rice from these soils. - Highlights: • Biochar sustainably reduced soil Cd availability and Cd translocation in rice plant. • Indica conventional cultivars had lower Cd but higher Zn in grains than hybrid ones. • Biochar significantly reduced grain Cd and Cd/Zn ratio

  8. Low uptake affinity cultivars with biochar to tackle Cd-tainted rice — A field study over four rice seasons in Hunan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, De; Guo, Hu; Li, Ruiyue; Li, Lianqing; Pan, Genxing; Chang, Andrew; Joseph, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is becoming an environmentally friendly material for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and improving food safety. A field trial over four rice seasons was conducted to investigate the use of biochar and low Cd accumulating cultivars on Cd uptake in a heavy metal contaminated soil. Wheat straw derived biochar was applied at 0, 20 and 40 t ha"−"1. Two rice cultivars with differing Cd accumulation abilities were selected in each season. The results showed that both biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars significantly reduced rice grain Cd accumulation. Biochar had no significant effect the first season but thereafter consistently reduced rice grain Cd by a maximum of 61, 86 and 57% over the next three seasons. Zn accumulation in the rice grains was not decreased by biochar application, although available soil Zn was sharply reduced (35–91%). Indica conventional rice cultivars had much lower Cd, but higher Zn and lower Cd/Zn ratios in the grain than indica hybrid cultivars. Biochar was more effective for mitigating grain Cd accumulation in low Cd affinity cultivars than in high affinity cultivars. Soil pH was sustainably increased (up to nearly 1 unit) while available Cd significantly decreased by a maximum of 85% after biochar addition. The translocation of Cd from rice roots to shoots was reduced from 20 to 80% by biochar. Low uptake affinity cultivars combined with biochar reduced late rice grain Cd concentration and Cd/Zn ratios by 69–80% and 72–80%, respectively. It indicated that the management of combining biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars should be an efficient way to remediate Cd contaminated rice paddies and reduce health risk associated with consuming rice from these soils. - Highlights: • Biochar sustainably reduced soil Cd availability and Cd translocation in rice plant. • Indica conventional cultivars had lower Cd but higher Zn in grains than hybrid ones. • Biochar significantly reduced grain Cd and Cd/Zn ratio, though

  9. Cadmium stress in wheat seedlings: growth, cadmium accumulation and photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, Dunwei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    parameters were generally depressed by Cd stress, especially under the high Cd concentrations. Cd concentration and accumulation in both shoots and roots increased with increasing external Cd concentrations. Relationships between corrected parameters of growth, photosynthesis and fluorescence and corrected......Seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Jing 411, Jinmai 30 and Yangmai 10 were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 μM of CdCl2 in a solution culture experiment. The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on wheat growth, leaf photon energy conversion, gas exchange, and Cd accumulation in wheat...

  10. Study on transportation and accumulation mechanism of cadmium in metal-hyperaccumulating fern, Athyrium yokoscense, by synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taoka, Hiroki; Nakai, Izumi; Hokura, Akiko; Goto, Fumiyuki; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Abe, Tomoko; Terada, Yasuko

    2012-01-01

    High energy synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (HE-SR-μ-XRF) analysis and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis were applied to reveal accumulation mechanism of Cd in a generated callus of Cd hyperaccumulator fern Athyrium yokoscense. The effects of plant age on the distributions and the chemical forms of Cd were examined using the plant grown in the 1/2 M Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 200 μM Cd. The callus grew vigorously with periodical medium change. The μ-XRF imaging of the mature and young root showed that Cd was located around the cell wall of the epidermis, cortex, endodermis and vascular bundles. It is estimated that Cd absorbed from the root was transported to the shoots via the apoplast. On the other hand, Cd was accumulated in the cell wall of the epidermis, cortex and vascular bundles in the stem. Furthermore, the concentration of Cd in the vascular bundles of the mature stem was higher than that of the young stem. On the other hand, Cd located in whole area in the leaf. The Cd K-edge XAFS analysis revealed that the majority of Cd in the roots of both mature and immature stages of A. yokoscense is bounded to the oxygen ligands. In contrast, it is found that Cd was bound to sulfur ligands as well as to oxygen ligands in the shoots. (author)

  11. Fibres from flax overproducing β-1,3-glucanase show increased accumulation of pectin and phenolics and thus higher antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, in order to improve the resistance of flax plants to pathogen infection, transgenic flax that overproduces β-1,3-glucanase was created. β-1,3-glucanase is a PR protein that hydrolyses the β-glucans, which are a major component of the cell wall in many groups of fungi. For this study, we used fourth-generation field-cultivated plants of the Fusarium -resistant transgenic line B14 to evaluate how overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene influences the quantity, quality and composition of flax fibres, which are the main product obtained from flax straw. Results Overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase did not affect the quantity of the fibre obtained from the flax straw and did not significantly alter the essential mechanical characteristics of the retted fibres. However, changes in the contents of the major components of the cell wall (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin) were revealed. Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene resulted in higher cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin contents and a lower lignin content in the fibres. Increases in the uronic acid content in particular fractions (with the exception of the 1 M KOH-soluble fraction of hemicelluloses) and changes in the sugar composition of the cell wall were detected in the fibres of the transgenic flax when compared to the contents for the control plants. The callose content was lower in the fibres of the transgenic flax. Additionally, the analysis of phenolic compound contents in five fractions of the cell wall revealed important changes, which were reflected in the antioxidant potential of these fractions. Conclusion Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene has a significant influence on the biochemical composition of flax fibres. The constitutive overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase causes a decrease in the callose content, and the resulting excess glucose serves as a substrate for the production of other polysaccharides. The monosaccharide excess redirects the phenolic

  12. Co-contamination of Cu and Cd in paddy fields: Using periphyton to entrap heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jiali [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); College of Resource and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tang, Cilai [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Hydraulic & Environmental Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Wang, Fengwu [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); School of Civil Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, 808 Shuang Gang East Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330013 (China); Wu, Yonghong, E-mail: yhwu@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Periphyton was capable of simultaneously entrapping Cu and Cd from paddy fields. • Cu and Cd bioavailability decreased with time after exposure to periphyton. • Periodic adsorption–desorption was the main mechanism used to remove Cd and Cu. • Periphyton was able to adapt to steady accumulation of Cu and Cd. • The inclusion of periphyton will help entrap heavy metals in paddy fields. - Abstract: The ubiquitous native periphyton was used to entrap Cu and Cd from paddy fields. Results showed that Cu- and Cd-hydrate species such as CuOH{sup +}, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}{sup 2+}, CdOH{sup +}, and Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2+} decreased with time in the presence of periphyton. When the initial concentrations of Cu and Cd were 10 mg/L, the heavy metal content in the periphyton fluctuated from 145.20 mg/kg to 342.42 mg/kg for Cu and from 101.75 mg/kg to 236.29 mg/kg for Cd after 2 h exposure. The concentration of Cd in periphytic cells varied from 42.93 mg/kg to 174 mg/kg after 2 h. The dominant periphyton microorganism species shifted from photoautotrophs to heterotrophs during the exposure of periphyton to Cu and Cd co-contamination. Although Cu and Cd could inhibit periphyton photosynthesis and carbon utilization, the periphyton was able to adapt to the test conditions. Cu and Cd accumulation in rice markedly decreased in the presence of periphyton while the number of rice seeds germinating was higher in the periphyton treatments. These results suggest that the inclusion of native periphyton in paddy fields provides a promising buffer to minimize the effects of Cu and Cd pollution on rice growth and food safety.

  13. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shujie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Huixin; Li Xiuqiang [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} (CC), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  14. Trace element accumulation and distribution in sunflower plants at the stages of flower bud and maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna De Maria

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the accumulation and distribution of cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn and copper (Cu in different portions of plants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Oleko grown in soil with contaminants (5, 300, 400 mg kg–1 of Cd, Zn and Cu, respectively and without (untreated soil as a control from the emergence of cotyledon leaves until to two phenological stages: flower bud (R-1 and maturity (R- 9. Sunflower accumulated considerable amounts of heavy metals in both phenological stages showing slight reductions of dry matter production. At R-1 stage, Cd, Zn and Cu were accumulated mainly in the roots with concentrations respectively up to 5.4, 233 and 160 mg kg–1 of dry matter with a low translocation from roots to the aerial part. Yet at the R-1 stage, the bioconcentration factor (BCF of Cd showed a significantly higher value in the Cd-Zn-Cu treatment (0.27 with respect to the untreated control (0.02, vice versa was observed for Cu, whereas no significant difference between treatments was observed for Zn (0.12 on average. However among metals, Cd showed the highest value of BCF. Referring only to the epigeous portion, differences in the accumulation and distribution of the three metals in the treated plants were found in both phenological stages; indeed passing from flower bud to the maturity stage, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations increased in the stems and leaves, particularly in the old ones, whereas decreased in the heads. Metal accumulation in the achenes was very low and never exceed the toxicity threshold value considered for livestock. The high storage of heavy metals in roots and the probable re-translocation of the three metals along the plant during the growing cycle could be considered as a strategy of sunflower to preserve young metabolically-active leaves and reproductive organs from toxic metal concentrations.

  15. [Accumulation Characteristics and Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil-Crop System Affected by Wastewater Irrigation Around a Chemical Factory in Shenmu County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan-bing; Chu, Wan-lin; Pu, Jie; Liu, Meng-yun; Chang, Qing-rui

    2015-04-01

    Soil heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd, are regarded as "chemical time bombs" because of their propensity for accumulation in the soil and uptake by crops. This ultimately causes human toxicity in both the short and long-term, making farmland ecosystems dangerous to health. In this paper, accumulation and spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soil-crop system affected by wastewater irrigation around a chemical factor in northern Shaanxi province were analyzed. Results showed that wastewater irrigation around the chemical factory induced significant accumulation in soils compared with control areas. The average concentrations of available Cu and total Cu were 4.32 mg x kg(-1) and 38.4 mg x kg(-1), which were twice and 1.35 times higher than those of the control area, respectively. Soil Zn and Pb were slightly accumulated. Whereas soil Cd was significantly accumulated and was higher than the critical level of soil environmental quality (II), the available and total Cd concentrations were 0.248 mg x kg(-1) and 1.21 mg x kg(-1), which were 10 and 6.1 times higher than those of the control areas. No significant correlations were found between available and total heavy metals except between available Cd and total Cd. All the heavy metals were mainly accumulated in the top layer (0-10 cm). Spatially, soils and plants high in heavy metal concentration were distributed within the radius of about 100 m from the waste water outlet for Cu, Zn and Cd and about 200 m for Pb, and decreased exponentially with the distance from the factory. Affected by wastewater irrigation, contents of Cu, Pb and Cd in maize were 4.74, 0.129 and 0.036 mg x kg(-1) which were slightly higher than those in the control area. The content of Zn was similar to that in the control area. Affected by the vehicle exhaust, the over standard rate of Pb was 5.7% in maize. All the heavy metals did not show significant correlation between soil and crop, except Cd. The square correlation coefficients were 0

  16. Transporters for Antiretroviral Drugs in Colorectal CD4+ T Cells and Circulating α4β7 Integrin CD4+ T Cells: Implications for HIV Microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Murray, Graeme I; Duncan, Linda; Yuecel, Raif; Shattock, Robin; Kelly, Charles; Iannelli, Francesco; Pozzi, Gianni; El-Omar, Emad M; Hold, Georgina L; Hijazi, Karolin

    2016-09-06

    CD4+ T lymphocytes in the colorectal mucosa are key in HIV-1 transmission and dissemination. As such they are also the primary target for antiretroviral (ARV)-based rectal microbicides for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Drug transporters expressed in mucosal CD4+ T cells determine ARV distribution across the cell membrane and, most likely, efficacy of microbicides. We describe transporters for antiretroviral drugs in colorectal mucosal CD4+ T lymphocytes and compare gene expression with circulating α4β7+CD4+ T cells, which traffic to the intestine and have been shown to be preferentially infected by HIV-1. Purified total CD4+ T cells were obtained from colorectal tissue and blood samples by magnetic separation. CD4+ T cells expressing α4β7 integrin were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers. Expressions of 15 efflux and uptake drug transporter genes were quantified using Taqman qPCR assays. Expression of efflux transporters MRP3, MRP5, and BCRP and uptake transporter CNT2 were significantly higher in colorectal CD4+ T cells compared to circulating CD4+ T cells (p = 0.01-0.03). Conversely, circulating α4β7+CD4+ T cells demonstrated significantly higher expression of OATPD compared to colorectal CD4+ T cells (p = 0.001). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of drug transporter gene expression in colorectal CD4+ and peripheral α4β7+CD4+ T cells. The qualitative and quantitative differences in drug transporter gene expression profiles between α4β7+CD4+ T cells and total mucosal CD4+ T cells may have significant implications for the efficacy of rectally delivered ARV-microbicides. Most notably, we have identified efflux drug transporters that could be targeted by selective inhibitors or beneficial drug-drug interactions to enhance intracellular accumulation of antiretroviral drugs.

  17. The preferential accumulation of cadmium in the head portion of the freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Chen, Hon-Cheng; Li, Mei-Hui

    2011-12-01

    Free-living freshwater planarians are considered to have the potential for development as an experimental model for toxicological studies on xenobiotics, including metals. However, little was known about the distribution patterns of metals in the body of treated planarians. This study was conducted to determine the tissue distribution patterns of cadmium (Cd) in different body portions of the treated planarian, Dugesia japonica. Results showed that Cd accumulated in the head of planarians at a significantly higher concentration than in the tail. After examining the level of metallothionein (MT), we suggested that the tissue distribution pattern of Cd might be related to MT induction patterns. In contrast, in planarians treated with copper (Cu), neither the tissue accumulation of Cu nor the multiples of induction of MTs significantly differed between different portions. Furthermore, a higher Cd accumulation rate in the head of planarians caused more-severe oxidative stress to appear in this portion and also a higher susceptibility to a lethal concentration of Cd. Finally, both in vitro and in vivo acetylcholinesterase activities in both body portions of planarians were inhibited by Cd. The present study provides the first report that different metals are distributed in various body portions with different patterns in the planarian.

  18. Role of LAP+CD4+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wu; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jia-Hao; Wang, Shi-Jun; Liao, Cun; Cai, Bin; Chen, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Yun; Cao, Yun-Fei; Gao, Feng

    2017-01-21

    To investigate the abundance and potential functions of LAP + CD4 + T cells in colorectal cancer (CRC). Proportions of LAP + CD4 + T cells were examined in peripheral blood and tumor/paratumor tissues of CRC patients and healthy controls using flow cytometry. Expression of phenotypic markers such as forkhead box (Fox)p3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4, chemokine CC receptor (CCR)4 and CCR5 was measured using flow cytometry. LAP - CD4 + and LAP + CD4 + T cells were isolated using a magnetic cell-sorting system and cell purity was analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The proportion of LAP + CD4 + T cells was significantly higher in peripheral blood from patients (9.44% ± 3.18%) than healthy controls (1.49% ± 1.00%, P CD4 + T cells was significantly higher in tumor tissues (11.76% ± 3.74%) compared with paratumor tissues (3.87% ± 1.64%, P CD4 + T cells and TNM stage ( P cell sorting gave an overall enrichment of LAP + CD4 + T cells (95.02% ± 2.87%), which was similar for LAP - CD4 + T cells (94.75% ± 2.76%). In contrast to LAP - CD4 + T cells, LAP + CD4 + T cells showed lower Foxp3 expression but significantly higher levels of CTLA-4, CCR4 and CCR5 ( P CD4 + T cells expressed significantly larger amounts of IL-10 and TGF-β but lower levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17 and interferon-γ, compared with LAP - CD4 + T cells. LAP + CD4 + T cells accumulated in the tumor microenvironment of CRC patients and were involved in immune evasion mediated by IL-10 and TGF-β.

  19. In ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies depletes CD4+CD25+ T cells in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    The CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have T regulatory cell properties in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies (0.5 mg/egg) on CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion and on amounts of interleukin-2 mRNA and interferon-γ mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells posthatch. Anti-chicken CD25 or PBS (control) was injected into 16-d-old embryos. Chicks hatched from eggs injected with anti-chicken CD25 antibodies had a lower CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood until 25 d posthatch. The anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection nearly depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the blood until 16 d posthatch. At 30 d posthatch, the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the anti-CD25-antibody-injected group was comparable with the percentage in the control group. At 16 d posthatch, the anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils. Chickens hatched from anti-CD25-antibody-injected eggs had approximately 25% of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the cecal tonsils and thymus compared with those in the cecal tonsils and thymus of the control group. The CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of chicks hatched from anti-chicken-CD25-injected eggs had higher amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 mRNA than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the control group. It could be concluded that injecting anti-chicken CD25 antibodies in ovo at 16 d of incubation nearly depleted the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells until 25 d posthatch.

  20. Assessment of soil contamination by potentially toxic trace elements (PTSD) (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) in a lower plain of the Hron River according to Law no. 219/2008 Coll., by geo-accumulation index, anthropogenic factor and Tomlinson index; Zhodnotenie kontaminacie pod potencialne toxickymi stopovymi prvkami (PTSP) (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) v dolnej casti nivy Hrona podla zakona c. 219/2008 Z.z., indexu geoakumulacie, antropogenneho faktora a Tomlinsonovho indexu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlodak, M [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Ustav laboratorneho vyskumu geomaterialov, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Soil contamination by different PTSD may have different geogenic and anthropogenic origin and occurs in all countries of the world. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the soils contamination of a lower plain of the Hron River. This paper used the results of the thesis Soil contamination of the Hron River floodplain by trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) [1]. Soil contamination was evaluated by: Act. 219/2008 Coll. on the protection and use of agricultural land, by anthropogenic factor (AF), geo-accumulation index (IgeoE) and Tomlinson index - the index of the pollution load (PLI). (author)

  1. The enhancement by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of the Cd remediation ability and bioenergy quality-related factors of five switchgrass cultivars in Cd-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the growth, P and Cd concentrations and bioenergy quality-related factors of five cultivars of switchgrass, including three lowland cultivars (Alamo (Ala, Kanlow (Kan, Performer (Per and two highland cultivars (Blackwell (Bw, Summer (Sum, with 0, 1 and 10 mg/kg Cd addition levels. The results showed that AMF inoculation notably increased the biomass and P concentrations of all the cultivars. The Cd concentrations in the roots were higher than those in the shoots of all cultivars irrespective of inoculation, but the AMF had different effects on Cd accumulation in highland and lowland cultivars. AMF inoculation decreased the shoot and root concentrations in Ala and Kan, increased the shoot and root concentrations of Cd in Bw and Sum, and increased shoot Cd concentrations and decreased root Cd concentrations in Per. The highest Cd concentrations were detected in the roots of Bw and in the shoots of Sum with AMF symbiosis. Bw contained the highest total extracted Cd which was primarily in the roots. Ala had the second highest extracted Cd in the shoots, reaching 32% with 1 mg/kg of added Cd, whereas Sum had the lowest extracted Cd. AMF symbiosis had varied effects on bioenergy quality-related factors: for example, AMF decreased the ash lignin content in Ala and the C/N in Sum, increased the nitrogen, gross calorie values, and maintained the hemicellulose and cellulose contents in all cultivars with all tested concentrations of Cd. A principal component analysis (PCA showed that AMF inoculation could enhance, weaken or transform (positive-negative, PC1-PC2 the correlations of these factors with the principle components under Cd stress. Therefore, AMF symbiosis enhanced the growth of different cultivars of switchgrass, increased/decreased Cd accumulation, promoted Cd extraction, and regulated the bioenergy quality-related factors in Cd

  2. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation of Elsholtzia argyi origining from a zinc/lead mining site - a hydroponics experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siliang; Wang, Fengping; Ru, Mei; Ni, Wuzhong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a hydroponics experiment was conducted to investigate the characteristics of Cd tolerance and accumulation of Elsholtzia argyi natively growing on the soil with high levels of heavy metals in a Zn/Pb mining site. Seedlings of E. argyi grown for 4 weeks and then were treated with 0(CK), 5,10,15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50,100 umM Cd for 21 days. Each treatment had three replications. No visual toxic symptoms on shoots of E. argyi were observed at Cd level < or = 50 muM. The results indicated that the dry biomass of each tissue and the whole plants of the treatments with < or =40 umM cadmium were similar to that of the control, implying that E. argyi was a cadmium tolerant plant. The results also showed that the shoot Cd concentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the increase in the Cd level in nutrient solution. The shoot Cd concentration of the treatment with 40 umM Cd was as high as 237.9 mg kg(-1), which was higher than 100 mg kg(-1), normally used as the threshold concentration for identifying the Cd hyperaccumulating plant. It could be concluded that E. argyi was a Cd tolerant and accumulating plant species.

  3. Investigation of Cd Uptake and Transfer in Different Parts of Wheat, Spinach, Cucumber and Carrot Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Yargholi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution due to the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their subsequent transfer to crops is a global concern that arises from improper application of industrial wastewaters. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of soil Cd on its accumulation rate in the various organs of four common crops in Iran (namely, wheat, spinach, cucumber, and carrot. The experiment was performed in a factorial design with random blocks including 3 treatments with 0 (control, 50, and 100 mg/kg.soil in 4 replicates. Soil was collected from the farm belonging to the Research Institute for Plant and Seed Breeding (Karaj and filtered twice using 2-mm sieves before Cadmium Nitrate (Cd(NO32 was added and completely mixed. Crops were planted in plastic pots 40 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. The water demand was determined using the Jenman Mantite method. At the end of the growing season, samples were taken from various organs of the crops and their Cd concentrations were measured. The results revealed a direct relationship between Cd accumulation and Cd concentration in the root region. All the treatments other than the control exhibited Cd concentrations higher than the standard limits for human consumption. Cadmium accumulation in the different organs of the crops exhibited the following orders: Root: Cucumber

  4. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Euan, E-mail: euan.smith@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan [Veterinary Services Division, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Gilles Plains, SA 5086 (Australia); Kempson, Ivan M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 {+-} 15 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations detected in control pregnant mice (<1 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  5. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  6. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  7. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Crayfish and Fish from Selected Czech Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kuklina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the accumulation of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc in crayfish and fish organ tissues, specimens from three drinking water reservoirs (Boskovice, Landštejn, and Nová Říše and one contaminated site (Darkovské moře in the Czech Republic were examined. Crayfish hepatopancreas was confirmed to be the primary accumulating site for the majority of metals (Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd > Cr, while Hg and Cr were concentrated in abdominal muscle, and Al and Pb were concentrated in gill. Metals found in Nová Říše specimens included Cu > Zn > Ni and those found in Boskovice included Zn > Hg > Cr. Cd concentrations were observed only in Landštejn specimens, while contaminated Darkovské moře specimens showed the highest levels of accumulation (Cu > Al > Zn > Pb. The majority of evaluated metals were found in higher concentrations in crayfish: Cu > Al > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb, with Hg being the only metal accumulating higher in fish. Due to accumulation similarities of Al in crayfish and fish gill, differences of Hg in muscle, and features noted for the remaining metals in examined tissues, biomonitoring should incorporate both crayfish and fish to produce more relevant water quality surveys.

  8. Prosopis juliflora--a green solution to decontaminate heavy metal (Cu and Cd) contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P; Prince, W S P M; Sivakumar, S; Subbhuraam, C V

    2005-09-01

    Soil and plant samples (root and shoot) of Prosopis juliflora were collected in the vicinity of metal based foundry units in Coimbatore and assessed for their heavy metal content (Cu and Cd) to ascertain the use of P. juliflora as a green solution to decontaminate soils contaminated with Cu and Cd. The results showed that Cu and Cd content was much higher in plant components compared to their extractable level in the soil. Furthermore, there exist a strong correlation between the distance of the sources of industrial units and accumulation of heavy metals in plants. Accumulation of Cd in roots is comparatively higher than that of shoots. However, in case of Cu no such clear trend is seen. Considering the accumulation efficiency and tolerance of P. juliflora to Cd and Cu, this plant can be explored further for the decontamination of metal polluted soils. On the other hand, in view of heavy metal accumulate the practice of providing foliage and pods as fodder for live stock should be avoided.

  9. Free-ranging European bisons accumulate more cadmium in the liver and kidneys than domestic cattle in north-eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlostowski, Tadeusz; Bonda, Elzbieta; Krasowska, Alicja

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that free-ranging big game animals accumulate several-fold more cadmium (Cd) in the liver and kidneys than domestic animals. To examine possible reasons for this difference, in the present work we determined the concentrations of Cd in the liver and kidney cortex of European bisons (n = 23) from Bialowieza Forest (north-eastern Poland) and domestic cattle (n = 15) from the same region; in addition, analyses of Cd in the grasses and soil as well as of soil pH were carried out. The accumulation of Cd in liver and kidney cortex of the female bisons correlated significantly with the age up to 7 years, but stabilized thereafter. The 7-12-year-old bisons had 2.14- and 2.25-fold higher concentrations of Cd in the liver and kidney cortex, respectively, than the age-matched domestic cattle. Notably, the Cd levels in the liver and kidneys of the 8-12-year-old cattle were comparable to those found in the 2-year-old and 4-6-year-old bisons, respectively. The content of Cd in the grasses from Bialowieza Forest appeared to be 2.1-fold higher than that in the plants from the pastures. Similarly, the concentration of water-extractable Cd in the soil was 2.7-fold greater in Bialowieza Forest than in the pastures, despite the fact that nitric acid-extractable Cd (total Cd) was similar in the soils from the two sites. The concentration of water-extractable Cd in the soil as well as the content of Cd in the grasses inversely correlated with soil pH, which appeared to be significantly lower in Bialowieza Forest. These data indicate that soil pH is probably responsible for the higher concentrations of Cd in the feed and tissues of bisons as compared with those of domestic cattle

  10. Accumulation of uranium in plant roots absorbed from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohi, Terumi; Haga, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Satoru; Tagai, Tokuhei

    2007-01-01

    In order to study accumulation mechanisms of uranium (U) in terrestrial plants, uptake experiments for U have been carried out by using Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). This plant is edible and known as a heavy metal accumulator, especially for cadmium (Cd). About 30 rootsstocks of Indian mustard grown hydroponically in laboratory dishes were kept in uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) nitrate solutions (initially 0.5 mmol/l) at 25degC for 24, 48 and 72 hours (h). The average U concentrations in leaves increased until 48 h up to about 0.6 mg/g and then decreased slightly. Those in roots showed similar trends, but with much higher maximum U concentrations of about 30 mg/g. Backscattered electron images under SEM of the roots showed that U was accumulated on the cell edges. EPMA elemental mapping indicated that phosphorus (P) distribution had a very strong correlation with that of U. The distribution of sulfur (S) appeared to be somewhat different form these U and P distributions. These results suggest that U can be absorbed into plant roots as uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) and might be fixed at the phospholipid rich cell membranes. This U accumulation mechanism appeared to be different from that for Cd which has a close association with S. (author)

  11. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations

  12. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  13. Assessment of cadmium accumulation, toxicity, and tolerance in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae plants--implications for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Umar, Shahid; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    This study, based on a greenhouse pot culture experiment conducted with 15-day-old rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. cv. Pusa Gold; family Brassicaceae) and moong bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek cv. Pusa Ratna; family Fabaceae) plants treated with cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) soil), investigates their potential for Cd accumulation and tolerance, and dissects the underlying basic physiological/biochemical mechanisms. In both species, plant dry mass decreased, while Cd concentration of both root and shoot increased with increase in soil Cd. Roots harbored a higher amount of Cd (vs. shoot) in B. campestris, while the reverse applied to V. radiata. By comparison, root Cd concentration was higher in B. campestris than in V. radiata. The high Cd concentrations in B. campestris roots and V. radiata shoots led to significant elevation in oxidative indices, as measured in terms of electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, and lipid peroxidation. Both plants displayed differential adaptation strategies to counteract the Cd burden-caused anomalies in their roots and shoots. In B. campestris, increasing Cd burden led to a significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content but a significant increase in activities of GSH reductase (GR), GSH peroxidase (GPX), and GSH sulfotransferase (GST). However, in V. radiata, increasing Cd burden caused significant increase in GSH content and GR activity, but a significant decline in activities of GPX and GST. Cross talks on Cd burden of tissues and the adapted Cd tolerance strategies against Cd burden-accrued toxicity indicated that B. campestris and V. radiata are good Cd stabilizer and Cd extractor, respectively, wherein a fine tuning among the major components (GR, GPX, GST, GSH) of the GSH redox system helped the plants to counteract differentially the Cd load-induced anomalies in tissues. On the whole, the physiological/biochemical characterization of the B. campestris and V. radiata responses to varying Cd

  14. [The expression and significance of CD(276) and CD(133) in colorectal cancer and precancerous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G F; Huang, L N; Ren, J L; Hu, G M; Zheng, Z H; Wu, J X; Zhu, Y P; Tang, F A

    2018-06-01

    In order to study the significance of CD(276) and CD(133) in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), the expression of CD(276) and CD(133) was detected by immunohistochemistry in CRC and precancerous lesions. The results showed that the intensity of CD(276) and CD(133) in CRC samples was higher than that in adenoma group and non-adenoma group. CD(276) and CD(133) single and double positive expression were significantly correlated with CRC lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and survival. CD(276) and CD(133) are significantly correlated to the development and progression of CRC and associated with poor prognosis.

  15. Excessive sulfur supply reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jianling; Hu Zhengyi; Ziadi, Noura; Xia Xu; Wu Congyanghui

    2010-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in cadmium (Cd) and sulfur (S) accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of excessive S supply on iron plaque formation and Cd accumulation in rice plants, using two Cd levels (0, 1.5 mg kg -1 ) combined with three S concentrations (0, 60, 120 mg kg -1 ). The results showed that excessive S supply significantly decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice due to the decrease of Cd availability and the increase of glutathione in rice leaves. But excessive S supply obviously increased Cd accumulation in roots due to the decrease of iron plaque formation on the root surface of rice. Therefore, excessive S supply may result in loss of rice yield, but it could effectively reduce Cd accumulation in brown rice exposed to Cd contaminated soils. - Excessive sulfur reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice.

  16. Distribution and accumulation of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the surface sediments of El Tobari Lagoon, central-East Gulf of California: An ecosystem associated with agriculture and aquaculture activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Marini, M E; Tapia-Alcaraz, J N; Dumer-Gutiérrez, J A; García-Rico, L; García-Hernández, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide a comprehensive assessment of the concentration levels and spatial variability of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in El Tobari Lagoon in surface sediments during two seasons for several geochemical variables that could explain the observed heavy metal variability. Seventy-two surface sediments samples were collected in 12 different sites of the El Tobari Lagoon. Sediment samples were dried and subjected to acid extraction using a microwave system and five metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) were measured using atomic adsorption spectrometry. A certificate sediment material and blanks were used as quality control purposes. The enrichment factor (EF) and the index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) were calculated as index of metals contamination for the sediments, using aluminum as the conservative element. The five metals examined in sediments from El Tobari Lagoon exhibited a linear correlation with Al as result of the large specific surface areas of these sediment components and the chemical affinities between them. The metals contents in sites of the El Tobari Lagoon were variable, and Cd, Cu and Hg presented a seasonal behavior. The enrichment factor and index of geoaccumulation analysis indicated that Cd and Hg exhibited a certain extent (EF for Cd ranged from 4.10 to 10.29; EF for Hg ranged from 2.77 to 12.89) of anthropogenic pollution, while Cu showed sporadic (EF ranged from 0.43 to 2.54) anthropogenic contamination. The highest concentrations of Cd, Cu and Hg were found in the sites that regularly received discharge effluents from agriculture and aquaculture.

  17. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii, E-mail: chia28us@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Lombardi, Ana Teresa [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Graça Gama Melão, Maria da [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Parrish, Christopher C. [Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to Cd under varying N concentrations. • Growth rate and cell density decreased with increasing Cd stress and N limitation. • Dry weight, chlorophyll a, total lipid, carbohydrate and protein were accumulated. • Amino acids like proline and glutamine were accumulated under N and Cd stress. • Changes in amino acid composition are sensitive biomarkers for Cd and N stress. - Abstract: Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10{sup −7} and 2.0 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9 × 10{sup −6}, 1.1 × 10{sup −5} and 1.1 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1} N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  18. Impact of different feedstocks derived biochar amendment with cadmium low uptake affinity cultivar of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssb. chinensis L.) on phytoavoidation of Cd to reduce potential dietary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin Khan, Kiran; Ali, Barkat; Cui, Xiaoqiang; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe; Joseph Stoffella, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Biochar has become eco-friendly amendment used for phytoavoidation with low cadmium (Cd) accumulating cultivars of crops to ensure food safety in Cd contaminated soils. In this study, biochar with different waste feedstock material were evaluated for their effectiveness on essential trace metals mobility, Cd bioavailability and its accumulation in two contrasting Cd accumulating cultivars of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis L.) grown in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with plants grown in Cd contaminated soil that had been amended with biochar derived from barley straw, tomato green waste, chicken manure, duck manure and swine manure at application rate of 0%, 2.5% and 5.0% (w/w). The results showed that soil pH was significantly increased by all treatments. Biochar increased plant dry biomass, micronutrients bioavailability with significant differences in the Cd sorption capacity, with the effectiveness higher with increasing biochar application rate. However, tomato green waste (TGW) and chicken manure (CM) derived biochar were more effective than the other biochar in reducing Cd mobilization in soil by 35-54% and 26-43% and reduced its accumulation in shoots of pak choi cultivars by 34-76% and 33-72% in low Cd accumulator cultivar and 64-85% and 55-80% in high Cd accumulator cultivar than the control. Overall, results indicate that TGW and CM biochar can efficiently immobilize Cd, thereby reducing bioavailability in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil to ensure food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulation of low-avidity anti-melanocortin receptor 1 (anti-MC1R) CD8+ T cells in the lesional skin of a patient with melanoma-related depigmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wankowicz-Kalinska, Anna; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Olson, Kathleen; Graham, Fiona; Edington, Howard; Kirkwood, John M.; Martinek, Stephanie; Das, Pranab K.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous or therapy-induced depigmentation in patients with melanoma has long been considered a favourable prognostic indicator. In this report, we isolated T cells infiltrating the depigmented skin of an HLA-A2+/DR4+ patient with melanoma, and detected a very high frequency of CD8+ T cells

  20. Biochemical and photochemical feedbacks of acute Cd toxicity in Juncus acutus seedlings: The role of non-functional Cd-chlorophylls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, D.; Duarte, B.; Caçador, I.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing metal pollution in salt marshes and its influence on the plants that inhabit these ecosystems, has become a major concern with serious implications on the species establishment. Juncus acutus is a highly common halophyte specie in Portuguese marshes. Seeds from his specie were exposed to a range of different Cd concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 μM) in order to evaluate the effects of acute Cd stress on seed germination and growth as well as on seedling pigment composition, photosynthetic apparatus and oxidative stress biomarkers. Seedling length was higher than in control in every Cd treatment, however biomass showed a decrease. It was also observed that increasing Cd treatments, lead to a proportional increase in the Cd tissue concentration. Also the Cd-substituted chlorophylls showed an increase with increasing Cd doses that were applied. This substitution results in a non-functional chlorophyll molecule, highly unstable under moderate light intensities which inevitably reduces the efficiency of the LHC II. As consequence, there was a decrease in the use-efficiency of the harvested energy, leading to a decay in the photosynthetic capacity and energy accumulation, which was dissipated as heat. As for the antioxidant enzymes, SOD and APX presented higher activity, responding to increasing cadmium concentrations. Thus, becomes evident that Cd affects negatively, both biochemically and photochemically, the establishment by seed process of J. acutus highlighting the potential of the use of this specie seed as potential sentinel and ecotoxicity test in extreme conditions.

  1. Cadmium accumulation characteristics of low-cadmium rice (Oryza sativa L.) line and F1 hybrids grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Yu, Haiying; Li, Tingxuan; Chen, Guangdeng; Huang, Fu

    2017-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution has threatened severely to food safety and human health. A pot experiment and a field experiment were conducted to investigate the difference of Cd accumulation between rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines and F 1 hybrids in Cd-contaminated soils. The adverse effect on biomass of rice lines was greater than that of F 1 hybrids under Cd treatments in the pot experiment. The variations of Cd concentration among rice cultivars in different organs were smaller in stem and leaf, but larger in root and ear. Average proportion of Cd in root of F 1 hybrids was 1.39, 1.39, and 1.16 times higher than those of rice lines at the treatment of 1, 2, and 4 mg Cd kg -1 soil, respectively. Cd concentrations in ear of F 1 hybrids were significantly lower than rice lines with the reduction from 29.24 to 50.59%. Cd concentrations in brown rice of all F 1 hybrids were less than 0.2 mg kg -1 at 1 mg Cd kg -1 soil, in which Lu98A/YaHui2816, 5406A/YaHui2816, and C268A/YaHui2816 could be screened out as cadmium-safe cultivars (CSCs) for being safe even at 2 mg Cd kg -1 soil. C268A/YaHui2816 showed the lowest Cd concentration in root among F 1 hybrids, while Lu98A/YaHui2816 and 5406A/YaHui2816 showed lower capability of Cd translocation from root to shoot under Cd exposure, which eventually caused the lower Cd accumulation in brown rice. The lower level of Cd translocation contributed to reducing the accumulation of Cd in brown rice had been validated by the field experiment. Thus, Lu98A/YaHui2816, 5406A/YaHui2816, and C268A/YaHui2816 could be considered as potential CSCs to cultivate in Cd-contaminated soils (<2 mg Cd kg -1 soil).

  2. Study of Te Inclusions in CdMnTe Crystals for Nuclear Detector Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babalola, O.S.; Bolotnikov, A.; Groza, M.; Hossain, A.; Egarievwe, S.; James, R.; Burger, A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration, size and spatial distribution of Te inclusions in the bulk of CdMnTe crystals mined from two batches of ingots were studied. An isolated planar layer decorated with Te inclusions was identified in CdMnTe crystals from the second ingot. The internal electric field of a CMT crystal was probed by infrared (IR) imaging employing Pockels electro-optic effect. The effect of an isolated plane of Te inclusions on the internal electric-field distribution within the CdMnTe crystal was studied. Space charge accumulation around the plane of Te inclusions was observed, which was found to be higher when the detector was reverse-biased. The effects of the plane of Te inclusions on the electric-field distribution within the CdMnTe crystal, and the quality of CdMnTe crystals for nuclear detector applications are discussed.

  3. CD49a Expression Defines Tissue-Resident CD8+ T Cells Poised for Cytotoxic Function in Human Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheuk, Stanley; Schlums, Heinrich; Sérézal, Irène Gallais

    2017-01-01

    with vitiligo, where melanocytes are eradicated locally, CD8+CD49a+ Trm cells that constitutively expressed perforin and granzyme B accumulated both in the epidermis and dermis. Conversely, CD8+CD49a– Trm cells from psoriasis lesions predominantly generated IL-17 responses that promote local inflammation...

  4. Identification of rice cultivar with exclusive characteristic to Cd using a field-polluted soil and its foreground application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jie; Wei, Shuhe; Niu, Rongcheng; Li, Yunmeng; Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Jiangong

    2013-04-01

    Using low-accumulative plant, especially excluder crop, to safely produce food is one of the very important technologies of phytoremediation, which is practical to safe production and long-term remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil. A pot experiment using field cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil (Cd concentration was 0.75 mg kg(-1)) was conducted to compare Cd accumulation differences among 39 normal rice cultivars (Japonica) in Shenyang region of China for food safety and high grain yield aim. The results showed that brown grain Cd concentration in 12 rice cultivars of a total of 39 tested cultivars was lower than 0.2 mg kg(-1) (Agricultural Trade Standard of Nonpollution Food for Rice of China, NY 5115-2008). In these 12 cultivars, Cd enrichment factors (Cd concentration ratio in shoot to that in soil) of nine cultivars were lower than 1. Likewise, Cd translocation factors (Cd concentration ratio in shoot to that in root) of eight cultivars were lower than the 0.28 average. Furthermore, grain yield per pot of seven cultivars were higher than the average 18.4 g pot(-1). Four cultivars, i.e., Shendao 5, Tianfu 1, Fuhe 90, and Yanfeng 47 showed Cd-exclusive characteristic and better foreground application.

  5. Effects of water management on arsenic and cadmium speciation and accumulation in an upland rice cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengjie; Ouyang, Younan; Wu, Longhua; Shen, Libo; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water regimes on the speciation and accumulation of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Brazilian upland rice growing in soils polluted with both As and Cd. In the pot experiment constant and intermittent flooding treatments gave 3-16 times higher As concentrations in soil solution than did aerobic conditions but Cd showed the opposite trend. Compared to arsenate, there were more marked changes in the arsenite concentrations in the soil solution as water management shifted, and therefore arsenite concentrations dominated the As speciation and bioavailability in the soil. In the field experiment As concentrations in the rice grains increased from 0.14 to 0.21 mg/kg while Cd concentrations decreased from 0.21 to 0.02 mg/kg with increasing irrigation ranging from aerobic to constantly flooding conditions. Among the various water regimes the conventional irrigation treatment produced the highest rice grain yield of 6.29 tons/ha. The As speciation analysis reveals that the accumulation of dimethylarsinic acid (from 11.3% to 61.7%) made a greater contribution to the increase in total As in brown rice in the intermittent and constant flooding treatments compared to the intermittent-aerobic treatment. Thus, water management exerted opposite effects on Cd and As speciation and bioavailability in the soil and consequently on their accumulation in the upland rice. Special care is required when irrigation regime methods are employed to mitigate the accumulation of metal(loid)s in the grain of rice grown in soils polluted with both As and Cd. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. [Changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in bone marrow of MDS and AA patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-Yu; Tian, Xu; Li, Ying; Yang, Mei-Rong; Zhang, Song; Wang, Xie-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Cheng, Nai-Yao

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in MDS and AA patients. A total of 25 cases MDS and 43 cases of AA (18 cases SAA and 25 cases of NSAA) from January 2010 to October 2013 in the Department of Hematology, affiliated hospital of Hebei United University were enrolled in this study. The complete blood count, bone marrow smears, bone marrow biopsy, karyotype analysis and bone marrow blood cell immune genotyping (mainly the proportion of CD34(+) cells, CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in nucleated cells) were carried out for all patients; the changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in patients with MDS and AA (SAA NSAA) were compared; the differences of white blood cell count, platelet count and hemoglobin concentration in patients with count of CD71(+)CD45(-) ≥ 15% or MDS group was higher than that in AA (NSAA and SAA) group (P MDS group was higher than that in SAA (P MDS group. In MDS group with CD71(+)CD45(-) ≥ 15%, the platelet count was significantly higher than that in NSAA group (P MDS and NSAA group with CD71(+)CD45(-) 0.05). It is concluded that the count of CD34(+) cells in MDS patients is significantly higher than that in AA and SAA patients. The count of CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in MDS group is significantly higher than that of SAA group. The platelet count in MDS patients with CD71(+)CD45(-) cells ≥ 15% is significantly higher than that of the NSAA group.

  7. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Excessive sulfur supply reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jian-Ling; Hu, Zheng-Yi; Ziadi, Noura; Xia, Xu; Wu, Cong-Yang-Hui

    2010-02-01

    Human activities have resulted in cadmium (Cd) and sulfur (S) accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of excessive S supply on iron plaque formation and Cd accumulation in rice plants, using two Cd levels (0, 1.5 mg kg(-1)) combined with three S concentrations (0, 60, 120 mg kg(-1)). The results showed that excessive S supply significantly decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice due to the decrease of Cd availability and the increase of glutathione in rice leaves. But excessive S supply obviously increased Cd accumulation in roots due to the decrease of iron plaque formation on the root surface of rice. Therefore, excessive S supply may result in loss of rice yield, but it could effectively reduce Cd accumulation in brown rice exposed to Cd contaminated soils. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CD sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Nándor

    2018-01-01

    In this paper I present various equatorial sundial designs that use diffraction on a CD to display time. The designs described in the paper include a transparent CD sundial equipped with a small terrestrial globe. This sundial is compact, pedagogically useful, can be used throughout the year, and provides the user with a wealth of information.

  10. An optimized multilayer structure of CdS layer for CdTe solar cells application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Junfeng; Liao Cheng; Jiang Tao; Spanheimer, C.; Haindl, G.; Fu, Ganhua; Krishnakumar, V.; Zhao Kui; Klein, A.; Jaegermann, W.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two different methods to prepare CdS films for CdTe solar cells. → A new multilayer structure of window layer for the CdTe solar cell. → Thinner CdS window layer for the solar cell than the standard CdS layer. → Higher performance of solar cells based on the new multilayer structure. - Abstract: CdS layers grown by 'dry' (close space sublimation) and 'wet' (chemical bath deposition) methods are deposited and analyzed. CdS prepared with close space sublimation (CSS) has better crystal quality, electrical and optical properties than that prepared with chemical bath deposition (CBD). The performance of CdTe solar cell based on the CSS CdS layer has higher efficiency than that based on CBD CdS layer. However, the CSS CdS suffers from the pinholes. And consequently it is necessary to prepare a 150 nm thin film for CdTe/CdS solar cell. To improve the performance of CdS/CdTe solar cells, a thin multilayer structure of CdS layer (∼80 nm) is applied, which is composed of a bottom layer (CSS CdS) and a top layer (CBD CdS). That bi-layer film can allow more photons to pass through it and significantly improve the short circuit current of the CdS/CdTe solar cells.

  11. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells accumulate and secrete interferon alpha in lymph nodes of HIV-1 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lehmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC decline during HIV-1 infection, but at the same time they express markedly higher levels of interferon alpha (IFNalpha, which is associated with HIV-1 disease progression. Here we show an accumulation of pDC in lymph nodes (LN of treatment-naïve HIV-1 patients. This phenomenon was associated with elevated expression of the LN homing marker, CCR7, on pDC in peripheral blood of HIV-1 patients, which conferred increased migratory capacity in response to CCR7 ligands in ex vivo functional assays. LN-homed pDC of HIV-1 patients presented higher CD40 and lower BDCA2 levels, but unchanged CD83 and CD86 expression. In addition, these cells expressed markedly higher amounts of IFNalpha compared to uninfected individuals, and were undergoing faster rates of cell death. These results demonstrate for the first time that in asymptomatic, untreated HIV-1 patients circulating pDC up-regulate CCR7 expression, accumulate in lymph nodes, and express high amounts of IFNalpha before undergoing cell death. Since IFNalpha inhibits cell proliferation and modulates immune responses, chronically high levels of this cytokine in LN of HIV-1 patients may impair differentiation and immune function of bystander CD4(+ T cells, thus playing into the mechanisms of AIDS immunopathogenesis.

  12. Accumulation of metal ions by pectinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, S.; Deiana, L.; Palma, A.; Premoli, A.; Senette, C.

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanisms which regulate the interactions of metal ions with partially methyl esterified linear polymers of α-1,4 linked D-galacturonic acid units (pectinates), well represented in the root inner and outer apoplasm, is of great relevance to understand the processes which control their accumulation at the soil-root interface as well as their mobilization by plant metabolites. Accumulation of a metal by pectinates can be affected by the presence of other metals so that competition or distribution could be expected depending on the similar or different affinity of the metal ions towards the binding sites, mainly represented by the carboxylate groups. In order to better understand the mechanism of accumulation in the apoplasm of several metal ions, the sorption of Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) by a Ca-polygalacturonate gel, used as model of the soil-root interface, with a degree of esterification of 18% (PGAE1) and 65% (PGAE2) was studied at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 in the presence of CaCl2 2.5 mM.. The results show that sorption increases with increasing both the initial metal concentration and pH. A similar sorption trend was evidenced for Cu(II) and Pb(II) and for Zn(II) and Cd(II), indicating that the mechanism of sorption for these two ionic couples is quite different. As an example, at pH 6.0 and an initial metal concentration equal to 2.0 mM, the amount of Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorbed was about 1.98 mg-1 of PGAE1 while that of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was about 1.2 mg-1. Cr(III) showed a rather different sorption trend and a much higher amount (2.8 mg-1of PGAE1 at pH 6.0) was recorded. The higher affinity of Cr(III) for the polysaccharidic matrix is attributable to the formation of Cr(III) polynuclear species in solution, as shown by the distribution diagrams obtained through the MEDUSA software. On the basis of these findings, the following affinity towards the PGAE1 can be assessed: Cr(III) > Cu(II) ? Pb(II) > Zn (II) ? Cd

  13. Remediation of Cd-contaminated soil around metal sulfide mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinzhe; Hu, Xuefeng; Kang, Zhanjun; Luo, Fan

    2017-04-01

    The mines of metal sulfides are widely distributed in the southwestern part of Zhejiang Province, Southeast China. The activities of mining, however, often lead to the severe pollution of heavy metals in soils, especially Cd contamination. According to our field investigations, the spatial distribution of Cd-contaminated soils is highly consistent with the presence of metal sulfide mines in the areas, further proving that the mining activities are responsible for Cd accumulation in the soils. To study the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils, a paddy field nearby large sulfide mines, with soil pH 6 and Cd more than 1.56 mg kg-1, five times higher than the national recommended threshold, was selected. Plastic boards were deeply inserted into soil to separate the field and make experimental plots, with each plot being 4 m×4 m. Six treatments, TK01˜TK06, were designed to study the effects of different experimental materials on remediating Cd-contaminated soils. The treatment of TK01 was the addition of 100 kg zeolites to the plot; TK02, 100 kg apatites; TK03, 100 kg humid manure; TK04, 50 kg zeolites + 50 kg apatites; TK05, 50 kg zeolites + 50 kg humid manure; TK06 was blank control (CK). One month after the treatments, soil samples at the plots were collected to study the possible change of chemical forms of Cd in the soils. The results indicated that these treatments reduced the content of available Cd in the soils effectively, by a decreasing sequence of TK04 (33%) > TK02 (25%) > TK01 (23%) > TK05 (22%) > TK03 (15%), on the basis of CK. Correspondingly, the treatments also reduced the content of Cd in rice grains significantly, by a similar decreasing sequence of TK04 (83%) > TK02 (77%) > TK05 (63%) > TK01 (47%) > TK03 (27%). The content of Cd in the rice grains was 0.071 mg kg-1, 0.094 mg kg-1, 0.159 mg kg-1, 0.22 mg kg-1 and 0.306 mg kg-1, respectively, compared with CK, 0.418 mg kg-1. This experiment suggested that the reduction of available Cd in the soils is

  14. Choroid plexus accumulates cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, W.; Perry, D.F.; Nelson, D.L.; Aposhian, H.V.

    1990-01-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) is the site of the formation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the major location of the blood-CSF barrier. The property of CP in sequestering heavy metals so as to prevent their entering CSF was studied in male rats and rabbits. The content of Cd, Pb and Hg in rat tissues was determined by AAS and radioactive isotopes 24 hours after a single exposure. Cd was 33 fold greater in CP than in brain cortex (BC) after 4 mg Cd/kg ip. No Cd was detected in CSF. In rats given 27 mg Pb/kg ip, Pb in CP was 57 fold greater than in BC and 12 fold greater in blood than CSF. Rats exposed to 1 mg Hg/kg ip showed a 13 fold greater Hg content in CP than in BC. Hg was 78 fold lower in CSF than in blood. Arsenic distribution in rabbits was determined 4 hours after iv injection of 1.7 mg As 5+ /kg. As in CP was 6 fold greater than in BC and in blood it was 26 fold more than in CSF. Total thiol content in BC was significantly higher than that in CP. In CP, 87% of total thiol was non-protein bound thiol. Results suggest that the CP accumulates toxic metals such as Cd, Pb, Hg and As and acts as a filter to limit these metals passing through the blood-CSF barrier. CdCl 2 , Pb acetate, HgCl 2 or Na arsenate was used for injection

  15. A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muse, J.O.; Carducci, C.N.; Stripeikis, J.D.; Tudino, M.B.; Fernandez, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution

  16. Phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soil by carambola (Averrhoa carambola) in field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Dai, Z Y; Zhu, R; Shu, W S

    2009-08-01

    Use of metal-accumulating woody species to extract metals from heavy metal contaminated soil has received more attention. While considerable studies have focused on the phytoextraction potential of willow (Salix spp.) and poplar (Populus spp.), similar information is rare for other woody species. Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) is a high-biomass tree and has been identified as a new Cd-accumulating species. The present study aimed to evaluate the Cd phytoextraction potential of carambola under field condition. After growing in a slightly Cd-contaminated site for about 170 d, the carambola stand initiated by seed-seedling with high planting density (encoded with "HD-1yr") attained a high shoot biomass yield of 18.6 t ha(-1) and extracted 213 g Cdha(-1), resulting in a 1.6-fold higher Cd removal efficiency than that of a contrasting stand established by grafted-seedling with low planting density (5.3% vs. 2%). That is, "HD-1yr" would remove 50% of the total soil Cd with 13yr, assuming that the Cd removal efficiency would not change over time. Further, one crop of "HD-1yr" significantly decreased (63-69%) the Cd uptake by subsequent vegetables. Among the four carambola stands established using grafted-seedling, the 2-yr-old stand exhibited the highest annual Cd removal efficiency (3.7%), which was yet lower than that of "HD-1yr". These results suggested that phytoextraction of Cd by carambola (especially for "HD-1yr" stand) presented a feasible option to clean up agricultural soils slightly contaminated by Cd.

  17. Electrical properties of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Chu, S.S.; Ang, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical properties of n-CdS/p-CdTe heterojunctions depend strongly on the cleanliness of the interface region. In this work, CdTe films were deposited on CdS/glass substrates by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) under various conditions. The dark current-voltage characteristics of the resulting heterojunctions were measured over a wide temperature range, and the capacitance-voltage characteristics were measured in the dark and under illumination. When the CdS surface is in situ cleaned prior to the deposition of the CdTe film, the current transport across the junction is controlled by a thermally activated process. Tunneling makes an important contribution to the interface recombination at temperatures below room temperature when the in situ cleaning of CdS is not used. The dark capacitance of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions prepared with in situ etching is essentially independent of the reverse bias due to intrinsic interface states. Under white light illumination, the 1/C 2 vs V relation is nearly linear. The CdS/CdTe heterojunctions without in situ cleaning showed different 1/C 2 vs V relations due to higher density of interface states. The in situ cleaning also has pronounced effects on the frequency dependence of dark and illuminated capacitances. Using the in situ cleaning technique, solar cells of about 1 cm 2 area have achieved an AM 1.5 (global) efficiency of about 10.5%

  18. Seasonal effects of cadmium accumulation in periphytic diatom communities of freshwater biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi Thuy Duong; Morin, Soizic; Herlory, Olivier; Feurtet-Mazel, Agnes; Coste, Michel; Boudou, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between diatom species and cadmium (Cd) accumulated in biofilms of the Riou-Mort River (SW, France) were studied in July 2004 and March 2005. Biofilms were sampled from artificial substrates immersed along a metallic pollution gradient during 20 days. Dynamics of diatom communities and cadmium accumulation were followed by collecting samples after 4, 7, 14 and 20 days of biofilm colonization. Cd accumulation in biofilms during experiment was significantly higher in Cd polluted station (Joanis) than in reference station (Firmi) for both seasons. Periphytic diatom composition varied between sites and seasons. At Firmi station, seasonal dynamics of diatom communities were stable with the dominance of Cyclotella meneghiniana and Melosira varians in July and Surirellabrebissonnii and Navicula gregaria in March. At Joanis station, diatom communities mainly responded to high levels of metal by a high proportion of small, adnate species. Positive correlations between Eolimna minima, Nitzschia palea, Encyonema minutum, Surirella angusta, and Gomphonema parvulum and cadmium accumulation were observed, indicating that these species are tolerant to high levels of cadmium. On the other hand, negative correlations of C. meneghiniana, N. gregaria, Navicula lanceolata, M. varians and Nitzschia dissipata with cadmium qualify them as sensitive diatom species. Periphytic diatom composition through the presence of specific species highlight metal tolerant indicator diatom groups which will be meaningful for biomonitoring pollution in natural aquatic systems

  19. Seasonal effects of cadmium accumulation in periphytic diatom communities of freshwater biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thi Thuy Duong [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)], E-mail: duongthuy0712@yahoo.com; Morin, Soizic [Cemagref, UR REBX, 50 avenue de Verdun, F-33612 Cestas cedex (France); Herlory, Olivier [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Feurtet-Mazel, Agnes [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)], E-mail: a.feurtet-mazel@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr; Coste, Michel [Cemagref, UR REBX, 50 avenue de Verdun, F-33612 Cestas cedex (France); Boudou, Alain [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)

    2008-10-20

    The relationships between diatom species and cadmium (Cd) accumulated in biofilms of the Riou-Mort River (SW, France) were studied in July 2004 and March 2005. Biofilms were sampled from artificial substrates immersed along a metallic pollution gradient during 20 days. Dynamics of diatom communities and cadmium accumulation were followed by collecting samples after 4, 7, 14 and 20 days of biofilm colonization. Cd accumulation in biofilms during experiment was significantly higher in Cd polluted station (Joanis) than in reference station (Firmi) for both seasons. Periphytic diatom composition varied between sites and seasons. At Firmi station, seasonal dynamics of diatom communities were stable with the dominance of Cyclotella meneghiniana and Melosira varians in July and Surirellabrebissonnii and Navicula gregaria in March. At Joanis station, diatom communities mainly responded to high levels of metal by a high proportion of small, adnate species. Positive correlations between Eolimna minima, Nitzschia palea, Encyonema minutum, Surirella angusta, and Gomphonema parvulum and cadmium accumulation were observed, indicating that these species are tolerant to high levels of cadmium. On the other hand, negative correlations of C. meneghiniana, N. gregaria, Navicula lanceolata, M. varians and Nitzschia dissipata with cadmium qualify them as sensitive diatom species. Periphytic diatom composition through the presence of specific species highlight metal tolerant indicator diatom groups which will be meaningful for biomonitoring pollution in natural aquatic systems.

  20. Enabling optical metrology on small 5×5μm2 in-cell targets to support flexible sampling and higher order overlay and CD control for advanced logic devices nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Antonio; de la Fuente, Isabel; Hsu, Zack; Tai, Alan; Chang, Hammer; McNamara, Elliott; Cramer, Hugo; Li, Daoping

    2018-03-01

    In next generation Logic devices, overlay control requirements shrink to sub 2.5nm level on-product overlay. Historically on-product overlay has been defined by the overlay capability of after-develop in-scribe targets. However, due to design and dimension, the after development metrology targets are not completely representative for the final overlay of the device. In addition, they are confined to the scribe-lane area, which limits the sampling possibilities. To address these two issues, metrology on structures matching the device structure and which can be sampled with high density across the device is required. Conventional after-etch CDSEM techniques on logic devices present difficulties in discerning the layers of interest, potential destructive charging effects and finally, they are limited by the long measurement times[1] [2] [3] . All together, limit the sampling densities and making CDSEM less attractive for control applications. Optical metrology can overcome most of these limitations. Such measurement, however, does require repetitive structures. This requirement is not fulfilled by logic devices, as the features vary in pitch and CD over the exposure field. The solution is to use small targets, with a maximum pad size of 5x5um2 , which can easily be placed in the logic cell area. These targets share the process and architecture of the device features of interest, but with a modified design that replicates as close as possible the device layout, allowing for in-device metrology for both CD and Overlay. This solution enables measuring closer to the actual product feature location and, not being limited to scribe-lanes, it opens the possibility of higher-density sampling schemes across the field. In summary, these targets become the facilitator of in-device metrology (IDM), that is, enabling the measurements both in-device Overlay and the CD parameters of interest and can deliver accurate, high-throughput, dense and after-etch measurements for Logic

  1. Modulation of CD11c+ lung dendritic cells in respect to TGF-β in experimental pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Chatterjee, Soumya; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a deadly, progressive lung disease with very few treatment options till now. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (BIPF) is a commonly used mice model in IPF research. TGF-β1 has been shown to play a key role in pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Dendritic cell (DC) acts as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune systems. The coexistence of chronic inflammation sustained by mature DCs with fibrosis suggests that inflammatory phenomenon has key importance in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we investigated the modulation of DCs phenotypic maturation, accumulation in lung tissue, and expression of other lung DC subsets in respect to TGF-β in PF. First, we established BIPF model in mice and blocked TGF-β expression by the use of inhibitor SB431542. Accumulation of lung CD11c+ DCs is significantly higher in both inflammatory and fibrotic phases of the disease but that percentages got reduced in the absence of TGF-β. TGF-β initiates up-regulation of costimulatory molecules CD86 and CD80 in the inflammatory phases of the disease but not so at fibrotic stage. Expression of lung DC subset CD11c+CD103+ is significantly increased in inflammatory phase and also in fibrotic phase of BIPF. Blocking of TGF-β causes decreased expression of CD11c+CD103+ DCs. Another important lung DC subset CD11c+CD11b+ expression is suppressed by the absence of TGF-β after bleomycin administration. CD11c+CD103+ DCs might have anti-inflammatory as well as anti-fibrotic nature in PF. All these data demonstrate differential modulation of CD11c+ lung DCs by TGF-β in experimental PF. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalloh, Mohamed Alpha; Chen Jinghong; Zhen Fanrong; Zhang Guoping

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg -1 soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH 4 + -N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH 4 + -N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO 3 - -N treatment, with urea-N and NH 4 + -N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form

  3. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloh, Mohamed Alpha; Chen, Jinghong; Zhen, Fanrong; Zhang, Guoping

    2009-03-15

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg(-1)soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH(4)(+)-N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO(3)(-)-N and NH(4)(+)-N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH(4)(+)-N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO(3)(-)-N treatment, with urea-N and NH(4)(+)-N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form.

  4. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalloh, Mohamed Alpha; Chen Jinghong; Zhen Fanrong [Department of Agronomy, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhang Guoping [Department of Agronomy, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: zhanggp@zju.edu.cn

    2009-03-15

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg{sup -1} soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N treatment, with urea-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form.

  5. Detection of atherosclerotic lesions and intimal macrophages using CD36-targeted nanovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shufang; Zhang, Jia; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul; Sennoune, Souad; Hossen, Md Nazir; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Cao, Jun; Meyerrose, Gary E; Paone, Ralph; Soontrapa, Suthipong; Fan, Zhaoyang; Wang, Shu

    2015-12-28

    Current approaches to the diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerosis cannot target lesion-determinant cells in the artery wall. Intimal macrophage infiltration promotes atherosclerotic lesion development by facilitating the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) and increasing inflammatory responses. The presence of these cells is positively associated with lesion progression, severity and destabilization. Hence, they are an important diagnostic and therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to noninvasively assess the distribution and accumulation of intimal macrophages using CD36-targeted nanovesicles. Soy phosphatidylcholine was used to synthesize liposome-like nanovesicles. 1-(Palmitoyl)-2-(5-keto-6-octene-dioyl) phosphatidylcholine was incorporated on their surface to target the CD36 receptor. All in vitro data demonstrate that these targeted nanovesicles had a high binding affinity for the oxLDL binding site of the CD36 receptor and participated in CD36-mediated recognition and uptake of nanovesicles by macrophages. Intravenous administration into LDL receptor null mice of targeted compared to non-targeted nanovesicles resulted in higher uptake in aortic lesions. The nanovesicles co-localized with macrophages and their CD36 receptors in aortic lesions. This molecular target approach may facilitate the in vivo noninvasive imaging of atherosclerotic lesions in terms of intimal macrophage accumulation and distribution and disclose lesion features related to inflammation and possibly vulnerability thereby facilitate early lesion detection and targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds to intimal macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Iqra; Afsheen, Sumera; Zia, Ahmed; Javed, Muqaddas; Saeed, Rashid; Sarwar, Muhammad Kaleem; Munir, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia), an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla), and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala), S9 (End of HalsiNala), and S1 (Start of HalsiNala), whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa) located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring.

  7. Effects of in vivo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibody on regulatory T cell depletion and CD4+CD25- T cell properties in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2012-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are defined as CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in chickens. This study examined the effects of an anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibody injection (0.5 mg/bird) on in vivo depletion of Tregs and the properties of CD4(+)CD25(-) cells in Treg-depleted birds. The CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood was lower at 8 d post injection than at 0 d. Anti-CD25-mediated CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion in blood was maximum at 12 d post injection. The anti-CD25 antibody injection depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the spleen and cecal tonsils, but not in the thymus, at 12 d post antibody injection. CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of birds injected with the anti-chicken CD25 antibody had higher proliferation and higher IL-2 and IFNγ mRNA amounts than the controls at 12 d post injection. At 20 d post injection, CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the blood, spleen and thymus were comparable to that of the 0 d post injection. It could be concluded that anti-chicken CD25 injection temporarily depleted Treg population and increased and IL-2 and IFNγ mRNA amounts in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells at 12d post injection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Monocarboxylate Transporters 1 and 4 Are Associated with CD147 in Cervical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Pinheiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the highly glycolytic metabolism of solid tumours, there is an increased acid production, however, cells are able to maintain physiological pH through plasma membrane efflux of the accumulating protons. Acid efflux through MCTs (monocarboxylate transporters constitutes one of the most important mechanisms involved in tumour intracellular pH maintenance. Still, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these proteins are not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate the association between CD147 (MCT1 and MCT4 chaperone and MCT expression in cervical cancer lesions and the clinico-pathological significance of CD147 expression, alone and in combination with MCTs. The series included 83 biopsy samples of precursor lesions and surgical specimens of 126 invasive carcinomas. Analysis of CD147 expression was performed by immunohistochemistry. CD147 expression was higher in squamous and adenocarcinoma tissues than in the non-neoplastic counterparts and, importantly, both MCT1 and MCT4 were more frequently expressed in CD147 positive cases. Additionally, co-expression of CD147 with MCT1 was associated with lymph-node and/or distant metastases in adenocarcinomas. Our results show a close association between CD147 and MCT1 and MCT4 expressions in human cervical cancer and provided evidence for a prognostic value of CD147 and MCT1 co-expression.

  9. Water Management Practices Affect Arsenic and Cadmium Accumulation in Rice Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liming; Zheng, Manman; Liu, Hongyan; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grains is a great threat to its productivity, grain quality, and thus human health. Pot and field studies were carried out to unravel the effect of different water management practices (aerobic, aerobic-flooded, and flooded) on Cd and As accumulation in rice grains of two different varieties. In pot experiment, Cd or As was also added into the soil as treatment. Pots without Cd or As addition were maintained as control. Results indicated that...

  10. Functional contribution of elevated circulating and hepatic non-classical CD14CD16 monocytes to inflammation and human liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning W Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocyte-derived macrophages critically perpetuate inflammatory responses after liver injury as a prerequisite for organ fibrosis. Experimental murine models identified an essential role for the CCR2-dependent infiltration of classical Gr1/Ly6C(+ monocytes in hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, the monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5 were recently recognized as important fibrosis modulators in mice. In humans, monocytes consist of classical CD14(+CD16(- and non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ cells. We aimed at investigating the relevance of monocyte subpopulations for human liver fibrosis, and hypothesized that 'non-classical' monocytes critically exert inflammatory as well as profibrogenic functions in patients during liver disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed circulating monocyte subsets from freshly drawn blood samples of 226 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD and 184 healthy controls by FACS analysis. Circulating monocytes were significantly expanded in CLD-patients compared to controls with a marked increase of the non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ subset that showed an activated phenotype in patients and correlated with proinflammatory cytokines and clinical progression. Correspondingly, CD14(+CD16(+ macrophages massively accumulated in fibrotic/cirrhotic livers, as evidenced by immunofluorescence and FACS. Ligands of monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR1 and CCR5 were expressed at higher levels in fibrotic and cirrhotic livers, while CCL3 and CCL4 were also systemically elevated in CLD-patients. Isolated monocyte/macrophage subpopulations were functionally characterized regarding cytokine/chemokine expression and interactions with primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSC in vitro. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes released abundant proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, CD14(+CD16(+, but not CD14(+CD16(- monocytes could directly activate collagen-producing HSC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data

  11. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in fish and accumulation patterns in food web in the upper Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yujun; Tang, Caihong; Yi, Tieci; Yang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Shanghong

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to concern the distribution of As, Cr, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in surface sediment, zoobenthos and fishes, and quantify the accumulative ecological risk and human health risk of metals in river ecological system based on the field investigation in the upper Yangtze River. The results revealed high ecological risk of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Zn and Pb in sediment. As and Cd in fish presented potential human health risk of metals by assessing integrated target hazard quotient results based on average and maximum concentrations, respectively. No detrimental health effects of heavy metals on humans were found by daily fish consumption. While, the total target hazard quotient (1.659) exceeding 1, it meant that the exposed population might experience noncarcinogenic health risks from the accumulative effect of metals. Ecological network analysis model was established to identify the transfer routes and quantify accumulative effects of metals on river ecosystem. Control analysis between compartments showed large predator fish firstly depended on the omnivorous fish. Accumulative ecological risk of metals indicated that zoobenthos had the largest metal propagation risk and compartments located at higher trophic levels were not easier affected by the external environment pollution. A potential accumulative ecological risk of heavy metal in the food web was quantified, and the noncarcinogenic health risk of fish consumption was revealed for the upper reach of the Yangtze River. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) canopy as interceptor of airborne trace elements and their accumulation in the litter and topsoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, Federica; Monaci, Fabrizio; Blanusa, Tijana; Bargagli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of urban Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) trees as an airborne metal accumulators and metals' environmental fate. Analyses confirmed Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn as a main contaminants in Siena's urban environment; only Pb concentrations decreased significantly compared to earlier surveys. Additionally, we determined chemical composition of tree leaves, litter and topsoil (underneath/outside tree crown) in urban and extra-urban oak stands. Most notably, litter in urban samples collected outside the canopy had significantly lower concentrations of organic matter and higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn than litter collected underneath the canopy. There was a greater metals' accumulation in topsoil, in samples collected under the tree canopy and especially near the trunk (‘stemflow area’). Thus, in urban ecosystems the Holm Oak stands likely increase the soil capability to bind metals. -- Highlights: ► Of the main metal contaminants only leaf Pb concentrations decreased in the period 1994–2011. ► Leaf Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher in urban than in extra urban park. ► In urban park litter, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher outside than underneath the tree crown. ► Conversely, in urban park soil, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were lower outside the crown. ► Soil therefore behaves as a sink for metal contaminants such as Cu, Pb and Cd. -- Quercus ilex leaves are efficient interceptors of airborne trace elements in urban environments and we found an increased accumulation of metals in topsoil under the tree canopy

  13. Foliar application with nano-silicon reduced cadmium accumulation in grains by inhibiting cadmium translocation in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Changbo; Zhao, Yanling; Huang, Yongchun; Liu, Zhongqi

    2018-01-01

    Nano-silicon (Si) may be more effective than regular fertilizers in protecting plants from cadmium (Cd) stress. A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of nano-Si on Cd accumulation in grains and other organs of rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv. Xiangzaoxian 45) grown in Cd-contaminated farmland. Foliar application with 5~25 mM nano-Si at anthesis stage reduced Cd concentrations in grains and rachises at maturity stage by 31.6~64.9 and 36.1~60.8%, respectively. Meanwhile, nano-Si application significantly increased concentrations of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe) in grains and rachises, but imposed little effect on concentrations of calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) in them. Uppermost nodes under panicles displayed much higher Cd concentration (4.50~5.53 mg kg -1 ) than other aerial organs. After foliar application with nano-Si, translocation factors (TFs) of Cd ions from the uppermost nodes to rachises significantly declined, but TFs of K, Mg, and Fe from the uppermost nodes to rachises increased significantly. High dose of nano-Si (25 mM) was more effective than low dose of nano-Si in reducing TFs of Cd from roots to the uppermost nodes and from the uppermost nodes to rachises. These findings indicate that nano-Si supply reduces Cd accumulation in grains by inhibiting translocation of Cd and, meanwhile, promoting translocation of K, Mg, and Fe from the uppermost nodes to rachises in rice plants.

  14. Tumor-targeted delivery of IL-2 by NKG2D leads to accumulation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the tumor loci and enhanced anti-tumor effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Heung Kang

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL-2 has been shown to promote tumor-specific T-cell proliferation and differentiation but systemic administration of IL-2 results in significant toxicity. Therefore, a strategy that can specifically deliver IL-2 to the tumor location may alleviate concerns of toxicity. Because NKG2D ligands have been shown to be highly expressed in many cancer cells but not in healthy cells, we reason that a chimeric protein consisting of NKG2D linked to IL-2 will lead to the specific targeting of IL-2 to the tumor location. Therefore, we created chimeric proteins consisting of NKG2D linked to Gaussia luciferase (GLuc; a marker protein or IL-2 to form NKG2D-Fc-GLuc and NKG2D-Fc-IL2, respectively. We demonstrated that NKG2D linked to GLuc was able to deliver GLuc to the tumor location in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that TC-1 tumor-bearing mice intramuscularly injected with DNA encoding NKG2D-Fc-IL2, followed by electroporation, exhibited an increased number of luciferase-expressing E7-specific CD8+ T cells at the tumor location. More importantly, treatment with the DNA construct encoding NKG2D-Fc-IL2 significantly enhanced the therapeutic anti-tumor effects generated by intradermal vaccination with therapeutic HPV DNA in tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, by linking NKG2D to IL2, we are able to specifically deliver IL-2 to the tumor location, enhancing antigen-specific T-cell immune response and controlling tumor growth. Our approach represents a platform technology to specifically deliver proteins of interest to tumor loci.

  15. The Role of Node Restriction on Cadmium Accumulation in the Brown Rice of 12 Chinese Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gaoxiang; Ding, Changfeng; Guo, Fuyu; Li, Xiaogang; Zhou, Zhigao; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2017-11-29

    For selection or breeding of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars with low Cd affinity, the role of node Cd restriction on Cd accumulation in brown rice was studied. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the concentration of Cd in different sections of 12 Chinese rice cultivars. The results indicated that the Cd accumulation in the brown rice was mainly dependent on the root or shoot Cd concentration. Among the cultivars with nearly equal shoot Cd concentrations, Cd accumulation in brown rice was mainly dependent on the transport of Cd in the shoot. However, the Cd transport in the shoot was significantly restricted by the nodes, especially by the first node. Furthermore, the area of the diffuse vascular bundle in the junctional region of the flag leaf and the first node was a key contributor to the variations in Cd restriction by the nodes.

  16. Specific accumulation of 20 trace elements in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Anan, Yasumi; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Okabe, Yuko; Kim, Eun-Young; Subramanian, Annamalai; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    This study is to elucidate the specific accumulation of 20 trace elements in tissues/organs of great cormorants from two different colonies (Lake Biwa and Mie) in Japan. In the body distribution of trace elements, some elements revealed tissue-specific accumulation such as most of the burden of Mo, Ag and Cd in liver, Tl and Cd in kidney, Cu, Rb and Cs in muscle, and V, Sr and Ba in bone. Gender-related variation was not observed in both populations for most of the trace elements, except for higher hepatic Sr in males from Lake Biwa. Hepatic V, muscular Hg and Tl, and Cd in liver, kidney and muscle increased with growth. Comparison of trace element levels in tissues between the two colonies showed that Cr, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba and Tl levels were higher in Lake Biwa than in Mie, whereas Zn, Co and Hg in Mie samples were greater than Lake Biwa. Variations of elemental levels in stomach contents also showed similar patterns, thus, showing that dietary sources tended to be the main factor for these regional variations. Toxic Hg and Cd concentrations in the liver of cormorants from the two colonies were lower than those from other areas, implying relatively low exposure to these metals in the present study sites. Concentrations of V, Co, Ag, Cd, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi in liver remained more or less at the same level between 1993 and 2003, while hepatic Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Ba showed apparent decrease, which might be related to the biological factors. - Dietary sources seemed to be the main reason for variable results

  17. Kinetics of cadmium accumulation and elimination in carp Cyprinus carpio tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conto Cinier, C. de; Petit-Ramel, M.; Faure, R.; Garin, D.; Bouvet, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were tested for cadmium accumulation and elimination during and after a simulated pollution exposure. Fish were distributed in two 1000-l indoor concrete aquaria supplied with a continuous flow (8 l min -1 ) of well water. The cadmium concentration was maintained at 53 μg l -1 in one aquarium and 443 μg l -1 in the other aquarium for 127 days. The exposure phase was followed by a 43-day depuration period. The cadmium accumulation in liver, kidney and muscle was measured by means of ICP-MS. The data showed that cadmium exposure produces significant cadmium uptake in tissues. Cadmium concentrations increased sharply in kidney and liver, whereas the pollutant level in muscle was only significant after 106 days. After 127 days of Cd exposure (53 μg l -1 ), the cadmium concentration in kidney was 4-fold higher than in liver and 50-fold higher than in muscle for a toxic level of 53 μg l -1 . At a Cd of 443 μg l -1 , kidney cadmium content was 2-fold higher than in liver and 100-fold higher than in muscle. In kidney and liver, the toxic concentration increased as the concentration of pollutant in water increased. During the 43 depuration days, the loss of accumulated cadmium was rapid and immediate in muscle. Conversely, no loss of cadmium was observed in kidney and liver. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Affects of mining activities on Cd pollution to the paddy soils and rice grain in Hunan province, Central South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Hu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Shu, Ying; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan

    2013-12-01

    Located in Central South China, Hunan province is rich in mineral resources. To study the influence of mining on Cd pollution to local agricultural eco-system, the paddy soils and rice grain of Y county in northern Hunan province were intensively monitored. The results were as follows: (1) Total Cd (T-Cd) content in the soils of the county ranges from 0.13 to 6.02 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.64 mg kg(-1), of which 57.5% exceed the allowable limit specified by the China Soil Environmental Quality Standards. T-Cd in the soils varies largely, with the coefficient of variation reaching 146.4%. The spatial distribution of T-Cd in the soils quite matches with that of mining and industries. The content of HCl-extractable Cd (HCl-Cd) in the soils ranges from 0.02 to 2.17 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.24 mg kg(-1). A significant positive correlation exists between T-Cd and HCl-Cd in the soils (r = 0.770, ρ soils (r = 0.091, ρ > 0.05), which suggests that the amount of Cd accumulating in the rice is more affected by its availability in the soils, rather than the total content. (4) The dietary intake of Cd via rice consumption in Y county is estimated to be 179.9 μg day(-1) person(-1) on average, which is far beyond the allowable limit specified by FAO/WHO and the target hazard quotients of Cd much higher than 1, suggesting the high risk on human health from Cd exposure.

  19. Anthropogenic impact on diffuse trace metal accumulation in river sediments from agricultural reclamation areas with geochemical and isotopic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei, E-mail: wei@itc.nl; Hao, Fanghua; Lin, Chunye

    2015-12-01

    A better understanding of anthropogenic impact can help assess the diffuse trace metal accumulation in the agricultural environment. In this study, both river sediments and background soils were collected from a case study area in Northeast China and analyzed for total concentrations of six trace metals, four major elements and three lead isotopes. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni have accumulated in the river sediments after about 40 years of agricultural development, with average concentrations 1.23–1.71 times higher than local soil background values. Among them Ni, Cr and Cu were of special concern and they may pose adverse biological effects. By calculating enrichment factor (EF), it was found that the trace metal accumulation was still mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. For Pb, geochemical and isotopic approaches gave very similar anthropogenic contributions. Principal component analysis (PCA) further suggested that the anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni inputs were mostly related to the regional atmospheric deposition of industrial emissions and gasoline combustion, which had a strong affinity for iron oxides in the sediments. Concerning Cd, however, it mainly originated from local fertilizer applications and was controlled by sediment carbonates. - Graphical abstract: The trace metal accumulation was mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition, while fertilizer application was the main anthropogenic source of Cd. - Highlights: • Trace metals have accumulated in the Naolihe sediments. • Natural weathering was still a major contributor to metal accumulation. • Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition. • Local fertilizer application was the main

  20. CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells reduce atherosclerosis in apoE(−/−) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianchang; Dimayuga, Paul C.; Zhao, Xiaoning; Yano, Juliana; Lio, Wai Man; Trinidad, Portia; Honjo, Tomoyuki; Cercek, Bojan; Shah, Prediman K.; Chyu, Kuang-Yuh, E-mail: Chyuk@cshs.org

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •The role of a sub-population of CD8{sup +} T cells with suppressor functions was investigated in atherosclerosis. •CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells from adult apoE(−/−) mice had phenotype characteristics of T suppressor cells. •These CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells reduced CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation and CD8{sup +} cytotoxic activity in vitro. •Adoptive transfer of CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells significantly reduced atherosclerosis. •CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells have a suppressive function in atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Background: It is increasingly evident that CD8{sup +} T cells are involved in atherosclerosis but the specific subtypes have yet to be defined. CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells exert suppressive effects on immune signaling and modulate experimental autoimmune disorders but their role in atherosclerosis remains to be determined. The phenotype and functional role of CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells in experimental atherosclerosis were investigated in this study. Methods and results: CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells were observed in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE(−/−) mice fed hypercholesterolemic diet. Characterization by flow cytometric analysis and functional evaluation using a CFSE-based proliferation assays revealed a suppressive phenotype and function of splenic CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells from apoE(−/−) mice. Depletion of CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} from total CD8{sup +} T cells rendered higher cytolytic activity of the remaining CD8{sup +}CD25{sup −} T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells into apoE(−/−) mice suppressed the proliferation of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and significantly reduced atherosclerosis in recipient mice. Conclusions: Our study has identified an athero-protective role for CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells in experimental atherosclerosis.

  1. Spatial patterns of heavy metal accumulation in sediments and macrophytes of Bellandur wetland, Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T V; Sudarshan, P B; Mahesh, M K; Vinay, S

    2018-01-15

    Heavy metals are one among the toxic chemicals and accumulation in sediments and plants has been posing serious health impacts. Wetlands aid as kidneys of the landscape and help in remediation through uptake of nutrients, heavy metals and other contaminants. The analyses of macrophytes and sediment samples help in evaluating pollution status in aquatic environment. In this study concentration of six heavy metals (Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn)) were assessed in sediment and dominant macrophyte samples collected from Bellandur Lake, largest Lake of Bangalore, India. Sediment samples reveal of heavy metals in the inlet regions and shore samples. The accumulation of metals in sediments were in the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd. All metals exceeded the critical limits of metals in the sediment. Concentration of different metals in the macrophyte samples ranked as: Cr > Cu > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cd. Chromium and Copper were found to be more than critical range. Typha angustata had the higher accumulation of all metals except chromium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.; Moloukhia, H.; Belacy, N.; Abd El-Rahman, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection

  3. Relationship between heavy metal accumulation and morphometric parameters in European hare (Lepus europaeus) inhabiting various types of landscapes in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdzik, Marek; Halecki, Wiktor; Kalarus, Konrad; Gąsiorek, Michał; Pająk, Marek

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of hazardous substances in the environment, studies of pollutant accumulation in wild living animals are needed. Studies dealing with heavy metal contamination in mammals usually focus on a single organ. We investigated accumulation of heavy metals as well as iron in European hare (Lepus europaeus) living in southern Poland, Małopolska Province. Hares were captured during the hunting season. We tested metal accumulation in 14 organs and tissues using 35 individuals with known body weight and sex inhabiting agricultural, industrial and other types of landscapes. To obtain deeper insight into contamination patterns, we used accumulation data from the liver since it is the most frequently investigated organ and prone to pollution accumulation. Based on the data obtained for the liver, we tested the impact of metal pollution on hare morphology, including body length and several skull cranimetric parameters. Metals content differed between organs. Moreover, individuals from industrial areas had higher Cd content in their body. We distinguished two groups of elements: the first group, Cd, Fe and Zn, revealed the highest toxic effect in the liver and kidneys; the second group, Cr, Ni, and Pb, accumulated primarily in the brain. Hares inhabiting industrial areas had higher concentration of Cd and Pb, and lower levels of Cr and Fe in their liver in comparison with those from agricultural and forest habitats. Heavy metals had an effect on body length that was negatively associated with Cr levels. Skull diastema length was associated positively with accumulation of Cd and Pb. We showed that hare organs and tissues could be used as bioindicators of environmental pollution by heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection and Significance of CD4+CD25+CD127dim Regulatory T Cells in Individuals with Severe Aplastic Anemia

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    Weiwei Qi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship between CD4+CD25+CD127dim regulatory T cells (Tregs and immune imbalance in acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA. Materials and Methods: The quantity of CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs in 44 SAA patients and 23 normal controls was measured by flow cytometry. Correlations between Tregs and T cell subsets, dendritic cell (DC subsets, granulocyte counts, and percentage of reticulocytes (RET% were analyzed. Results: The percentage of CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs of untreated patients was lower than in recovery patients and normal controls (0.83±0.44% vs. 2.91±1.24% and 2.18±0.55%, respectively, p<0.05. The percentage of CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs in CD4+ T lymphocytes of recovery patients was higher than that of untreated patients and normal controls (9.39±3.51% vs. 7.61±5.3% and 6.83±1.4%, respectively, p<0.05. The percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes in PBLs of untreated patients was lower than in recovery patients and normal controls (13.55±7.37% vs. 31.82±8.43% and 32.12±5.88%, respectively, p<0.05. T cell subset (CD4+/CD8+ ratio was 0.41±0.24 in untreated patients, which was lower than in recovery patients (1.2±0.4 and normal controls (1.11±0.23 (p<0.05. DC subset (myeloid DC/plasmacytoid DC ratio, DC1/DC2 ratio was 3.08±0.72 in untreated patients, which was higher than in recovery patients (1.61±0.49 and normal controls (1.39±0.36 (p<0.05. The percentage of CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs in PBLs was positively associated with T cell subset (r=0.955, p<0.01 and negatively associated with DC subset (r=-0.765, p<0.01. There were significant positive correlations between CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs/PBL and granulocyte counts and RET% (r=0.739 and r=0.749, respectively, p<0.01. Conclusion: The decrease of CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs in SAA patients may cause excessive functioning of T lymphocytes and thus lead to hematopoiesis failure in SAA.

  5. Genotype variations in cadmium and lead accumulations of leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and screening for pollution-safe cultivars for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jiangang; Kong, Wei; Yang, Zhongyi

    2013-06-01

    Heavy-metals in polluted soils can accumulate in plants and threaten crop safety. To evaluate the risk of heavy-metal pollution in leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two pot experiments were conducted to investigate Cd and Pb accumulation and transfer potential in 28 cultivars of lettuce and to screen for low-Cd and low-Pb accumulative cultivars. In the three treatments, 5.2-fold, 4.8-fold and 4.8-fold differences in the shoot Cd concentration were observed between the cultivars with the highest and the lowest Cd concentrations, respectively. This genotype variation was sufficiently large to identify low-Cd accumulative genotypes to reduce Cd contamination in food. Cadmium accumulation in the low-Cd accumulative genotypes was significantly positively correlated with Pb accumulation. At the cultivar level, Cd and Pb accumulation in lettuce was stable and genotype-dependent. High Pb soil levels did not affect shoot Cd accumulation in lettuce. Lettuce was concluded to be at high risk for Cd pollution and low risk for Pb pollution. Among the tested cultivars, cvs. SJGT, YLGC, N518, and KR17 had the lowest Cd and Pb accumulation abilities in shoots and are thus important parental material for breeding pollution-safe cultivars to minimize Cd and Pb accumulation.

  6. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan

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    Iqra Azam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia, an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla, and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p<0.05. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HACA was carried out to study metal accumulation level in all insects. Correlation and regression analysis confirmed HACA observations and declared concentration of heavy metals above permissible limits. Metal concentrations in insects were significantly higher near industries and nallahs in Gujrat and relatively higher concentrations of metals were found in Orthoptera than Odonata and Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala, S9 (End of HalsiNala, and S1 (Start of HalsiNala, whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring.

  7. Accumulation and distribution of iron, cadmium, lead and nickel in cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing two different chelated iron supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csog, Árpád; Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Fodor, Ferenc; Virág, István; Majdik, Cornelia; Záray, Gyula

    2011-07-01

    Cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II), and iron supplied as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations, were investigated by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with special emphasis on the determination of iron accumulation and distribution within the different plant compartments (root, stem, cotyledon and leaves). The extent of Cd, Ni and Pb accumulation and distribution were also determined. Generally, iron and heavy-metal contaminant accumulation was higher when Fe(III) citrate was used. The accumulation of nickel and lead was higher by about 20% and 100%, respectively, if the iron supply was Fe(III) citrate. The accumulation of Cd was similar. In the case of Fe(III) citrate, the total amounts of Fe taken up were similar in the control and heavy-metal-treated plants (27-31 μmol/plant). Further, the amounts of iron transported from the root towards the shoot of the control, lead- and nickel-contaminated plants were independent of the iron(III) form. Although Fe mobility could be characterized as being low, its distribution within the shoot was not significantly affected by the heavy metals investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Immune Checkpoint Function of CD85j in CD8 T Cell Differentiation and Aging

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    Claire E. Gustafson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with an increased susceptibility to infection and a failure to control latent viruses thought to be driven, at least in part, by alterations in CD8 T cell function. The aging T cell repertoire is characterized by an accumulation of effector CD8 T cells, many of which express the negative regulatory receptor CD85j. To define the biological significance of CD85j expression on CD8 T cells and to address the question whether presence of CD85j in older individuals is beneficial or detrimental for immune function, we examined the specific attributes of CD8 T cells expressing CD85j as well as the functional role of CD85j in antigen-specific CD8 T cell responses during immune aging. Here, we show that CD85j is mainly expressed by terminally differentiated effector (TEMRAs CD8 T cells, which increase with age, in cytomegalovirus (CMV infection and in males. CD85j+ CMV-specific cells demonstrate clonal expansion. However, TCR diversity is similar between CD85j+ and CD85j− compartments, suggesting that CD85j does not directly impact the repertoire of antigen-specific cells. Further phenotypic and functional analyses revealed that CD85j identifies a specific subset of CMV-responsive CD8 T cells that coexpress a marker of senescence (CD57 but retain polyfunctional cytokine production and expression of cytotoxic mediators. Blocking CD85j binding enhanced proliferation of CMV-specific CD8 T cells upon antigen stimulation but did not alter polyfunctional cytokine production. Taken together, these data demonstrate that CD85j characterizes a population of “senescent,” but not exhausted antigen-specific effector CD8 T cells and indicates that CD85j is an important checkpoint regulator controlling expansion of virus-specific T cells during aging. Inhibition of CD85j activity may be a mechanism to promote stronger CD8 T cell effector responses during immune aging.

  9. Accumulation of heavy metal in scalp hair of people exposed in Beijing sewage discharge channel sewage irrigation area in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuwei; Yu, Xiaoman; Geng, Mingshuo; Wang, Zilu; Wang, Qianqian; Zeng, Xiangfeng

    2017-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in soil, wheat, and scalp hair exposed to Beijing sewage discharge channel sewage irrigation area (BSIA) in Tianjin were studied to evaluate the influence of sewage irrigation. Results showed that the continuous application of wastewater has led to an accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, with 55.2 and 8.62% of soil samples accumulating Cd and Zn, respectively, at concentrations exceeding the permissible limits in China. Concentrations of heavy metals in wheat grain from BSIA were higher than these from the clean water irrigation area by 63.2% for Cd, 3.8% for Cu, 100% for Pb, 6.6% for Zn, and 326.7% for Cr. The heavy metal bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of wheat/soil in BSIA showed the following order: Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb > Cr. Interestingly, these accumulation of heavy metals in soil after sewage irrigation could increase the migration ability of heavy metals (particularly Zn and Cd) from soil to wheat. Mean concentrations of heavy metals in the hair of residents followed the decreasing trend of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd, which were higher than the control area by 110.0% for Cd, 20.0% for Cu, 55.9% for Zn, 36.6% for Pb, and 64.6% for Cr. Concentrations of heavy metals in male human hair in BSIA were higher than those of females. And the concentrations of heavy metals except for Pb in human hair increased with their increasing ages. The heavy metal BAF values of wheat/soil in BSIA showed the trend of Zn (98.0057) > Pb (7.0162) > Cr (5.5788) > Cu (5.4853) > Cd (3.5584); heavy metals had obvious biological amplification from wheat to human hair. These results indicated that local population health was potentially exposed to the heavy metal risk via wheat consumption.

  10. Expression of zinc and cadmium responsive genes in leaves of willow (Salix caprea L.) genotypes with different accumulation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konlechner, Cornelia; Türktaş, Mine; Langer, Ingrid; Vaculík, Marek; Wenzel, Walter W.; Puschenreiter, Markus; Hauser, Marie-Theres

    2013-01-01

    Salix caprea is well suited for phytoextraction strategies. In a previous survey we showed that genetically distinct S. caprea plants isolated from metal-polluted and unpolluted sites differed in their zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation abilities. To determine the molecular basis of this difference we examined putative homologues of genes involved in heavy metal responses and identified over 200 new candidates with a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) screen. Quantitative expression analyses of 20 genes in leaves revealed that some metallothioneins and cell wall modifying genes were induced irrespective of the genotype's origin and metal uptake capacity while a cysteine biosynthesis gene was expressed constitutively higher in the metallicolous genotype. The third and largest group of genes was only induced in the metallicolous genotype. These data demonstrate that naturally adapted woody non-model species can help to discover potential novel molecular mechanisms for metal accumulation and tolerance. -- Highlights: ► The transcriptional Zn/Cd response of the willow Salix caprea was quantified. ► Two genotypes from a highly contaminated and a control environment were compared. ► In addition to candidate genes an SSH library revealed over 200 metal induced genes. ► Constitutive upregulation and isolate-specific induction of genes were revealed. ► Willows adapt to environmental Zn/Cd contamination on the transcriptional level. -- Expression analyzes reveal different responses to Cd and Zn exposure of S. caprea genotypes with different heavy metal accumulation abilities

  11. Influence of electrical conductivity on the phytoremediation of contaminated soils to Cd 2+ and Zn 2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Results showed that high EC levels of irrigation water increased Cd accumulation and decreased Zn accumulation in the shoots. The presence of high EC levels in irrigation water negatively affected biomass production by plants. Chlorine ion (Cl- had a positive influence on Cd accumulation in the harvestable parts of the plant.

  12. Cadmium (Cd) Localization in Tissues of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and Its Phytoremediation Potential for Cd-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Fan, Lidong; Xing, Liteng; Yang, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation using economically valuable, large biomass, non-edible plants is a promising method for metal-contaminated soils. This study investigated cotton's tolerance for Cd and remediation potential through analyzing Cd bioaccumulation and localization in plant organs under different soil Cd levels. Results showed cotton presents good tolerance when soil Cd concentration ≤20.26 mg kg(-1). Cotton had good Cd accumulation ability under low soil Cd levels (soil Cd, while roots and stems were the main compartments of Cd storage. Cd complexation to other organic constituents in root and stem cell sap could be a primary detoxifying strategy. Therefore, cotton is a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  13. Bone marrow-derived CD13+ cells sustain tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Non-malignant cells found within neoplastic lesions express alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase (ANPEP, best known as CD13), and CD13-null mice exhibit limited tumor growth and angiogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that a subset of bone marrow-derived CD11b+CD13+ myeloid cells accumulate within neoplastic lesions in several murine models of transplantable cancer to promote angiogenesis. If these findings were confirmed in clinical settings, CD11b+CD13+ myeloid cells could become a non-malignant target for the development of novel anticancer regimens. PMID:25339996

  14. The potential of wild vegetation species of Eleusine indica L., and Sonchus arvensis L. for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hamzah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation has been intensively studied due its costs effectiveness and environmentally sound. Studies of heavy metal pollution phytoremediation has been done in develop countries, but still limited in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the potential of wild plant species Eleusine indica L. and Sonchus arvensis L. as an agent of phytoremediation on Cd-contaminated soil. This study was done descriptively in Pujon, Malang, Indonesia, to test the ability of two species of wild plants E. indica and S. arvensis in absorbing Cd. Along this research, plant growth and the concentration of Cd in roots, stems and leaves, was monitored. Plant growth was measured every week for three months. The plant roots, stems, and leaves collected separately, then analyzed its Cd levels. The results showed that both of two species of wild plants grew well on soil contaminated Cd. Plant roots can accumulate higher Cd than the stem part. In addition, E indica has the ability to accumulate Cd higher than S. arvensis, i.e. 57.11% and 35.84%, respectively

  15. The respective effects of soil heavy metal fractions by sequential extraction procedure and soil properties on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine heavy metal accumulation in rice grains and brassicas and to identify the different controls, such as soil properties and soil heavy metal fractions obtained by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, in their accumulation. In Guangdong Province, South China, rice grain and brassica samples, along with their rhizospheric soil, were collected from fields on the basis of distance downstream from electroplating factories, whose wastewater was used for irrigation. The results showed that long-term irrigation using the electroplating effluent has not only enriched the rhizospheric soil with Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn but has also increased their mobility and bioavailability. The average concentrations of Cd and Cr in rice grains and brassicas from closest to the electroplating factories were significantly higher than those from the control areas. Results from hybrid redundancy analysis (hRDA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the BCR fractions of soil heavy metals could explain 29.0 and 46.5 % of total eigenvalue for heavy metal concentrations in rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while soil properties could only explain 11.1 and 33.4 %, respectively. This indicated that heavy metal fractions exerted more control upon their concentrations in rice grains and brassicas than soil properties. In terms of metal interaction, an increase of residual Zn in paddy soil or a decrease of acid soluble Cd in the brassica soil could enhance the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb in both rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while the reducible or oxidizable Cd in soil could enhance the plants' accumulation of Cr and Pb. The RDA showed an inhibition effect of sand content and CFO on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas. Moreover, multiple stepwise linear regression could offer prediction for Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations in the two crops by soil heavy metal fractions and soil properties.

  16. Accumulation of Trace Metals in Anadara granosa and Anadara inaequivalvis from Pattani Bay and the Setiu Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradit, Siriporn; Shazili, Noor Azhar Mohamed; Towatana, Prawit; Saengmanee, Wuttipong

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the levels of trace metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in two common species of cockles (Anadara granosa and Anadara inaequivalvis) from two coastal areas in Thailand (Pattani Bay) and Malaysia (the Setiu Wetlands). A total of 350 cockles were collected in February and September 2014. Trace metals were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. We observed that cockles in both areas had a higher accumulation of metals in September. Notably, the biota-sediment accumulation (BSAF) of Cd was highest in both areas. A strong positive correlation of Cd with the length of the cockles at Pattani Bay (r(2) = 0.597) and the Setiu Wetlands (r(2) = 0.675) was noted. It was suggested that As could be a limiting element (BSAF Malaysia Food Regulations, mean values of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were within acceptable limits, but the maximum values of Cd and Pb exceeded the limits for both areas. Regular monitoring of trace metals in cockles from both areas is suggested for more definitive contamination determination.

  17. A cloned prokaryotic Cd2+ P-type ATPase increases yeast sensitivity to Cd2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-C.; Bal, Nathalie; Perard, Julien; Lowe, Jennifer; Boscheron, Cecile; Mintz, Elisabeth; Catty, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    CadA, the P1-type ATPase involved in Listeria monocytogenes resistance to Cd 2+ , was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and did just the opposite to what was expected, as it strikingly decreased the Cd 2+ tolerance of these cells. Yeast cells expressing the non-functional mutant Asp 398 Ala could grow on selective medium containing up to 100 μM Cd 2+ , whereas those expressing the functional protein could not grow in the presence of 1 μM Cd 2+ . The CadA-GFP fusion protein was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, suggesting that yeast hyper-sensitivity was due to Cd 2+ accumulation in the reticulum lumen. CadA is also known to transport Zn 2+ , but Zn 2+ did not protect the cells against Cd 2+ poisoning. In the presence of 10 μM Cd 2+ , transformed yeasts survived by rapid loss of their expression vector

  18. Cadmium accumulation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs is modulated by dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnison, B. Kent; Meinelt, Thomas; Playle, Richard; Pietrock, Michael; Wienke, Andreas; Steinberg, Christian E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate factors influencing the accumulation of cadmium (Cd 2+ ) into zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs. The accumulation of 109 Cd was affected by: (1) concentration, (2) time, (3) presence of dissolved organic material (DOM), (4) different origin of DOM and (5) different parts of fish eggs. Over a 5-h exposure, zebrafish eggs showed a steady increase in Cd-accumulation. DOM-concentrations over 15 ppm carbon (C) decreased Cd-uptake significantly. Both samples of DOM, brown water marsh (LM) and a eutrophic pond (SP), at 16.9 ppm C, reduced the Cd-accumulation in the chorion, perivitelline liquid and the embryo. Cd was mainly accumulated in the egg's outer shell chorion (61%) and only small amounts passed through the chorion into the perivitelline liquid (38%) and embryo (1%). In the presence of LM-DOM, the accumulation of Cd into the egg components was decreased by 43% (chorion), 52% (perivitelline liquid) and 52% (embryo), respectively, compared with the control group. Similarly, the presence of SP-DOM reduced the Cd-accumulation by 29% (chorion), 61% (perivitelline liquid) and 60% (embryo), respectively, compared with the controls. DOM-concentration should be taken into consideration when determining ecotoxicological effects of Cd on fish populations

  19. Study of the potential of barnyard grass for the remediation of Cd- and Pb-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Cai, Qiongyao; Wang, Hanxi; Liu, Xuejun; Lv, Jing; Yao, Difu; Lu, Yue; Li, Wei; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the microwave digestion method was used to determine total cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations, the BCR method was used to determine different states of Cd and Pb, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used to determine Cd and Pb concentrations in simulated soil and barnyard grass before and after planting barnyard grass to provide a theoretical basis for the remediation of Cd- and Pb-contaminated soil. The results showed that the bioconcentration factor changes with different Cd concentrations are relatively complex and that the removal rate increases regularly. The 100 mg kg -1 Cd treatment had the highest removal rate, which reached 36.66%. For Pb, the bioconcentration factor decreased and tended to reach equilibrium as the Pb concentration increased. The highest removal rate was 41.72% and occurred in the 500 mg kg -1 Pb treatment; however, this removal rate was generally lower than that of Cd. In addition, the reduction state had the highest change rate, followed by the residual, acid soluble and oxidation states. For Pb, the residual state has the highest change rate, followed by the acid soluble state, reduction state and oxidation state. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the soil Pb and Cd concentrations and the concentrations of Pb and Cd that accumulated in the belowground biomass of the barnyard grass, but no significant correlation was observed between the soil Pb and Cd concentrations and the amounts of Pb and Cd that accumulated in the aboveground biomass of the barnyard grass. The highest transfer factor of Cd was 0.49, which occurred in the 5 mg kg -1 Cd treatment. The higher transfer factor of Pb was 0.48 in the 100 mg kg -1 Pb treatment. All of these factors indicate that the belowground biomass of barnyard grass plays a more important role in the remediation of Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils than the aboveground

  20. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaochuan; Zhang Shirong; Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting; Gong Guoshu; Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji

    2010-01-01

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg -1 ) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L -1 ) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations ≤ 90 mg kg -1 and ≤ 20 mg L -1 in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg -1 and 1006.95 μg pot -1 in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg -1 and 668.42 μg pot -1 in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  1. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaochuan [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Gong Guoshu [Agricultural College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg{sup -1}) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L{sup -1}) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations {<=} 90 mg kg{sup -1} and {<=} 20 mg L{sup -1} in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 1006.95 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 668.42 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  2. La Doping of CdS for Enhanced CdS/CdSe Quantum Dot Cosensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Qi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS/CdSe system of quantum dot cosensitized solar cells (QDCSCs is one of the most attractive structures for high-efficiency due to its effect of level adjusting. However, the stepwise structure formed between levels of CdS and CdSe has a limitation for enhancing the efficiencies. Metal ions doping in quantum dots have emerged as a common way for changing the Fermi level, band gap, and conductance. Here we report an innovative concept for the rare earth materials La-doped of the CdS layer in the CdS/CdSe QDCSCs by means of the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR. Then we tested that La doped quantum dots can help more electrons accumulate in CdS film, which makes the Fermi level shift up and form a stepped structure. This method leads to enhanced absorption intensity, obviously increasing current density in CdS/CdSe QDCSCs. Our research is a new exploration for improving efficiencies of quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

  3. CD25, CD28 and CD38 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a tool to predict acute rejection after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleslawski, Emmanuel; BenOthman, Samia; Grabar, Sophie; Correia, Leonor; Podevin, Philippe; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Soubrane, Olivier; Calmus, Yvon; Conti, Filomena

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of CD25, CD28 and CD38 (which reflects the degree of T-cell activation) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells constitutes a useful means of measuring the immune status of liver transplant recipients. Fifty-two patients enrolled in a prospective randomized study comparing cyclosporine and tacrolimus as the principal immunosuppressive drugs were monitored prospectively. The expression of CD25, CD28 and CD38 was analyzed on CD3-, CD4- and CD8-positive cells from whole blood using flow cytometry. The prognostic value of baseline and day 14 measurements regarding acute rejection was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates for univariate analyses and the Cox model for multivariate analyses. The mean frequencies of CD28 and CD38-expressing T cells were significantly higher in patients with acute rejection (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively), whereas the frequency CD25-expressing T cells did not differ significantly. Under univariate analysis, baseline CD25 levels, the type of calcineurin inhibitor, as well as the CD28 and CD38 frequencies obtained at day 14 were associated with the subsequent development of acute rejection. Under multivariate analysis, only CD28 and CD38 frequencies obtained at day 14 were independently associated with acute rejection. The evaluation of CD28 and CD38 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a simple marker that could be used routinely in clinical practice to assess the level of immunosuppression.

  4. Assessment of macro and microelement accumulation capability of two aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Alfani, Anna; Di Tommasi, Paul; Bartoli, Giovanni; De Santo, Amalia Virzo

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of four macroelements (C, N, P, S) and eight trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were measured in the leaves and roots of the emergent plant, Phragmites communis Trin., and in the shoots and roots of the submersed Najas marina L., taken from Lake Averno (Naples, Italy). Phragmites communis leaves showed higher concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus than roots, while the roots exhibited significantly higher concentrations of sulphur and trace metals. Najas marina roots also showed higher concentrations of sulphur and trace metals than shoots, but these differences were less marked than in Phragmites communis except for sulphur. Sulphur was the only macronutrient to show the highest concentrations in the roots. Phragmites communis roots had higher values of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni than Najas marina roots. By contrast, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher in Najas marina shoots than in Phragmites communis leaves. Phragmites communis, available through the year, showing high capability to accumulate trace metals in the roots, appears a good monitor of lake contamination, better than Najas marina. - Element accumulation in roots and shoots of aquatic plants was used as a criteria for selecting useful biomonitors

  5. Heavy metal accumulation in arctic hares (Lepus arcticus) in Nunavut, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Simen [Department of Biology, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: simenpeders1@gmail.com; Lierhagen, Syverin [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Tungasletta 2, N-7485 Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-09-15

    Accumulation of cadmium, mercury, lead, copper and zinc was studied in muscle, liver and kidney of 9 adult and 7 juvenile arctic hares (Lepus arcticus), collected in 2003 in the southwestern part of Nunavut, Canada. Our objective was to determine the level of heavy metal accumulation, and distribution among age groups and tissue. Concentrations of all metals varied among tissues, and concentrations of Cd, Hg and Zn were higher in adults compared to juveniles. We found correlations in metal content among tissues, and among metals in kidneys. We also found the hares to have low concentration of most heavy metals except cadmium. We suggest that the high cadmium levels might be caused by the local geology, and the hares being adapted to these levels. The low levels of the other metals are probably due to low input of atmospheric contaminants. Only one of the individuals had Cd content slightly above the maximum contaminant levels recommended for human consumption of meat. There were no levels in meat above the recommended maximum for the rest of the metals surveyed. However the Cd levels in liver and kidney are orders of magnitude higher than the recommended maximum, and consumption of these organs should be avoided.

  6. Cd translocation into generative organs of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, M.; Woerner, A.; Schubert, S. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenernaehrung

    1997-12-31

    Linseed is able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in generative organs, the dietary critical value of 0.3 {mu}g Cd/g seed often being exceeded. Differences between genotypes of linseed in this respect, however, have been observed but the underlying mechanisms responsible for these differences are unknown. The aim of the present work was to identify these mechanisms by studying the Cd accumulation of the linseed genotypes Antares and McGregor which differ in their ability to accumulate Cd in the seeds. Cultivar Antares is a high and cv. McGregor is low Cd accumulator which was confirmed in a pot experiment. It was found that the differences between these genotypes were Cd-specific and were caused neither by single seed weight nor by Cd translocation into the shoot. The distribution pattern of Cd within mature capsules between the pericarp and the seeds differed from that of Ca which was used as a phloem-immobile reference ion. From these results we conclude that Cd was translocated from the pericarp into the seeds via the phloem. This conclusion was supported by direct Cd determination in collected phloem sap from linseed stems. As sources of seed-Cd we identified the pericarps of capsules and the leaves. The genotype differences concerning the Cd concentrations in the seeds may be explained in terms of differences in phloem translocation of Cd. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oellein vermag Cd in betraechtlichen Konzentrationen in den Samen zu akkumulieren. Aus diesem Grund wird der Grenzwert fuer Diaetlein von 0,3 {mu}g/g Samen im Anbau haeufig ueberschritten. Es gibt jedoch genotypische Unterschiede, deren zugrundeliegende Mechanismen nicht bekannt sind. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit bestand darin, diese Mechanismen an den Oelleinsorten Antares und McGregor zu untersuchen. Antares akkumuliert grosse, McGregor hingegen geringe Mengen Cd in den Samen. Diese Beobachtungen konnten in einem Gefaessversuch bestaetigt werden. Es wurde gezeigt, dass die

  7. A Low Peripheral Blood CD4/CD8 Ratio Is Associated with Pulmonary Emphysema in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplette, Matthew; Attia, Engi F; Akgün, Kathleen M; Soo Hoo, Guy W; Freiberg, Matthew S; Butt, Adeel A; Wongtrakool, Cherry; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Brown, Sheldon T; Graber, Christopher J; Huang, Laurence; Crothers, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of emphysema is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals compared to HIV-uninfected persons. While greater tobacco use contributes, HIV-related effects on immunity likely confer additional risk. Low peripheral blood CD4+ to CD8+ T-lymphocyte (CD4/CD8) ratio may reflect chronic inflammation in HIV and may be a marker of chronic lung disease in this population. Therefore, we sought to determine whether the CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly the emphysema subtype, in a cohort of HIV+ subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 190 HIV+ subjects enrolled in the Examinations of HIV Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE) study. Subjects underwent baseline laboratory assessments, pulmonary function testing and chest computed tomography (CT) analyzed for emphysema severity and distribution. We determined the association between CD4/CD8 ratio and emphysema, and the association between CD4/CD8 ratio and pulmonary function markers of COPD. Mild or greater emphysema (>10% lung involvement) was present in 31% of subjects. Low CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with >10% emphysema in multivariable models, adjusting for risk factors including smoking, current and nadir CD4 count and HIV RNA level. Those with CD4/CD8 ratio 10% emphysema compared to those with a ratio >1.0 in fully adjusted models. A low CD4/CD8 ratio was also associated with reduced diffusion capacity (DLCO). A low CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with emphysema and low DLCO in HIV+ subjects, independent of other risk factors and clinical markers of HIV. The CD4/CD8 ratio may be a useful, clinically available, marker for risk of emphysema in HIV+ subjects in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era.

  8. Advanced accumulator for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Taiki; Chikahata, Hideyuki

    1997-01-01

    Advanced accumulators have been incorporated into the APWR design in order to simplify the safety system configuration and to improve reliability. The advanced accumulators refill the reactor vessel with a large discharge flow rate in a large LOCA, then switch to a small flow rate to continue safety injection for core reflooding. The functions of the conventional accumulator and the low head safety injection pump are integrated into this advanced accumulator. Injection performance tests simulating LOCA conditions and visualization tests for new designs have been carried out. This paper describes the APWR ECCS configuration, the advanced accumulator design and some of the injection performance and visualization test results. It was verified that the flow resistance of the advanced accumulator is independent of the model scale. The similarity law and performance data of the advanced accumulator for applying APWR was established. (author)

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance both absorption and stabilization of Cd by Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in a Cd-contaminated acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Shengchun; Wu, Fuyong; Leung, Ho Man; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the phytoextraction efficiencies of Cd by hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and fast-growing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) from a Cd-contaminated (1.6 mg kg(-1)) acidic soil, and their responses to the inoculations of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal strains, Glomus caledonium 90036 (Gc) and Glomus mosseae M47V (Gm). Ryegrass and stonecrop were harvested after growing for 9 and 27 wk, respectively. Without AM fungal inoculation, the weekly Cd extraction by stonecrop (8.0 μg pot(-1)) was 4.3 times higher than that by ryegrass (1.5 μg pot(-1)). Both Gc and Gm significantly increased (P soil acid phosphatase activities, and available P concentrations, and thereby plant P absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated ryegrass), shoot biomasses, and Cd absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated stonecrop), while only Gc-inoculated stonecrop significantly accelerated (P soil pH. The results suggested the potential application of hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop associated with AM fungi (notably Gc) for both extraction and stabilization of Cd in the in situ treatment of Cd-contaminated acidic soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced glutathione content allows the in vivo synthesis of fluorescent CdTe nanoparticles by Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Monrás

    Full Text Available The vast application of fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs or quantum dots (QDs has prompted the development of new, cheap and safer methods that allow generating QDs with improved biocompatibility. In this context, green or biological QDs production represents a still unexplored area. This work reports the intracellular CdTe QDs biosynthesis in bacteria. Escherichia coli overexpressing the gshA gene, involved in glutathione (GSH biosynthesis, was used to produce CdTe QDs. Cells exhibited higher reduced thiols, GSH and Cd/Te contents that allow generating fluorescent intracellular NP-like structures when exposed to CdCl(2 and K(2TeO(3. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that QDs-producing cells accumulate defined structures of various colors, suggesting the production of differently-sized NPs. Purified fluorescent NPs exhibited structural and spectroscopic properties characteristic of CdTe QDs, as size and absorption/emission spectra. Elemental analysis confirmed that biosynthesized QDs were formed by Cd and Te with Cd/Te ratios expected for CdTe QDs. Finally, fluorescent properties of QDs-producing cells, such as color and intensity, were improved by temperature control and the use of reducing buffers.

  11. Subcellular localization of Cd in the root cells of Allium sativum by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cd. High amounts of Cd were mainly accumulated in the vacuoles and nucleoli of cortical cells in differentiat- ing and ... The bulbs were germinated, and grown in 3 containers ..... Greger M 1999 Metal availability and bioconcentration in plants ...

  12. T CD3+CD8+ Lymphocytes Are More Susceptible for Apoptosis in the First Trimester of Normal Human Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Darmochwal-Kolarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Normal human pregnancy is a complex process of many immunoregulatory mechanisms which protect fetus from the activation of the maternal immune system. The aim of the study was to investigate the apoptosis of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of normal pregnant patients and healthy nonpregnant women. Methods. Sixty pregnant women and 17 nonpregnant women were included in the study. Lymphocytes were isolated and labeled with anti-CD3, anti-CD4, and anti-CD8 monoclonal antibodies. Apoptosis was detected by CMXRos staining and analyzed using the flow cytometric method. Results. We found significantly higher apoptosis of total lymphocytes in peripheral blood of pregnant patients when compared to healthy nonpregnant women. The percentage of apoptotic T CD3+CD8+ cells in the first trimester was significantly higher when compared to the third trimester of normal pregnancy. The ratio of T CD3+CD4+ : T CD3+CD8+ apoptotic lymphocytes was significantly lower in the first trimester when compared to other trimesters of pregnancy and to both of the phases of the menstrual cycle. Conclusions. The higher apoptosis of T CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes and the lower ratio of T CD3+CD4+ : T CD3+CD8+ apoptotic cells in the first trimester of normal pregnancy may suggest a higher susceptibility of T CD3+CD8+ cells for apoptosis as a protective mechanism at the early stage of pregnancy.

  13. Uptake and loss of dissolved 109Cd and 75Se in estuarine macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquezar, Ralph; Markich, Scott J; Twining, John R

    2007-04-01

    Semaphore crabs (Heloecius cordiformis), soldier crabs (Mictyris platycheles), ghost shrimps (Trypaea australiensis), pygmy mussels (Xenostrobus securis), and polychaetes (Eunice sp.), key benthic prey items of predatory fish commonly found in estuaries throughout southeastern Australia, were exposed to dissolved (109)Cd and (75)Se for 385 h at 30 k Bq/l (uptake phase), followed by exposure to radionuclide-free water for 189 h (loss phase). The whole body uptake rates of (75)Se by pygmy mussels, semaphore crabs and soldier crabs were 1.9, 2.4 and 4.1 times higher than (109)Cd, respectively. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the uptake rates of (75)Se and (109)Cd for ghost shrimps and polychaetes. The uptake rates of (109)Cd and (75)Se were highest in pygmy mussels; about six times higher than in soldier crabs for (109)Cd and in polychaetes for (75)Se - the organisms with the lowest uptake rates. The loss rates of (109)Cd and (75)Se were highest in semaphore crabs; about four times higher than in polychaetes for (109)Cd and nine times higher than in ghost shrimps for (75)Se - the organisms with the lowest loss rates. The loss of (109)Cd and (75)Se in all organisms was best described by a two (i.e. short and a longer-lived) compartment model. In the short-lived, or rapidly exchanging, compartment, the biological half-lives of (75)Se (16-39 h) were about three times greater than those of (109)Cd (5-12h). In contrast, the biological half-lives of (109)Cd in the longer-lived, or slowly exchanging compartment(s), were typically greater (1370-5950 h) than those of (75)Se (161-1500 h). Semaphore crabs had the shortest biological half-lives of both radionuclides in the long-lived compartment, whereas polychaetes had the greatest biological half-life for (109)Cd (5950 h), and ghost shrimps had the greatest biological half-life for (75)Se (1500 h). This study provides the first reported data for the biological half-lives of Se in estuarine decapod

  14. Higher TGF-beta With Lower CD124 and TSLP, But No Difference in PAR-2 Expression in Bronchial Biopsy of Bronchial Asthma Patients in Comparison With COPD Patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, R.; Vašáková, M.; Kukal, J.; Šterclová, M.; Olejár, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2014), s. 543-549 ISSN 1541-2016 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : bronchial asthma * chronic obstructive pulmonary disease * TGF-beta * TSPL * CD124 * PAR-2 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.012, year: 2014

  15. Foliar application of two silica sols reduced cadmium accumulation in rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuanping; Li Fangbai; Luo Chunling; Liu Xinming; Wang Shihua; Liu Tongxu; Li Xiangdong

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of foliar application of two silica (Si) sols on the alleviation of cadmium (Cd) toxicity in contaminated soil to rice. Results showed that the foliar application of Si sols significantly increased the dry weight of grains (without husk) and shoots in rice grown in Cd contaminated soil, whereas the Cd concentration in the grains and shoots decreased obviously. The total accumulation of Cd in rice grains also decreased with the application of both of the Si sols, but no significant effect was found on the Cd accumulation in the shoots. For the optimal effect, Si-sol-B should be foliar applied at the tillering-stage during rice growth. The mechanism of Si foliar application to alleviate the toxicity and accumulation of Cd in grains of rice may be related to the probable Cd sequestration in the shoot cell walls

  16. Soluble CD30 and Cd27 levels in patients undergoing HLA antibody-incompatible renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Rizwan; Roche, Laura; Smillie, David; Harmer, Andrea; Mitchell, Daniel; Molostvov, Guerman; Lam, For T; Kashi, Habib; Tan, Lam Chin; Imray, Chris; Fletcher, Simon; Briggs, David; Lowe, David; Zehnder, Daniel; Higgins, Rob

    2010-08-01

    HLA antibody-incompatible transplantation has a higher risk of rejection when compared to standard renal transplantation. Soluble CD30 (sCD30) has been shown in many, but not all, studies to be a biomarker for risk of rejection in standard renal transplant recipients. We sought to define the value of sCD30 and soluble CD27 (sCD27) in patients receiving HLA antibody-incompatible transplants. Serum taken at different time points from 32 HLA antibody-incompatible transplant recipients was retrospectively assessed for sCD30 and sCD27 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This was compared to episodes of acute rejection, post-transplant donor-specific antibody (DSA) levels and 12 month serum creatinine levels. No association was found between sCD27 and sCD30 levels and risk of acute rejection or DSA levels. Higher sCD30 levels at 4-6 weeks post-transplantation were associated with a higher serum creatinine at 12 months. Conclusion patients undergoing HLA antibody-incompatible transplantation are at a high risk of rejection but neither sCD30 (unlike in standard transplantation) nor sCD27 was found to be a risk factor. High sCD30 levels measured at 4-6 weeks post-transplantation was associated with poorer graft function at one year. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Decreased Expression of T-Cell Costimulatory Molecule CD28 on CD4 and CD8 T Cells of Mexican Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Bernal-Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with tuberculosis frequently develop anergy, a state of T-cell hyporesponsiveness in which defective T-cell costimulation could be a factor. To know if the expression of T-cell costimulatory molecules was altered in tuberculosis, we analyzed the peripheral blood T-cell phenotype of 23 Mexican patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. There was severe CD4 (P<.001 and CD8 (P<.01 lymphopenia and upregulation of costimulatory molecule CD30 on CD4 and CD8 T cells (P<.05; this increase was higher in relapsing tuberculosis. The main finding was severe downregulation of the major costimulatory molecule CD28 on both CD8 and CD4 T cells (P<.001. Depletion of the CD4/CD28 subset, a hitherto undescribed finding, is relevant because CD4 T cells constitute the main arm of the cell-mediated antimycobacterial immune response.

  18. Subcellular compartmentalization of Cd and Zn in two bivalves. II. Significance of trophically available metal (TAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W.G.; Luoma, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines how the subcellular partitioning of Cd and Zn in the bivalves Macoma balthica and Potamocorbula amurensis may affect the trophic transfer of metal to predators. Results show that the partitioning of metals to organelles, 'enzymes' and metallothioneins (MT) comprise a subcellular compartment containing trophically available metal (TAM; i.e. metal trophically available to predators), and that because this partitioning varies with species, animal size and metal, TAM is similarly influenced. Clams from San Francisco Bay, California, were exposed for 14 d to 3.5 ??g 1-1 Cd and 20.5 ??g 1-1 Zn, including 109Cd and 65Zn as radiotracers, and were used in feeding experiments with grass shrimp Palaemon macrodatylus, or used to investigate the subcellular partitioning of metal. Grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated P. amurensis absorbed ???60% of ingested Cd, which was in accordance with the partitioning of Cd to the bivalve's TAM compartment (i.e. Cd associated with organelles, 'enzymes' and MT); a similar relationship was found in previous studies with grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated oligochaetes. Thus, TAM may be used as a tool to predict the trophic transfer of at least Cd. Subcellular fractionation revealed that ???34% of both the Cd and Zn accumulated by M. balthica was associated with TAM, while partitioning to TAM in P. amurensis was metal-dependent (???60% for TAM-Cd%, ???73% for TAM-Zn%). The greater TAM-Cd% of P. amurensis than M. balthica is due to preferential binding of Cd to MT and 'enzymes', while enhanced TAM-Zn% of P. amurensis results from a greater binding of Zn to organelles. TAM for most species-metal combinations was size-dependent, decreasing with increased clam size. Based on field data, it is estimated that of the 2 bivalves, P. amurensis poses the greater threat of Cd exposure to predators because of higher tissue concentrations and greater partitioning as TAM; exposure of Zn to predators would be similar between these species.

  19. PROFIL LOGAM BERAT Cd, Cr (VI DAN Pb PADA LOKASI BERBEDA DI PROVINSI LAMPUNG SERTA BIOAKUMULASINYA PADA TANAMAN PANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Widowati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal profile analysis of Cd, Cr(VI and Pb in the different location in Lampung Province and their bioaccumulation to crops has been conducted. The aims were finding out the difference of metal accumulation in the different pollutant area and determining how it happened to the vegetables surrounding, which were kangkoong and spinach. The research methods were purposive sampling in the different location in Lampung Province, namely 1 highlands, 2 paddy fields, 3 road sides and 4industrial areas. Based on the results, it is found that the highest metal concentration of Cd, Cr(VI and Pb are in the industrial area. Commonly, the value of BCFo-w (0,12-2,00 is higher than BCF¬o-s (0,01-0,18 which shows that there is low metal accumulation of Cd, Cr(VI and Pb in kangkoong and spinach. Furthermore, the BCF value of Cd and Cr(VI are higher compared to Pb.  Keywords: Logam berat, Cd, Cr(VI, Pb,bioakumulasi.

  20. Trace element concentrations in higher fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Ravnik, V.; Kosta, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of ten trace elements, As, Br, Cd, Cu, Hg, I, Mn, Se, Zn and V, have been determined in up to 27 species of higher fungi from several sites in Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Analyses were based on destructive neutron activation techniques. Data are presented and compared with the concentrations found in soils. Previously values were non-existent or scanty for these elements, so that the data represent typical levels for basidiomycetes. In addition to confirming high levels of mercury in many species, the survey also found that cadmium is accumulated to a surprising extent by most fungi, the average value being 5 ppm. Among other accumulations found was bromine by the genus Amanita, and selenium by edible Boletus. Correlation analysis between all pairs of trace elements gave values for r of from 0.75 to 0.43 for 7 pairs (Cu and Hg, 0.75; Se and As, 0.69). As well as these features of biochemical interest, the values found and the pattern of accumulation suggest potential uses of fungi in environmental studies

  1. Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Zueng-Sang [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hong, Chwan-Yang, E-mail: cyhong@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-30

    The accumulation and effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth and enzymatic activities changes of antioxidants in Tagetes patula, French marigold, were investigated to reveal the physiological mechanisms corresponding to its Cd tolerance and accumulation. Hydroponically grown T. patula plants were treated with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}) at various regime of times. T. patula accumulated Cd to a maximum of 450 mg Cd kg{sup -1} dry weight (DW) in shoot and 3500 mg Cd kg{sup -1} DW in root after 14 days' exposure at 10 and 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}, respectively. The translocation factors of Cd were greater than 1 in plants exposed to 10 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. Toxic effects were gradually observed with increasing Cd concentration (25 and 50 {mu}M) accompanied with the reduction of biomass, chlorophyll content, decrease of cell viability and the increase level of lipid peroxidation. In leaves of T. patula, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced by Cd. However, in roots, activities of APX, GR, SOD and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced by 25 and 50 {mu}M Cd treatment but not 10 {mu}M Cd. In-gel zymography analysis revealed that Cd induced the enzymatic activities of APX, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and different isozymes of GR in leaves. These results indicate that T. patula is a novel Cd accumulator and able to tolerate with Cd-induced toxicity by activation of its antioxidative defense system.

  2. Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Zueng-Sang; Hong, Chwan-Yang

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation and effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth and enzymatic activities changes of antioxidants in Tagetes patula, French marigold, were investigated to reveal the physiological mechanisms corresponding to its Cd tolerance and accumulation. Hydroponically grown T. patula plants were treated with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 μM CdCl 2 ) at various regime of times. T. patula accumulated Cd to a maximum of 450 mg Cd kg -1 dry weight (DW) in shoot and 3500 mg Cd kg -1 DW in root after 14 days' exposure at 10 and 50 μM CdCl 2 , respectively. The translocation factors of Cd were greater than 1 in plants exposed to 10 μM CdCl 2 . Toxic effects were gradually observed with increasing Cd concentration (25 and 50 μM) accompanied with the reduction of biomass, chlorophyll content, decrease of cell viability and the increase level of lipid peroxidation. In leaves of T. patula, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced by Cd. However, in roots, activities of APX, GR, SOD and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced by 25 and 50 μM Cd treatment but not 10 μM Cd. In-gel zymography analysis revealed that Cd induced the enzymatic activities of APX, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and different isozymes of GR in leaves. These results indicate that T. patula is a novel Cd accumulator and able to tolerate with Cd-induced toxicity by activation of its antioxidative defense system.

  3. Morphological, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructural changes induced by Cd toxicity in seedlings of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Andressa V; de Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Pirovani, Carlos P; Reis, Graciele S M; Almeida, Nicolle M; Mangabeira, Pedro A O

    2015-05-01

    Seeds from Theobroma cacao progenies derived from the self-pollination of 'Catongo'×'Catongo' and the crossing between CCN-10×SCA-6 were immersed for 24h in different Cd solutions (2; 4; 8; 16 and 32 mgL(-1)) along with the control treatment (without Cd). Shortly after, the seeds were sown in plastic tubes containing organic substrate and were grown in a greenhouse for 60 days. The treatment with Cd was observed to cause morphological, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructural changes in both progenies of T. cacao. There has been deformation in chloroplasts, nuclear chromatin condensation, and reduction in thickness of the mesophyll. As for 'Catongo'×'Catongo', a decrease in thickness of the epidermis was noted on the abaxial face. There has been increased guaiacol peroxidase activity in the roots of CCN-10×SCA-6, as well as in the''Catongo'×'Catongo' leaves. In the presence of Cd, CCN-10×SCA-6 showed increased expression of the genes associated with the biosynthesis of phytochelatin (PCS-1) and class III peroxidases (PER-1) in leaves, and metallothionein (MT2b), in roots. In 'Catongo'×'Catongo', there has been an increase in the expression of genes associated with the biosynthesis of PER-1 and cytosolic superoxide dismutase dependent on copper and zinc (Cu-Zn SODCyt) in leaves and from MT2b and PCS-1 and roots. There was higher accumulation of Cd in the aerial parts of seedlings from both progenies, whereas the most pronounced accumulation was seen in''Catongo'×'Catongo'. The increase in Cd concentration has led to lower Zn and Fe levels in both progenies. Hence, one may conclude that the different survival strategies used by CCN-10×SCA-6 made such progeny more tolerant to Cd stress when compared to''Catongo'×'Catongo'. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Intraspecific variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation of a high-biomass tropical tree Averrhoa carambola L.: implication for phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zi-yun; Shu, Wen-sheng; Liao, Bin; Wan, Cai-yun; Li, Jin-tian

    2011-06-01

    Averrhoa carambola L., a high-biomass tropical tree, has recently been shown to be a strong accumulator of cadmium (Cd) and has great potential for Cd phytoextraction. In the present study, field studies and a controlled-environment experiment were combined to establish the extent of variation in Cd tolerance and accumulation at the cultivar level using 14 to 19 cultivars of A. carambola. The results indicated that all cultivars tested could accumulate Cd at high but different levels, and that Cd tolerance also varied greatly between these cultivars. It is confirmed that the high Cd tolerance and accumulation capacity are species-level and constitutional traits in A. carambola. However, no correlation was detected between tolerance index and accumulation of Cd in different cultivars, suggesting that the two traits are independent in this woody Cd accumulator. More importantly, cultivar Wuchuan Sweet (WCT) was shown to have the highest Cd-extraction potential; it yielded a high shoot biomass of 30 t ha(-1) in 230 d, and extracted 330 g ha(-1) Cd in the aerial tissues grown in Cd-contaminated field soil, which accounted for 12.8% of the total soil Cd in the top 20 cm of the soil profile.

  5. Mammalian hair as an accumulative bioindicator of metal bioavailability in Australian terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, Christopher M.; Koller, Claudia E.; Rodger, John C.; MacFarlane, Geoff R.

    2009-01-01

    The current study represents the first investigation of the suitability of marsupial and eutherian mammalian hair as indicator tissue for metal exposure and accumulation within contaminated Australian terrestrial ecosystems. A soil metal contamination gradient was established across 22 sites at increasing distances from a decommissioned Lead/Zinc smelter in NSW, Australia. Within each site, soil and small mammal populations were sampled. An Australian native marsupial, the insectivorous Brown Antechinus, Antechinus stuartii: Dasyuridae, and introduced rodents, the omnivorous Brown or Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus: Muridae and the Black Rat, Rattus rattus: Muridae were assessed for hair concentrations of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn). Metals in soil were most elevated at sites within close proximity to the smelter, with soil metal concentrations decreasing with distance from the smelter. The non-essential metals Pb and Cd were accumulated in hair, both metals exhibiting positive linear relationships with environmental exposure (soil metal concentrations). When the variables of weight and snout-vent length were considered, no further contribution in terms of explaining the variability in hair Cd or Pb was observed for all species examined. The essential metals Cu and Zn were regulated in hair, remaining similar across the metal contamination gradient. A significant negative correlation between snout-vent length and hair Cu concentration was found for the Brown Rat; greater hair Cu concentrations were found in smaller individuals of this species. Accumulation of Pb to hair was similar among species while concentrations of Cd in Brown Rat hair were higher than both Black Rat and Brown Antechinus hair. As each of the three aforementioned species exhibit similar bioaccumulation relationships for Pb, we suggest that sampling hair from introduced rodents (pest species) may provide a suitable proxy for the assessment of Pb bioavailability for a range of

  6. Mammalian hair as an accumulative bioindicator of metal bioavailability in Australian terrestrial environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Christopher M. [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); Centre for the Risk Management of Bushfires, Institute for Conservation Biology and Law, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Koller, Claudia E. [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); Rodger, John C. [Marsupial Research Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); MacFarlane, Geoff R., E-mail: geoff.macfarlane@newcastle.edu.au [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    The current study represents the first investigation of the suitability of marsupial and eutherian mammalian hair as indicator tissue for metal exposure and accumulation within contaminated Australian terrestrial ecosystems. A soil metal contamination gradient was established across 22 sites at increasing distances from a decommissioned Lead/Zinc smelter in NSW, Australia. Within each site, soil and small mammal populations were sampled. An Australian native marsupial, the insectivorous Brown Antechinus, Antechinus stuartii: Dasyuridae, and introduced rodents, the omnivorous Brown or Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus: Muridae and the Black Rat, Rattus rattus: Muridae were assessed for hair concentrations of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn). Metals in soil were most elevated at sites within close proximity to the smelter, with soil metal concentrations decreasing with distance from the smelter. The non-essential metals Pb and Cd were accumulated in hair, both metals exhibiting positive linear relationships with environmental exposure (soil metal concentrations). When the variables of weight and snout-vent length were considered, no further contribution in terms of explaining the variability in hair Cd or Pb was observed for all species examined. The essential metals Cu and Zn were regulated in hair, remaining similar across the metal contamination gradient. A significant negative correlation between snout-vent length and hair Cu concentration was found for the Brown Rat; greater hair Cu concentrations were found in smaller individuals of this species. Accumulation of Pb to hair was similar among species while concentrations of Cd in Brown Rat hair were higher than both Black Rat and Brown Antechinus hair. As each of the three aforementioned species exhibit similar bioaccumulation relationships for Pb, we suggest that sampling hair from introduced rodents (pest species) may provide a suitable proxy for the assessment of Pb bioavailability for a range of

  7. Elevated levels of peripheral blood CD14(bright) CD16+ and CD14(dim) CD16+ monocytes may contribute to the development of retinopathy in patients with juvenile onset type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryba-Stanisławowska, Monika; Myśliwska, Jolanta; Juhas, Ulana; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to analyze the CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocyte subsets in juvenile-onset complication-free diabetes mellitus type 1 in the context of their association with microvascular complications. 61 children with type 1 diabetes and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in a study. CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes were quantified in peripheral blood by means of flow cytometry. At the time of sampling blood glucose concentration was taken along with biochemical measurement of renal function, CRP and glycosylated hemoglobin. The Spearman's correlations were used to compare the relationship between CD16(+) monocyte subsets and the clinical parameters that can predict the development of microangiopathies. The flow cytometric analysis of monocyte subsets in peripheral blood of analyzed subjects revealed that the numbers of CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes were significantly higher in patients with type 1 diabetes than in the healthy individuals. As to the relationship between CD16(+) monocyte subsets and the clinical parameters that can predict development of microangiopathies, it was shown that both CD16(+) subsets were associated with increased risk of retinopathy development, defined as retinopathy development value. Elevated levels of intermediate CD14(bright) CD16(+) and non-classical CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes predict development of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of estrogen on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell in peripheral blood during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Huan Xiong; Zhen Yuan; Li He

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of estrogen (E2) level on regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood during pregnancy. Methods:A total of 30 healthy non-pregnant women were selected as control group, 90 pregnant women of early, middle and late pregnancy and 30 postpartum women at 1 month after parturition were selected as experimental groups including early pregnancy group, middle pregnancy group and late pregnancy group;the proportions of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg among CD4+T cells were detected by flow cytometry;the serum estrogen content in peripheral blood was detected by electrochemical immune luminescence method. Results: E2 level was coincident with the change of Tregs number during pregnancy. The estrogen content in peripheral blood increased gradually from early pregnancy to late pregnancy, then decreased significantly after parturition, and the level at 1 month after parturition down to the level in non-pregnancy group (P>0.05);the level of E2 in pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in non-pregnancy group (P0.05);the proportions in middle and late pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in early pregnancy group (P0.05). There was correlation between Tregs number with estrogen level during pregnancy. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127- Treg were positively correlated with estrogen level. Conclusions:High proportion of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg is closely related to the high level of E2 during pregnancy. It suggested that high level of estrogen may induce an increase of CD4+CD25+Treg in peripheral blood, and then influence the immune function of pregnant women. The results of this experiment might play an important role of estrogen in immune-modulation during pregnancy.

  9. Expression of CD152 and CD137 on T regulatory cells in rhinitis and bronchial asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rojas-Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Subjects with bronchial asthma and bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis disorders have a deficiency of CD4+, CD25hight and FoxP3+ Treg in peripheral blood; however, subjects with bronchial asthma had a higher frequency of CD152+ and CD137+ Treg cells.

  10. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; da Graça Gama Melão, Maria; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-03-01

    Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10(-7) and 2.0×10(-8)molL(-1) Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9×10(-6), 1.1×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3)molL(-1)N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interferon-γ production by tubulointerstitial human CD56bright natural killer cells contributes to renal fibrosis and chronic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Becker M P; Wilkinson, Ray; Wang, Xiangju; Kildey, Katrina; Lindner, Mae; Rist, Melissa J; Beagley, Kenneth; Healy, Helen; Kassianos, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a population of lymphoid cells that play a significant role in mediating innate immune responses. Studies in mice suggest a pathological role for NK cells in models of kidney disease. In this study, we characterized the NK cell subsets present in native kidneys of patients with tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease. Significantly higher numbers of total NK cells (CD3 - CD56 + ) were detected in renal biopsies with tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with diseased biopsies without fibrosis and healthy kidney tissue using multi-color flow cytometry. At a subset level, both the CD56 dim NK cell subset and particularly the CD56 bright NK cell subset were elevated in fibrotic kidney tissue. However, only CD56 bright NK cells significantly correlated with the loss of kidney function. Expression of the tissue-retention and -activation molecule CD69 on CD56 bright NK cells was significantly increased in fibrotic biopsy specimens compared with non-fibrotic kidney tissue, indicative of a pathogenic phenotype. Further flow cytometric phenotyping revealed selective co-expression of activating receptor CD335 (NKp46) and differentiation marker CD117 (c-kit) on CD56 bright NK cells. Multi-color immunofluorescent staining of fibrotic kidney tissue localized the accumulation of NK cells within the tubulointerstitium, with CD56 bright NK cells (NKp46 + CD117 + ) identified as the source of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ within the NK cell compartment. Thus, activated interferon-γ-producing CD56 bright NK cells are positioned to play a key role in the fibrotic process and progression to chronic kidney disease. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The accumulation of elements in plants growing spontaneously on small heaps left by the historical Zn-Pb ore mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Woch, Marcin W; Kapusta, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated the levels of nine metals, namely Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb, Tl, and Zn, in soils and tissues of ten plant species growing spontaneously on heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn in heap soils were much higher than in control soils. Plants growing on heaps accumulated excessive amounts of these elements in tissues, on average 1.3-52 mg Cd kg(-1), 9.4-254 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.06-23 mg Tl kg(-1) and 134-1479 mg Zn kg(-1) in comparison to 0.5-1.1 mg Cd kg(-1), 2.1-11 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.02-0.06 mg Tl kg(-1), and 23-124 mg Zn kg(-1) in control plants. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn were found in the roots of Euphorbia cyparissias, Fragaria vesca, and Potentilla arenaria, and Tl in Plantago lanceolata. Many species growing on heaps were enriched in K and Mg, and depleted in Ca, Fe, and Mn. The concentrations of all elements in plant tissues were dependent on species, organ (root vs. shoot), and species-organ interactions. Average concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg were generally higher in shoots than in roots or similar in the two organs, whereas Cd, Fe, Pb, Tl, and Zn were accumulated predominantly in the roots. Our results imply that heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores may pose a potential threat to the environment and human health.

  13. Is vetiver grass of interest for the remediation of Cu and Cd to protect marketing gardens in Burkina Faso?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondo Zue Abaga, Norbert; Dousset, Sylvie; Mbengue, Saliou; Munier-Lamy, Colette

    2014-10-01

    In Burkina-Faso, urban vegetable agriculture is often characterized by urban solid waste fertilizer inputs containing heavy metals such as Cu and Cd. Thus, the relevance of surrounding urban vegetable plots with vetiver hedges to reduce environmental pollution by Cu and Cd was investigated by adsorption studies and pot experiments. Vetiver biomass, its metal contents and, its total and MgCl2 extractable soil metals were monitored over 6months in the presence of a mixture of metal at two concentrations: 2-10 and 100-500mgkg(-1), for Cd and Cu, respectively. The Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kf) values increased after vetiver growth and were significantly higher for vertisol than for lixisol. After 6months, the vetiver that was grown on lixisol accumulated more metal, increasing up to 4635mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 21.8mgkg(-1) for Cd, than did the vetiver that was grown on vertisol, increasing up to 1534mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 7.2mgkg(-1) for Cd. The metal bioconcentration factor, which was significantly higher for Cd, increased with the applied concentration and ranged from 1.6 to 14 for Cu and from 2.3 to 22 for Cd. Additionally, the translocation factors were higher for Cd (0.38-7.3) than for Cu (0.07-2.6), and the translocation was easiest from lixisol than from vertisol. Thus our results demonstrate the ability of vetiver for Cu and Cd phytoremediation in Burkina Faso soils. Nevertheless, these results should be confirmed across the field to advocate the establishment of vetiver hedges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved survival in rhesus macaques immunized with modified vaccinia virus Ankara recombinants expressing simian immunodeficiency virus envelope correlates with reduction in memory CD4+ T-cell loss and higher titers of neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourmanov, Ilnour; Kuwata, Takeo; Goeken, Robert; Goldstein, Simoy; Iyengar, Ranjani; Buckler-White, Alicia; Lafont, Bernard; Hirsch, Vanessa M

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that immunization of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol and Env recombinants of the attenuated poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) provided protection from high viremia and AIDS following challenge with a pathogenic strain of SIV. Although all animals became infected, plasma viremia was significantly reduced in animals that received the MVA-SIV recombinant vaccines compared with animals that received nonrecombinant MVA. Most importantly, the reduction in viremia resulted in a significant increase in median and cumulative survival. Continued analysis of these animals over the subsequent 9 years has shown that they maintain a survival advantage, although all but two of the macaques have progressed to AIDS. Importantly, improved survival correlated with preservation of memory CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood. The greatest survival advantage was observed in macaques immunized with regimens containing SIV Env, and the titer of neutralizing antibodies to the challenge virus prior to or shortly following challenge correlated with preservation of CD4(+) T cells. These data are consistent with a role for neutralizing antibodies in nonsterilizing protection from high viremia and associated memory CD4(+) T-cell loss.

  15. Cadmium accumulation by jack-bean and sorghum in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francato Zancheta, Ariana Carramaschi; De Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Zambrosi, Fernando César Bachiega; de Magalhães Erismann, Norma; Andrade Lagôa, Ana Maria Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Among the technologies used to recuperate cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils, phytoextraction are particularly important, where the selection of suitable plants is critical to the success of the soil remediation. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the responses of jack-bean and sorghum to Cd supply and to quantify Cd accumulation by these species grown in hydroponic culture. The plants were subjected to 0, 15, 30, or 60 μmol Cd L(-1) in the nutrient solution, and gas exchange, plant growth and Cd accumulation were measured at 25 days after starting Cd treatments. The Cd supply severely reduced growth of shoots and roots in both species. In jack-bean, Cd decreased photosynthesis by 56-86%, stomatal conductance by 59-85% and transpiration by 48-80%. The concentrations and amounts of Cd accumulated in the plant tissues were proportional to the metal supply in the nutrient solution. Sorghum was more tolerant than jack-bean to Cd toxicity, but the latter showed a greater metal concentration and accumulation in the shoot. Therefore, jack-bean would be more suitable than sorghum for use in Cd phytoremediation programs based on phytoextraction.

  16. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  17. Can the shell of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a potential biomonitoring material for Cd, Pb and Zn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C. K.; Ismail, A.; Tan, S. G.; Abdul Rahim, I.

    2003-07-01

    The distributions of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total soft tissues and total shells of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were studied in field collected samples as well as from laboratory experimental samples. The results showed that Cd, Pb and Zn were readily accumulated in the whole shells. In mussels sampled from 12 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the ratios of the shell metals to the soft tissue metals were different at each sampling site. Nevertheless, the Cd and Pb levels in the shells were always higher than those in the soft tissues, while the Zn level was higher in the soft tissues than in the shells. In comparison with soft tissues, the degrees of variability for Pb and Cd concentrations in the shells were lower. The lower degrees of variability and significant ( Pwork showed that the pattern of depuration in the shell was not similar to that of the soft tissue although their patterns of accumulation were similar. This indicated that the depuration of heavy metals in the shell was not affected by the physiological conditions of the mussels. Although Zn could be regulated by the soft tissue, the incorporated Cd, Pb and Zn remained in the shell matrices. The present results support the use of the total shell of P. viridis as a potential biomonitoring material for long-term contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn.

  18. Which Factors Determine Metal Accumulation in Agricultural Soils in the Severely Human-Coupled Ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Cao, Shanshan; Wang, Jihua; Lu, Anxiang

    2016-05-17

    Agricultural soil is typically an important component of urban ecosystems, contributing directly or indirectly to the general quality of human life. To understand which factors influence metal accumulation in agricultural soils in urban ecosystems is becoming increasingly important. Land use, soil type and urbanization indicators all account for considerable differences in metal accumulation in agricultural soils, and the interactions between these factors on metal concentrations were also examined. Results showed that Zn, Cu, and Cd concentrations varied significantly among different land use types. Concentrations of all metals, except for Cd, were higher in calcareous cinnamon soil than in fluvo-aquic soil. Expansion distance and road density were adopted as urbanization indicators, and distance from the urban center was significantly negatively correlated with concentrations of Hg, and negatively correlated with concentrations of Zn, and road density was positively correlated with Cd concentrations. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that Hg concentration was significantly influenced by the four-way interaction among all factors. The results in this study provide basic data to support the management of agricultural soils and to help policy makers to plan ahead in Beijing.

  19. Tissue-specific Bio-accumulation of Metals in Fish during Chronic Waterborne and Dietary Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Javed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile (120-day three fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala were exposed to chronic sub-lethal concentrations (1/3rd of LC50/LD50 of waterborne and dietary copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, nickel (Ni and cobalt (Co, separately, in glass aquaria under constant water temperature (29oC, pH (7.5 and hardness (225 mgL-1 for 12 weeks. Waterborne and dietary exposures caused significantly variable accumulation of metals in three fish species that followed Zn>Ni>Cd>Co>Cu. Fish liver showed significantly higher tendency to accumulate Cu (69.64±25.35 µg g-1, Cd (68.93±21.65 µg g-1, Zn (91.46±29.53 µg g-1, Ni (74.64±18.61 µg g-1 and Co (22.65±20.56 µg g-1, followed by that of kidney and gills, with significant differences while muscle and bones exhibited significantly least tendency to accumulate all metals. Labeo rohita (31.63±2.43 µg g-1 and C. mrigala (31.43±13.70 µg g-1 exhibited significantly higher ability to amass metals than that of C. catla (27.96±10.28 µg g-1. Waterborne exposure caused significantly higher accumulation of metals in fish liver (72.69±27.91 µg g-1, followed by that in kidney, gills, skin, muscle, fins and bones with the average concentrations of 45.14±18.70, 39.47±21.13, 30.81±12.64, 22.65±17.34, 22.23±11.74 and 12.14±6.25 µg g-1, respectively. Dietary exposure resulted into significant escalation of metals in fish liver (58.23±32.44 µg g-1 while it was lowest in bones. Waterborne exposure caused significantly higher accumulation of all metals in fish body than that of dietary treatments.

  20. 18F-FAC PET selectively images hepatic infiltrating CD4 and CD8 T cells in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Jessica R; Chen, Bao Ying; Wong, Alicia; Cheng, Donghui; Van Arnam, John S; Witte, Owen N; Clark, Peter M

    2018-04-26

    Immune cell-mediated attack on the liver is a defining feature of autoimmune hepatitis and hepatic allograft rejection. Despite an assortment of diagnostic tools, invasive biopsies remain the only method for identifying immune cells in the liver. We evaluated whether PET imaging with radiotracers that quantify immune activation ( 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC) and hepatocyte biology ( 18 F-DFA) can visualize and quantify hepatic infiltrating immune cells and hepatocyte inflammation, respectively, in a preclinical model of autoimmune hepatitis. Methods: Mice treated with Concanavalin A (ConA) to induce a model of autoimmune hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. Immunohistochemistry, digital autoradiography, and ex vivo accumulation assays were used to localize areas of altered radiotracer accumulation in the liver. For comparison, mice treated with an adenovirus to induce a viral hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. 18 F-FAC PET was performed on mice treated with ConA, and vehicle or dexamethasone. Biopsy samples of patients suffering from autoimmune hepatitis were immunostained for deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). Results: Hepatic accumulation of 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC was 173% and 61% higher, respectively, and hepatic accumulation of 18 F-DFA was 41% lower in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis compared to control mice. Increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation was localized to infiltrating leukocytes and inflamed sinusoidal endothelial cells, increased hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation was concentrated in infiltrating CD4 and CD8 cells, and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation was apparent in hepatocytes throughout the liver. In contrast, viral hepatitis increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation by 109% and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation by 20% but had no effect on hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation (non-significant 2% decrease). 18 F-FAC PET provided a non-invasive biomarker of the efficacy of

  1. Cadmium accumulation and elimination in tissues of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus after sub-chronic cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Jee, Jung-Hoon; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2004-01-01

    Cd accumulation and elimination in tissue of olive flounder. - Experiments were carried out to investigate the accumulation and elimination of cadmium (Cd) in tissues (gill, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle) of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to sub-chronic concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100 μg l -1 ) of Cd. Cd exposure resulted in an increased Cd accumulation in tissues of flounder with exposure periods and concentration, and Cd accumulation in gill and liver increased linearly with the exposure time. At 20 days of Cd exposure, the order of Cd accumulation in organs was gill > intestine > liver > kidney > muscle and after 30 days of exposure, those were intestine > gill > liver > kidney > muscle. An inverse relationship was observed between the accumulation factor (AF) and the exposure level, but AF showed an increase with exposure time. During the depuration periods, Cd concentration in the gill, intestine and liver decreased immediately following the end of the exposure periods. No significant difference was found Cd in concentration in the kidney and muscle during depuration periods. The order of Cd elimination rate in organs were decreased intestine > liver > gill during depuration periods

  2. [Analysis and assessment of atmospheric pollution based on accumulation characterization of heavy metals in Platanus acerifolia leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Fang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shun-Chang; Xie, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Run

    2014-03-01

    The present work was aimed to evaluate the heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of Huainan City. We measured and clustered the accumulation of six heavy metals in Platanus acerifolia leaves in 20 sampling fields with six types of environmental conditions, and analyzed the EF value of heavy metal enrichment in the leaves. The results showed that the accumulations in Platanus acerifolia leaves varied according to different types of metals, following the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Environmental conditions also had great influence on the accumulation of heavy metals. Cd and Cu were mostly found in cement plant and mine, respectively, and Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were significant higher in main road, compared with other environmental conditions. The average values of EF for all the metals expect Cr in scenic and village area were over 1. The average values of EF for all the metals in mine, power plant, main road and cement plant were above 3. The overall pollution condition of heavy metals in Huainan City followed the order of Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cr.

  3. Heavy metal accumulation by poplar in calcareous soil with various degrees of multi-metal contamination: implications for phytoextraction and phytostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yahu; Nan, Zhongren; Su, Jieqiong; Wang, Ning

    2013-10-01

    The object of this study was to assess the capacity of Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge for phytoremediation of heavy metals on calcareous soils contaminated with multiple metals. In a pot culture experiment, a multi-metal-contaminated calcareous soil was mixed at different ratios with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil, to establish a gradient of soil metal contamination levels. In a field experiment, poplars with different stand ages (3, 5, and 7 years) were sampled randomly in a wastewater-irrigated field. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), Cu, lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the poplar tissues and soil were determined. The accumulation of Cd and Zn was greatest in the leaves of P. pyramidalis, while Cu and Pb mainly accumulated in the roots. In the pot experiment, the highest tissue concentrations of Cd (40.76 mg kg(-1)), Cu (8.21 mg kg(-1)), Pb (41.62 mg kg(-1)), and Zn (696 mg kg(-1)) were all noted in the multi-metal-contaminated soil. Although extremely high levels of Cd and Zn accumulated in the leaves, phytoextraction using P. pyramidalis may take at least 24 and 16 years for Cd and Zn, respectively. The foliar concentrations of Cu and Pb were always within the normal ranges and were never higher than 8 and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The field experiment also revealed that the concentrations of all four metals in the bark were significantly higher than that in the wood. In addition, the tissue metal concentrations, together with the NH4NO3-extractable concentrations of metals in the root zone, decreased as the stand age increased. P. pyramidalis is suitable for phytostabilization of calcareous soils contaminated with multiple metals, but collection of the litter fall would be necessary due to the relatively high foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn.

  4. Involvement of CD244 in regulating CD4+ T cell immunity in patients with active tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfen Yang

    Full Text Available CD244 (2B4 is a member of the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM family of immune cell receptors and it plays an important role in modulating NK cell and CD8(+ T cell immunity. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of CD244/2B4 on CD4(+ T cells from active TB patients and latent infection individuals. Active TB patients had significantly elevated CD244/2B4 expression on M. tuberculosis antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells compared with latent infection individuals. The frequencies of CD244/2B4-expressing antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells were significantly higher in retreatment active TB patients than in new active TB patients. Compared with CD244/2B4-dull and -middle CD4(+ T cells, CD244/2B4-bright CD4(+ T cell subset had significantly reduced expression of IFN-γ, suggesting that CD244/2B4 expression may modulate IFN-γ production in M. tuberculosis antigen-responsive CD4(+ T cells. Activation of CD244/2B4 signaling by cross-linking led to significantly decreased production of IFN-γ. Blockage of CD244/2B4 signaling pathway of T cells from patients with active TB resulted in significantly increased production of IFN-γ, compared with isotype antibody control. In conclusion, CD244/2B4 signaling pathway has an inhibitory role on M. tuberculosis antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell function.

  5. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 μg g

  6. Expression of CD133 in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Fetnat M; Foda, Mona E; Kamal, Howyda M; Elshabrawy, Deena A

    2013-06-01

    There have been conflicting results regarding a correlation between CD133 expression and disease outcome. To assess CD133 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to evaluate its correlation with the different clinical and laboratory data as well as its relation to disease outcome, the present study included 60 newly diagnosed acute leukemic patients; 30 ALL patients with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1 and their ages ranged from 9 months to 48 years, and 30 AML patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 and their ages ranged from 17 to 66 years. Flow cytometric assessment of CD133 expression was performed on blast cells. In ALL, no correlations were elicited between CD133 expression and some monoclonal antibodies, but in AML group, there was a significant positive correlation between CD133 and HLA-DR, CD3, CD7 and TDT, CD13 and CD34. In ALL group, patients with negative CD133 expression achieved complete remission more than patients with positive CD133 expression. In AML group, there was no statistically significant association found between positive CD133 expression and treatment outcome. The Kaplan-Meier curve illustrated a high significant negative correlation between CD133 expression and the overall survival of the AML patients. CD133 expression is an independent prognostic factor in acute leukemia, especially ALL patients and its expression could characterize a group of acute leukemic patients with higher resistance to standard chemotherapy and relapse. CD133 expression was highly associated with poor prognosis in acute leukemic patients.

  7. CD28-Negative CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Antiretroviral Therapy–Naive HIV-Infected Adults Enrolled in Adult Clinical Trials Group Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Landay, Alan; Collier, Ann C.; Connick, Elizabeth; Deeks, Steven G.; Hunt, Peter; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Wilson, Cara; Bosch, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have higher risk than HIV-negative individuals for diseases associated with aging. T-cell senescence, characterized by expansion of cells lacking the costimulatory molecule CD28, has been hypothesized to mediate these risks. Methods We measured the percentage of CD28−CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from HIV-infected treatment-naive adults from 5 Adult Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) antiretroviral therapy (ART) studies and the ALLRT (ACTG Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials) cohort, and from 48 HIV-negative adults. Pretreatment and 96-week posttreatment %CD28− cells were assessed using linear regression for associations with age, sex, race/ethnicity, CD4 count, HIV RNA, ART regimen, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Results In total, 1291 chronically HIV-infected adults were studied. Pretreatment, lower CD4 count was associated with higher %CD28−CD4+ and %CD28−CD8+ cells. For CD8+ cells, younger age and HCV infection were associated with a lower %CD28−. ART reduced %CD28− levels at week 96 among virally suppressed individuals. Older age was strongly predictive of higher %CD28−CD8+. Compared to HIV-uninfected individuals, HIV-infected individuals maintained significantly higher %CD28−. Conclusions Effective ART reduced the proportion of CD28− T cells. However, levels remained abnormally high and closer to levels in older HIV-uninfected individuals. This finding may inform future research of increased rates of age-associated disease in HIV-infected adults. PMID:22448010

  8. A viral long terminal repeat expressed in CD4+CD8+ precursors is downregulated in mature peripheral CD4-CD8+ or CD4+CD8- T cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Paquette, Y; Doyon, L; Laperrière, A; Hanna, Z; Ball, J; Sekaly, R P; Jolicoeur, P

    1992-01-01

    The long terminal repeat from a thymotropic mouse mammary tumor virus variant, DMBA-LV, was used to drive the expression of two reporter genes, murine c-myc and human CD4, in transgenic mice. Expression was observed specifically in thymic immature cells. Expression of c-myc in these cells induced oligoclonal CD4+ CD8+ T-cell thymomas. Expression of human CD4 was restricted to thymic progenitor CD4- CD8- and CD4+ CD8+ T cells and was shut off in mature CD4+ CD8- and CD4- CD8+ T cells, known to...

  9. Dopamine Increases CD14+CD16+ Monocyte Migration and Adhesion in the Context of Substance Abuse and HIV Neuropathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Jacqueline S.; Calderon, Tina M.; Gaskill, Peter J.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major comorbidity of HIV infection and cognitive disorders are often more severe in the drug abusing HIV infected population. CD14+CD16+ monocytes, a mature subpopulation of peripheral blood monocytes, are key mediators of HIV neuropathogenesis. Infected CD14+CD16+ monocyte transmigration across the blood brain barrier mediates HIV entry into the brain and establishes a viral reservoir within the CNS. Despite successful antiretroviral therapy, continued influx of CD14+CD16+ monocytes, both infected and uninfected, contributes to chronic neuroinflammation and the development of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse increases extracellular dopamine in the CNS. Once in the brain, CD14+CD16+ monocytes can be exposed to extracellular dopamine due to drug abuse. The direct effects of dopamine on CD14+CD16+ monocytes and their contribution to HIV neuropathogenesis are not known. In this study, we showed that CD14+CD16+ monocytes express mRNA for all five dopamine receptors by qRT-PCR and D1R, D5R and D4R surface protein by flow cytometry. Dopamine and the D1-like dopamine receptor agonist, SKF38393, increased CD14+CD16+ monocyte migration that was characterized as chemokinesis. To determine whether dopamine affected cell motility and adhesion, live cell imaging was used to monitor the accumulation of CD14+CD16+ monocytes on the surface of a tissue culture dish. Dopamine increased the number and the rate at which CD14+CD16+ monocytes in suspension settled to the dish surface. In a spreading assay, dopamine increased the area of CD14+CD16+ monocytes during the early stages of cell adhesion. In addition, adhesion assays showed that the overall total number of adherent CD14+CD16+ monocytes increased in the presence of dopamine. These data suggest that elevated extracellular dopamine in the CNS of HIV infected drug abusers contributes to HIV neuropathogenesis by increasing the accumulation of CD14+CD16+ monocytes in dopamine rich brain

  10. Analysis of heavy metal accumulation in fish from the coastal waters of Terengganu, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, M. N. R.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of toxic metals in fish causes serious threats to the human when they are consumed. Thus, the detection of toxic element concentration levels in fish is important. The accumulation of four heavy metal concentration of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn in fish was determined. Five fish species namely Epinephelus lanceolatus, Rastrelliger, Megalaspis cordyla, Bramidae and Siganus canaliculatus were collected from the coastal waters of Terengganu, Malaysia. The analysis was done using inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) technique. The accumulation of the four heavy metals in muscle tissues of the fish are lower compared to liver and gill tissues. Cd concentration was higher in liver tissues except in Megalaspis cordyla. Meanwhile Cu concentration was higher in liver for all selected fishes. Mn concentration was higher in gill tissues of all fish studied while Zn concentration was higher in gill tissues except in Epinephelus lanceolatus and Rastrelliger. The highest average level of heavy metal recorded in fish is Zn (11.05 × 10-2 ± 1.44 × 10-2 mg kg-1) followed by Mn (1.81 × 10-2 ± 0.58 × 10-2 mg kg-1), Cu (0.70 × 10-2 ± 0.10 × 10-2 mg kg-1) and Cd (0.52×10-2 ± 0.27 × 10-2 mg kg-1). The metal concentration found in this study was lower than the national and international Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for human consumption. Long term monitoring system of metal bioaccumulation in fishes need to be done to provide useful information for the assessment of the potential health risks of metals in Malaysia.

  11. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shirong; Chen Mingying; Li Ting; Xu Xiaoxun; Deng Liangji

    2010-01-01

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg -1 ) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg -1 , respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg -1 . The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 μg pot -1 , respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  12. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Chen Mingying; Li Ting; Xu Xiaoxun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg{sup -1}) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg{sup -1}. The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 {mu}g pot{sup -1}, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  13. Non-traditional CD4+CD25-CD69+ regulatory T cells are correlated to leukemia relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-su; Wang, Xu-hua; Zhao, Xiang-yu; Chang, Ying-jun; Xu, Lan-ping; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Huang, Xiao-jun

    2014-07-01

    Non-traditional CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells were found to be involved in disease progression in tumor-bearing mouse models and cancer patients recently. We attempted to define whether this subset of T cells were related to leukemia relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The frequency of CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells among the CD4+ T cell population from the bone marrow of relapsed patients, patients with positive minimal residual disease (MRD+) and healthy donors was examined by flow cytometry. The CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells were also stained with the intracellular markers to determine the cytokine (TGF-β, IL-2 and IL-10) secretion. The results showed that the frequency of CD4+CD25-CD69 + T cells was markedly increased in patients in the relapsed group and the MRD + group compared to the healthy donor group. The percentage of this subset of T cells was significantly decreased after effective intervention treatment. We also analyzed the reconstitution of CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells at various time points after allo-HSCT, and the results showed that this subset of T cells reconstituted rapidly and reached a relatively higher level at +60 d in patients compared to controls. The incidence of either MRD+ or relapse in patients with a high frequency of CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells (>7%) was significantly higher than that of patients with a low frequency of CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells at +60 d, +90 d and +270 d after transplant. However, our preliminary data indicated that CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells may not exert immunoregulatory function via cytokine secretion. This study provides the first clinical evidence of a correlation between non-traditional CD4+CD25-CD69+ Tregs and leukemia relapse after allo-HSCT and suggests that exploration of new methods of adoptive immunotherapy may be beneficial. Further research related to regulatory mechanism behind this phenomenon would be necessary.

  14. Enhanced cadmium accumulation and tolerance in transgenic tobacco overexpressing rice metal tolerance protein gene OsMTP1 is promising for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Surajit; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-08-01

    One of the most grievous heavy metal pollutants in the environment is cadmium (Cd), which is not only responsible for the crop yield loss owing to its phytotoxicity, but also for the human health hazards as the toxic elements usually accumulate in the consumable parts of crop plants. In the present study, we aimed to isolate and functionally characterize the OsMTP1 gene from indica rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64) to study its potential application for efficient phytoremediation of Cd. The 1257 bp coding DNA sequence (CDS) of OsMTP1 encodes a ∼46 kDa protein belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) or metal tolerance/transport protein (MTP) family. The OsMTP1 transcript in rice plant was found to respond during external Cd stress. Heterologous expression of OsMTP1 in tobacco resulted in the reduction of Cd stress-induced phytotoxic effects, including growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. Compared to untransformed control, the transgenic tobacco plants showed enhanced vacuolar thiol content, indicating vacuolar localization of the sequestered Cd. The transgenic tobacco plants exhibited significantly higher biomass growth (2.2-2.8-folds) and hyperaccumulation of Cd (1.96-2.22-folds) compared to untransformed control under Cd exposure. The transgenic plants also showed moderate tolerance and accumulation of arsenic (As) upon exogenous As stress, signifying broad substrate specificity of OsMTP1. Together, findings of our research suggest that the transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing OsMTP1 with its hyperaccumulating activity and increased growth rate could be useful for future phytoremediation applications to clean up the Cd-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential accumulation of heavy metals in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima as a function of symbiotic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Alan Verde, E.; Ringwood, Amy H.; Weis, Virginia M.

    2003-01-01

    The accumulation of metals by the North American Pacific Coast temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, and its dinoflagellate-algal symbiont Symbiodinium muscatinei was examined following laboratory metal exposures. Both, naturally occurring symbiotic and symbiont-free (aposymbiotic) anemones were used in this study to investigate differences in metal uptake due to the symbiotic state of the animal. The effects of metal exposures on the anemone-algal symbiosis were determined using measures of algal cell density and mitotic index (MI). Anemones were exposed to either cadmium, copper, nickel or zinc chloride (0, 10, 100 μg l -1 for Cd, Cu and Ni; 0, 100, 1000 μg l -1 for Zn) for 42 days followed by a 42-day recovery period in ambient seawater. Anemones were analyzed for metal content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) at various time points during the study. Symbiotic anemones accumulated Cd, Ni and Zn to a greater extent than aposymbiotic anemones. A dramatically different pattern of Cu accumulation was observed, with aposymbiotic anemones accumulating higher levels than symbiotic anemones. Following recovery in ambient seawater, all tissue metal levels were reduced to near pre-exposure control levels in most cases. No changes in algal cell density or MI were observed in symbiotic anemone tentacle clips at any dose or time point in the Cd and Cu exposures. However, significant reductions in algal cell densities were observed in the Ni-exposed and some Zn-exposed animals, although levels returned to control values following recovery. There were no changes in mitotic index (MI) following Ni or Zn exposures. These results demonstrate that the extent of heavy metal accumulation depends upon cnidarian symbiotic state and the heavy metal in question

  16. S and Te inter-diffusion in CdTe/CdS hetero junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez, J. Pantoja [Cuerpo Academico-Energia y Sustentabilidad, Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, Eduardo J. Selvas S/N, Col. Magisterial, Tuxtla Gutierrez 29010, Chiapas (Mexico); Gomez Barojas, E. [CIDS-ICUAP, Apdo. Postal 1651, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Silva Gonzalez, R.; Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2007-09-22

    Effects of post formation thermal annealing of the CdTe-CdS device on the inter-diffusion of S and Te at the junction in a substrate configuration device have been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. While the migration of S and Te atoms increases with annealing temperature, the extent of S diffusion is always higher than the diffusion of Te atoms. Inter-diffusion of S and Te causes the formation of CdTe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} ternary compound at the CdTe-CdS interface. (author)

  17. Function and regulation of LAG3 on CD4+CD25- T cells in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qin-Yun; Huang, Da-Yu; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Xiao-Feng

    2017-11-15

    LAG3 is a surface molecule found on a subset of immune cells. The precise function of LAG3 appears to be context-dependent. In this study, we investigated the effect of LAG3 on CD4 + CD25 - T cells from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We found that in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of NSCLC patients, LAG3 was significantly increased in CD4 + T cells directly ex vivo and primarily in the CD4 + CD25 - fraction, which was regulated by prolonged TCR stimulation and the presence of IL-27. TCR stimulation also increased CD25 expression, but not Foxp3 expression, in LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - cells Compared to LAG3-nonexpressing CD4 + CD25 - cells, LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - cells presented significantly higher levels of PD1 and TIM3, two inhibitory receptors best described in exhausted CD8 + T effector cells. LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - cells also presented impaired proliferation compared with LAG3-nonexpressing CD4 + CD25 - cells but could be partially rescued by inhibiting both PD1 and TIM3. Interestingly, CD8 + T cells co-incubated with LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - cells at equal cell numbers demonstrated significantly lower proliferation than CD8 + T cells incubated alone. Co-culture with CD8 + T cell and LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - T cell also upregulated soluble IL-10 level in the supernatant, of which the concentration was positively correlated with the number of LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - T cells. In addition, we found that LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - T cells infiltrated the resected tumors and were present at higher frequencies of in metastases than in primary tumors. Taken together, these data suggest that LAG3-expressing CD4 + CD25 - T cells represent another regulatory immune cell type with potential to interfere with anti-tumor immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of two iron(III) chelators on the iron, cadmium, lead and nickel accumulation in poplar grown under heavy metal stress in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihucz, Victor G; Csog, Árpád; Fodor, Ferenc; Tatár, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminiţa; Záray, Gyula

    2012-04-15

    Poplar (Populus jacquemontiana var. glauca cv. Kopeczkii) was grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) or Pb(II), and Fe as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations. The present study was designed to compare the accumulation and distribution of Fe, Cd, Ni and Pb within the different plant compartments. Generally, Fe and heavy-metal accumulation were higher by factor 2-7 and 1.6-3.3, respectively, when Fe(III) citrate was used. Iron transport towards the shoot depended on the Fe(III) chelate and, generally, on the heavy metal used. Lead was accumulated only in the root. The amounts of Fe and heavy metals accumulated by poplar were very similar to those of cucumber grown in an identical way, indicating strong Fe uptake regulation of these two Strategy I plants: a cultivar and a woody plant. The Strategy I Fe uptake mechanism (i.e. reducing Fe(III) followed by Fe(II) uptake), together with the Fe(III) chelate form in the nutrient solution had significant effects on Fe and heavy metal uptake. Poplar appears to show phytoremediation potential for Cd and Ni, as their transport towards the shoot was characterized by 51-54% and 26-48% depending on the Fe(III) supply in the nutrient solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  20. Metal accumulation in the polychaete Hediste japonica with emphasis on interaction between heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fuhong; Zhou Qixing

    2007-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in the polychaete Hediste japonica exposed to the mixture of Cd (or Cu) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) was investigated and compared with that exposed to single Cd (or Cu). The increased bioavailability of Cd or Cu with exposure concentrations resulted in an increase in the accumulation and net accumulation rate of Cd or Cu during single metal exposure. The net accumulation rate of Cd increased, but the net accumulation rate of Cu decreased with exposure time during single metal exposure, suggesting that H. japonica could actively regulate Cu burden in their body by inhibition of absolute uptake or promotion of excretion. The interactions between Cd (or Cu) and PHCs had complicated influences on the net accumulation rate of Cd and Cu in H. japonica under the condition of the binary mixture, which are dependent on their concentration combinations and exposure time. - The influences of petroleum hydrocarbons on Cd and Cu accumulation in H. japonica depend on their concentration combinations and exposure time

  1. Comparative studies on Pb and Cd levels in parasites of terrestrial and aquatic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sures, B.; Taraschewski, H. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Zoologisches Institut-Okologie

    1995-12-31

    Several fish parasites (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Nematoda) and organs of their respective intermediate and final hosts were analyzed for heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Pb and Cd were also quantified in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as in different organs of the large intestinal roundworm Ascaris suum. The levels of these heavy metals in the parasites were compared to those of muscle, liver, kidney and intestine of the respective definitive hosts cattle and swine obtained from a slaughter house. Most parasites accumulated significantly higher levels of metals than their final hosts. This was most conspicuous in acanthocephalans which contained up to 3 {times} 10{sup 3} fold more lead than the muscle of their fish hosts and up to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 4} more lead than the water surrounding the fish. In these helminths cadmium was enriched up to 400 fold compared to the muscle of the fish and up to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 4} compared to the water. In contrast to the accumulation capacity of adult acanthocephalans their larvae contained about 30 to 180 times less Pb and Cd. Thus, the predominant accumulation of both metals appears in the adult worms. The cestodes of fish and the liver flukes of cattle accumulated the metals up to 200 fold compared to the muscle of their hosts. The nematodes did not contain higher levels of the metals than their hosts. Thus, parasites, especially acanthocephalans, seem to be sensitive bioindicators of Pb and Cd in their environments.

  2. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-02-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils.

  3. Irradiation-induced amorphization of Cd2Nb2O7 pyrochlore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldrum, A.; White, C. W.; Keppens, V.; Boatner, L. A.; Ewing, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Several investigations have recently been undertaken in order to achieve a more complete understanding of the radiation-damage mechanisms in A 2 B 2 O 7 pyrochlore-structure compounds. The present work represents the first systematic study of the irradiation-induced amorphization of a pyrochlore with A- and B-site cation valences of +2 and +5, respectively. Relatively large single crystals of Cd 2 Nb 2 O 7 were grown for these experiments. In situ ion-irradiation experiments were carried out in a transmission electron microscope in conjunction with ex situ Rutherford backscattering measurements of ion-irradiated Cd 2 Nb 2 O 7 single crystals. Cd 2 Nb 2 O 7 can be amorphized in situ by Ne or Xe ions at temperatures up to 480 and 620 K, respectively. At room temperature, the amorphization fluence was 36 times higher for 280 keV Ne + than for 1200 keV Xe 2+ , corresponding to a displacement dose that was higher by a factor of 3. Disordering of Cd and Nb over the available cation sites occurs at intermediate ion doses prior to amorphization. The temperature dependence of the amorphization dose is modeled, and the results are compared to those of a previous model. The bulk-sample Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) results were generally consistent with the in situ TEM measurements. Effects of crystallographic orientation and ion charge state had relatively little effect on the damage accumulation in bulk crystals. The RBS data are consistent with a defect-accumulation, cascade-overlap model of amorphization of Cd 2 Nb 2 O 7 , as are the in situ TEM observations

  4. Functional dichotomy between NKG2D and CD28-mediated co-stimulation in human CD8+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakannan Rajasekaran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Both CD28 and NKG2D can function as co-stimulatory receptors in human CD8+ T cells. However, their independent functional contributions in distinct CD8+ T cell subsets are not well understood. In this study, CD8+ T cells in human peripheral blood- and lung-derived lymphocytes were analyzed for CD28 and NKG2D expression and function. We found a higher level of CD28 expression in PBMC-derived naïve (CD45RA+CD27+ and memory (CD45RA-CD27+ CD8+ T cells (CD28Hi, while its expression was significantly lower in effector (CD45RA+CD27- CD8+ T cells (CD28Lo. Irrespective of the differences in the CD28 levels, NKG2D expression was comparable in all three CD8+ T cell subsets. CD28 and NKG2D expressions followed similar patterns in human lung-resident GILGFVFTL/HLA-A2-pentamer positive CD8+ T cells. Co-stimulation of CD28Lo effector T cells via NKG2D significantly increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. On the contrary, irrespective of its comparable levels, NKG2D-mediated co-stimulation failed to augment IFN-γ and TNF-α production in CD28Hi naïve/memory T cells. Additionally, CD28-mediated co-stimulation was obligatory for IL-2 generation and thereby its production was limited only to the CD28Hi naïve/memory subsets. MICA, a ligand for NKG2D was abundantly expressed in the tracheal epithelial cells, validating the use of NKG2D as the major co-stimulatory receptor by tissue-resident CD8+ effector T cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that NKG2D may provide an expanded level of co-stimulation to tissue-residing effector CD8+ T cells. Thus, incorporation of co-stimulation via NKG2D in addition to CD28 is essential to activate tumor or tissue-infiltrating effector CD8+ T cells. However, boosting a recall immune response via memory CD8+ T cells or vaccination to stimulate naïve CD8+ T cells would require CD28-mediated co-stimulation.

  5. Cesium-137 accumulation in higher plants before and after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawidis, T.; Drossos, E.; Papastefanou, C.; Heinrick, G.

    1990-01-01

    Cesium-137 concentrations in plant species of three biotypes of northern Greece, differing in location as well as in vegetation, are reported following the Chernobyl reactor accident. The cesium uptake by plants was due to the foliar deposition rather than the root uptake. The highest level of cesium in plants was found in Ranunculus sardous, a pubescent plant. The 137 Cs concentration was about 22kBq kg -1 d.w. A high level of cesium was also found in Salix alba ( 137 Cs: 19.6 kBq kg -1 d.w.), a deciduous tree showing that hairy leaves or leaves having rough and large surfaces can absorb greater amounts of radioactivity (surface effect). A comparison is also made between the results of measurements of the present study and the results of measurements of some herbarium plants collected one year before the accident as well as the results of measurements of some new plants grown and collected one year after the accident resulting in a natural removal rate of 137 Cs in plants varying from 14 to 130 days

  6. Impact of CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio at the invasive front of primary tumors on distant metastasis development in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Eiró

    Full Text Available Tumors are infiltrated by macrophages, T and B-lymphocytes, which may favor tumor development by promoting angiogenesis, growth and invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of the relative amount of macrophages (CD68⁺, T-cells (CD3⁺ and B-cells (CD20⁺ at the invasive front of breast carcinomas, and the expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs either at the invasive front or at the tumor center. We performed an immunohistochemical study counting CD3, CD20 and CD68 positive cells at the invasive front, in 102 breast carcinomas. Also, tissue sections were stained with MMP-2, -9, -11, -14 and TIMP-2 antibodies, and immunoreactivity location, percentage of reactive area and intensity were determined at the invasive front and at the tumor center. The results showed that an increased CD68 count and CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio were directly associated with both MMP-11 and TIMP-2 expression by mononuclear inflammatory cells at the tumor center (p = 0.041 and p = 0.025 for CD68 count and p = 0.001 and p = 0.045 for ratio, respectively for MMP-11 and TIMP-2. In addition, a high CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio (>0.05 was directly associated with a higher probability of shortened relapse-free survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio was an independent factor associated with distant relapse-free survival (RR: 2.54, CI: (1.23-5.24, p<0.01. Therefore, CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio at the invasive front could be used as an important prognostic marker.

  7. Soluble CD52 is an indicator of disease activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vojdeman, Fie J.; Herman, Sarah E. M.; Kirkby, Nikolai; Wiestner, Adrian; van T' Veer, Mars B.; Tjønnfjord, Geir E.; Itälä-Remes, Maija A.; Kimby, Eva; Farooqui, Mohammed Z.; Polliack, Aaron; Wu, Ka Lung; Doorduijn, Jeanette K.; Alemayehu, Wendimagegn G.; Wittebol, Shulamiet; Kozak, Tomas; Walewski, Jan; Abrahamse-Testroote, Martine C. J.; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Geisler, Christian H.; Niemann, Carsten U.

    2017-01-01

    CD52 is a glycoprotein expressed on normal as well as leukemic immune cells and shed as soluble CD52 (sCD52). We studied sCD52 levels in three CLL cohorts: the 'early', the 'high-risk', and the 'ibrutinib-treated'. The 'high-risk' patients had significantly higher sCD52 levels than the 'early'

  8. Is oxidative stress related to cadmium accumulation in the Mollusc Crassostrea angulata?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macías-Mayorga, Dayanara, E-mail: dayanara.macias@uleam.edu.ec [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (CSIC), Campus Río San Pedro, S/N, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Departamento Central De Investigación (DCI), Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabí, Vía San Mateo, Manta (Ecuador); Laiz, Irene [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro, S/N, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (CSIC), Campus Río San Pedro, S/N, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The cadmium accumulation in C. angulata tended toward a stationary state. • Metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) is clearly induced by Cd accumulation. • The MTLP detoxification mechanism is affected at high Cd concentrations. • Cadmium toxicity causes GSH levels to decrease and inhibits antioxidant enzymes. - Abstract: The kinetics of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of Crassotrea angulata at three concentrations of cadmium (0.088 μM, 0.44 μM and 2.22 μM) was monitored for 28 days. The relationship between accumulation and toxicity was studied using metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) concentration and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) as biochemical endpoints. The activity of enzymes which form part of the antioxidant defense system, in particular glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as enzymatic endpoints, was also assessed. A first order kinetic model demonstrated that the accumulation process does not take place linearly, as the Cd concentration in gills and digestive gland tended toward a stationary state. Metallothionein-like protein is clearly induced by Cd accumulation; however, at high Cd concentrations the detoxification mechanism of this protein is affected. High Cd concentrations (2.22 μM) lead to a decrease in GSH levels, and also inhibit antioxidant enzyme activities, demonstrating the adverse effect of this metal on the antioxidant balance system.

  9. Is oxidative stress related to cadmium accumulation in the Mollusc Crassostrea angulata?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías-Mayorga, Dayanara; Laiz, Irene; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cadmium accumulation in C. angulata tended toward a stationary state. • Metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) is clearly induced by Cd accumulation. • The MTLP detoxification mechanism is affected at high Cd concentrations. • Cadmium toxicity causes GSH levels to decrease and inhibits antioxidant enzymes. - Abstract: The kinetics of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of Crassotrea angulata at three concentrations of cadmium (0.088 μM, 0.44 μM and 2.22 μM) was monitored for 28 days. The relationship between accumulation and toxicity was studied using metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) concentration and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) as biochemical endpoints. The activity of enzymes which form part of the antioxidant defense system, in particular glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as enzymatic endpoints, was also assessed. A first order kinetic model demonstrated that the accumulation process does not take place linearly, as the Cd concentration in gills and digestive gland tended toward a stationary state. Metallothionein-like protein is clearly induced by Cd accumulation; however, at high Cd concentrations the detoxification mechanism of this protein is affected. High Cd concentrations (2.22 μM) lead to a decrease in GSH levels, and also inhibit antioxidant enzyme activities, demonstrating the adverse effect of this metal on the antioxidant balance system

  10. Low Doses of Cadmium Chloride and Methallothionein-1-Bound Cadmium Display Different Accumulation Kinetics and Induce Different Genes in Cells of the Human Nephron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Cucu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study was conducted to investigate the renal tubular handling of inorganic cadmium (Cd2+ by exposing primary human tubular cell cultures to physiologically relevant doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl2. Furthermore, the cellular accumulation of Cd2+ was compared to that of metallothionein-1-bound Cd (Cd7MT-1. Finally, this study aimed to investigate the effect of the accumulation of Cd (both Cd2+ and Cd7MT-1 in renal cells on the expression of genes relevant to nephrotoxic processes. Methods: Cd concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. mRNA expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results: Cd2+ accumulated into human tubular cells in a concentration- and time-dependent way. Furthermore, cellular accumulation of Cd2+ was different from the cellular accumulation of Cd7MT-1, indicative for different uptake routes. Finally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding the anti-oxidative proteins metallothionein-1 (MT-1 and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1 as well as the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax were upregulated by CdCl2 and not by Cd7MT1. Conclusion: In the presence of physiologically relevant Cd concentrations, tubular accumulation of the element in its inorganic form is different from that of Cd7MT-1. Furthermore, the tubular accumulation of inorganic Cd induces mRNA expression of genes of which the protein products may play a role in Cd-associated renal toxicity.

  11. Improved photoluminescence quantum yield and stability of CdSe-TOP, CdSe-ODA-TOPO, CdSe/CdS and CdSe/EP nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shutian; Zhu, Zhilin; Wang, Zhixiao; Wei, Gugangfen; Wang, Pingjian; Li, Hai; Hua, Zhen; Lin, Zhonghai

    2016-07-01

    Size-controllable monodisperse CdSe nanocrystals with different organic capping were prepared based on the hot-injection method. The effective separation of nucleation and growth was achieved by rapidly mixing two highly reactive precursors. As a contrast, we prepared CdSe/CdS nanocrystals (NCs) successfully based on the selective ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. This inorganic capping obtained higher photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 59.3% compared with organic capping of 40.8%. Furthermore, the CdSe-epoxy resin (EP) composites were prepared by adopting a flexible ex situ method, and showed excellent stability in the ambient environment for one year. So the composites with both high PLQY of nanocrystals and excellent stability are very promising to device application.

  12. Bio-remediation of Pb and Cd polluted soils by switchgrass: A case study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kalpana; Sharma, Satyawati; Monti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the present study bioremediation potential of a high biomass yielding grass, Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), along with plant associated microbes (AM fungi and Azospirillum), was tested against lead and cadmium in pot trials. A pot trial was set up in order to evaluate bioremediation efficiency of P. virgatum in association with PAMs (Plant Associated Microbes). Growth parameters and bioremediation potential of endomycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Azospirillum against different concentrations of Pb and Cd were compared. AM fungi and Azospirillum increased the root length, branches, surface area, and root and shoot biomass. The soil pH was found towards neutral with AMF and Azospirillum inoculations. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) for Pb (12 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (10 mg kg(-1)) were found to be 0.25 and 0.23 respectively and translocation index (Ti) was 17.8 and 16.7 respectively (approx 45% higher than control). The lower values of BCF and Ti, even at highest concentration of Pb and Cd, revealed the capability of switchgrass of accumulating high concentration of Pb and Cd in the roots, while preventing the translocation of Pb and Cd to aerial biomass.

  13. Cadmium-Induced Hydrogen Accumulation Is Involved in Cadmium Tolerance in Brassica campestris by Reestablishment of Reduced Glutathione Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Chen, Qin; Shen, Wenbiao; Shen, Zhenguo; Xia, Yan; Cui, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) was recently proposed as a therapeutic antioxidant and signaling molecule in clinical trials. However, the underlying physiological roles of H2 in plants remain unclear. In the present study, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize the physiological roles of H2 in enhancing the tolerance of Brassica campestris against cadmium (Cd). The results showed that both 50 μM CdCl2 and 50%-saturated HRW induced an increase of endogenous H2 in Brassica campestris seedlings, and HRW alleviated Cd toxicity related to growth inhibition and oxidative damage. Seedlings supplied with HRW exhibited increased root length and reduced lipid peroxidation, similar to plants receiving GSH post-treatment. Additionally, seedlings post-treated with HRW accumulated higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) and showed increased GST and GPX activities in roots. Molecular evidence illustrated that the expression of genes such as GS, GR1 and GR2, which were down-regulated following the addition of Cd, GSH or BSO, could be reversed to varying degrees by the addition of HRW. Based on these results, it could be proposed that H2 might be an important regulator for enhancing the tolerance of Brassica campestris seedlings against Cd, mainly by governing reduced glutathione homeostasis.

  14. Increased Aqueous Humor CD4+/CD8+ Lymphocyte Ratio in Sarcoid Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Namita; Chevour, Priyanka; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Venkatesh, Anitha; Kawali, Ankush; Shetty, Rohit; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Sethu, Swaminathan

    2018-02-08

    To determine aqueous humor CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocyte ratio changes in sarcoid and non-sarcoid uveitis with anterior chamber involvement. The case-control study includes 61 patients with either anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis with anterior spill, or panuveitis. A total of 21 of them were categorized as sarcoid uveitis and 40 as non-sarcoid uveitis according to diagnostic criteria. CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the aqueous humor was determined using flow cytometry. Significantly higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the aqueous humor was observed in patients with sarcoid uveitis (6.3 ± 1.4; mean ± SEM) compared to non-sarcoid uveitis (1.6 ± 0.1; mean ± SEM). Whole blood CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not elevated in subjects with sarcoid and non-sarcoid uveitis. Aqueous humor CD4+/CD8+ ratio >3.5 was observed to be associated with sarcoid uveitis (OR 38, 95% CI 7.0-205.2). Increased aqueous humor CD4+/CD8+ ratio in sarcoid uveitis. Immunophenotyping of localized lymphocytosis in aqueous humor could be utilized as an additional confirmatory marker for ocular sarcoidosis.

  15. IL-17-Expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Human Toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Líver Alves Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the synthesis of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by mononuclear cells after culture with live T. gondii and identified Th17 (CD4+ and Tc17 (CD8+ cells in toxoplasma-seronegative and toxoplasma-seropositive parturient and nonpregnant women. Cytometric bead arrays were used to measure cytokine levels (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10; immunophenotyping was used to characterize Th17 and Tc17 cells, and the cells were stained with antibodies against CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing IL-17. The addition of tachyzoites to cell cultures induced the synthesis of IL-5, IL-10, and TNF-α by cells from seronegative parturient women and of IL-5 and IL-10 by cells from seropositive, nonpregnant women. We observed a lower level of IL-17-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in cultures of cells from seronegative and seropositive parturient and nonpregnant women that were stimulated with tachyzoites, whereas analysis of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations showed a higher level of CD4+ T cells compared with CD8+ T cells. These results suggest that the cytokine pattern and IL-17-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes may have important roles in the inflammatory response to T. gondii, thus contributing to the maintenance of pregnancy and control of parasite invasion and replication.

  16. [Increased expressions of peripheral PD-1+ lymphocytes and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells in gastric adenocarcinoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Li, Songyan; Hu, Shidong; Zou, Guijun; Hu, Zilong; Wei, Huahua; Wang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Objective To detect the frequencies of peripheral programmed death-1 + (PD-1 + ) lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods The study enrolled 29 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Frequencies of PD-1 + lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells were detected using flow cytometry. Results The number of PD-1 + lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in peripheral blood was higher in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma than that in the control group. Moreover, linear correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between PD-1 expression and frequency of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of the patients. Conclusion Gastric adenocarcinoma patients present with increased PD-1 + lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood.

  17. Potential of Pteris vittata L. for phytoremediation of sites co-contaminated with cadmium and arsenic: the tolerance and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiyuan; Chen, Tongbin; An, Zhizhuang; Lei, Mei; Huang, Zechun; Liao, Xiaoyong; Liu, Yingru

    2008-01-01

    Field investigation and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the tolerance of Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake) to cadmium (Cd) and its feasibility for remediating sites co-contaminated with Cd and arsenic (As). The results showed that P. vittata could survive in pot soils spiked with 80 mg/kg of Cd and tolerated as great as 301 mg/kg of total Cd and 26.8 mg/kg of diethyltriaminepenta acetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd under field conditions. The highest concentration of Cd in fronds was 186 mg/kg under a total soil concentration of 920 mg As/kg and 98.6 mg Cd/kg in the field, whereas just 2.6 mg/kg under greenhouse conditions. Ecotypes of P. vittata were differentiated in tolerance and accumulation of Cd, and some of them could not only tolerate high concentrations of soil Cd, but also accumulated high concentrations of Cd in their fronds. Arsenic uptake and transportation by P. vittata was not inhibited at lower levels (< or = 20 mg/kg) of Cd addition. Compared to the treatment without addition of Cd, the frond As concentration was increased by 103.8% at 20 mg Cd/kg, with the highest level of 6434 mg/kg. The results suggested that the Cd-tolerant ecotype of P. vittata extracted effectively As and Cd from the site co-contaminated with Cd and As, and might be used to remediate and revegetate this type of site.

  18. ADP ribosyl-cyclases (CD38/CD157), social skills and friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Anne; Malavasi, Fabio; Israel, Salomon; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Yap, Von Bing; Monakhov, Mikhail; Chew, Soo Hong; Lai, Poh San; Ebstein, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    Why some individuals seek social engagement while others shy away has profound implications for normal and pathological human behavior. Evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT), the paramount human social hormone, and CD38 that governs OT release, contribute to individual differences in social skills from intense social involvement to extreme avoidance that characterize autism. To explore the neurochemical underpinnings of sociality, CD38 expression of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) was measured in Han Chinese undergraduates. First, CD38 mRNA levels were correlated with lower Autism Quotient (AQ), indicating enhanced social skills. AQ assesses the extent of autistic-like traits including the propensity and dexterity needed for successful social engagement in the general population. Second, three CD157 eQTL SNPs in the CD38/CD157 gene region were associated with CD38 expression. CD157 is a paralogue of CD38 and is contiguous with it on chromosome 4p15. Third, association was also observed between the CD157 eQTL SNPs, CD38 expression and AQ. In the full model, CD38 expression and CD157 eQTL SNPs altogether account for a substantial 14% of the variance in sociality. Fourth, functionality of CD157 eQTL SNPs was suggested by a significant association with plasma oxytocin immunoreactivity products. Fifth, the ecological validity of these findings was demonstrated with subjects with higher PBL CD38 expression having more friends, especially for males. Furthermore, CD157 sequence variation predicts scores on the Friendship questionnaire. To summarize, this study by uniquely leveraging various measures reveals salient elements contributing to nonkin sociality and friendship, revealing a likely pathway underpinning the transition from normality to psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of dietary phosphorus and vitamin D3 on the cadmium accumulation in the tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruki, Fukiko; Wung, Houi-Ling; Moriuchi, Sachiko; Hosoya, Norimasa

    1979-01-01

    The effects of dietary Ca and vitamin D 3 on the Cd accumulation in the liver and the kidney were observed and discussed in relation with the responses to the intestinal Ca transport and vitamin D dependent calcium binding protein (CaBP). 1. Ca transport in rat duodenum was significantly increased by vitamin D 3 , especially in rats raised on low P diet. However, this effect was reduced in Cd-exposed rats. 2. 45 Ca binding activity of the smaller CaBP (PIII), which was found predominantly in the duodenum and jejunum was increased by low P diet. However, in Cd-exposed rats, 45 Ca binding activity was suppressed significantly. On the other hand, the larger CaBP (PII) found mainly in jejunum and ileum showed a good response to vitamin D 3 , too, but not influenced by dietary P and Cd levels as the smaller CaBP. 3. Renal Cd accumulation was influenced by neither dietary P nor vitamin D 3 . However, hepatic Cd accumulation was significantly decreased in vitamin D 3 repleted rat, although it was not influenced by dietary P. These results suggest that dietary P modulates the inhibitory effect of Cd on intestinal vitamin D-stimulated Ca transport, presumably through the inhibition of Ca binding to the smaller CaBP (PIII). But Cd accumulation in the liver was decreased in vitamin D repleted groups, presumably, vitamin D dependent CaBP acts as the barrier in the Cd-exposed rats. (author)

  20. Cadmium accumulation by muskmelon under salt stress in contaminated organic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrijel, Ondrasek [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: gondrasek@agr.hr; Davor, Romic [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Zed, Rengel [Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Marija, Romic; Monika, Zovko [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-03-15

    Human-induced salinization and trace element contamination are widespread and increasing rapidly, but their interactions and environmental consequences are poorly understood. Phytoaccumulation, as the crucial entry pathway for biotoxic Cd into the human foodstuffs, correlates positively with rhizosphere salinity. Hypothesising that organic matter decreases the bioavailable Cd{sup 2+} pool and therefore restricts its phytoextraction, we assessed the effects of four salinity levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 mM NaCl) and three Cd levels (0.3, 5.5 and 10.4 mg kg{sup -1}) in peat soil on mineral accumulation/distribution as well as vegetative growth and fruit yield parameters of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) in a greenhouse. Salt stress reduced shoot biomass and fruit production, accompanied by increased Na and Cl and decreased K concentration in above-ground tissues. A 25- and 50-day exposure to salinity increased Cd accumulation in leaves up to 87% and 46%, respectively. Accumulation of Cd in the fruits was up to 43 times lower than in leaves and remained unaltered by salinity. Soil contamination by Cd enhanced its accumulation in muskmelon tissues by an order of magnitude compared with non-contaminated control. In the drainage solution, concentrations of Na and Cl slightly exceeded those in the irrigation solution, whereas Cd concentration in drainage solution was lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the total amount added. Chemical speciation and distribution modelling (NICA-Donnan) using Visual MINTEQ showed predominance of dissolved organic ligands in Cd chemisorption and complexation in all treatments; however, an increase in salt addition caused a decrease in organic Cd complexes from 99 to 71%, with free Cd{sup 2+} increasing up to 6% and Cd-chlorocomplexes up to 23%. This work highlights the importance of soil organic reactive surfaces in reducing trace element bioavailability and phytoaccumulation. Chloride salinity increased Cd accumulation in leaves but not in fruit

  1. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  2. Comparing heavy metals accumulation potential in natural vegetation and soil adjoining wastewater canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb, N.; Irshad, M.; Hussain, F.; Mahmood, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution of waters, soils and vegetation is a major ecological problem that needs to be investigated. The present study involved the collection of soil samples and natural vegetations (Tribilas terristris, Lepia nodiflora, Amaranthus viridis, Heliotropium euoropeum, Coronopis didymus, Cynodon ductylon, Chenopodium murale and Eclipta alba) from the vicinity of wastewater canal and subsequent analysis for their HM concentrations. Results showed that HM concentrations varied within the species of vegetation and type of metal analyzed. The order of vegetation for metal concentrations was A. viridis > E. alba > H. euoropeum > L. nodiflora > C. murale > C. didymus > C. ductylon > T. terristris. Metals prevailed in plants in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd, irrespective of the vegetation. Metal prevalence in soils was in the order of Fe > Mn > Cd > Cr > Pb > Zn > Cu. Samples near canal were found with higher level of Mn, Pb and Zn as compared to soil away from canal water. Distant sampling gave higher accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu and Fe as compared to the soil nearby wastewater. The analyzed species of HM in the soils and plants may indicate the variability of their composition in wastewater. (author)

  3. Functional defect of circulating regulatory CD4+T cells in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis in remission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulahad, Wayel Habib; Stegeman, Coen; van der Geld, Y.M.; Doornbos-van der Meer, B.; Limburg, Piet; Kallenberg, Cees

    Objective. Accumulating data support the role of regulatory T cells, a subset of CD4+ T cells that expresses CD25(high) and the transcription factor fork-head box P3 (FoxP3), in controlling and preventing autoimmunity. In Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), an autoimmune vasculitis, up-regulation of CD25

  4. Response of lettuce to Cd-enriched water and irrigation frequencies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, shoot Cd content showed a significant positive correlation with the final accumulated Cd concentration of soil and was expressed by a plateau model under the dry irrigation regime and linear models at other irrigation intervals. Overall, shoot Cd concentration was predicted by using a simple linear regression model ...

  5. Rapid charging of nickel-cadmium accumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, F

    1972-01-01

    Four types of charging of gas-tight Ni-Cd accumulators (a) normal; (b) accelerated; (c) rapid; and (d) ultra-rapid are described. For rapid charging, a built-in temperature sensor cuts off charging current at a prescribed point. In ultra-rapid charging, 50% charge can be attained in 3.5 min. and 25% charge within 50 sec. In the second phase of ultra-rapid charging, a surplus of oxygen is released at the positive electrode and a safety valve is provided for pressure reduction. Characteristic curves are given for various rates of charging and some data on discharge rates is also given.

  6. Transport of Cd and Zn to seeds of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) during specific stages of plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Ebbs, Stephen D

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation of excess Cd in the seeds of cereal and other crops compromises their commercial value and presents a potential risk to human health. Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] is a moderate accumulator of heavy metals such as Cd and Zn, and the seeds are consumed throughout the world, particularly in the Indian subcontinent. The study here examined the transport of Cd into Indian mustard plants and to seeds as a function of external Cd and the stage of the life cycle (vegetative growth, flowering and seed set) to identify critical developmental windows where transport from roots to seeds was the greatest. Plants were also treated simultaneously with Zn to determine if Zn fertilization mitigated the transport of Cd to seeds. Plants treated with Cd during the seed set accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd, exceeding 8 mg kg(-1) dry weight in some instances. Cadmium accumulated during vegetative growth was not highly redistributed to seeds. No effects of Zn were observed with regard to Cd redistribution to seeds. This may be because of the relatively small Zn : Cd ratios tested. However, the results suggest that if Zn fertilization is to be used to reduce the Cd accumulation in seeds of this species, that plants should be treated during the seed set stage. As the seeds of Indian mustard consistently accumulated Cd to concentrations that exceed acceptable limits for food crops, additional study of Cd redistribution in this species is warranted.

  7. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: a fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznaric, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Wevers, Jan H L; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2009-05-01

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils.

  8. Determination of the accumulator plants in Kucukcekmece Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For remediation or cleaning of the soils polluted with heavy metals, the ideal plant species are the ones which can produce high amounts of biomass, and can accumulate and tolerate the pollutants. In this study, the Cd and Zn contents obtained from Kucukcekmece Lake border were monitored on monthly basis and it was ...

  9. Macro and Trace Element Accumulation in Edible Crabs and Frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tissue accumulation of five macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe) and twelve trace elements (Vd, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were assessed in the organs of the edible frogs; Xenopus laevis and Rana esculentus, and whole body of the crab, Callinestes caught from Alaro Stream Floodplain (Ibadan, ...

  10. Reducing arsenic accumulation in rice grain through iron oxide amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this research, we investigated the accumulation of arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd) in rice grain under different soil conditions in standard straighthead-resistant and straighthead-susceptible cultivars, Zhe 733 and Cocodrie, respectively. Results demonstrated that,...

  11. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  12. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  13. Creation / accumulation city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions

  14. A Critical Role for CD200R Signaling in Limiting the Growth and Metastasis of CD200+ Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Qing; Talebian, Fatemeh; Wu, Lisha; Liu, Zhihao; Li, Ming-Song; Wu, Laichu; Zhu, Jianmin; Markowitz, Joseph; Carson, William E; Basu, Sujit; Bai, Xue-Feng

    2016-08-15

    CD200 is a cell surface glycoprotein that functions through engaging CD200R on cells of the myeloid lineage and inhibits their functions. Expression of CD200 was implicated in a variety of human cancer cells, including melanoma cells; however, its roles in tumor growth and immunity are not clearly understood. In this study, we used CD200R-deficient mice and the B16 tumor model to evaluate this issue. We found that CD200R-deficient mice exhibited accelerated growth of CD200(+), but not CD200(-), B16 tumors. Strikingly, CD200R-deficient mice receiving CD200(+) B16 cells i.v. exhibited massive tumor growth in multiple organs, including liver, lung, kidney, and peritoneal cavity, whereas the growth of the same tumors in wild-type mice was limited. CD200(+) tumors grown in CD200R-deficient mice contained higher numbers of CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) myeloid cells, exhibited increased expression of VEGF and HIF1α genes with increased angiogenesis, and showed significantly reduced infiltration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, presumably as the result of reduced expression of T cell chemokines, such as CXCL9 and CXCL16. The liver from CD200R-deficient mice, under metastatic growth of CD200(+) tumors, contained significantly increased numbers of CD11b(+)Gr1(-) myeloid cells and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and reduced numbers of NK cells. Liver T cells also had a reduced capacity to produce IFN-γ or TNF-α. Taken together, we revealed a critical role for CD200R signaling in limiting the growth and metastasis of CD200(+) tumors. Thus, targeting CD200R signaling may potentially interfere with the metastatic growth of CD200(+) tumors, like melanoma. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Apoptotic effects of antilymphocyte globulins on human pro-inflammatory CD4+CD28- T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Duftner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory, cytotoxic CD4(+CD28(- T-cells with known defects in apoptosis have been investigated as markers of premature immuno-senescence in various immune-mediated diseases. In this study we evaluated the influence of polyclonal antilymphocyte globulins (ATG-Fresenius, ATG-F on CD4(+CD28(- T-cells in vivo and in vitro. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surface and intracellular three colour fluorescence activated cell sorting analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 consecutive transplant recipients and short-term cell lines were performed. In vivo, peripheral levels of CD3(+CD4(+CD28(- T-cells decreased from 3.7 ± 7.1% before to 0 ± 0% six hours after ATG-F application (P = 0.043 in 5 ATG-F treated but not in 11 control patients (2.9 ± 2.9% vs. 3.9 ± 3.0%. In vitro, ATG-F induced apoptosis even in CD4(+CD28(- T-cells, which was 4.3-times higher than in CD4(+CD28(+ T-cells. ATG-F evoked apoptosis was partially reversed by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk and prednisolon-21-hydrogensuccinate. ATG-F triggered CD25 expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and induced down-regulation of the type 1 chemokine receptors CXCR-3, CCR-5, CX3CR-1 and the central memory adhesion molecule CD62L predominately in CD4(+CD28(- T-cells. CONCLUSION: In summary, in vivo depletion of peripheral CD3(+CD4(+CD28(- T-cells by ATG-F in transplant recipients was paralleled in vitro by ATG-F induced apoptosis. CD25 expression and chemokine receptor down-regulation in CD4(+CD28(- T-cells only partly explain the underlying mechanism.

  16. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, Iqra; Afsheen, Sumera; Zia, Ahmed; Javed, Muqaddas; Saeed, Rashid; Sarwar, Muhammad Kaleem; Munir, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia), an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla), and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insec...

  17. The Function of CD3+CD56+ NKT-Like Cells in HIV-Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells are one of the critical effectors in the immune response to viral infection and tumors, but the functional features of NKT-like cells in HIV infection have been rarely reported. In this study, we observed and described the state of NKT-like cell functions in primary HIV-infected individuals (PHIs, chronic HIV-infected individuals (CHIs, long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs, and HIV-negative controls (NCs. The results showed that the percentage of IFN-γ+CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells was notably higher in LTNPs compared with CHIs, and the proportion of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells with dual function (IFN-γ+CD107a+ NKT-like cells in LTNPs was also much higher than in CHIs. Additionally, the percentages of IFN-γ+CD107a+ NKT-like cells negatively correlated with viral load. Taken together, our data demonstrated that good functions of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells in LTNPs likely occurred as a protective mechanism that slows down HIV disease progression.

  18. The function of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongjun; Cui, Xiaojian; Cui, Chen; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Fangyuan; Zhang, Zining; Fu, Yajing; Xu, Junjie; Chu, Zhenxing; Liu, Jing; Han, Xiaoxu; Liao, Christina; Wang, Yanan; Cao, Yaming; Shang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells are one of the critical effectors in the immune response to viral infection and tumors, but the functional features of NKT-like cells in HIV infection have been rarely reported. In this study, we observed and described the state of NKT-like cell functions in primary HIV-infected individuals (PHIs), chronic HIV-infected individuals (CHIs), long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs), and HIV-negative controls (NCs). The results showed that the percentage of IFN-γ(+)CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells was notably higher in LTNPs compared with CHIs, and the proportion of CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells with dual function (IFN-γ(+)CD107a(+) NKT-like cells) in LTNPs was also much higher than in CHIs. Additionally, the percentages of IFN-γ(+)CD107a(+) NKT-like cells negatively correlated with viral load. Taken together, our data demonstrated that good functions of CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells in LTNPs likely occurred as a protective mechanism that slows down HIV disease progression.

  19. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krznaric, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Wevers, Jan H.L.; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V.

    2009-01-01

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  20. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krznaric, Erik [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Verbruggen, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP242, Bd du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wevers, Jan H.L. [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Carleer, Robert [Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Colpaert, Jan V., E-mail: jan.colpaert@uhasselt.b [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2009-05-15

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  1. Ag/CdS heterostructural composites: Fabrication, characterizations and photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Chi, Mei; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Husheng; Xu, Bingshe; Zhang, Zhuxia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel Ag/CdS core–shell heterostructural composites were fabricated using a two-step chemical method. • A formation mechanism of Ag/CdS heterostructural composites. • The photocatalytic activity of Ag/CdS heterostructural composites was found to be improved. • PL emissions are markedly quenched in the Ag/CdS composites than in CdS nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ag/CdS heterostructural materials were successfully synthesized by ultrasound-assisted polyols and hydrothermal method. Under hydrothermal condition, thiourea adsorbed on Ag nanowires releases S 2− ions, which react with vicinal Cd 2+ ions to form CdS clusters on Ag nanowires. Thereafter, the Ag/CdS composites grow into core–shell structure through CdS aggregation, Ostwald ripening, and preferential growth. The obtained core–shell structures and morphologies were investigated by XRD, SEM, and TEM; the experimental results indicate that the composites are composed of Ag nanowires serving as the core and CdS particles as the shell. The photocatalytic property of Ag/CdS core–shell materials was then investigated in detail. Comparing studies on the degradation of methylene blue were employed by using pure CdS, pure Ag, and Ag/CdS composites, respectively. The results show that the Ag/CdS composites possess higher photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Moreover, the Ag/CdS composites show improved stability, and the photocatalytic activity remains almost unchanged after four recycles. The enhanced photocatalytic effect for Ag/CdS composites is mainly attributed to the photogenerated electron transfer from CdS to Ag nanowire, while photogenerated holes still remain in CdS's valence band. Consequently, the effective separation of photogenerated electrons and holes and the resulting OH radicals improve the photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/CdS composites greatly

  2. Lineage determination of CD7+ CD5- CD2- and CD7+ CD5+ CD2- lymphoblasts: studies on phenotype, genotype, and gene expression of myeloperoxidase, CD3 epsilon, and CD3 delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, N; Tatsumi, E; Teshigawara, K; Nagata, S; Nagano, T; Kishimoto, Y; Kimura, T; Yasunaga, K; Yamaguchi, N

    1994-04-01

    The gene expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO), CD3 epsilon, and CD3 delta molecules, the gene rearrangement of T-cell receptor (TCR) delta, gamma, and beta and immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain, and the expression of cell-surface antigens were investigated in seven cases of CD7+ CD5- CD2- and four cases of CD7+ CD5+ CD2- acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma (ALL/LBL) blasts, which were negative for cytochemical myeloperoxidase (cyMPO). More mature T-lineage blasts were also investigated in a comparative manner. In conclusion, the CD7+ CD5- CD2- blasts included four categories: undifferentiated blasts without lineage commitment, T-lineage blasts, T-/myeloid lineage blasts, and cyMPO-negative myeloblasts. The CD7+ CD5+ CD2- blasts included two categories; T-lineage and T-/myeloid lineage blasts. The 11 cases were of the germ-line gene (G) for TCR beta and IgH. Four cases were G for TCR delta and TCR gamma. The others were of the monoclonally rearranged gene (R) for TCR delta and G for TCR gamma or R for both TCR delta and TCR gamma. The expression or in vitro induction of CD13 and/or CD33 antigens correlated with the immaturity of these neoplastic T cells, since it was observed in all 11 CD7+ CD5- CD2- and CD7+ CD5+ CD2-, and some CD7+ CD5+ CD2+ (CD3- CD4- CD8-) cases, but not in CD3 +/- CD4+ CD8+ or CD3+ CD4+ CD8- cases. CD3 epsilon mRNA, but not CD3 delta mRNA, was detected in two CD7+ CD5- CD2- cases, while mRNA of neither of the two CD3 molecules was detected in the other tested CD7+ CD5- CD2- cases. In contrast, mRNA of both CD3 epsilon and CD3 delta were detected in all CD7+ CD5+ CD2- cases, indicating that CD7+ CD5- CD2- blasts at least belong to T-lineage. The blasts of two CD7+ CD5- CD2- cases with entire germ-line genes and without mRNA of the three molecules (MPO, CD3 epsilon, and CD3 delta) were regarded as being at an undifferentiated stage prior to their commitment to either T- or myeloid-lineage. The co-expression of the genes of MPO

  3. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria and their potential for reducing accumulation of cadmium in rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Mou, Renxiang; Cao, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious widespread environmental problem that not only destroys the microbial ecology of soil and decreases crop production, but also poses a serious risk to human health. Many methods have been used for the remediation of Cd pollution but none of these is totally satisfactory. Microbial remediation strategies have attracted increasing interest since they are environmentally friendly and cost-effective. In the present study, three Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for potential application in Cd bioremediation. Based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, together with 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, bacteria were identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (2#), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9#) and Delftia tsuruhatensis (12#). Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed very high tolerance to metals, especially Cd (2200 mg/L), Zn (1800 mg/L) and Pb (1200 mg/L), and is thought to be a multi-metal-resistant bacterium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also sensitive to 13 different antibiotics. The effects of the bacterial strains on the growth of rice plants and their ability to reduce Cd accumulation from Cd-contaminated soils in pot experiments were also evaluated. For Oryza sativa L. A grown in contaminated soil (3 mg/kg Cd), the accumulation of Cd was decreased by 31.2 and 25.5% in brown rice and polished rice, respectively, by strain 9#; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more effective in reducing Cd accumulation in rice grains than a mixture of strains. For Oryza sativa L. B, a mixture of strains acting synergistically was more effective than a single strain in reducing Cd accumulation; treatment with mixed strains (strains + 3 mg/kg Cd) resulted in 41.3, 35.9, and 32.6% reductions in Cd accumulation in unhulled rice, brown rice and polished rice, respectively. Although different results were obtained for two rice varieties, it can still be concluded that Cd-resistant bacteria are suitable for reducing Cd

  4. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria and their potential for reducing accumulation of cadmium in rice grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Mou, Renxiang; Cao, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue, E-mail: cmingxue@126.com

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious widespread environmental problem that not only destroys the microbial ecology of soil and decreases crop production, but also poses a serious risk to human health. Many methods have been used for the remediation of Cd pollution but none of these is totally satisfactory. Microbial remediation strategies have attracted increasing interest since they are environmentally friendly and cost-effective. In the present study, three Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for potential application in Cd bioremediation. Based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, together with 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, bacteria were identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (2#), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9#) and Delftia tsuruhatensis (12#). Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed very high tolerance to metals, especially Cd (2200 mg/L), Zn (1800 mg/L) and Pb (1200 mg/L), and is thought to be a multi-metal-resistant bacterium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also sensitive to 13 different antibiotics. The effects of the bacterial strains on the growth of rice plants and their ability to reduce Cd accumulation from Cd-contaminated soils in pot experiments were also evaluated. For Oryza sativa L. A grown in contaminated soil (3 mg/kg Cd), the accumulation of Cd was decreased by 31.2 and 25.5% in brown rice and polished rice, respectively, by strain 9#; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more effective in reducing Cd accumulation in rice grains than a mixture of strains. For Oryza sativa L. B, a mixture of strains acting synergistically was more effective than a single strain in reducing Cd accumulation; treatment with mixed strains (strains + 3 mg/kg Cd) resulted in 41.3, 35.9, and 32.6% reductions in Cd accumulation in unhulled rice, brown rice and polished rice, respectively. Although different results were obtained for two rice varieties, it can still be concluded that Cd-resistant bacteria are suitable for reducing Cd

  5. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.J.P.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 μg g -1 dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd. - Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in the regulation of C. nemoralis soft tissue Cd concentrations at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the food

  6. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notten, M.J.M. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: martje.notten@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Oosthoek, A.J.P. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rozema, J. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aerts, R. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-01-15

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd. - Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in the regulation of C. nemoralis soft tissue Cd concentrations at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the food.

  7. Soluble CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger J

    2012-01-01

    CD163 is an endocytic receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes and is expressed solely on macrophages and monocytes. As a result of ectodomain shedding, the extracellular portion of CD163 circulates in blood as a soluble protein (sCD163) at 0.7-3.9 mg/l in healthy individuals. The function o...

  8. Zinc supplementation protects against cadmium accumulation and cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zhang

    Full Text Available Cadmium ions (Cd2+ have been reported to accumulate in bovine tissues, although Cd2+ cytotoxicity has not been investigated thoroughly in this species. Zinc ions (Zn2+ have been shown to antagonize the toxic effects of heavy metals such as Cd2+ in some systems. The present study investigated Cd2+ cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK epithelial cells, and explored whether this was modified by Zn2+. Exposure to Cd2+ led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death, with increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage. Zn2+ supplementation alleviated Cd2+-induced cytotoxicity and this protective effect was more obvious when cells were exposed to a lower concentration of Cd2+ (10 μM, as compared to 50 μM Cd2+. This indicated that high levels of Cd2+ accumulation might induce irreversible damage in bovine kidney cells. Metallothioneins (MTs are metal-binding proteins that play an essential role in heavy metal ion detoxification. We found that co-exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ synergistically enhanced RNA and protein expression of MT-1, MT-2, and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in MDBK cells. Notably, addition of Zn2+ reduced the amounts of cytosolic Cd2+ detected following MDBK exposure to 10 μM Cd2+. These findings revealed a protective role of Zn2+ in counteracting Cd2+ uptake and toxicity in MDBK cells, indicating that this approach may provide a means to protect livestock from excessive Cd2+ accumulation.

  9. Heavy metal accumulation in trees growing on contaminated sites in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterbrunner, R.; Puschenreiter, M.; Sommer, P.; Wieshammer, G.; Tlustos, P.; Zupan, M.; Wenzel, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Metal-accumulating woody species have been considered for phytoextraction of metal-contaminated sites. We investigated Zn and Cd accumulation in tissues of adult trees and associated herbaceous species collected from contaminated areas in Central Europe. We found considerable Cd and Zn accumulation in various willow, poplar and birch species with up to 116 mg Cd kg -1 and 4680 mg Zn kg -1 in leaves of Salix caprea. Annual variation of Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves of Salix caprea were small, indicating that data obtained in different years can be compared. Metal concentrations in leaves were not related to total (aqua regia) or labile (1 M NH 4 NO 3 extract) concentrations in soil but the accumulation factors (leaf concentration: soil concentration) for Cd and Zn followed an inverse log type function. Metal partitioning between tissues showed a minimum in the wood, with increasing concentrations of Cd and Zn towards the leaves and fine roots. - Adult field-grown Salix caprea, Populus tremula and other tree species accumulate up to 4680 mg Zn kg -1 and 116 mg Cd kg -1 in their leaves

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in trees growing on contaminated sites in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterbrunner, R. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Puschenreiter, M. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.puschenreiter@boku.ac.at; Sommer, P. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wieshammer, G. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Tlustos, P. [Czech University of Agriculture Prague, 165 21 Praha 6-Suchdol (Czech Republic); Zupan, M. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Agronomy department, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Wenzel, W.W. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-15

    Metal-accumulating woody species have been considered for phytoextraction of metal-contaminated sites. We investigated Zn and Cd accumulation in tissues of adult trees and associated herbaceous species collected from contaminated areas in Central Europe. We found considerable Cd and Zn accumulation in various willow, poplar and birch species with up to 116 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 4680 mg Zn kg{sup -1} in leaves of Salix caprea. Annual variation of Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves of Salix caprea were small, indicating that data obtained in different years can be compared. Metal concentrations in leaves were not related to total (aqua regia) or labile (1 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} extract) concentrations in soil but the accumulation factors (leaf concentration: soil concentration) for Cd and Zn followed an inverse log type function. Metal partitioning between tissues showed a minimum in the wood, with increasing concentrations of Cd and Zn towards the leaves and fine roots. - Adult field-grown Salix caprea, Populus tremula and other tree species accumulate up to 4680 mg Zn kg{sup -1} and 116 mg Cd kg{sup -1} in their leaves.

  11. CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells in HIV-positive individuals on cART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojdeman, Fie Juhl; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Hartling, Hans Jakob

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immune defect virus (HIV) persists in a latent state in quiescent CD4+ T cells preventing eradication of HIV. CD52 is a surface molecule modulated by HIV. We aimed at examining factors related to CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells in HIV-positive individuals and the impact...... of initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 18 HIV-positive individuals and 10 uninfected age and gender matched controls were examined by flow cytometry for CD38 and CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells. Stimulation assays were performed on 8...... healthy blood donors to determine a cut-off for CD52 expression. RESULTS: All examined CD4+ T cells expressed CD52. However, both CD4+ T cells with higher (CD52++) and with lower CD52 expression (CD52dim) were found in HIV-positive individuals compared to uninfected controls. Two % CD52dim cells defined...

  12. Growth responses and cadmium accumulation of Mirabilis jalapa L. under interaction between cadmium and phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhiguo; Zhou Qixing

    2009-01-01

    Based on the identification of Mirabilis jalapa L. as a new Cd-hyperaccumulating ornamental, the growth response of the plant to interaction between cadmium (Cd) and phosphorus (P), its effect on the Cd accumulation in the species and relevant mechanisms were further investigated by the pot-culture experiment with chemical analyses and the X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra (XANES). It showed that the leaf, shoot and root biomass (as dry matter) increased with an increase in P supplies from 20 to 100 mg kg -1 at various tested Cd levels except 10 mg kg -1 . The Cd accumulation in the leaves and shoots significantly decreased with increasing P concentrations from 20 to 500 mg kg -1 at the Cd concentrations from 10 to 50 mg kg -1 , except the Cd level at 100 mg kg -1 . It was also found that the translocation factor of Cd in M. jalapa L. reached the maximum at different tested Cd levels when the concentration of added P was 100 mg kg -1 , but the bioaccumulation factor of Cd decreased with increasing P. This changing law may be responsible for the mechanism of P immobilizing Cd. The investigation using the P-K edge XANES showed the spectra of adsorbed phosphate in the shoots exhibited a stronger white-line peak than that in the leaves and roots, and the oscillation near 2165 eV was more intense. Besides, the P-K edge XANES spectra for M. jalapa L. indicated P may exist as Cd-phosphate. Thus, it can be inferred that the addition of P at appropriate contents may be a useful approach to enhance the plant growth and to immobilize Cd in the Cd-contaminated soil. Furthermore, P and Cd may form a deposit in plants to tolerate Cd toxicity for reducing the degree of the structural damage of the plant.

  13. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  14. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  15. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  16. Identification of quantitative trait loci for cadmium tolerance and accumulation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, Dunwei; Jiang, Dong; Li, Sishen

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were identified, using 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of Ch×Sh at germination and seedling stages. The traits of germination, growth and physiology were measured. Cd...

  17. Preparation of water-soluble CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots with enhanced photostability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hui; Zhang Lijuan; Soeller, Christian; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2007-01-01

    CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized in an aqueous phase using thioacetamide as a sulfur source. The quantum yield was greatly enhanced by the epitaxial growth of a CdS shell, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. The quantum yield of as-prepared CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs without any post-preparative processing reached 58%. The experimental results illustrate that the QDs with core/shell structure show better photostability than thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe QDs. The cyclic voltammograms reveal higher oxidation potentials for CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs than for TGA-capped CdTe QDs, which explains the superior photostability of QDs with a core/shell structure. This enhanced photostability makes these QDs with core/shell structure more suitable for bio-labeling and imaging

  18. Study on accumulation mechanism for heavy metal in hyper-accumulating plants by synchrotron radiation x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokura, Akiko; Kitajima, Nobuyuki; Terada, Yasuko; Nakai, Izumi

    2010-01-01

    Some plants accumulate heavy metal elements such as As, Cd, and Pb, etc., and these plants have been focused on from the perspective of their application to phytoremediation. In order to understand the accumulation mechanism, the distribution and the chemical form of heavy metal should be revealed at cellular level. Here, we have introduced the recent works regarding arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.) and cadmium hyperaccumulating plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera). A combination of μ-XRF and μ-XANES techniques excited by high-energy X-ray microbeam with 1 μm resolution has proved to be an indispensable tool for the study of Cd accumulation in biological samples on a cellular scale. The sample-preparation techniques were also summarized. (author)

  19. A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. In this study, we employed diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT and traditional chemical extraction methods (soil solution, HOAc, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaOAc to determine the Cd bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of Pb. Two typical terrestrial species (wheat, Bainong AK58; maize, Zhengdan 958 were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues. The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues. Moreover, the Pearson regression coefficients between the different indicators obtained Cd concentrations and plants uptake Cd concentrations were further indicated significant correlations (p < 0.01. However, the values of Pearson regression coefficients showed the merits of DGT, CaCl2, and Csol over the other three methods. Consequently, the in situ measurement of DGT and the ex situ traditional methods could all reflect the inhibition effects between Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil.

  20. A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Wang, Teng; Yao, Yu; Wang, Chao; Liu, Cui; Yuan, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. In this study, we employed diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) and traditional chemical extraction methods (soil solution, HOAc, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaOAc) to determine the Cd bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of Pb. Two typical terrestrial species (wheat, Bainong AK58; maize, Zhengdan 958) were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues. The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues. Moreover, the Pearson regression coefficients between the different indicators obtained Cd concentrations and plants uptake Cd concentrations were further indicated significant correlations (p < 0.01). However, the values of Pearson regression coefficients showed the merits of DGT, CaCl2, and Csol over the other three methods. Consequently, the in situ measurement of DGT and the ex situ traditional methods could all reflect the inhibition effects between Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil. PMID:27271644

  1. Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, lead and copper in rice and approaches for reducing the accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Runfeng [Institute of Crop Science, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Cheng, Wangda [Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jiaxing 314016 (China); Zeng, Fanrong; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Hu, Xinna; Zhang, Guoping [Institute of Crop Science, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wu, Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Crop Science, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The field scale trials revealed significant genotypic and environmental differences in grain heavy metal (HM) concentrations of 158 newly developed rice varieties grown in twelve locations of Zhejiang province of China. Grain Pb and Cd contents in 5.3% and 0.4% samples, respectively, were above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC); none of samples had Cr/Cu exceeding MPC. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis estimated soil HM critical levels for safe rice production. Low grain HM accumulation cultivars such as Xiushui817, Jiayou08-1 and Chunyou689 were recommended as suitable cultivars for planting in slight/medium HM contaminated soils. The alleviating regulator (AR) of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} as N fertilizer coupled with foliar spray of a mixture containing glutathione (GSH), Si, Zn and Se significantly decreased grain Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentrations grown in HM contaminated fields with no effect on yield, indicating a promising measurement for further reducing grain HM content to guarantee safe food production. - Highlights: • Field trials evaluated situation of grain HM in main rice growing areas of Zhejiang. • Forecasting index system to predict rice grain HM concentration was achieved. • Hybrid rice holds higher grain Cd concentration than conventional cultivars. • Low grain HM accumulation rice cultivars were successfully identified. • Developed alleviating regulator which effectively reduced grain toxic HM.

  2. Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, lead and copper in rice and approaches for reducing the accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Runfeng; Cheng, Wangda; Zeng, Fanrong; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Hu, Xinna; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2014-01-01

    The field scale trials revealed significant genotypic and environmental differences in grain heavy metal (HM) concentrations of 158 newly developed rice varieties grown in twelve locations of Zhejiang province of China. Grain Pb and Cd contents in 5.3% and 0.4% samples, respectively, were above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC); none of samples had Cr/Cu exceeding MPC. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis estimated soil HM critical levels for safe rice production. Low grain HM accumulation cultivars such as Xiushui817, Jiayou08-1 and Chunyou689 were recommended as suitable cultivars for planting in slight/medium HM contaminated soils. The alleviating regulator (AR) of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 as N fertilizer coupled with foliar spray of a mixture containing glutathione (GSH), Si, Zn and Se significantly decreased grain Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentrations grown in HM contaminated fields with no effect on yield, indicating a promising measurement for further reducing grain HM content to guarantee safe food production. - Highlights: • Field trials evaluated situation of grain HM in main rice growing areas of Zhejiang. • Forecasting index system to predict rice grain HM concentration was achieved. • Hybrid rice holds higher grain Cd concentration than conventional cultivars. • Low grain HM accumulation rice cultivars were successfully identified. • Developed alleviating regulator which effectively reduced grain toxic HM

  3. Evaluation of the tolerance of three cultivars of barley to Zn, Cd or Cr in a growth chamber experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the tolerance of three cultivars of barley for the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by metals, a growth chamber experiment with plants exposed to increasing concentrations of Zn, Cd and Cr was conducted. Growth parameters, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured at 15 and 29 days after treatment application. Metal concentration in the plant was also measured. In all cases, the amount of metal accumulated in the plant increased by increasing the concentration of the applied metal. Chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence were higher in the first sampling indicating the negative effect on these parameters of the highest metal concentrations. Cr treatments affected significantly plant growth. Height and dry weights plants were significantly lower (p <0.05 than those treated with Zn and Cd. Physiological parameters measured and water content were also lower in plants treated with Cr. Plaisant and Pedrezuela varieties accumulated more Zn and Cd than Reinette, which accumulated greater amount of Cr than the other two cultivars. This fact shows the interest in selecting the most tolerant varieties when using a crop for phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  4. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  5. Accumulation of heavy metals in edible organs of different meat products available in the markets of lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baqar, N.; Manzoor, M.; Qadir, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the accumulation of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb and Cu) indifferent organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, stomach, kidney and flesh (muscles) of several animals commercially available in the market of Lahore, Pakistan. The concentrations found in different organs of chicken, goat and cow ranged between 0.132-2.165 mg/g for Cd, 0.768-2.335 mg/g for Cr, 0.260-1.411 mg/g for Pb and 0.092-1.195 mg/g for Cu. In the absence of national safety standards in respect to the content of heavy metals in foodstuffs, the results obtained were compared with international guidelines and found concentrations considerably higher than the prescribed safe limits. Therefore, immediate attention must be paid to prevent public health risks associated with the presence of toxic heavy metals in the commercially available meat products. (author)

  6. [Regulatory B cells activated by CpG-ODN combined with anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody inhibit CD4(+)T cell proliferation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keng; Tao, Lei; Su, Jianbing; Zhang, Yueyang; Zou, Binhua; Wang, Yiyuan; Li, Xiaojuan

    2016-09-01

    Objective To observe the immunosuppressive function of regulatory B cells (Bregs) in vitro after activated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) and anti-CD40 mAb. Methods Mice splenic CD5(+)CD1d(high)B cells and CD5(-)CD1d(low)B cells were sorted by flow cytometry. These B cells were first stimulated with CpG-ODN combined with anti-CD40 mAb for 24 hours, and then co-cultured with purified CD4(+)T cells. The interleukin 10 (IL-10) expression in the activated Bregs and other B cell subset, as well as the proliferation and interferon γ (IFN-γ) expression in the CD4(+) T cells activated by anti-CD3 mAb plus anti-CD28 mAb were determined by flow cytometry. Results CD5(+)CD1d(high) B cells activated by CpG-ODN plus anti-CD40 mAb blocked the up-regulated CD4(+)T proliferation and significantly reduced the IFN-γ level. At the same time, activated CD5(-)CD1d(low)B cells showed no inhibitory effect on CD4(+)T cells. Further study revealed that IL-10 expression in the CD5(+)CD1d(high) B cells were much higher than that in the CD5(-)CD1d(low)B cells after stimulated with CpG-ODN combined with anti-CD40 mAb for 24 hours. Conclusion CD5(+)CD1d(high) B cells activated by CpG-ODN combined with anti-CD40 mAb have immune inhibitory effects on CD4(+)T cell activation in vitro , which possibly due to IL-10 secretion.

  7. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in Echinochloa polystachya grown within a hydroponic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Dominguez, F.A. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Dpto. de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional No. 2508, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C. [Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, IRENAT, Carr. Mex-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico); Carrillo-Gonzalez, R. [Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, IRENAT, Carr. Mex-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Vazquez, R. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Dpto. de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional No. 2508, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: rerovaz@yahoo.com.mx

    2007-03-22

    Phytoremediation is a technology for extracting or inactivating pollutants. Echinochloa polystachya [(H.B.K.) Hitchcock] (Poaceae) is a fast-growing perennial grass that is common in tropical areas and is often found in oil-polluted soils that contain high concentrations of heavy metals. However, its tolerance to heavy metals, and its ability to accumulate them, has yet to be investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that E. polystachya is able to accumulate high concentrations of cadmium (Cd). Plants were grown hydroponically with different levels of Cd{sup 2+} (0, 0.25, 1, 2, 10, 50, and 100 mg L{sup -1}), and were found to be tolerant to Cd{sup 2+} at all levels. No metal-toxicity symptoms were observed at any Cd{sup 2+} level. Root and leaves Cd concentrations were 299 {+-} 13.93 and 233 {+-} 8.77 mg kg{sup -1} (on a dry weight basis), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed the inclusion of Cd within the xylem; this result was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Leaf tissues also accumulated Cd, especially within the bulliform cells of the epidermis. We conclude that E. polystachya is a hyperaccumulator of Cd. While data for other metals are not yet available, E. polystachya shows promise in the phytoextraction of Cd from polluted tropical sites.

  8. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in Echinochloa polystachya grown within a hydroponic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis-Dominguez, F.A.; Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C.; Carrillo-Gonzalez, R.; Rodriguez-Vazquez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology for extracting or inactivating pollutants. Echinochloa polystachya [(H.B.K.) Hitchcock] (Poaceae) is a fast-growing perennial grass that is common in tropical areas and is often found in oil-polluted soils that contain high concentrations of heavy metals. However, its tolerance to heavy metals, and its ability to accumulate them, has yet to be investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that E. polystachya is able to accumulate high concentrations of cadmium (Cd). Plants were grown hydroponically with different levels of Cd 2+ (0, 0.25, 1, 2, 10, 50, and 100 mg L -1 ), and were found to be tolerant to Cd 2+ at all levels. No metal-toxicity symptoms were observed at any Cd 2+ level. Root and leaves Cd concentrations were 299 ± 13.93 and 233 ± 8.77 mg kg -1 (on a dry weight basis), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed the inclusion of Cd within the xylem; this result was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Leaf tissues also accumulated Cd, especially within the bulliform cells of the epidermis. We conclude that E. polystachya is a hyperaccumulator of Cd. While data for other metals are not yet available, E. polystachya shows promise in the phytoextraction of Cd from polluted tropical sites

  9. In vivo and in vitro cadmium accumulation during the moult cycle of the male shore crab Carcinus maenas-interaction with calcium metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norum, Ulrik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)]. E-mail: ulrik@biology.sdu.dk; Bondgaard, Morten [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Pedersen, Thomas V. [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Bjerregaard, Poul [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2005-03-25

    The effect of moult stage on cadmium accumulation and distribution was investigated in vivo in male shore crabs Carcinus maenas exposed to 1 mg Cd l{sup -1} for 7 days. The accumulation of cadmium in all tissues examined was markedly higher in postmoult (A{sub 1-2} and B{sub 1-2}) compared to intermoult (C{sub 1}, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4}) and premoult (D{sub 0-3}). In addition, elevated levels of cadmium were found in gills of late premoult (D{sub 2-3}) animals. The total amount of cadmium accumulated in the tissues (haemolymph, gills, midgut gland and muscle) increased from 43 {mu}g Cd in early premoult (D{sub 0-1}) to 391 {mu}g Cd in late postmoult (B{sub 1-2}). Gills and midgut gland were the primary cadmium accumulating tissues in C{sub 4}-intermoult and premoult (D{sub 0-3}); in early postmoult (A{sub 1-2}) haemolymph and midgut gland were the main cadmium containing tissues, while midgut gland dominated in late postmoult (B{sub 1-2}) and early intermoult (C{sub 1} and C{sub 3}). A detailed account of calcium distribution in haemolymph, gills, midgut gland, muscle and exoskeleton during the moult cycle is presented. Mechanistic links between cadmium and calcium uptake in posterior gills of C{sub 4}-intermoult and early postmoult (A{sub 1-2}) crabs were explored using an in vitro gill perfusion technique. Calcium and cadmium influxes were markedly higher in postmoult compared to intermoult. No differences between intermoult and postmoult effluxes were found for either calcium or cadmium. From intermoult to postmoult net influx increased from 2.4 to 29 {mu}mol Ca{sup 2+} g{sup -1} ww{sub gill} h{sup -1} and from 0.24 to 25 nmol Cd{sup 2+} g{sup -1} ww{sub gill} h{sup -1}. The results indicate that the postmoult increase in cadmium influx is due to increased active transport of cadmium, at least partly, by accidental uptake via calcium transporting proteins. The in vitro net influx rates corresponded accurately to the observed in vivo accumulation of both cadmium

  10. In vivo and in vitro cadmium accumulation during the moult cycle of the male shore crab Carcinus maenas-interaction with calcium metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norum, Ulrik; Bondgaard, Morten; Pedersen, Thomas V.; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2005-01-01

    The effect of moult stage on cadmium accumulation and distribution was investigated in vivo in male shore crabs Carcinus maenas exposed to 1 mg Cd l -1 for 7 days. The accumulation of cadmium in all tissues examined was markedly higher in postmoult (A 1-2 and B 1-2 ) compared to intermoult (C 1 , C 3 and C 4 ) and premoult (D 0-3 ). In addition, elevated levels of cadmium were found in gills of late premoult (D 2-3 ) animals. The total amount of cadmium accumulated in the tissues (haemolymph, gills, midgut gland and muscle) increased from 43 μg Cd in early premoult (D 0-1 ) to 391 μg Cd in late postmoult (B 1-2 ). Gills and midgut gland were the primary cadmium accumulating tissues in C 4 -intermoult and premoult (D 0-3 ); in early postmoult (A 1-2 ) haemolymph and midgut gland were the main cadmium containing tissues, while midgut gland dominated in late postmoult (B 1-2 ) and early intermoult (C 1 and C 3 ). A detailed account of calcium distribution in haemolymph, gills, midgut gland, muscle and exoskeleton during the moult cycle is presented. Mechanistic links between cadmium and calcium uptake in posterior gills of C 4 -intermoult and early postmoult (A 1-2 ) crabs were explored using an in vitro gill perfusion technique. Calcium and cadmium influxes were markedly higher in postmoult compared to intermoult. No differences between intermoult and postmoult effluxes were found for either calcium or cadmium. From intermoult to postmoult net influx increased from 2.4 to 29 μmol Ca 2+ g -1 ww gill h -1 and from 0.24 to 25 nmol Cd 2+ g -1 ww gill h -1 . The results indicate that the postmoult increase in cadmium influx is due to increased active transport of cadmium, at least partly, by accidental uptake via calcium transporting proteins. The in vitro net influx rates corresponded accurately to the observed in vivo accumulation of both cadmium and calcium. Although cadmium accumulation and distribution are clearly linked to changes in calcium requirements, cadmium

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CINÉTICA DE ADSORCIÓN DE Zn2+ Y Cd2+ A PARTIR DE SOLUCIONES UNITARIAS Y BINARIAS POR RAÍCES DE Eichhornia crassipes Y Typha latifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the kinetic modeling of adsorption of Zn 2+ and Cd2+ in roots of Typha latifolia (cattail and Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth were evaluated. The study was done using solutions containing one or both ions. The experiments were performed using carbon paste electrodes modified with the roots. The model that best describes the kinetics of both ions in the two roots is the pseudo second order’s one. We also determined that both ions accumulate faster and in greater amounts on Eichhornia crassipes. Indeed, according to potentiometric titration and infrared spectra Fourier transformation, the number of adsorption sites is higher in this root. In the same manner, it was shown that both roots accumulate more Cd 2+ than Zn2+, and when the adsorption is made from a mixture, cadmium inhibits the accumulation of zinc.

  12. Korelasi Kadar Feritin dengan Jumlah CD4, CD8, dan Rasio CD4/CD8 pada Penyandang Talasemia Mayor Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Arseno

    2017-11-01

    Hasil. Didapatkan jumlah CD4 absolut, CD4%, CD8 absolut dan rasio CD4/CD8 menurun. Selain itu, terdapat jumlah CD4 absolut, CD8 absolut dan CD8% meningkat. Pada kelompok usia ≤5 tahun, korelasi kadar feritin dengan CD8 absolut, CD8%, dan rasio CD4/CD8 berturut-turut menghasilkan koefisien korelasi 0,691, 0,557, -0,680, dan p<0,05. Sementara pada kelompok lama terapi ≤5 tahun korelasi kadar feritin dengan CD8 absolut, CD8%, dan rasio CD4/CD8 menghasilkan koefisien korelasi 0,709, 0,571, -0,726 dengan p<0,05. Kesimpulan. Tidak terdapat korelasi antara kadar feritin dengan jumlah CD4, CD8, rasio CD4/CD8. Peningkatan kadar feritin akan diikuti dengan peningkatan jumlah CD8 absolut dan CD8%, serta penurunan rasio CD4/CD8 pada penyandang talasemia mayor anak berdasar atas usia dan lama terapi ≤5 tahun.

  13. Iron plaque decreases cadmium accumulation in Oryza sativa L. and serves as a source of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, A; Prasad, M N V

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination occurs in paddy soils; hence it is necessary to reduce Cd content of rice. Application and mode of action of ferrous sulphate in minimizing Cd in rice was monitored in the present study. Pot culture with Indian rice variety Swarna (MTU 7029) was maintained in Cd-spiked soil containing ferrous sulphates, which is expected to reduce Cd accumulation in rice. Responses in rhizosphere pH, root surface, metal accumulation in plant and molecular physiological processes were monitored. Iron plaque was induced on root surfaces after FeSO4 application and the amount of Fe in plaque reduced with increases in Cd in the soil. Rhizosphere pH decreased during plaque formation and became more acidic due to secretion of organic acids from the roots under Cd treatment. Moreover, iron chelate reductase activity increased with Cd treatment, but in the absence of Cd, activity of this enzyme increased in plaque-induced plants. Cd treatment caused expression of OsYSL18, whereas OsYSL15 was expressed only in roots without iron plaque. Fe content of plants increased during plaque formation, which protected plants from Cd-induced Fe deficiency and metal toxicity. This was corroborated with increased biomass, chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of photo-synthesis among plaque-induced plants. We conclude that ferrous sulphate-induced iron plaque prevents Cd accumulation and Fe deficiency in rice. Iron released fro